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Design of Draft Tubes Page
CONICAL DRAFT TUBE COMPUTATIONS: The simplest and most efficient, turbine draft tube is the conical shaped draft tube. It with a truncated cone similar to an inverted ice cream cone. Originally, turbines were de to work on the runner, stoplogs were inserted into the tailrace training walls and the di
A view of the curved, brick, discharge wall that directs the flow into the tailrace. This curved wall dire channel. The entrance to the tailrace had cast iron slots to install wooden stoplogs. After the logs wer was pumped out to work on the runner. (see 1852 Fourneyron side <<< click here).
being done in the dry. Allis Chalmers Research Cavitation & Vibration of a Draft Tubes In order to allow for work on the turbine.com/draft_tubes. prior to the turn of the last century. designers elevated turbine. of the cylinder of water. In the early years. turbine shaft. the lower pressure. into the vertically discharging cylinder. This put the dea wooden thrust bearing only had to support the hydraulic thrust. A cylindrical pipe was attached to the discharge end of the turbine to convey th shear weight. creat increased the total drop. generator rotor and the hydraulic thrust on the run vitae) thrust bearings. a 90 degree cast iron elbow was inserte frenchriverland. most units were designed with horizontal shafts.3/5/2011 Buttermilk Hydro Chittendon Falls Claytor Dam Collins Bascule Dam ESAC WORKS July 1985 Fiske Mill 1852 Fourneyron Golden Pond Hydro Hunts Pond Jaffery Fire Protection Konkapot Creek Lake May Pelton Wheel Removal Livermore Falls Martinsville Hydro OSV Shaker Mill Dam Silk Knitters. <<<<<<< Note cylindrical draft tube. In order to turn the wate runner.Ron Macleod South Village Dam Sparhawk Mills Tannery Pond Tannery Rebuild Turners Falls Generator Rewind Valatie Falls Valley Paper USEFUL ENGINEERING: Air Admission to Hydro Runners The Banki Water Turbine Mockmoore and Merryfield Barrel Stave Bearing Repair Bishops MethodSTABGM Program Blade PittingBoving LTD 1930 CavitationAccelerated Research.htm 2/11 . The early American builders were not math Principle. effective thrust bearing weight of the turbine. Figure Three: Hercules turbine with cylindrical draft tube. created a vacuum at the discharge end of the runn turbine is a direct function of the drop in pressure across it.
you get a high velocity. By applying Bernouli’s cylinder. If you were to take a conical draft tube and project its sides to the apex of the co cone) the angle between the sides is the draft angle If you were to measure the same ang frenchriverland. with wooden. it was noted that a seriou the high discharge velocities exiting the cylindrical draft tube. including WPI’s Alden Hydraulic Research Laboratory. M. Slisskii Evolution of Hydraulic Prime Movers-Byron McCoy Fall IncreaserHenry Ford Fall Increaser Herschel Venturi T b Draft Tubes Figure Four: Two runner on a horizontal shaft.htm 3/11 . bearings.3/5/2011 Vibration of a Draft Tube CavitationPrevention & Reduction. At the point of separation. investigated separatio including the simple conical tube (these are also called diffusers). leaves and debris block As turbine designers in the U. The hydraulic thrust is also taken up by a wooden. it slo the length of the cone.C M Allen & I A Winter 1923 Design of an Overshot Waterwheel (by Carl Weidner) Design of Pelton Buckets Design of Small Water Turbines for Farm and Small Communities Design of the runner of a Kaplan turbine for small hydroelectric power plants: Timo Flaspöhler Draft Tube Design Draft Tubes of Hydro-Electric Stations by M.S. As the water enters the small end of the cone. This configuration is theoretically balanced.com/draft_tubes. Allis Chalmers Research Causes & Effects of Cavitation in Hydraulic Turbines Chain Turbine by: Nguyen Minh Duy Chain Turbine MechanicsDiscussions with Duy Characteristics of Modern Hydraulic Turbines-Chester Larner Comparative Tests On Experimental Draft Tubes. lignum vitae. became more theoretical. The velocity head is recovered and converted into vacuum head on Figure Five: Example of a conical draft tube coupled to a horizontal shaft turbine with a cast iron The problem is. the water becomes d tube. lignum vitae. F. it was noted that one could recover the velocity head by slowing the water down exchanging the cylinder for a cone. if you create a cone with too large a 1/2 angle. cylindrical core. thru runner is pushing against each other there is no resultant thrust. Gubin Draft Tube Tests Ejection into Tailraces of Hydropower Plants: S. In practice. passing thro laboratories.
) Draft Tubes Figure Six: Here are four runners on a common shaft. US Army CORPS of Engineers Flashboard Pins Gatecase DesignKovalev Governor Theory for the Plant Operator Graphics of Water Wheels.com/draft_tubes. required a tremendously deep excavati vertical distance from the bottom of the conical draft tube to the discharge pit floor is draft tube. it was possible to install the unit wit vertical conical draft tube to slow the water down. Aziz & V.xls A Laboratory Study to Improve the Efficiency of Crossflow TurbinesN. of the 90 degree section and separa high speed. Bresse & F. The end o NACA Air Foilhorizontal section conveys the water back to the tailrace.William Fox Hydraulic MotorsM. radial bearings and runners discharging at the ends of the tee stands. As the years went by. Desai frenchriverland. A Guide Manual. In order to keep horizontal shaft. The down side is the length of the turbine pit and d Kaplan Blade Design In order to save on excavation costs and effectively turn the water back into the t incorporated. jet bashing along the floor of the draft tube. 460 the cross sectional area of the elbow draft tube expanding along the length of the tube. horizontal. If you were to measure the same ang vertical axis.htm 4/11 . NACA Air FoilReport No. Here. For design purposes. The rpm stays the same because the diam is increasing with the number of runners. the ½ angle should not separation of flow.3/5/2011 Tube Fall Increaser Moody Ejector Turbine Fall Increaser Hydraulic Jump Apron Feasibility Studies for Small Scale Hydropower Additions. Mahan 1869 Hydraulic TurbinesRobert Long Daugherty Hydraulic Turbines by Arnold Pfau Hydraulic Turbines Gelpke & Van Cleve Hydrokinetic Energy in MassachusettsWilliam D. the angle is called a ½ angle. 628 Kaplan DesignKovalev Kaplan Design Marko Kogovsek. the water is initially slowed down in a conical draft tube. Kaplan Blade Design the water tries to bend around the sharp. Fay Hydrostatic Beam Analysis Impulse Turbines by Ely Hutchinson Interference fitting a large runner shaft cone) the angle between the sides is the draft angle. turbine manufacturers started adding more and more runners to the horiz As Kingsbury developed his tilting wedge bearing. It is interesting that the ear Report No. inner bend. The dead weight is still on the wooden. engineers developed larger and larger sites. A. B.
Now.Kovalev Shaft Couplings Snows Improved Water Wheel Draft Tubes Figure Seven: Various forms of elbow draft tubes It can be shown that it is impossible to have separation of flow in an accelerating designers cleverly slowed the water down in the vertical. This allowed air to extend all the way back to the elbow and most recovered. frenchriverland. They complained that the newly ins turned out that the draft tube had not been designed to the correct vertical length. They then decr tube through the elbow! This caused the water to accelerate through the elbow and the wat the horizontal section of the tube back to the tailrace. It is important with elbow draft submergence is created at no flow conditions between the crown of the draft tube exit and I inspected a draft tube for a utility in Maine.com/draft_tubes. It is extremely important that the draft tube for a high specific speed Francis run designed to recover the velocity head exiting from the runner.PHIBill Fay Rack Design-PHIBrian French Rack Design-PHI-Ken Smith Rack Design-ASCE Rack DesignHydraulic Institue of Munich Rack Design-Flow Induced Vibrations Rigging a large generator Selecting Hydraulic Reaction Turbines BUREC Shafts. let’s design a simple conical draft tube. Aziz Meggering Generators Meggering Earth Resistance Motors as Generators for Microhydro. Nigel Smith Operation & Maintenance of Hydro-Generators Out Gassing of Cross Flow Turbines Parallel Operation of Turbines Analysis Pelton DesignDaugherty Powerhouse DesignMiniwatt Hydro Powerhouse DesignNatick Dam Power Plant Inspection Rake-Leonard Rake-Newport News Rack DesignChicopee-Olav Hotvedt Rack Design. conical section. 35% of th tube. The of water by 22 inches. For these units.3/5/2011 & V. Desai N.htm G 5/11 .
Ishida & Service Theory of TurbinesDe Volson Wood Treatise relative to the Testing of Water-Wheels and Machinery. BUREC.htm 6/11 .F.Professor Trowbridge Tests on a Kaplan Hydraulic Turbine Theoretical Conditions Related to an Open Channel Flow Linear Turbine.3/5/2011 Governor Standard for Hydraulic Turbine and Generator Shaft Couplings and Shaft Runout Tolerances Stoplog Design Calculation Stoplog Structure Design Calculation Stress Analysis of Hydraulic Turbine Parts.O.com/draft_tubes. Water Power of the US.Robert Horton Turgo. A High Speed Impulse TurbinePaul Wilson Vortices at Intakes Water HammerLorenzo AllieviText Water HammerLorenzo AllieviFigures Draft Tubes FIGURE ONE: SIMPLE CONICAL DRAFT TUBE From trigonometry: Tan theta= rise/run= R0/(X+L)=RI/X Where: L= length of the draft tube RO= outlet radius (big end) RI= inlet radius (small end) theta= draft tube ½ angle Solve for x: X= RI/Tan theta Or (X + L)= R0/Tan theta X= (R0/Tan theta)-L Setting X =RI/Tan theta= (R0/Tan theta)-L L= (R0/Tan theta)-(RI/Tan theta) = (R0-RI)/Tan theta but R=D/2 = (D0-DI)/2Tan theta DO= outlet diameter (big end) DI= inlet diameter (small end) Previously I said the ½ angle to prevent separation of flow in conical draft tubes frenchriverland. Part I. Part II. 1880.Professor Trowbridge Tenth Census of the US. 1880. James Emerson 1879 Turbine Water-Wheel Tests. Ruud Some Fluid Flow Characteristics of a Cross Flow Type Hydraulic TurbineDurgin & Fay Tenth Census of the US. Water Power of the US.
B. We used a Timken bearing. located o thrust and weight. Q17A= 1394 cfm= 23 cfs Industry practice is one meter per second velocity from the end of the draft tube o For an incompressible fluid. Morgan Smith Holyoke Hercules Hunt Cat 29 A&B Hunt cylinder J & W Jolly (cylinder gate) Kingsbury Brg Leffel Bulletin 38 Leffel Bulletin 54 Leffel Hoppes Unit Leffel Laboratory Unit frenchriverland.Strowger Waterpower Engineering-Daniel Webster Mead Water Wheel DesignKen Smith Weights WHAMO Wooden Penstocks TRADE CATALOUGES: Bradway Turbine (progressive gate) C. the area is: A= 23 cfs/3 fps= 7.77 feet.5 = 3 feet<<<<<< Draft Tubes We measured the discharge end of the runner. From our formula.67 feet square But: A= phi* D*D/4 or: D= (4*A/phi)^0. 17A Samson turbines.3/5/2011 Water Hammer-ASME Symposium 1933 Water Hammer _ Norman Gibson Water HammerE. Celesty purchased two Leffel. The water flows out of the inside diameter. L= 5*(Dexit-Dinlet): L= 5*(3. Th draft tube is too short and the bridge tree disturbs the flow in the draft tube.00-1.P. We decid installed a 3/8 inch steel plate. The discharge diameter measured with a large caliper was 21.htm 7/11 .5 D= (4*7. the discharge area is: Q= V * A or Area= flow/velocity= Q/A At 23 cfs. conical draft tube. And that’s what we made!!!!!! GE WW Vert Gen GE Springbed Brg Gilkes Turbines GilkesWaterpower Head Gate HoistsS.15 feet or 74 inches. Remember to measure the inside diameter outside diameter. These are equipped bridge tree with a lignum vitae thrust bearing is cast into the end of the draft tube. From Leffel’s Bulletin 38 at 12 feet of head.com/draft_tubes.Bradway Turbine Brook Waterwheel Charmilles Turbines Christiana Machine (register gate) Dayton Globe Electric Machinery Company (EM) English Pelton ESAC Essex Turbines Previously I said the ½ angle to prevent separation of flow in conical draft tubes Inserting 6 degrees into our equation yields: L= 5*(Dexit-Dinlet) This is a conservative equation for sizing conical draft tubes for small turbines that do not need As an example.25 inches= 1.67)/phi)^0.77)= 6.
1912 Lombard Governor Lombard Governor Company Type T Instruction Book Lombard Governors for Waterwheels and Steam Engines-1902 Draft Tubes Here is Celesty's draft tube being rolled Lombard Water Wheel series of progressively larger cones and butt Governors Catalouge Chicopee. It is mor weld them together. he installed the turbine Michell Bearings Pelton Wheel (1909) Pelton Wheel (1925) Ridgway Perfection Water-Wheel Rodney Hunt Samson PamK Smith Bulletin 110 Smith Power Tables Smith Kaplan Smith Power Smith Pelton Smith Develop Smith Turbines: Bulletin 105 Swain Turbine Trump Hydraulic Turbines Trump Turbines Tyler Turbine Vertical Shaft Water Wheel Driven Generators.General Electric Wellman Seaver Morgan Westinghouse Small Vertical Waterwheel-Driven A-C Generators.3/5/2011 Leffel Miscellaneous Kingsbury Catalog C-1 Lombard DirectConnected Oil Pressure Governors Bulletin N0.htm 8/11 . Mike Piesyk of shells and weld the longitudinal se throat ring and flange to complete frenchriverland. July 1944 at the fabrication shop. 113 October 1st.com/draft_tubes. Ma realized he could roll two axial 26 After is was welded.
The red draft t turbine. frenchriverland. This step matches the size of the Sam inside diameter of the step matches the inside diameter of the turbine skirt ring seamlessly out of the runner and into the draft tube.com Smith Alternative Energy (www.com damengineers. It is resting in the steel thimble that housed the Leroy Somers tube turbine. Note the cylindrical throat and flange we designed to match th the small step at the bottom of the throat.com/draft_tubes.com) Here is Celesty's little draft tube being lowered into the waterbox. Links: Swiftriverhydro.htm 9/11 .smithtest.3/5/2011 y Westinghouse WW Generators Woodward Governor Draft Tubes Here Mike Piesyk and I are loading the completed draft tube into my trusty F Tannery Pond site.
We used a Starrett 12 inch. We set them on I-beams and install and the draft tube flange.com/draft_tubes. We then poured the c Celesty's little draft tube is setting on the steel leveling I-beams.3/5/2011 Draft Tubes Here we have leveled the two draft tubes. Master Precision Machinist ten thousanths of an inch per foot to complete the leveling. We have ins the powerhouse to keep the concrete in.htm 10/11 . frenchriverland.
3/5/2011 Draft Tubes Here is the 17 A Samson turbine sitting on top of Celesty's draft tube ready grouted in between the I-beams. We made a stiff mix of concrete and sloped it up to slip into the turbine wicket gates.htm 11/11 . frenchriverland.com/draft_tubes.