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Radar

Part 1 ± Basic radar theory Ref: Moir & Seabridge 2006, Chapter 3

Dr Ron Smith

Outline

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

**Principles of radar Radar antenna Radar modes Pulsed radar Doppler radar FM-CW radar Exercises
**

EEE381B Basic radar theory - 2

Winter 2009

1. Principles of radar [4]

Winter 2009

EEE381B

Basic radar theory - 3

1.1 A radar operator view [4]

Winter 2009

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Basic radar theory - 4

1.2 Brief history of radar Conceived as early as 1880 by Heinrich Hertz Observed that radio waves could be reflected off metal objects. Radio Aid to Detection And Ranging 1930s Britain built the first ground-based early warning system called Chain Home. 1940 Invention of the magnetron permits high power transmission at high frequency. thus making airborne radar possible.5 . Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .

Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory . altimeter.2. weather warning. target tracking. Roles include airborne early warning. Practical frequency range 100MHz-100GHz. target acquisition.1. ground mapping.1 Brief history of radar Currently Radar is the primary sensor on nearly all military aircraft.6 . collision avoidance. target illumination.

1.3 Airborne radar bands [1] Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .7 .

1.8 .3.1 Airborne radar bands [1] Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .

3.2 Airborne radar bands [1] Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .1.9 .

10 .4 Basic principle of radar[1] target range.1. R = c(t / 2 Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .

11 .1.4.1 Basic principle of radar[1] Two common transmission techniques: pulses continuous wave Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .

Radar antenna A basic principle of radar is that it directs energy (in the form of an EM wave) at its intended target(s).12 . Recall that the directivity of an antenna is measured as a function of its gain. Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory . Therefore antenna types most useful for radar applications include parabolic and array antenna.2.

1 Parabolic (dish) antenna Early airborne radars typically consisted of parabolic reflectors with horn feeds.2.13 . The dish effectively directs the transmitted energy towards a target while at the same time ³gathering and concentrating´ some fraction of the returned energy. Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .

14 . Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory . It has the further advantage of being capable of being integrated with the skin of the aircraft (³smart skin´).2.2 Planar (phased) array antenna Recent radars more likely employ a planar array It is electronically steerable as a transmit or receive antenna using phase shifters.

15 . The side lobes are not only wasteful. Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .2. they provide electronic warfare vulnerabilities.3 Radar antenna beam patterns The main lobe of the radar antenna beam is central to the performance of the system.

Airborne radar modes Airborne radars are designed for and used in many different modes.16 .3. Common modes include: air-to-air search air-to-air tracking air-to-air track-while-scan (TWS) ground mapping continuous wave (CW) illumination multimode Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .

1 Air-to-air search [1] Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .17 .3.

2 Air-to-air tracking [1] Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .3.18 .

3 Air-to-air track-while-scan [1] Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .19 .3.

20 .4 Ground mapping [1] Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .3.

21 .5 Continuous wave illumination Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .3.

6 Multimode [1] Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .22 .3.

Tp = 1/PRF.4. usually in kHz pulse period. usually expressed in Qsec pulse repetition frequency. Denote: pulse width. usually in Qsec Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .23 . X. Pulsed radar A pulsed radar is characterized by a high power transmitter that generates an endless sequence of pulses. PRF. The rate at which the pulses are repeated is defined as the pulse repetition frequency.

1 Pulsed radar architecture [1] Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .24 .4.

1 A lab-based pulsed radar [4] Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .4.25 .1.

4.26 .2 Pulsed modulation [1] Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .

f0. the transmitted and received signals are composed of spectral components centered on the radar operating frequency. and therefore the bandwidth of the receiver must be at least: BWRx 2/X EEE381B Basic radar theory . with a sin(x)/x shape.1 Pulsed radar bandwidth In the frequency domain.27 Winter 2009 .4.2. The practical limits of the frequency response is f0 s 1/X.

4. the average power of the radar is quite low: Pav = Ppeak X / Tp For example a pulsed radar with a 1 Qsec pulse width and a medium PRF of 4 kHz that transmits at a peak power of 10kW transmits an average power of: Pav = (10000 W) (0.2.28 .2 Pulsed radar average power Since a pulsed radar only transmits for a small portion of the time.000001 sec) (4000 /sec) = _____ W = _____ dBW Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .

The range resolution is a function of the pulse length.3 km. Lp = cX.29 Winter 2009 .3 Pulsed radar range resolution The range resolution of a radar is its ability to distinguish two closely spaced targets along the same line of sight (LOS). Two targets can be resolved in range if: Lp < 2(R2 ± R1) EEE381B Basic radar theory .4. where pulse length. For example. a 1 Qsec pulse width yields a pulse length of 0.

4.3.30 .1 Pulsed radar range resolution [4] Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .

2 Pulsed radar range resolution [4] Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .4.31 .3.

The range of a target becomes ambiguous as a function of half the pulse period.4 Pulsed radar range ambiguity The PRF is another key radar parameter and is arguably one of the most difficult design decisions.32 Winter 2009 .4. Ramb = c / (2 PRF) = cTp / 2 EEE381B Basic radar theory . in other words targets that are further than half the pulse period yield ambiguous range results.

33 .4. Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .4 Pulsed radar range ambiguity [1] This figure is very confusing.

4.4.1 Range ambiguity Ramb return time PRF A target whose range is: R < Ramb = c / (2 PRF) = cTp / 2 0 10 20 30 Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .34 .

4.2 Range ambiguity Ramb return time PRF A target whose range is : R > Ramb = c / (2 PRF) = cTp / 2 0 10 20 30 Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .35 .4.

4.36 .4.3 Range ambiguity Ramb PRF Which target is which? 0 10 ? 20 30 Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .

5 Angle resolution[4] Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .4.37 .

5.38 . key data to maintain on locked targets is: range. A frame of reference using pitch and roll from aircraft attitude indicators is required for angle tracking. Three angle tracking techniques are: sequential lobing conical scan monopulse Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory . azimuth and elevation angle. Target tracking A target that is tracked is said to be ³locked on´.

5.range gating [1] Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .39 .1 Range tracking .

5.2 Angle tracking ± sequential lobing1 Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .40 .

5.3 Angle tracking ± sequential lobing1 Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .41 .

42 .5.4 Angle tracking ± conical scan[1] Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .

43 .5 Angle tracking ± monopulse[1] Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .5.

44 .5.6 Angle tracking ± monopulse[1] Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .

45 . In-class exercises Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .6.

46 .6. E3 Sentry and AH-64 Longbow Apache [1] Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .1 Quick response exercise # 1 Explain the strange shapes on top of these two aircraft. 6.

47 .2 Quick response exercise # 2 Given a 10.6.5 GHz intercept radar and a transmitter capable of providing a peak power of 44 dBW at a PRF of 2 kHz: What pulse width yields an average power of 50W? What is the bandwidth in MHz and in % of this signal? Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory .

2% Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory . ensure that the duty cycle of the transmitter does not exceed 0.3 Pulsed radar calculations Design the pulse parameters so as to achieve maximum average power for an unspecified Ku band pulsed radar given the following component specifications and system requirements: the receiver has a bandwidth of at least 0.48 .5% across the band the required range resolution is 50m The required range ambiguity is 25 km For cooling purposes.6.

49 . SciTch Publishing. 1998. [Sections 2. 2006. LabVolt (Quebec) Ltd. Introduction to Airborne Radar.7] David Adamy. Mark A. student laboratory manual. Second Edition.6 & 2. "Clip art licensed from the Clip Art Gallery on DiscoverySchool. Principles of Radar Systems. Military Avionics Systems.com" Winter 2009 EEE381B Basic radar theory . [Chapters 3. 2000. 2006. American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics. 38542-00. Stimson. Artech House.References 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Moir & Seabridge. EW101 . Hicks.4 & 6] George W.A First Course in Electronic Warfare.

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