LM555 and LM556 Timer Circuits
This page presents general information and tips for using the LM555 timer and devices with other letter prefixes. There will be minor internal circuitry differences between 555 timer IC's from the various manufacturers but they all should be useable for the circuits on this page. If you would like to use any of these ideas, take the time to do some testing before using the LM555 timer in an actual circuit. All of the solutions on this page can also be applied to the LM556 - Dual timer. Some of the circuits on this page were developed just to see if they would work and have no intended use. The menu below links to various sections of this page that relate to the items in the index. New additions appear at the bottom of the list.
CMOS Versions Of The 555 Timer
All of the information on this page can be applied to the low current, CMOS versions of the 555 timer as well. However, the CMOS versions have a lower output current rating and may not be albe to drive some loads. For single sided loads, an NPN or PNP driver transistor can be added to the output of the timer to increase the durrent capacity of the timer. ( See section 31 of this page for more information. )
This Page Is Not Applicable To The LM558
This page does not apply the LM558 - Quad Timer IC which is significantly different when compared to the 555 and 556 timers. The differences include: (1) The output of each 558 timer is an open collector transistor with a 100 milliamp current capacity while the 555 and 556 timers have bipolar outputs with a 200 milliamp capacity. (2) The TRIGGER input of the 558 is EDGE Triggered while the TRIGGER input of the 555 and 556 timers are LEVEL Triggered. Individual LM558 timers are not designed to operate in an astable mode. Two 558 timers must be connected in a loop to make an astable oscillator. EDGE Triggered - means that the change in the output state of the timer is caused by a quickly falling or rising voltage at the input terminal. If the input voltage changes too slowly the output will not switch states. • LEVEL Triggered - means that the change in the output state of the timer is caused when the voltage at an input terminal
falls bellow or rises above a preset level. The rate at which the voltage changes is not a factor. The THRESHOLD input terminals for the 555, 556 and 558 timers are all LEVEL triggered.
LM555 Timer Internal Circuit Block Diagram
LM555 Timer Internal Circuit Block Diagram
Print the diagram in the centre of a sheet of paper and then draw a circuit using the ICs pin locations. LM556 Timer Internal Circuit Block Diagram
Print the diagram in the centre of a sheet of paper and then draw a circuit using the ICs pin locations.
the RESET of CMOS version of these timers should not be left unconnected as the inputs of these devices are more sensitive and this may cause problems.1 microfarad (C2) capacitor at this terminal to minimize voltage spikes during transitions of the timer's output transistors. It is also good practice to place a 0. This was done in order to keep the schematics as simple as possible. it is normal practice to connect this input to the supply voltage. If the RESET terminal is left unconnected the operation of the timer will not be affected. This will also reduce voltage spikes when the output transistors of the timer change states. If the power supply .RESET And CONTROL Terminal Notes
Most of the circuits at this web site that use the LM555 and LM556 timer chips do not show connections for the RESET and CONTROL inputs.
Typical Pin 4 And 5 Connections Note . If the RESET terminal of a 555 or 556 timer is not going to be used. Therefore.If the period of the power supply variations is short when compared to the period of the timer. at low astable frequencies or long monostable times the effectiveness of a capacitor at the CONTROL input is less than at higher frequencies and short pulse times.ripple voltage is 120 Hz and the oscillator frequency is 1000 Hz then C2 will have greater benefit than if the oscillator frequency is 10 Hz.1uF bypass capacitor (C1) across the power supply and located as close to the IC as possible. In many cases the CONTROL input does not require a bypass capacitor if a well regulated power supply is used. the overall effect of C2 is reduced. it is good practice to place a 0. However.
. For example. however.
000.693 as constants in the timing calculations depending on the way in which the equation was written.001F = 1 X 10-6F)
TIMING CALCULATORS FOR THE LM555
With Schematic diagrams LM555 .Calculation Value Notes
Data sheets for the 555 Timer use the value 1.44 and 0. For ease of use. LM555 Monostable Oscillator Circuit Diagram
. (1uF = 0. To compensate for leakage it is often better to use a higher value capacitor and lower value resistances in the timer circuits. the calculators on this page have capacitor values entered in microfarads.MONOSTABLE OSCILLATOR CALCULATOR Value Of R1
Value Of C1
Resistor values are in Ohms (1K = 1000) . While these numbers are not exact reciprocals of one another they are close enough to be used without concern.Capacitor values are in Microfarads (1uF = 1) NOTE: The leakage currents of electrolytic capacitors will affect the actual output results of the timers. This value is multiplied by the calculator to produce the correct result.
LM555 Monostable Oscillator Output Time Chart
RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes LM555 .ASTABLE OSCILLATOR CALCULATOR Value Of R1
Value Of R2
Value Of C1
Ohms Output Time HIGH
Ohms Output Time LOW
Microfarads Output Frequency
Output Period HIGH + LOW
Output Duty Cycle
ASTABLE CAPACITOR CALCULATOR Value Of R1
Value Of R2
Ohms Capacitance uF
LM555 Astable Oscillator .SECONDS
Resistor values are in Ohms (1K = 1000) . LM555 .Capacitor values are in Microfarads (1uF = 1) NOTE: The leakage currents of electrolytic capacitors will affect the actual output results of the timers.Free Running Frequency Chart
. To compensate for leakage it is often better to use a higher value capacitor and lower value resistances in the timer circuits. LM555 Astable Oscillator Circuit Diagram
The next calculator can find the capacitance needed for a particular output frequency if the values of R1 and R2 are known.
RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes
Basic Circuits For The LM555 Timer
The following diagrams show some basic circuits and calculations for the LM555 timer. Circuit 1
Circuit 5 also has a trigger input that can remain closed and still allow the timer to complete its cycle. This short delay can eliminate false triggering in most cases and if the problem persists the value of the capacitor or resistor can be increased as needed. The addition of a 470K ohm resistor and a 0. The following schematic shows two additions to the basic 555 timer circuit.1uF capacitor at the TRIGGER input (Pin 2) will provide a delay of approximately 1/20th of a second from the time the input goes to zero volts until the trigger threshold of 1/3Vcc is reached. RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes
Triggering And Timing Helpers For Monostable Timers
The LM555 timer and its twin brothers the LM556 are cornerstones of model railroad electronics but the sensitivity of the trigger input gives rise to many false triggering problems.
. This means that the trigger input pulse can be longer than the output pulse. One reduces the trigger sensitivity and the other will double the output pulse duration without increasing the values of R1 and C1.
* . the output time will be doubled by the addition of the resistor at Pin 5.000. The voltage at pin 5 will be increased from 0. one time constant is equal to a rise in voltage across the capacitor from 0 to 63.One time constant is equal to R (Ohms) times C (Farads) in seconds. electrolytic capacitors are often used for C1 and the value of R1 can be as high as 1 Megohm.88Vcc which is approximately equal to the voltage across the capacitor after two time constants*. The boxed in area of the drawing shows the internal circuit at pin 5 of the timer with the 1. This allows the same output time to be achieved with a smaller resistance or capacitance value thus reducing the error caused by the capacitor leakage current. (1uF = 0. However with high resistance values for R1 the leakage current of the timing capacitor (C1) becomes a significant factor in the operation of the timer. for a given value of R1 and C1. Connecting a 1. To achieve long output times.001F = 1 X 10-6F) The trigger and reset voltage levels of the timer will also be increased with the addition of the resistor to pin 5 but this should have no effect in most applications. In terms of voltage.8K ohm resistor between the supply voltage and pin 5 of the 555 timer chip the output pulse duration will be approximately doubled.555 Timer Helpers Schematic The addition of a resistor and capacitor to the trigger will not work for very short output pulses as there is also a short delay in the recovery of the trigger terminal voltage.8K resistor added.
.2 percent its maximum voltage.66Vcc to 0. The second addition is a helper that will extend the timers output duration without having to use large values of R1 and/or C1. Conversely.
This would be useful in applications such as intrusion alarms where the protection circuit is broken if a window or door is opened
Reversed Trigger Input RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes
Controlling Circuits For LM555 Timers
The following diagrams show some methods of using one timer to control a second . Tantalum capacitors could be used as they have very low leakage currents but these are expensive and not available in large capacitance values. a ONESHOT oscillator controls an ASTABLE oscillator.
. Some of these are unusual but still practical and can provide ideas for other control schemes. Adding a resistor to the CONTROL terminal is not an ideal solution to solving long duration timing situations but should work for pulse times of less than ten minutes.
Reversed Trigger Input Control Of 555 Timers
The following method allows the timer to be triggered by a normally closed switch. In the following diagrams. Three methods are shown.The circuit will run much longer than expected and may never time out if the leakage current is equal to the current through the resistor at some voltage.
Due to the ability of the timers to source or sink current. Circuits for both Astable and Monostable versions of this method are shown on the diagram. These circuits were developed to provide certain functions that are not typically associated with this device. The parts values in these circuits were selected for testing purposes and can be adjusted to suit the needs of a particular application as long as the normal operating parameters of the LM555 are maintained. Before using any of these circuits for specific applications they should be tested to determine the best values for the components and the practicality of their use.LM555 Control methods #1 schematic RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes
Advanced Circuits For The LM555 Timer
The following diagrams show some advanced circuits for the LM555 timer. This is done by connecting the OUTPUT of timer A to the TRIGGER and THRESHOLD terminals of timer B.dual timer IC is configured so that the output of the second timer is 180 degrees out of phase with the first.
LM556 Timers with Complimentary or Push-Pull Outputs
In the next circuit an LM556 .
. The 10K ohm resistor limits the current that can flow into the THRESHOLD terminal of timer B. The typical output conditions that are referenced to ground or supply are also available and in fact all three could be used at the same time. the current from one timers output can flow into the other timer's output depending on which output is HIGH or LOW.
The circuit is usable at frequencies below 1000Hz. Both timer's RESET terminals are available and can be used individually or together. It is a slave to timer A. Normal triggering methods and period lengths are not affected.
.LM555 Complimentary Outputs schematic Timer B in this method acts as a voltage comparator and has no timing function. Due to the unusual nature of this type of circuit testing should be done to determine if it is suitable for the use intended.
RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes
Interlocked Monostable Timers
In the following circuit the timers are interlocked so that while one timer is running the second timer cannot be triggered.
LM555 Interlocked Timers schematic Normal triggering and timing lengths are not affected by this method. The resistor limits the current from the opposite timers output when the trigger is closed on the stopped timer. This is done by connecting the OUTPUT of each timer to the TRIGGER of the other through a diode and placing a resistor in the trigger circuit. Stray or installed capacitance at the TRIGGER
. RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes
Power-Up Reset For 555 Timers
Typical monostable 555 timer circuits will automatically trigger and start a timing cycle when power is applied to the circuit.
In an ideal circuit.Ideal Circuit Conditions
Practical Circuit Conditions
If there is stray or installed capacitance at the TRIGGER terminal.
. Stray capacitance can be from a number of sources but a typical cause is the wires that connect a push button used to start the timer. where there is no stray capacitance at the TRIGGER input.
LM555 Power-Up . To prevent timer from starting. when the power is applied to an LM555 circuit the timer will immediately be triggered and start a cycle. a simple RC timing circuit can be added to the timer's RESET terminal so that when power is applied to the circuit. The length of the reseting action can roughly be determined by R1 X C1 X 3 . the timer is automatically held RESET by transistor Q1 until C1 is almost fully charged. This can be a undesirable if the period is long and there is no way to stop the cycle.terminal of the timer is largely responsible for this triggering but it is also caused by the nature of the 555 timer's internal circuitry as well. a small capacitor at the CONTROL terminal could prevent the timer from triggering .
a pulse is sent to the THRESHOLD terminal which stops the timing cycle when the power is applied.
.The example circuit shows a monostable oscillator but the method could also hold an astable 555 oscillator in a reset condition at power-up.
LM555 Power-Up Reset Method 1 The following circuit is another method of stopping the timing cycle at power-up. In this case.
if timer 'A' is running. This means that only one timer can be running at a time. for example. As with the 'Power-Up Reset For Monostable Timers' circuit above. when the power is applied to the circuit both timers are RESET.LM555 Power-Up Reset Method 2 RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes
Cross Canceling For Monostable Timers
The following diagram shows a method that allows one LM555 timer to RESET another timer so that. timer A will be reset.
. When timer B is triggered.
LM555 Cross Canceling Timers schematic Normal triggering and timing lengths should not be affected by this method. The trigger switch of the running timer must be OPEN for the RESET to occur. RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes
RS Flip-Flop Made With A LM556 Timer
The next circuit is for a hybrid - SET / RESET type of logic Flip-Flop that is constructed from an LM556 - Dual Timer. The design is crude but effective for very low speed applications. Its greatest asset is that the outputs of the LM556 are capable of driving current loads of up to 200 milliamps with a minimal voltage loss. This circuit was originally developed to drive "Stall Motor" type switch machines that are used on model railroads. These motors use low voltage DC and draw approximately 15 milliamps when they are in a stalled condition. Due to the design of the LM556 timer chip there are multiple output options available in this circuit. These include the normal timer outputs which are bipolar and the DISCHARGE terminals, (PINS 1 and 13), that are open collector circuits.
LM556 Flip-Flop Truth Table
The following diagram is for a test version of the LM556 Flip-Flop circuit used to create a "Truth Table" that shows the OUTPUT states for a given INPUT state.
Logic Function diagram LM556 Flip-Flop Input Options
The next diagram shows basic input options that can be used with the LM556 Flip-Flop circuit. In actual applications the push buttons could be replaced with or supplemented by electronic input devices.
Input Options schematic
In circuit A the SET and RESET inputs would be brought to 0 Volts to change the state of the Flip-Flop. In circuit B the SET input would be switched between 0 Volts and the supply voltage to change the state of the Flip-Flop. The RESET terminal is unconnected. In both circuit A and B, when the push buttons are OPEN the Flip-Flop will remain in its last state until the opposite signal is applied to an input.
This action only applies to states 1 and 2 in the truth table shown above. The value of resistors R3 and R4 should be approximately 1/4 the value of resistors R1 and R2 so that the proper voltage ratios for changing states can be achieved. resistors R3 and R4 are needed to limit the current that can flow into these terminals. through a 10K ohm current limiting resistor (R1 and R2). • The maximum current the the outputs of the LM556 timers can source or sink is 200 milliamps.
If resistors R1 and R2 are not used the operation of the circuit becomes unstable. • Any of the LED's in the circuit could be replaced by an optoisolator. The input method in circuit B would not be practical to produce the STATE 3 condition shown in the Truth Table on the previous diagram.Circuits A and B also show two methods of connecting the LED's at terminals 1 and 13. The value of this resistor is not critical and is largely dependent on the impedance of the INPUT devices used to trigger the stage changes.
The values of R1 and R2 in this test were 100K ohms. The cross coupling of the timers OUTPUT and TRIGGER/THRESHOLD terminals gives the circuit its FLIPFLOP action and causes the outputs of the timers to be forced alternately HIGH or LOW.
LM556 Flip-Flop Notes
If you would like to make use of this type of circuit. to the TRIGGER and THRESHOLD inputs of the other. the OUTPUT of one timer is fed. As can be seen in the schematics. small relay or low current DC motor.
. It was found however to operate satisfactorily at clock speeds in excess of 10KHz. please take the time to build one and do some experimenting to determine if the design will suit your needs. • For this circuit to have a memory function such as that of a SET / RESET type Flip-Flop the input terminals must float when no input signal is present. The value of R3 was 22K ohm.
The R3 resistor is not required if the inputs are not going to be driven to a HIGH state. Due to the internal circuitry at THRESHOLD terminals (PINs 6 and 12) of the LM556 timers. They cannot be held HIGH or LOW as is the case with TTL devices. • These circuits do not need a regulated power supply but the voltage should be well filtered. • This circuit was developed for low speed operation.
The main disadvantage to using this circuit is the the large dead-band (1/3Vcc) between upper and lower threshold voltages.RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes
LM555 Timer Used As A Voltage Comparator Or Schmitt Trigger
The next section shows how an LM555 timer can be used as a voltage comparator or a Scmitt Trigger with a large offset voltage. An optional resistor. The 555 timer is not well suited for this application but it is one that is in wide use with model railroaders. R5. can be added to the circuit to lower and compress the detection voltage range but this only partially alleviates the problem. Shown on the schematic is a secondary output that uses the open collector at the DISCHARGE terminal (Pin 7) of the timer. This output can sink up to 200 milliamps and would be ideal for driving relays. LM555 Voltage Comparator / Schmitt Trigger
The effect that resistor R5 has on the circuit can be seen in the right hand graph. RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes
50% Output Duty Cycle (Variable)
.The two graphs at the bottom of the diagram show the input voltages at which the OUTPUT of the LM555 will change states.
. Resistors R1 and R2 were selected first and then resistor R3 was selected to give the best control range based on measurements at the output of the timer.
50% Duty Cycle schematic
For The Record
The circuit shown in the next diagram is not an accurate method of producing a 50 percent duty cycle using 555 timers. the voltage drops across its output transistors will increase and the duty cycle will shift. either bipolar or CMOS types. The major disadvantage of using the LM555 in this manner is that the output frequency changes as the duty cycle changes.The LM555 timer can achieve a 50 percent duty cycle as shown in the next diagram. The duty cycle adjustment range of the give components values is from 42 to 55 percent. The circuit can produce a duty cycle that is close to 50 percent but when a load is added to the output of the timer.
Not Accurate 50% Duty Cycle schematic RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes
Bipolar LED Driver
This circuit uses two timers to drive Bipolar LEDs and shows all of the possible output states.
. Two SPDT switches are used to set the input conditions but these could be replaced by electronic controls.
Any source that can drive the base of transistor Q1 can control these circuits.Bipolar LED Driver schematic RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes
Electronic Time Constant Control
These circuits show methods of changing the operating frequency of astable LM555 timers electronically.
R2 and C1 and has a pulse width range of 0 to 100 percent.
. Note: This circuit is not suitable for high frequency operation. The following diagram shows a basic circuit with an open collector output that would require a pull up resistor at its output. especially when using a second timer as the output stage.
Electronic Time Constant Control RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes
Voltage Controlled Pulse Width Oscillator
The basic circuit operates at a frequency determined by R1. The parts values are the nominal values of the components used.The advantage of switch the timing capacitors is that the duty cycle of the timer is not affected when the frequency is changed.
All measurements were made with a good quality multimeter.Variable Pulse Width Oscillator The following is a graph of the output pulse width of the basic circuit for a given control voltage input.
. The PLUS and MINUS inputs of IC 2 can be reversed to produce a decreasing pulse width for an increasing control voltage.
that could be used. The output stage also has an open collector output at the Discharge terminal.
Variable Pulse Width Oscillator With LM555 Output RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes
Sweeping Output Siren
This circuit is a variation of the "Two Tone Siren" that is a standard for the LM555 timer. The circuit allows the output frequency of the B timer to sweep between two frequencies rather than switching abruptly between two frequencies.Variable Pulse Width Oscillator Output Graph The next diagram uses a second LM555 timer as a power output stage for the basic oscillator. PIN 7.
See this Wikipedia page for basic information on Voltage-controlled oscillators and this datasheet for the LM321.
. The circuit is essentially an expensive version of the classic two transistor Flip-Flop but it does have an output current capacity of 200 milliamps.Flip-Flop Made With A LM556 Timer
This circuit is a hybrid . Other devices include the TTL 74124 Dual Voltage-Controlled Oscillator and the CMOS CD4046B Phase-Locked Loop.Dual Timer integrated circuit. A better 555 based circuit for a sweeping oscillator would be to adapt the Variable Pulse Width Oscillator in the section above.Sweeping Output Siren NOTE: The Sweeping Output Siren circuit has a limited sweep range and the duty cycle shifts with the changing output frequency. RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes
D .D type Flip-Flop that is constructed from an LM556 . A still better choice for a sweeping oscillator would be a Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) IC.
Flip-Flop The circuit has some output switching time lag due to the RC time constants at the inputs and the different Trigger and Threshold voltage levels of the timers themselves.
D . RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes
Time Delay Circuits . As with the D flip-flop the circuit acts as a binary divider.Each time the push button switch (S1) is closed the outputs of the timers will reverse so that one is HIGH and the other is LOW and vice versa.Various
Time Recovery Delay Circuits
Two Stage Time Delay Circuit
Cascade Time Delay Circuit Example
.Cascaded Time Delay Circuits
4 Stage .
BiDirectional Time Delay Circuit In the BiDirectional Time Delay Circuit. See section 13 of this page for more detail. RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes
Variable period Oscillator (CD4017)
. the B timer acts more as a Schmitt trigger with a delay than a conventional timer.
Each output pulse is longer than the previous until a count of ten is reached at which time the cycle will repeat. The following circuits are designed to change the duration of each positive output pulse from the astable timer.pdf)
CD4017 Data sheet .The following CD4017 circuits have not been tested and is presented here as a possibility only. The second circuit has a nine step cycle that stops at the end of the cycle. The circuits use a CD4017 Decade Counter / Decoder to provide nine or ten steps in the cycle. If you experiment with this circuit. please send me any problems found so that the circuit can be updated. The first circuit operates with a repeating ten step cycle. The CD4017 can be configured to give count lengths between 1 and 10. The cycle is restarted or reset when the RESET input is briefly made high.National Semiconductor (. Refer to the timing diagram in the CD4017 data sheet for a better understanding of the IC's operation.
This would allow the subsequent output pulses to be of longer and shorter lengths during the cycle.
.Variable Period Oscillator (Experimental)
The next schematic shows an alternate arrangement for the timing resistors.
Alternate Resistor Arrangement The next circuit provides nine counts of a normal timing length with the tenth count being longer and then repeating the cycle.
push button controlled. Negative Recovery timer circuit. closing S1 will restart the cycle.Ten Step / Two Period Oscillator RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes
Missing Pulse Detector / Negative Recovery Circuits
Basic . Each time that S1 is closed the time remaining in the cycle is reset to zero.Negative Recovery Circuit The first circuit is a simple. If the time does run out.
The diode across R1 in these circuits causes C1 to quickly discharge when the power to the circuit is switched off.Missing Pulse Detectors
. This allows the circuit to be ready for the next cycle more quickly. Basic .The following circuits can detect when a train of pulses stops or become too far apart. They can also be use to keep the timer at its zero count if the input is held in a steady state. This is called 'Negative Recovery'.
Steady Output .Two Comparators
.Missing Pulse Detectors .
Missing Pulse Detectors .Steady Output .Two Timers
The next two circuits in this section produce the same result: The timer must be reset manually if it has timed out. Latching Output .Missing Pulse Detector
Manual Start .Missing Pulse Detector
RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes
Fixed 50% Output Duty Cycle Using Logic Devices
50 percent duty cycle from a 555 timer is to divide the output by 2 with a binary divider such as the 7473 or 7474 TTL logic ICs.The only way to achieve a true .Cycling Timer Circuit
. Fixed 50% Output Duty Cycle
RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes
Three Stage .
Based On The Cycling Timer Circuit
RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes Devices Used For The Following Tests
RESET Terminal .)
A Single . therefore all but the first timer (A) will need to be Reset for the proper cycle order to be started automatically.Traffic Light Driver Circuit .Currents And Voltages
. (See item 10 in the index of this page for a method of resetting the timers.NOTE All three timers in this circuit will start when power is applied.
3 Volts to ensure that any of the devices is fully reset. The voltage at the RESET terminal should pass through this range as quickly as possible to avoid problems. In the transition voltage range of the RESET terminal mentioned on the diagram. the timers output is neither fully ON or OFF.Currents And Voltages
RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes
555 Timer Current Draws
.555 timer chips from different manufacturers. RESET Terminal . and the voltage at the RESET terminals of five . The only conclusion to be drawn here is that the RESET terminal should be held below 0.The next diagram gives the current from. This can cause high current flows in the timer itself.
. Some devices will not function properly if the current to the THRESHOLD terminal is not restricted. Timer Current Draws
RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes
The following is a method of preventing a timer from being re-triggered before a certain time period has elapsed. The RESET terminal current draw illustrates the need for a current limiting resistor as shown in some of the preceding circuits.The next diagram shows the basic current usages of 555 timer chips from different manufacturers.
it can supply current to a load. it can receive current from a load. Output Circuit
. When the output of the timer is HIGH. the collector is not connected to the ground of the timer. This type of output can either source or sink current and is typical of 555 and 556 timer IC's. Transistor Q3 is actually connected as a diode with the collector not carrying current.RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes
Timer Output Section
The next diagram shows the output section of a National Semiconductor LM555 timer. When the output of the timer is LOW. Although a circuit common symbol is shown.
RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes
Power ON Delay Circuits
These circuits will delay the application of power to an external circuit by using mechanical relays or transistors. This means that the power is supplied to the load for a very short period until the relay can open. Other output control devices could also be used. Various Power ON Delay Circuits
. These circuits are not ideal as the relays are closed when power is suppled to the circuit.
Delay Circuit With Indicator LED
Delayed Lock Out Circuit
Wait For Pulses .Delay Circuit
.Power On .PUJT & Voltage Comparator .
5 % Output Duty Cycle Using A 555 Timer
The next circuit produces an average duty cycle of 51. At a supply voltage of 5 volts the average duty cycle increased to 52. A resistor could be placed across capacitor C1 so that the timer will be reset if the pulses stop arriving.A variation on the Power On delay circuits above is a delay after pulses start arriving. This resistor should have a resistance of at least three times the value of R1. RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes
Average 51.7%. The span of the duty cycle also increased.5% over the entire resistance range of R2 at a supply voltage of 10 volts. 51.5% Duty Cycle Oscillator
The load's supply voltage could also be lower than the timer's supply voltage. Darlington and MOSFET transitors can drive loads of many amps.RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes
Driving Loads Of Greater Than 15 Volts Or 200 Milliamps
The next two circuits allow the 555 timer to drive loads that have a supply voltage that is greater than the15 volt maximum of 555 timers. The 24 volt supply can be full wave DC and does not need to be filtered. Higher current loads can be driven by transistors with a suitable current capacity and adjusting the base current as needed. High Voltage And Current Load Drivers
Decade Counter to stop a 555 timer at a given step and then wait until the counter is reset. 'N' Steps And Stop Circuit
.RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes
'N' Steps And Stop Circuit (CD4017)
The next circuit uses the outputs of a CD4017 .
Other output control devices could also be used.Power OFF Delay Circuits
These circuits will delay the removal of power to an external circuit by using mechanical relays or transistors. Various Power OFF Delay Circuits
. If you use any of these circuit ideas. ask your parts supplier for a copy of the manufacturers data sheets for any components that you have not used before. These data sheets can often be found on the web site of the device manufacturers. For this reason be prepared to do some experimenting to get the results you want. This is especially true of circuits such as the "Across Track Infrared Detection" circuits and any other circuit that relies on other than direct electronic inputs.
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26 February. If you have any questions or comments please send them to the email address on the Circuit Index page. Although the circuits are functional the pages are not meant to be full descriptions of each circuit but rather as guides for adapting them for use by others. These sheets contain a wealth of data and circuit design information that no electronic or print article could approach and will save time and perhaps damage to the components themselves. such as switches.RESET And CONTROL Input Terminal Notes Return to the Main Page
Please Read Before Using These Circuit Ideas
The explanations for the circuits on these pages cannot hope to cover every situation on every layout.