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Professor of Amkkican History ix Cornell ITnivhrsitv.



Volujue I. — Ancient Orie7ital Nations

Illustratei* With Maps, Portraits anp Views


Entered according to Act of Congress in the \'ear 1889,


in the office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.

Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1893,


in the office of tlie Librarian of Congress at Washington.

Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1896,

in the office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.

Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1897,

in the office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.




Professor of American Historj- in Cornell University.

JN" order to do justice to the claims of historical study, it can never be

necessary for us to any other branch of learning.
depreciate those of
Properh- considered, there is no such thing as rivalrj^ between difTerent
spheres of knowledge only emulation, a noble and helpful emulation.

All real knowledge is good, being in one way or another a source of

power and happiness. The various realms of things known or knowable are but
co-equal and fraternal states in that vast confederation which we may call the republic
of science. No single member of this confederation is strong, none is sufficient,
standing alone. Each is necessary to all, all are necessary to each.
While, therefore, no one study may whole of what is valuable,
assert for itself the
every study doubtless has its own and this value, as in the case of a
special value ;

study like history, it may sometimes be worth our while to place clearly before our
minds, modestly, tolerantly, and for the rightful purpose of forming a just idea of the
particular good we ought to expect and to work for, in our pursuit of it.


Probably that use of the study of history which will first occur to most persons,
is the one suggested by the common conception of history as an enonnous body of

facts about the past, —

the effort to know and retain a considerable ninnber of
facts being regarded as a fine gymnastic exercise for the faculty of memory. It is,
indeed, quite astonishing how great a multitude of historical details dates, names, —
and other items about persons, cities, nations, armies, political parties, institu-
tions, and so forth —
-almost any person is capable of carrying in his memory, if only
he patiently and trains it in that way. Moreover, no one will dt-ny that there
is much convenience and delight in the possession of a memory like that, a memory —
enriched with precise and various historical facts, all labeled, and pigeon-holed, and
ready for .service at a moment's call. Certainly, a brilliant accomplishment this for
conversation a weapon of victory for public speech
; in hours of loneliness and suffer-

ing, a great solace, — which may be seen in the of certain famous men
all of
in our country who had such a memory, as John Quincy Adams, Theodore Parker,
Charles Sumner, (^.arfield.
On the other hand, this particular of historical study is somewhat discredited
among persons of mature .sense, whenever it is associated with either of two practical
mistakes, to which, indeed, young students of history are liable. One of these mis-
takes arises from a lack of discrimination as to the relative value of different historical

facts ; the other from the notion that the work of memorizing historical facts is the
principal part of historical study. can hardly be wise to make the memorj- serve
the purpose of an old fashioned garret in a country house, a receptacle for all —
sorts of odds and ends of property, precious and worthless. Surely, .such indiscrim-
inate memorizing must be a waste of energy, and the perversion of a noble faculty.
What is the use of making an effort to remember what is useless? Besides, however
valuable it may be to store the memory with well selected dates and names and other
historical items, this at best belongs among the lower and more mechanic of
With these qualifications upon the primary claim put forward on behalf of his-
torical study, we may now pass on to consider some claims which point to mental
and even spiritual discipline of a far higher and more complex kind.


One of these higher benefits may be described as that of training the critical
faculty, through the effort to test the evidence for and against particular historical
facts, or what are alleged to be such. Perhaps the very hardest thing to get at in
this world is the truth, the very truth, especially the very truth concerning the past
transactions of the human race. From this point of view, it is plain that the study
of history is something more than the pas,sive reading of certain finished and fasci-
nating books, like Livy, for in.stance, or Gibbon, or Thiers, or Macaulay, or Pres-
cott, or Parkman it is indeed, the resolute and attentive application of the whole

mind to an and complicated subject, a process which cannot be carried on
very long without our running up questions of disputed fact. To deal with
these questions in a manner to satisfy a truth-loving mind, it will be necessary for
us to look keenly into problems of conflicting testimony, of personal character, of
the validity of documents, of the meaning of words, of the right method of con-
struction. I am not now speaking of the labors of professional historians, the intri-

cacy and of which are admitted to be great, just in proportion to the
quality of their results. Even pupils at school, however, and college students, and
the members of historical clubs, and .solitary readers of hi.story, if they would
pursue this study in the wisest and most fruitful way, must all l)e, to .some extent,
historical critics be alert, inqui.sitive, cautious, never credulous, always intol-

erant of .slovenly ways and as far as pos.sible, they must try the text they are

reading by earlier te.Kts, and especially by those nearest to the times that happen to
be under consideration.
Who is likely to of such a method of study?
overstate the educational value
On the moral side, how must be
great It is
it produced and is nourished by a

conviction of the incomparable worth and sacredness of mere truth in it.self, as against
all baser stuff in the form of half-truth, guess work, fables, or lies, and this convic-

tion is sure to grow and to strengthen under such honest toil in its service. On the
purely mental side, how great nrust be the effect of such study, — since it calls forth
and taxes powers so important as those of analysis and comparison, nicety of verbal
sense, literary insight, logical acuteness and precision, .soundness of judgment, and
saving common

In the next place, it should not be overlooked that the mental and moral dis-
cipline involved in the .study of history, is of a kind even broader and more complex
than that retjuired for the ascertaiiunent and verification of particular historical facts.

Tluit alone, aswe have just seen, is a great task, callinu;- for fine and strong powers
of mind it is a task that can perhaps never be perfectly done by any finite being

and yet, even that, when it is done as well as we can do it, is not the end of his-
torical study, but rather the beginning of it. For, after you liave verified and
defined your facts, comes the still more subtle process of discovering their causal
relations, — the great play of influence among human events, the interdependence of
events, the action and reaction and counteraction of events. Of course, to do this
sort of work hastily, recklessly, with that tone of easy infallibility which some his-
torical students have when passing judgment upon groups of facts in relation to the
past, is probably not very hard, —
at least for persons who can do all; but to one

who realizes the worthlessness, the misleading character, of all mere assumption in
statements professing to be historical, and how hard it must be even approximately
to discover the actual relations of events, it will be obvious that, aside from the in-
trinsic value of such generalizations, is the disciplinary value of the mental and
spiritual process of arriving at them. Certainly, to generalize wisely from sound his-
torical data, is a great exercise of the philo.sophic powers ; it is a test and a devel-
opment of broad-mindedness, lucidity, and vigor in reasoning.

Another benefit from historical study will occur to us, when we reflect that such
study compels one to investigate and to reason within the realm, not of the exact and
of the ab.solute, but of the approximate and the probable.
No doubt there is a peculiar educational value in the study of those sciences in
which the data are precise or absolute in which the conclusions are so, likewise.

Hi.story, however, deals with data of a different kind, with mixed deeds, and mixed —
motives, and traits of character, and experiences of human beings looking back into ;

the past, it draws some general conclusions from these data and applies them to the pres-
ent and the future it aims to formulate some general principles relating to the collective

human life of this world, to government, to the working of the social organism. But
whatever history requires of its student or does for him, it keeps him mostly within
the sphere of the approximate and the probable. You cannot weigh a human motive
or impulse as precisely as you can a chemical substance. In much of >our work as
an hi.storian, you have to balance one probabilitj' against another to estimate the .

operation of spiritual forces, to with the inscrutable mysteries of personal

character. In so many parts of your work, you are obliged to reason with caution^
.slowly, circumspectly, not dogmatically and to realize the limitations upon the

definitene-ss and certainty of many of your conclusions.

Well, is there any special value in such training as this? It seems to me that,

in a rather peculiar sense, this gives the ver>' training required for real life ; since in real
life we are in the sphere not of the absolute, but of the relative, and we luue to deal

with the very problems which

has to deal with,
the human character,
historian —
human feelings and motives, probabilities, and other data more or less indefinite. I
would say no word to imply any disparagement of the educational value of mathematics,
for example. It has its value, unrivaled in its kind but he who .should apply the ;

methods which come up between man and

of mathematical reasoning to the questions
man in real life, would often make most absurd mistakes and go far astray. Histor-
ical study, on the other hand, is a study of human nature on a broad field, and for
all ages it is exactly the sort of training which helps us to know persons and affairs

in real life, the great types of human character, the limited worth of testimony, the
play of pa.ssion in interfering with reasonable and prudent conduct, the probable
consequences of any particular set of outward conditions. Histors- is the great teacher
of human nature by means of objectlessons drawn from the whole recorded life
of human nature.
This brings us naturally to the fifth benefit to be got from historical study, —
the cultivation of fair-mindedness as a habit, and the suppression of intellectual
partisanship with respect to all subjects whatsoever.
one can pursue this study in the right waj-, or with any real success, who
does not learn to acquire the mental attitude, not of an attorney standing for one
side of the question, but of a judge standing for what is true on both sides. The
historical spirit is the judicial spirit. However vast may be his learning, however
splendid his style, whoever writes history in a partisan fashion, spoils to that extent
the genuineness and value of his work, as any one may observe by the brilliant
examples of Macaulay and Froude.
We must not, we cannot, tolerate in history, what we are obliged to tolerate in
contemporary comment. Such comment is almost inevitabh- colored by contemporary
passion, is biased this way and that through contemporary prejudice, through the
stormy likes and dislikes that are irrepressible among men actually engaged in the
conflicts of their own time, and having great personal interests at stake. But when
it comes to history, we demand something different. History is the comment made
afterward, when the fight is over and ended and the combatants are cold in their
graves and the duty of liLstory is to hear all .sides and all persons, to weigh all

pleas, to sift all testimonies, to be fair to all. If, with regard to living controvensies,
this attitude of fairness between opposite persons and opinions is almost impossible to

attain, it is by no means easy of attaiimient even with regard to dead controversies ;

it is, for every topic in history, one of the and choicest results of .spiritual

I do not know any other study more likely than the study of history, to help
us to acquire intellectual poise, justice in thought and word, freedom from the warp
of undue sympathy or antipathy, the judicial habit. And this, after all, is a quality
of great influence and esteem in this world, overridden, as it is, with partisanship of
all sorts, and yet conscious that there is a mental attitude nobler and wiser.


For the .sixth benefit to be got from historical study, I would call attention to

its incomparable in enlarging one's mental horizon.

He who does not know history must have a very limited mental horizon —a hor-
izon as wide only as the time during which he has lived. The whole vast realm of
the past is to him as if he knows only what has been done and
it never had been :

enjoyed and suffered by .since he

the human
arrived here. Even in the
case of the oldest man, what is that by comparison with all the years, decades,
centuries, epochs, which have rolled over this planet before the sound of his footstep
was heard upon it, and which have been crowded with stupendous tran.sactions that
he is totally ignorant of except by .some .sort of hearsay, by broken fragments of
knowledge picked up from casual tradition ?
The man who knows only the time immediately around him, is in a mental con-
dition somewhat like that of the man who knows only the place immediately around
him —
the man who has never traveled, who knows nothing of other neighborhoods
and other peoples. Such a man must have a very false notion of himself and others;

his niiiul can hardly fail to be full of local prejudice and conceit he lacks the nec-

essan,- standards by which to estimate his own size and quality and that of the men
and things around him. Such a man is necessarily provincial, parochial ; his intellect
is the intellect of a villager. So, the man who knows but little of human
time, ex-
cept what has elapsed since his own birth, is provincial-minded with respect to vast
tracts of human experience ; his mental horizon is necessarily limited to the petty cir-
cle of own life in the world. To such a man history comes
time which surrounds his
with its power to enlarge his own horizon bj- annexing to it the horizons of all the
generations before him. History is for time, what travel is for space it is an intel- ;

lectual journey oceans and continents of duration, and of ages both remote
from our own and vitalized and enriched by stupendous events. There is an old aph-
orism to the effect "ignorance of what has been done in the world before he

came into it, leaves a man

alwaj^s a child." This, perhaps, is but a far-away echo of
the saying of the Chinese moralist, Lao-Tse "Man is an infant born at midnight,

who, when he sees the sun rise, thinks that yesterday has never existed." To him who
has not studiously opened those books which tell of .the world's yesterday, it is as
though the world had never had a yesterday —
as though the world had begun only
when he began.
There have been many attempts to define the es.sential difference between
man and the other animals known to us here. What is to be thought of this defi-
nition ? —
Man is the history-knowdng animal the only animal that can know the Therefore, our conscious and cultivated relation to the past, through historical
stud}^ develops in us as human beings that very attribute which distinguishes us
from those animals that are called the brutes.


Perhaps the most impressive consideration touching the benefit to be derived

from historical studj-, is the one which still remains to be mentioned; historj' enables
each generation of men to profit, if they will, by the experience of their predeces-
sors, — especially to avoid their costliest and most painful mi.stakes. Without historv%
nearly all the practical wi.sdom of mankind, gained through iiniumerable blunders and
mishaps, would be lost, and the same blunders and the same mishaps would have to
be repeated and to be suffered over and over again on the part of successive genera-
tions ignorant of what had happened before.
Let us that the human family should now agree that history is an un-
desirable branch of knowledge that it should no longer be cultivated or taught
; that ;

all the books of history which have been written, from Herodotus down to Ranke and

Stubbs and George Bancroft, should be burned up, and that no more should be
written that even the documentary sources of historj^ should be destroyed.
; What
would be the effect of this gigantic piece of Vandalism ? Of cour,se, before many
j'ears, the men who now know something of the past would be dead, and would have

left no succes.sors to their knowledge and, gradually, nearly all remembrance of for-

mer times and of the men and the deeds and the sufferings of former times, of their
mi.stakes and triumphs and failures, would be blotted out. Nearly all the le.s.sons
taught by the experience of the human family would be forgotten. Consequentlj', to
a large extent, progress would cease; each generation, knowing but little of what
men had learned before themselves, would have to begin nearly all experiments over
again and each generation would be liable to keep on repeating the errors of its

predecessors, treading over again the same round of blundering attempts and
disastrous failures. Life itself, or what is would still be a laborious
called civilization,
march, would be a march
but it in a treadmill, wherein the feet
seem to move, and
steps seem to be taken, but no advance is made.
Whenever one is inclined to rate very low the utility of historical study, it may
be well for him to recall the fact that all human progress depends on each generation
starting with the advantage of the wisdom gained and accumulated by all previous
experience, and that history is the temple in which the records of this experience are
stored. Burn down the temple, and you thereby destroy some of the things that are
essential to further progress.
People who do not know history, are apt to be presumptuous and rash in their
political methods. They go on advocating errors that were exploded ages ago ; try-
ing political or indu.strial or financial experiments that have been tried and found
futile and disastrous times without number taking false steps which their ancestors

had taken before them and had found to be steps toward folly and misery mak- ;

ing civilization itself to seem no longer a stream of onward progress, but a mere
whirlpool, its currents spinning with men and institutions round and round in a
fierce motion, until at they all go down together into some central gulf of
One of the greatest and most inspiring teachers of history known among us dur-
ing the past forty years has for his book-plate this motto: " Disci pulus est prioris
posterior dies." "To-day is the pupil of yesterday." How much would To-day
know, if it were not the pupil of Yesterday? through what we call
But it is chiefly
history, that Yesterday is able to comminiicate to its pupil the wi.sdom which it has
hoarded. Moreover, it is because To-day leams wisdom from Yesterday, that it is
able to teach wisdom to To-morrow and it is, also, by the same means. There are

some people who have so intense an interest in the immediate and tangible facts of
life, that they are accustomed to sneer at the past, —
calling it the dead past. After
all, however, the is not dead, except to persons who are ignorant of it, or who
are themselves dead in their own thinking concerning it. Through the power of
history, the past does not die it is gifted with a perpetual life, and
; it reaches for-
ward with a strong and helpful hand into the times that now are and are to be.
I remember that once a student of mine, in a thesis which he was reading to
me, used a pretty figure about history. "History," said he, "is only a stern light
on the ship in which we are making life's voyage." I asked him to consider
whether he was quite right in describing history as " only a stern light." Of course,
even a stern light is something, but it is not all that our life-ship needs. How
about a bow light, also, —
a light that may throw some gleam the waters into
which we are advancing? So, even though it might hurt the neatness of the image,
we should probably improve its accuracy, by saying, that history is not only a stem
light, but a bow light as well it flashes its rays far back over those rough waters

through which our ship has been ploughing, and it throws at least some illumination
forward upon the deeps of time toward which we are about to sail.

Upon the whole, then, it may fairly be said, that by withdrawing now and then
from the present, ahd by making tours of studious obsen-ation into the, we
greatly enlarge our knowledge and our capacity for knowledge we teach ourselves ;

toleration, and even sympathy, for types of per.son and .society, for opinions and for
courses of action, quite unlike our own we become more truly catholic and cosmo-

politan ; we become more modest, too, by realizing that inifj^hty persons and mighty
peoples have lived in this world and it ages before we came into it
left we learn to ;

understand t)etter our own place in the general movement of time and events, and
how to adjust ourselves to both for the greater service, for the more perfect happi-
ness, of ourselves and others.
If, indeed, this he a just account of the matter, perhaps we .shall not deem it an
extravagance to say, as was lately .said by a sober-minded English critic, that "his-
tory is the central .study among human studies, capable of illuminating and enrich-
ing all the rest."
I should be .sorry to come to the end of this discu.ssiou without a word as to
the importance of arranging for the study of history upon a plan, that is,

upon a generous and a comprehensive plan. Perhaps no other study are pettiness
and provincialism more incongruous than in this stud}'.Not even patrioti.sni is a
sufficient justification for limiting our historical readings to our own countrj-. We
Americans have a right to be glad and proud o\'er the strong enthusiasm for the
nation which now fills even.- part of il. One manifestation of this robust patriotic
ardor is to be .seen in the extraordinary interest now felt among us in American his-
tory. Never before has American history been so much written, or so well written;
never before has it been so eagerly studied. This is well. Histor^^ like charity,
should begin at home; but neither charity- nor history should end there. Our pres-
ent danger magnifying the importance of the history of our own country,
is of so
as to forget the importance of attending to that of other countries The present
popularity of American hi.storj- is really a thing of recent growth. I can well re-

member when it was difficult to convince Americans that American history was
not only important but fascinating, —
even by comparison with the history- of mod-
ern Europe, or of ancient and mediaeval times. Apparenth', this truth has l)een
at last so well learned b}' us, that another truth is now liable to be forgotten,
namely, the intellectual harm of a too exclusive stud}- of American history.
Even American history cannot be properly learned, if learned altogether apart from
other history. "Without clear notions of general history," said Edward Freeman,
"the history of particular countries can never be rightly understood." To no other
country, perhaps, is this remark more applicable than it is to our own. Why our
ancestors came to America, and how, and what ideas they brought with them, and
what sorts of people they were, and what they did here, and how they fared in the
land, and how they were interfered with and helped or hindered by the peoples of
western Europe from among whom they had come, and how at last they threw off
such interference, and how they have got on since then with themselves and with
the rest of the world, and how they stand to-day as regards all these matters, are, —
indeed, the great topics of what we call American history, but they are likewise
topics of European history as well. We commonh- think of American history as be-
ginning with the year 1492. These four centuries of American historj- cannot be
truly known by any one who does not also know something really considerable of
the histories of Spain. France, Holland, and England, during the same time. For us
to stud}' American history as a detached and an i.solated experience, is to study it
unwisely, —
.so unwisely, in fact, as to insure our failure in grasping its real mean-
If, however, we caiuiot understand American histor>' without knowing modem
European histor>-. neither can we know modern European history without a fair

knowledge of the histoty of Europe during the Middle Ages and in the ancient
times. But how shall we know the history of mediaeval and of ancient Europe, un-
less we become acquainted with the remoter races from whom these earliest
Europeans were derived, and the countries from which they came, and the ideas they
broi:ght with them thence, and their subsequent relations therewith ?
Thus, we reach the broad principle that, as there is a certain unity in the life
of the human family, so there is a certain unity in its history also; that uo nation
has ev^er lived without an original kinship with other nations, without more or less
contact with other nations, without having its destinies interfered with and in-
fluenced b\- other nations. Consequently, no part of history can be truly known
without knowing something of all parts. The ideal of the historical student .should
be to know the life of his own country as a constituent part of the general life of
mankind. Thus, the stud}' of American history be preceded or at least accom-
panied by the study of Universal History.

Uio^-^ (jtrU- c^^^

—— —

History, Its Departments, Aids and Divisions. pean Civilization. — Forms of Government. — Varie-
Its Sources. — —
Races of Mankind. Origin of Civili- ties of Religion. — Ethnological Table of the Cau-
zation.— Historical Nations. —
Oriental and Euro- casion Race 25-34.

Part I.— Ancient History—Vol. I.


SECTION I. of Neko. — Commerce. — Circumna\ngation of Af-
—Neko Defeated by Nebuchadnezzar of Baby-
The Country and People, 41-42 lon at Carchemish. — Reign of Uahabra. — Egypt
Egj'ptian Ci\nlization and History the Oldest. Tributary to Babylon. — Amasis Throws off the
Fertility of the Nile Valley and Cause. —
Origin and Babylonian Supremacy. — Defeat of Psammenitus

Charadter of the Ancient Egyptians. Geographi- at Pelnsium and Persian Conquest of Egypt.
cal Divisions of Ancient Egypt. —
Chief Cities. Table of Kings.


Sources of Egyptian History 43-44 Egyptian Civilization 63-89

Ancient Eg>-ptian Myths. Historical Writings —
Origin of the Egj^ptians. Their Physical Char-
of Herodotus,' Diodorus, Eratosthenes, Apollodo- adleristics. —
Egj'ptian Tribes. —
Intelledlual and
rus, and Manetho. —Modern Discovery of the Ro- Moral Qualities of the Egyptians. Government. —
setta Stone and Deciphering of Hieroglyphic In- —
The King. His Sacred Charadter. His Rights and —
scriptions. —Difference Among Modem Egyptolo- Duties Stridlly Prescribed by the Sacred Books.
Castes.— Priests.— Their Mode of Life.—Their As-
gists as to the Antiquity of Egypt.

cendency over the People. Priestly Professions.
Physicians. Military Caste. Common People.
Egyptian Castes Not Absolutely Fixed. Intermar- —
Political History, 44-62 riages and Transitions. —
Ev-ils of the Caste System.

Periods of Egj'ptian History. Founding of the — Its Tendency to National Decay. —
Egj'ptian Land
First Dynasty at Memphis by Menes. —
Contempo- System.— Agricultural Laborers.— Egyptian Laws.—
rary Dynasties. —
Fourth Dynasty at Mei:iphis and —
Egyptian Army.— War Chariots. Archery.— Weajj-

the Great Pyramids. High Civilization under the —
ons of Warfare. Treatment of Prisoners. Muti- —

Fourth Dynasty. Contemporary Dynasties. Five — lation of the Enemy's Slain. Climate of the —
Kingdoms in Egypt. —
Great Power of Thebes. —
Nile Valley. Vegetables. —
.\nimals. —
Conquest of Lower Egypt by the Shepherd Kings. Causes of' Egypt's Produdliveness. Cause of its —
— Greatness of Thebes under the Twelfth Dynasty. Dense —
Popuia'tion. —
Song to Oxen.
— —
The Labyrinth and Lake Moeris. Conquest of — Care Animals.— Field Sports.— Beasts of Bur-

Upper Egypt by the Shepherd Kings. End of the
— den. —
Egvpt an ObjeA of Interest in All Ages.
Old Empire. ^The Middle Empire under the Shep- Density of its Ancient Population. Memphis and —
— —
herd Kings. Their Barbarous Rule. Absence of —
Thebes.— Architedlure. Pyramids and Obelisks.
Records —Expulsion of the Shepherd Kings. Egvpt the Ancient World's School.— Progress in
All Egypt United under the New Empire Over a Sci'ence.— Skill in the Finer Mechanical Arts.—

Thousand Years. Prosperity, Power and High Egyptian Language. —
Art of Writing. Three —
Civilization of Eg^'pt under the Eighteenth, Nine- —
Kinds of Writing. Hieroglyphics and Papyrus.—

teenth and Twentieth Dynasties. Amasis, Anien- Discovery of the Rosetta Stone and the Key to the
set, Thothmes IV. — —
Great Sphinx. Amunoph III. —
Hieroglyphics. Dr. Young and Champollion.
— —
and the two Colossi. Vocal Memnon. Horus. EgA-ptian Custom of Recording Everything in

Rameses I. Seti and the Great Hall of Karnak. PiAures and Writing.— Sources of our Knowledge
Rameses the Great. — Rameseum at Thebes. of the Ancient Egyptians.— Revelation of Domestic
Height of Egyptian Art. — Menepta and the Exo- Scenes from the Egyptian Tombs. Progress in —
dus. — Rameses and the Temple-Palace at
III. —
the Arts thus Demonstrated. High State of Civ-
Thebes. — His Successors. — Decline of Egypt. ilization thus Shown. —
Curious Scenes. Egyp- —
The Priest-Kings. — Temporary Revival under the tian Dress. —
Trades and Occupations. Stone Cut- —
Twenty-second Dynasty Founded by Sheshonk I. ting. — —
Commerce. Sculpture and Painting. Re- —
Disturbed Condition of Egypt under the next two ligious Character of Egyptian Art.— The Great
Dynasties.— Conquest of Egypt by Sabaco the —
Temple-Palace at Medinel-.Vbu. Eg}-ptian Tombs.

Ethiopian. His Defeat by Sargon of Assyria at —Custom of Embalming the Dead.— Paintings and

Raphia. Assyrian Conquest of the Delta. Tirha- — Sculpture in the Tombs.— Chambers in the Tombs.

kah. As.syrian Conquest of Egypt. Psammeti-— — Scenes Represented in the Tombs. Process of —
chus Recovers the Independence of Egypt. Mi- — —
Embalming. Mummies of -Animals. Methods of —
gration of the Warrior Caste to Ethiopia. Reign— Embalming.
—— —


SECTION V. balming the Dead. — Funeral Ceremonies. —Trial
of the Dead.— Burial
of the Wicked.— Of the
Egyptian Mythology and Religion, . 89-100 Good. — Sacred Lakes. — Influence of these Cere-
Religious charadler of the Ancient Egyptians. monies on the People. — The Soul's Trial before

Character of their Religion. Two Kinds of Relig- the Tribunal of the Gods.— Hall of the Two
ion. — —
Three Orders of Gods. The Eight Gods Truths

of the First Order. Amun. Kueph. Phthah. — — SECTION VI.
— — —
Kheni. Phrah. Reason for Two Systems.

Second Order of Gods. Third Order. Change in — The Ancient Ethiopians . 100-103
— —
the Third Order. Typhon. Myth of Osiris and The Ancient Ethiopians and their Country.
Isis. — —
Plutarch's Explanations. Allegorical Mean- Their Antiquity. — Savage and Civilized Ethiopians.
ing. —Phthah the Chief God in Lower Egypt. — Fertility of Ethiopia.— Monuments. — Meroe and
Amun in Upper Egypt.— Comparison of Amun Its Caravan Trade. — Red Sea Ports. — Animals.

with Phthah. Phrah the Life-Giving God. God's — —Kingdom of Meroe. — History. — Ethiopian

of Upper Egypt. Comparison of Egypt's Gods Kings of — Egj'ptian Migration to Ethiopia.

with those of Greece. Local Deities. Animal — —Destrudtion of the Persian Army of Invasion by
— —
Worship. Sacred Animals.' Sacred Bull, Apis, of Famine. — Ethiopiau Religion. — The Priesthood
— —
Memphis. Place of Burial. Animals Sacred in and Their Influence. — TempIes.^Power of the
One Place not so in Another Place. Mummies of — Priests Over the Kings. — Ethiopian Queens. — Can-

Sacred Animals. Reasons for Animal Worship. dace and her War with the Romans. —Judaism and

Religious Festivals. Religious Daily Life of the Christianity Successfully Established in Ethiopia.
People. —Priests. —
Orders of the Priesthood. — Christiauity Still the Religion of Abyssinia.
Gloomy Chara<5ler of the Egj'ptian Religion. —
Pyramids of Meroe. Kingdom of Axume and Its

Egyptian Temples. Temple of Amun. Do(flrine — Capital, Axum. — —
Ruins of Axum. Inscription on

of the Soul's Immortality. Transmigration of the —
a Stone Slab. King Aeizemus. Nubian Pyra- —
Soul. — Comparison with the Hindoo DoiSlriue. — —
mids. Temples near Merawe. Great Rock Tem-
Reasons for Ornamenting the Egyptian Tombs and ple of Ipsambul. —
Ruins of Barkal. Rock-hewn —

Embalming the Dead. Ritual for the Dead. Be- — —
Temples. Jleroe as an Ancient Commercial Em-
lief in Future Rewards aud Punishments. — Em- —
porium. Causes of its Extindlion.


Marriage-Alliances with Assyria. Assyrian Con«
Geography ok Chald^ea 105-107

quest of Chaktea. Table of Kings.

Cradle of Asiatic History and Civilization.

Ancient Date in Chaldaean History.— Testimony of

the Hebrew Scriptures. Land of Shinar. The — CHALD.SAN Civilization 11 3- 120
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. —
Geographical and Nimrod, Urukh, and Ch :;dorlaomer. — Rawlinson
Political Divisions in the Tigris-Euphrates Valley. —
on Cbaldceau Civilization. Chaldffian Architec-
— —
Mesopotamia. Chaldsea, or Babylonia. Susi- — ture. — —
Brick and Bitumen. Temples. Dwellings. —
ana. —Assyria. —
The Three Great Empires in the — — —
Tombs. Brick Vaults. Dish-cover Coffins.

Tigris-Euphrates Valley. Antiquity of Chaldsea. —
Double-jar Coffins. Sepulchral Mounds.— Drain-
Its Fertility and Produdlions. —
Testimony of He- —
age of the Mounds. Cuneiform Writing. Clay —

rodotus and Other Writers. Brick and Bitumen. Tablets. — —
Legends on Bricks. Pottery. Figures —

Climate of Chaldsa, or Babylonia. Animals. —
on Clay Tablets. Arms, Implements aud Orna-
—Testimony of the Book of Genesis. — Ur of
Cities. —
ments. Implements of Stone and Bronze. Cloths —
the Chaldees and Its Ruins. — Other Cities. —
and Textile Fabrics. Gem Engraving. Si.£;net- —
cylinders and Their Seals and Legends. Com-
— —
SECTION II. merce.— Caravan Trade. " Ships of Ur." Articles —
Sources of Chaldean History,

of Foo4. Astronomy and Arithmetic. Weights —
107-108 . . .

aud Measures. Chald^a's Legacy to Posterity.

Berosus. The Old Testament. —
Herodotus, Cte-
sias and Diodorus Siculus. —
Modern Investigation. SECTIONV.
— Explorations of Layard and Others at Nineveh, Chaldean Cosmogony and Religion 120-132
Babylon and Other Ancient Cities. — Cuneiform

Inscriptions. —The Canon of Ptolemy. — Assyrian

Chaldsean Account of the Creation as Given by
Canon. — Modern Writers. Bero.sus. —Likeness Between Chaldaean and Jewish

Legends. Assyrian Account of the Creation as
SECTION III. Deciphered from the Tablet Inscriptions. Myth- —
Political History 10S-113
ical Antediluvian Dynasty of Berosus. Chaktean—
Account of the Deluge as Related by Berosus.
Origin of Chaldrea.^Dynasties According to Be- —
Assyrian Account from the Tablets. Traditions of
rosus. — Mosaic Account of Nimrod.^His Charac- a Great Flood in Countries Subjedl to Overflows.
ter and Deification. —
Universal Tradition of Nim- Link Between Chaldaean and Jewish Legends.
rod. —Migrations from Chaldtea. Urukh and His— Account of the Tower of Babel by Berosus. Raw- —
— —
Great Temples. Ilgi. His Signet-cylinder in the linson's View of Chaldaean Mythology. Polythe- —
British Museum. —
Conquest of Chaldsea by a istic Religion of Chaklrea. —
Grouping of the Chal-

Susianian or Elamite Dynasty. Kudur-Nakhunta. — —
daean Deities. Chief Deity. First Triad and Their
— Kadur-Lagamer and His Conquest of Canaan. —
Wives. Second Triad and Their Wives. Five —

His Successors. Third and Fourth Dynasties. — —
Planetary Deities. Inferior Deities. Relationship
New Style of ArchiteAure.— Conquest of Chal- — —
of the Deities. II or Ra. Ana and Anata.--Bel-
daa by an Arabian Dynasty. Kharamurabi aud— — —
Nimrod. Beltis or Mulita. Hea or Hoaand Dav-

His Great Canal. His Successors. Wars and — kina. — Sin or Hurki, and the Great Lady. San or —
—— ——


Sansi, ami Cula or Aminit. — Vul or Iva, and Sliala Nebo. — Astronomical Cliara<fler of the Chaldean
or Tahu^Nin or Niiiip. — Merodacli. — Nergal. Worship. — Origin of Astrological Signs and Super-
Ishtar or Nana. — Symbolical Myth of stitions. Islitar.


SECTION I. vasion of Arabia. —
His Contjuest of Egypt. Col- —
onization of Palestine. —
Esar-haddon 's Palace at
Geography of .\ssyria 137-138 Calah. —Asshur-bani-pal.— His Wars. His Con- —

Location of Assyria. Produdtions of Assyria. quest of Egvpt, Tyre, Cilicia and Susiana. His —
— —
Mineral Produtls. Climate. Wild and Donie.stic —
Relations wi'th Lydia. His Love of Hunting.

Animals. Extent of Assyrian Ruins. Scriptural — —
His Literary Tastes. His Edifices.— His Great

Account of Early Assyrian Cities. The Four Great —
Palace at Nineveh. His Sculptures. Asshur-bani- —
Cities. —
Ruins of Nineveh, Calah, Asshur and Dur- pal Known to the Greeks.— His Cruelties. De- —
Sargina. — —
Other Ruins. Arbil or Arbela. Other — cline of Assyria. —
Scythian Inroad. Asshur-emid- —
Assyrian Cities. ilin, the Last Assyrian King. —
Effects of the Scyth-

SECTION ian Invasion on Assyria. —

Cyaxares, King of Media,
II. —
Attacks Nineveh. Treachery of Nabopolassar.
Sources of Assyrian History 139-140 Capture and Destrudlion of Nineveh and Fall of

Herodotus and Ctesias. The Canon of Ptolemy —
the Assyrian Empire. Table of Kings.
and the Assyrian Canon. —Their Harmony and SECTION IV.
Authenticity. — Inscriptions on Assyrian Tablets,
Bricks, Sculptures. — Chronologies of Berosus and Assyrian Civilization, 196-219
Herodotus. — Disagreement between Herodotus Rawlinson on the Chara(?l:er of the Assyrian
and Ctesias. — Their RespeAive Ancient and Mod- —
Empire. The Assyrians a Semitic Race. Their —
em Supporters. —The Fidelity and Accuracy of He- i —
Kinship with the Jews. Resemblances Between
rodotus. — The Temper and Disposition of Ctesias the Two Races in Physiognomy, Chara<5ler, Cus-
Toward Herodotus. — Herodotus Sustained by the toms, etc. — Valor of the Assyrians. — Ferocity
Other Historical Sources. — Origin and Duration Tempered by Clemency. — Their Treachery. Their —
of the Assyrian Empire According to Herodotus. Pride. — Greek Accounts of their Voluptuousness
According to Berosus. —
and Sensuality Exaggerated. Their Mental Power.
SECTION —Their Superiority Over the Egyptians.— Their
III. Mental and Physical Vigor. Assyrian Writing.—
Political History, 140-195 —
Stone Slabs and Clay Cylinders. Inscribed Bulls

Periods of Assyrian History. Chaldsean Origin — —
and Lions. Obelisks. Durability of the Tablets.

of the Assyrians. First Evidence of Assyrian In- — — —
Assvrian Bas-reliefs. Their Varieties. Mimetic

dependence. Shalmaneser I. Tiglathi-Nin I.— — —
Art.— Painting. Taste for Display. Modern Ex-

His Successors. Mutaggil-Nebo and Asshur-ris- —
cavations in Assyria. Description of an Assyrian

Tiglath-Pileser I. —
His Wars. His Restor- — Palace. — Architedlure. — The Present Condition of
the Ruins of Nineveh. — Walls. — Palaces and
ations and Temples. —
His Invocation. Religious — Its
Mounds. — Ancient Accounts of

Tone of His Inscription. General Condition of Temples on its
Nineveh. — Assyrian Warfare. — War Chariots.
Assyria. —
Tiglath-Pileser's War with Babylon.
Cavalry. — Infantry. — Weapons. — Sieges. — Batter-

Rock Tablet of Tiglath-Pileser I. Asshur-bil-kala

and Shainas Vul I. Obscure Interval. Asshur-— ing Ra'ms and Movable Towers.— Catapult or Ba-
—Treatment of Captives. —Spoils of War.
dayan II., Vul-lush II. and Tiglathi-Nin II. As- — lista.
Despotism. — The Sovereign. — Musical Instruments
shur-izir-pal. — His Wars. — His Edifices. — His Great
Palace. — His Sculptures. — His Stela; and Obelisks — Dress. — Food. — Entertainments. — Commerce.
— Shalmaneser — His Wars. — Tribute Taken
PraAical CharaAer of their Arts and Civilization.
—Their ArchiteAure Practical. —Their Palaces
from Jehu, King of Israel. — His Palace. — The
Black Obelisk. — Rebellion of Asshur-danin-pal. perior to Their Temples.— Manufadlures and the
Extent of Assyrian Dominion. — Shamas Vul Useful Arts. — Metallurgy. — Mechanical Knowl-
edge. — Rawlinson on Their Progress. — Their Mili-
Vul-lush — His Sculptures. — His Wife, Semir- tary and Material Greatness.
amis. — Pul. — Nabonassar at Babylon. — The Proph-
et Jonah at Nineveh. — End of the Old Assynan SECTION V.
Empire and Beginning of the New or Lower As-
syrian Empire under Tiglath-Pileser — His Wars. Ass\TiiAN Religion,
— Shalmaneser IV.— His Wars. — Siege of Tyre and Identity of the Assyrian and ChaUtean Relig-
Samaria. — Sargon's Revolt and Usurpation. — His ions. — Few Differences. — .\sshurthe Supreme God
Wars. — Capture of Samaria. — His War with Sa- of Assyria. — Asshur's Deification. — Asshur's Em-
baco, King of Egypt. — .Assyrian Viftory at Raphia. blems.— The Sacred Tree.— The Next Deities.—
^Capture of .\shdod. — Sargon's Other Conquests. Ann.- His Temples.— Bel.— His lunblein.— His
— His War with Susiana. —Sargon's Town and Pal- Temples. — Ilea or Iloa. — His Emblem. — His Tem-
ace. —Sennacherib. — His Wars. — His Viiflory over ples. — Beltis. — Her Temples. — Sin, the Moon-god.
the Egyptians and Ethiopians at Altaku. — His — His Emblem. — Temples. — Shamas. — His Ilis
War with Hezekiah, King of Judah. — Siege of Je- Emblem. — His Temples.— Vul or Iva.— His Em-
rusalem. — Submission of Hezekiah. — Sennache- blem.— His Temples.— Gula.— Her Emblem.— Her
rib's Second Syrian F;xpedition. — Destru(5lion of Temples. — Nin or Ninip. — His Emblem. — His
His Army at Pelusium. — Its — Sennache- Temples. — Merodacli. — His Emblem. — Nergel.
rib'sWar with Susiana. — Babylonian Revolt under His Emblem.— His Temples.— Ishtar.— Her Tem-
Susub. — Susub's Defeat. — Renewed Defection of ples— Nebo.— His Statues. — His Temple. — Inferior
Babylon. — Sennacherib's Palace at Nineveh. — His Deities. — The Female Divinities. — Charaeter of the
Employment of Forced Labor. — .\.ssassiuation of Goddesses. — Minor Male Deities. — Genii. — Good
Sennacherib. — Esar-haddon. — His Wars. — His In- Genii. — Evil Genii. — Their F'igures. — .Assyrian
—— ——

Idols. — Moile of Worship. — Sacrifices of Animals. — —
ances of the King, Priests. Festivals. Fasts. —
—Altars. — Thauk-Offerings. — Religious Perform- —
Religious Character. Religious Ostentation.


Geography of Mkdi.\, 231-234 Median Civilization 245-248
— Geographical Description.
Situation of Media. The Medes and Persians a Kindred Aryan Race.
— —
Climate. — Animals. — Media Magna — Testimony of the Persian Sculptures. — The Me-
and Media Atropatene. — The Two Ecbatanas. dian Women. — Rawlinson the Modern Persians. 011
The Southern Ecbatana. — Royal Palace. — The
Its — Bravery of the Medes. — Simple Life of the Early
Northern Ecbatana. — Other Median Cities. Medes. — Later Lu.Kury and Degeneracy. — Military
Costume and .\rms. — Dress of the Medes in Peace.
SECTION II. — Later Luxury in Dress and Banquets. — Court
Political History 234-244 Ceremonial. — Royal Amusement. — Hunting. — The
Royal Harem or Seraglio. — Corruption and De-
Origin of the Medes. — Greek Legends Respeft-
generacy of the Medes. — Median Arehitecflure and
ing the Medes. — Early Assyrian Accounts of Me-
dia. — Median Kings According to Ctesias. — Ac-
cording to Herodotus. — Founding of the Median SECTION IV.
Empire by Cyaxares. — His Unsuccessful Attack on
Assyria. — Scythian Invasion of Media. — Expulsion ZOROA.STRIANISM AND MAGISM, 248-263
of the Scytlis. — Legend of Zarina. — Duration of Zeroaster and Zend-Avesta. — Testimony of Greek
the Scythian Supremacy According to Herodotus. Writers. — Plutarch's Account. — Translation of the
— According to Eusebius. — Capture of Nineveh and Zend-Avesta into French by Anquetil du Perron.
Overthrow of the Assyrian Empire. — Division of Modern Orientalists on the Zend-.-^ vesta. — Uncer-
the Assyrian Empire between Media and Babj-lonia. tainty Concerning Zoroaster's Country and Time.
— Conquests of Cyaxares. — War between Media His Wonderful Influence. — His Personality Im-
and Lydia. — Peace Caused by a Solar Eclipse on pressed on his Religion. — His Belief Concerning
the Eve of a Battle. — Alliance and Friendship be- the Dualism of Good and Evil. — Change in the
tween Media, Lydia and Babylonia. — Alyattes, the Climate of Northern Asia. — Charaifter of the Zend-
Successor of Cyaxares. — HisCharacfter. — His Court. Avesta. — Books. — Ahura- Mazda and Angra-
— The Magi. — Peaceful Reign of Astyages. — Con- Mainyus. — The Great War between Them. — Zoro-
tradictory Accounts of Ast}-ages. — His Domestic astrianism Free from Idolatry. — Teachings of the
Relations. — Early Connedlion of Media and Persia. Zend-Avesta. — Worship. — Sacrifice. — Purity. —
—Cyrus the Great at the Median Court.— His Es- Truth. — Later Corruption of Zoroastrianism by
cape into Persia. — Revolt of the Persians under Contact with Magism. — Worship of the Ele-
Cyrus. — Defeats of the Medes and Death of Asty- ments. — The — F'usion of Zoroastrianism and
ages. — End of the Median Empire and Beginning Magism. — Disposition of the Dead. — Rawlinson
of the Medo-Persiau Empire. — Extent of the Me- on this Mixed Religion. — Extracts from the Zend-
dian Empire. Avesta.


SECTION I. ) Carchemish by Nabopolassar's Son, Nebuchad-

Nebuchadnezzar's Great Reign. Nebu- —
Extent of the Babylonian Empire, . 264-266
chadnezzar Attacks Jehoiakim, King of Judah.

Babylonia or Chaldaea. The Countries Included Nebuchadnezzar's Campaign against Apries, King
in —
the Babylonian Empire. Agricultural Pro- of E.gypt, and Zedekiah, King of Judah. Siege —

dudls of Babylonia. Of Susiana, Northern Meso- —
and Capture of Jerusalem. Siege and Capture
potamia, and Northern Syria. —
Of Southern Syria —
of Tyre. Conquest of Pha.-nicia and Palestine.

and Palestine. Mineral ProduAs of the Empire. — Nebuchadnezzar's Invasions of Egypt. Results —
— Building Stone. —
Wild Animals. Climate.
Countries Bordering on the Empire. Great Cities. —
— of His Vi(5lories.— His Great Works'— The Walls
of Babylon.— The "Hanging Gardens. "—Other
SECTION Works. —Nebuchadnezzar's Private Life. His —
Personal Character. —
His Wealth. His Occa-—
Political Hlstory, 266-278 sional Piety.— His Cruelties.— His Devotion to His
Beginning of the Babylonian Flmpire. Baby- — Median W'ife.— His Lycanthropy.— His Recovery.
lonia under Assyrian Rule. —
The Assyrian Dy- — Brilliancv of the End of his Reign.— Evil-Mero-
— — —
nasty in Babylonia. —
Early Wars between Baby- dach. Neriglissar. Laborosoarchod. Nabona-

lonia and Assyria. — —
Nabonassar. His Successors. dius the Last Babylonian King. Lydian F;nibassy.

— —
Merodach-Baladan. Revolt of Nabopolassar and — Nabonadius Strengthens Babylon. Plis Ally,
his Alliance with Cyaxares of Media. Overthrow — CrcESUS, King of Lydia, Defeated by Cyrus the
of Assyria and Founding of the Babylonian Em- —
Great of Persia. >Jabonadius Attacked and De-
pire by Nabopola.ssar. —
His Peaceful Reign and feated by Cvrus. —
Belshazzar's Feast. —
Capture of
His Alliance with Media. — Neko, King of Egypt, Babylon by Cyrus, and End of the Babylonian Em-
Invades the Babylonian Empire. His Defeat at — pire. — Table of Kings.
—— • ——


Astronomical Instruments. Astrology. Influence —
of Stars on Individuals and Nations. Changes of —
Babylonian Civilization 279-298 — —
Weather. Mathematics. Manners and Customs.
Professor Rawliuson on the Baln'loiiian Empire. —

The King's Tiara. Priests' Attire. Weapons of —
— The Later Babyloiiiaus a Mixcil Race. —Semitiz- Warfare. — —
Babylonian Armies. Cavalry.— Charac-
ing of the Old Chald;tan ropulation. —
Thysical ter of the Babylonian .Armies.— The Priests.—
Characteristics of the Later Babyloiiiaus. —
Their —
"Wise Men." The ChakUtans as Priests and Phil-

Hair and Beards. Babylonian Women. Physical — —
osophers. The Priests a Learned Body. Their —
Similarity of the .-Xssyrians and Babylonians. —
In- Learning. —Their Social Standing. Babylonian —
telle<flsal Ability of the Babylonians. — Manufactures and Commerce. Their Imports. —
— —
Luxurious Habits. Warlike Braverj- and Skill. Agriculture. —
Cultivation of the Date-Palm. Food. —
— — —
Violence and Cruelty. Pride. Religious Feel- — —
Babylonian Jlusic. Babylonian Women. Im- —
ing.— —
Honesty and Calmness. Extent oi the Ruins plements.
— —
of Babylon. Walls of Babylon. dates. Houses. —
— —
Quays, River Walls, and Bridge. Palaces of SECTION IV.
— —
Babylon. Temple of Bel. Great Palace. Hang- —
— —
ing Gardens. Smaller Palace. Walls of Babylon. Babylonian Religion, 299-302
•-Its Ruins at Present. —
Babil, Kasr and Amran Identity of the Early Chaldsan and the Later

Mounds. Lines of Rampart and Low Jlounds. — —
Babylonian Religion. Difference in the Ranks of

El Homeira Mound. Extent of Ruins. Recent — Deities. — Nebuchadnezzar's Preference for Mero-

Explorations. Identification of Sites. — Birs-i-Nim- dach. — Bel Restored to his Former Place by Na-

rud. —
Ingenuity of the Babylouiaus. Babylonian —
bonadius. Confounding of Beltis and Ishtar. Bel, —

Architedlure. Temples. —
Palaces,— Hanging Gar- Nebo and Merodach the Chief Deities of the Later
— — —
dens. Domestic ArchiteClure. Bricks. Cement. Babylonians. — —
Nergal. Local Character of the
— — —
Mimetic Art. Mechanical Arts. Stone Cutting. — —
Gods. Babylonian Images. Material of the Idols.
— —

Textile Fabrics. —
Carpets and Muslins.

— —
Magnificence of the Worship. F'estivals. Re- —
— Astronomy. Observations. Constellations. ligious Prostitution. —
Cleanliness and Vncleanli-

Uranography . —
Zodiacal Constellations. Eclipses. ness.— —
Symbolism in Religion. Mystic Numbers.
— — —
Catalogue of Fi.xed Stars. Sun Dials. Other — Pidlorial Symbols. — Sacred Names of Temples.


SECTION I. Lydians and their Wealth. — Their Origin. — The
Geogr.\phy of Asi.v Minor Three Dynasties of Lydia. — Lydian Traditions.
Beginning of the Real History of Lydia. — Gyges.
Situation. — Boundaries. — Extent. — Climate.
— Invasion of the Cimmerians. — Defeat and Death
Productions.— Rivers. — Mountains. — Lakes. — Min- of Gyges. — Ardys. — Sadj'attes. — Alyattes. — Expul-
erals. — Islands along the Coast. — Asia Minor in
sion of the Cimmerians. — Founding of the Great
History. — Geographical and Political Dinsions.
Lydian Empire. — War with Media. — Peace in Con-
SECTION II. sequence of a Solar Eclipse on the Eve of a Battle.
Phrygia .\nd Cilici.\,
— Alliance and Friendship of Lydia, Media and
307-30S Babylonia. — War with the Greek Colonists. — Croe-
Early Races of Asia Minor. — Phrygians. — sus. — His Wars and Conquests. — Greatness of
Lydia. — Wealth of Crcesus. — Story of Crcesus and
SECTION III. Solon. — War With Cyrus the Great of Persia. — De-
Kingdom of Lydia 308-314 feat and Captivity of Croesus. — End of the Lydian
Rank and Situation of Lydia. — Its Cities. —The Kingdom. — Table of Kings.


Supremacy. Thirteen Years' Siege of Tyre by
Phoenicia and its People —
Nebuchadnezzar. Defeat of the Egyptians. Phoe- —

nicia under Medo-Persian Rule. —
Siege and Cap-
Situation and Extent of Phoenicia. The PhcE- ture of Tyre by Alexander the Great. Phoenicia —
nicians a Semitic People.— The Phoenician Cities.
^-Sidon. — Tyre. under the Macedonian Dominion. Subsequent —
History of Tyre 316-320 Phoenician Commerce and Colonies, . 321-323
Short Duration of Phoenician Independence. The Phoenicians the Leading Manufacturing,

— .Abdastartus. — Eth-baal. ——aiatgen.
Supremacy of Tyre. King Abibaal. Hiram. Commercial, Colonizing and Maritime People of
Pygmalion and Dido. — Flight of Dido, Who

.\nti<iuity. Rapid Growth of Phoenician Com-
Founded Carthage. — .Assyrian Conquest of Phoe-
merce. — —
Carryin.g-Trade. Extent of Phoenician
nicia. — Hiram
Colonies. — Phrenician Land Trade. Precious —
— Elulseus. — Five Years' Siege
Metals from Spain. — Tin
from Cornwall. Phce- —
of Tyre by the .Assyrians, Who Finally Retire. — niciati Voyage .\round Southern .Vfrica.— Commer-
Recovery of Phtenician Independence. — Second cial Enterprise of the Phoenicians.
Assyrian Conquest of Pha_>nicia. — Capture of Tyre
by Sennacherib. — Revolt of Sidon. — Recon-
quest by Esar-haddou of .\ssyria. — Revolt of the
Phoenician Cities Subdued by .\sshur-bani-pal. Phcenician Arts and Civilization, . . 323-325
Egyptian Supremacy over Phoenicia. — Babylonian Phoeuiciau Manufactures. — Tynan Purple. — Veg-
—— —


etable Dyes. — Glass-blowing. — Pottery. — Bronze- SECTION VI.
work. — Jewelry. — Ivory-carvings. — Agriculture.
Letters. — Phceniciau Alphabet. — Phcenician Lan-
Geography of Syria, 328-330
guage. — Literature. — Architetlure. — Statuary. Situation of Syria. — Mountains. — Produdlions.
Paintings. — Dress. — Testimony of the Egyptian Climate. — Animals. — I;amascus — Antioch. — Hie- .

Paintings. — Of Isaiah. rapolis. — Emessa. — Tadmor, or Palmyra. — Baalbec,

or Heliopolis. — Earliest Inhabitants. — Petty States
of Ancient Syria. — Syria under Foreign Dominion.
SECTION V. — Syria the Theatre of Important

Phoenician Religion 326-327
Limited Sources of Information Concerning the
Ph(]enician Religion. —
The Works of Philo Byblus. History of Damascus, 331-333
— Origin and Charaifter of the Phcenician Religion. Five Great States of Ancient Syria. Syria of —
— —
A Narrow Polytheism. Gods. Baal. Astarte.— — —
Damascus. Remote Antiquity of Damascus. Ori- —
— —
Sun and Star Worship. Cruel and Licentious gin of the Kingdom of Damascus. Reigns of —
Rites. — —
No Idolatry. Praise, Prayer and Sacrifice. Hadad, Rezon, Tab-rimmon, Ben-hadad I., Beu-
— Festivals. —
General Tendency of the Worship hadad II., Hazael, Ben-hadad III. and Rezin. As- —
to Lower and Debase Mau. —
Rawliuson's View. syrian Conquest of Damascus. —
Table of Kings.


SECTION I. Jordan.— Canaanitish Nations. Description of —
The Hebrew Patriarchs 337-345

Canaan, or Palestine. Capture of Jericho, Ai and
Semitic Origin of the Hebrews. Abraham's — —
Shechem. Joshua Conquers Canaan by the Two
Decisive Battles of Beth-horon and the Waters of
Migration from Ur of the Chaldees to the Promised Merom. — Division of the Promised Laud among

Land of Canaan. Abraham in Egypt. Invasion — —
the Twelve Tribes of Israel. ^Joshua's Death.
of Canaan by Chedorlaomer, King of Chalda;a.
— Evils which Followed. —
Period of Anarchy. The —
Abraham's Victory near Damascus. Hagar Driven
— —
Judges. Charadler of the Office of Judge. Ex- —
into the Wilderness. Birth of Ishmael. Lot's — ploits of Ehud. —Barak's Victory over Sisera.

Flight from Sodom. Destruction of Sodom and Gideon's Triumph over the Midianites. EH, High- —
— —
Gomorrah. Birth of Isaac. Abraham's Residence Priest. —Wickedness of his Sons. Samson the —
at Beer-sheba. —
Attempted Sacrifice of Isaac. —
Strong. The Prophet and High-Priest, Samuel.

Death and Burial of Sarah. Isaac's Marriage with Defeat of the Israelites by the Philistines. Capture —

Rebekah. Birth of Esau and Jacob. Abraham's — —
of the Ark of the Covenant. Eli's Death. Samuel, —

Second Marriage. His Death and Burial. Char- — —
Judge. The Israelites Demand a King. Samuel's —
a<5ler of Esau and Jacob. —
Esau Sells his Birth- —
Warning. Saul Anointed King of Israel.

right for a Mess of Pottage. ^Jacob Defrauds Esau
of the Blessing which his Father Intended for him.
to Mesopotamia. — —
Esau's attempts on Jacob's Life. Jacob's Flight
His Sojourn with his Uncle La- The United Kingdom of Israel,
366-373 . . .

ban. — —
His Wives aiul Children. His Return to —
Charatler of Saul. Discontent of the Tribes.

Canaan. E.sau's Welcome to his Brother. Jacob's — —
Rescue of Gilead. Saul Acknowledged by the

Trouble with His Children. ^Joseph vSold as a Bond —
Hebrew Nation. Saul's Usurpation of the High-
Slave into Egypt. —
He Becomes Prime Minister to Priest's Power. —His Quarrel with Samuel.— Wars
the Reiguing Pharaoh. —
Famine in Egypt. Jacob — with the Philistines and Other Nations. Exter- —

and His Family Settle in Egypt. Jacob's Death. —
mination of the Amalekites. Samuel Kills Agag.

He Curses Saul. Saul's Madness. Daxad Anoint- —
II. —
ed King. Saul's Fondness for David. David Kills —
The Exomis and Wanderings, .... 346-355 Goliath. —Saul Seeks the Life of David.- David's —
Growth of the Hebrew Nation in E.gA'pt. Their — Flight. —His Adventures. —
Saul Massacres the
Condition in the Land of Goshen. Expulsion of — Priests. —Battle of Mount Gilboa and Death of
the Shepherd Kings.— Severe Oppression of the Saul and Jonathan .

David Becomes King of Judah.

Hebrews by Rameses the Great. Birth of Moses. —The Other Eleven Tribes Adhere to Ishbosheth,
— His Education as an Egyptian Prince. — He Kills Saul's Surviving Son. —
Civil War. —
David King of
an E.gyptian.— His Flight to the Land of Midian. All Israel. —
David Takes Jerusalem from thejebu-
—His Sojourn at Mount Sinai. — The Burning Bush. sites and Makes it the Capital of his Kingdom.
— Moses Undertakes the Deliverance of His Coun- David's Conquests. —
Extent of His Empire.- His

trymen. He Seeks Pharaoh Menepta's Court. Civil Administration. —
His Psalms. His Sins. —
His Demand Rejedled.— The Ten Plagues.— Insti- Rebellion and Death of Absalom. Tragic Deaths —
tution of the Passover. —
The Exodus. The Pas- — of Two Other Sons of David. David's Death. —
sage of the Red Sea.— The March to Sinai.— The —
Solomon's Brilliant Reign. Splendor of His Court.

Laws of Moses. Founding of the Hebrew State. — —
Commerce of the Hebrews. Solomon's Temple.

The March Resumed. Return of the Spies. Re- — — His Wisdom and Early Virtues. His Proverbs. —
bellion of the Israelites. —
Their Defeat by the Ca- — Visit of the Queen of Sheba.— Sjlomon's Ha-
naanites.— The Wanderings in the Wilderness.— —
rem, or Seraglio. His Luxury and Sensuality.

DeatL ^f Aaron. The Advance to the Promised Its Corrupting Influence. —
Decline of Solomon's
Land.— Conquest of the Conntrv East of the Jor- — —
Power. His Sins. His Death. Accession of Re- —
dan.— Defeat of the Moaliites.— Death of Moses. hoboam and Revolt of the Ten Tribes.

Conquest ok Canaan—The Judges, .355-366
. The Kingdom of Israel 373-375
Joshua, the Successor of Moses. — Passage of the Characfler of the Kingdom of Israel. — Idolatrous
— —


Reign of Jeroboam. — Coinplele Separation of the Sennacherib, King of Assyria. —

Destni<5lion of
Two Hebrew KinL;ilonis.— Baasha's Reij;n. —-War —
Sennacherib's Army. Manasseh's Wicked Reign.
— —
with Damascus. Oniri's Reij^n. The City of Sa- — His Captivity in Assyria and His Release by

maria I'oiuuled by Omri. Ahab and Jezebel. Esiir-haddon, the Assyrian King. —

Jehu's Reign. Israel Subject to Syria. Reign of — Reign. —Juilah Tributary to Habylon. —
— —
Jeroboam II. Shallum's Reign. His Invasion of —
Reign and Death. Judah Subjecfl to Egypt.
Assyria. —
He is Conquered and Made Tributary to Judah Comes under the Dominion of Babylon.
Assyria. —
Assyrian Conciuest of the Trans-Jordanic —
Revolts of Judah. Zeilekiah the Last King of

Country. Israel Invaded by Shalmaiieser IV. of —
Judah. Capture of Jerusiilem by N"ebuchadnezz.;ir
Assyria. —
Capture of Samaria and Assyrian Cap- of Babylon. — The Babylonian Captivity I'jids the
tivity Ends the Kingdom of Israel. — The Depopu- —
Kingdom of Judah. Table of Kings.
lated Countr}- Colonized by Other Subjects of Sar-
gon, King of Assyria. SECTION VII Captivity and Rkturn,

The Jews in Babjlon. Capture of Babylon and
TiiK Kingdom ok Judah, 375-,V'*i Overthrow- of the Babylonian Empire by Cyrus

Advantages of Judah over Israel. Reign of Re- the Great of Persia. —His I'riendship for the Jews.

hoboam. Capture of Jerusalem by Shishak, King — His EdicT; Permitting Them to Return to Pales-
of Egypt. — —
Reign of Abijah. Asa"sGood Reign. tine.— The Return of the Jews imder Zerubbabel,
His Viclory over the E.gvplians. — The Levites —
Ezra and Nehemiah. The Temple of Jerusalem
Join Judah. — Alliance with Damascus. —Wars with Rebuilt.— Darius Hystaspes, King of Persia, Per-
Jehoshaphat's Reign. — Alliance with —
——Athaliah. — Reign of Joash. — Reign of Ama-
Israel. Is- mits the Jews to Rebuild Jerusalem. Ezra, High-
rael. Priest.— —
Judiea under Persian Rule, Loyalty of
ziah. — Conquest of Edom. — Uzziah's Sin. — Reign the Jews to Jehovah. —End of the Old Testament
of Ahaz. — Judah Becomes Tributary^ to Assv'ria. —
History. Jewish Civilization. —
Manners and Cus-
Hezekiah's Good Reign. — Invasion of Jucfah by toms.


World according to Strabo 21 Earliest Historic Regions . 104

World according to Pomponius Mela . . - 22 Ancient Eg>'pt 133
World according to Dionysins Periegetes- 23 First Great Empires., I34.i35
World according to Ptolemy 22,23 Ancient Asia Minor.. 303
World according to Kratost'henes 24 Primitive Settlements . ,
World according to Herodotus ,
35 Canaan, Egypt and Route of the Israelites 335
Ancient Historical World... 36,37 Ancient Palestine 336
World according to Hecaticn- 38 Solomon's Kingdom and Phoenicia. 385
According to
About A. D. 50


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150 170 lao

— —

ISTORY is a record of events from the Hegira, or Mohammed's flight
which have occurred among from Mecca, which event occurred in the
mankind; embracing an ac- year 622 of the Christian era. The Ancient
count of the rise and fall of Greeks dated from the first Olympiad, 776
nations, and other great muta- 3'ears before the Christian era; the Ancient

tions which have affected the political and Romans from the founding of Rome, 753
social condition of the human race. In a years before the Christian era; and the An-
more limited sense, Historj- is a record of cient Babylonians from the Era of Nabon-
the progress of mankind in civilization; and, assar, 747 years before the Christian era.
therefore, deals especiallj^ with those na- No dates can be established with certainty
tions which have performed great achieve- for events in Ancient History of any period
ments and exerted a commanding influence more than five centuries before Christ.
upon the fortunes of the human race. The Concerning the human race outside of na-
Historyi of Civilization is that department of tions, there is much important and interest-
History which treats of the progress of dif- ing knowledge furnished by different sci-
ferent nations in the arts, sciences, litera- ences. Among these sciences, as aids to
ture and social culture. The
Philosophy of History proper, are Ethnology, or the science
History treats of the events of the past in of the various races or types of mankind;
conneiflion with their causes and conse- Archeology, or the science of the ancient
quences, and deduces from them certain works of man; Philology, or the science of
principles, which nvxy ser\^e as a guide to language; and Anthropology, or the science
statesmen in condudting the affairs of na- which deals with man in natural history\
tions. Thus, Historj' has been called Historj' is generallj' divided into three
"philosophy teaching bj^ example;" and, great epochs Ancient History, Mediceval
as a celebrated writer has observed; "Social History, and Modern History. Ancient His-
advancement is as completely under the torj^ begins with the first appearance of his-

control of natural law as is bodily growth. and ends with the

toric records, fall of the
The life of an individual is a miniature of Western Roman Empire, A. D. Me-
the life of a nation." Sacred History is that Middle
difeval Histor>\ or the Historj' of the
which is contained in the sacred scriptures; Ages, extends from the fall of Rome, A. D,
as distinguished from Profane History, as 476, to the Discover>' of America, A. D.
recorded in other books. Eeelesiastical His- 1492. Modem History embraces the period
tory is the History of the Christian Church; from the Discovert' of America to the pres-
while Civil or Political History deals with ent time. Sometimes, however, the world's
the rise, progress and fall of nations. history is divided into only two great pe-
Chronology is that department of Histor>' riods Ancient and Modern; Ancient His-
which treats of the precise time or date of tor>' embracing the whole period before the

each event with respecft to some fixed time fall of Rome, A. D. 476, and Modem His-

called an era or epoch. Chronology and tory comprising the entire period since that
Geography have been called the two eyes event. This double division is perhaps the
of Historj'. The one tells when, the other more logical of the two, as ancient civiliza-
where, events have occurred. Christian tion passed away with the extineftion of the
nations compute time from the birth of Western Roman Empire, while modern na-; while Mohammedan nations reckon tions and modern institutions took their rise
1—2.-U. H. C 25)
from that point. The triple division, how- dynasties of Egyptian kings afford us val-
ever, is the more convenient, and for that uable information; and the works of Herod-
reason we shall follow it in this work. otus, the " Father of History," have given
The three sources of History are written us a graphic account of the ancient nations
monuments and frag-
records, architecftural -^their annals, manners and customs, as
mentary remains. Several races of men well as a geographical description of the
have disappeared from the globe, leaving no countries which they inhabited.
records inscribed upon stone or parchment. The imposing temples and palaces of
The existence and charadter of these people Egypt, Assyria, and India have only afforded
can only be inferred from fragments of their historic materials since the diligent research
weapons, ornaments and household uten- of European scholars and antiquarians has
sils, found in their tombs or among the succeeded in deciphering the inscriptions
ruins of their habitations. Among these which they Within the present gen-
races were the Lake-dwellers of Switzerland; eration the discoveries of these European
the prehistoric inhabitants of the Age of orientalists have added wonderfullj' to our
Stone and the Age of Bronze of the British knowledge of primeval ages, and explained
Isles; the builders of the shell-mounds of in a remarkable manner the brief allusions
Denmark and India; and the Mound-build- of the Hebrew Scriptures. Thus within the
ers of the Mississippi Valley. last century the discovery of the Rosetta
The discovery of monuments of great an- Stone, the deciphering of the Egyptian
tiquity has aided vastly in ascertaining the hieroglyphics, and the labors of those learned
date of ancient events. The Parian Marble, French Egyptologists Champollion and Ma-
brought to England from Smyrna by the riette, have given us a flood of new light
Earl of Arundel, contains a chronological upon ancient Egyptian times; while the ex-
arrangement of important events in Grecian humations and discoveries of those celebrated
history from the earliest period to 355 B. C. English archsEologists and antiquarians,
The Assyrian Canon, discovered by Sir L,ayard and Rawlinson. in the Tigris-Eu-
Henrj' Rawlinson, the great English anti- phrates valleys, have almost recast the his-
quarian, consists of a number of clay tab- tory of Assy ria^ Chaldsea, and Babylonia; and
lets, construcfled during the reign of Sarda- the patient explorations and exhumations
napdlus, and containing a complete plan of of that German savant, Dr. Schliemann,
Assyrian chronology, verified by the record upon the site of ancient Troy, between the
of a solar eclipse which must have occurred years 1869 and 1873, have been rewarded
June 15, 763 B. C. The Fasti Capitolini, with the discovery of many interesting
discovered at Rome, partly in 1547 and architecftural remains and furnished new
partly in 1817 and 1818, contains in frag- illustrations of the "tale of Troy divine."
mentary records a list of Roman magistrates The oldest remaining books are the He-
and triumphs from the beginning of the brew Scriptures, which, in the Mosaic cos-
Roman Repi.blic to the close of the reign mogony, describe the origin of the universe
of Augustus. The Rosetta Stone, discovered and the creation of the first pair, Adam and
by a French militar>' engineer during Bona- Eve, and their fall from a state of innocence
parte's expedition to Egypt in 1798, con- and purity; the murder of their son Abel by
tains inscriptions in the Greek and Egyptian his brother Cain; the genealogy of the pa-
languages, the deciphering of which has led triarchs of the antediluvian period; the de-
to tlie discoverj' of a key to the meaning of struc5lion, by a great Deluge, of the whole
thehieroglj'phic inscriptions on the Egyptian human race, except Noah and his wife and
monuments. The fragmentary writings of his three sons and their wives, and their
Sanchoniathon give us some light on Phoeni- salvation in the Ark, which rested on Moinit
cian history; those of Berosus on Babylonia Ararat, in Armenia; the vain attempt of
and Assyria; Manetho's lists of the thirty Noah's descendants to avert a similar pun-


Men Di'KtNG TRK Stone Age. Men during the KRONZt Age.


Medeak Nohle. Assyrian Hi(;h Pkikst Assyrian King.



ishmcnt by building the great Tower of Knight, Merivale, Milman, Hallam and
Babel, and the consequent Confusion of others. France, in the last century, pro-
Tongues and the Dispersion of the human duced Rollin and Voltaire; and in the pres-
race, which led to the peopling of everj' ent centurj' have flourished Thiers, Guiiot,
quarter of the globe by the descendants of Sismondi, Mignet, Michelet and the broth-
Noah's sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. ers Thierry. In the last century- Germany
The writings of Berosus, the Babylonian gave the world a great ecclesiastical histo-
historian, also describe the Creation, the rian in the person of Mosheim; and in the
Deluge and the Confusion of Tongues. present century a number of German histo-

Every civilized nation and savage tribe has rians have given the world the benefit of
some vague idea of a great flood that once their scholarly researches, among whom we
covered the earth, but they all differ in their may mention Niebiihr, Neander, Rottcck,
details. Heeren, Schlosser, Mommsen, Curtius and
We have already alluded to the writings Leopold von Ranke. Among American

of Sanchoniathon, the Phoenician historian; torians the most renowned have been Hil-
Berosus, the Babylonian Manetho, the
; dreth, Prescott, Bancroft, Motley, Lossiug
Egyptian; Herodotus, the "Father of His- and Parkman.
tory," and the great Hebrew lawgiver, All traditions and written accounts point
Moses, the earliest sacred historian. He- to Asia as the cradle of the human race.

rodotus was the first of Grecian historians. According to the prevalent belief of modem
Other Greek writers of historj^ were Thucyd- scholars, mankind spent its infancy in the
ides, the great philosophic historian; Xen- region between the Indus and the Euphrates,
ophon, the writer of charming historical the Arabian Sea and the Jaxartes. The ex-
romances; Cte.sias; Diodorus Siculus; Polyb- adt location of the Garden of Eden, or Par-
ius; and Plutarch, the charming biogra- adise, is not known. The Oriental nations
pher of antiquity. Ancient Rome produced reckon four Paradises in Asia one near —
lyivy, Tacitus, Sallust, and Cornelius Nepos, Damascus, in Syria; another in Chaldsea; a
who have given us the facfls of Roman his- third in Persia; and a fourth in the island
tory. For the history of the ancient He- of Ceylon, where there is a lofty mountain
brews we are indebted to the books of the called Adam's Peak.
Old Testament and the works of Josephus, Mankind has been classed by different
the celebrated Jewish historian, who wrote ethnologists into a variety of races or types
a complete history of his countrymen in of humanity; the most generally accepted
Greek. Among early Christian church his- classification for the last century being Blu-
torians were the Roman Eusebius and the menbach's division into five races — the Cau-
Anglo Saxon, the "Venerable Bede." The casian, or white race; the Mongolian, or
Frenchmen Comines and Froissart were yellow race; the Ethiopian, or black race;
celebrated chroniclers of the Middle Ages. the American, or red race; and the Malay,
The Italian Macchiavelli achieved fame by or brown race. The only race which has
his historical writings. Among modern figured in history is the Caucasian. The
historians have been many who have ac- history of the civilized world is the hi.story
quired celebrity by their works. Such were of the Caucasian race. The great historical
the great trio of British historians who flour- nations have belonged to this race. The
ished a century ago — Hume,
Gibbon and only nations outside of the Caucasian race
Robertson, whose works have ever since which have attained to any degree of civili-

been regarded as standards. In the pres- zation or played the least part in history
ent centurj' England has produced many have been several Mongolian nations, as the
famous writers of history; such as Macaulay, Chinese, the Japanese, the ancient Parthi-
Carlyle. Grote, Thirlwall, Froude, Lingard, ans,and the modem Tartars, Turks, and
Arnold, Alison. Freeman, Rawliuson, Green, Magyars or Hungarians, and two American
Indian nations, the ancient Peruvians, and the Hamitic branch as the children of Ham.
tlieAztecs or ancient Mexicans. The Ethi- The name Arj'an means tiller of the soil;
opian and Malay races have never had any wherein this race has differed from the Tu-
history nor z.ny civilization. ranian, or nomadic races of Central Asia.
The origin of nations has been involved The ancestors of the Indo-European nations,
in obscurity, which has only quite recently the primitive Aryans in prehistoric ages,
been removed by the diligent study and the occupied that region of Central Asia in
patient research of modern European schol- which was located the ancient city of Bac-
ars. Investigation into the affinities of the tra, the modern Balk, in Turkestan. Here
various languages has given us some new this primeval race lived and attained to a
knowledge upon this interesting and im- considerable degree of civilization; pradlic-
portant subject. Comparing the languages ing agriculture and cattle-raising, and some
of most of the modern European nations of the mechanical arts, such as weaving and
with those spoken by the ancient Romans, sewing, metallurgy, pottery- manufa<5lure,
Greeks, Medes and Persians, and Hindoos, etc. They were also somewhat skilled in
we observe that all these languages had a architedlure, navigation, mathematics and
common origin, entirely different from those astronomy. They considered marriage a
spoken by the ancient Chaldees, Assyrians, sacred contradl; and, unlike other Asiatic
Phcenicians, Hebrews, Arabs and Egyp- peoples, they shunned polygamy. Children
tians; these latter being related to each were regarded as the light of the family cir-
other, but not to those of the nations pre- cle, as shown by the meaning of the names

viously named. The former of these lan- —boy, bcstoiver of happiness; girl, she that
guages are called Aryan, the latter Semitic comes rejoicing; brother, supporter; sister,
and Hamitic; while the Central Asian Tartar friendly. With regard to the Arj'an or In-
nomads have a language called Turanian. do-European race, it is found that the names
Modern philologists have divided the Cau- of many common objedls are very much
casian race into three great branches the — alike in all the languages and dialecfls

Aryan, Indo-European, or Japhetic; the spoken by these people. Thus the word
Semitic, or Shemitic; and the Hamitic. The house in Greek is domes; in Latin donnis;
Arj-an, or Indo-European, branch embraces in Sanskrit, or ancient Hindoo, dama; in
the Brahmanic Hindoos, the ancient Medes Zend, or ancient Persian, demana; and from
and Persians, and all the European nations, the same root is derived our word domestic.
except the Laps and Fins of Northern Eu- The words for ploughing, grinding corn,
rope, the Magyars or Hungarians, the Otto- building houses, etc., are also foimd almost
man Turks, and the Basques of Northern similar. This demonstrates that these na-
Spain, all five of whom belong to the Tu- tions must have had a common origin, and
ranian or nomadic branch of the Mongolian that they engaged in farming, making
race. The descendants of Europeans and bread and building They also
European colonists in America and other counted up to one hundred, and domesti-
quarters of the globe of course also belong cated the most important animals the cow, —
to the Aryan race. The Semitic branch the horse, the sheep, the dog, etc.; and
comprises the Hebrews or Israelites, the were acquainted with the most useful met-
Arabs, and the ancient Syrians, Assyrians, als, and armed with iron hatchets. The
Babylonians, Phcenicians and Carthagin- primitive Aryans were monotheists in relig-
ians. The Hamitic branch included the an- ion and worshiped a personal God. The
cient Chaldees, Egyptians and Ethiopians. Aryan or agricultural races had the patri-
The Aryan branch is called Japhetic, be- archal form of government, like the Tura-
cause has been supposed to be descended
it nian or nomadic races of Central Asia; but
from Japheth; while the Semitic branch the father, or head of the family, was sub-
is regarded as the posterity of Shem, and jecfl to a council of seven ciders, whose

chief was king, and from whose decision the Caucasian race has always played the
there was an appeal to heaven in the ordeal leading part in civilization; and has been
of fire and water. The Aryans followed the most acflive, enterprising and intelledl-
their leaders and kings, and fixed the dis- The Aryans have
ual in the world's history.
tiuiflion between right and wrong by laws always been peculiarly the race of progress;
and customs. All these fadls can be proven and have surpassed all others in the devel-
by the evidence of language, on the author- opment of civil liberty, the perfedlion of
ity of Max Miiller and other eminent phi- law, social advancement, and their progress
lologists. in art, science, literature, invention, and
The rapid increase of the Aryan popula- mode of living. The Aryans alone have
tion in its primeval home led to a division originated, developed and perfedted con-
of this primitive people into three branches stitutional, representativeand republican
—one crossing the Hindoo-Koosh and over- government. The present and the future
spreading the plateau of Iran and laying belong wholly to this highest type of human
the foundations of the great Median and development.
Medo-Persian Empires; another moving The Semitic branch has been noted for
southeastward across the Indus and becom- religious development, having given rise to
ing the ancestors of the Brahmauic Hindoos; three great monotheistic religions —
and a third migrating Europe in suc-
into Christianity, and Islam or Mohammedan-
cessive hordes, as represented by the Pelas- ism. The Hamitic branch were famous
gic, Celtic, Teutonic and Slavonic nations, builders, and their architecflural strucftures in
whose descendants now occupy the greater Chaldsea and Egypt were noted for their
part of Europe. These Aryan immigrants massive grandeur. The Semitic and Hamit-
into Europe seized the lands of the original ic nations, after attaining a certain degree
Turanian inhabitants, whose descendants of remained stationary; and
are represented by the modern Basques of their civilization has utterly perished.
Northern Spain and the Laps and Fins of After the dispersion of mankind into
Northern Russia and Scandinavia. various quarters, men chose different occu-
The Aryan immigrants into Europe occu- pations and modes of living, according to
pied different portions of the continent. the diversities of their places of residence.
The Pelasgians settled in the Grecian and The inhabitants of steppes and deserts, in-
Italian peninsulas of Southern Europa, and terspersed only here and there with fertile
founded the Greek and Roman nations. pasture grounds, became shepherds and
The Celts spread over Western Europe, em- roved with their tents and herds from place
bracing the Spanish peninsula, Gaul and to place, thus becoming nomads or wander-
the British Isles; and became the ancestors ers; and was the breeding
their occupation
of the ancient Spaniards and Gauls, and of cattle and sheep. Those who occupied
the Welsh, Irish and Highland Scotch. favorable districts on the sea-coast soon dis-
The Teutons occupied Central Europe and covered, as population increased and their
the Scandinavian peninsula; and became resources developed, the advantages of their
the progenitors of the Goths and Vandals, situation. They accordingly pracfliced navi-
and the modern Germans, Danes, Swedes, gation and commerce, and sought for wealth
Norwegians, Dutch or Hollanders, and the and comfort, in furtherance of which ob-
Anglo-Saxons or English. The Slavonians jedls they ereefled elegant dwelling houses
overspread the vast steppes of Eastern Eu- and founded cities; whilst the inhabitants
rope; and their descendants are represented of less hospitable shores subsisted by means
by the ancient Sarmatians and the modern of fisheries. The dwellers upon plains
Russians, Poles, Bohemians, Servians, Bul- adopted agriculture and the peaceful arts;
and Croatians.
garians, Bosnians whilst the rude mountaineer gave himself
The Aryan or Indo-European branch of up to the, and, moved by a violent im-

pulse for freedom, found his delight in wars The oldest civilizations were those found
and battles. By taming wild cattle, man in the Tigris-Euphrates and Nile valleys,
very early procured for himself domesticated in the Hindoo peninsula, and in the remote
animals. empire of China. The exa(ft origin of the
Commerce was a mighty fadtor in the de- ancient nations and civilizations is lost in
velopment and civilization of the human the dimness of their remote antiquity.
race, and the intercourse among nations. These regions were richly endowed by na-
Those who occupied fruitful plains, or the ture with the resources necessary for sus-
banks of navigable rivers, carried on an in- taining a dense population; and the oldest
land trade. The inhabitants of the sea-shores historic empires accordingly took their rise
conducfted a coasting trade. At first men in the rich alluvial lands watered by the
exchanged, or bartered, one article for Tigris and the Euphrates in South-western
another. At a later period thej' adopted Asia and by the Nile in North-eastern
the plan of fixing a certain specified value Africa.
upon the precious metals, and employed Historical Asia is South-western Asia
coined money as an artificial and more con- where the great Hamitic and Semitic em-
venient medium of exchange. The dwell- pires of Chaldcea, Assyria and Babylonia
ers in towns occupied themselves with me- successively flouri.shed, in the Tigris-Eu-
chanical employments and inventions; and phrates valleys; where the Hebrews and the
cultivated the arts and sciences for the com- Pha-nicians played their respecftive parts in
fort, happiness and refinement of life and the world's historic drama; and where the
for mental culture and development. Aryan race finally came upon the scene in
In the course of time nations became di- the appearance of the great Median and
vided into civilized and uncivilized, as their Medo-Persian Empires and the Graeco-Mace-
intelledlual development was furthered by donian Empire of Alexander the Great and
talents and commerce, or retarded and his successors, followed by the Parthian,
cramped by dullness and by isolation from Eastern Roman and New Persian Empires;
the rest of mankind. Uncivilized nations after which the Semitic race again prevailed
are either wild hordes under an absolute and in the sudden rise of Mohammed's religion
despotic chief who wields unlimited power and the great empire founded by his suc-
over his followers, or wandering nomadic cessors; followed by the conquests of the
tribes, guided by a leader, who, as father of Seljuk Turks from Tartary, the two centu-
the family, exercises the funiflions of law- ries of warfare between Christendom and

giver, governor, judge and high-priest. Islam for the possession of the Holy Land
Neither the wild hordes under their des- as represented in the Crusades, the terrible
potic chiefs, occupying the unknown regions scourges of the conquering Mongol and
of Africa (Negroes), the steppes and lofty Tartar hordes of Zingis Khan and Tamer-
mountain ranges of Asia, the primeval lane; and, lastly, the rise of the now-de-
forests of America ( Indians ), and the caying Mohammedan empires of the Otto-
numerous islands of Oceanica (Malays), man Turks and the modern Persians.
nor the nomadic races with their patriarchal All that part of Asia north of the Altai
government, find any place in history. This mountains, now known as Siberia, is a com-
subjecft only deals with those nations who paratively barren region and was unknown
have attained to .some degree of civilization in antiquity. Central Asia, now called Tar-
and have from similarity of customs and for tan,' and Turkestan, was anciently known as

mutual advantage engaged in peaceful inter- Scythia, and was then as now occupied b}-^
course with each other, and who have made nomadic hordes who have roamed over
considerable progress in the science of civil those extensive pastoral lands for countless
government and the development of politi- ages with their flocks and herds, having
cal institutions. no fixed abodes or cities and no other polit-

ical arrangements than the patriarchal form political freedom, and the latter by their
of government. Accordingly, the Turan- laws and political institutions, influencing
ian races inhabiting that region have played all future European nations. The other
no part in history, except that the Tartar nations of ancient Europe were barbarians,
and Mongol races inhabiting those vast many of whom were conquered and civilized
steppes have at times overrun and con- by the Romans. The overthrow of the Ro-
quered the civilized countries of South- man dominion in the fifth century after
western and Southern Asia. Christ changed the current of
Thus, with the single exception of Egypt, European by a redistribution of its
all the ancient Oriental nations had their population through the migrations and con-
seat in Asia. The populous empires of quests of its vast hordes of Northern bar-
India, —
China and Japan though they con- barians, who fourteen centuries ago laid the
tributed their jewels, spices, perfumes and foundations of the great nations of modern
silks to the luxury of the people of South- Europe. America and Oceanica were wholly

western Asia were almost unknown to the unknown to the ancient inhabitants of the
ancient Greeks and Romans; and though Old World, and have only occupied the field
their art and literature are vast, these had of historj' since their discovery and settle-
no influence upon the general course of the ment by Europeans within the last four cen-
world's progress. China and Japan are two turies.
ancient empires which have continued to History deals only with civilized man,
exist with but little change to the present and history proper only begins with the
time. The nations of Farther India are origin of civilized nations and with the
almost unknown to histon,'; while Hindoo- commencement of historical records. Ac-
stan, the seat of a dense Aryan population cordingly, the cradle of civilization — if not
from the earliest antiquity, and one of the the cradle of the human race —was the fer-

oldest civilizations, as attested by vast tile alluvial Tigris-Euphrates and Nile val-
architectural remains and a copious religious leys, where, with the dawn of civilization,
was unknown to history until
literature, flourished the old Chaldaean and Egyptian
Alexander's invasion, and became .succes- empires —the most remote of historical
sively the prey of Arabian, Afghan, Tartar, states of antiquity. Historj- begins with
Mongol, Portuguese and British conquest. Egypt, the oldest of historical nations.
The only historical part of Africa is Civilization and human progress have in
Northern Africa, or that part of the conti- the main followed the course of the sun. In
nent bordering on the Mediterranean sea the East arose those great nations and cities
and watered by the Nile; and the only great from which other lands have derived a part
nations of ancient Africa were Egypt, Ethi- of their civil institutions, their religion and
opia and Carthage. All the rest of the vast their culture. In the East, the land of the
continent was a dark region wholly un- camel, the "ship of the desert," originated
known to the ancient civilized nations of that caravan trade which contributed so
South-western Asia and Europe; and only vastly to human progress. To protedt them-
within the last four centuries have its West- selves against the rude Bedouins, the Ori-
em, Southern and Eastern coasts been dis- ental merchants traveled in large companies,
covered, explored, taken possession of and often armed, conveying their wares upon
colonized by Europeans; while the interior the backs of camels from place to place.
has been but partialh' visited by European These connnercial journeys gave rise to many
explorers, within the last hundred years. commercial cities and centers of trade, oc-
Southern Europe was the seat of the casioned the erection of store-houses and
greatest tvvo nations of antiquity — the caravansaries, and led to intercourse between

Greeks and the Romans the former by distant nations and to an interchange of pro-
their literature and philosophy and their du(5lions, religious institutions and .social
— —

policy. Temples and oracles of celebrity and its imposing grandeur; but it did not
often served for markets and warehouses. display the symmetry, harmony and utility
In the East all the great religions took their characfteristic of the architedlure of a free
rise and gained their full development, as people. Slavery paralyzed every outward
the Orientals have always been the most manifestation of Oriental life.

contemplative on all that concerns man's Besides being the cradle of the human
relations to the Deity. In the East the race, Asia is the birth-place of the great re-
patriarchal and despotic governments alone ligions and the home of absolute despotism.
prevailed. Where the system of castes pre- The two great pantheistic religions — Brah-
vailed, the priests and soldiers constituted manism and Buddhism; also the great mon-
the privileged classes, from both of which otheistic religions — Zoroastrianism, Juda-
ultimately arose the unlimited kingly power; ism, and Mohammedanism
and the officers of state were regarded as arose in Asia; while Asiatic governments
slaves and menials, without personal rights to-day are what they have been from time
or property. The king, who was regarded —
immemorial absolute monarchies, or des-
with almost as much reverence as the Deity, potisms; no republic or constitutional mon-
disposed of the lives and possessions of his archy ever having flourished on Asiatic soil.
subjeifls at will. He
gave and took away Europe, on the contrary, inhabited by the
at his pleasure, and no one dared to appear progressive Aryan race, has carried political
before him without prostrating his body on institutions to the highest state of develop-
the ground. He lived like a god, in the ment; civil, political, and religious liberty

midst of pleasure and enjoyment, surrounded having had a steady growth. Asiatic civili-
by hosts of slaves, who obeyed his wishes, zation has been stationary, while European
executed his orders, and submitted them- civilization has been progressive. The
selves to his pleasures; and he was surround- Asiatics are passive, submissive, given to
ed by all the wealth and possessions, by all contemplative and disinclined to adlive
the pomp and splendor, of the world. In these exertion. The Europeans are a(5live, ener-
Oriental governments laws and human getic, vigilant and aggressive. Europe has
rights were nowhere; despotism and .slavery also colonized other portions of the globe;
prevlailed; and consequently there was no the greater part of the present populations
incentive to vital energy and no capability of North and South America being the de-
of permanent civilization. For this reason scendants of Europeans who settled in the
all Oriental states have become the easy New World, and drove away, or assimilated
prey of foreign conquerors, and their early with, the aborigines; while Europeans have
civilization has perished or remained sta- also settled in portions of Africa, Asia and
tionary. Oceanica. The Asiatics, on the other hand,
By original disposition, the Orientals are do not colonize.
more inclined to contemplative ease and en- In the Prehi.storic Ages — that the ages

joyment than to adlive exertion; and for before recorded history — the patriarchal ioxva.

this reason they have never attained to free- of government prevailed; each father, or
dom and spontaneous acfkivity, but have head of a family, governing the whole family.
quietly submitted to their native rulers, or Since the formation of nations there have
groaned under the yoke of foreign oppress- been various forms of governments Autoc-
ors. After reaching a certain degree of racy, despotism, or absolute monarchy, where
civilization, they submitted themselves to the supreme power is vested in the monarch
an unenterprising pursuit of pleasure, and himself, without anj' restraint or limitation;
thus by degrees became .slothful and effemi- Limited, or constitutional monarchy, where
nate. Their pracflice of polygamy further the power of the monarch is limited by law
promoted their effeminacy. Oriental archi- or by constitutions giving the nobility, or
tedlure was noted for its gigantic designs aristocracy, and the masses some share in
— —


the government; Aristocracy, or government herds, who were universally despi.sed. Any
by nobles or aristocrats; Theocracy, or gov- one who violated the rules of ca.ste became
ernment by the Church in the name of the an outcast. The system of castes prevailed
Deity; Hierarchy or government by priests;
, for the longest time in its purest state in
Pure democracy, or government by the peo- India and Egypt.
ple diredlly; a.wA Representative democracy, or Man is naturally a religious being. A
republicanism, or government by the people world-wide religious sentiment seems to pre-
through their chosen representatives. There vail, but there have been many varieties or

have been several kinds of republics aris- manifestations of this .sentiment. Thus we
tocratic, where the few have governed, and have one God;
Monotheism, or the belief in
democratic, where the masses through their Polytheism, or the belief in many gods; Pan-
chosen representatives are the rulers. The theism, or the system which regards the
best examples of pure democracy were the whole universe, with all its laws and the
governments of ancient Athens and ancient different manifestations of nature, as the
Rome, where the people themselves assem- Supreme Being. Many polytheistic and
bled in a body for purposes of legislation. pantheistic nations have made idols, or im-
This form of democratic government can ages, as figures or representations of their
only exist where a state consists of but a deities; and for this rea.son have been called
single city with its surrounding territory, as idolators, pagans or heathen. The four
in the cases of the two ancient republics great monotheistic religions of the world
just cited; and is utterly impossible among have been the ancient Persian religion of
a population distributed over a vast extent Zoroaster; Judaism, or the religion of the
of country. Jews; Christianity; and Islam, or Moham-
Monarchs are called by different titles, as medanism. The leading polytheistic relig-
Emperor, King, Prince, Duke, Sultan, or ions were those of the ancient Egyptians,
Czar. The savage and barbarous tribes of Chaldceans, Assyrians, Babylonians, Phoe-
Asia, Africa, America and Oceanica are gov- nicians, Greeks, Romans and Scandina-
erned by their chiefs; and their govern- vians. The chief pantheistic religions have
ments are simple, as were those of all the been the two great religions of Hindoo or-

original nations. Even the civilized Asiatic igin Brahmanism and Buddhism.
nations have always been despotisms. It It is believed that originally monotheism
was only on the soil of Europe, occupied by was universal; but that sometime during
the progressive Aryan race, that civil lib- the prehistoric ages, after the dispersion of
erty was bom, and where the masses first mankind into various quarters, most nations
obtained any share of political power. A fell into polytheism and idolatry. Even
great hindrance to civil freedom among among polytheistic religions there is one
ancient Asiatic and African nations was the Supreme Being, who is superior to and
system of castes, by which men were sepa- above all the other deities; and for this
rated according to their occupations and reason all religions have been to some ex
conditions, which were transmitted without tent regarded as monotheistic. There are
the slightest change from generation to gen- also some polytheistic features about all

eration. The priests, who alone possessed a monotheistic religions, as the belief in the
knowledge of religious customs and institu- existence of angels, who, as dwelling in the
tions, and who bequeathed their knowledge celestial world, are beings superior to mor-
to their descendants, comprised the first tals. Among ancient nations the only truly
caste. The soldiers constituted the second monotheistic religions were those of the
caste,and shared with the priests the gov- Hebrews and the Medo-Persians — the one
ernment of the people. The third caste Aryan people.
a Semitic and the other an
were the tillers of the soil, the fourth caste From time immemorial the custom has
the artisans, and the fifth caste the shep- prevailed among pagan and polytheistic
nations of making idols or images of wood, To further delude the masses, the priests
stone, metal or clay, to represent their dei- invented legends, fables and myths about
ties; and these have been fashioned into a their gods, clothed them in poetic fancy,
great variety of forms. Temples and altars and thus originated mythology, or the
have been erecfted for the worship of these science of their gods. In legends,
deities; and sacrifices have been offered to fablesand myths, the deeds of the different
them, partly to appease their wrath, and gods and their dealings with men were de-
partly to obtain their favor. These sacrifices scribed in enigmatical allusions, allegories
have varied in charadler with the civiliza- and figurative expressions. The nations
tion cf the people who have offered them. with the greatest amount of creative imagi-
The ancient Greeks and Romans, in their nation and religious impulse possessed the
joyous festivals to their gods, socially con- richer mythology. These stories of the
sumed the fruits of the earth and animals gods incited the people to superstition; and
from the firstling of a flock to the solemn the solemn worship in the temples and
sacrifice of a hecatomb (a hundred oxen). sacred groves, with their mysterious cere-
Savage tribes have slaughtered human be- monies and symbolical usages, maintained
ings upon their altars, to appease by blood a feeling of veneration and religious awe.
the wrath of their offended deities. The To inspire in the people a feeling of the di-
Phoenicians and Syrians placed their own vine presence, sacred places and temples
children in the arms of a red-hot idol, Mo- were provided with oracles, from which the
loch. At first the image or idol was only a superstitious multitude might get light into
visible symbol of a spiritual conception or the mysteries of the future, in obscure and
of an invisible power; but this higher signi- ambiguous language. In this way and by
fication often gave way in the progress of such means the priesthood swayed the
time to the worship of the inanimate image masses in most countries; and thus secured
itself; the priests only being sensible of any power, honor and wealth for themselves.
deeper meaning, which they kept from the The people were enslaved by ignorance,
people for purposes of their own. credulity, superstition and fear.


L Aryan, or Indo-European Branch. 5. Celtic N.\tions.
1. Ancient Britons, Gauls and Spaniards.
1. Hindoos.
2. Irish, Welsh, and Scotch Highlanders.
2. Medes and Persians. 3. Bretons (West of France).
3. Hellenes, or Greeks. Sl.wonic N.ations.
4. Latin, or Romanic Nations. 1. Russians.
1. Ancient Romans. 2. Poles.
2. Italians. 3. Bohemians.
3. French. 4. Servians.
4. Spaniards and Spanish Americans. 5. Bulgarians.
5. Portuguese and Brazilians. 6. Bosnians.
6. Flemings, or Belgians. 7. Croatians.
7. Roumanians.
II. Semitic Branch.
5. Germanic or Teutonic Nations. 1. Hebrews, or Israelites.
1. Germans. 2. Arabs.
2. Danes. "j
3. Syrians.
3. Swedes. > Scandinavians. 4. Assyrians and Later Baiivloniaiis.
4. Norwegians. J 5. Phcenicians and Carthaginians.
5. Dutch, or Hollanders.
6. English and Anglo-American (A-jglo-Saxon). III. Hamitic Branch.
7. Scotch Lowlanders. 1. Chaldees, or Early Babyi-ontans.
8. Norman-French. 2. Egyptians and Ethiopians.
'ii ir X I y j^

^ E D I J,
^ ^ W=-^.'^'2fi?#fe%




20 30

Medean Noble— Persian Noble— Persias. Assyrian Warrior with Wicker Shield— War-
rior WITH RoDND Shield— Archer.

ASSYRIAN— Assyrian Noble— Assyrian CotTRTIE« Persian Warrior — Persian Noblk— Persiak



:;>)lLTHOUGH Asia was the cra- occasioned by the heav)- rainfalls in the up-
dle of the human race, the cra- lands of Abyssinia ; so that this mighty
dle of civilization was in the stream, the only river of ICgypt, in whole

Nile valley, which, from the course through the country from south to
island of Elephantine, in the north, by its mud deposits renews yearl}^ the
Nile, northward to the Mediterranean .sea, .soil of this narrow valley, which really con-

a distance of five hundred and twenty-six stituted ancient Egypt, and average
miles, was the seat of ancient Egj'pt, "the width, from the modem city of Cairo .south
mother of the arts and .sciences. In Egypt

' to the First Cataracl, does not exceed fifteen

we first find a civil government and political miles. The Nile discharges its waters into
institutions established; and although Eg>^pt the Mediterranean through three distindt
may not be the oldest nation, Egyptian his- channels, which branch off from each other
tor>' is the oldest histor}-. The monuments, about ninety miles from the sea, and which
records and literature of Egypt are far more enclose the region called the Delta, from its

ancient than those of Chaldaea and India, resemblance in form to the Greek letter of
the next two oldest nations. The ruins and that name. The Delta has always been a
monuments of ancient civilization found in region of unsurpassed fertility. The spon-
the Nile valley render that countrj- one of taneous growth of the date-palm furnished
-themost interesting on the globe. While the people with a cheap and abundant article
the progress of other nations from ignorance of food ; and the immense yield, with com-
and rudeness to art and civilization may be parativel}- slight labor, of large crops of ce-
easil}- traced, Eg}"pt appears in the earliest reals, because of the natural fertility of the
twilight of history a great, powerful and soil, rendered this region, from primitive
highly civilized nation; and her gigantic times, capable of sustaining a dense popula-
architectural works are the most wonderful, tion, and made it the primeval seat of organ-
as well as the most ancient in the world, ized human society.
showing a .skill in the quarn-ing, Ancient Egypt was divided into three
ing, car\'ing and joining of stone which geographical seclion.s —the Thebais, or Up-
modem architedls may admire but are un- per Egypt, in the south ; the Heptanomis,
able to surpass. or Middle Egypt, in the centre ; and the
From the earliest antiquity- Egypt has Delta, or Lower Egi'pt, in tlie'north. The
been called "the Gift of the Nile." From chief city of the Thebais was the


time immemorial this renowned land, in the gated Thebes," whose ruins, extending for
midst of surrounding deserts, has been one seven miles on both banks of the Nile, a.s-
of the most fertile regions of the globe, and tonish the modern traveler, as he gazes upon
was in consequence the great granary of an- the remains of magnificent temples, .splendid,
tiquity. This unsurpassed fertility is attrib- palaces, colossal statues, obelisks, .sphinxes,
\itable to the annual overflow of the Nile, tombs hewn in the solid rock, stibterranean
1— 3.-U. H.
catacombs, and the gigantic statue of Mem- later days of antiquity, the metropolis of
non. Karnak and Luxor are the portions Egypt, and from its location it became the
of Thebes which present the most stately gi2at commercial center of the civilized
ruins, the most imposing being the great world, while being also the seat of learning
temple at the former place. The most an- and civilization.
cient city of Upper Eg>'pt was This, after- To the .south of ancient Egypt, in the re-
ward called Abj'dos. Other cities of this gion now embracing Nubia and Aby,ssinia,
se(5lion were Lj'copolis, Latopolis, Antasop- was the ancient Ethiopia, whose people had
oli.s and Ombos. The southernmost points also attained a high state of civilization, as
of Egy'pt were Syene and the island of Ele- is fully proven b}- the existence of ruins
phantine, in the Nile. The leading city of along that portion of the Nile valley similar
the Heptanomis was Memphis, on the west to those of Egypt. On the west of Egypt
side of the Nile, founded \iy Menes, the first was the great Libyan Desert, now called the
Egj'ptian king, and whose wonderful ancient Sahara.
splendor is now attested hy its ruins. In The population of ancient Egypt is known
the vicinitj' of Memphis was the famous Lab- tohave been at least five millions, and may
j-rinth, and here also are the great Pj-ramids have been seven millions. They belonged
of Ghizeli —
the most imposing monuments to the Hamitic branch of the Caucasian race,
ever eredted by human hands. Other famous and originally came from Asia, being, ac-
cities of Middle Eg3'pt were Heracleopolis, cording to the Hebrew account, the descend-
Hermopolis and Letopolis. The Delta was, ants of Misraim, the grandson of Ham.
in ancient times, thicklj' studded with cities, They were a brown
mild in their gen-
chief of which were Avaris, or Tanis, Sais, eral charadter, polished in their manners,
Bubastis, Mendes, Rameses, Heliopolis, Mag- and were by nature obedient and religious.
dolon, Pelusium, Canopus and Hermopolis. They were cleanly in their habits and food,
The famous Greek city of Alexandria, on and in con.sequence were a healthy, hardy
the western side of the Delta, was, in the people.


HE historj-of Eg^'pt dates back were gods, spirits, demigods, and manes, or
to the most remote antiquity. human souls ; which amounts to saying
The early Egyptians believed that the earliest history of Egypt, like that
that there had been a time of most other countries, is unknown or in-
when their ancestors were sav- volved in the obscurity and uncertainty of
ages and cannibals, dwelling in caves in legend and fable.
those ridges of sandstone which border the The history of this great ancient people
valley of the Nile on the eastand that ; has been derived from several sources — the
their greatest benefadtors were Osiris and Greek his-
historical writings of the ancient
Isis, who rai.sed them into a devout and civ- torians, Herodotus and Diodorus, and the
ilized people, eating bread, drinking wine native Egyptian priest Manetho, and in
and beer, and planting the olive. For this modern times from the deciphering of the
reason the worship of Osiris and Isis became inscriptions on the Egyptian monuments and
general throughout Egypt, while the differ- from the discoven- of the records on rolls of
ent cities and nomes had their own respect- pap^TUS found in the tombs.
ive local deities. According to Manetho, The ancient sources of Egyptian chronol-
a native Egyptian historian of the later og\- are obscure and conflicfting. The Greek
days of antiquit)-, the first rulers of Egypt historians represented the Egyptians as the


first race of nieu. When Herodotus visited In the third centurj* before Christ, an
Eg\'pt, about the middle of the fifth centurj- Egyptian priest, named Manetho, compiled
before Christ, the native priests read to him, a history of his country in three volumes,
from pap>TUS, the names of three
rolls of giving the reigns of all the kings from the
hundred and forty-one kings, from Menes, founding of the monarchy by Menes to the
the founder of the monarchy, to Seti. In first Persian conquest of Egypt, 525 B. C,
the great temple of Thebes the priests showed through twenty-six dynasties, and through
Herodotus the wooden images of three hun- four more dynasties until the final Persian
dred and forty-fivepriests, who, from father conquest in 346 B. C, making thirty dynas-
to son, had held the sacerdotal office during ties in all. This work was afterward lost,
the reigns of these kings. From these data but fragments of it were transcribed by Jo-
Herodotus estimated the antiquity of Egj'pt sephus, Julius Africanus, Eusebius, Syncel-
to have been nearly twelve thousand years, lus, and other and thus handed
coiniting three hundred and forty genera- down According to
to future generations.
tions from Menes to Seti, with three gener- Manetho' s calculation, the founding of the
ations to each century, and reckoning a kingdom by Menes occurred in the year 5706
centur>- and a half from the beginning of B. C. in the Egyptian reckoning, and in the
Seti's reign to the Persian conquest of Egypt, year 5702 B. C. of the Julian calendar.
B. C. 525, which latter event had occurred Manetho' s record of the first seventeen dy-
about seventy-five years before the visit of nasties, embracing the periods of the Old
the "Father of Histon,-" to this celebrated Empire and the Middle Empire, is ver>' ob-
land. According to this computation, based scure, on account of fa(5ts and dates found
upon the recorded traditions of the Egyptian recorded in the monumental inscriptions of
priests, the founding of the Egyptian mon- that long period of over twelve centuries
archy by Menes occurred more than twelve and it is hard to decide whether the thirty
thousand five hinidred j-ears before Christ. dynasties w-ere consecutive, or whether sev-
In the first century before Christ, Diodo- eral of them were contemporaneous. This
rus Siculus, another Greek historian, also fadlhas made it difficult to fix the exacft or
visited this renowned land, and to him the approximate date of the establishment of
priests read from their sacred books the the Old Empire by Menes.
names of four hundred and sevent}' kings, A list of the names of kings was also pre-
beginning with Menes, with accounts of ser\-ed in the Turin Papyrus, recorded more
their appearance, stature and actions. From than a thousand years before the Christian
the information he thus received, giving era. Other sources of ancient EgA'ptian his-
three generations to a century, Diodorus tory are the allusions made to that country
computed the founding of the kingdom by in the Hebrew Scriptures.
Menes at nearlj^ seventeen thousand years In the past century our knowledge of this
before his time. But careful research re- famous land has been immen.sely extended
vealed to him many errors in the tradition- by the discovery of the art of deciphering
ary records, and his correcfled accounts assign the inscriptions which this ancient people
the founding of the Old Empire by Menes lavishly car\-ed on their buildings and mon-
at 4800 B. C. uments, particularly their obelisks, painted
About three centuries before Christ, the on the frescoed insides of their tombs, and
learned Greek antiquarian, Eratosthenes, adlually cut on nearly all objedls of art or
librarian of Alexandria, copied the names use. These writings and carvings were in
Theban kings from the holj'
of thirt>--eight the character of what are known as hiero-
books of Thebes, which list W'as finished b\' glyphics, a Greek word signifying sacred
Apollodorus by adding the names of fifty- carvings or priestly writing The knowl-
three more, thus giving a full list of ninetx- edge of the reading of these inscriptions per-
one kings. ished with the decay of ancient Egypt, and


for many centuries the tenn '

' hieroglyphics
nance of the Egyptian priests decreeing
was synonymous with everything mysteri- honors to Ptolemy Epiphanes, one of the
ous. famous Greek dynasty who governed Egj'pt
The unraveHng of this mystery was during the first three centuries before Christ,
brought about by an interesting incident. and that accounts for the existence of the
During Bonaparte's invasion of Egypt in three texts on the tablet. The great task
1798, a French engineer, while engaged in of deciphering these inscriptions was chiefly
digging the foundation of a fort near the the work of the noted French savant, Cham-
Rosetta mouth of the Nile, discovered a stone pollion.
tablet about three feet long, on which was On account of the obscurity and uncer-
car\'ed an inscription in three different char- tainty of early Eg}'ptian chronology, modem
adlers. This tablet has become celebrated historians and Egj'ptologists have differed
as the Rosetta Stone. The lower of the three widely as to the antiquity of this most an-
textswas Greek, and ea.sily tran.slated; the cient The French Egyptolo-
upper text was in the hieroglyphic style, gists,headed by M. Mariette, place the
while the middle text was in a character founding of the First Dynasty by Menes at
since styled demotic, meaning the writing of 5004 B. C. The German Orientalists and
the common people (from rt'cwoi-, the people). Egj'ptologists differ, Bockh fixing the date
Copies of this inscription were circulated at 5702 B. C, Dr. Brugsch at 4455 B. C,
among the learned men of Europe, and after Lauth at 4157 B. C, Professor Lepsius at
long and patient efforts the alphabet of the 3892 B. C, Baron Bunsen at 3059 B. C, and
hieroglyphics was discovered so that these
; Dr. Duncker at 3233 B. C. The English
carved in.scriptions on old Eg\'ptian works Egyptologists, at the head of whom stands
of art and archite(5lure can now be easih' and Sir Gardner Wilkinson, regard the year
correcflly read,thus giving an abundance of 2700 B. C. as about the approximate date;
new light on the historj' of this wonderful and, as it is necessarj' to have some fixed
land of antiquity. The Ro.setta Stone was chronological basis, we will follow the En-
car\-ed about ig6 B. C, and was an ordi- glish view in the present work.


|HE history of ancient Egypt has Empire was the most brilliant period of
been divided into three di.s- Egyptian history, and ma}^ be subdivided
tin(5live The Old into two sharply-distinguished epochs the —
Empire extended from the es- grand age, from 1600 B.C. to 1200 B. C;
tablishment of the First Dy- and the age of decay, from 1200 B. C. to
nasty at Memphis by Menes, in the very 525 B. C.
earliest times, to the conquest of all Egypt Egypt was originally divided into a num-
by the Hyksos, or Shepherd Kings, about ber of no7nes or petty states, independent of
1900 B. C. The Middle Empire the epoch — each other, and each having for its nucleus
of the rule of the Hyksos over the whole a temple and an established priesthood.

country embraced the period from 1900 B. One historian mentions fifty-three nomes.

C, to the expulsion of the Shepherd Kings another thirty-six. The gradual absorptiop

in 1600 B. C. The New Empire lasted over of the weaker nomes by the more powerful
a thousand years, from 1600 B. C. to the finally resulted in the establishment of this

Persian conquest of Egypt in 525 B. C. ,

first consolidated monarchy of Africa.

since which time this famous land has not The mortal king of Misraim, the

been governed b>' a nati\-e prince. The New "double laud," was MenES, who, according

to Manetho, founded the First l-lgyptian — who was skilled in medicine and wrote
Djnasty at This (afterwards Abydos), in works on anatomy, of which portions still
Upper Egypt. This was the beginning of exist, and who built the citadel and palace

the Oi,D Empire, which lasted from the ear- of Memphis. Kenkenes, the third king,
liest times to the conquest of all Ivgypt by was succeeded by Uenephes, who built the
the Hyksos, about 1900 B. C. Menes, the Pyramid of Kokome, believed to be the
first Egyptian king, conquered and improved oldest of all those wonderful stru(5lures, and
Lower Egypt, and on a marshj' tradl which who bore the name of the Sacred Calf of
he had drained and protecfled by dykes Heliopolis. Altogether the First Dynasty
against the annual overflow of the Nile, he comprised eight kings.
founded the great city of Memphis, which, The Third Dynasty reigned at Memphis
for many centuries, remained the capital of and embraced nine kings. The first of these
the flourishing kingdom which he had es- was Necherophes, who is said to have con-
tablished. At Memphis Menes built the quered Libya, the superstitious Libj-ans
temple of Phthah, and there were won the having been frightened into submission by


first recorded triumphs of this ver\- oldest an of the moon as thej- were prepar-
of ancient civilized nations. On the north ing for battle. Tosorthrus, the second
and west sides of his capital, Menes caused king of this dynasty, encouraged writing,
artificial lakes to be construcfted for the de- medicine and architedlure, and introduced
fense of the city, and on the south side a or improved the art of building with hewn
large dyke protected it against the annual stone, previous structures having been made
overflow of the Nile. The pul)lic treasures of rough stone or brick. He was known to

were established in the cit\-, the laws were the Greeks as the "Peaceful Sesostris," the
revised and the civil administration im- later two mouarchs bearing that name being
proved. After a reign of sixty-two years, great warriors and conquerors.
Menes is said to have perished in a struggle His son and succes.sor, Sasvchis, or
with a hippopotamus, and was deified by Mares-sesorcheres, renowned law-
was a
bis admiring countr\-men. giver, who is said to have organized the
Menes was succeeded b\- his .son Atet.v worship of the gods, and to have invented
—called Athothis, or Thoth, by the Greeks the sciences of geometry and astronomy.
He is likewise said to have made the remark- of stone. Gradually the heap of roj-al tombs
able law that a debtor might give his father's assumed the form of the Pj-ramids, the struc-
mummy as security for a debt. If the debt ture becoming, by degrees, more regular in-
was not discharged, neither the debtor nor ternally and externally, so that the finished
his father could ever rest in the familj' sep- pile has been the wonder of succeeding ages.

ulcher, and this was regarded as the most Along the elevation west of Memphis about
disgraceful fate that could befall a mortal. seventy of these stupendous strudlures were
The monumental and more certain historj* eredled. Of these, three were specially cel-
of Egypt commences with the Second, ebrated of their size and grandeur.
Fourth and Fifth Dynasties, which reigned These are the Pyramids of Ghizeli, near
contemporaneously the Second at This, in
; which city they^ are located. They were
Upper Egypt the Fourth at Memphis, in
; built in the twenty-fifth centurj- before
Middle Egypt and the Fifth in the Isle of
; Christ. These three are more conspicuous
Elephantine, in Upper Egypt. Of these the than the remaining se^-en of the same group
Fourth Dynasty, established at Memphis in that vicinity. The oldest and largest of
about 2450 B. C, was the most powerful and the three great Pyramids of Ghizeh is that
exerci.sed a certain degree of supremacy over —
of Khufu the Cheops of Herodotus who —
the other two. This Memphite dynasty was the successor of Seneferu or Boris, the
consisted of eight kings, and its greatness is first king of the Fourth Dynasty, and the

fully attested by the gigantic strudlures of builder of the northern Pyramid of Abousir.
stone which it left in Middle Egypt between The Pyramid of Cheops was originally
the Eib}'an Mountains and the Nile so that ; four hundred and eighty feet high, but as
it was the Fourth Dj-nasty that immortalized the apex has been broken off it is now but
itself as that of the Pyramid-builders, and four hundred and fifty feet high. The base
this period is one of the most brilliant in the covers about thirteen acres, and each side of
history of ancient Eg^'pt. the base is seven lunidred and sixteen feet
The great increase in the population had long, and the inclination is five lunidred and
placed at the king's disposal a large amount seventj^-four feet. The vast strudture is loca-
of unemployed labor, and the natural pro- ted exacflly on the thirtieth parallel of north
ductiveness of the soil had given all ranks latitude, and its four sides face the cardinal
far more leisure than was enjoyed by any points of the compass. On the north side,
other people of antiquity. The long dura- exactly- in the middle, a rectangular opening
Uon of the yearl)' overflow of the Nile cau.sed is cut, being the entrance of a descending
a perceptible suspension in the various in- passage three feet wide and four feet high.
dustrial channels,and allowed the sovereigns The passage leads downward to a chamber
larger opportunities to employ the labor of cut in the solid rock of the foundation, over
the people in works which might carry their a hundred feet inider the ground-level of.
fame to countless future ages. Such were the base. The chamber is precisely under
the circumstances that led to the building the apex of the pyramid, at a distance of six
of the great Pyramids — the most gigantic hundred feet. At points in the main pas-
strucflures ever erecfted bj- human hands, sage to this chamber di\-erging passages lead
and which the kings designed for their tombs. to two other chambers, which also lie di-
These Pyramids are in the vicinity of the rectly under the apex of the Pyramid and
site of the ancient Memphis, about ten miles above the first chamber. In these chambers
west of the Nile, on a barren elevation, in were placed the stone coffins containing the
the sides of which were chambers hewn out nuimmies of these ancient monarchs. Upon
of the solid rock, in which the bodies of the the walls were sculptures recounting the
ordinary dead were interred. The kinglj- departed king's deeds. The door of the
sarcophagus was assigned a more pretentious passage was sealed with a stone, and the
sepulcher under more imposing monuments name of the dead sovereign was added to

roi.irrcAi. history. 47

the list of deities in the temple. Herodotus by great works, and closing the tem-
says that the building of the "Great Pyra- ples of the and putting an end to

mid" occupied thirt}- years, that one hun- their worship; but Menkaura, who was the
dred thousand men were forced to work upon son of Khufu, and who, as well as his father,
it at a time, and that a new army of laborers reigned sixty-three years, differed from him
was employed everj' three months. in being a good and humane sovereign.
The second of the three great Pyramids Menkaura reopetied the temples which his
was built by Khufu's celebrated succes.sor, had
father closed, restored the religious rites
Shafra. and was originally four hundred of sacrifice and praise, and put an end to op-
and fifty-seven feet high, and resembles the pressive labors. He was, in consequence,
Pyramid of Cheops in general proportion highly reverenced bj- the people, and his
and internal stnidlure. The third Pyramid name was celebrated in many hynnis and
of Ghizeh was eredled by Menkaura, tlte ballads. After the reigns of four more kings,
successor of Shafra, and is only two hun- known to us only by names and dates, the
dred feet high and thirty-three feet at the Fourth Dynastj-, whose eight reigns aggre-
base, and the inclination is two hundred and gated about two hundred and twenty years,
sixty-two feet. Some of the outside por- ended about 2220 B. C.
tions of Pyramid consist of polished
this The Second Dynasty, ruling Middle Egj'pt
slabs of granite. It has a double chamber from This, or Abydos, and the Fifth, ruling
within, one behind the other. In the farther Upper Egr^'pt from the Isle of Elephantine,
chamber was recently found the sarcophagus were probably related by blood to the pow-
containing the mummy of Menkaura him- erful sovereigns ruling Lower Egypt from
self,by General Howard \'3'.se; and the hie- Memphis, as the tombs of all three of these
roglyphic in.scription on the case containing, royal races are found in the \-icinity of Mem-
with the monarch's name, the myth of the phis. The Arabian copper mines of the
god Osiris, has been deciphered and transla- Peninsula of Sinai were worked b)- Egyptian
ted into English. It is only in recent times colonies established there by the P3Tamid-
that other royal mummies have been found. kings, and at this period Egyptian arts and
The Pyramids are built of successive lay- archite<5lure had attained their highest de-
ers of stone from two to six feet thick, in gree of perfedtion. Painting, sculpture and
proportion to the size of the structure. The writing, as well as modes of living and gen-
layers decrease in size from the ground up- eral civilization, were about the same as
wards, so that the monument appears on fifteen centuries later. The reed pen and
each side in the form of a .series of stone the inkstand are among the hieroglyphics
steps receding to the top. Diodorus saj-s emploj-ed, and the scribe appears, pen in
he was informed by the Egyptian priests hand, in the paintings on the tombs, making
that the gigantic masses of stone which notes on linen or pap},-rus. In the tombs of
were used in building the Pyramids were Beni-Hassan, belonging to this period, five
brought from Arabia, and were put into different kinds of plows are shown, and ag-
place by building under them vast mounds ricultural life is fully illustrated. Thus we
of earth, from which the blocks of stone ha\-e figures of sheep and goats treading seed
could be moved into their respective places. into the ground ; of wheat bound into
This statement .seems to be substantiated sheaves, threshed, measured, and carried in
by the fact that no stone of the kind used sacks to the granary; of bundles of flax on
in the constru(5lion of these vast monuments the backs of asses ; of figs gathered ; of
can be found within many miles from the grapes thrown into the press; of wine car-
place where the Pyramids were erected. ried into the cellar; of the overseer and
Khufu and his successor, Shafra, oppress- laborers in field and garden ; and of the bas-
ed the people and despised the gods, crush- tinado applied to the backs of laggards.
ing the former bj- the severe toils required W'e also have scenes of flocks and herds, of

bullocks, calves, asses, sheep, goats; and The Fourth Dynasty at Memphis was
also domestic fowl, such as geese and ducks. succeeded by the Sixth Dynasty about 2220
The making of butter and cheese is likewise B. C. The Second Dynasty continued to^

shown. Other works of sculpture show us reign at This or Abydos, and the Fifth in
the spinners and weavers at their looms, the the Isle of Elephantine, while the Ninth
potter working the clay or burning his ware arose at Heracleopolis and the Eleventh at
in the furnace, the smith making javelins Thebes ; Egypt was now divided
so that
and lances, the painter at work with his into five Theban
separate kingdoms, the
colors, the mason with his trowel, the shoe- gradually becoming the most powerful, as
maker at his bench, the ph'ing the Memphite was losing its preeminence.
his art. The various grades of domestic life Thus weakened by division and exhausted
are illustrated, and we see servants at work. by the great architedtural works which had


the kitchen implements used, also domestic withdrawn the people from the pratlice of
apes, dogs, cats, etc. In militarj' life we anns, the countrj' easih- fell a prey to the
have exhibited soldiers pradlicing in arms, barbarous nomad hordes from the neighbor-
fighting battles, battering walls and storm- ing regions of Sj'ria and Arabia. These
ing towns. Various sports and amusements entered Lower Egypt from the north-eastby
are likewise depidled, and we have here ex- way of the Isthmus of Suez about 2080 B. C,
hibited wrestlers, jugglers, musicians, male and soon became masters of the countr>' from
and female dancers, fishing parties with Memphis to the sea. They were called the
hooks and .spears and nets. Dwarfs and de- Hyksos, or Shepherd Kings. They carried
fomiities can also be seen, and ever>- con- on their conquests in the most cruel man-
dition of human life is found represented ner, burning the cities, razing the temples
upon imperishable tablets of stone. to the ground, slaying the inhabitants and
' —

POLITIC. If. ins TOR )


reducing the women and children lo slavery. Nile, which he so improved by means of a
The Hyksos founded the Fifteenth Dy- canal and dykes as to retain, for purposes of
nasty at Memphis and the Sixteenth at Ava- from the
irrigation, a large part of the waters
ris, in the Delta, near the site of the later annual inundation, and thus increased the
city of Pelusiuni. Native dynasties con- fertility of the surrounding country.

tinued to reign in Middle and Upper Egypt, Architecflure and the arts flourished in
the Ninth at Heracleopolis, the Fifth in the Upper Egypt, and numerous canals were
Isle of Elephantine, while the Twelfth had constructed to increase the fruitfulness of
succeeded the Eleventh at Thebes, and the the soil by irrigation, while Lower Egypt
Fourteenth arose at Xois, in the Delta, in continued to groan under the oppressive rule
the ver\- heart of the conquests of the Shep- of the Hyksos, or Shepherd Kings. The
herd Kings, and maintained its indepen- Thirteenth Dynasty, which succeeded the
dence during the whole period of the Twelfth at Thebes, was compelled to give
dominion of the Hyksos. way before the Shepherd Kings and to seek
Under the vigorous rule of the Twelfth refuge in Ethiopia, thus leaving Upper
Dj-nasty, Thebes rapidly grew into a power- Egypt also to the mercy of the barbarous
ful and prosperous kingdom and extended Hyk.sos, who now ruled all Egypt, except
its supremacy over the kingdoms of Ele- Xois, in the Delta (B. C. 1900). The bar-
phantine find Heracleopolis, conquered the barous conquerors burned cities, destroyed
peninsula of Sinai and carried its arms tri- temples, and massacred or enslaved the in-
umphantly and Ethiopia. Us-
into Arabia habitants. During the Middle Empire—
URT.\SEN I. reigned over all Upper Egypt, —
from 1900 B. C. to 1600 B. C. this barbarous
and under Usurtasen II. and Usurtasen race held the native Egyptians insubjecftion;
III. Thebes attained its highest prosperity. the Thirteenth Dynasty at Thebes, the Sev-
Usurtasen III. enriched the country by enth and Eighth at Memphis, and the Tenth
numerous canals and monuments of his
; at Heracleopolis, holding their crowns as
power at Senneh, near the southern border of tributaries of the Shepherd Kings of the
the kingdom, still excite the wonder of the Seventeenth Dynasty.
traveler. His successor, Ammenemes III. This was the darkest period of Egyptian
the Maris or Loemaris of Manetho, and the history. The Hyksos destroyed the monu-

Moeris of Herodotus built the Eab^-rinth ments of their predecessors and left none of
in the Faioom, the most superb and gigantic their own, so that there is a gap of three
edifice in Egypt, which contained three centuries between the Old and the New Em-
thousand rooms, one half of which number pire, during which the Holy City of Thebes
were underground, and were the receptacle was in the hands of the barbarians; the an-
of the mummies of kings and of the sacred nals ceased, and the names of kings, either
crocodiles, and are known as the Catacombs. native Egjptian or Hyksos, are for the most
The walls of the fifteen hundred apart- part unknown to us. Late writers sup-
ments above ground were of solid stone and pose the Hyksos to have been the same as
entirely^ covered with sculpture. Herodo- the Hittites of Syria. After their ex-
tus, who visited this magnificent strucflure, pulsion from Egy'pt some of them found
declared that it surpassed all other human refuge in Crete, and reappeared in Palestine
works. He says: "The roof throughout about the same time that the Israelites en-
was of stone like the wall, and the walls tered that country' from the west. It is
were car\-ed all over with figures. Every believed by some that Joseph and the family
court was surrounded with a colonnade, of Jacob settled in Lower Egypt during the
which was built of white stones exquisitely- reign of one of the Shepherd Kings others, ;


fitted together. however, place that event a little later.

The same king constru<5led the Lake After their long Innuiliation under the
Mceris, a natural resen'oir near a bend of the oppressive rule of the Shepherd Kings, the
— ;


Egyptian people rallied for a great national tial spirit wrought up !)>' the struggle against
uprising under the Theban king Amosis, the H3'ksos displa3ed itself in warlike en-
Ames, or Aahmes and the H\-ksos were
; which
terprises against neighboring nations,
driven from Egypt, after a desperate contest, were again obliged acknowledge the su-
B. C. 1600. Then began the New Empire premacy of Egypt, whose arms were carried
— the most brilliant period of Egyptian his- in triumph into Ethiopia, Arabia and Syria,
tor\- —
which lasted a little more than a and even beyond the Euphrates.
thousand j-ears (B. C. 160x^-525). Amosis Amosis, the first king of the Eighteenth
united all Egypt into one kingdom, with Dynasty, reigned twenty-six years. The
Thebes for its capital, and founded the next king, Amcnoph I., married the widow
Eighteenth Dynasty. He married Nefru- of Amosis, and reigned twenty-one years.
ari, the daughter of the King of Ethiopia Thothmes I., the third king of the Eight-
the good and glorious woman

\\ho held
— eenth Dynasty, won great victories over the
the highest honor ever accorded a queen. Ethiopians and conquered the Canaanites of


For the next eight centuries Egypt re- Palestine, and even carried his arms east-
mained a single united kingdom; and during ward against the Assyrians in Mesopota-
the Ei,ghteenth, Nineteenth and Twentieth mia. He reigned twenty -one years.
Dynasties Egyptian .sculpture and architedl- Royal women were held in higher esteem
ure reached their highest degree of perfec- in Egypt than in any other ancient mon-
tion. During this period the hundred-gated arch}-. Thothmes I. was succeeded by his
Thebes attained the height of its .splendor. daughter, Ajienset, Mesphra, or Hatasu,
Its great temple-palaces were then built who acted as regent for her younger brother,
and numerous obelisks, "fingers of the Thothmes II., who died a minor. Amen-
sun," pointed heavenward. The horse and set held the regency for her next brother,
the war-chariot were now introduced into Thothmes III. Her reign of twent3'-two
Egypt, and the military caste for a time held years was brilliant and successful. She
a higher rank than the priestly. The mar- completed the temple of Aniun, and her

poi.iTic.ii nrsroRY 51

fame is commemorated by the two gigantic reign the Ivgyptians took Nineveh. He is

obelisks at Karnak. said to have brought to Egypt the bodies of

After the death of Ameiiset, her brother, seven kings whom he had slain in battle,
Thothmes III., Envious
reigned alone. and whose heads were placed as trophies
of his sister's fame, he caused her name and upon the walls of Thebes. After a short
image to be effaced from all the sculptures reign he was succeeded bj' his son, Thoth-
in which they had appeared together. MKS I\'., who is believed by .some writers to
Thothmes III. reigned alone have cau.sed the can-ing of the great Sphinx
years (B. C. 15 10-1463). He carriedon near the Pyramids. Amunoph III., the
wars in Ethiopia, Arabia, Syria and Meso- son and successor of Thothmes I\'., who as-
potamia, and defeated the Syrians in a cended the Egj'ptian throne B. C. 1448,
great battle at Megiddo, in Canaan, twice reigned thirty-six years, and was one of the
took Kadish, the chief citj- of the Kheta greatest monarchs of the Eighteenth D\-
tribes, and led his armies as far as Nineveh, nasty. He condu(5led succe.ssful wars against
from which city, according to inscriptions on the Libyans and Ethiopians, and adorned
his monuments, he took tribute. Thothmes his kingdom with many magnificent archi-
III. is no more distinguished for his militar}- tecftural works, and improved its agriculture
exploits than for the magnificent temples by the construction of tanks or resen-oirs
and palaces which he erecfted at Karnak, to regulate New temples were
Thebes, Memphis, Heliopolis, Coptos, and built at Thebes, where also two great Co-
in ever}' other city of Egypt and Ethiopia. lossi, one of which is known as the Vocal
Mcmnon, also belong to this reign but the ;

Amenopheum, of which they were orna-

ments, is now in ruins. The two Colossi
were huge granite statues of Amunoph III.,
with his mother and queen in relief on the
die, in front of the sancftuarj- of Osiris, and
ma)' still be .seen among the surrounding
ruins. The \''ocal Memnon, according to a
Greek tradition founded on the story of trav-
elers who visited the spot, was said to utter
a musical sound at sunrise like the twanging
of harp-strings. The pedestal is fifty-nine
feet high from base to crown. The palaces
of Luxor and Karnak, now among the most
conspicuous of the ruins of those famous
places, were connecfled by an avenue of a

thousand sphinxes, while at Thebes a col-
onnade in the same style was lined with
colo.ssal sitting statues of the cat-headed
.-Vs it stood in Alexandria (uow iu New York). goddess Pa.sht, or Bubastis. In the monu-
The records of his twelve successive cam- mental inscriptions of his times, Amunoph
paigns are inscribed in sculpture upon the III. is styled "Pacificator of Egy^Jt and

walls of his palaces at Thebes. The two Tanner of the Libyan Shepherds.
obelisks near Alexandria, which .some Ro- The reign of Amunoph III. was marked
man wit called Cleopatra's Needles, one of by great internal troubles, iu consequence
which is now in London and the other iu of his unsuccessful efforts to change the
New York, bear the name of this king. national religion. His .son, HoRUS, was his
Thothmes III. was succeeded by his son, legitimate successor, but his claims were
Amuxoph II., in the beginning of whose disputed by many pretenders, most of whom
were princes or princesses of the blood ro}-al, tlie whom the Greek writers named
and for thirty years the kingdom was in an and who, during his father's life-

unsettled and distracted condition. Horus time, subdued both L,ibya and Arabia.
ultimately triumphed over and outlived all Upon ascending the throne he entered upon
his rivals, and died after reigning seven a career of conquest with the ultimate de-
j'ears in peace. He conducfted successful sign of universal dominion. Herodotus,
wars in Africa and enlarged the palaces at Diodorus, and Manetho relate, with .some
Karnak and Luxor. With the next king, variation in their narrative, his sulyugation
Resitot, or Rathotis, the Eighteenth Dy- of the neighboring nations. After dividing
nasty came to an end, B. C. 1400. his kingdom into thirty-six nomes and as-

The Nineteenth Dynasty was founded B. signing his brother Armais to the regency
C. 1400 by Raimkses I., who was descended in his absence, Rameses set out with an armv

THi: TWIN Ccil.USSl Ul' .V.MUNUl'U lU. Xlv.VK XUEBliS.

from the two kings of the Eighteenth

first of six hundred thousand foot-soldiers, twen-
Dynasty. He reigned less than two years, ty-four thousand and twenty-seven

and was succeeded by his son Seti, or thousand war-chariots, to conquer the world.
Sethos I., who inherited all the national He first reduced Ethiopia under subjec-
hatred toward the Syrian invaders of his tion and imposed upon that country a heavy

country, reconquered Syria, which had re- tribute of ebony, ivory and gold. He
volted forty years before, and extended his founded the Egyptian navy by building a
conquests as far as the borders of Cilicia fleet of four hundred war vessels on the Red

and the Euphrates. Seti built the great Sea, and reduced under his dominion the
Hall of Columns at Karnak, in which the islands and .shores as far as India. After
whole Cathedral of Notre Dame, in Paris, carrying his vidlorious anns eastward be-
could stand without touching walls or ceil- yond the Ganges, he rapidly subdued Asi-
ing and his tomb is the most magnificent
atic and European Scythia, and was only
of all the royal .sepulchers of ancient Egypt. checked in his conquering career in Thrace
The most renowned king of Egypt was l)y the severity of the climate and the scar-

Rameses II., (1388-1322 B. C.j, surnamed city of food. Wherever he conquered he




}'oi.rric.\i. HisroRY 53

erected momiments with the inscription nak. in the temple ere<5led by Rameses in
"Sesostris, king of kings and lord of lords, Kthiopia, in the ruins of Tanis, and on the
lias conquered this territory by the power of Rocks of Beyreut, it has been .shown that
his arms." After nine years of conquest, the principal scenes in his triumphant career
this triumphant warrior-king returned to his were enacted in the neighboring countries
kingdom with a vast booty and captives of Ethiopia, Arabia and Syria.
from the subjugated nations. The noted works of Rameses the Great
were the building of a great
wall from Pelusium to Heli-
opolis, to protecl Egypt on
the east against the inroads
of the Syrians and Arabs; the
cutting of a -sj-stem of canals
from Memphis to the sea ; the
completion of the famous Hall
of Columns Kaniak, begun
by his and the magnifi-
cent temple of Amunoph HI.
at Luxor. Before this temple
were placed two sitting co-
lossi of Rameses and two red
granite obelisks, both of which
still remain with their hiero-

glyphic inscriptions as perfedl

as when they were cut, one
still standing on the original
spot, and the other greeting
the eye of the beholder in the
Place de la Concorde, in Paris.
In ever}- part of Eg>pt may
be found monuments com-
memorating the achievements
and greatness of this celebra-
ted monarch. At Ipsambul,
in Nubia, in a valley with
walls of j-ellow sandstone, two
temples are cut in the solid
rock, one dedicated to Ra by
Rameses the Great, and the
other to Hathor by his queen.
Before the temple of Rameses
are four stupendous colossi of
himself, over seventj- feet high,
and .seated on thrones. The
shoulders of these colossal
Modern investigation has shown the mili- statues are twenty-five feet wide, and they
tary exploits of Ranieses the Great, as nar- measure fifteen feet from elbow to finger-tip.
rated by Herodotus and Diodorus, to ha\'e The image of Rameses stands conspicuous
been highly exaggerated. Bj' deciphering among those of the long line of deified sov-
the inscriptions in the Raniescum at Kar- ereigns of Ancient Egypt, on the walls of the
^eat temple of Abydos, while before the altar another image represents Rameses as a
mortal offering sacrifice to himself and his ancestors.
Under the Nineteenth Dynast}-, the magnificence and greatness of Thebes, then the
capital, surpassed the former splendor of Memphis. In Thebes the wonderi'ul works of
Thothmes IV., Amunoph III., Seti, Rameses II., and Rameses III., rose in majestic gran-

deur, on both .sides of the Nile, around a circle of fifteen miles.

Menepta, who succeeded Rameses the Great in 1322 B. C,
and reigned twenty' years, is now generally regarded as the
Pharaoh of the Exodus of the Israelites. In 1550 B. C, the
familjr of Jacob, the grandson of Abraham, the founder of the
Hebrew race, had settled in that part of Lower Egypt on the
east side of the Delta, known as the Land of Goslien, while
Jacob's favorite son, Joseph, was prime minister to the Egyptian
king, a post to which he is said to have been elevated on ac-
count of his services in saving the land from famine. Here
the posterity of Jacob or Israel multiplied during a period of
two and a half centuries. For a while the new race of stran-
gers were highly esteemed by the Egyptian kings and nation,
jut during the reigns of Seti I. and Rameses the Great, the
Egyptian authorities grew jealous of the rapidly increasing
Hebrew race and began to exercise a systematic oppression
toward them. The strangers were set to work at build-
ing and digging. Their labor enlarged the treasure
cities of Pithom and Rameses. They aided in the con^
stni<5tion of the great canal from the Nile,
Bubastis, to the Red Sea. They toiled in
brickyards and were beaten by the
ptian task-masters until they rose in
rebellion. The revolt was heightened
the withdrawal of religious privileges,
great leader, who had been,
pelled to .save his by flight to the

d of Midian because he had slain an

yptian whom he had seen ill-treating a
brew, had now returned to his people and
sought to obtain King Menepta's per-
mi,s.sion to lead them in a
three daj's' march into the
desert to sacrifice to Jehovah.
It was only after Moses had
performed signs and wonders
in the king's that
Menepta allowed the Israel
ites to depart.
They followed the bank of
the gathering their
NE.\R THEBES- -THE viicAL MKMNON. people aloug the route of the

Hebrew towns, but upon reaching the Gulf of Suez were hemmed in by the hosts of the
Eg>'ptian king.
By the receding of the waters at that shallow point of the sea, by means of a "strong
por. rriCAL ins n )A' )

east wind," as told in Exodus, the fleeing priest Osarsipli, of Heliopolis, for their leader.
numbering two millions, were en-
Israelites, He gave Ihcni laws, one of which gave them
abled to crass the bare, sandy bottom and permission to kill and eat the gods, the sa-

reach the opposite shore in safety. But the cred animals of the I^gyptians. He then
hosts of Menepta, while crossing the shallow directed them to fortifj- Avaris, and also sent
bottom in pursuit of the fugitives, were sud- an emba.ssy to Jerusalem to infonn the ban-
denly drowned by the returning waters. ished Hyksos of the course of events in
The account of the Exodus of the Israel- Egypt, to invite them to return, and to
ites, as related by Manetho and quoted by promise them the kej-s of Avaris. The
Josephus, differs from the Mosaic account in Shepherd Kings gladly availed themselves
detail. Manetho states that Menepta de- of the offer and returned with an army of
sired to see the gods, and was infonned by two hundred thousand men to reco\-er the
a priest of the same name that his wish could kingdom of their ancestors. When informed
only be gratified when he cleansed the land of this invasion of the Hyksos, King Me-
of lepers. The Pharaoh Menepta, therefore. nepta, influenced by superstition and fear,

cast eight)' thousand of the lepers into the fled in terror into Ethiopia, there to remain
stone-quarries east of the Nile. When the until the thirteen j-ears of leper rule should
son of Papius heard that .some priests and have pa.ssed. Thus Egypt was sacrificed to
men had thus perished, he feared
of learning the unclean, who rioted in the sacred places
the displeasure of the gods for having plot- until King Menepta returned with an army
ted to ruin or enslave holy men. But a of Egyptians and Ethiopians and expelled
vision informed him that others would come the lepers and their allies, the Hyksos, from
to aid the lepers and govern Egypt thirteen the kingdom. The name of the priest-leader
years. After writing this on a roll of papy- of the lepers had, in the meantime, beer
rus, he committed suicide. changed to Moyses, or Moses. The Egyu-
Menepta, becoming alarmed, liberated the tian historians always spoke of the Hebrews
lepers from the quarries. He assigned them as lepers.
Avaris, which had remained in ruins since After the reigns of Seti II. andSiPHTHAH,
the expul.sion of the Shepherd Kings. After the Twentieth Dynasty ascended the throne
rebuilding the city, the lepers chose the of Egypt in 1269 B. C, in the person of Set-
— EG ) 'PT.

NEKHT. The next king was Rameses III., of former ages. Sculpture and painting de-
who, during a reign of thirt^'-two years and rived no new life from the study of nature,
in ten victorious campaigns, restored to but confined themselves to slavish copies of
Egypt the glory which she had possessed un- old models or dull and meaningless imita-
der the elder kings of the preceding dynasty, tions. The priestly caste aimed to hold all
subduing the Hittites and Amorites of Ca- things at a certain and un-
level, fixed
naan and the Ethiopians, Libyans and Ne- changeable. Thus, when progress ceased,
groes of Africa. Naval battles were fought decay at once commenced. The later mon- ,

during this reign, as attested by hiero- archs of the Twentieth Dynasty were but
glyphic inscriptions. Rameses III. built instruments in the hands of the priestly
the palace of Medinet- Abu at Thebes, of

which every pylon, every gate, and ever>' During this period of general military and
chamber gives some account of his brif- intellettual decline the priestly order aug-
liant exploits. Rameses III. had four sons, mented its power and influence to such an
each named Rameses, who reigned in suc- extent that it seized the throne, and the
cession. Rameses VIIL, who succeeded Twenty-first Dynasty reigning at Tanis, in
them, conducfted some successful wars. He the Delta, was a race of priest-kings. They-
was followed by seven other kings bearing wore the sacerdotal robes and called them-
the same name, but their reigns were short selves High Priests of Amun. Pisham I.,

and uneventful. Eg\'pt, which had reached one of this gave his daughter
priestly- race,

the pinnacle of its greatness under the Nine- in marriage to Solomon. The seven kings
teenth Dynasty, rapidly declined during the of this dynasty generally- had short and
Twentieth. The hieroglyphic inscriptions uneventful reigns (B. C. 1091-990).
no longer recount the grand military- ex- —
Sheshonk I. the Shishak of the Old
ploits of kings, and art and architedlure Testament and the founder of the Twenty-'
decayed. Egypt's conquests in Asia and —
second Dynasty married the daughter of
Ethiopia were gradualh' lost. From its long Pisham II., the last king of the previous
contacft with Asiatic nations, Egypt had dynasty, and also called himself High Priest
lost its national feeling, and foreign influ- of Amun. He made Bubastis, in the Delta,

ence was marked in the civil administration and restored the military- strength
his capital,
of the kingdom. The Pharaohs at this time of the kingdom. It was to Sheshonk that

became allied by marriage with foreign Jeroboam fled after his unsuccessful rebellion

courts, and foreign colonies Assyrian, Ba- against King Solomon; and Sheshonk es-
bylonian and Phcenician settled in the— poused the cause of Jeroboam in his revolt
countr)-; and the constant intercommuni- against Solomon's son and successor, Reho-
cation between the Egyptians and the Sem- boam, and invading Judah, took Jerusalem,
itic nations of Asia is shown by the presence plundered the treasures of the Temple
of Semitic names and the admission of Sem- and the palace, and compelled Rehoboam to
itic words to the Egj'ptian language, as well pay tribute. One of the inscriptions at Kar-
as by' the admission of foreign gods into the nak gives a list of one hundred and thirty-
Egyptian sanc5luaries, hitherto inaccessible towns and distri(5ls reduced by Sheshonk in
to any deity outside of the Egyptian pan- Syria. He made the office of High Priest
theon. The ovenvhelming predominance of Amun hereditary in his family.
of the priesthood, whose influence pervaded Sheshonk died C, and was suc-
in 972 B.
all ranks, from the highest to the lowest, was ceeded by his son Osorkon I., who reigned
a barrier to thought and progress of every- fifteenyears and was succeeded by his son
kind. The people were slavishly held to the Pehor. Osorkon II., the fourth king of this
old forms of religion, architecfture lan- dynasty, is believed by some writers to have
guished, no new buildings were erected, nor been the Zerah of Scripture, who invaded
additions made to the magnificent structures Syria and was defeated by Asa, King of
Egvptiax Courtier — F^c.yptian King — Fan Jewish Warriors— Jewish Kings.

Jewish HniH-PKiESx— Levites. Alexander The Great.


1—4.-U. H.

Jiidah, in the battle of Mareshah ( 2 Chron. mis.sion of Osorkon, king of Bubastis, and
xiv. 9-14). The reinaiiiiii}:; kings of the Tafnekht, the rebel leader, both of whom
T\vent5--second Dynasty, whieh ended with were generously pardoned by Piankhi, after
Takelot II. in 847 B. C, were insignificant taking a new oath of allegiance to the Ethi-
personages: and the process of decay and opian sovereign, who allowed all the native
disintegration rajiidly went on and was ag- rebel kings to retain their respective thrones.
gravated by tlieeni]iloynient of Li1)yan mer- But in a few years, Egypt revolted under
cenaries in preference to native soldiers. the leadership of Bkk-kn-kani-", called Boc-
Semi-independent principalities sprang up in choris by the Greeks, a native of Sais, who
different parts of the kingdom, successfully was the only king of the Twenty-fourth Dy-
defying ever\- effort of the Pharaohs to pre- nasty. Bocchoris, however, was soon con-
ser\-e the unity of the nation. The utter de- quered by Sabaco, or Shabak, the Ethio-
cay of the national spirit paralyzed both pian king reigning at Napata, and was
sovereign and people. burned alive in punishment for his rebellion.
The Twenty-third Dynasty, ^B. C. 847- S.\B.\co, the Ethiopian, thus founded the

758), which ruled at Tanis, comprised four Twentj'-fifth Dynasty, and is known in the
kings, none of them famous, and Hebrew Scriptures as So, or Sevah. He
reigns were characflerized by revolutions and entered into an alliance with Ho.shea, King
civil wars. The Northern Ethiopian king- of Israel,and the Syrian princes against Sar-
dom, which had Napata for its capital, was gon. King of
Assyria, but was defeated bj'
founded by Piankhi, a descendant of the the As.syrian monarch in the jjreat battle of
priest-kings of the Twenty-first Egyptian Raphia, near the eastern borders of Egj'pt,}-. Piankhi became virtual master B. C. 718. Sabaco fled to Ethiopia, retain-

of Egypt, which, according to his stele ing possession of Upper Egypt ; while the
found at Gebel-Berkal, was at this time di- sway was established over
of the Assyrians
vided into seven kingdoms, each ruled by a the Delta and Middle Egypt, over which
native Egyptian prince, who reigned under they placed tributary native princes, their
the suzeraintj- of Piankhi. Tafnekht, who policy being to weaken Egypt by dividing
ruled in the Western Delta and held Sais and it as much as possible.Sabaco's .son and
Memphis, endeavored to cast off the yoke of succes.sor, Shab.\tok, for a short time ruled
Piankhi, and headed a revolt which was allEgypt, but was deprived of the Ethiopian
joined by the other native Egyptian princes. crown by Tirhak.\h, or Tehrak; while
Piankhi's army took Thebes, defeated the the petty native Egyptian princes fonued
rebel fleet, besieged and took Hermopolis, an alliance with Hezekiah. king of Judah,
defeated the rebel fleet a second time at against Sennacherib, King of Assyria, but
Sutensenen and gained another great victory^ the allies were defeated in the South of Pales-
on land. Xanirut, the Hermopolitan king, tine and submitted to the sway of the vidlori-
besieged the Ethiopian garrison in Hermop- ous Assyrians. Instigated by Tirhakah, the
olis and recovered the cit)-. Thereupon Pi- Egyptian princes and the King of Judah
ankhi, in person, led an arm 3- against Her- again rose in arms against the Assj-rian
mopolis, and laid siege to the city, which he king. Again Sennacherib took the field
finally compelled Xamrut to surrender. Pi- against the allies and advanced to Pelusium,
ankhi also forced Pefaabast, king of Hera- in the eastern part of Lower Egypt, but his
cleopolis Magna, to surrender, and then at- army of one hundred and eighty-five thou-
tacked Memphis, which was defended \>y a sand men was destroyed by a strange panic
strong garrison devoted to Tafnekht. After which seized them in the night, and which
a desperate resistance and frightful slaugh- the Jews and Egyptians considered a miracu-
ter Memphis was taken, and its fall hastened lous interposition, B. C. 698. Sennacherib
the restoration of Piankhi's authority over fled in dismay to Nineveh and abandoned his
all Egypt. The revolt ended with the sub- conquests. The Assyrian defeat enabled
— FA; YPT.
Tirhakah to invade Egj'pt, kill Shahatok recei\x-d with acclamations in I'pper Egypt.
and reduce the whole land under lithiopian In Lower ICgypt he was opposed, but after
dominion. Tirhakah was at once involved a great victory at Memphis, he occupied that
in a struggle with Ivsarhaddon, King of cit}' and enlarged and beautified the temple

Assj-ria, Sennacherib's son and successor, of Phthah. The chapel to Phthah-Sokari-

who, in 672 B. C, in\-aded Kgypt, captured Osiris, recently uncovered b}- M. Mariette,

Memphis and Thei)es, drove Tirhakah back is full of Mi-anunon-Xut's .sculptures and in-

into Ethiopia, and established the Assyrian being inlaid with gold,
•scriptions, its stones

sway once more overall Egypt, whose twenty its paneling made of acacia-wood .scented
native princes were reduced to a state of vas- with frankincense, its doors of polished cop-
salage under the Assyrian monarch. A few per and their frames of iron. The princes
years afterward, however, Tirhakah re- of the Delta submitted and were generously
turned and expelled the Assyrian garrisons pardoned, governing their towns as Ethi-
from Egypt, which again acknowledged the opian and no longer as Assyrian vassals. Mi-
Ethiopian dominion; but his triumph was ammon-Nut returned to Ethiopia, and the
of short duration, as he was again deprived Ethiopian joke was soon shaken off by the
of his Egyptian conquest b\- Esarhaddon's Egyptians. The pett}- native Egyptian
.successor, A.sshur-bani-pal, who won the states for many years remained tributary
native Egyptian princes over to the Assyri- to Assyria, as the employment of foreign
an interest. Being allowed more local free- mercenaries, which had so long prevailed in
dom by the Assyrian king, they preferred Eg\'pt, had deadened the national spirit and
his rule to that of the more oppressive patriotism of the I\gyptian people, and thus
Ethiopian monarch. Tirhakah's stepson made it easy for the A.ssj-rians to hold the
and succe.s.sor, Rut-amimon
llrdamane — the countrj' in subjedlion.
of the Assyrian inscriptions endeavored to — PsAMMETiCHUS, oue of the native vice-
maintain the Ethiopian power in Egj'pt ; roys under the Assyrian monarch, encour-
and descending the Nile, he re-occupied aged by the growing weakness of the As-
Thebes and Memphis, drove the Assyrians syrian Empire, which was obliged to recall
out of Egypt and made him.self master of its garrisons from Egypt to defend itself

the country; but was soon driven back into against the destructive inroads of Scj'thian
Ethiopia by Asshur-bani-pal. Rut-ammon's hordes from Central Asia, seized the oppor-
successor, Mi-ammon-Nut, tells us that in tunity to throw off his allegiance to Assj'ria,
the year of his reign (about B. C. 660), and crushing the opposition of the native
he dreamed that a serpent appeared on his viceroy's,founded the Twenty-sixth Dy-
riglit hand and another on his left, and nasty, thus placing E^gypt once more under
when he woke they had disappeared. The the swa}^ of its native kings, after a century
interpreters informed him that this signified of foreign domtnion, Ethiopian and Assyr-
that he would rule all Egypt. Thereupon ian, B. C. 632. Psammetichus conciliated
Mi-ammon-Nut led a hundred thousand the Ethiopian party by mariying the daugh-
men into Egypt, being hailed as a deli^'erer terand heiress of the King of Thebes, whom
in Upper Egypt, against the Assyrians, who he had deposed, and thus secured the adhe-
had allowed the temples to go to decay, sion of Upper Egypt, where the Ethiopians
overturned the statues of the gods, confis- were stillHe was a wise and lib-
cated the temple revenues, and restrained and under his rule the arts
eral sovereign,
the priests from exercising their offices. Mi- and sciences began to revive. He con-
ammon-Nut proclaimed himself the cham- structed many great works throughout the
pion of religion, visited the temples, led the kingdom. The new culture was not purely
images in procession, offered rich sacrifices native Egyptian. Foreign wars, coloniza-
and paid every respect to the priestlj' col- tion andconnnercial intercourse had brought
leges. For this reason he was everj-wdiere immense numbers of foreign settlers — Ethi-

rai.iriCAi. iiisroRV. 59

opians, Phccniciaiis. Jews and Checks — into with but varied fortune. The great empire
the Egyptian cities. The new
was art of Assyria had already fallen before the con-
widely different from the classic art of Old (pieringarms of Media and Babylon. Neko
Epvpt. The Kgypt of the Pharaohs was prepared to di.spute the dominion of the
beyond resurrection, the old ei\'ili/alion had workl with the Habylonian monarch. After
perished, and the native li)ut;ue had heen invading Palestine and defeating and killing
corrupted. Josiah, King of Judah, at Megiddo, Neko
P.sannnetichus was also a j;rcat warrior. con(iuered all the country eastward to the
He reduced part of Ethiopia and subdued Ivuphrates; but Nabopolas.sar, King of Babj--
the Philistines, but his continuance of the lon, .sent his .son Nebuchadnezzar, with a of foreign troops and liis ein])lo\-nient large army, to drive the ICgyptians out of
of Greek mercenaries offended the warrior Asia. In the great and deci.sive battle of
class of Egypt, of whom two hundred and Carchemish, Neko was totally defeated by
forty thou.sand emigrated to I'Uhiopia, reject- Nebuchadnezzar, and Ivgypt's power in the
ing every entreaty of Psammetichus to re- East was ended forever, all of Neko's Asi-

turn to their native land, and thus striking atic contpiests falling into the hands of
a fatal blow at the reviving prosperity of Babylon, B. C. 605.
Egypt. Psanunetichus attempted the ccni- Neko died in 594 B. C, and was .suc-

<]uest of Palestine and Syria, but was ceeded by his .son,Ps.\mmis, whose .short
thwarted in his designs by the stubborn re- reign of six years was only distinguished
sistance of the Philistine city of A.shdod, foran e.Kpedition into PUhiopia. His son and
which endured a siege of twenty-nine years —
successor, ITaii.\bra the Pharaoh Hophra
before it was taken. He encouraged com- and the Apries of Herodotus
of Scripture
merce and friendl>' intercourse with other who reigned nineteen years, renewed the
nations. warlike .schemes of his grandfather, besieged
Psammetichus died in 6io 15. C, and was vSidon and fought a naval battle with Tyre,
succeeded by his son Nkko, under whom but failed in his attempt to conquer Phoe-
the navy and connnerce of Egypt were nicia. He formed an alliance with Zede-
largely augmented. The great increase in the kiah, King of Judah, who endeavored to
number of foreign colonists in EgA'pt gave free him.selffrom the Babylonian yoke; Init
rise to a new class of interpreters, through the great Babylonian king, Nebuchadnez-
whose medium foreign intercourse was im- zar, quickly invaded Palestine, besieged and
mensely facilitated. Neko endeavored to took Jerusalem, pillaged the city and the
reopen the great canal from the Nile to the Temple, and thus broke the power of the
Ked Sea, which had been constru(fted during alliesand jnit an end to the struggle by
the reign of Rameses the Great, but aban- driving the Egj'ptian monarch back into
doned the oracle had instructed him his own kingdom. Uahabra was afterward
that he was laboring for the l)arbarian. defeated in an expedition against the Greek
Under Neko's au.spices, an P^gj-ptian fleet, colony of Cyrene, west of Egi'pt, in
manned by Pha'uician .seamen, .sailed down quence of which his native .soldiers revolted
the Red Sea, and after an absence of three and dethroned him; and the revolutionary
years, during wliicli tlie\- twice landed, leader, Amasis, with the aid of Nebuchad-
sowed grain and gathered a har\x'st, they nezzar, who had twice invaded I'^gvpt, ( B.
returned to ligypt l)y way of the Pillars of C. 5cSi and 570), was placed upon the Ivg3"p-
Hercules ( Straits of Gibraltar ) and tlie tian throne as king, tributary to the Bab\--
Mediterranean ; thus making the circiun- lonian monarch.
navigation of Africa two thou.sand years Amasis reigned forty-one years, at first as
before famous voyage of Va.sco da
the atributarx to Babylon, but he afterward cast
Gania around the same continent. yoke and increased his influence by
Neko's military enterprises were ble.s.sed marrying Nitocris, the sister of hispredeces-
sor. He adorned vSai.s, mag-
his capital, with hearted Cambyses, who suspeifted him of
nificent building.s ; and numerous monu- a design to recover his power. With the
ments of his reign,found in all parts of the tragic end of Psammenitus perished the
country, attest his liberal patronage of the ancient kingdom of Egypt, which had ex-
arts; while his friendlj- foreign policy toward isted for over two thousand years, from the
Cyrene and the other Greek states, and his time of the founding of the Old Empire by
encouragement to Greek merchants to settle Menes and the celebrated land of the Pha-

in Egj'pt, added immen.sely to the wealth of raohs became a mere province of the vast
the country. He conquered the island of Medo-Persian Empire (B. C. 525).
Cyprus and reduced it to tribute. The tj-ranny and cruelty of Cambyses
Alarmed by the growing power of Persia produced in the hearts of the Egj'ptians the
under its renowned monarch, Cyrus the most implacable hatred of Persia; and dur-
Great, who had conquered Media and Baby- ing a period of two centuries they con-
lon, Amasis allied himself with Croesus, stantlj' plotted against the Twenty-seventh,
King of Lydia, and Polycrates of Samos; or Persian Dynasty, and under three native
but before his policy was produ<5live of any dynasties— the Twentj'-eighth, Twenty-ninth
results, he died, B. C. 525, and was succeeded —
and Thirtieth regained their independence,
on the throne of Egypt by Psammenitus. w^hich they as often lost. The accounts of
Cambyses, King of Persia, the son and suc- these revolts and short spasms of independ-
cessor of Cyrus the Great, was already on ence will be narrated in the history of the
the march toward Egypt. The Egyptian Medo-Persian Empire. Since its conquest
anuy advanced to Pelusium to meet the in- by the Persians, the land of the Pharaohs
vader, but was there defeated in a pitched has been successively under the sway of the
battle and driven back to Memphis, the cap- Persians, the Macedonians, the Romans, the
ital, which was besieged and taken by the Saracens, the Mamelukes, and the Ottoman
Persian king. Psammenitus was taken pris- Turks the last of whom have held the

oner after a reign of only six months, and country tributarj- for the last three and a
soon afterward put to death by the hard- half centuries.



Contemporary Dynasties from about B. C. 2700 to about B. C. 2450.




Contemporary Dynasties from about B. C. 2450 to about B. C. 2220.


BOETHIIS, or BOCHUS, ... 38 Seneferu, or SoRUS, ... 29 USERCHERF.S, orOSIRKEF, . 28
KcEECHUS, or Kekeou, . . 39 Khufu, I ,, Sephrp;s 13
BiNOTHRIS 47 Shafra, \ Nephercheres, or Nofr-
Ti,AS 17 Menkaura, or Mencheres 63 IR-KE-RE 20
Sethenes 41 Ratoises, 25 SiSIRES, or CSIR-N-RE, . . 7
Chores 17 BiCHERlS, 22 Cheres, 20
Nephercheres, 25 Sebercheres 7 Rathures 44
Sesochris 48 Thamphthis, 9 Mencheres 9
Cheneres 30 Tancheres, 44
Onnus, or U-NDS, a

Contemporary Dynasties from about B. C. 2220 to about B. C. 2080.

Continuing under Othoes, ... 30 Continuing. Achthoes, Sixteen Kings.
the last three Phios the Antefs,
kings. Methosuphis, 7 and the
Phiops, or Pe- Mentu-hoteps.
pi 100 Ammenemes or
Menthesuphis, I Amun-m-he.
Nitocris, or

Contemporary Dynasties from about B. C. 2080 to B. C. 1900.

en _;

is WW

Continuinj^ Continuing. Sesonchosis, . . .
Seventy-six Salatis, . 19 Thirty Kings
till about Usurtasen I., . . 46 Kings in Bnon, .
44 .
B. C. 1850. Ammenemes II., or 484 years. Apachnas, 36 518 years.
Amun-m-he II., 38 . .\pophis, 61
Usurtasen II., 48 . . J.\nnas,
McERis, or Amun- Asses, .
m-he III., ... 8
Ameres 8 259
Ammenemes III., or
Amun-m-he IV., 8
Skemiophris, . . 4


MIDDLE EMPIRE.— (Hyksos, or Shepherd Kings.)

Contemporary Dynasties from about B. C. 1900 to about B. C. 1600.



EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY— THEBAN. Sheshonk I., or Shishak I., (B. C. 993-972).
( B. C. 1600-1400.) OSORKON I., (B. C. 972-957;.
Amosis, Aahmes, or Ames, (B. C. 1600-1575). Takelot I., (B. C. 957-956).
Amen-hoTEp I., Amenophis I., or Amuxoph OSORKON II., (B. C. 956-934).
I., (b. c. 1575-1562-
Sheshonk II.
Thothmes, I.
Takelot II.
Thothmes H., and Hatus.\ or Amenset, (B. SHESHC^'K III.

C. 1562-1547).
Thothmes III., (B. C. 1547-1493). Sheshonk IV.
Amen-hotep II., Amenophis II., or .•Vmu- TWENTY-THIRD DYNASTY— TANITE.
NOPH II., (B. C. 1493-1485). (B. C. 847-75S).
Thothmes IV., (B. C. 1485-1477).
Amen-hotep III., Amenophis III., or Amu- Petubastes, or Petsupasht, (B. C. 847-807)

noph III., (B. C. 1477-1441). OSORKON IV., (B. C. 807-799).

Amen-hotep IV., Amenophis IV., or Amu- Psammus, or PSEMUT, (B. C. 799-7S9).

NOPH IV. Zet, or Seti HI., (B. C. 789-758)-
Al. (B. C. 758-730)-
Tutankhamen. Bekenhauf, or Bocchoris.
Horemheb-Merienammon, or HORUS.
(B. C. 724-650).
(B. C. 1400-1280). Sabaco, or Shabak, (B. C. 724-712).
Shabatok, (B. C. 712-698).
Tirhakah, or Tehrak, (B. C. 698-667).
Seti I.
Rut-ammon. (B. C. 667-660).
Rameses Meriamon, or the Great (Sesos-
Mi-ammon-Nut, (B. C. 660-650).
Menepta, or Menephthah. TWENTY-SIXTH DYNASTY—SAITE.
Seti II. (B. C. 650-525).
Siphthah. PSAMMETICHUS, or PsamaTik I., (B. C. 665-
(B. C. 12S0-1100).
PsAMMis, or Psamatik II., (B. C. 594-588).
Setnekht. Uahabra, Apries, or Pharaoh Hophra, (B.
Rameses III., (B. C. 1269-1237). C. 588-569).
Rameses IV. Amasis, Aahmes, or Ames, (B. C. 569-525).
Rameses V. Psammenitus, or Psamatik III., (B. C. 525).
Rameses VI., and JlERi-TuM.
Rameses VIII. (B. C. 525-332)-
Rameses IX.
Rameses X. twenty'-eighth dynasty— native.
(B. C. 460-455).
Rameses XI.
Rameses XII. Amyrt^us.
Rameses XIII. twenty-ninth dynasty— jiendesian.
(B. C. 1100-993). Neferites, or Nefaorot, (B. C. 405-399)-
Pehor, Herhor, or Smendes. Achoris, or Hakar, (B. C. 399-386;.
Piankh, or Pisham I. Psammuthis, (B. C. 386-385).
PiNETEM I. Nepherites II., (B. C. 384).


Pa-seb-en-sha. (B. C. 384-346).
PiNETEM II., or Pisham II.
Hor-Pasebensii.\. Nectanebo I., or Nekht-nebef, (B. C. 3S4-
TWENTY-SECOND DYNAvSTY- -BUBASTITE. Teos, or Tachos, (B. C. 366-364).
(B. C. 993-847). Nectanebo II., (B. C. 364-346).

cf\'ii.i/..\'nox. 63


|ODERN ethnologists, in gen- At the first glance one can easily see that it

eral, regard the ancient Egyp- rcpre.'^ents Ivgyptian art in its degeneracy,
tians as of Asiatic origin, since and that art ill understood and ill executed.
they differed so much from The utmost height to which ICthiopian civili-
other African races, such as the zation ever reached was a mere rude imita-
Berbers and the Negroes, in language, the tion, alike in .science and in art, of Egxptian
shape of their skulls, and their physiog-

nomy. The skulls of the ancient Egyptians, The color of the ancient Egyptians was
and of their legitimate descendants, the brown, like that of the modern Copts. For
modem Copts, are eminently Caucasian; this we ha\e the authority of the numu-
while the Egyptian language has analogies ments. The women were lighter than the
connecting it with the Aryan and Semitic men, being depicted on the monuments as
tongues. The conclusion that the Egj'p- yellow. The hair was usually black and
tians, at least the upper and middle classes straight, though .sometimes it grew in short,
of them, were Asiatic inmiigrants into the crisp curls. Men generally .shaved both
Nile valley, is therefore a safe one. They hair and beard, and went about with their
are believed to have been kindred with heads perfectly bare, or else wore wigs or a
other races of South-western Asia, such as cap. Women always wore their

the Canaanites, the primitive Chaldaeans, and own hair, and plaited it in long tresses, .some-
the Southern Arabs. We nuist accordingly times extending down to the waist. The
conclude that Syria or Arabia was
the cradle of the Egyptian nation.
Some have maintained that the
immigration was from the south of
the Nile vallej-, and that the J-lgyp-

tians were of Ethiopian origin; but

recent research has shown conclus-
ively that the movement of the
Egyptians was from north to south.
Says Mr. Birch, the latest English
historian of The study of;


the monuments furnishes incontro-

vertible evidence tha*^ the historical
series of Egyptian temples, tombs
and cities, construdted on either
bank of the Nile, follow one upon
another in chronological order, in
such .sort that the monuments of the greatest I)RE.SSES OF KGV1'TI.\N WO.MKN.
antiquity, the Pyramids for instance, are
situated furthest to the north ; while the hair of the wigs, and that found sometimes
nearer one approaches the Ethiopian cata- on the heads of mummies, is coarse.
racts, themore do the monuments lose the The features of the Egyptians resembled
stamp of antiquity, and the more plainly do those of their Syrian neighbors. The fore-
they show the decline of art, of beauty, and head was straight, but low; the gener-
of good taste. Moreover, in Ethiopia itself ally long, though .sometimes slightly aqui-
the existing remains present us with a st\le line. The lips were over full, but the upper
of art that is absolutely devoid of originality. lip was short, and the mouth was seldom too
wide. The chin was good, being well a defecl in the Egyptian charafler; and
rounded, and neither receding nor extending drunkenness was a connnon vice among
too far. The eye was a long, narrow slit, both sexes, all the appeals and exhortations
like that of the Chinese,but placed horizon- of the priests in favor of temperance being
tally, instead of obliquely. The eyebrow, unavailing to stem the tide of general de-
likewise long and thin, shaded the eye. bauchery. Sensual pleasure and amusement
The coloring was always dark; the hair, seemed the ends of existence among the
eyebrows, eyelashes, and beard (where there upper classes in general. False hair was
was one), being black, or nearly so, and the worn, dyes and cosmetics were used to pro-
ej'es black or dark brown. duce artificial beaut)-, magnificent dress
The Egyptians resembled the modern was worn, equipages were splendid, great
Arabs in form. They were tall, with long banquets were frequently held, games and
and supple limbs, and with the head well sports were constant, and life was passed in
placed upon the shoulders. Their move- feasting, sport and a continual succession
ments were graceful, their carriage dignified. of enjoyments. The effetft of self-indul-
Generally, however, their frames were spare, gence is seen in the national decay of these
and their hands and feet unduly large. The people, and their successive subjections to
women were as thin as the men, and their hardier races, such as the Ethiopians, Assyr-
fonns were almost similar. Children, how- ians, Babylonians, Persians, and Macedo-
ever, were sufficiently plump. nian Greeks.
The Egyptians were divided into distindl Their family affecflion is shown by the
tribes. We read in the Mosaic account of paintings, where husbands and wives are
Ludim, Anamim, Lebahim, Naphtuhim, everj-where represented with their arms
Pathrusim, Casluhim and Caphtorim as dis- around each other's necks. The Egyptians
tin<5t sons of Misraim "

' as separate — were industrious, cheerful and gay even

tribes of the people who occupied the under hardships; but they were

two ' cruel, vin-

Egypts." dicftive, treacherous, avaricious, supersti-

The Egyptians ranked high intellecflually tious and servile. The use of the basti-
among the ancient nations. In art they nado was universal, being employed to in-
exhibited wonderful power. Mr. Birch says flicfl punishment for minor offenses, while
that their archite(?ture "was on the grand- superiors freely beat inferiors. The poor
est scale, and dwarfs the Greek in compar- peasantry were forced by blows to yield to
ison." The Egyptians had a high moral the extortions of the tax-gatherers, and
standard theoretically, but pracflically their slaves were impelled to labor under fear of
morals were very lax. Saj'S Brugsch, the the rod, which the taskmaster freely applied
eminent German Egyptologist: "The forty- to the backs of laggards. The passions of
two laws of the Egyptian religion, contained the Egyptians often broke out in riot, insur-
in the 125th chapter of the Book of the recflion and murder. They were extremely
Dead, fall short in nothing of the teachings fanaticalin religious belief, and ready to
of Christianity
. '

' The .same authority further wipe out in blood any insult to their re-

says that Moses, in compiling his code of ligion.

laws, did only "translate into Hebrew the They were at times timid, submissive
religious precepts which he found in the and sycophantic. The lower classes pros-
sacred Ijooks " of the Egyptians, among trated themselves before their superiors,
whom he had been brought up. The tamely submitting to blows. The great
Egyptian women were notoriously loose in nobles were equalh^ servile to their so\-er-
their characfter, exceedingly immodest and eign, addressing him as a god, and ascribing
licentious. The men openly practiced im- tohim their continued existence in this life.

purity, and boasted of it in their writings. Though successful in their early wars,
An inclination to luxurious living was also when their disciplined troops attacked un-
B a g > S S
'-5 >
•Si f s
OS a t
° a
Cli H ^ S B^

S u


disciplined hordes, tlic)' were defeated when- limited povver over the lives and property of
ever they encountered a brave and skiUful his people but his authority was strictly
enemy. Their readiness to break engage- defined and limited by law, and unlliingwas
ments when their fulfdhnent was inconve- left to passion or caprice. The monarch,
nient, made them unrehable alHes; and for howe\'er, po.s.sessed the right to make new
this reason the Hebrew prophet Isaiah laws. The king's public duties and personal
spoke of Egypt as a "braised reed, whereon habits were nunutely defined by religious
if a man lean, it will go into his hand and regulations, the sacred books prescribing his
pierce it." food, drink, dressand the employment of
The government of Eg>'pt was a theo- his time, thus allowinghim less individual
cratic monarchy, the king being the earthlj' freedom than was enjoyed by the humblest
representative of the Deity. His body was and most degraded of his subjects. He was
considered sacred, and he was worshiped as not permitted to give way to excessive in-
a god. His title of Phrah, or Pharaoh, sig- dulgence of any kind. No slave or hireling
nifying the Sun, ranked him as the emblem was permitted to hold oflSce about his per-
son, for fear that he might be con-
taminated bj- such unworthy pres-
ence, but those of the highest rank
only were accorded the privilege
of attending him and ministering
to his wants. The ritual of every
moniing's worship constantly re-
freshed his memorj' with a knowl-
edge of the virtues of former
kings, and reminded him of his
own kingly and per-sonal duties.
After his death his body was
placed in an open court, where any
and every one of his subjects
might bring accusations against
him and if his conduct in life

was proven to have been unworthj-

his exalted station, he was for-
DRESS OK THE EGYPTIAN KING. ever excluded from the tombs of
his ancestors.
of Helios, or Phrah, or Ra, the Sun-god. His The ancient Egyptians were divided into
right and duty was to preside over the sacri- classes or castes, distinguished by their
fices and to pour out libations to the gods. ranks and occupations; the priests forming
He was thus the head of the national relig- the highest caste, the warriors the second
ion, as well as the civil and political head of and husbandmen, gardeners, boatmen
the state. The kingly office was hereditar>% and herdsmen the lowest caste.
but the monarch was not an absolute ruler The priesthood possessed great authority
and the political system was a combination in the and were the "power behind the

of theocracj-, monarch)- and hierarchy, the throne." So far as the sovereign was con-
king's power being more or less curtailed by cerned the}' used their power wisely and
the power of the priesthood, or hierarchical well. Their habits of life were simple and
class. In this respecfl Egypt differed from an moderate. Their diet was plain in quality
Asiatic despotism, where the sovereign was and limited in quantity, and they ab.stained
unlimited lord and master over his subjecfts. from fish, mutton, swine's flesh, beans, peas,
An Egyptian Pharaoh did not possess un- garlic, leeks and onions, which were articles
of food among the common people. Tliej- ranked next to the sacerdotal, or priestlj-

bathed twice a day and twice during the order, numbered about four hundred thou-
night, some of the more stri(ft in water .sand persons. When not engaged in mili-
tasted bj- their sacred birds, the ibis, to tary .sen-ice, either in foreign wars, in
make sure of being purged of all unclean- garri.sons or at the roj-al court, these were
ness. Their abstinence, purity and humil- .settled on their lands, which were located
ity, and their reputation for learning, en- principally on the east side of the Nile or in
abled the priests to hold the people in relig- the Delta, which portions of the countr\'
ious, and mental subjection. By
political were the most exposed to hostile invasion

their knowledge of physical .science they by a foreign foe. Each .soldier was allotted
could frighten and terrorize the superstitious about six and a half acres of land, exempt
and ignorant lower classes by optical illu- from all taxation or tribute; and from the
sions and other tricks. By their power to proceeds of this land he defrayed the ex-
try the dead they could decide the fate of of his arms and equipments. The
any man, from the king to the swineherd, soldier, however, could not engage in an>'

by refusing him a pa.ssport to the outer art or trade. The lands of the priests and
world. The priests prescribed the religious soldiers were considered privileged propert\-.

p:gvpti.\n soldiers of diffkrent corps.

ritual of every Egyptian, from the king to while all other lands were regarded as the
the meanest of his subjet5ls. king's property, and were rented by him
The Eg>ptian priesthood embraced an to farmers, who paid a yearly rent of one-
order including many professions and occu- fifth of the produce.
pations. They alone were acquainted with Below the priests and warriors were
the arts of reading and writing, and with the various unprivileged castes, embracing
medicine and the other sciences. They cul- husbandmen, gardeners, boatmen, artisans
tivated the science of medicine from the of various kinds, and herdsmen, compris-
earliest ages. The universal pracftice of em- ing shepherds, goatherds and swineherds.
balming was exercised by the physicians, These latter were intensely de.spi.sed as the
thus enabling them to study the efFedts of most degraded of human creatures, and were
various by examining the body after not allowed to enter the temples. All castes
death. Asiatic monarchs sent tj Egypt for below the priesthood and the warrior class
their physicians, and the fertile .soil of the were deprived of all political rights and dis-
Nile valley furnished drugs for the whole qualified from ownership in land.
ancient civilized world. Even in our own The two privileged castes, the priests and
time the characfters used by druggists to de- \varriors, are believed to have been the de-
note drams and ounces are the Eg>'ptian scendants of the Asiatic conquerors and im-
ciphers adopted by the Arabs. migrants into Egypt, while the lower clas,ses
The .soldiers, oi' military ca.ste, which were the descendants of the Ethiopian abo-
Egyptian King in War Chariot — Egyptian
Cykvs the Great. Warriors.

Egyptian Lady — Egyptian ooken— Egyptian Egyptian Ppiest — Men and Woman of Low
TvADV. Castc




rigines of the Nile valley. The I^gyptian put the sickle to the crop, the locusts have
castes were not as fixed as those of the Hin- blasted a part of it; then come the rats and
doos, as the educational system enabled any- the birds. If he is slack. in housing his
one of superior talent to rise abo\-e his grain, the thieves are upon him. His horse
native rank. Saj-s Rawlinson: "Castes, in dies of weariness as it drags the wain.
the strictest sense of the word, did not exist Anon, the tax-gatherer arrives; his agents
in Eg>pt, since a son was not absolutely are anned with clubs; he has Negroes with
compelled to follow his father's profession.'' him, who carrj- whips of palm branches.
Intermarriages sometimes occurred between They all crj-, Give us your grain! and he

members of the priestly and warrior castes, has no easy way of avoiding their extortion-
and transitions between them were common. ate demands. Next, the wretch is caught,
The same was the case between members of bound and sent off to work without wage at
the various unprivileged orders. Still, in the canals; his wife is taken and chained;
the main, the same rank, professions and his children are stripped and plundered."
occupations remained in the same families Tuaufsakhrat, in the "Praise of Learning,
for hundreds and hundreds of years, and the gives a similar account in these words:
evils of class distinction were almost equal "The little laborer having a field, he passes
to those of the fixed castes of India. The his life among worn down for
rustics; he is

upper classes despised all handicrafts, and vines and pigs, to make what his kitchen of
"everj- shepherd was an abomination in the his fields have; his clothes are heavy with
sight of an Eg\ptian." There were many their weight; he is bound as a forced
slaves who had been captives taken in war. laborer: if he goes forth into the air, he

The class system tended to discourage per- suffers, having to quit his warm. fire-place;
sonal ambition, and thus to check all prog- he is bastinadoed with a stick on his legs,
ress and improvement after the earliest high and seeks to save him.self: shut against him
state of civilization had been attained, and is the hall of everj- house, locked are all

was the principal cause of the final national the chambers.

decay of this renowned ancient people. Thus it will be seen that the small culti-
The land in Eg}pt belonged exclusively vator was oppressed with extortionate taxa-
to the king, the priests and the soldiers, tion, collected by the brutal tax-gatherers;
during the period of the New Empire; all that forced labors were exacted of him, and
other land-owners having surrendered their that he was bastinadoed with a stick on the
proprietorship to the king, while the He- back or legs if he resisted. He was torn
brew Joseph was prime minister, occupying from his family and homestead, and forced
them only afterward as tenants of the crown to labor under the hot Egyptian sun at
by paying an annual rental of one-fifth of cleaning out or banking up the canals.
the produce. No wages being paid him, and insufficient
The lot of the agricultural laborer in food being furnished him, he often perished
Eg3'pt was a hard one. There were few under the hardships imposed upon him by
Eg3'ptian peasants rich enough to rent their a merciless government. If an iron consti-
farms and till them for themselves. Most tution saved him and he returned home, he
of them were hired laborers working on the frequently found his family dispersed, his
estates of others, under the supen-ision of wife carriedoff. and his mud cabin in ruins.

brutal overseers or taskmasters, who applied He was regarded with contempt, not alone
the bastinado to the backs of the idle or re- by the privileged classes, but also by their
on the slightest pretext. The pea-
fraclorj- servants, and even by their slaves.
was not much better off. Writes
sant farmer The laws of Egj'pt were remarkable, and
Amenemun to Pentaour: "Have you ever are another evidence of the high civilization
represented to yourself the estate of the of the people. Bossuet has said that "Eg>-pt
rustic who tills the sjround ? Before he has was the source of all good government."
Perjury was considered the most heinous The Egyptians were the first people to or-
of all crimes — an offense alike against gods ganize a regular ami)-, and thus to lay the
and men —
and was punishable with death. foundation for the whole system of ancient
Any one seeing a person defending his life warfare, including the military systems of
against a murderer, and failing to render him the ancient Asiatic monarchies. The war-
assistance, was also capitally punished, as chariots formed the most important part of
being equally guilty with the assassin. If an Egyptian army, and were used instead of


the witness were unable to assist the defend- cavalry. These chariots were mounted on
ant, he was bound to report the assailant two wheels, and were verj' carefuUj' made.
to the lawful authorities. A person falsely They were hung low, were open behind to
accusing another was punished as a calum- enable the warrior to step in and out with
niator. Everj' Egyptian was bound to fur- ease, and had no seat. They were drawn by
nish the authorities with a written state- two, and usually contained two war-
ment means of liveli-
of his
hood ; and any one giving a
false account, or following an
unlawful pursuit, was pun-
ished with death. A wilful
murderer was likewise put
to death. A judge who con-
demned an innocent person
to death was punished as a
deliberate murderer. A sol-

dier who deserted his ranks

was punished with infamy,
but could recover his lost
honor by future gallant be-
havior. Making counterfeit
money, false weights, scales
or measures, falsifying public

records, or forging documents, were crimes riors, one to manage the horses, and the
puni.shed with the loss of both hands. A other to fight. The war-chariots of differ-

man's property could be seized for debt, but ent nations differed from each other. The
not his person and if a debtor swore that he
; harness and housings of the horses were
owed nothing to a creditor who was without elegantly decorated. A quiver and bow-
a bond, the debt was void. The interest, tastefully and skillfully decorated, were
was never permitted to exceed the principal. fixed to the chariot ou the outside. The
cn'ii.i/.A'noN. 69

Kgyptiaii national weapon was the bow, which was freel}- applied by those in charge
used by infantry and charioteers. of the captives. All captives were consid-
The Ivgyptians were the most skillfnl arch- ered as belonging to the king, and conse-
ers of antiqnity. Their bows were the most (|uenlly became his slaves, being employed
powerful, and their arrows, drawn to the by him in forced labors during the rest of
ear, were the best aimed, of those of all sometimes the monarch re-
their lives: but
ancient nations. The children of the mili- warded individual captors by allowing them
tary caste were trained to the pradlice of to hold their own prisoners, who thus passed
archery from the earliest infancy. The into pri\-ate ser\'itude.
heavy anns of the Egyptian in-

fantry were a .spear, a dagger, a

short sword, a pole-ax, a battle-
ax, a helmet and a .shield. Some
of the principal officers used coats
of mail for protection. The light
troops were armed with swords,
battle-axes, maces and clubs. Ev-
ery battalion had its standard,
w-ith some symbol or sacred objedl
represented thereon, generally the
emblem of the nome or tribe. The
soldiers were called out by con-
scription, drilled to the sound of
the trumpet, and taught to march
in measured time. In the most
ancient period cavalry were used
as skirmishers, videttes and ex-
presses. In attacking walled cit-

ies battering-rams, besieging-tow-

ers and .scaling-ladders were used.
The Egyptians, like other ancient
nations, treated their captives very-
them to death or
cruelly, putting
reducing them to slavery.
The Egyptians readily gave
quarter when an enemy submitted,
and thousands of prisoners were
often taken in their military expe- ASSAII.T ox .\ I-ORT — TKSTUDO .^ND SCALIN-G-1.AI)I1i:R.

ditions. If they ran down an enem3''s ship The Egyptians, in order to ascertain the
they exerted themselves to rescue the men number of slain among an enemy's army on
on board from the waves, and took them to the battle-field, mutilated them, cutting off
their own ves.sels at the risk of their own and carrying to the camji the right hand,
lives. Enemies who laid down their weap- the tongue or some other portion of the
ons on land and sued for mercy were usualh' body. Heaps of each of these are shown
spared. Their arms were bound together in the sculptures, which the royal scribes
by a cord passed round them a little above are represented as counting in the king's
the elbows, and they were led from the field presence, before registering them. Each
to the camp, usualh- in long strings, each soldier received a reward upon showing
condudled by one Egyptian. Laggards were these proofs of his prowess.
urged forward by fear of the bastinado, The climate of the Nile valley is warm
1—5.-U. H.
and dr}-. In Southern Eg)"pt the heat is wild cat. The domestic animals were the
excessive. In Northern Eg5'pt several causes horse, the ass, the camel, the Indian or
combine to gi^e a lower summer tempera- humped ox, the cow, the sheep, the goat,
ture. In the desert tracftsthe air is much the pig, the cat and the dog.
drier than in the Nile valle}- itself, with The birds of Egj'pt are the eagle, the fal-
gi'eater alternations of heat and cold. In con, the xEtolian kite, the black vulture, the
summer the air is .sufTocating, while in bearded vulture, the / 'ultio- pcrcnoptcriis,
winter the days are cool and the nights the osprey, the horned owl, the .screech-owl,
acftually cold. Heavy rains and violent the raven, the ostrich, the ibis, the pelican,
thunder-storms are frequent at this sea.son. the vulpanser or fox-goose, the Nile duck,
At certain seasons green herbage and flow- the hoopoe, the sea-swallow, the Egyptian
ers cover the torrent-beds after the water kingfisher, the quail, the oriental dotterell,
has flowed into the Nile; but the solar heat the benno, the sicsac, the swallow, the spar-
and the Khanisccn, or hot de.sert wind, row, the wagtail, the crested plover, the
wither the herbage and flowers at other sea- heron and other wading birds, the com-
.sons. mon kite, the hawk, the common vulture,
The vegetable produdlions of Egypt are the common owl, the white owl, the turtle-
trees, shrubs, esculent plants, grain, arti- dove, the mi.ssel thrush, the common king-
ficial grasses and medicinal plants. The fisher, the lark, and the finch.
trees are the date-palm, the sycamore, the There were different kinds of fish in the, the myxa, the acanthus and sev- Nile; and various reptiles were found in the
eral kinds of acacias. Among .shrubs and countni', such as turtles, iguanas, geckos or
fruit-trees are the fig, the pomegranate, the .small lizards, the horned .snake, the asp,
mulberrj-, the vine, the olive, the apricot, the chameleon, and others. The most re-
the peach, the pear, the plum, the apple, markable insedls are the .scorpion, the locust
the orange, the lemon, the banana, the and the solpuga spider.
locust-tree, the per.sea, the castor-oil plant Among minerals in Egypt are many ex-
and the prickly pear. These, excepting cellent kinds of stone,such as magnesian
the orange, lemon, apricot and banana, are limestone, sandstone, porphyry, alabaster,
believed to ha\-e all been producftions of granite and syenite. The inexhaustible
ancient, as well as of modem, Egypt. The supply of stone made that gift of nature the
esculent plants which
grew wild were great building material of Egypt. The dif-

the bj'blus, or papyrus, the Nymphcva lo- ferent kinds of stone were conveyed from
ins and the Lotus arni/ca. The papyrus one end of Egypt to the other by being
plant, which was used for writing, is not floated on rafts along the Nile. It was easy

now found in Egypt. The cultivated vege- to float down the river the granite and sye-
tables are mainly the same as of other nite of the far South of Egypt to Thebes,
countries. Artificial grasses of ancient Memphis, and the cities of the Delta.
Egypt were clover, vetches, lupins and the There were few metals in Eg>pt. Among
gilbdn of the Arabs, or the Lathynis sativus were gold, silver, copper, iron and lead.
of Pliny. Other mineral productions were natron, salt,

The wild animals indigenous in Egypt .sulphur, petroleum, chalcedonies, cameli-

were the hippopotamus, the crocodile, the ans, ja.spers, green breccia, emeralds, agate,
lion, the hyena, the wolf, the jackal, the rock-cry.stal, .serpentine, compact felspar,

fox, the ichneumon, the hare, the jerboa, steatite, honiblende, basanite, actinolite and
the rat, the, the, the the sulphate of barytes.
porcupine, the hedgehog, and perhaps the The fertilizing of the .soil by the animal
bear, the wild boar, the ibex, the gazelle, inundation of the Nile, and the irrigation of
three kinds of antelopes, the stag, the the countr>'by means of numerous canals,
wild sheep, the .1/oiiilor Niloticus, and the contributed to make Egypt the great gran-
c7\7/j/.rnoA\ 71

ar>- of antiquity, from which other nations trodden in bj' .sheep, goats or pigs, and then
drew their supplies in times of famine. simply awaited the har\-est. Plows, of a
The naturally fertile soil and the sponta- simple construction, and hoes were used in
neous growth of the date-palm furnished preparing the ground in other portions of
the people with cheap and abundant food, the country. The plows were drawn by two
and agriculture received much attention. oxen or two cows, yoked to it by the shoul-
The rapid increase and density of the ders or by the horns. vSometimes a single
Egyptian population, which, as we have plowman guided the plow by holding one
already said, was about seven millions, handle in his left hand, and carrj-ing a whip
crowded in the narrow valley of the Nile, in his right; but generally there were two
ouh' seven miles in width, was due to the plowmen, one holding the two handles, and
abundance and cheapness of food and the the other driving the animals with tlie whip.
readiness with which it could be obtained. In light and loose soils the hoe was used



This facfl accounts for the ease with which instead of the plow. The hoes and plows
great public works like the Pyramids, that were of wood. The grain cultivated was
were useless, could be built; as the mon- wheat, barley, and what Herodotus called
archs were thus enabled to employ the labor zea or olyra, probably the modem doom.
of hundreds of thousands of men, who were The wheat and barley were used by the rich,
not required by necessity to labor in any and the doora by the poor. The wheat was
other way. cut with a toothed sickle, a little below the
The non-interference of the government ear, and put in baskets or bound in sheaves.
with agriculture was an advantage. The The filled baskets were carried in b}' men or

grain was sowed when the inundation had donkeys to the threshing-floor, and there
disappeared.In some parts of EgN'pt the emptied on a heap. Sometimes the corn was
husbandman only scattered the seed upon conveyed from the harvest-field to the gran-
the rich Nile deposit and caused it to be ary or storehouse, and kept there a month.
Threshing was done by means of cattle, Beans, peas and lentils were raised.

which were driven round and round the Artificial grasses, such as clover, lupins
threshing-floor, while a laborer, with a pitch- and vetches, were grown to furnish pro-
fork, threw the unthreshed ears into their vender for the cattle during the inundation.
path. The threshed corn was at once win- Flax was raised in great abundance for the
nowed, by being tossed into the air with linen out of which garments were made.
shovels, in a place where the draught of air Cotton, indigo, safflower, sesame, the ca.stor-
would blow off the chaif as the corn fell. oil plant, and various medicinal herbs were
After this operation the cleansed grain was also culti\-ated. Esculent vegetables, such
carried in sacks to the granarj', and there as garlic, onions, leeks, endive, radishes,
stored until used. melons, cucumbers, lettuces, etc., were like-

In a. harvest song, discovered by Chani- wise raised in considerable quantities, and

pollion at lulethyias, the oxen are repre- formed a large element in the food of the
.sented as mainly threshing for thcvisclvcs. people. The raising and harvesting of
The following is the song in hieroglyphics, different crops employed the agricul-
with its translation into English: tural class for the greater part of the year.
In addition to the yearl)- overflow of the
Nile, the countn,- was fertilized by irrigation

A in the form of a .system of canals, with em-

III I I I 1 Lk
bankments, .sluices and flood-gates, by
which the overflow was retained in vast
reser\'oirs, and thus utilized. This system
of irrigation was established at an early
date, and was maintained with the greatest
care by the government. In the distridl of
the Faioom, a natural depression in the
Libyan de.sert, eight or ten miles from the
/vvww\ 11 Xile valley, a canal was cut from the Nile,
thus filling this depression with water, and
forming an artificial lake, known as the
• I « »^ III
"Lake Mceris." From this innnense reser-

SONG OK THRESHERS TO OXEN. voir, canals were cut in all directions to

Translated as To/lows: irrigate the surrounding desert. In this
Tbresb for yourselves, region, by this system of irrigation, the cul-
Thresh for yourselves,

O Oxen! was rendered possible.

tivation of the olive
Thresh for yourselves, In the edge of the Nile valley, toward the
Thresh for yourselves.
Measures for yourselves, desert of Ildi^rr, where the soil was light and
Mea.sures for your masters. composed of sandmixed with gravel, the

The cultivation of barley was similar to vine was cultivated all the way from Thebes
that of wheat, and barley bread was in to Memphis. It was also grown in the

Faioom, and in the western part of the

great demand. Beer was also brewed from
the grain. doora was pulled up by the
The Delta. The fruit, after being gathered, was
roots, and the earth was then shaken off by carried in ba.skets to the, where

the hand. It was bound in sheaves and the juice was extra(5led by treading or
carried to a storehouse; and after it was dry squeezing in a bag. After fermentation, the

it was unbound and drawn by the hand wine was stored away in or amphorae
through an instrument, armed at one end of an elegant shape, closed with a stopper
with a set of metal spikes, which .separated and then hermetically sealed with moist
the heads from the straw. These were, per- clay, pitch, gypsum or other substance.

haps, then also threshed and winnowed. In the large estates of the rich land-own-
ciiirrzATroN. 73

ers the herdsmen were under the supervision The ancient Egyptians of everj- class de-
of overseers. The peasant who cultivated lighted in field-sports, and the peasants con-
the land on which the flocks and herds fed sidered it a duty, no than amu.sement,

was resp>onsible for their proper sujijiort and to hunt and kill the hyena and other wild
for the exacl account of the amount of food animals which annoyed them. The paint-
which they consumed. Some persons were ings show us numerous hunting scenes and
wholly employed in taking care of the sick various devices for catching birds and beasts.
animals, which were kept at home in the The lu-ena is u.sually represented as caught
farm-yard. The overseer of the shepherds in a trap. Wild oxen were caught by a
attended, at stated periods, to give a report noose or lasso, in very much the same man-
to the scribes connected with the estate, by ner as the vSouth Americans catch horses
whom it was submitted to the steward, who and cattle, thcmgh the Egyptians are not
was accountable to his employer for this represented as riding on honseback when
and all his other possessions. The paintings the)- u.sed it. The introduction of a bush
represent the head shepherd rendering his in one painting, just behind the man throw-
account, and behind him we see the flocks ing the, would seem to imply that the
assigned to his charge, con.sisting of the huntsman was concealed. Other wild ani-
sheep, goats and wild animals belonging to mals hunted were the hippopotamus, the
the person in the tomb. In one painting jackal, the fox, the crocodile, the porcupine,
the expres.sive attitude of this man, with the gazelle, the ibex, the hare, the antelope,
his hand at his mouth, is imagined to con- and even the ostrich. Wild cattle were also
vey the idea of his effort to remember the hunted. Lions, upon the borders of Egypt,
numbers which he is giving, from memory, were hunted by a few of the kings, but there
to the scribes. In another painting the is only one representation of a roj'al lion

numbers are written over the animals. The hunt. Sometimes lions were tamed, and
oxen are numbered eight hundred and were used in the chase of other animals, ac-
thirty-four, the cows two hundred and cording to a single painting. One king is
twenty, the goats three thousand two hun- represented as having "hunted a hundred
dred and thirty-four, the asses seven hun- and twenty elephants on account of their
dred and sixty, and the .sheep nine hundred tu.sks." Fishing and fowling were also fa-
and seventy-four. These are followed by a vorite sports among the Egyptians. Hounds
man carrying the young lambs in baskets were likewise used in pursuing game.
slung upon a pole. The .steward, in a lean- All the departments of agriculture, farm-
ing posture upon his staff, and accompanied ing, breeding cattle, etc., are illustrated in
by his dog, stands on one side; while the the paintings with wonderful accuracy- and
scribes, writing out their statement, occupy detail. We observe oxen lying on the
the other side. Another painting shows us ground, with legs pinioned, while herdsmen
men bringing baskets of eggs, flocks of are branding marks upon them with hot
geese,and baskets full of goslings. An irons, and other men are heating irons in the
Egyptian Gibbie is represented as

' ' fire. The paintings give us full accounts of

making obei.sance to his master. In still the king's kine, which are generally copied
another painting we see persons feeding sick after the fattest specimens. One of these
oxen, goats and geese. The ancient Egyp- represents the Pharaoh as himself a toler-
tians carried the art of curing in all ably exten.sive grazier, the king's ox being
kinds of animals to great perfection; and marked eighty-six. Another illustrates a
the testimony of ancient writers and paint- regular cattle-show; another the actual oper-
ings is sustained h\ a discover>' of Cuvier, ation of the veterinarv- art, cattle doctors
who found the left shoulder of a mummied being exhibited as performing operations
ibis fradlured and reunited, thus showing upon sick oxen, bulls, deer, goats and geese.
that human art inter\^ened in this The hieroglyphic denoting a physician is





the fowl whose cr\' is


quack' Quack !

tombs of kings hewn in the .solid rock,

Egyptian beasts of burden were asses, subterranean catacombs and the gigantic
cows and oxen. Horses were used for statue of Memnon, still bear witness to the
riding, for drawing curricles and chariots, immense and splendor of this great and
mainly b}- men of the upper classes, and for celebrated cit)-, ruins extend for seven
drawing the plow. Multitudes were re- miles along both banks of the Nile.
quired for the war-chariots and for the cav- The ancient Egyptians had a wonderful
alry service. A brisk trade in horses was building instinct, and architedture was the
carried on with Syria and Palestine, where greatest of all their arts. The distinguish-
they were in great demand and commanded ing features were ma.ssiveness and grandeur,
high prices. The horses of ancient Egypt \
in which they have never been surpas.sed.
were kept con.stantly in stables, fed on This great people delighted in pyramids,
straw and barley, and were not allowed to .sphinxes, obelisks and stupendous palaces
graze in the fields. The larger land-owners and temples, with massive columns and .spa-
also possessed wild animals, such as wild cious halls of solemn and gloomy grandeur,
goats, gazelles and oryxes; and also wild in which our largest cathedrals could stand,
fowl, such as the stork, the \-ulpanser adorned with elaborately-.sculptured colossal
others. Egyptian farmers also bred large statues, and connedled with which were ave-
numbers of sheep, goats and pigs. nues of .sphinxes and lines of obelisks.
Egypt has been an objecfl of interest to Their pyramids are the oldest, as well as
mankind in every age, as the birth-place of the largest and most wonderful of human
civilization, art and science. In this nar- works }'et remaining, and the beauty of their
row strip of country, "the Gift of the Nile," masonry, Wilkinson declares, has never
only seven miles wide and five hundred and been surpassed. An obelisk of a single
twent>-six miles long, were seven million stone now standing in Egypt weighs three
inhabitants. The Nile valley is studded hundred tons, and a colo.ssus of Rameses the
with the ruins of ancient Memphis, cities. Great nearly nine hundred tons; and Herod-
the chief citj- of Middle Egypt, or the Hep- otus describes a monolithic temple weigh-
tanomis, so called from its seven nomes, was ing fi\'e thousand tons, which was carried
situated about twelve miles south of the apex hundreds of miles on sledges, as were also
of the Delta, and as we have said, was the huge blocks of stone, .sometimes weigh-
founded by Menes, the first Egyptian king. ing sixteen thousand tons each, with which
In the vicinity of Memphis are the most the pyramids were built. In one instance
splendid of the pyramids, which extend for two thousand men were employed three
seventy miles on the west bank of the Nile, years in conveying a single stone from the
and among which are the famous Pyramids quarry to the strudlure in which it was to
of Ghizeh, already described. In this vi- be placed. There is a roof of a doorway at
cinity is also the Great Sphinx, or woman- K&rnak covered with sandstone blocks forty
headed lion, one hundred and forty-six feet feet long. Sculpture and bas-reliefs thirty-
long and thirty-six feet wide across the five or forty centuries old, in which the
shoulders. Here are also the ruins of the granite is cut with exquisite delicacy, are
famous Labyrinth, and miles on miles of yet to be seen throughout this famous land.
rock-hewn temples. The magnificent and The pyramids were all built on stridlly
stately Thebes, the hundred-gated city of scientific and mathematical principles.
Upper Egypt, or the Thebais, is said to have The obelisks, so on account of
extended over twenty-three miles. On its site their peculiar shape, were tall and slender
are the villages of Kaniak and Euxor, monoliths eredled at the gateways of tem-
where the ruins of magnificent and spacious ples, one standing on each side. From the
temples, splendid palaces, colossal .statues, quarries of Syene they were floated down the
avenues of obelisks and lines of .sphinxes, Nile on rafts during an annual overflow.
They were formed in accordance with a cer- was taken to Paris in 1833 and erecfted in
tain rule of proportion, and were from twenty the Place de la Concorde. Several others
to one hundred and tweuty-three feet high. had previously been removed to Rome.


The names and titles of the kings who Two faniou -ii^ks, after standing for
ere<5ted them were recorded in hieroglyphic eighteen centuries at the gate of the temple
carv'ings on the sides. An obelisk at Luxor of the sun at Heliopolis, where they had

been erected by King Thothnies III., were was transported to London a few years ago.
removed to Alexandria by the Romans just The other was shortly after transported to
after tlieir con(|nest of Kg>pt, in the time of New York, and is now one of the objects of
Augustus CiEsar. These were known at interest greeting the eye of the beholder in
Alexandria as Cleopatra's Needles, and one Central Park.

RUINS or TlCMl'Uii K.\RN.\K.


Egypt, renowned for its discoveries in art which our word paper is derived. The
and was the ancient world's univer-
science, third kind of writing was the demotic, that
sity, where Moses, Lycurgus and Solon, of the common people, so called from demos,
Pythagoras and Plato, Herodotus and Di- the people. The writing was executed with

odorus lawgivers, philosophers and his- a reed pen. The hierogljphics were traced

torians were students. The ancient Egyp- in black, but commenced in red, and the
tians had made considerable progress in the sculptured hieroglj-phs were also embellished
sciences, particularly astronomy, geometry, with colors. The hieroglyphic signs are
arithmetic, cheniistrj-, and an-
medicine pidtorial, and are of four kinds representa- —
atom}-. Their knowledge of astronomy is tive, figurative, determinative and phonetic.
proven by the accuracy with which they Much of this ancient literature has come
calculated solar and lunar eclipses; by their down to us in a fragmentary and di.scon-
mode of reckoning time and their knowledge ne(5led form. Remnants of papyrus man-
of the length of the year as being three uscripts of the most ancient Theban dy-
hundred and sixty-five days; by their knowl- nasties —about four thousand j^ears old
edge of the spherical shape of the earth; and are still in existence. The professional
by their abilitj' to compute latitude and lon- scribeswere from the priestly class.
gitude, as demonstrated by the facft that the The famous Roseffa Stone,
di.scover>' of the
tomb of Cheops, Suphis, or Khufu, the king during Bonaparte's Egyptian campaign, in
who built the largest of the three great Pyr- 1798, led to the deciphering of the hiero-
amids of Ghizeh, is located exadlly on the glyphic inscriptions on the monuments,
30th parallel of north latitude. which has been the means of throwing a flood
The ancient Egyptians had attained great of new light upon the history of ancient
skill in many of the finer mechanical arts, Egypt. All three forms of hieroglyphic
such as potter)-,manufacture of glass
the writing were unknown to the Greeks, to
and porcelain, dyeing and the making of whom the monumental in,scriptions were in-
linen and cotton goods. They likewise ex- terpreted b)' the Egyptian priests. The
celled in the polishing and engraving of key to these writings was lost, thus conceal-
precious stones, and in metallurg)-. Mining ing the treasures of Eg>ptian learning from
was one of their industries. Their walls the civilized world for centuries. The cop-
and ceilings were painted in beautiful pat- ies of the three kinds of inscriptions on the
terns, which moderns yet imitate; and in Ro.setta Stone — the hieroglyphic, the de-
the producflion of useful and ornamental motic and the Greek — given to European
articles the^^ ha\-e never befen surpassed, scholars, were the means of opening this
either in ancient or modern times. long-sealed library- on stones and papyri. In
The language of the ancient Egyptians 1815 Dr. Young, the English Egyptologist,
was related to the languages of the Semitic discovered the key to the texts, and the
nations, but differed from them in many distinguished French Egyptologist, Cham-
particulars. There were different diale(5ts pollion, made a successful application of the
in Upper and Lower Egypt. newly-discovered key. The Rosetta Stone
The Egj'ptians pracfticed the art of writing is now in the British Museum.
far more extensively than any other ancient The ancient Egyptians surpassed all othe:
people. The pyramids and monuments, nations in their love for recording all human
even to the most remote antiquity, bear in- adlions. They preserved in writing, on
scriptions, and it was the custom to mark papyrus, a record of all the details of private
every article of use or ornament. There life with surprising method and regu-
were three kinds of writing in use. For laritj-. Ever}^ >'ear, month, week and day
monumental inscriptions hieroglj-phics were had its record of transacftions. This incli-
used. For documents the writing was exe- nation fully accounts for Egypt being the
cuted on leaves of the papyrus plant, from monumental land. No other human records


— whether of Chaldnen, go
India or China — The ancient Egyptian tombs likewise ex-
as far back into remote do those
antiijuity as hibit scenes of domestic life and customs
of Egypt. Bunsen says: "The genuine similar to of our own times. We
EgA'ptian writing is fully as old as Menes, ob.serve monkeys trained to gather fruit

the founder of the Old Knipire, perhaps from the trees in an orchard, houses fur-

three thousand years before Christ." Lep- nished with a great variety of chairs, tables,
sius saw the hieroglyph of the reed and ink- ottomans, carjjets, couches, as elegant and
stand on the monuments of the Fourth elaborate as any u.sed at the present day.
Dynasty. Herodotus remarked: "No Egyp- There are likewise seen comic pictures of
tian omits taking accurate note of extraor- parties, where ladies and gentlemen are

dinarj- and striking events." Everything sometimes represented as being the worse
was recorded. Scribes are everj'where seen for wine; of dances, where ballet-girls in

on the monuments, taking accounts of the short dresses perform pirouettes of the mod-
products of the farms, going into the most em kind; of exercises in wrestling, games
minute details, even so far as to giving of ball, games of chance like chess or check-
account of ever\- single egg and
chicken. Bunsen further says: "In
spite of the ravages of time, and
though systematic excavation has
commenced, we possess
scarcely yet
chronological records of a date prior
to any period of which manuscripts
are preser\-ed, or the art of writing
existed in any other quarter.
It is owing to their fondness for recording '

ers; of throwing knives at a mark; of the

everjthing, both in pictures and in three modem wooden dolls for
thimble-rig, chil-
kinds of writing ; also to their fondness for dren, curiously-carved wooden boxes, dice
building and excavating temples and tombs and toy-balls. We have likewise presented
in imperishable granite and lastly, to the
; to our view men and women playing on
which has preserved for us
drj'ness of the air harps, flutes, pipes, cymbals, trumpets,
these paintings, and to the sand which has drums, guitars and tambourines. We find
buried the monuments, thus preventing their glass to have been in general use by this

destruction it is owing to all these circum- great people nearly four thousand years
stances that we have so wonderfully pre- ago, as early as the reign of Usurtasen I.,

ser\-ed, for forty-five centuries, the account and we can see pictures of glass-blowing
of the everyday life, thoughts and religious and glass bottles as far back as the Fourth
belief of this renowned ancient people. Dynasty. The most skillful Venetian glass-
The most ancient mural paintings reveal workers can not rival some of the old
a state of the arts of civilization so perfedl Egj'ptian glass-work; as the Eg^'ptians
as to excite the wonder of archteologists, could combine all colors in one cup, place
who therefore know how few new things gold between two surfaces of glass, and
there are under the sun. We find houses finish in glass details of feathers, etc.,
with doors, windows and verandas, likewise which can not be distinguished without the
barns for grain, vineyards, gardens, fruit use of the microscof)e. This last fadl dem-
trees, etc. We also see pictures of marching onstrates that they must have understood
troops, armed with spears and shields, bows, the use of the magnifying-glass. The Egyp-
slings, daggers, axes, maces and the boome- tians likewise imitated with success the col-
rang. We also notice coats of mail, stand- ors of precious stones, and were even able to
ards, war-chariots, and the assault on forts make statues thirteen feet high, closely re-
by means of scaling-ladders. sembling an emerald. They made mosaics
in glass of colors of wonderful brilliancy. description of Egyptian customs and man-
They were able to cut glass in the most ners here given is but a small part of that
ancient periods. bottles have also revealed to us in painting or .sculpture in the
been found in previousl5--unopened tombs tombs, or upon the walls of Thebes or Beni-
of the Eighteenth Dynasty, .showing that Ha.ssan.
there must ha\-e been commercial intercourse At their feasts, which were numerous
as far back as that period. The Egyptians among the rich, the host and hostess pre-
could spin and weave and color cloth, and sided. The seats were single or double
understood the use of mordants, as in mod- chairs, but numbers sat on the ground. The
ern calico printing. Pliny described this servants decked the guests with lotus flow-
art as practiced in Egypt. ers, and placed meat, cakes, fruits and
The art of making writing-paper from the other articles of food on the small tables in
papyrus, or paper-plant, is as ancient as the front of them. Hired musicians and dancers
Pyramids. The Egyptians tanned leather entertained company. Their games
and made shoes and the shoemakers are
: were something like our chess or checkers.
represented as working on their benches The rich rode in chariots, or in heavy car-
preci-sely as do our own. Their carpenters riages drawn by oxen. Women received
u.sed axes, saws, chisels, drills, planes, nders, more and enjoyed more
respectful treatment
plummets, squares, hammers, nails, and freedom in Egypt than in any of the Asi-
hones for shai-pening. They likewise knew atic nations.

the of glue in cabinet-making, and there Games of ball were played by females, as
are paintings in veneering, in which a piece well as by males, and one pidlure shows us
of thin, dark wood is fastened by glue to a that the loser was obliged to allow the win-
coarser piece of light wood. Their boats ner to ride on her back.
were propelled by sails on yards and masts, Egyptian shops furnished many curious
as well as by oars. They used the blow- scenes. Poulterers suspended and
pipe in making gold chains and other orna- other fowls from a pole in front of the shop,
ments. They had rings of gold and silver which also supported an awning to .shade
for monej', and weighed it in carefully-con- them from the sun. Man}- of the shops re-
structed scales. Their hieroglyphics are semliled our stalls, being open in front, with
carved on the hardest granite so delicately the goods set on the shelves or hanging
and accurately as to indicate the use of me- from the inner wall; a custom still prevail-
tallic cutting instruments harder than our ing in the East. In the Egyptian kitchens
best steel. The siphon was known to these were likewise exhibited singular scenes,
people as earh- as the fifteenth centun,- before among which we find representations of a
Christ. The wig was worn by all the higher cook roasting a He holds the spit,
classes, who constantly shaved their heads, with one hand, and blows the fire with a fan
as well as their chins, and frequently wore in the other. Another person is seen cutting
false beards. In the tombs are found san- up joints of meat and putting them into the
dals, shoes and low boots, .some of them pot, which is boiling close at hand while ;

ver}- elegant. Loose robes, ear-rings, finger- meat are lying on the table.
other joints of
rings, bracelets, armlets, anklets and gold Egyptian artists and .scribes put their reed
necklaces were worn by women. Vases for pens behind their ears, when examining the
ointment, mirrors, combs, needles, etc., are effe(5l of the painting or listening to a per-
fomid in the toml)s. These people had .son on business, as in a modern counting
their dodlors and drugs. The prevalence of room. The paintings in some instances rep-
the pa.ssport system is also .shown by the resent the scribe at work with a spare j-yen
careful descriptions of the person contained behind his ear, his tablet upon his knee, and
in their deeds, in precisely the same style as his writing-case and inkstand on the table required by travelers in Europe. The in front of him.

The dress of tlie highest class consisted of the slicitti, a short linen or woolen garment,
folded or fluted, and worn around the loins, being fastened with a girdle. A fine linen robe,
reaching to the feet, was worn over this, being provided with long sleeves reaching to the
elbows. A second girdle fastened the outer robe to the waist. The arms and lower parts

Kc;VPTI.\N GUKST.S TO WHO.M WINi:, oil. .\.N1) r..\RI,.\Nl)S ARli. BROl'GHT.

of the legs wereleft bare. Sandals or shoes of leather, or of jiahn-leaves or papyrus stalks,
were worn by the rich of both sexes. The Egyptian lords wore ornaments, such as collars
of beads or gold chains round their necks, armlets and bracelets of gold round the arms,
rings upon the fingers, and anklets round the ankles. The Egyptian women wore a
single garment, tied at the neck or fastened by straps over the .shoulders, and reaching
from the neck or breast to the feet but ; sphinxes and small figures. In two cases
those of the upper class wore over this a are illustrated large granite colossi, sur-

colored sash, passed twice around the waist rounded with scaffolding, on which are rep-
and tied in front, and over this second gar- resented men employed in polishing and
ment a large, loose, fine linen robe with full chiseling the stone; the painter coloring the

open sleeves, reaching to the elbow. They hieroglyphics which the .sculptor had en-
wore sandals like the men, and the same graved on the back of the statue.
ornaments, with the addition of ear-rings Stone-cutting embraced the occupations
in the form of serpents or ending in the of quarrj'ing and shaping blocks for the
heads of animals or of goddesses. Elegant builder, and of cutting, polishing and en-
head-dresses were woni. graving gems. The Egyptians are still
The most important trades among the without rivals in the former branch. Blocks
Egyptians were those of building, stone- of stone were usually cut with a single-

cutting, weaving, furniture-making, char- handed saw in the hands of a single sawyer.
iot-making, glass-blowing, potter)-, metal- Sometimes the pick and chisel were used to
lurgy, boat-building and embalming. The a considerable extent, after which wedges
of drj- wood were in.serted and ;

these expanded on being wetted,

and split off the required block
from the mass of stone in the quarry.
The tools used were mostly of
bronze. Blocks of stone, obtained
from the quarries, were finally
smoothed and prepared for use bj-
means of the chi.sel and mallet.
The Egyptians carried on an ex-
tensive commerce with other coun-
tries ; importing gold, ivor>-, ebony,
skins and slaves from Ethiopia and
Central Africa, incense from Ara-
bia, and .spices and gems from India;
and exporting, in exchange for articles, grain and cloth. As
the Egyptians had not attained
much skill in the art of ship-build-
ing, their trade was carried on prin-
cipally by Greek and Phoenician
\ merchants.
Eg3'ptian sculpture was designed
to illustrate the religious faith of
the people, and for this reason was
charadlerized by grandeur and sub-
builders worked in wood, stone and brick. limity rather than beauty. Their peculiar
The mechanical excellence of their works is ta.ste was the outgrowth of their religious
fully attested bj- their continuance to the ideas, for the aim was to inspire awe rather
present day. than please the eye with graceful and ele-
The paintings frequently allude to the gant forms. This checked all progress in
occupations of the mason, the stone-cutter art, for all inventive genius was fettered by
and the sculptor. Workmen are represented conventional rules founded on religions Ije-

polishing and painting statues of men. liefs. Colossal statues, uncouth allegorical

figures and strange ideal fonns of animals even Osiris. The forms of the gods are all

supplied the place of nature and beauty more or less repulsive; the stiff outlines, the

in Eg>^ptian art. Painting, as illustrated close-fitting robes, the large hands and feet,
by the specimens in the interiors of tem- the frequent animal heads and innnense
ples and sepulchers, was likewise intended head-dresses, the ugly or inexpressive faces,
to ser\-e the cause of religion, and was recall the mon.strosities of the religious re-
trammeled by the same conventional rules, presentations of Brahminism and
certain colors being strictlj' prescribed in The drawings, mostl\- of a .serious nature,

representing the bodies and draperies of the are of four kind.s — i, religiotis, where wor-
gods, thus sacrificing variety of form to an ship, especially sacrifice, is offered to the
ideal mouotou)-. The painting was often gods, or where the gods .sustain the king, or
executed in brilliant coloring, but the draw- where the soul passes through scenes it will
ing lacked accurac>-, exhibiting no compli- endure after death; 2, processional, where the
ance with the rules of perspective or the monarch goes in state, or where tribute is
plainest laws of vision. The pigments brought to him, or where the pomp of a fun-
used were characterized by durability and eral, or the installation of an official, or some

often b)- brilliancy. other civil ceremony, forms the subjedt; 3,

Ancient Egj'ptian embracesscu.pture ivar scenes, such as land and naval battles,
statuary; reliefs, or representations of forms sieges of forts, marches of armies, the return
on a flat .surface by means of a certain pro- home with bootj- and captiA-es, etc. ; 4, scenes
jedlion; and intaolios. or representations by of ordinary life, as exclusively represented in
cutting the fonns into stone or marble, thus the tombs, where the houses and goods, the
sinking them below the surtace. Completely occupations, the hunting scenes, the enter-
detached statues are rare in Egypt. The tainments, and the amusements of the de-
statues were cut out of stone. There are cea.sed are depicted.These tomb scenes are
grotesque figures of Phthah and Bes, which the most numerous and the most interesting;
produce disgust and aversion. Egyptian and here the Egyptians are sportive and
statuary' was distinguished for amusing, exhibiting playfulness and humor,
and strength. The statuettes, in bronze, and even approaching caricature.
basalt or terra-cotta, are less dignified than In painting the Egyptians drew figures
the statues, but possess more elegance and of men and animals, and also of other ob-
grace. The Great Sphinx, near the Pyra- jects, in outline on a white background,
mids of Ghizeh, is a .striking monument, and then filled in the outline, wholly or
and impresses the beholder with its air of partially, with ma.sses of uniform hue, prac-
impassive dignity. Other sphinxes have a ticing no shading or .softening of the tints.
certain calmness and grandeur. There are All the exposed parts of a man's body were
also statuettes of bulls, monkeys and dogs, colored with a uniform red-brown; all the
which are fairly good. •
exposed portions of a woman's body, with a
Animal forms are excellent, but the chief lighter red or a yellow. Except in the case
defecfls of P'gyptian drawings are improper of foreigners, the hair and beard were pitch-
proportion and incorrect perspecti\-e. The black. Dresses were mostly white, with
have the same defedls in this re-
bas-reliefs their folds marked by lines of red or brown,
spedl as their statues and statuettes; and and were sometimes striped or otherwise
there is a frequent intrusion of hideous patterned, generalh- red or blue. Most
forms, as seen in the three huge and mis- large surfaces were more or less patterned,
shapen figures, so frequently seen upon the generally with small patterns of various
ceilings of temples, aud which are suppo.sed colors, including much of white. The stone
to represent

' the heavens.

' Bes in all his on which the Eg^'ptians painted —whether
forms is fearful to behold: as are also Taou- sandstone, fossiliferous limestone, or granite
ris, Savak, Cerberus, Khem, and sometimes — was covered with a coating of stucco,
which was white or whitish and prevented which is heightened
.sculpture, the effedl of

the colors from Ijeing lost by sinking into by the painter's on the inside walls of

the background. Besides black, white, the great temple-palace. The temples and
red,blue and yellow, they used green, palaces of Thebes exhibit a similar degree
brown and gray, as colors in their paint- of form and color, which appear almost as
ings. The black is a bone-black. The perfedt as if they had just come from the
white is prepared from pure chalk with a artist's hand.
light trace of iron. The red and the yellow- As we .shall observe, the belief of the future
are ochres, the coloring matter being iron reunion of the soul and body was the reason
mixed with the earthy
substance. The Ijhie

is derived from the ox-

ide of copper combined
with pulverized
The green is the same
preparation combined
with yellow ochre.
The l>rown is a mix-
ture of blue-black with
the red. The colors
were mixed with water
and with a moderate
amount of gum, to
inake the mixture ad-
hesive and tenacious.
They were applied to
a stuccoed flat surface,

or to figures in relief or intaglio. taken to preser\-e the latter from decay, as

The great temple-palace of Rameses 1 1 1, at exemplified in the singular custom of em-
Medinet-Abu full\- illustrates the combined balming the dead, which was the uni^•ersal
effe(5ts of painting and .sculpture in Egypt. pracftice among this celebrated people, and
On the north-east wall of this ruined struc- also in the great pains taken to ornament
ture is represented, in painting, the king on a the insides of the rock-hewn supulchers, the
hawk-headed figure
throne, in.scribed with a dead body in the
belief pre\-ailing that the
leading a lion and .sphinx. Behind the tomb was not entirely unconscious.
king are the winged effigies of Truth and While other nations embellished the tem-
Justice. Twehe royal princes bear the ples and palaces of the living, the ancient
shrine, and high officers of .state ^va^e their Eg>'ptians decorated their tombs, the recep-
august sovereign, while
labella before their tacles of the dead, with la\ish splendor.
priests carry his arms and insignia. The Many of these highly-ornamented sepulchral
monarch's sons bear the footstool of his chambers .seem only accessible through long,
throne, and are accompanied by .scribes and narrow and intricate passages. The entrances
great warriors. There is .seen a to others seem to be closed with the stricftest
])roce.ssion of .scholars, fan-bearers and sol- care, and hidden with reverential san<5tity.
diers. A great scribe delivers a jiroclama- A necropolis, or '

' city of the dead,


' belonged
mation from a roll of papyrus, and the to each city or nome. In the rock-hewn sep-
high-])riest burns before the shrine. ulchers of Memphis and Thebes were treas-
Birds fly in every dire(5tion, as if to spread ured up all the scenes in which the living
Pharaoh's fame to every quarter of the monarch and his subjects had figured.
world. This is but a part of the elaborate Egypt abounds ^\ith inniiense tombs, whose
CIV1LI/-AT10N. 85

walls, like those of the temples, are adorned The Egyptian lawgivers, having recog-
with the most wonderful paintings, exeeuted nized this provi.sion as es.sential to the
three and four thousand years ago. In public health, .secured its universal and
these paintings, the entire country, with all permanent pradlice by associating it with
its natural productions, its vegetables, ani- the doctrines of the soul's immortality and
mals, birds, fishes, and the people in all their the metempsychosis, or transmigration of
private and domestic occupations, are delin- the .soul. It was believed that every spirit,

eated with a remarkable fidelity of outline upon leaving the bod)-, must through
and an extraordinary richness of coloring. a predestined cycle of three thou-sand years,
Religion was at the foundation of the ex- entering successively into the bodies of
traordinary care which the E.gyptians be- various animals, xuitil it returned to the
stowed upon their dead. The whole art of human body from which it had departed.

embalming the body the preparing, the Whenever the body which ithad last left
bandaging, the anointing, in faCl the entire became subject to corruption the course of
process of forming the inunnny was a duty — its migrations was suspended; the end of its

of the priests. This remarkable custom was long journey and its ardently-wished-for re-
a universal national usage among the an- turn to more exalted states of existence was
cient and had an inseparable
Egyptians, delaj'ed. For this rea.son the utmost care
conneclion with their religious dogmas and was taken to pre,ser\-e the bodies of human
sentiment. The origin of this singular beings and animals, and .secure them forever
pradlice has been traced to the local circum- from decomposition and putrefadtion. Thus
stances of the country. In Egypt the cus- this u.sage was enforced by stringent and
toms of burning and burying the dead, which sacred laws, and certain orders of the priest-
have prevailed among other nations, were hood were expressly empowered with the
impradlicable, — the first, because the country duty of carr^-ing it into execution. Em-
produces little timber, and its fruit-trees, balming w-as performed with .solenui relig-
such as the date-palm and others, are too ious rites. Herodotus tells us that when a
valuable for ordinary consumption: and the body was found seized by a crocodile, or
second, in the narrow Nile valley drowned in the Nile, the city upon whose
all the land available for agricultural pur- territory- the body was cast was obliged to
poses was required for the sustenance of take it in charge and to it to be em-
the dense population, and also balmed and interred in a sepulcher.
the annual inundation of the Nile would The tombs of the wealthy consisted of one
have washed up the bodies and generated or more chambers, ornamented with paint-
pestilence. The rock)- mountain ranges on ings and sculpture, the place and size o
each side of the river .seemed designed by which depended on the which the
nature for sepulchers; but the multitudes of family of the deceased incurred, or on the
the dead could not with .safety be heaped wishes of the persons who purchased them
together in a state of decomposition, even in
during their lifetime. These sepulchers were
the inmost chambers of their rocks, without ! owned by the priests; and as a sufficient
breeding pestilence. Ancient Egypt was number w-ere always held in readiness, the
remarkably free from the epidemic plagfues purchase was made at the shortest possible
which now desolate the Nile land, on ac- notice, even the sculptures and in.scriptions
count of the universal praiflice of embalm- being so far complete as to require only the
ing the dead, which cut off one chief .source insertion of the name of the deceased, and a
of noxious vapors. This peculiar custom few^ statements concerning his family and
was, therefore, a wise sanitary regulation, profes.sion. The numerous subjects illus-
adopted by the priestly lawgivers, and in- trating agricultural life, the trades and occu-
corporated with the civil and religious in.sti- pations of the i)eo])le, their diversions, etc.,
tutions of ihe nation. were already introduced. These were the
1— 6.-U. H.
same in all the tombs, diflfering only in their ceased, ratherthan his sepulcher. These
detailsand the manner of their execution, apartments served for the reception of the
and were probably designed as a brief epit- friends of the deceased, who often met there,
ome of human life, being adapted equally and accompanied the priests when perform-
to every future occupant. In some cases all ing the .services for the dead. Tombs were
the paintings of the tomb were completed, built of brick or stone, or cut in the solid
and even the small figures representing rock, according to the position of the ne-
the tenant were introduced, only those of cropolis. The rock-hewn tombs were pre-
larger size l)eing left unsculptured, because ferred wherever the mountains were near
they required more accuracy in the features enough to the Nile, and were usually
to give a corTe(5t portrait. In .some instances the most elegant in design and variety of
even the large figures were finished before sculpture. The sepulchers of the poorer
the tomb was sold, only the hierogl3-phic classes had no upper chamber. The coffins
legends containing the names of the tenant of these were laid in pits in the plain, or in
and his wife remaining to be inserted. The recesses at the side of a rock. Mummies
priests often sold old mummy-cases and of the lower orders were interred together
tombs belonging to other persons, altering in a common and the remains

the and giving the name

hieroglyphics of those whose were too poor to de-
of the new tenant. This was especially the defray the of a funeral, after being
case when the purchaser was satisfied, from cleansed and kept in an alkaline solu-
motives of economy, with a second-hand tion for seventy days, were wrapped up in
tenement for the remains of his departed coarse cloth, in mats or in a bundle of palm
friend. sticks, and laid in the earth.
The was invariably prepared as a
tomli We have the following account of the
husband and
resting-place for the bodies of a funeral of Nophri-Othph, a priest of Amun,
his wife. Whichever died first was interred at Thebes, from the walls of his tomb. The
in the .sepulcher, or was kept embalmed in scene of the funeral was on the lake, and on
the house until the death of the other. The the way from the lake to the .sepulcher. At
manner which husband and wife are
in the head of the procession was a large boat
always represented, with their arms around conveying the bearers of flowers, cakes and
each other's waist or neck, illustrates the many things relating to the offerings, tables,
aflfecftionate di.sposition of the ancient Egyp- chairs and other articles of furniture, as
tians. The presence of the different rela- well as the friends of the deceased, these
tives, who are introduced in the performance being con.spicuous by their dresses and their
ofsome tender office to the deceased friend, long walking-sticks, the distinguishing mark
shows the attachment of a family to its de- of Egyptian gentlemen. Next came a small
parted relatives. skiff, carrj'ing baskets of cakes and fruit,

Besides the upper rooms of the Egyptian with a supply of green palm-branches, which
tombs, which were ornamented with the it was the custom to strew in the way as
paintings already described, there were pits, the body was being conveyed to the tomb;
from twenty to seventy feet deep, at the the smoothness of the palm-lea\-es and
bottom and sides of which were recesses, stalks making it easy for the sled to glide
like small chambers, for the reception of the over them. The lo\-e of caricature, so gen-
coffins. The pit was closed with masonry eral among the Egyptians, even in so serious
after the interment of the body, and was, in a matter as a funeral, is exemplified in this
.some cases, reopened to receive the other portion of the scene. A large boat having
members of the family. The upper apart- run aground and being pushed off the bank,
ments were profusely ornamented with struck a smaller one with its rudder, and
painted sculptures, thus bearing the char- overturned a large table, loaded with cakes
acter of a monument in honor of the de- and other things, upon the heads of the

rowers seated below, iiotwiUistaiuliiig all — were likewise embalmed. It is said that

the exertions of a man in the jirow, and more than four hundred million munnnics
the vehement cries of the frightened helnis- of human beings were made in Ivgypt. In

niau. recent years many of mummies have

In another boat were men carn,-ing been brought from the land of the Pha-
bunches of flowers and boxes supported by raohs to our nui.seiuns. Tombs have been
yokes on their shoulders. Then followed opened revealing thousands of them in rows
two other boats, one convejang the male one upon another, without coffins. vShip-
mourners, and the other the female mourn- loads of them have been transported to

ers, standing on the roof of the cabin, beat- England, and ground up for fertilizers for

ing themselves, uttering cries and making the .soil.

other demonstrations of grief. At last came

the consecrated boat, carr>'ing the hearse,
around which were the chief mourners and
the female relatives of the deceased. Upon
arriving at the opposite shore of the lake,
the procession marched to the catacombs.
On their way, several women of the vicinity,
carrj'ing their children in shawls, suspended
from the side or back, joined in the lamen-
tations of the funeral train. The nuunmy
was set in a standing position in the cham-
ber of the tomb; and the sister, wife or
nearest relative, embracing it, began a
funeral dirge, calling upon the deceased
with ever}' expres.sion of affection, extolling
his virtues and bewailing her own great
loss. The high-priest presented a sacrifice The embalmers of dead bodies constituted
of incense and libation, with offerings of a numerous class among the ancient Egyp-
cakes and other usual gifts for the dead; tians, and must have carried on a prosper-

and the male and female mourners con- ous trade, if the prices mentioned by Dio-
tinued the wailing, throwing dust upon dorus were ac?tually usually exadted.
their heads, and making other demonstra- According to the Sicilian historian, the most
tions of grief. improved method of preparing a for
Another painting represents the judgment interment cost a sum which, in our money,
of a wicked soul, which is condemned to would amount to about a thousand dollars.
return to earth in the form of a pig, having A secondary and much inferior method re-
been weighed in the scales before Osiris and quired an expenditure amounting to about
found wanting. It is put in a boat, and, four hundred dollars. The lowest and
attended by two monkeys, is expelled from poorest classes had a third method, the
heaven, all intercourse with which is sym- price of which was comparatively mod-
bolically cut off by a man hewing away the erate; but the vast numbers of this class
ground behind it with an axe. must have made the profits to the em-
During the whole period of seventj'-two balmers considerable. It has been esti-

days of mourning for the dead, the process mated that between B. C. 2000 and A. D.
of embalming the body was performed. 700, when embalming ceased, there may
This embalming was perfonned by the physi- have been interred in Egypt four hundred
cians, who, as we have obser\'ed, were of and twenty million munuiiied corpses, a\'er-
the priestly order. Vast numbers of sacred aging one hundred and fiftj'-five thousand
animals —bulls, apes, dogs, cats, sheep, etc. yearly. If five-sixths of these, or one hun-
dred and thirty thousand, belonged to the and kept in place with gum. After the ban-
lower classes, while two-fifteenths, or twenty daging, an outer linen shroud, dyed red with
thousand, may have been furnished by the the cavihamus iinfloriiis, and ornamented
middle classes, and one-thirtieth, or five with a network of porcelain beads, was put
thousand, b)- the wealthy classes, and if over the entire body; or the bandaged body
the poor man paid one-twentieth of the was covered by a "cartonnage," composed
price paid by those of the upper middle class, of twenty-four layers of linen tightly pressed
the annual amount received by the embalm- and glued together, thus forming a kind of
ers would have exceeded fifteen million dol- pasteboard envelope, which was then thinly
lars of our money. coated with stucco, and painted in bright
The process of embalming was very an- colors with hieroglyphics and figures of
cient in Egypt, and by the time of the deities The bod}- was then placed within a
Eighteenth Dynasty the art had reached a wooden coffin shaped similarly, and in most
remarkable degree of perfe(5tion. In the instances similarh- ornamented; and this
most expensive system, the brain was ex- coffin was often enclosed within another, or

tra (fled with great skill by a cur\^ed, bronze within several, each just capable of holding
implement through the nostrils, after which the preceding one. In the funerals of the
the skull was washed out with certain medi- wealthy the coffined body was placed
caments. The nostrils were plugged up, within a stone chest, or sarcophagus, which
the eyes were removed and their places sup- might be of granite, alabaster, basalt, brec-
plied with artificial ones of ivory or ob- cia or other good material, and was either
sidian, and the hair was likewise sometimes rectangular or in the form of the mummied
removed and placed in a separate packet, bod}-. Some sarcophagi were plain, but
covered with linen and bitumen. An open- many were adorned with sculptures in re-

ing was cut in the right side with a flint lief or intaglio, embracing mainly scenes and
knife, through which the entire intestines passages from the most sacred of Egy-ptian
were removed by the hand and deposited in writings, the "Ritual of the Dead."
sepulchral urns. The cavity was then When the family or relatives were unable
cleansed by an injection of palm-wine, and or indisposed to incur the large re-
.sometimes by a subsequent infusion of quired by this costly mode of embalming, a
pounded aromatics; after which it was filled cheaper method was adopted. The viscera,
with bruised mj'rrh, cassia, cinnamon and instead of being deposited with spices in
other spices. The whole body was then separate urns, could be returned into the
immersed in natron for seventy days. The body, accompanied by wax images of the
finger-nails were kept in place with thread, four genii. The abdominal cavity could be
or by means of silver gloves or stalls placed only cleansed with cedar oil, and not filled

over the fingers. A tin plate, in.scribed with spices. The silver finger-stalls and
with the symbolic eye, was laid .over the artificial eyes could be dispensed with. The
incision in the right side. The arms were bandages could be reduced in number and

arranged symmetrically along the sides, or made of coarser linen. The ornamentation
on the breast or groins. The body was then could be simpler. A single wooden coffin
bandaged. Linen bandages were always would be sufficient, and the sarcophagus
u.sed, and were generally three or four might be done without. Thus the expense
inches wide and .several yards long. The of funerals could be reduced within mode-
coarser linen was nearest the body, the finer rate limits.
towards the outside. In some instances the A still cheaper mode was necessary for
bandages in which a single was the poorer classes. Sometimes the bodies
swathed were over .seven hundred, or, ac- of the poor were submerged in mineral pitch.
cording to Pettigrew, over a thousand j-ards Often they were only dried and salted.
long. The bandages were joined together Bodies prepared in this manner are in some


cases swathed in bandages, but are frequently others in layers, one above the other. The
only wrapped These
in coarse cloths or rags. expense of these modes of embalming was
bodies are not enclosed in coffins, and have .so trifling as to be within the reach of the
been only buried in the ground, some singly, poorest.


lONCERNING the Egyptians, in historv', possessed an established mythol-
Herodotus says "They are of
: og}-, that is, a series of gods. Before the
all men the most excessively empire of Menes the separate Egj'ptian
attentive to the worship of the states had their temple worship regularlj-

gods." of the theology, organized.

m3'thology and ceremonies of the Hebrews M. Maun,-, the French Egj'ptologist, saj'S
and Greeks had their origin in Egj'pt. He- that everything among the Egyptians took
rodotus further says: '
'The names of almost the stamp of religion. Their writing was
all the gods came from Egypt to Greece." so full of sacred symbols as to render it
He also states that the Greek oracles, es- almost useless for any other purpose. Lit-
pecially that of Dodona, were brought from erature, science and art were branches of
Eg^'pt, and that the Egyptians first intro- theology- and worship. The most common
duced public festivals, processions and sol- labors of daily life were constantly inter-
emn supplications, which the Greeks learned
from them. He goes on to say: "The Eg>'p-
tians are beyond measure scrupulous in mat-
ters of religion." They invented the calen-
dar and connedled astrology with it. Says
Herodotus Each month and day is as-


signed to some particular god, and each per-

son's birthday- determines his fate." He like-
wise says :

' The Egyptians were also the

first to say that the soul of man is immortal
and that it transmigrates through everv^ va-
rvG.\x of animal." The Greek Mysteries of
Eleusis were taken from those of Isis, and
the storj^ of the wanderings of Ceres in pur-
suit of Proserpine was borrowed from that of
Isis in search of Osiris. Modem writers
agree with Herodotus. Wilkinson says :

"The Eg>-ptians were unquestionably the

most pious nation of all antiquity. The old-
est monuments show their belief in a future
life. And Osiris, the Judge, is mentioned
in tombs two thousand j-ears before Christ."
Bunsen says: "It has at last been ascer-
tained that all the great gods of Egypt are rupted by some reference to priesth- regula-
on the oldest monuments." He goes on to tion. The future fate of every Egyptian
say: "It is a great and astonishing facft, es- was perpetually before him, so that he only
tablished bej'oud possibility of doubt, that hved to worship the gods. When the sun
the empire of Menes, on its first appearance set, it seemed to die; when it arose, it seemed


a symbol of the resurrecftion. Religion Bun.sen and Wilkinson thought that they
penetrated so deeply into the people's hab- had succeeded in tracing them from the
its that it became an instin<5t. It was of monuments. Thus there were eight gods of
all polj-theisms the last to give way to the first order, twelve gods of the second
Christianity, retaining its votaries as late order, and seven gods of the third order.
as the sixth century of the Christian era. The gods of the first order were of a higher
The ancient Egyptian religionwas a and more spiritual class; of the second
perplexing mixture of monotheism and order were a transition from the first order
polytheism, of lofty and noble conceptions to the third —children of the first and
and of degrading superstitions. parents of the third. The first order of
The sacred books of the ancient Egyp- gods was for the priesthood, and taught them
tians contained the religion of the priests, the unity, spirituality and creative power of
who were and considered it im-
raonotheists the One True and Indi\-isible Supreme
pious to represent the Supreme Being by Being.
images and idols; but they made him known The gods of the third order were for the
to the masses by personifying his various masses of the people, and were the personal
attributes and manifestations, as Phthah the agents which represented the forms and
Creator, Amun the Revealer, and Osiris the which was believed
forces of external nature,
Benefactor and Judge, and so on through an by the ignorant masses work through this
innumerable list of primary, secondary and third series of gods, the most popular of
tertiary characflers, which, to the untutored which were Osiris and Isis. The gods of
masses, became so many separate deities, the second or intermediate order were neither
thus accounting for the polytheistic faith of so abstracft as those of the first order, nor so
the lower classes. Some portion of the di- concrete as those of the third order —not rep-
vine was believed to pervade plants
life resenting either the spiritual charadleristics
and animals, which were consequently cher- of the gods of the first, or the natural
ished and worshiped by the ignorant; for qualities and forces of those of the third
what to the wise and learned were merely class, but rather the powers and faculties of
symbols became to the people distindt ob- human beings. For this reason most of the
jec5ts of adoration; and the Egyptian priests, deities of this second class were adopted by

like other ancient philosophers, disdained to the Greeks, whose religious sj-stem was es-

enlighten the people, whom they despised sentiallyfounded on hunian nature, and
and deemed incapable of comprehending whose gods and goddesses were mainly the
their grand conceptions, and whom they de- imaginary representations of human char-
sired to hold in subservience to their own adleristics.

and the kingly authority. The eight gods of the first order were
Thus there were two kinds of Egyptian believed to constitute a process of divine

theology esoteric, or an interior theology, development, and were supposed to exercise
for the initiated, and exoteric, or an ex- the power of revealing themselves. These
terior theology, for the uninitiated. The eight divinities, according to Bunsen, were
arranged in the following order i. Amn,
interior hidden theology for the priests and :

the wise related to the unity and spirituality or Amnion; 2. Kheni, or Chemmis; 3. Mut,
of the Deity. The exterior theology for the the Mother Goddess 4. Num, or Kneph
; ;

masses consisted of mythological accounts 5. Seti, or Sate; 6. Phthah, the Artist God;

of Osiris and Isis, the judgment of the 7. Net, or Neith, the Goddess of Sais; 8.

dead, the metempsychosis, or transmigra- Ra, the Sun, the God of Heliopolis. Ac-
tion of the and everj-thing pertaining
.soul, cording to Wilkinson, they are classed in a
to the ceremonial worship of the gods. different order: i. Neph, or Kneph; 2.
Herodotus tells us that the Egyptian Anuni, or Ammon; 3. Phthah; 4. Khem
masses believed in three orders of gods, and 5. Sate; 6. Maut, or Mut ; 7. Pasht, or Diana;


8. Neith, or Miner\-a. In Wilkinson's list, Phthah— called HephiEstus by the Greeks,

Paslit, or Diana, is classed in the first order —
Vulcan by the Roman.s represents creation
instead of the second, while Ra is not classed by the truth, fonnation, stability; and is
ill this series. called in the inscriptions "Lord of Truth,"
Amnion, or Amun, was "the Revealer," "Lord of the Beautiful Face," "Father of
"the Concealed God," "the Absolute Beginnings, moving the Egg of the Sun and
Spirit," "the Father of all the other gods;" Moon." Horapollo and Plutarch considered
corresponding to the Zeus of the Greeks. the scarabaeus, or beetle, the sign of this god,
He "the King of the Gods," " the
is stj'led as an emblem of the world and its creation.
L,ord of Heaven," "the Ruler," "the Lord In an inscription he is called " Creator of all

of the Two Thrones, " " the Horus or God things in the world." Says lamblicus: "The
of the Two Egjpts. His city was Thebes.

' God who creates with truth Phthah. He is



Manetho saj's his name signifies conceal- was also related with the sun, having thirt}-
ment. The root " Anin" signifies to veil fingers, representing the thirty days of the
or conceal. His original name, as standing month. He is also represented as a defoniied
in the rings of the Twelfth Dynasty, was dwarf.
Amu. After the Eighteenth Dynasty he Khem, whom the Greeks called Pan, the
was called Amn-Ra, signifj'ing the Sun. principle of generation, is sometimes repre-
Says Bunseii: "Incontestably, he stands in sented as holding a plowshare. Amun has
EgA'pt as the head of the great cosmogonic no female companion. Mut, the mother,
development." is the partner of Khem, the father. Seti,
Kneph, the God of Spirit, was also called the Ray or Arrow, a feminine figure with
Knubis, or Num. His name, according to the horns of a cow, is the consort of Kneph.
Plutarch and Diodorus, means Spirit. At Neith, or Net, the Goddess of Sals, is the
Esna he was called the Breath of those in

' companion of Phthah. The Greek Athene,

the Firmament." At Elephantine he was Pallas, or Miner\-a, is believed to be derived
He from Neith, and her name signifies: I came

styled "Lord of the Inundations." is '

represented as wearing the ram's head with by myself. Clemens Alexandrinussaj-s that

double horns, and was universally worshiped her great shrine at Sais has an open roof
in Ethiopia. The sheep were sacred to him, bearing this inscription "I am all that was

and large flocks of them were kept in the and is and is to be, and no mortal has lifted
Thebais for their wool. The serpent or asp my garment, and the fruit I bore is Helios.

were also sacred to Kneph. He was called This signifies her identity with Nature.
Creator, and was represented in the figure of a Helios, or Ra, or Phrah, the Sun-god,
potter with a wheel. In Philae he is repre- the God of Heliopolis (City of the Sun), is

sented as forming on his wheel a figure of the eighth and last of the first order of gods,
Osiris, bearing the inscription: "Num, who according to Bunsen. It is from Ra, or
fomis on his wheel the Divine Limbs of Phrah, that the name Pharaoh is derived.
Osiris. " He is likewise called '
' the Sculptor As we have already seen, Wilkinson ex-
of all meu, " " thegod who made the sun and cludes Ra from the first order, substituting
the moon to revolve." According to Por- Pasht, or Bubastis, the Diana of the Greeks,
phyrj-, Phtliah sprang from an egg which instead. If we accept Bunsen's classifica-
came from the mouth of Kneph, and in this tion, taking the Sun-god as the eighth and
declaration he is sustained by the authority last of the first series, we shall then see in
of the monuments. Phthah thus represents Amnion, the Concealed God, the pure Spirit,
the Absolute Divine Being as Spirit, the from which emanates Kneph, the creative
Spirit of God mo\-ing on the face of the power; followed by Khem, the generative
waters, a moving spirit intertwined and in- power; followed by Phthah, the artistic prin-
terwoven with the chaotic and shapeless ciple; after which come the three feminine
mass of matter. creative principles of Nature in Neith, the
nourishing principle in Mut the mother, the remote antiquity. Says Herodotus:
developing principle in the goddess Pasht, "The Osiris deities are the only gods wor-
and the completion of the whole cycle in shiped throughout Egypt." Says Bun.sen:
Helios, or Ra, or Phrah, the Snn-god. "They stand on the oldest monuments, are
The reason for the difference between the the center of all Egyptian worship, and are
priestly and popular religions of Eg>"pt is perhaps the oldest original obje(5ls of rever-
to be attributed to the difference of race ence." Wilkinson says the only change in
origin between the and the
priesthood the EgA'ptian religious system was during
masses. The have
priests are believed to the fourteenth century' before Christ, when
been the descendants of the Asiatic immi- Amun, or Ammon, was made chief of the
grants into the Nile valley, while the great third class of gods, in place of Typhon, or
body of the people are supposed to have Seth, the God of Destru(5tion, who had pre-
been of Ethiopian extradtion. The Asiatic viousU' held the first place and had been
immigrants and conquerors brought with the most highly reverenced of the popular
them the spiritual ideas represented by the deities. Seth's name was then chiseled off
first order of gods, while the Ethiopian oc- the monuments, and Amun's substituted in-
cupiers of the Nile valley held fast to the stead. This religious revolution was the
African instindl of nature- worship. The final result of the amalgamation of the two
combination of these two principles fonned —
races and religions in Egj'pt the Asiatic
the Egyptian religious system. The first Semitic and Aryan immigrants, with their
order of gods was therefore for the priests, higher spiritual ideas, and the Ethiopian
the initiated; the third order was for the Hamitic aborigines, with their gross African
people, the uninitiated; while the second nature-worship. It was very natural that
order was a transition between the first and the priests, the descendants of the Asiatic
third —children of the first and parents of immigrants, should place their religion
the third. above that of the descendants of the abo-
As we have said, the second order of riginal inhabitants, and that they should
Egyptian gods was incorporated into the have permitted for a time the external wor-
Greek pantheon. Thus Khonso, the child ship until the public was prepared for the
of Ammon, was the same as the Greek Her- reception of a higher religious faith in the
cules, God of Strength; Thoth, child of Amun, the Revealer, for the
.substitution of
Kneph, was the equivalent of the Greek God of Terror and Destruction.
Hennes, God of Knowledge; Pecht, child The most popular of ancient Egyptian
of Phthah, was represented by the Greek myths was that of Osiris and Isis, as given
Artemis, or Diana, the Goddess of Birth, us by Plutarch. Seb and Nutpe, or Nut the —
who prote(fled women; Athor, or Hathor, Kronos and Rhea of the Greeks, the Saturn
was the same as the Grecian Aphrodite, or —
and C^'bele of the Romans were the parents
Venus, the Goddess of Love; Seb was the of the third group of deities. Seb is Time,
Greek Kronos, or Saturn, the God of Time; and Nut is Space. The Sun pronounced a
and Nutpe was the Grecian Rhea, the wife curse upon them, in not permitting them to
of Kronos. be delivered on any daj' of the year. This
The were the children
third order of gods symbolizes the difficulty of the thought of
of the second order, and were manifestations Creation. But Hermes, or Wisdom, who
of the Divine Spirit in the external universe. loved Rhea, won at dice, of the Moon, five
These, as we have said, were the popular days, the .seventieth part of all her illumina-
gods, though worshiped by the untutored tions, which he added to the three hundred
masses. The gods of the third class, though and .sixty days, or twelve months. This im-
lowest in the scale, had more of individuality plies the corredlion of the calendar. The five
and personality about them, and their wor- days added were the birthdays of the gods.
ship throughout Egypt was universal from Osiris was born on the first of these five days,

when a voice proclaimed: " The Lord of all into the chest, she gave him such a terrible

things is now horn." Arneris-ApoUo, the look as to frighten him to death. Then
elder Horus, was born on the second of Isis went to her son Horus, who was at
these days Tj-phon on the third; Isis on
nurse at Buto. Typhon, while hunting by
the fourth Nepthys- Venus, or V'ictory, on
; moonlight, saw the ark, with the body of
the fifth. Osiris and Arueris were children Osiris, which he tore into fourteen pieces

of the Sun; Isis was the daughter of Hermes; and cast them around. Isis went in a boat
and Typhou and Nepthys were children of made of papjrus to look for the parts of her
Kronos, or Saturn, the God of Time. hu.sband's body, and finding them, buried
Osiris took Isis for his wife, and went them all in different places. The soul of
through the world civilizing and refining Osiris then returned from Hades to train up
mankind by means of music, poetry and ora- his son, Horus. Then Horus conquered T>--
tory. On his return Tj-phon took seventj-- phon in battle, but Isis allowed Tjphon to
two men and likewise an Ethiopian queen make his escape. It is also said that Isis
and construdled an ark as large as the bod)- had another son bj' the soul of Osiris after
of Osiris, and at a feast he offered it to the his death, the god Harpocrates, who is rep-
one whom it should fit. Osiris got into the resented as lame and with his finger on his
ark, and thej- closed the lid and soldered it mouth, signifying childhood.
fast, after which they cast the ark into the Plutarch says that Osiris afterward became
Nile. Then Isis, putting on mourning, went Serapis, the Pluto of the under- world. Plu-
to look for the ark. As her inquiries were tarch, in explanation of the myth of Osiris
made to little children, these were thought and Isis, says that 0.siris is the personification
by the Egyptians to possess the power of of Water, especially the Nile, and that
divination. She then found Anubis, child of Isis is the Earth, especially the Nile valley
Osiris by Nepthys, wife of Typhon, who in- of Egypt overflowed by the river. Horus,
formed her that the ark was entangled in a the son, is the Air, especially the moist, mild
tree which grew up around it and concealed air of Egypt. Typhon is Fire, especially
it from view. The king construdled from the summer heat which dries up the Nile and
this tree a pillar to support his house. Isis parches the land. His seventy-two com-
satdown and wept, whereupon the queen's panions are the seventy-two da^'s of most
women came to her, and she stroked their intense heat, as viewed by the Egyptians.
hair, thus causing fragrance to pass into it. Nepthys, Typhon's wife, sister of Isis, is the
She became nurse to the queen's child, feed- Desert out of Egypt, but which, when over-
ing him with her finger, and burning his flowed by a higher inundation of the Nile,
impurities by means of a lambent flame dur- becomes productive and has a child by Osiris,
ing the night-time. After this she converted named Anubis. The confinement of Osiris
and flying around
herself into a swallow, in the ark signifies the summer heat dr>'ing
the house, fate. The queen
bewailed her up the Nile and confining it to its channel.
watched her proceedings and cried out in The entanglement of the ark in a tree means
alarm, thus depriving her child of immortal- the division of the Nile into many mouths
ity. Isis then begged the pillar, and taking at the Delta and the overhanging of the
it down, took out the chest and cried so river by the wood. Isis nunsing the king's
loud as to frighten the king's younger child, the fragrance, etc., signifies the nour-
son to death. Then taking the ark and the ishment of plants and animals by the earth.
king's elder .son she sailed away. Being The tearing of the body of Osiris into four-
chilledby the cold air of the river she be- teen parts by Typhon means either the divis-
came angry and cursed it, so that it became ion of the Nile at its mouths or the pools of
drj-. Then opening the chest, she put her water left after the inundation has dried up.
cheek to the cheek of Osiris, weeping bit- Besides this geographical explanation of
terly. The little boy coming and peeping this allegory, Plutarch gives a scientific and
— '


astronomical view. Thus Osiris is the pro- from spirit to matter, while Phthah is at the
dudlive and creative principle in nature. origin of a cosmogony a.scending by evolu-
Isisis the feminine quality in nature, and for tion from matter to spirit. From Phthah,
this reason is called by Plato the nurse. Ty- or heat, comes from light comes life;
phon is the destructive principle in nature. from life proceed gods, men, plants, animals
Horus is the mediator between creation and and all organic existence. In the inscrip-
destru(5lion.This gives us the triad of Osi- tions Phthah is called, "Father of the Father
ris, Typhon and Horus, corresponding to of the Gods," "Kingof both Worlds," "God
the Hindoo triad of Brahma, Siva and Vish- of all Beginnings, " " Former of Things. '

nu, and likewise to the Persian triad of Or- The egg, as containing the germ of life, is
mazd, Ahriman and Mithra. In this way one of his symbols. The scarabaeus, or
the Egyptian myth symbolizes the struggle beetle, which supposed
rolls its ball of earth,

between the principles of good and evil in to contain its egg, is sacred to Phthah.
the world of nature. Memphis was his sacred city. His son, Ra,
The priestssought to turn the worship of the Sun-god, had his temples at On, which
Osiris and an allegory- of the strug-
Isis into the Greeks called Heliopolis, meaning "City
gles, trials, sorrows and self-recovery of the of the Sun,

' so named from Ra's Greek name

human soul. After death every human soul Helios. The catwas sacred to Ra. As
adopted the name and symbols of Osiris, Phthah is the god of all beginnings in
after which he retired to the under- world, Lower Egypt, so Ra is the life-giving god,
there to be judged by that god. Closely re- the adlive ruler of the world, holding in one
lated with this was the dodlrine of the soul's hand a sceptre and in the other the symbol
transmigration through various bodies of life.

which dodlrine Pythagoras brought from The goddesses Lower Egypt were
Egypt. These do(5lrines were taught in the Neith at goddess whose tem-
Sais, Leto, the
My.steries. Herodotus says "I know them,
: ple was at Buto, and Pasht at Bubastis. As
but must not tell them." lamblicus, in his we have already said, the chief god in Up-
work on the Mysteries, says that they taught per Egypt was Amun, or Amnion, the Con-
that One God existed before all things, and cealed God; and next to him is Kiiepli, or
that this One God was to be venerated in Knubis, the vSpirit of God. Their compan-
silence. Then Emeph or Neph was god in ions were Mut, the mother, and Khonso.
his self-con.sciousness. After this in Aniun The two oldest gods were Mentu, the rising
his mind became truth, diffusing light. sini, and Atmu, the setting sun.

Phthah represents truth working b^' art, In Egypt, as in Greece, the earliest wor-
and Osiris symbolizes art producing good. ship was of local divinities, who were after-
Bunsen says that according to the monu- wards united in a Pantheon. As in Greece
ments Osiris and Isis, besides emanating Zeus was at first worshiped in Dodona and
from the second order of gods, are them- Arcadia, Apollo in Crete and Delos, Aphro-
selves the first and second order. Osiris, dite in Cyprus, Athene at Athens, and after-
Isis and Horus embrace all Egyptian my- wards these local deities were united in one
thology, excepting Amun and Neph. In company as the twelve great gods of Olym-
Lower Egypt Phthah was the highest god, pus, so in Egypt the different early theol-
corresponding to the Greek Hephaestus, the ogies were combined in the three orders
Roman Vulcan, the god of fire or heat, the of gods, with Amnion at their head. But
father of the sun. In Upper Egj'pt Amun in Eg>'pt, as in Greece, each cit_\- and dis-
was the chief god. According to Manetho, tridl retained the special worship of its own
Phthah reigned nine thousand years before local deity. As in Greece Athene contin-
the other gods, signifying that this was the ued to be the protedling goddess of Athens,
oldest worship in Egypt. Amun is the head and Aphrodite of Cyprus, so, in Eg>-pt, vSet
of a cosmogony proceeding by emanation continued to be the god of Ombos, Leto of

Buto, Horus of Edfii, Kheiii of Coptos, etc. was embalmed and buried with great pomp,
The oue great sing^ular feature about the and the priests went in quest of another
Egyptian religion was animal-worship. He- Apis, which, when discovered by the dis-
rodotus saj's "All animals in Egypt are
: tinguishing marks, was taken to Mem-
accounted sacred, and if any one kills phis, fed with care and exerci.sed, and con-
animals willfully he is put to death." This sulted as an oracle. The burial-place of the
account of Herodotus is not stridlly corre(5l, was
sacred bulls in recent years discovered

as many animals were not considered sacred, near Memphis. It consists of an arched
though most of them were. Wilkinson men- gallery cut in the solid rock, two thousand
tions more than one hundred Egyptian ani- feet long, twenty-five feet high and twenty-
mals, over one-half of which number were five feet wide. On each side is a .series of
sacred. Hunting and fishing being favorite recesses, each of which contains a large sar-
amusements of the Egyptians, the killing of cophagus of granite, fifteen bj' eight feet, in
some animals must have been tolerated. If, which the body of a sacred bull was depos-
however, anj' one killed any of the sacred ited. In 1852 thirty of these had been dis-
animals, either accidentally or willfulh% he covered. Before this tomb is a paved road,
was immediately put to death. In different with lions in rows on each side, and before
parts of Egypt different animals were ac- this is a temple with a vestibule. As we have
counted sacred. Besides the sacred bull at previously remarked, the animals sacred in
Memphis, the most striking sacred animals one place were not so regarded in another,
were the Mnevis, or sacred calf at Heliopolis, and this difference of worship often led to
the sacred sheep at Sais and Thebes, and the bitter enmities between the several nomes.
sacred crocodiles at Ombos and Arsinoe. Thus at Ombos was wor-
the crocodile
Thus the animal sacred in one place was not shiped, while at Tentyra was hunted and

so regarded in another. The cat, the ibis abhorred. The ram-headed Aniun was
and the beetle were particular objecfts of wor- adored at Thebes, and the sheep was there
ship. The death of a cat in a private house a sacred animal, while the goat was killed
caused the whole family to shave their ej-e- for food. In Mendes the goat was worshiped
brows in token of their grief The Persian and the sheep killed and eaten. Mutton was
king Cambyses was enabled to conquer the likewise eaten at Lycopolis, in compliment
Egyptians by placing in the van of his to the wolf, which was there an objecft of
army multitudes of cats, which the Egyp- veneration.
tians were fearful of killing, so that they The sacred animals at death were em-
abandoned all resistance. balmed by the priests and buried, and
Cows were sacred to Isis, and this god- thousands upon thousands of mummies of
dess was represented in the form of a cow. dogs, cats, wolves, sheep, crocodiles, birds
The gods often wore animals' heads. Am- and other animals are found in the tombs.
un is represented with the ram's head. The The sacred animals were reverenced as con-
worship of Apis, the sacred bull of Memphis, taining a divine element. Says Wilkinson:
the representative of Osiris, was one of the "The Egyptians may have deified some
most striking and imposing among Egyp- animals to insure their preser\^ation, some
tian religious ceremonies. Plutarch describes to prevent their unwholesome meat being
him as a fair and beautiful image of the soul used as food." The cow, the ox, the dog,
of Osiris. He was a bull with black hair, the cat, the appeared to the Egyptians

a white spot on his forehead, and some other as gifted with supernatural powers. This
distinguishing marks. He was kept in a people reverenced the mysterious manifesta-
magnificent temple at Memphis. The fes- tion of the Divine presence in all external
tival honor continued seven days,
in his nature. Animals were considered expres-
during which time a great multitude of sions of Divine thoughts. This belief
people as.sembled. When he died his body reached its extreme point in the Egyptian
reverence for animal life. This people saw the bird Weiniu took place on the four-

something divine and found Deity in nature. teenth of Toby no voluptuous songs must
The Egyptians had more religious festi- be listened to, for Isis and Nepthys bewail
vals than any other ancient people, everj' Osiris on that day. On the third of Mechir
month and day being governed by a god. no one can go on a journey, Set
There were two feasts of the New Year; then began a war.

None must go out on


twelve of the days of the months; one

first another specified day. The day on which
of the rising of the dog-star; and others to the other gods conquered Set was regarded
the great gods, to seed time and
harvest, to the rise and fall of the
Nile, as the nine days' feast in
honor of Osiris, the Benefadlor of
men. The lamps at
feast of the
Sais was inhonor of Neith, and
was observed throughout Egypt.
Other noted festivals were the
feast of the death of Osiris, and
the feast of his resurrecflion, when
the people exclaimed: "We have
found him! Good luck!" One
of the feasts of Isis lasted four
days. The great feast at Bubastis
was the most noted of all the
Egyptian festivals. On one of
these occasions hundred
thousand persons sailed on the
Nile with nui.sic. At another
blood}- conflicts occurred betu'een EGYPTI.\N PRIESTS.
the armed priests and the armed men who as lucky, and the child born on that day was
conveyed the image of the god to the temple. believed to be sure to live to a good old age.
The daily life of the people was an em- The priests, of which every temple had
bodiment of the history of the deities. The itsown separate body, did not fonn an ex-

French Eg3ptologist, De Rouge, describes elusive caste, though the priestly office was
an old papyrus which says: "On the twelfth generally continued by inheritance in cer-
ofChorak no one is to go out of doors, for tain families. Priests could be militant com-
on that day the transformation of Osiris into manders, provincial governors, judges oi


architecfls. The sons of soldiers were often Truth were spread over the sacred beetle.
priests, while soldiers frequently married The most highly esteemed of the priestly
daughters of priests. Josejih, who was a order were the prophets, who studied the
foreigner naturalized in Eg>pt, married the ten hieratical books. The stolists dre.ssed
daughter of the High Priest of On, or Heli- and undressed the images, attended to the
opolis. The Eg>'ptian priests were of differ- vestments of the priests, and marked the
ent grades — the chief priests, or pontiffs, beasts chosen for sacrifice. The .scribes
the prophets, the judges, the scribes, those served for the Apis, or sacred bull, and their
who examined \ic5tims, the keepers of the chief requirement was great learning.
robes, the keepers of the sacred animals, and The priests, life was full of duties
others. Women also performed official du- and restricflions, had only one wife, and
ties in the temples. were circumcised like other Egyptians.
The priests were exempt from taxation They devoted all their time to study or re-
and were supported out of the public stores. ligious service. The gloomy character of
Their duties were to superintend sacrifices, the Egyptian religion was in strong contrast
processions, funerals, etc. They were ini- with the cheerful worship of the Greeks.
tiated into all the religious mysteries, and One Greek writer says: "The gods of Egypt
were taught sur\-eying. They were par- rejoice in lamentations, those of Greece in
ticular as to their food, refraining from eat- dances." Another says: " The Egyptians
ing peas, beans, onions and garlic, while offer their gods tears.

fish and were stridlly forbidden. The Egyptian temples surpassed in grand-
They bathed twice a day and twice during eur all other architecflural monuments in the
the night, and shaved the head and body world. The temple of Amun, in the fertile

every third day. Their fasts, which lasted oasis of Siwah, in the Libyan desert, was
from one to six weeks, took place after their one of the most celebrated oracles of anti-
purification. The\' offered prayers for the quity. Near this temple, in a grove of palm-
dead. trees, rose a hot spring, the Fountain of the
The priestly dress was simple, made Sun, whose bubbling and smoking were be-
chiefly of linen, and consi.sted of an under- lieved to betoken the Divine presence. The
garment and a loose upper robe, with full oasis was a stopping-place for caravans pass-
sleeves, and the leopard-skin above; while ing between Egypt and Central Africa, and
sometimes there were one or two feathers in many rich offerings were left in the temple
the head. by traveling merchants, who thus .showed
Chaplets and flowers were placed upon their gratitude for e.scaping the perils of the
the altars, such as the lotus and papyrus; desert, or thus sought the favor of Amun
likewise baskets of figs and grapes, and ala- for their journey when just begun.
baster vases of ointment. Necklaces, brace- The immortality of the .soul and the be-
lets and jewelrj- were also offered as invoca- lief in a future state, based on rewards and
tions and thanksgivings. punishments for good or evil in this life,
Oxen and other animals were offered as formed a cardinal point of Egyptian relig-
.sacrifices, and the blood was permitted to ious faith from the period; and the
flow over the altar. Incense was offered to belief in the transmigration of the soul was
all the gods and goddesses in censers. clo.sely connetled with the reverence for ani-
Religious processions were another char- mals. Bun.sen says the Egyptians viewed
a.cfleristic feature of the EgV'ptian system. the human soul and the animal .soul as the
In one of these shrines were carried on the same, and for this reason the animal was
shoulders by means of long staves passed considered sacred to man. The Egyptian
through rings. In others the statues of dodtrine of transmigration differed from that
the gods were carried, and arks o\'er- of the Hindoos in one es.sential point; there
shadowed bj' the wings of the Goddess of being no idea of retribution in the Egyptian
doclrine, as in the Hindoo. The Egyptian tom of embalming the dead to preserve
docftrine, according to Herodotus, was that their bodies from decay. The period of
every human soul must pass through all mourning for the dead lasted seventy-two
animals, fishes, insedls and birds, thus com- days, during which the body of the deceased
pleting the whole circuit of animated exist- was in the charge of the embalmers. After
ence, after which it would again enter the the process of embalming had been finished,
human body from which it came. The the mummy thus formed was returned to
Hindoo doctrine regards transmigration as a the house of its earthly abode, where its

punishment for sin and wickedness, and friends kept it for a month or a year, and
that only those who lead an unholy life where feasts were given in its honor, it be-
are subjected to this punishment, from which ing always present in the company of guests.
the only release is the leading of a pure and The mummy, in its stone chest, or sarcopha-
holy life. Herodotus further says that the gus, was then carried in an imposing funeral
complete circuit of transmigration is per- procession to the borders of the sacred lake,
formed by the soul in three thousand years, where occured the trial of the deceased by a
and that it does not begin until the body de- priestly tribunal of forty-two judges, symbol-
cay's. This explains the extraordinary care izing the soul's trial before the judgment-seat
taken in ornamenting the tombs, as the per- of the gods presided o\'er by Osiris. Masked
manent resting-places for the dead during a priests represented the gods of the under-
long period. Diodorus says that the Egyp- world. Typhon is represented as accusing
tiansornamented their tombs as the endur- the deceased and demanding his punish-
ing residences of mankind. The dodlrine ment. The intercessors plead for him. Any
of transmigration also accounts for the cus- one was at liberty to bring accusations
tom of embalming the dead, in order to pre- against the deceased. A large pair of scales
body from decay, and to render it
ser\-e the was brought forward, on one side of which
fit to receive the soul on its return. was placed the conduct of the deceased in a
Mr. Birch says that the docftrine of the bottle, and on the other side was set the
soul's immortality is as old as the inscrip- image of truth. If it was clearly shown
tions of the Twelfth Dynasty, of which that the deceased had led an evil life, the
many contain extracts from the Ritual for priestly judges pronounced an unfavorable
the Dead. Mr. Birch has translated one upon it as to its future fate, in which
hundred and forty -six chapters of this Rit-" case the body was denied the privilege of
ual from the text of the Turin Papyrus, burial with the just opposite the sacred lake
which is the most complete in Europe. and was returned to its friends, who usually
Chapters of it on mummy-cases, on
are seen buried it on the side of the sacred lake op-

mummy-wraps, on the walls of tombs, and posite the resting-place of the just. If,

on papyri within the sarcophagi. This howe^•er, the verdi(fl of the'judges was {ax-
Ritual is the only remnant of the Hermetic orable, the lamentations of the funeral train
Books constituting the library of the priests. gave way to songs of triumph, and the de-
This liturgy represents Osiris and his triad ceased was congratulated upon being admit-
as struggling with Set and his devils for the ted into thehappy companionship of the
soul of the departed, in the presence of the friends of Osiris;and the body in its sar-
Sun-god, the .source of life. cophagus was ferried across the sacred lake
The Egyptians believed that happiness in and interred with those of its ancestors in a
the future state depended upon well-doing tomb richly ornamented. These ceremonies
in this life. As we have seen, the belief are represented on the funeral papyri. The
that the soul, after making the
circuit of forty-two judges who tried the dead repre-
transmigration through the animal creation, sented the forty-two nomes, or provinces of
would return to the body from which it had Eg^'pt; and every nome had its sacred lake,
departed, caused the universal national cus- across which all funeral processions must


pass on their way to the citj- of the dead. counterfeited, nor killed the sacred beasts,
On the sides of these sacred lakes nearest the nor blasphemed, nor refused to hear the
abodes of the living have been found the truth, nor despi.sed God in my heart." In
remains of great numbers who were rejecfled other texts the soul is represented as .saying:
by the judges at their trial, and whose " I have loved God. I have given bread to
bodies were in consequence returned in dis- the hungry, water to the thirsty, garments
grace to their friends, to be disposed of in to the naked, and an a.sylum to the aban-
the most speedy manner possible. At death doned."
all became equal, and every one, from the Many of the virtues taught by Christi-
king and highest pontiff to the lowest swine- anity appear to have been the ideal of the
herd, was subject to the same .solemn judg- ancient Egyptians. Brugsch tells us that a
ment passed at death, and the fear which it thousand voices from the tombs declare this.
inspired exercised a wholesome influence One inscription in Upper Egv'pt .says: "He
over all cla.sses. loved his father, he honored his mother, he
The soul's trial before the judgment-seat loved his brethren, and never went from his
of the gods, as represented in the papyrus home in He never preferred
bad temper.
Book of the Dead, and before which the the great man low one." Another
to the
soul had to pass an acquittal before it could saj^s: "I was a wise man, my soul loved

enter the abode of the blessed, is described God. I was a brother to the great men and
as follows: Forty-two gods occupj- the judg- a father to the humble ones, and never was
ment-seat, over which Osiris presides, and a mischief-maker." An inscription at Sais,
before whom are the scales, in one of which on a priest who lived in the days of Cam-
is placed the statue of perfect Justice, while byses, says: "I honored my father, I es-
in the other is the heart of the deceased. teemed my mother, I loved my brothers. I
The soul of the departed stands watching found graves for the unburied dead. I in-

the balance, while Horus examines the structed little children. I took care of
plummet showing on which side the beam orphans as though they were my own chil-
inclines; and Thoth, the Justifier, records dren. For great misfortunes were on Egv'pt
the sentence. If the decision of this divine in my time, and on this city of Sais." The
tribunal is favorable, the soul is sealed as following an inscription on a tomb of a

"justified." nomad prince atBeni-Hassan: "What I

The Hall of the Two Truths, described in have done I will say. My goodness and my
the Book of the Dead, recounts the scene kindness were ample. I never oppressed

when the soul appears before the gods, the fatherless nor the widow. I did not treat
forty-two of whom are ready to feed on the cruelly the fi.shermen, the shepherds or the
blood of the wicked. The soul, addressing poor laborers. There was nowhere in my
the Lord of Truth, denies having done evil, time hunger or want. For I cultivated all
saying: "I have not afflicted any. I have mj- fields, far and near, in order that their
not told falsehoods. I ha\e not made the inhabitants might have food. I never pre-

laboring man do more than his I ferred the great and powerful to the humble
have not been idle. I have not murdered. and poor, but did equal justice to all." A
I have not committed fraud. I have not king's tomb at Thebes describes the relig-
injured the images of the gods. I have not ious creed of a Pharaoh thus: "I lived in
taken scraps of the bandages of the dead. truth, and fed my soul with justice. What
I have not committed adulter^-. I have not I did to men was done in peace, and how I

cheated by false weights. I have not kept loved God, God and my heart well know.
milk from sucklings. I have not caught I have given bread to the hungry, water to

the sacred birds." He then says to each the thirsty, clothes to the naked, and a
god: "I have not been idle. I have not shelter to the stranger. I honored the gods

boasted. I have not stolen. have not with sacrifices, and the dead with offeriugs.

' '


A rock at Lycopolis pleads for an ancient .separated from his main force by a strategem,
ruler in these words: "I never took the was in extreme peril; and Pentaour describes
child from its mother's bosom, nor the poor him as calling upon Amun, God of Thebes,
man from the side of his wife." Hundreds for aid, recounting the sacrifices he had
of stones in Egypt declare the best gifts offered to the god, and imploring the god
which the gods bestow on their favorites to be not to leave him to the mercy of the cruel
the respecft of men, and the love of women. Rameses is represented as
' Syrian tribes.
On a monumental stele discovered at Kar- pleading thus; "Have I not eredted to thee
nak by M. Mariette, and translated by De great temples ? Have I not sacrificed to
Rouge, is an inscription recording the tri- thee thirty thousand oxen ? I have brought
umphs Thothmes III. in strains sounding
of from Elephantine obelisks to set up to thy
like the song of Miriam or the Hymn of name. I invoke thee, O my father, Amun.
Deborah, the king recognizing his power I am in the midst of a throng of unknown
and triumph as the work of the great god tribes, and alone. But Amun is better to
Amun. A like strain of religious poetry is me than thousands of archers and millions
found in the Papyrus of Sallier, now in the of horsemen. Amun will prevail over the
British Museum. This is an epic poem by enem}-." After defeating his enemies, Ram-
the Egyptian poet Pentaour, celebrating the, song of triumph, says; "Amun-
in his
campaigns of Rameses the Great, and was Ra has been at my right and my left in the
can-ed in full on the walls of Karnak. It battles; his mind has inspired my own, and

especially describes an incident in a war with has prepared the downfall of mj^ enemies.
the Kheta, or Hittites, of Syria, who had Amun-Ra, my father, has brought the whole
Rameses being world to my feet.

revolted against Rameses.


OUTH of Egypt — in the region laws, were acquainted with the use of hiero-
now called Nubia and Abys- glyphics, and the fame of their progress in
sinia — lived the ancient Ethi- knowledge and the .social arts had in the
opians, some tribes of whom earliest ages spread over a con.siderable por-
were as highly civilized as the tion of the earth.
ancient Egyptians, but we know very little The soil of the portion of the Nile \-alley
of their history, and their origin is involved occupied bj^ was in
the ancient Ethiopians
in the impenetrable obscurity of a remote their day as fertile as the richest part of
antiquity. The ruins of splendid monu- Eg^'pt, and where protecfted it yet continues
ments, obelisks, sphinxes, colossal statues, to be so, but the hills on both sides are
rock -cut temples, etc., along that portion of bordered by sandy deserts, against which
the Nile valley, fully attest the progress of they afford but a scanty protecflion. The
this ancient Hamitic people in the art of navigation of the Nile is impeded by the
architecflure. windings of the river, and by the obstru(5tion

Besides the civilized Ethiopians, this re- of catara(fts and rapids, so that intercourse
gion was occupied in ancient times, as now, ismore generally maintained by caravans
by various Arab tribes in different stages of than by boats. In the southern part of the
advancement from the complete savage to valley the river incloses a number of fertile
the hunting and fishing tribes, and from islands. The productions of the Nile valley
these to the nomadic herdsmen and shep- in Nubia are e,s.sentially the same as those
herds. The civilized Ethiopians dwelt in of Egypt. All along this portion of the
cities, possessed a civil government and valley is a succession of stupendous monu-

ments, rivaling in beauty those of Thebes, and held sway over a large portion of Ara-
and surpassing them in grandeur. bia. The of so vast and distant an

The island of Meroe so called because it expedition bears e\'idcnce to the facfl that
was almost surrounded with rivers pos- — the Ethiopian kingdom must then have been
sessed large numbers of camels, which were in a flourishing condition.
used in its inunense caravan trade; and the The gradual of the Ethiopian
ivory, ebony and spices which the Ethi- power finally enabled the King Sabaco, or
opians sent down the river into Eg>pt were Shebak, to conquer Eg>'pt, over which he
obtained by traffic with the inhabitants of and his two successors, Sevechus and Tara-
Central Africa. Meroe had better harbors kus, reigned successively. Sevechus, called
for commerce with India than had Egypt, as So was so powerful a monarch
in vScripture,

the Ethiopian ports on the Red Sea were that Hoshea, King of Israel, rose in revolt
superior to the Egyptian, and the caravan- against the Assyrians, relying upon the aid
routes to them were shorter and the perilous of So; but, not being supported by his Ethi-
portion of the navigation of that sea was opian ally, Hoshea and his subjecfts were
entirely avoided. In the wild tradts of carried into the Assyrian Captivity. Tara-
country in the vicinity of Meroe are ani- kus, the Tirhakah of Scripture, was a more
mals which were hiuited by the ancient warlike sovereign, for he led an army
savage tribes, as they are by the modem, against Sennacherib, King of Assyria, who
such as the giraffe, or camelopard. The was then besieging Jerusalem; and the
elephant is found in Abyssinia, not far south Eg^'ptian traditions, preser\'ed in the time
of the neighborhood of Meroe. of Herodotus, g^ve the account of the de-
About one thousand years before Christ, strucftion of Sennacherib's army of one hun-
Meroe was the seat of a flourishing Ethi- dred and eighty-five thousand men in a
opian kingdom, which for a time held night panic, as mentioned in the Hebrew
Upper Eg3'pt under sway, bat its early his- Scriptures.
tory is shrouded in the obscurity of a dim In the reign of Psammetichus in Egi^pt,
past. The monuments of Meroe are believed in the seventh century before Christ, two
to have been modeled from the wonderful hundred and forty thousand Egyptians of
architecftural stru(5lures of Egj'pt; but cut off the warrior-caste, offended at their king's
from the rest of the civilized world hy Egypt, favor to Greek merchants whom he had in-

the Ethiopians can only be traced in historj' vited to settle in Egypt, migrated to Ethi-
when their country is invaded, or when they opia, and were settled in the extreme south-
themselves invade other lands. have We ern part of that country, where they ad-
seen that several Egj'ptian kings conquered ded immensely to the prosperity of the state.
Ethiopia and ruled the countrj' for short in- useful colonists instrudled the Ethi-
tervals. The fabled Assyrian queen, Semi- opians in the improvements then recently
ramis, is said to have invaded Ethiopia in made in the art of war, and thus prepared
the eleventh century before Christ. This is them for resisting the formidable invasion
doubtful, but we have certain knowledge by the Persians.
that the Ethiopians at this time were a pow- No sooner had the Persian king, Cam-
erful nation, and that they aided Shishak, byses, conquered Egypt, in 525 B. C, than
King of Egypt, in his war against Reho- he invaded Ethiopia without preparing any
boam. King of Judah, in 957 B. C. Sixteen store of provisions, ignorant of the deserts
years later Zerah, King of Ethiopia, is said through which he had to pass, so that
to have invaded Judah with an immense when the invasion took place the Persian
army, but was totally defeated. According army was destroyed bj^ famine.
to the Scripture narrative, the Ethiopians The religion of the ancient Ethiopians
had made considerable progress in the art was in early times similar to that of Egypt.
of war, controlled the Red Sea navigation, Aramon was the chief of the Ethiopian
1—7.-U. K.
gods, and several temples were ere(5led to sepulchers exhibit the greatest purity of
his worship. The political power was vested taste. The use of the arch by the Ethiopi-
in a priesthood, who comprised a sacred ans fully attests their progress in the art of
caste. They chose the king from one of building. Mr. Hoskins has asserted that
their own number, and could take his life the Ethiopian pyramids are more ancient
at pleasure in the name of their gods. The than the Egyptian, but this is disputed by
Ethiopian priests possessed such influence the best authorities. The Ethiopian vases
over the superstitious African tribes that a depicfted on the monuments, though not
solitary priest at the head of a caravan richly ornamented, exhibit a taste and ele-
was able to secure a safe passage of untold gance of form that has never been surpassed.
wealth through the countries occupied by In sculpture and coloring, the edifices of
the most ferocious savages. The temples, Meroe, though less profusely adorned, rival
also, were a safe place for the deposit of the best specimens of Egyptian art.
merchandise; and here, under the shadow Another famous Ethiopian kingdom was
of an inviolable sanifluary, people of hostile that of Axume, an ofi"shoot of Meroe. Its •

nations met to transacfl their business in capital, Axum, is still in existence, and con-
absolute peace and security. At any place tains remarkable antiquities, among which
where it was considered necessary to have is an obelisk eighty feet high, in the great

a commercial emporium a temple was built square, beside forty others of smaller size.
for its protedlion. Some of the ruins of Axum are believed by
Whenever the Ethiopian priests became the inhabitants to be as old as the time of
king they sent a courier with
tired of their Abraham. A stone slab, eight feet by three
orders for him
to die. Ergamenes, who and a half, found here, has an antique Greek
reigned early in the third century before inscription, which, translated, begins as fol-
Christ and had been instrudted in the Greek lows:
philosophy, resisted this foolish custom,

' We Aeizamus, king of the Axomites, and

stormed the fortresses of the priests, massa- of the Homerites, and of Raeidan, and of the
cred many of them, and founded a new re- Ethiopians, and of the Sabeans, and of Zeyla,
ligion. and of Tiamo, and the Boja, and of the
The sovereigns of Ethiopia were frequently Taguie, King of Kings, Son of God, etc."
queens. An Ethiopian queen named Can- Aeizamus was King of Ethiopia in the
dace made war on Augustus Caesar about time of the Roman Emperor Constantine the
twenty years before the birth of Christ, and, Great, who wrote him a letter. Adulis, the
although the superior discipline of the port of Axume, was celebrated for its ivory
Romans brought them an easy triumph. trade.
Queen Candace obtained an honorable peace. All along the banks of the Nile in Nubia
During the reign of another Queen Candace are strewn pyramids of unknown antiquity,
the Jewish religion prevailed in Meroe, as a ruins of temples and monuments similar to.
result of the change made by Ergamenes and ; those of Eg>pt. Near the present Merawe
the queen's confidential adviser went to wor- are seven or eight temples, adorned with
ship at Jerusalem, and when he returned, sculpture and hieroglyphics. One of these
A. D. 53, he was converted to Christianity by temples is four hundred and fifty by one
St. Philip, and thus became the means of hundred and fifty-nine feet in extent. Near
introducing that religion into Ethiopia. Shendy are forty p>-ramids.
Ever since that time the Christian religion The most remarkable of all the monu-
has prevailed among the Ethiopians and their ments of Nubia is the rock-temple of Ipsam-
descendants, the modem Abyssinians. bul, near Derr. This temple is cut from a
The pyramids of Meroe, though not as mountain of solid rock, adorned inside with
large as those of Middle Egypt, exceed them colossal statues and painted sculptures,
in architedlural beauty, and the Ethiopian representing castles, battles, triumphal pro-

cessions and religious pageants. On the out- which are huge rock-hewn temples, the
side are four colossi, larger than any sculp- walls of which are covered with hieroglyph-
tured figures in Eg^'pt, except the Sphinx. ics in high relief, representing figures of
One of these colossi is sixty-five feet high. kings and gods, among which we are able
This temple is one hundred and seventy feet to distinguish Isis, Amnion, Apis, Horus

in depth, and contains fourteen apartments, and Mendes. There are other gigantic ruins
one of which is fifty -seven feet by fifty-two, in this region.

and is supported by images with folded arms, Meroe, on account of its favorable situa-
thirty feet high. The rock in which this tion forcommercial intercourse with India
temple is built is six hundred feet high. and Central Africa, by its location on the
The great rock-temple of Ipsambul is said intersedlion of the leading caravan-routes of
to resemble the famous excavated struc- ancient commerce, was the emporium of
tures on the island of Elephanta, nearBom- trade between the north and the south, be-
bay, on the west coast of Hindoostan. The tween the east and the west, while the fer-

general plan is the same in both massive — tility of its soil enabled the Ethiopians to
pillars, stupendous figures, symbolic devices purchase luxuries with native productions.
and mystic ornaments. It is also asserted Fabrics were woven in Meroe, and the
that a frequent resemblance is discovered be- manufactures of metal were here as flour-

tween the religious vestiges of Eg^'pt and ishing as in Egj'pt.

Ethiopia and those of India. The great changes in the lines of trade,
Among the numerous other remarkable the ravages of successive conquerors and
antiquities of this region we must mention revolutions, the fanaticism of the Saracens,
those of Barkal, about a mile from the Nile, and the ruin of the fertile soil by the moving
and near the village of Merawe, the ancient sands of the desert, together with the pres-
Napata, the capital of Queen Candace. sure of nomadic hordes, all contributed to
Here is a rock rising four hundred feet per- the extindlion of this powerful ancient em-
pendicularly toward the river, at the foot of pire.

Ruck. te.mi'I.jc uf ii'-samulx.

B.C. 3000 -1000.
By I S.Clare
25 50 100 200 300 100
frhc lighi part represents, the cradle of civilisation aad history.

LiHisituJe Easl HJ frou^ Grteuwicii 4o 50

i: I


(ISIA, as we have noticed, was the empty after the Euphrates has flowed about
cradle of the human race. The 1780 miles and the Tigris about 1146 miles.
cradle of Asiatic histor>- Both these rivers, like the Nile, overflow
was the valley of
civilization their banks in the lower part of their courses;
the Tigris and Euphrates riv- and though these inundations do not deposit
ers. This region was earh' occupied by a fresh soil, as in the case of the Nile, they
Semitic and Hamitic tribes. The civiliza- are the cause of the fertility of the plain of
tion which grew up in the Tigris- Euphrates Mesopotamia, and in ancient times they
valle}' was almost as ancient as that which were condudled throughout its entire extent
arose in the Nile valley. There is an adtual by a system of canals, by which these over-
date in Chaldaean historj' as far back as flows were utilized and the countrj- thus
2234 B. C. ; while authentic Egj-ptian his- irrigated. The Tigris-Euphrates vallej^

tory —the period of the Pyramid-builders, comprises a fertile region in the midst of
the Fourth Dynasty — antedates this date the great belt of desert extending from the
by only two centuries, B. C. 2450. western shores of Africa almost to the north-
The Hebrew Scriptures assign the be- eastern coast of Asia.
ginning of the history of the human race This fertile vallej- anciently embraced a
in Speaking
the Tigris-Euphrates valley. number of territorial and political divisions,
of the immediate posterity of Noah and whose boundaries were often very indefinite.
his sons, Shem, Ham and Japheth, after the The region between the two ri\'ers was
Deluge, the Book of Genesis says: "And it called Mesopotamia by the Greeks (from
came to pass, as they journeyed from the mesos, midst, and potamoi. rivers). This
east, that they found a plain in the Land of was merely a geographical or territorial dis-
Shinar, and dwelt there." Shinar was the tricft, and not a political division. Chaldaea,
southern portion of the Tigris-Euphrates or Babylonia, was a political as well as a ter-
valley. In this region the Scriptures place ritorial division, situated between the lower
the building of the Tower of Babel, and course of the Tigris on the east and Arabia
Confusion of Tongues on the west, and corresponding to the geo-

the ' and disper-



sion of the human race. The record of graphical region which the Hebrews desig-
this event is preser\-ed in the Babylonian nated as the Land of Shinar. As the Per-
tradition, as well as in the Mosaic narra- sian Gulf in ancient times extended about
tive; and an account of this has been re- 1 20 or 1 30 miles farther north than at present,
cently discovered among the cuneiform in- ancient Chaldsea was quite a small section
scriptions on the Babylonian tablets now in of country compared with that region in
the British Museum. our day. The distri(5t east of the lower
The Tigris and Euphrates rivers rise in the course of these rivers, immediately east of
highlands of Armenia and unite near the head Babylonia, was a territorial and political
of the Persiou Gulf, into which their waters divi.sion called Susiana, or Elam, the chief
city of which was vSusa. Assyria proper, as to those who have never \-isited the coun-
a territorial division, lay to the east of the try."
Euphrates, west of the Zagros mountains, Saj'S another writer: "Babylonia, in the
north of Susiana and Chaldgea, and south of neighborhood of the Euphrates, rivaled the
Armenia; while Assyria as a political power, fertility of the valley of the Nile; the .soil

or the Assyrian Empire, varied in territorial was so peculiarly suited for com that the
extent at different times, and often comprised husbandman's returns were sometimes three
the entire region from the Mediterranean to hundred fold, and rarely less than two hun-
the plateau of Iran. dred fold. The rich oily grains of the pan-
Three great empires successively flour- cium and sesamum were produced in luxu-
ished in the Tigris-Euphrates valley — the riant abundance; the fig-tree, the olive and
Chaldaean, or Early Babylonian Empire, the vine were wholly wanting; but there
from 2400 B. C. to 1300 B. C; the Assyrian were large groves of palm-trees on the
Empire, from 1300 B. C. to 625 B. C; and banks of the river. From the palms they
the Eater Babylonian Empire, from 625 obtained not only fruit, but wine, sugar and
B. C. to 538 B. C. molasses, as the Arabs do at the present
The Chaldaean, or Early Babylonian Em- time. Dwarf cypress-trees were scattered
pire, was the first great monarchy of South- over the plains; but these were a poor sub-
western Asia. As we have seen, its seat stitute for other species of wood. To this
was the great alluvial plain lying to the deficiency of timber must be attributed the
north-west of the Persian Gulf. The popu- negle(5t of the river navigation, and the
lation of this region increased very rapidly abandonment of the commerce of the Indian
in the most ancient times, because of the seas, by the Babylonians."
extreme natural fertility of the soil, which Chaldsea produced no stone or minerals of
produced everything requisite for man's sup- any kind. The stone used in building was
port. Groves of date-palm lined the banks brought there from other lands. But the
of the rivers, and such cereal grains as wheat, country yielded an abundant supply of clay,
barley, millet, sesame and vetches grew in from which were manufactured excellent
luxuriant abundance, as did also various bricks for building purposes, while the wells
other grains. Says a certain writer: "Ac- of bitumen afforded an inexhaustible amount
cording to a native tradition, wheat was in- of admirable cement. These materials sup-
digenous in Chaldaea. Its tendencies to plied the place of wood, stone and mortar.
grow leaves was so great that the Babylon- Considering its luxuriant yield of cheap and
ians used to mow it twice, and then pasture abundant food and its never-failing supply
their cattle on it for a while, to keep down of building material, it is not surprising that
the blade and induce the plant to turn to Chaldsea in primeval times became densely
ear." Speaking of this country, Herodotus populated and abounded in great cities.
says: " Of all the countries that we know of, Assyria was better supplied with minerals
there is none so fruitful in grain. It makes than Chaldaea; good qualities of stone, iron,
no pretension indeed of growing the fig, the copper, lead, silver, antimony and other
olive, the vine or any other tree of the kind; metals existed in abundance; while bitumen
but in grain it is so fruitful as to yield two naphtha, petroleum, sulphur, alum and salt,

hundred fold. The blade of the wheat plant were also yielded.
and barley plant is often three or four As regards climate, the winters of Chal-
fingers in breadth. As for the millet and dffia and snow
are mild, frosts being light
the .sesame,I shall not say to what height unknown; while the summers are hot and
they grow, though within my own knowl- dry; and heavy rains fall in November and
edge; for I am not ignorant that what I December. The wild animals indigenous
have already written concerning the fruit- in Chalda3a were the lion, the leopard, the
fulness of Babylonia must seem incredible hyena, the lynx, the wild cat, the wolf, the

jackal, the wild boar, the bnffalo, the stag, fifteen miles north-west of Larsa, are the
the gazelle, the jerboa, the fox, the hare, the ruins of Huruk, the Scriptural Erech and
badger and the porcupine. The domestic the Greek Orchoe; called by the present na-
animals of the country were the camel, the tives Urka or Warka, and celebrated for the
horse, the buffalo, the cow, the ox, the goat, ruins of its ma.ssive temple. Sixty-five
the sheep and the dog. miles north-west of Warka, thirty miles
The Book of Genesis, in speaking of Nim- east of the Euphrates, are the ruins of Ni-
rod,"the mighty hunter before the L,ord," pur, called Calneh by Moses, and Niffer by
says: " And the beginning of his kingdom the present inhabitants. About sixty miles
was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and from Niffer, on the west bank of the Euphra-
Calneh, in the Land of Shinar." The tes, are the remains of the ancient Borsippa,
southern tetrarchy of four cities consisted chiefl}^ its temple, whose modem name
of Ur or Hur, Hunik, Nipur, and Larsa or is Birs-i-Nimrud. Fifteen miles north-west,
Larancha, which are believed to be identical on both banks of the Euphrates, are the
with the Scriptural "Urof the Chaldees," ruins of Babylon the Great, which cover



Erech, Calneh, and Ellasar. The northern a space three miles long by between one
tetrarch}- consisted of the cities of Babel or and two miles wide, and which consist of
Babylon, Borsippa, Cutha and Sippara. three mounds now called Babil, Kasr and
Ur, or Hur, in the southern part of Chal- Amram bj- the Arabs. The ancient Sippara,
daea, betn'een the Euphrates and the Ara- the Sephan'aim, was twenty
bian border, was the early capital and me- miles north-west of Babylon, on the east
tropolis of Chaldasa, and is celebrated as bank of the Euphrates, and is now called
the birth-place of Abraham. Its stately Sura. Dur-Kurri-galzu, now
Akker- called
ruins, now called Mugheir bj- the Arabs, kuf on the Saklawiyeh was six miles
and chief among which are the remains of from the site of the present Bagdad. About
a great temple, consist principalh- of a series twenty miles north-east of Babylon was
of low mounds of an oval shape with the Cutha, now Ibrahim. Ilii, or Ahava, was
largest diameter running from north to the modem Hit, about one hundred and
south. Thirty miles north-west of Ur, on twenty miles north-west of Babylon, on the
the east bank of the Euphrates, are the Euphrates. Chilmad was the present Kal-
ruins of Larsa or Larrak, the Biblical Ella- wadha, near Bagdad. Rubesi was probably
sar, the Laranchse of Berosus, and the Lar- Zerghul. There were a large number of
issa of Apollodorus; now called Senkereh or smaller cities in ever}' part of Chaldaea, of
Sinkara. On the same side of the river. which nothing is known.


EGARDING the great anti- of Sj'ria. Unfortunately this work has been
quity of Chaldaea we have the lost,excepting a few fragments which were
authority of Berosus, the na- copied by Apollodorus and Polyhistor, two
tive Babylonian historian, who Greek writers of the first centur\- before
was a priest of Bel at Babylon, Christ, and these fragments were afterwards
and flouri-shed during the first half of the quoted bj- Eusebius and Syncellus, and
third century B, C. Soon after Alexander from them we learn the Babylonian histor-
the Great took Babylon, Berosus wrote a ian's account of his country's annals. Other
History of Chaldaea in Greek, in three books, ancient sources of Chaldsean, Assyrian and
and dedicated the work to Antiochus, King Babj'lonian history are the Old Testatment
and the writings of the Greek historians, Henr>' Rawlinson and Mr. E. Norris. Many
Herodotus, Ctesias and Diodorus Siculus. of these inscriptions have been deciphered
As in the case of Egypt, our knowledge by M. Oppert, the French Orientalist. The
of the history of the three great successive evidence of both classical writers and the
empires in the Tigris-Euphrates valley has monumental inscriptions shows that the
been vastly enlarged through the diligent Chaldaeans, Assyrians and Eater Babylon-
research of modem historians, antiquarians ians paid great attention to chronology.
and Orientalists. By the diligence of the The Canon of Ptolemy, which contained an
great beginning with Layard
explorers, exadl Babylonian computation of time from
nearlj' half a century ago, Nineveh, Babjdon 747 B. C. to 331 B. C, is generally credited
and the buried cities of the plain have been as a most authentic document. The Assyr-
excavated; their temples and palaces have ian Canon, discovered by SirHenry Raw-
been exposed to view; the mysterious in- linson, and consisting of a number of clay
scriptions in the cuneiform, or wedge-shaped tablets, contains a complete .system of Assyr-
and arrow-headed charadlers, which were ian chronology from 911 B. C. to 660 B. C,
discovered on the slabs that lined the in- by the record of a solar eclipse which
sides of the palaces and temples, have, by a must have occurred June 15, 763 B. C; and
grand triumph of modem scholarship, been is regarded as equally reliable. Among the
deciphered, so that a new flood of light has eminent modem writers on ancient
been shed upon the darkness of these famous Oriental monarchies are the English histor-
ancient monarchies. Specimens of the cu- ians, George Rawlinson and and P. Smith,
neiform inscriptions have been published in the renowned German and Ori-
the British Museum Series, edited by Sir entalists, Niebuhr, Bunsen and Duncker.


HE Chaldaeans were a Semitic hunter before the Lord; wherefore it is said,
and Hamitic race, and their Even as Nimrod, the mighty' hunter before
origin is involved in the ob- the Lord; and the beginning of his kingdom
unknown anti-
scurity of an was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Cal-
The Chaldaean mon-
quity. neh, in the land of Shinar. " Nimrod's
archy probably began about 2400 B. C, as capital was the celebrated " Ur of the Chal-
we have an account of astronomical obser- dees, " which at this early period was a
vations dating back to 2234 B. C. Berosus greater city than the four which Nimrod is
assigns nine dynasties to Chaldaea and said to have founded. By means of his per-
Babylonia from the Deluge to the Persian sonal prowess and strength, as "a mighty
conquest of Babylonia in 538 B. C. The hunter before the Lord, Nimrod had earned


first of dj-nasties is largely traditional, the gratitude of his countrymen by reducing
and ended, according to Rawlinson, in the the number of wild animals which roamed
2286 B. C, and according to Duncker
3^ear over that region in primitive times. Evi-
in the year 2458 B. C. dently one of the greatest charadlers of an-
The Hebrew Scriptures mention Nimrod, tiquity, Nimrod was by the Chal-
the .son of Cush and the grand.son of Ham, was worshiped
daeans after his death, and
as the founder of thismost ancient Asiatic by them and by the Assyrians and Later
empire. Says the Mosaic narrative: "And Babylonians for two thousand years, under
Cush begat Nimrod he began to be a ; the title of Dilu-Nipru, or Bel-Nimrod, "the
mighty one in the earth he was a mighty ; god of the chase," or "the great hunter."
— —

Pi VJTICAL ins TOR Y. 109

Rawliiison thinks that the title assigned by though the tradition concerning Nimrod is

the Arab astronomers to the constellation of almost universal, his name has not yet been
Orion El Jabbar, "the giant"— was in found among o.\\y of the monuments or cu-
memon.- of Xinirod. The ignorant people neiform inscriptions.
who occupy that region at the present day We have no account of the immediate suc-
still remember Ninirod, Solomon and Alex- cessors of Nimrod. Some time after his
death there followed a migration of Semitic
and Haniitic tribes from ChakUea to the
northward and westward. Thus the Assjt-
ians, a Semitic people, migrated to the mid-
dle portion of the Tigris valley, where they
laid the foundations of their kingdom; the
Phoenicians, a Hamitic race, descended from
Canaan, a .son of Ham, settled on the west-
ern shores of the country afterwards called
Canaan, or Palestine, where they became
the most famous commercial and colonizing
people of antiquity; while the Semitic tribe
which produced Abraham, the shepherd and
native of " Ur of the Chaldees," and from
whom are descended the Hebrews and Arabs,
passed into Northern Mesopotamia, whence
Abraham journeyed westward with his flocks
and herds into the "promised land" of
One of the successors of Nimrod was
Urukh, or Urkham. He is the first Chal-
dsean king of whom any traces have been
discovered in the countr>'. The exadl time
of his reign is uncertain. He eredled many
stupendous edifices, which appear to have
been designed as temples. These structures
are gigantic in dimensions, but rude in work-
manship. Thebricks of which the)- are
built are rough, and put together awkwardl}',
moist mud or bitumen being used for mortar.
In speaking of the works eredled by this
monarch, Professor Rawlinson says: "In
his architedture, though there is much that is
rude and simple, there is also a good deal
which indicates knowledge and experience."
Astronomy was cultivated during the reign
of Urukh. Ur was still the capital of the
Chaldsean monarchy, Babylon having not
ander the Great as the three great heroes of yet risen into importance. At Warka, on
antiquity, while all others have been forgot- the site of the ancient city of Huriik the —
ten. Calah, one of the Assyrian capitals, —
Erech of the Book of Genesis is the famous
was regarded as Nimrod's sacred city, and mound called Bowariyeh by the present in-
the town which now occupies its site bears habitants. The general form of the ruin is
his name slightly corrupted Niinrud. Al- pyramidal, but the ravages of ages have de-
" '


stroj-ed its sj-mmetn-. Recent discoveries the base measure one hundred and ninet}'-
have brought to light the fatt that this mas- eight feet, and the .shorter sides one hun-
sive structure was a tower two hundred feet dred and thirty-three feet. The first story
square at its base and two stories high. The above the basement is about forty feet high,
lower storv' was built of bricks baked in the and is secured outside by a wall ten feet
sun and cemented together with bitumen, thick, made of burnt brick cemented to-
in which were placed laj-ers of reeds ever>- gether with bitumen. The .second story,
four or five feet. In the upper story, which now mostly in ruins, had the same form and
is now in ruins, the middle portion was like- character originally. According to a local
wise of .sun-baked brick, but on the outside tradition this immense structure had a third
were burnt bricks. As it now stands, this storj', said to be the shrine of the god to

ancient temple is about one hundred feet whose worship the temple had been erecfled.
above the level of the plain, and not much Tiles glazed with a blue enamel and copper
is known of the original dimensions of the nails have been found in such a position as
massive edifice, but the ruins indicate that to indicate that they were used in the con-
it must have been of immense altitude and strudlion of this third story.
grandeur. All the bricks of the buttresses Similar ruins have been discovered in
are stamped with cuneiform inscriptions, and other parts of Chaldsea, of which the most
the layers are strongly' cemented with bitu- important are those of Calneh and Larsa.
men. The dimensions of the whole
solid Heaps of rubbish, the ruins of wrecked
strudlure have been estimated at three million temples, are seen in ever>' part of this
cubic feet, and the number of bricks used in famous land of remote antiquity. In Cal-
its eredlion have been computed at thirty neh the fragments of temples eredled dur-
millions. The name of its royal builder ing the reign of Urukh are buried beneath
frequently occurs on the burnt bricks of this two mounds. The first of these temples
ruined temple. In some places his name is was dedicated to the goddess Beltis and the
stamped in the baked clay, and in other other to Bel-Nimrod. In Larsa the ruins
places the inscription records that " Urukh, indicate that San, the Sun-god, was adored
King of Ur, King of Sumir and Accad, has as the tutelary divinity of that city. In the
built a temple to his ladj-, the goddess cuneiform inscriptions of Ur, his capital,
Nana," or that "Urukh has built the temple Urukh is sometimes called King of Ur, '


and fortress of Ur in honor of his Lord, the and also '

' King of Accad. It was chiefly at



god Sin," or that "The mighty Lord, King Ur that his great architecflural works were
of Ur, may name continue "
his ! ere(5led. The ruins of this once-famous
The temple of Ur was also built by Urukh, cit} — his great capital — display his inscrip-
and is like the one just described. Recent tions in greater profusion than those of any
excavations have unearthed the ruins of this other Chaldaean monarch.
old Chaldjean structure after it lay buried Urukh, at his death, was succeeded on the
for centuries beneath the mounds of rubbish. Chaldaean throne by his son, Ilgi, or Elgi,
In the portion of the strucflure which has who also styled himself "King of Ur.
escaped the ravages of time ma}- be seen the The royal seal or signet of the Chaldaean
traces of the temple of Hurki, the Moon- and Assyrian monarchs was formed in the
god. The four corners of the vast edifice, shape of a small cylinder, with figures and
and not its four sides, face the four cardinal characters engraven in the surface. When
points of the compass, and the ground-plan rolled upon wax or any other plastic mate-
of the strucflure is in the form of a parallelo- rial this cylinder left name and
the king's
gram, with its longest sides facing to the emblems in jrelief upon the substance em-
north-east and south-west. The foundation ployed in sealing. In one of the mounds
of this temple is raised twenty feet above near Erech, or Orchoii, the signet-cylinder of
the level of the plain. The longer sides of Ilgi has been found, and is now in the Brit-

ish Museum. The legend inscribed upon it This repulse .secured Canaan against any
has been deciphered as follows: " For sav- further attack from the King of Chaldsea
ing the life of Ilgi, from the mighty Lord, Only three of the succeeding Chaldsean
the King of Ur, son of I'rukh. " Ilgi fin- kings of this Susiaiiian, or Elamite dynasty
ished the great archite<flural strudlures com- are known. The first of, vSinti-shil-

menced by his father, and is reputed to khak, is known only by name. The sec-
have repaired two of the great temples of ond, Kudur-Mabuk, whom the inscriptions
Erech. The inscriptions testifj- to the fame call" Conqueror of the West," is credited

of both Urukh and Ilgi as architedls and with having enlarged and beautified the
warriors. city of Ur, which he made his capital, thus
After Ilgi's reign there is a blank in Chal- ingratiating himself with his Chaldaean sub-
daean historj-, broken \iy the conquest of the jects. Tradition also gives him the honor
kingdom by a Susiaiiian, or Elamite dynastj-, of restoring the old Chaldaean religion,
the second in the lists of Berosus, about 2286 which his predecessors of the Elamite dy-
B. C. The first monarch of this dynasty nasty had discouraged. The temples were
was Kudur-Nakhunta, who governed repaired and the worship of the old deities
Chaldaea through viceroys, while he held once more prevailed. Kudur-Mabuk was
his court at Susa, his capital. One of his suc- succeeded by his son, Arid-Sin, the last of
cessors was Kudur-Lagajier — the Chedor- the known monarchs of the Susianian, or
laomer of Scripture — who likewise reigned Elamite dynasty, which ended in the 3'ear
at Susa, and divided Chaldsea into several 2052 B. C.
provinces, which he governed by means of Then came the third dynasty mentioned
viceroys. Kudur-Lagamer, or Chedorlao- by Berosus, a dj-nasty consisting of eleven
mer, was the first great Oriental conqueror. monarchs, whose aggregate reigns embrace
After conquering Assj-ria he invaded Ca- a period of only forty-eight years; but
naan, or Palestine, where he was opposed by neither monumental inscriptions nor tradi-
King of So-
the Canaanitish princes, Bera, tion afford us any knowledge concerning
dom ; Birsha, King
Gomorrah Shinah,of ; the events of their reigns. The fourth d}--

King of Admeh Shemeber, King of Ze-

; nasty recorded by Berosus, one embracing
boiim and the King of Bela or Zoar. A
; forty-nine native Chaldsean kings, reigned
great battle in the valley of Siddim, near for four hundred and fiftj--seven 3-ears, from
the Dead Sea — the first great battle recorded 2004 B. C. to 1546 B. C.
in history —resulted in a victorj' for Chedor- One of the first kings of the fourth
laomer, who for twelve years held the Ca- dynasty was Ismi-Dagon, who probably
naanitish kings in vassalage. At the end of reigned during the first half of the nine-
this period these kings attempted to free teenth century before Christ, and who sub-
themselves from this j'oke, whereupon Che- I
jecfted As.syria to the Chaldaean supremacy.
dorlaomer again led an expedition into Pal- His sou, Shamas-Vul, was the Chaldsean
estine, and defeated the Canaanites in a sec- viceroy over Assj'ria, and built a temple at
ond battle in the vallej^ of Siddim, on which Asshur. The monumental in.scriptions prove
occasion Lot, Abraham's nephew, was taken the Chaldsean ascendency over Assyria at
prisoner. After plundering the cities of this early period, the last-named countrj-
Palestine, the vicftorious Chaldees set out being governed by Chaldsean viceroys. Isini-
upon their march home but encumbered ; Dagon was succeeded on the Chaldsean
by their captives and plunder, they were throne by his son, Gurguna, who is chieflj'
routed near Damascus by Abraham, who distinguished as the builder of the great
with a small band had made a night attack cemeteries at Ur, among the most wonderful
upon the retreating Chaldjean host, and of the ruins of Chaldaea. The next king
driven them in a panic across the Syrian was Naram-Sin, who erected the great tem-
desert, recovering the booty thej' had taken. ple at Agana and fixed his capital at Babj--
Ion, which had at this time become the "it changed desert plains into well-watered
largest city of Chaldaea. Ur had for some fields; it .spread around fertility and abund-

time ceased to be the Chaldaean capital; ance." Khammurabi also eredled several
Erech, or Huruk, having taken its place; important edifices, one of which was a new
but the latter city now gave wa}' to Babylon, palace at Kalwadha, in the vicinity of the
which thenceforth remained the capital of present city of Bagdad. He likewise re-
the empire. paired the great temple of the Sun at Lar-
After Naram-Sin, who reigned about the sa, or Earrak (now Senkereh). He was
middle of the eighteenth century liefore succeeded by his son, Samsu-iluna, whose
Christ, followed the reign of Sin-Shada, name has only been found on one series of
who built the upper terrace in the temple of inscriptions, and of whose immediate suc-
Erech, now the ruins of Bowariyeh, already cessors no traces can be found for three
described. The next king was Zur-Sin, the quarters of a centur\^
most celebrated sovereign of his time. He The next known Chaldaean king is Kara-
founded the city of Abu-Shahrein, the ruins IN-DAS, the first of five monarchs during
of which testify to the adoption of a new whose reigns intimate relations were main-
style of archite(flure, much in advance of tained with Assyria, which was now grad-
the previous style, both in the charadler of ually rising into importance, and which
its strucfture and in its ornamental richness. eventually .shook off the Chaldaean suprem-
Here also we get a better idea of the simple acy. Chaldaea and Assyria were during
arts of life prevalent among this celebrated this period sometimes united by treaties
people in the early times. Stone knives, of alliance or by royal marriages, and were
chisels and hatchets are everywhere found sometimes at war with each other. When
among the ruins, and some samples of gold the Chaldaean king, Kara-khar-das, was
and bronze have also been discovered. Or- overthrown and killed in an insurredtion
naments for the person were also made out headed by Nazi-bugas, an Assyrian army
of iron. Of Nur-Vul, the next to the last destroyed the insurredlionary chief and
of the kings of this dynasty, as mentioned placed the brother of the murdered sover-
by Berosus, no trace has been found on the eign upon the Chaldaean throne. Some time
monuments. Rim-Sin, the last of this afterward Purna-puriyas, King of Chal-
dynasty, is mentioned on a single tablet dis- daea, married the daughter of Asshur-upallit,
covered in the ruins of Ur. King of Ass)Tia. The last of the five
In the 3'ear C, Chaldaea was
1546 B. kings just mentioned was Kurri-galzu, of
conquered by an Arab chief named Kham- whose reign relics have been disco\-ered at
MURABi, who founded the Arabian dynasty Mugheir, the ancient Ur, and at Akkerkuf,
of Chaldaean —
monarchs the fifth dynasty in the latter of which cities is said to have
the lists of Berosus, and in which he in- been founded by this monarch. The re-
cludes nine kings; but the names of fifteen maining kings of the fifth, or Arabian dy-
monarchs of this race have been deciphered nasty are Saga-raktigas, the builder of the
from the cuneiform inscriptions and from temple of the Sun at Sippara, Ammidi-
the tablets. Khanimurabi reigned twenty- KAGA, and six others whose reigns were
six years, and was a wise and able sover- unimportant.
eign. He fully appreciated the benefits ac- In the year 1300 B. C, Tiglathi-Nin,
cruing to the country from a proper sys- King of Assyria, invaded Chaldaea, took
tem of artificial irrigation. He constructed Babylon, and extended his supremacy over
a canal from one of the rivers for this pur- kingdom. Thus ended
this ancient Asiatic
pose; and a white stone tablet, now in the the Arabian dynasty in Chaldaea; and the
Lotivre at Paris, bears an inscription which sixth dynasty, according to Berosus, prob-
says that the canal cut by Khannnurabi ably A.s.syrian, ascended the throne of Chal-
proved a blessing to the Babylonians, that daea, which, with occasional intermissions,

remained in dependence upon Assyria of Chaldsea in the year 1300 B. C. is gener-

thenceforth until 625 B. C, the forty-five ally regarded as the end of this most ancient
kings of the sixth dynasty being merely of Asiatic empires — this great mother of Asi-
Assyrian viceroys. The Assj'rian conquest atic civilization.


siibjedlion for twelve years, and who was them as ethnologically different peoples.
the first of all those great Oriental conquer- and other traditions sustained by
Cla.ssical —
ors who within the last forty centuries have such Greek poets as Homer, Hesiod and
built up vast empires in Asia, which have —
Pindar represent the early inhabitants of
in larger or shorter spaces of time succes- the shores of the Persian Gulf and the oc-
sively crumbled to deca}-. cupants of the Nile valley as the same
In speaking of this ancient empire, Pro- race, calling them all Ethiopians.
fessor Rawlinsou saj^s: "The Chaldsean The Hebrew Scriptures also regard the
monarchy is rather curious from its antiquity people of these two regions as belonging to
than illustrious from its great names, or ad- a kindred race, namely, Hamites, or Cush-
mirable for the extent of its dominions. Less ites; Cush, the father of Nimrod, being a
ancient than the Egyptian, it claims the ad- son of Ham; and the ancient Ethiopians be-
vantage of priority over ever\' empire or ing called the people of Cush ; while the
kingdom which has grown up upon the soil Egyptians were regarded as the posterity of
of Asia. The Aryan, Turanian, and even Misraim, aLso a son of Ham. Recent philo-
Semitictribes, appear to have been in the logical investigations demonstrate the truth
nomadic condition when the Cushite set- of the Scripture view of the national affini-
tlers of lower Babylonia betook themselves ties of these primitive nations, and show
to agriculture, erecfled temples, built cities the language of the primeval Chaldees
and established a strong and settled govern- to have been Ethiopic or Cushite, thus
ment. The leaven which was to spread by de- ranking them as belonging to the same
grees through the Asiatic peoples was first Hamitic race as the Egj'ptians and Ethi-
deposited on the shores of the Persian Gulf opians. Although the predominant por-
at the mouth of the Great River; and
' tion of the early Chaldaean population
hence civilization, science, letters, art, ex- was Cushite, was an infu-
or Hamitic, there
tended themselves northward and eastward sion of Semitic, Arj^au and Turanian ele-
and westward. Assyria, Media, Semitic ments. The Semites —such as the Syrians,
Babylonia, Persia, as they derived from Assyrians, Hebrews and others
migrated —
Chaldasa the chara(5ter of their writing, .so from Chaldsea at a very early period to the
were they indebted to the same countrj- for northward and westward. Accad was a
their general notions of government and ad- Turanian .settlement, and the Aryans occu-
ministration, for their architedlure, for their pied the portions of the countrj' bordering
decorative art, and still more for their science on Cissia, likewise called Susiana, or Elam,
and literature. Each people no doubt mod- whose people were also Ar>'ans. The name
ified in some measure the boon received, add- Chaldseans was unknown to these early peo-
ing more or less of its own to the common ple, but was given them by Berosus and has
inheritance. But Chaldsea stands forth as been used by writers ever since. The He-
the great parent and original in\'entress of —
brew prophets such as Isaiah, Habakkuk
Asiatic civilization, without any rival that —
and others spoke of the Babylonians, even
can reasonably dispute her claim. " to the latest times, as Chaldseans. Isaiah
It was believed by such eminent Gennan called Babylon the "daughter of the Chal-
.scholars and antiquarians as Heeren, Nie-

daeans, and
' the beauty of the Chaldees'

buhr, Bunsen, and Max Miiller, that the excellency." In a restri(?led, the term
ancient Chaldseaus belonged to the Aramaic, Chaldceans was applied to the learned men
or Semitic race, and that they were thus of Babylon to the latest ancient times. Af-
kindred with the A.ssyrians, Syrians, He- ter theAssyrian conquest of Chaldaea, in B.
brews and Arabs. Herodotus regarded the C. 1300, there was an admixture of new
Assyrians and Babylonians, from the earliest Semitic elements from the north, so that in
times, as belonging to the same race ; but the process of time the Chaldeans became
Berosus, Diodorus and Pliny considered Semitized; and the preponderating portion

cn'fijz.rno.y. 115

of the later Babj-lonian population was if a year had not elap.sed since they were put
Aryan and Tu-

Semitic, while the Haniitic, together.

ranian elements occupied a subordinate The most imposing ruins of ancient Chal-
place. The language of the learned in Baby- drea are their temples, two of which have
lon in later times was the classic Chaldee, been described. The temple of Abu-Shah-
while the national language of the Semi- rein was similar in characfler to those of
tized Babylonians was akin to that of the Erech and Ur, and was one of the few Chal-
Hebrews. dean edifices built of stone, which may be

At an early period earlier than 2,000 accounted for by the proximity of a stone-
B. C. —
the Chaldees had made considerable quarry in the neighboring Arabian hills.
progress in the arts, especially in archi- In this massive strucfture are also marble,
itedlure, and from the first they showed alabaster and agate, skillfully cut and pol-
the building tendency which seemed to be ished, while gold plates and gilt-headed
instinctive in other famous Hamitic nations, nails have also been discovered in the ruins.
such as the Eg^-ptians and Ethiopians. The In the sacred shrine of the deity to whose
attempt to build a tower

which' should ' worship the temple was consecrated, the

reach to heaven," made here, as mentioned wood-work and images of the god were or-
in the Mosaic narrative, was in accordance namented. Like the Egyp^i^ii Pyramids,
with the general spirit of the Chaldees. Out the Chaldtean edifices were chiefly remark-
of such simple and rude building material as able for their grandeur and massive propor-
brick and bitumen they construdled edifices tions, v^'hile architedlural beauty was want-
of vast size, the ruins of which have recently ing.
been discovered by the explorations of Lay^- In the cities the dwellings were built of
ard and Botta. These vast strudlures were brick, but in the rural districts they con-
pyramidal in design, and were built in suc- sisted of reed huts plastered with slime.
cessive steps or stages to a considerable alti- The houses of even the rich seem to have
tude, and so placed as to face the four cardinal been rude and coarse. The remains of a
points of the compass. dwelling-house have been found among the
Speaking of the building material of the excavations at Ur, in which the foundation

Chaldees, a certain writer says Stone and : ' was a brick platform raised above the sur-
marble were even more rare in this country face, the floors were of bunit bricks well
than wood, but the clay was well adapted cemented with bitumen, and the walls were
for the manufa<5lure of bricks. These, plastered with gypsum. In the apartments
whether dried in the sun or burnt in kilns, of a house discovered at Abu-Shahreiu the
became so hard and durable that now, after walls were frescoed with designs in red,
the lapse of so many centuries, the remains black and white; and figures of birds, beasts
of ancient walls preserve the bricks unin- and men were skillfully drawn on the plaster
jured by their long exposure to the atmos- of the walls. The Chaldsean dwellings usu-
phere, and retaining the impression of the ally had flat wooden roofs, though some-
inscriptions in the arrow-headed character times there were arched roofs built of bricks
as perfeClly as if they had only just been cemented with bitumen.
manufa(5tured. Naphtha and bitumen, or Next to their architedlural stni<5tures, the
earthy and pitch, were produced in
oil most remarkable remains of the ancient Chal-
great abundance above Babylon, near the The immense
dseans are their burial-places.
modem town of Hit. served as sub- number of ancient tombs discovered in what
stitutes for mortar and cement; and so last- was Chaldaea proper is truly wonderful.
ing were they, that the layers of rushes and Large sepulchers are filled with the bones
palm-leaves laid between the courses of and relics of the dead. At Warka, the
bricks as a building material, are found at ancient Erech, except the triangular space
this day in the ruins of Babylon as perfect as between the three principal ruins, the
whole remainder of the platform, the space two large jars, from tn'o and a half to three
within the walls, and a wide extent of the feetdeep and two feet in diameter, and ce-
neighboring desert, are filled with human mented together with bitumen, as found at
bones and sepulcliers. Coffins are heaped Mugheir and Tel-el-Lahm, readily contained
upon coffins from thirty to sixty feet, and a full-sized corpse and had an air-hole at
there are miles on miles of tombs in portions each end to allow the gases generated by
of this once-famous laud. The most striking decomposition to escape.
of these burial-places are those at Warka, The coffins containing the bodies of the
the ancient Erech; at Mugheir, the ancient dead were placed in rows, and then covered
Ur; at Abu-Shahrein and Tel-el-Lahm. with earth so as to form a mound. These
The tombs are of three kinds brick — mounds were repeatedlj- covered with fresh
vaults, clay coffins shaped like a dish cover, earth, so that they were often elevated to a
and clay coffins formed of two large jars height of sixty feet above the original level
placed mouth to mouth and cemented to- of the plain. The mounds were carefully
gether with bitumen. The brick vaults, drained by means of tube-like shafts of pot-
principally found at Mugheir, are seven feet tery, consisting of a succession of rings or
long, three and a half feet wide, and five joints, two feet in diameter and a foot and a
feet high. The floors and walls of these half wide, skillfully put together and ce-
vaults were made of sun-dried bricks ce- mented with bitumen, and filled with masses
mented together with mud or bitumen, and of broken pottery' to resist external pressure.
the side walls were closed in above with an These drains reached from the surface to the
arch. The body was laid to rest on its left original ground-level; and by their means
side on a matting of reeds spread upon the the sepulchral mounds have been protecfled
floor. The fingers of the right hand were from dampness, and their utensils, orna-
placed upon a copper bowl set in the palm ments and skeletons have been preserved to
of the left. The head rested upon a brick the present day, and appear perfecfl on open-
for a pillow. Articles of use and ornament ing the tombs, but usuallj^ crumble to dust
were placed in the vault, and vessels with when touched.
food and drink were set near the head of the Monuments have also been exhumed bear-
departed. The remains of several bodies ing inscriptions in the aineiform, or wedge-
are in many cases found in the same vault, shaped charadlers, the deciphering of which,
and one vault contained eleven skeletons. as we have said, has given us new light on
It is believed from this that the brick vaults early Chaldsean history. This kind of writ-
were family sepulchers. ing was used for monumental records, and
Where the dish-cover clay coffins were was either hewn or carved in rocks and
used, the body was laid on a mat spread sculptures, or impressed on tiles and bricks.
over a sun-dried brick platform, disposed of The legends stamped upon the baked bricks
in thesame manner as in the brick vaults, of this ancient period prove the extent to
and surrounded with articles of food and which this kind of writing was in use. The
ornaments. The large clay coffins shaped earliest date that can be assigned to its use
like a dish-cover, seven feet long, two and was about 2000 B. C, and it was little, if at
a half wide at the bottom, and two or three all, used as late as 300 B. C. A vast d«^al
feet high, then covered the body, matting, of labor and erudition have been spent in
utensils, ornaments and all. Never were deciphering these cuneiform inscriptions.
more than two skeletons, one male and the The great inscription of Behistuu, in Persia,
other female, discovered under one cover. is of special interest. It is engraved in three
Children were interred under covers half the forms of cuneiform writing, upon the per-
size of those for adults. These tombs were pendicular face of a mountain, at a height
found seven or eight feet under ground at of three hundred feet; and gives an account
Mugheir. The clay coffins consisting of of the genealogy of Darius, his exploits.

1— S.-TT. H.
and the provinces of his empire. Tliis in- the fine cloths and delicate textile fabrics
scription was deciphered by Sir Henry Raw- manufa(5tured by their looms, showing that
linson. the spinner's and weaver's art had attained
The writing of the Chaldees is well-nigh a high degree of skill and perfedtion among
as abundant as that of their Hamitic kins- this renowed primeval race.
men, the Egyptians. The writing was im- The Chaldees were also skillful in the art
pressed on the clay while it was moist and of cutting, polishing and engraving gems,
plastic. The inscriptions on the bricks re- some of their work in this art rivaling the
cord the history of the building in which best modem specimens. The signets and
they are found, the name of the monarch seals were of this class, and several of them
who built it, his titles and his fame. The have been deciphered and rendered in En-
inscriptions on the clay tablets are usually glish. The inscription on the seal of Urukh
of a private character, relating to such mat- has been translated as follows: "The sig-
ters as deeds, contracfts and personal records. net of Urukh, the pious chief. King of Ur,
The writing is from left to right, except on High Priest of NifFer." On Ilgi's seal was
signet-cylinders, on which it is reversed, the following legend: "To the manifesta-
because of the manner in which it was tion of Nergal, King of Bit-Zida, of Zur-
stamped, as described in a previous sedlion. guUa, for the saving of the life of Ilgi, the
The legend on the bricks was always stamped powerful hero, the King of Ur, son of Urukh
in the form of a square in the center; and * * * May his name be preserved." A
was some cases impressed upon the clay,
in signet-cylinder of one of the Sin kings bears
and in others was cut or engraved in the sur- this inscription: "Sin, the powerful chief,
face with some implement. On many of the the King of Ur, the King of the four races
tablets the signet-cylinder of the maker or * * * his seal." Some of the cylinders
contradtor was rolled across the surface, bear neither figures nor inscriptions; while
showing the wearer's motto and seal in re- others have no legend, but bear figures and
lief These tablets were preserved as family symbols. They were usually of jasper oi

records, just as moderns file important docu- chalcedony, ai:d were used to impress the
ments for preservation. These inscriptions seals of their owners on clay tablets. They
abound in all the ruins of ancient Chaldsea. were half an inch in diameter and three
The earthenware coffins and drainage- inches long. The
cylinder was rolled upon
shafting, besides the many jars, vases and the tablet bj-means of a copper or bronze
drinking-vessels, attest the skill of this parallelogram, one side of which was passed
ancient people in pottery from the earliest through a hole bored through its axis. It
ages of their history. On many burnt-clay was suspended from the owner's neck or
tablets are figures representing lions, bulls waist by means of a string or chain attached
and men; in most of which are illustrated to a metal frame. The design of the wearer's
deadly combats between men and lions. seal was cut in reverse on the surface of the
The Chaldees fashioned arms, implements signet, leaving the impression in relief
and ornaments from various metals. In the The Chaldees likewise engaged in com-
oldest ruins are discovered flint knives, merce with other countries. Their trading
hatchets, stone hammers and occasional caravans journeyed to the Ar>-an and Tu-
articles of bronze, such as arrow-heads, ranian countries of Central Asia, and the
knives, hatchets and sickles. Articles of "ships of Ur" navigated the Persian Gulf
iron, gold and copper have been discovered and traded with the people on its shores.
in great abundance in the mounds. Orna- The Chaldaeans found cheap and abun-
ments were usually made of iron or gold, dant articles of food in the luxuriant growth
while arms and weapons were generally of the date-palm and the abundant yield of
fashioned from copper or bronze. The such cereals as wheat, barley, millet and
primitive Chaldees were also celebrated for sesame; in addition to which the wealthier
cnii.r/.ATiON. TIQ

classes induljjcd in animal food, snch as ing sunrise on the equinocflial moniing.
fish, chickens and the wild boar. They thus inferred that the sun's orbit
The worship of the heavenly bodies led measured seven hundred and twenty times
the primitive Chaldces at an early day to his disc, and from this they derived a unit
the study of astronomy and chronology. to measure space and time. In regard to
Diodorus declares that the Chaldasans were space this unit constituted half a degree, and
far in advance of all other ancient nations in in the calculation of time the same unit
theirknowledge of the starry heavens. This equaled two minutes, or one-thirtieth of an
celebrated people discovered and recorded hour. A stadium was the distance an active
the relation of the sun's circuit to the other foot-courier could walk in one unit of time,
cycles of the solar system. They observ-ed or two miiuites; and the distance he could
that the sun's apparent course through the walk in thirty units, sixty minutes, or one
firmament equals about twelve rounds of hour, at the same ratio of speed, was called
the moon, and for this reason they divided a. parasang. The stadium was divided into
the year into twelve months of thirty days three hundred and sixty cubits, and sixty
each, and when they discovered the inaccu- cubits was called a. plcthron.
racy of this sj-stem they introduced new cal- The Chaldaeans discovered and recorded
culations, re<5tifying the calendar so as to the fact that each cycle of the moon's
ag^ee with the sidereal year of three hundred eclipses is completed in a ]3eriod of two hun-
and and six hours. By their
sixty-five days dred and twentj--three months, and from
obser\-ation of the sun's course through the this discovery they computed the length of
heavens the}- were able to establish the the synodic and periodic months so accu-
twelve signs of the Zodiac; and by observ- rately that modem astronomers have found
ing the variation of the orbits of the planets the calculation to fall short of less than five
from that of the sun thej- were enabled to fix seconds of our time. They carefully re-
the limits of the zodiacal signs, and to divide corded all the results of their observations.
each sign into thirty degrees by the progress The Greek Callisthenes, who had accom-
of the sun. By watching the moon's phases panied the expedition of Alexander the
they adopted seven days as the length of Great, sent to Aristotle from Babylon a
the week. They day
further divided each series of tablets on which were inscriptions
into twelve hours; each hour into sixty, or recording astronomical observations dating
five times twelve, minutes; and thus estab- as farback as 1903 years before the year 331
lished the basis of the duodecimal method B. C,
the 3-ear that Alexander entered that
of calculation. Two times twelve, or city. These observ-ations would therefore
twenty-four, finger-widths was fixed upon reach back 2234 years before Christ.
as the measure of a aibit. A cycle of sixty- The Chaldaeans had also made considerable
years was called a soss; was
ten times sixty progress in arithmetic, and they employed
a and the square of sixt>', or thirty-six
7ier; —
two systems of notation decimal and duo-
centuries, was a sar. decimal. They used cuneiform, or wedge-
They measured distances in the heavens shaped and arrow-headed characters, to re-
by taking the width of the sun's disc as a present numbers. Their system of weights
unit. By comparing the quantitj^ of water was based upon their system of measures.
di.scharged through an orifice in a jar in the A cubit of water, which weighed sixty-six
time occupied by the sun in crossing the pounds, was divided into sixtj' logs, each log
horizon on the morning of the equinox with measuring about five-sixths of a pint. The
the amount discharged through the same log was the unit of measure; and its weight,
orifice at the next sunrise, they discovered called a niiiia, was the unit of weight. A
that the amount discharged between the two duck-shaped stone belonging to King Ilgi
risings of the sun was seven hundred and has been discovered bearing the inscription,
twenty times the amount discharged dur- "Ten minse of Ilgi," Like most other na-
tions, the Chaldasans had one sj'stem of sand years ago, and its massive architectural
weights for the ordinary' articles of the mar- structures have slumbered in eternal repose
ket-place, and another system for the pre- beneath the sands and dust of more than
cious metals and gems. Circular pieces or thirty centuries, the grand mental triumphs
rings, called talents, shekels, etc. —names of its venerable civilization j-et remain, as a
afterwards used by the Hebrews and the permanent legacy to posterity — the ground-

Greeks were taken as units in weighing work of the science and learning in which
gold and silver. they have ever since been recognized as the
Although the brilliant intellecftual adtivity pioneers — the wonder and admiration of the
of Chaldasa ceased more than three thou- ages.


EROSUS begins his history by were in her he caused to perish. And he
recounting the Chaldsean tra- split the darkness, and divided the heaven
ditions regarding the creation and the earth asunder, and put the world in
of the world and the origin of order; and the animals that could not bear
the human race. The follow- the light perished. Bel, upon this, seeing
ing is an account of the Chaldaean cosmo- that the earth was desolate, yet teeming
gony: "In the beginning all was darkness with produiftive power, commanded one of
and water, and therein were generated mon- the gods to cut off his head, and to mix the
strous animals of strange and peculiar forms. blood which flowed forth with earth, and
There were men with two wings, and some form men therewith, and beasts that could
even with four, and with two faces; and bear the light. So man was made, and was
others with two heads, a man's and a intelligent, being a partaker of the divine
woman's, on one body; and there were men wisdom. Likewise Bel made the stars, and
with the heads and horns of goats, and men the sun and moon, and the five planets."
with hoofs like horses, and some with the There is likeness between
a remarkable
upper parts of a man joined to the lower certain Chaldaean and Jewish legends, such
parts of a horse, like centaurs; and there as the traditions of the destrudtion of man-
were bulls with human heads, dogs with kind by a great Flood, because of its wicked-
four bodies and with fishes' tails, men and ness, and the Tower of Babel and dispersion
horses with dogs' heads, creatures with the of the human race. Among .some claj' tab-
heads and bodies of horses, but with the letsbrought from Assyria to London by Mr.
tails of fish, and other animals mixing the George Smith are a series of fragments
forms of various beasts. Moreover, there which, joined to some smaller pieces in the
were monstrous fish and reptiles and ser- British Museum coUecftion, give the history
pents, and divers other creatures, which of the world from the Creation down tosome
had borrowed something from each other's period after the fall of man. Mr. Smith
shapes; of all which the likenesses are still succeeded in translating these legends in
preser\-ed in the temple of Bel. A woman 1875, and the following is his brief account
ruleth them all, by name Omorka, which is of the contents of the tablets: "Whatever
in Chaldee Thalatth, and in Greek Thalassa the primitive account ma)' have been from
(or 'the sea'). Then Bel appeared, and which the earlier part of the Book of Gene-
split the woman and of the one
in twain; siswas copied, -it is evident that the brief
half of her he made the heaven and of the narrative given in the Pentateuch omits a
other half the earth; and the beasts that number of incidents and explanations — for

instance, as to the origin of evil, the fall of fabulous reigns of the ten antediluvian kings
the angels, the wickedness of the serpent, of Chaldaea, there appeared at different times
etc. Such points as these are included in six other fish-monsters who, like Oan, in-
the cuneiform narrative." strucfled mankind. The ten kings whom Be-
Mr. Smith then proceeds to give a sketch rosus mentions as reigning in Chaldoea during
of the Assyrian cosmogony, as follows:

' The the antediluvian period, and who correspond

narrative on the Assyrian tablets commences in number with the ten patriarchs of the same
with a description of the period before the period mentioned in the Mo.saic record, will

world was created, when there existed a now be named with the lengths of their
chaos or confusion. The desolate and empty reigns. Alorus, a Chaldaean, reigned 36,000
state of the universe and the generation by- years; Aloparus, son of Alorus, 10,800 years;
chaos of monsters are vividly given. The Almelon, a native of Sippara, 46,800 years;
chaos is presided over by a female power Ammenon, a Chaldaean, 43,200 years; Ame-
named Tisalat and Tiamat, corresponding to galarus, of Sippara, 64,800 years; Daonus,
the Thalatth of Berosus; but as it proceeds of Sippara, 36,000 years; Edorankhns, of
the Assyrian account agrees rather with the Sippara, 64,800 years; Amempsinus, a Chal-
Bible than with the short account from Bero- dsean, 36,000 years; Otiartes, a Chaldjean,
sus. We are told, in the inscriptions, of the 28,000 years; and Xisuthrus, the Chaldaean
fall of the celestial being who appears to Noah, 64,800 years — the ten reigns covering
correspond to Satan. In his ambition he a period of 432,000 years.
raises his hand against the san(fluar\^ of the The Chaldaean or Babylonian account of
God of heaven, and the description of him the Deluge, as narrated by Berosus, is as
is really magnificent. He is represented follows: "The god Bel appeared to Xisu-
riding in a chariot through celestial space, thrus (Noah) in a dream, and warned him
surrounded by the storms, with the light- that on the fifteenth day of the month Dae-
ning playing before him., and wielding a sius, mankind would be destroj'ed hy a del-
thunderbolt as a weapon. This rebellion uge. He bade him bur>' in Sippara, the City
leads to a war in heaven and the conquest of the Sun, the extant writings, first and
of the powers of evil, the gods in due course last; and build a ship, and enter therein

creating the universe in stages, as in the with his family and his close friends; and
Mosaic narrative, sur\'eying each step of the it with meat and drink; and place on
work and pronouncing it good. The divine board winged fowl, and four-footed beasts
work culminates in the creation of man, of the earth; and when all was ready, set
who is made upright and free from evil, and sail. Xisuthrus asked Whither he was to

endowed hy the gods with the noble faculty' sail?' and was told, 'To the gods, with a
of speech. The Deity then delivers a long prayer that it might fare well with mankind.'
address to the newly-created being, instruct- Then Xisuthrus was not disobedient to the
ing him in all his duties and privileges, and vision, but built a ship fifteen stadia (3125
pointing out the glorj- of his state. But feet) in and six stadia (1250 feet)
this condition of blessing does not last long in breadth; and colledled all that had been
before man, yielding to temptation, falls; and commanded him, and put his wife and chil-
the Deity then pronounces upon him a terri- dren and close friends on board. The flood
ble curse, invoking on his head all the evils came; and as soon as it ceased, Xisuthrus
which have since afflicted humanity." let loose some birds, which, finding neither

After his mythical account of the Crea- food nor a place where they could rest, came
tion, Berosus mentions a sea-monster, half back to the ark. After some days he again
man and half fish, named Oan, who came sent out the birds, which again returned to
out of the deep to teach men language and the ark, but with feet covered with mud.
letters, astronomy, the arts, agriculture and Sent out a third time, the birds returned no
all that pertains to civilization. During the more, and Xisuthrus knew that land had
reappeared; so he removed some of the cov- the army, the wild and tame animals; and
ering of the ark, and looked, and behold! all that thou hearest thou shalt do. And
the had grounded on a mountain.
vessel Sisit gathered together all his possessions of
Then Xisuthrus went forth with his wife silver and gold, all that he had of the
and his daughter, and his pilot, and fell seeds of life, and caused all of his .slaves,

down and worshiped the earth, and built male and female, to go into the .ship. The
an altar, and offered sacrifice to the gods; wild and tame beasts of the field also he
after which he disappeared from sight, to- caused to enter, and all the sons of the army.
gether with those who had accompanied And Shamas, the Sun-god, made a flood,
him. They who had remained in the ark and said: 'I will cause rain to fall heavily
and not gone forth with Xisuthrus, now left from heaven; go into the ship and shut the
it and searched for him, and .shouted out his door.' Overcome with fear Sisit entered
name; but Xisuthrus was not .seen any more. into the .ship, and on the morning of the
Only his voice answered them out of the air, day fixed by Shamas the storm began to
saying, 'Worship the gods; for because I blow from the ends of heaven, and Vul
worshiped them, am I gone to dwell with thundered in the midst of heaven, and Nebc
the gods; and they who were with me have came forth, and over the mountains and
shared the same honor. And he bade them' plains came the gods, and Nergal the De-
return to Babylon, and recover the writings stroyer overthrew, and Nin came forth and
buried at Sippara, and make them known dashed down; the gods made ruin; in their
among men; and he told them that the land brightness they swept over the earth. The
in which they then were was Armenia. So storm went over the nations; the flood of
they, when they had heard all, sacrificed to Vul reached up to heaven; brother did not
the gods and went their way on foot to Baby- see brother; the lightsome earth became a
lon, and, having reached it, recovered the desert, and the flood destroyed all living
buried writings from Sippara, and built things from the face of the earth. Even the
many cities and temples, and restored Baby- gods were afraid of the storm, and sought
lon. Some portion of the ark still continues refuge in the heaven of Ana; like hounds
in Annenia, in the Gordiasan (Kurdish) drawing in their tails, the gods seated theni-
mountains; and persons scrape off the bitu- seh-es on and Ishtar, the great
their thrones,
men from it to bring awa>', and this they goddess, .spake: 'The world has turned to
use as a remedy to avert misfortunes." sin, and therefore I have proclaimed destruc-

The Assyrian inscriptions discovered by tion. I have begotten men, and now they

George Smith give an account of the Del- fill the .sea like the children of fishes. ' And
uge nuich resembling the narrative of the the gods upon their wept with her.

same event by Berosus. Among the ruins On the se\-enth da}- the storm abated, which
of the palace of the A.ssyrian king Asshur- had destroyed like an earthquake, and the
bani-pal, tablets have been di.scovered from sea began to dry. Sisit perceived the move-
which the account of the Deluge has been ment of the sea. Like reeds floated the
deciphered, agreeing in some particulars corpses of the evil-doers and all who had

with the Chaldsean tradition. The legend turned to .sin. Then

Sisit the win-
found recorded on the tablets states that the dow, and the light fell upon his face, and
god Hea commanded Sisit to build a ship of the ship was stayed upon Mount Nizir, and
specified size and to launch it on the deep, could not pass over it. Then on the seventh
as he intended to detroy the wicked. Then day Sisit sent forth a dove, but she found
Hea said :

' When the flood comes which I no place of rest, and returned. Then he
will send thou shalt enter the ship, and into sent a swallow, which also returned; and
the midst of it thou shalt bring thy com, again a raven, which saw the corpses in the
thy goods, thy gods, thy gold and silver, water and ate them, and returned no more.
thy slaves male and female, the sons of Then Sisit released the beasts to the four
' '


winds of heaven, and jiouixd a libation, and Tower of Babel, the Phrrnician analogies

built an altar upon the top of the mountain, failing us here altogether.
and cut seven herbs, and the sweet savor of The following is the Chaldaean account of
the sacrifice caused the gods to assemble, the Tower of Babel, as related by Berosus:
and Sisit prayed that Bel might not come to

The earth was still of one language, when


the altar. For Bel had made the storm and the primitive men, who were proud of their
sunk the people in the deep, and wished in strength and stature, and despi.sed the gods
his anger to destroy the ship, and allow no as their inferiors, erecfted a tower of vast
man to escape. Nin opened his mouth, height, in order that they might mount to
and spoke to the warrior Bel: 'Who would heaven. And was now near to
the tower
then be left?' And Hea spoke to him: heaven, when the gods caused the winds to
Captain of the gods, instead of the storm blow and overturned the strudlure upon the
let lions and leopards increase, and men, and made them speak with divers
mankind; let famine and pestilence desolate tongues whereupon the city was called

the land and destroy mankind.' When the Babylon."

sentence of the gods was passed, Bel came Sa)-s Rawlinson, concerning Chaldaean
into the midst of the ship and took Sisit by mythology: The striking resemblance of the


the hand and condudted him forth, and Chaldaean system to that of classical mythol-
caused his wife to be brought to his side, ogy seems worthy of particular attention.
and purified the earth, and made a covenant; This resemblance is too general, and too close
and Sisit and his wife and his people were in some respedls, to allow of the supposition
carried away like gods, and Sisit dwelt in a that mere accident has produced the coinci-
distant land at the mouth of the rivers.
dence. In the Pantheons of Greece and
Traditions of a great Flood have been pre- Rome, and in that of Chaldasa, the same gen-
valent in all countries subject to overflows eral grouping is to be recognized; the same
of rivers, with the exception of Egypt, genealogical succession is not unfrequently
where the annnal inundation was .so regular. to be traced; and some
cases even the
Legends like those of Chaldasa and Assyria familiar names and titles of classical divini-
have been discovered among the inhabitants ties admit of the most curious illustrations
of Annenia, Greece, India and all countries and explanations from Chaldaean sources.
expcsed dangerous floods. The account
to We can .scarcely doubt but that, in some
of the Deluge as narrated by Moses is a way or other, there was a communication of
same story as given by Berosus
record of the beliefs — a passage in very early times, from
and as found inscribed upon the Assyrian the shores of the Persian Gulf to the lands
tablets. It is not known when the great washed by the Mediterranean, of mytholo-
Flood occurred in Chaldsea, and the dates gical notions and ideas. It is a probable
assigned by Berosus are fabulous, as are his conje(5lure that '
among the primitive tribes
accounts of the antediluvian dynasty- and the who dwelt on the Tigris and Euphrates,
first postdiluvian dynasty in Chaldcea. when the cuneiform alphabet was invented,
" In a valuable contribution to the London and when such writing was first applied to
Academy, in the year 1875, Mr. Sayce the purposes of religion, a Scythic or Scytho-
showed that the Phoenician legends fomi, as Arian race existed, who subsequently mi-
it were, the link between the Chaldaean and grated to Europe and brought with them
the Hebrew so far as the so-called Elohistic those mythical traditions which, as objedls
portion of Genesis is concerned; this being of popular belief, had been mixed up in
especially noticeable in the legend of the the nascent literature of their native coun-
Creation and the sacrifice of Isaac. Mr. Sayce trj',' and that these traditions were passed
also explained the very close resemblance on to the classical nations, who were in part
between the Babvlonian and Jewish legends descended from this Scythic or Scytho-
of the Garden of Eden, the Deluge and the Arian people."


The religion of Chaldsea, or Babj-lonia, parentage were II, the chief god; Hoa; San,
was from the most ancient times a gross the Sun-god; Ishtar, the planetary Venus;
polytheism, and was a kind of Sabsean wor- and Nergal, the representative of the planet
ship, the heavenlj' bodies being objecfls of Mars. Sometimes the relation.ship is con-
adoration and represented by their special fused and contradi(5lor\-; Nin, the planetary
deities. L,ocal divinities abounded, every Saturn, being represented as the son and
town being under the protedlion of some father of Bel, and as the son and husband
particular deity. The Chaldaean gods and of Beltis.
goddesses therefore dwelt in the sky. The El, or root of the well-known
//, is the
deities of the first order were grouped as Biblical Eloliim, and also of the Arabic or
follows: At the head of the Chaldaean Pan- Mohammedan Allah. It is the name which
theon stood El, or //, or Ra ; after whom was Diodorus represents z.sEhis; and Sanchronia-
named the great city, Babylon, or Bab-El, thon, or rather Philo-B5'blius, under the name
meaning Gate of El. Next to the chief deity of Elus, or Ilus. The meaning of the word
was a triad of gods A7ia, or Anu,- Bil, or Bel, El, or II, is simply "God," or "the God."
or Belus ; and Hea or Hoa , —who corresponded Ra had the same meaning in Chaldsea, but in
to the classical Pluto, Jupiter and Neptune. Egypt it was the special designation of the
Each of these three gods was accompanied Sun-god. The Semitic name of Babylon was
by a female principle, or wife; Anal, or Aii- Bab- II, signifying "The gate of II, " or "the
ata, being the wife of Ana; Mulila, or Belfis, gate of God." Ra was a sort of fount or
the wife of Bel; and Davkina the wife of origin of deity and had few attributes. He
Hoa. These were followed by a second was not much worshiped, and does not ap-
triad of gods, consisting of Sin, or Hurki, pear to have had any temple in early times.
the Moon-god; San, or Sa/isi, the Sun-god; He was the common father of Bel and Ana.
and I'ltl, or /z'a, or Bin, the Air-god. Each Though Babj'lon, from its name Babil, was
of this second triad was
accompanied also originally under Il's proted;ion, Bel was the
by a feminine power, or wife; a goddess god chiefly worshiped in that city in early
called "the Great Lady," whose name is un- times, and Merodach in later times. El,
certain, being the consort of Sin, or Hurki; or II, was the lord of heaven. He was
Gula, or Anunit, the companion of San; the Warrior, " " the Prince of the

styled '

and Shala, or Tala, the wife of Vul. Next gods, " " the Eord of the universe. In

to these great gods and goddesses at the an Assyrian tablet he is styled


' the Lamp

head of the Pantheon were a group of fi\'e of the divinities.

In his anger at the


minor deities representing the five planets wickedness of mankind II sent the great

then known Nin or Ninip (Saturn), Mero- Flood to destroy the human race, and Sisit
dach (Jupiter), Nergal (Mars), Ishtar (Ve- with the rest.

nus), and Nebo (Mercury). All the deities The residence of Ana, the
first god of the

thus far named constituted the principal was in the concave dome of the
first triad,

gods and goddesses, and after them were nu- sky, to which the other gods fled to escape
merous divinities of the second and third the ravages of the Flood, which the wrath
order. of II had sent against the wicked world.
The chief Chaldaean godsand goddesses On some tablets Ana was called the Old '


were not all descended from the same parent- Ana," " the Original Chief, " "the Father of
age, like the Egyptian, or the Greek or gods, " "the Lord of spirits and demons,
Roman deities, yet some relationship existed "the King of the lower world, " "the Lord
among them. Ana and Bel were brothers, of darkness, " "the Ruler of the far-off city,"
the sons of II. Vul was the son of Ana; etc. The old city of Erech, or Huruk ( now
and Sin, or Hurki, the Moon-god, was the Warka), was the chief seat of Ana's wor-
son of Bel. Nebo and Merodach were sons ship, and here was a favorite burial-ground
of Hoa. Among the many deities without of the Chaldees, over which Ana was be-
' '

cosj/o(;ojyy and RJiUGioN. •25

lieved to preside as a tutelary divinitj'. He dedicated to his w'orship at Calah (now Nim-
was worshiped in the most remote antiquity, rud), and Dur-Kurri-galzu (now Akkerkuf).
and Urukh alhided to him as one of the He is sometimes said to have had four
gods of Ur. King Shamas-Vul built a tem- "arks" or "tabernacles." Inscriptions are
ple to Ana at Asshur, (now Kileh-Sherghat), found on Assyrian tablets, in which his
about 1830 B. C. The temple of Erech name is invoked as the Lord of the world. ' '


bore the name of Bit- Ana, or House of Ana; This facfl attests that his worship was general
and the goddess Beltis, whose worship su- throughout Chaldaea and Assyria. In As-
perseded that of Ana, in this temple, was syria he was inferior only to. Asshur, and in
the companion of Ana and was called "the Chaldaea only to El and Ana. Thus Bel
Lady of Bit- Ana." and Bel-Nimrod were virtually the same
Anat, or Anata, the wife of Ana, was but god. Beltis was his wife; and Nin, the As-
a reflecflion of her husband, and had no dis- syrian Hercules, was their son, and was fre-
tinguishing characfleristics, being nothing quently joined in their invocations. Sin,
but the feminine form of the masculine Ana. the Moon-god, is also said to be Bel-Nim-
All his epithets were applied to her with rod's son, in some inscriptions. His title
only a distincflion of gender, and she had no "Father of the gods" would indicate an al-
personality different from his, and is rarely, most infinite paternity. Bel-Nimrod was
if ever, mentioned in the historical or geo- worshiped during the whole period of the
graphical inscriptions. One tablet repre- monarchy. Urukh built him his temple at
sents Ana and Anata as having nine chil- Calneh, or Nipur (now Niffer), and Kurri-
dren. Two of Ana's sons were Vul, the galzu erecfted the one at Akkerkuf. LIrukh
Air-god, and Mariu, the representative of often mentions him in the inscriptions in
"Darkness," "the West," etc., correspond- connedlion with Sin, or Hurki, the Moon-
ing to the Erebus of the Greeks. god, whom he calls Bel-Nimrod's "eldest
Bel, also called Enii, and known as Bc/ns son."
by the Greeks, was the second of the first Mulita — the Mylitta of Herodo-
Beltis, or
triad of gods. His name Bit. or Bel signifies tus — as the wife of Bel-Nimrod, presented a
"Lord." He was called "the Supreme," strong contrast to Anata, the wife of Ana.
the Father of the gods, " " the Procreator,
Beltis was not only power of Bel- a female
"the Lord," "the King of all the spirits," Nimrod, but was really a and import- distinct
the Lord of the world, " " the Lord of all the ant deity. Her common
' title was the Great


countries." When Nimrod, "the mighty Goddess." Her Chaldsean name, Mulita, or
hunter before the Lord," the legendary Enuta, signifies '
' the Lady.

' Her Assyrian

founder of the Chaldaean Empire, after his name, Bilta or Bilta-Nipruta, were the femi-
death was deified as Bel-Nimrod, or Bilu- nine fomis of Bil and Bilu-Nipm. Her
Nipru, "the Hunter Lord," his attributes favorite title was "the Mother of the gods,"
and titles were mingled with those of Bel. or "Mother of the great gods," likewise
Calneh, or Nipur, the modern Niifer, was '

Queen-mother of the gods, " " the Queen of


his sacred city and the seat of his worship, the land," "the Great Lady," "the Goddess
and here was the great temple consecrated of war and battle," "the Goddess of birth."
to him. Many legends and traditions Though usually classed as the wife of Bel-
connec5l his name with this ancient city, Nimrod and the mother of his son Nin, .she
which was also dedicated to his wife Beltis. issometimes called "the wife of Nin," and
Bel-Nimrod was called "Lord of Nipra," in

one place the wife of Asshur.

' She is '

and his wife " Lady of Nipra." His temple the lady of Bit- Ana, " " the

likewise styled '

at Nipur, called Kharris- Nipra, and famed lady of Nipur." Her worship was general,
for its wealth, magnificence and antiquity, and her temples were numerous. At Erech
was an objecft of intense veneration to the (now Warka) she was worshiped on the
Assyrian monarchs. Temples were likewise same platform with Ana. At Cahieh, or
Nipur Cnow Niffer), she shared fully in her called "the Powerful," "the Lord of the
husband's honors. She had a shrine at Ur spirits," "He who dwells in the great
(now Mugheir), another at Rubesi, and an- heavens, " " the Chief of the gods of heaven
other outside the walls of Babylon. Some and earth," "the King of the gods," "the
of these temples were ^•ery ancient, those at Bright, " " the Shining, " " the Lord of the
Erech and Nipur being built by Urukh, month." As the patron and protedtor of
while that at Ur was either built or repaired buildings and architedlure, he was styled
by Ismi-Dagon. One record makes Beltis the Supporting Architecfl, " " the Strength-


Queen of ener of fortifications, " " the Lord of build-


the daughter of Ana, and as '

Nipur" she was "the wife of Nin." Beltis ing. " Bricks were under his protecflion,
was "the Goddess of fertility and birth," and the sign of the month under his special

the Lady of offspring.

' The worship of '

' care was the one by which they were desig-

Beltis was general throughout Chaldsea, and nated. His common symbol was the crescent,
the magnificence of her temples prove the or new moon. The monuments represent
adoration of the Chaldseans and the Later him in the form of an aged bearded figure
Babjdonians for her as the source of beaut}^ with illustrations of the different phases of
and the dispenser of love. the crescent near his head. The signet-
Hea, or Hoa, the third of the first triad King Urukh, now in the British
cylinder of
of deities, was the Sea-god, who, Berosus Museum, bears this representation of the
says, taught language and letters, art and Moon-god. In this figure he is represented
science, and agriculture to the primitive as offering one hand in salutation in the
Chaldees. Though he is represented as a presence of three worshipers standing before
fish-monster, Berosus calls him the Great '

' him. The Moon-god was the special objedl

Giver of good gifts to man," and he also of kingly worship. Ur, or Hur, which de-
its name from Hurki, was his sacred
bears the title of ' and
Lord of the abyss, '

' rived

Lord of the great deep.

' He was adored '

' city, and here was the great temple built for
as the dispenser of life and knowledge, and his worship by King Urukh and his famous
as such his emblem was the serpent, which son and successor, Ilgi. This deity was like-
Eastern races generally emploj^ed as the wise worshiped by the princes of Borsippa
symbol of more than human wisdom. Raw- and Babylon, and one dynasty of Chaldsean
linson considers the legend of Hea in the monarchs bore the title of the Sin kings.
form of a serpent teaching men wisdom, as The Moon-god was adored by the Chal-
bearing some relation to the story of the daeans and Babylonians to the latest days of
.serpent in the Garden of Eden, enticing antiquit}', through the period of Assyrian
Adam and Eve to eat the forbidden fruit of supremacy to the times of Nebuchadnezzar
the tree of knowledge by promising them and Nabonadius, the last of whom restored
extended wisdom. The connecftion of Hoa his shrine at Ur and bestowed on him high-
with the introdu(ftion of letters is symbol- sounding titles, such as "the Chief of the
ized in the arrow-head in the cuneiform in- gods of heaven and earth, the King of the
scriptions. The Assyrian kings built him gods, God of gods, H6 who dwells in the
temples at Asshur and Calah. Davkina great heavens." In some inscriptions the
was the wife of Hoa, and her name signifies Moon-god is called the eldest son of Bel-
"the Chief Lady." Like Anata, Davkina Nimrod. His wife, the Moon-goddess,
had no distineflive titles or important position called "the Great Lady," was often asso-
in the Pantheon, but took her husband's ciated with him in the lists. Hurki and his
epithets with a simple distincflion of gender. wife were the tutelary deities of Ur, or Hur,
Merodach and Nebo were the sons of Hoa and a part of the temple was dedicated to
and Davkina. his wife. Her "ark" or "tabernacle,"
Sin, or Hurki, the Moon-god, was the which was separate from that of her hus-
first deity of the second triad. He was band, was also deposited in this sancftuarj-.
' ''

cosMoco.yy and rki.icion. [27

It was called "the lesser light," while his Most of the signet-cylinders of the Chal-
ark was styled "the light." daean monarchs have the emblem of the sun
or Sansi, the Sun-god whose Semi-
Sail, — among their symbols of divinitj-.
tic names were Sanias, Shanias, and Shem- Ai, Gula, or Anunit, the wife of San, as

esh was the second deitj- of the second the female power of the sun, was usually as-
triad. He was regarded as the lord of the sociated with the Sun-god in temples and
daj-light, and was represented as lighting invocations. Gula signifies "great. " As
the universe. His emblem was the circle. a deitj' separate from her husband, she pre-
He was called "the Lord of fire," "the sided over life and birth. She was wor-
Light of the gods, " " the Ruler of the day, shiped with her husband both at Larsa and

" He who illumines the expanse of heaven Sippara, and her name appears on the in-
and earth," "the Regent of all things," scriptions at both places. She is believed
'the Establisher of heaven and earth The
. '

' to have been the Anammelech whom the

Sun-god inspired warlike thoughts in the Sephar\'ites adored in combination with Ad-
minds of kings, and diredled and favored rammelech, the "Fire-king." In later
their militarj- expeditions. He caused the times she had temples independent of her
Chaldsean monarchs to assemble their char- husband at Bab}-lon and Borsippa, as well
iots and warriors, and went forth with their as at Calah and Asshur. Her emblem was
armies and defeated their foes in battle. He the eight-rayed disk or orb, which is often
extended their dominions, and brought associated with the four-rayed orb in the
them back to their own land as conquerors. Babylonian representations, or sometimes an
He chased their enemies before them and eight-raj-ed star, and frequently a star of
crushed all opposition. He aided them to only six rays.
swaj' the kingly sceptre and to enforce their Vul, or Iva, the Air-god —also variously
authorit}^ over their subjects. He was thus translated as Bin, Yem, Ao or Hu—was the
called '
the Supreme Ruler who casts a fa- third god of the second triad. Like the
vorable eye on "the Van-
expeditions," Zeus of the Greeks and the Jupiter of the
quisher of the "the
king's enemies," Romans, Vul wielded the thunderbolt and
Breaker-up of opposition." As the sun dif- directed the storm and the tempest. The
fused light and wannth throughout the Chaldasan account of the great Flood repre-
realm of nature, so San lightened men's sents Vul as thundering in heaven. He
minds and hearts with wisdom and inspira- was considered the destroj-er of crops, and
tion. The chief seats of the Sun-god's wor- consequently the author of famine, scarcity
ship were at Larsa and Sippara. At Larsa and pestilence. The '

' flaming sword '

was the great temple to San, called Bit- which he is said to have held in his hand is

Parra, built by Urukh, and restored at times represented as his symbol on the tablets and
to as late a period as the age of Nebu- cylinders, where it is figured as a thunder-
chadnezzar. At Sippara the worship of this bolt. He was regarded as "the Prince of
deity took precedence of all others, so that the power of the air." His usual titles
the Greeks called this place Heliopolis, or were "the Minister of heaven and earth."
City of the Sun. The idolatry of the "Fire- the Lord of the air, " " He who makes the

king," Adrammelech, which the Second tempest to rage." He was the great de-
Book of Kings mentions as being set up in stroyer in the realm of nature, but as the
Samaria, was the worship of the Chaldaean dispenser of rain he was adored as the source
Sun-god. At Sippara, called Tsipar sha of the fertility of the nourishing earth. He
Shamas, "Sippara of the Sun," in the in- was regarded as the prote(5lor of rivers,
was the large temple to the Sun-
scriptions, canals and aqueducts. Thus he was st\led
god which was repaired and adorned bj- the Careful and Beneficent Chief, " " the

many Giver of abundance, " " the Lord of canals,


of the ancient Chaldaean kings, as

Nebuchadnezzar and Nabouadius. and the Establisher of works of irrigation.

well as bj- '

The name of King Shamus-Vul, son and characfter, he is called "the Lightof heaven,"
successor of Ismi-Dagon, indicates that Vul "He who, like the sun, the light of the gods,
must have been worshiped in early times, as irradiates the nations." In the sculptured
that king set up his worship at Asshur, courts of the Assyrian palaces, Nin is rep-
(now Kileh-Sherghat), in Assj-ria, where a resented as a winged man-bull, the impenso-
temple was built to him and Ana conjointly. nation of strength and power. He guards
All through the period of Assyrian ascend- the palaces of the Assyrian kings, who con-
ency and end of the Later Babylonian
to the .sider him their tutelary deity, and whose
Empire the Air-god was highly venerated. capitalcitj', Nineveh, is named in his honor.

Shala, or Tala, was the wife of Vul, or Iva Nin does not rank with the most ancient of
and her usual title is sarrat or sharrat, mean- the Chaldsean gods on the monuments; but
ing "queen, " the feminine of the word sa?', as the Fish-god, whom Berosus represented
which signifies "king,'' "chief," or "sov- as coming out of the sea to teach the Chal-
" dasans letters and science, he must have
First among the deities who represented been an object of veneration from primeval
the five planets then known, was Nin, or times. His oldest temples were the two at
Ninip, also called Bar, or Adar, who was the Calah (now Ninirud), and his temple at
representative of Saturn. Bar, the Semitic Nineveh was widely famed for its splendor,
name, and Nin, the Hamitic designation, and is noticed in the Annals of Tacitus.



signify "Lord" or "Master." Ninip signi- His worship was very general throughout
fies "Nin by name," or "He whose name is Chaldsea and As.syria, as is shown by the
Nin." Barshen signifies "Bar by name," frequency with which his emblems are found
or "He whose name is Bar." In his char- among the inscriptions. As we have said,
and attributes Nin most nearly corres-
acfter Nin was the .son of Bel-Nimrod, and the in-
ponded to the Hercules of the Greeks, as he scriptions represent him as the husband and
was adored as the god of strength and son of Beltis. One tablet calls Nin the
heroism, according to the testimony of the father, instead of the son, of Bel-Nimrod.
inscriptions. He boldly faced the foe in This contradi(flion is the result of the double
battle, and his name was invoked to encour- characfler of Nin, who, as Saturn, was the
age the warrior in the deadly confiicft. He father, but as Hercules, the son of Jupiter.
was styled "the Lord of the brave," "the Merodach, or Bel-Merodach, represented
Champion," "the Warrior who subdues the planet of Jupiter, and was called

' the
foes, " " He who strengthens the hearts of his Old Man of the gods," "the King of the
followers," "the Destroyer of enemies," earth" "the Most Ancient," "Senior of the
the Reducer of the disobedient, " " the Ex- gods," "the Judge," and the like. He was


terminator of rebels, " " He whose sword is regarded as the god of judgment, justice and
good." In characfler he thus very much re- right. He was believed to preside wherever
sembled Bel-Nimrod and Nergal, and also the justice was dispensed by kings sitting in
Greek Hera, the Roman Mars, and the Scan- the gates, the early seats of justice. He was
dinavian Odin. The in.scriptions call Nin, considered the most spiritual of the Chal-
and not Hoa, the Fish-god. '

His emblem

' dsean deities, and in the Babylonian in.scrip-

was generally the fish; and on some reliefs he tions he is classed as superior to all celestial

is represented as part man and part fish, and and terrestrial divinities, under the title of
beneath are such titles as "the God of the Belrabu. The Tel Sifr tablets indicate
sea," "He who dwells in the deep," "the that Merodach must have been worshiped
Opener of aquedudls. On other tablets he

' in the early Chaldsean kingdom. He is be-

is styled "the Powerful Chief," "the lieved to have been the tutelary deity of
Supreme," "the First of the gods," "the Babylon from the most remote antiquity,
Favorite of the gods," "the Chief of the and as the city grew into importance his
.spirits," and like titles. In his planetary worship became more and more prominent.

COSA/OaON]' AND Rl'.l.ICIO.y. 129

The Assyrian kings alvvaj's associated Baby- into the land of their forced adoption. Ner-
lon with Merodach, and in the Later Baby- gal' s emblem was the famous winged man-
lonian Knipire his worship took precedence lion, the impersonation of human intelli-

of that of the other gods. Herodotns mi- gence and phy.sical .strength, as .seen at the
nutely described his temple, and the prophet entrances of the great palaces of vSusa and
Uanicl bore testimony to the devotion with Nineveh. Of Nergal's wife, called Lax,
which he was worshiped by the Babylonians. only her name is known.
Nebuchadnezzar called him "the King of Ishtar, or Nana, was the representative
the heavens and the earth," "the Great of the planetary Venus, and in characfler
Lord, " " the Senior of the gods, " " the Most and attributes she mainly corresponded with
Ancient," " the Supporter of .sovereignty," the classical goddess whose name the planet
"the Layer up of treasures," and the like; bears. Ishtar was her Assyrian name, and
and attributed to this god all his glorj- and Nana was her Bab^'lonian appellation. The
success. His emblem is not definitely Phoenicians called her Astarte, and the He-
known; but Diodorus states that the great brews Astoreth. Ishtar is styled in the in-
statue of Merodach at Babylon was a figure .scriptions, "the Goddess who rejoices man-
"standing and walking," and such a form kind," and her most common epithet is
frequently appears upon the Babj-lonian A.surah, "the Fortunate," or "the Happy."
cylinders. Merodach's wife, Zir-Banit, had She is also called the Mistress of heaven


a temple at Babylon, attached to her hus- and earth," "the Great Goddess," "the
band's, and is believed to have been the Queen of all the gods; " and also "the God-
goddess whose worship was introduced into dess of war and battle, " " the Queen of vic-
Samaria \>y the Babj-lonian colonists, and tor}-," "She who arranges battles," and

who is called Succoth-benoth in the Old '

She who defends from attacks.

' In the '

Testament. inscriptions of one monarch she is repre-

Nergal, the War-god, was the representa- sented as "the Goddess of the chase." Her
tive of the planet Mars, and his name, which worship was general, and her shrines were
is Hamitic, signifies "the Great Man" or the Queen

numerous. She is often styled '

of Babylon," and must have had a temple

' '

the Great Hero.

' In the Assyrian ac-

count of the Deluge, Nergal is alluded to in that city. She likewise had temples at
as the destroyer; but he was chiefly cele- Asshur, Arbela and Nineveh. Her symbol,
brated for his power over the chase and as represented on the cylinders, is the naked
the battle-field, thus partaking of the charac- female form.
ter and attributes of Bel-Nimrod, with which Ishtar, in her journey to the under-world,
deity he is compared in the adoration symbolized the disappearance in winter of
bestowed upon him as the ancestor of the Life in nature as ushered in at spring.
the Assyrian monarchs. He was called Ishtar is represented as going down to the
"the King of battles," "the Champion of House of Lskalla. Mr. Fox Talbot, the Eng-
the gods," " the Storm ruler, " "the Strong lish Orientalist, gives the following transla-
'the Tutelary God of Babylonia,
tion of the descent of Ishtar to Hades, or
and "the God of the" He is usually the House of lskalla:
coupled with Nin, who also presides over
' To the land of Hades, the land of her
battles and hunting. The chief seats of desire, daughter of the Moon-god
Nergal' s worship were the ancient cities of Sin, The daughter of
turned her mind.
Cutha and Tarbissa. Cutha was the sacred Sin fixed her mind to go to the House where
city where he was said to "live," and in all meet, the dwelling of the god lskalla, to

which was his famous shrine. The "men the house which men enter, but cannot de-
of Cuth," when transported as colonists to —
part from the road which men travel, but
Samaria by the Assyrians, naturally "made never retrace — the abode of darkness and of
Nergal their god, introducing his worship
' famine, where earth is their food, their


nourishment clay where Hght is not seen, the precious stones were taken from her
but in darkness they dwell where ghosts, — head. '
Keeper, do not take off from me
like birds, flutter their wings, and on the the gems that adorn my
Excuse it, head. '

door and the door-posts the dust lies undis- lady, the Queen of the Land insists upon
turbed. their removal.' The fourth gate let her in,

"When Ishtar arrived at the gate of but .she was stopped, and there the small
Hades, to the keeper of the gate a word she jewels were taken from her brow. '
spake: 'O keeper of the entrance, open thy do not take off" from me the small jewels
gate! Open thy gate, I say again, that I that deck my brow.' 'Excuse it, lady, the
may enter in! If thou openest not thj-gate, Queen of the Land insists upon their re-
if I do not enter in, I will assault the door, moval.' The fifth gate let her in, but she
the gate I will break down, I will attack the was stopped, and there the girdle was taken
entrance, I will split open the portals. I from her waist. '
Keeper, do not take off
will raise the dead, to be the devourers of from me the girdle that girds my waist.'
the living! Upon the living the dead shall 'Excuse it, lady, the Queen of the Land
prey.' Then the porter opened his mouth t
insists upon its removal.' The sixth gate
and spake, and thus he said to great Ishtar: let her in, but she was stopped, and there
'Stay, lady, do not shake down the door; I the gold rings were taken from her hands
will go and inform Queen Nin-ki-gal.' So and feet. '
Keeper, do not take off" from me
the porter went in and to Nin-ki-gal said: the gold rings of my hands and feet. '
'These curses thy .sister Ishtar utters; yea, it, lady, the Queen of the Land insists
she blasphemes thee with fearful curses.' upon their removal.' The seventh gate let
And Nin-ki-gal, hearing the words, grew her but she was stopped, and there the

pale, like a flower when cut from the step; last garment was taken from her body.
like the stalk of a reed, she shook. And 'Keeper,' do not take off, I pra}', the last
she said, '
I will cure her rage — I will garment from my body.' 'Excuse it, lady,
speedily cure her fury. Her curses I will the Queen of the Land insists upon its re-
repa}-. Light up consuming flames! Light moval.'
Be her doom with the

up a blaze of straw! ' After that Mother Ishtar had descended

husbands who left their wives; be her doom into Hades, Nin-ki-gal saw and derided her
with the wives who forsook their lords; be to her face. Then Ishtar lost her reason,
her doom with the youths of dishonored and heaped curses upon the other. Nin-ki-
lives. Go, porter, and open the gate for gal hereupon opened her mouth, and spake:
her; but strip her, as some have been '
Go, Namtar, * * * and bring her out for
stripped ere now.' The porter went and punishment, =*= * * afflict her with disease
opened the gate. '
Lady of Tiggaba, enter,' of the ej'e, the side, the feet, the heart, the
he .said: 'Enter. It is pennitted. The head' (some lines effaced). * * *
Queen of Hadesmeet thee comes.' So

' The Divine messenger of the gods lac-

the first gate let her in, but she was stopped, erated his face before them. The assembly
and there the great crown was taken from of the gods was full. * * * The Sun came,
her head. Keeper, do not take off" from
along with the Moon, his father, and weep-
me the crown that is on my head.' '
ing he spake thus unto Hea, the king:
it, lady, the Queen of the Land insi.sts upon 'Ishtar has de.scended into the earth, and
its removal.' The next gate let her in, but has not risen again; and ever since the time
she was stopped, and there the ear-rings that Mother Ishtar descended into hell, *
were taken from her ears. Keeper, do not '
* * * tijg master has ceased from com-
take off" from me the ear-rings from my ears. manding; the slave has ceased from obey-
' it, lady, the Queen of the Land in- ing.' Then the god Hea in the depth of
.si.sts upon their removal.' The third gate his mind formed a design; he modeled, for
let her in, but she was stopped, and there her escape, the figure of a man of clay.
' " '


Go to save her, Plmiitom, present thj'self The god Nebo represented the planet
at the portal of Hades; the seven gates of Mercury, and was the last of the five plane-
Hades will all open before thee; Nin-ki- tary deities. Nebo was the god of wisdom
gal will see thee, and take pleasure because and intelligence, the patron and protecflor
of thee. When her mind has grown calm, of knowledge and learning, and the teacher
and her anger has worn itself away, awe of mankind. His attributes were the .same
her with the names of the great gods! as those of the Greek Hermes. He was
Then Fix on deceitful
prepare thy frauds! styled

' the God who possesses intelligence,

tricks thy mind! Use the chiefest of thy

' He who hears from afar, " " He who

Bring forth fish out of an empty teaches, " or " He who teaches and '

tricks! instrucfls.

vessel! That will astonish Nin-ki-gal, and He thus somewhat resembled Hoa, whose
to Ishtar she will restore her clothing. The son he is called in .some in.scriptions. Like
reward —a great reward — for these things Hoa, he had for his emblem the simple
shall not fail. Go, Phantom, save her, and wedge or arrow-head, the primarj' element
the great assembly of the people shall in the cuneiform writing, to signify his as-
crown thee! Meats, the best in the citj% sociation with that god in the patronage of
.shall be thy food! Wine, the most delicious letters. Nebo's other titles were "the Lord
in the city, .shall be thy drink! A royal of lords, who has no equal in power, " "the
palace shall be thy dwelling, a throne of Supreme Chief, " "the Sustainer, " "the Sup-
Magician and con-
state shall be thy seat! porter, " " the Ever- ready, " "the Guardian
juror shall kiss the hem
of thy garment!' over the heavens and the earth," "the Lord
"Nin-ki-gal opened her mouth and spake; of the constellations," "the Holder of the
to her messenger, Namtar, commands she sceptre of power," "He who grants to kings
gave: Go, Namtar, the Temple of Justice
the sceptre of royalty for the government
adorn! Deck the images!
Deck the altars! of their people." Sometimes he is cla.ssed
Bring out Anunnak, and him take his let with the inferior deities.His worship was
seat on a throne of gold! Pour out for Ishtar more general in Chaldaea than in Assyria.
the water of life; from my realms let her In the later ages Borsippa was the chief seat
depart.' Namtar obeyed; he adorned the of Nebo's worship, and there the great tem-
Temple; decked the images, decked the al- ple, called Birs-i-Nimrud, was consecrated to
tars; brought out Anunnak, and let him him. The ruins of one of his shrines are
take his seat on a throne of gold; poured found on the site of the ancient Assyrian
out for Ishtar the water of life, and suffered city of Calah, (now Nimrud), whence im-
her to depart. Then the first gate let her posing statues of this god have been trans-
out, and gave her back the garment of her ferred to the British Museum. He was a
form. The next gate let her out, and gave favorite deity of the later Babylonian kings,
her back the jewels for her hands and feet. many of whom were named after him, such
The third gate let her out, and gave her as Nabonassar, Nabopolassar, Nebuchad-
back the girdle for her waist. The fourth nezzar and Nobanadius. Nebo's wife was
gate let her out, and gave her back the Varamit, or Urmit, a name signifying "ex-
small gems she had worn upon her brow. alted," who was only a companion of her
The fifth gate let her out, aud gave her back husband and had no special attributes. Be-
the precious stones that had been upon her sides the deities described, the Chaldaean
head. The sixth gate let her out, and gave Pantheon embraced a multitude of inferior
her back the ear-rings that were taken from whom but verj- little is known.
divinities, of
her ears. And the seventh gate let her out, It is thus seen that the Chaldaean religion
and gave her back the crown she had car- was, from the remote antiquity, an
ried on her head.
astronomical worship. The twelve constel-
Ishtar's return to earth .symbolized the were the sun's "twelve
lations of the Zodiac
reappearance of spring.," and his proper abode was in the
constellation of Leo. The planets likewise mythical and semi-scientific learning which
traversed twelve stages in their course, and became diffused throughout the whole West
each sign or

' house

' passed lay any one of of Asia. The performed the task of
these celestial bodies was regarded as a seat watching the courses, positions and phases
of divine power, w'hile the planets them- of the celestial orbs and luminaries, and
selves were considered gods. Thirty of the estimating and calculating the influence of
fixed stars were associated with the planets this ever-varjing aspedl upon the destinies
as "counseling gods;" and twelve others in of men and The seer and the
the northern heavens, and twelve in the prophet endeavored to show how the good
southern firmament, were designated the

' and evil fortune of the state was blended

judges." The twelve "judges" above the with conjuncftions and oppositions in the
horizon controlled the destines of the living, starry firmament. Thus astrology became
while the twelve below were masters of the mingled with astronomy. In the Book of
fate of the Each of the twelve
dead. Daniel the Chaldaeans are mentioned as in-
months of the year was assigned to one of terpreters of stars and signs. The following
the twelve great gods, beginning with Ana. inscription has been deciphered from a tab-
The seven days of the week were controlled let found at Nineveh: " If Jupiter is seen in

by the seven great heavenly bodies — the sun, the month of Tammuz, there will be corpses.
the moon, and the five planets then known. If Venus comes opposite the star of the fish,
The hours were assigned to certain stars. there will be devastation. If the star of the
Thus in the earliest twilight of Oriental great lion is gloomy, the heart of the people
history, more than four thousand years ago, will not rejoice. If the moon is seen on the
the Wise Men of ancient Chaldsea — priests, first da}' of the month, Accad will pro.sper."
bards, sages and prophets —by their observa- From that ancient period to the present there
tions of the heavens and their explorations has prevailed among the superstitious, in
of the paths of the celestial luminaries, be- all ages and nations, a belief that stars and
came the great pioneers of astronomical astrological signs bear some relation to the
science, and the founders of that semi- fate of men and nations.



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30 35 40


^SSYRIA, as we have seen, em- jackal, the ibex, the gazelle, the jerboa, the
braced the portion of the Ti- bear, the deer, the wolf, the stag, the buffalo,
gris - Euphrates valley north the beaver, the fox, the hare, the badger,
of Chaldoea, or Babylonia — the the porcupine, the wild cat, the wild boar,
region now known as Kurdis- the wild sheep and the wild ass. The riv-
tan. The soil was not so fertile
of Assyria ers abounded with fish, and the marshy
as that of Chaldaea, but was generally pro- thickets with wild fowl. The domestic ani-
dudtive; and careful cultivation and irriga- mals were the camel, the horse, the ass, the
tion brought luxuriant yields of various mule, the ox, the cow, the sheep, the goat
grains and vegetables; while such fruits as and the dog.
the citron, the orange, the lemon, the date- The true heart of Assj'ria was the coun-
palm, the pomegranate, the olive, the vine, try close along the Tigris between latitude
the fig and the apricot flourished in profu- tliirt3"-five degrees and thirty-six degrees
sion,and the mulberry gave nourishment to and minutes north. Within these

an unusually large silk-worm found no- limits were the four great cities marked by
where else; but ever since the fall of the the mounds of Khorsabad, Mosul, Nimrud
Assyrian Empire the country has been ex- and Kileh-Sherghat, besides a multitude of
posed to the ravages of plundering nomad cities of minor importance. Three of the
hordes and to the devastations of hostile four great capitals of the Assyrian Empire
armies, so that this region is now almost a were located on the east bank of the river;
wilderness. but the early capital, Asshur, now called
Unlike Chalda;a, which, as we have ob- Kileh-Sherghat, was on the west bank. The
sen^ed, produced no stone or minerals of anj^ Assyrian ruins strew the countrj- between
kind, Assyria was supplied with an abund- the Tigris and the Khabour. Mounds ex-
ance of stone, iron, copper, lead, silver, an- ist along the Khabour' s great western afflu-

timony and other metals; while bitumen, ent, and even near Seruj, in the country
naphtha, petroleum, sulphur, alum and salt between Harran and the Euphrates. But
were also yielded in sufficient quantities. the remains on the east side of the Ti-
Assyria has a varied climate, but on the gris are more extensive and more import-
whole the summers are cooler and the win- ant. Nebbi-Yunus, Koyunjik and Nim-
ters more severe than in Chaldrea, because —
rud which have furnished by far the most
of mountain breezes from the Zagros and valuable and interesting of the Assyrian
from Armenia; while there is also more —
monuments are all situated on the east
moisture, and in portions of the country side of the Tigris, while the only places on
heavy rains, snows and dews fall during the the west side which have yielded striking
winter and spring. relics are Arban and Kileh-Sherghat.
The wild animals of Assyria were the In Assyria, as in Chaldaea, four cities were
lion, the leopard, the lynx, the hyena, the in early times preeminent. The Book of

1-9.-U. H. -
^ 37)
; .


Genesis iu speaking of the Assyrian emi- Sargon, one of the most celebrated of
gration from Chaldsea, or the Land of Shi- Assyrian monarchs. ruins were
nar, says: "Out of that land went forth brought to light in recent ^-ears by the ex-
Asshur, and builded Nineveh, and the city cavations of that enterprising French ex-
Rehoboth, and Calah and Resen." In the plorer,M. Botta. The present town of
flourishing period of the Assyrian Empire Nimrud, on the east side of the Tigris, about

we find four cities Nineveh (or Ninua), twenty miles south of the ruins of Nineveh
Calah, Asshur and Dur-Sargina, ( or City ot in a diredt line, and about thirty miles by
Sargon ) — all of which were cities of the first the course of the Tigris, occupies the site of
rank. Besides these four capitals, there the ancient Calah, the second great Assyrian
were a vast number of minor cities and capital cit}', whose ruins, among which are
towns, so numerous that the whole country those of several royal palaces, cover an area
is strewn with their ruins. Among these of nearly one thousand English acres, which
minor places were Tarbisa, Arbil or Arbela), { is little over half the area of the ruins of
Arapkha and Khazeli, in the region between Nineveh. Forty miles south of Nimrud, at
the Tigris and the Zagros mountains, the Kileh-Sherghat, on the west bank of the
ancient Assj'ria proper and the modern Tigris, are the remains of the ancient city of
Kurdistan; and Harran, Tel-Apni, Razappa vAsshur, the third great city and the early
(or Rezeph) and Amida in the North-west Asssjrian capital, ruins, marked by
Nazibina, (or Nisibis) on the eastern branch long lines of low mounds, are scarcely less
of the Khabour; Sirki (or Circesium), at the in extent than those of Calah.
confluence of the Khabour with the Eu- Four miles north-west from Khorsabad
phrates; Anat on the Euphrates, a little be- are the ruins of Tarbisa, among which are
low the junction Tahiti, Margarisi, Sidi-
; those of a royal palace and several temples.
kan, Katni, Beth-Khalupi, and others be- About twenty miles south-east of Khorsabad
tween the lower course of the Khabour and is the ruin of Keremles. About halfway
the Tigris. between the ruins of Nineveh and Nimrud,
On the east bank of the Tigris, opposite or Calah, is Selamiyah, supposed by .some to
the present town of Mosul, are the ruins of be the Resen of vScripture. About forty
the once-mighty city of Nineveh, the cele- miles east of Nimrud was the famous citj'
brated and magnificent capital of the Assyr- of Arabil, or Arbil, called Arbela by the
ianEmpire when that monarchy was iu the Greeks, and still retaining its ancient desig-
its greatness and splendor.
zenith of The nation. Besides these principal towns of
name Nineveh is read on the bricks, and Assyria proper, the inscriptions mention a
a uniform tradition from the time of the large number of cities whose .site is not
Arab conquest gives the mound this title. known.
These are the most exten.sive ruins of Considering the wonderful discoveries
Assyria. As the city will be described in a made in this field of ancient Oriental histors^
sub.secjuent part of this book, we will not within the last half century by the patience
enter into any minute description of the and diligence of .such renowned explorers as
place in this connection. At the present Layard and Botta, the day may not be far
town of Khorsabad, on the east bank of the distant when other ruins ma}- be identified
Tigris, about nine miles north of Nineveh, with undiscovered places recorded in ancient
are the ruins of I)ur-vSargina (City of Sar- writings. Let us hope that the zeal of some
gon), chief of which are those of the mag- future explorer may further add to our stock
nificent palace erected there by the famous of knowledge of the ancient Oriental world.

sofA'C/'s OF .issy-Av.ix ///sroA'y. '39


UR sources of Assyrian historj- lus, Nicolas of Damascus, Trogus I^jmpeius,
are tlie Greek historians, He- Agathias, Syncellus, Velleius Paterculus,
mdotus and Ctesias, and the Josephus, lui.sebius, and Moses of Chorcne,
Assyrian inonuiiK-ntal inscrip- among the ancients, and by Freret, Rollin
tions. Little reliance can be and Clinton, among the moderns. He-
placed upon exact dates relating to the an- rodotus has been sustained by such mf)dern
nals of most of the very ancient nations. writers as Volnej-, Heeren, B. G. Niebuhr,
With ^\ssyrian chronologj-, however, we Brandis, the two Rawlin.sons and many
can depend upon the accuracy of the two others. The English historians and Orient-
trustworthy documents already alluded to alists consider the Assyrian Empire as hav-

the Canon of Ptolemy, a Babylonian record ing ended in 625 B. C, while the French
having important bearing upon Assyrian regard the \ear 606 B. C. as the date of that
dates,and the Assyrian Canon, discovered event.
and edited by Sir Henry Rawlinson in 1862, Herodotus wrote within two centuries
and which gives the succession of the Ass^-r- after the fall of the Assyrian Empire, and
ian kings for 251 years, beginning with the about thirty years before Ctesias. He had
year 911 B. C. and ending 660 B. C. These traveled extensively in the East, as well as
two documents not only harmonize remark- in Eg3"pt, and had availed himself of all the
ably with each other, but they agree admir- accessible sources of information, consulting
ably with statements of Berosus and Hero- the Chaldseans of Babylon and others. He
dotus. According to Berosus, Assyria be- was thoroughly honest and conscientious,
came independent of Chaldsea about 1300 and implicit reliance can be placed in the
B. C, and according to Herodotus half a accuracy of his statements. He had espe-
century later, about the j^ear 1250 B. C. cially endeavored to inform himself fully
From these sources, and from the inscrip- and correcth- regarding A.ssyria, of which
tions on Assyrian tablets, bricks and sculp- country he designed writing an elaborate
tures, we are able to fix the dates of'r- work entirely distinct from his general his-
ian events with tolerable accuracy. tor\-.

With respedl to the duration and antiquity Ctesias also visited the East, .spending"
of the Assyrian monarchy, the two original seventeen years at the court of the Persian
authorities are the Greek historians alluded king. Being the court-phjsician to Arta-
to at thebeginning of the preceding para- xerxes Mnemon, he may have had access to
graph, and between these two the judgment the archives in the pos.session of the Persian
of the learned has since been divided. Cte- monarchs. He was a man of such temper
-sias maintained that the Assyrian mon- and spirit as to be di.sposed to differ with
archy had an existence of 1306 or 1360 others. He flath' called Herodotus "a
years, had almost as remote
and that it liar," and was therefore resolved to differ
an antiquity as had the city of Baby- with him. He continually differs with
lon while Herodotus as.serted that the
: Thucydides wherever the>- handle the same
Assyrian Empire had a duration of le,ss .subject. He
peqietuallj- di.sagrees with
than seven centuries, beginning about the Ptolemy on Babylonian chronology, and
j-ear B. C. 1250, when a flouri.shing Empire with Manetho on Egyptian dates. He is also
had alreadj- existed in Chaldaea for more constantly at variance with the cuneifonu
than a thousand years from the time of inscriptions, which generally confirm the
Nimrod. Ctesias was followed by such statements of Herodotus. His Oriental his-
writers as Cephalion, Castor, Diodorus Sicu- torj- likewise contradicts the Old Testament.
' '


as he places the destrudlion of Nineveh and thirty years longer, to the close of the
at 875 B. C, long before the time of Jonah. seventh century before the Christian era,
The judgment of Aristotle, of Plutarch, of when the Medes took and destroyed Nineveh
Arrian, among the ancients, and of Niebuhr, (B. C. 603). These dates, though nearer
Bunscn and other modern historians and the truth than those of Ctesias, are not abso-
Orientalists, is all on the side of Herodotus, lutely accepted by modern historians and
whose chronology is to be preferred, on Orientalists.
every account, to that of Ctesias. The chronology of Berosus coincides more
Herodotus assigns the year B. C. 1250 as nearly with that of Herodotus than with
the beginning of the Assj'rian Empire, that of Ctesias. As his sixth Chaldaean, or
which, according to his account, lasted six Babjdonian djaiasty, which was Assyrian in
and a half centuries. During the first five race, began to reign about 1300 B. C, and
hundred and twent}^ j'ears of this period, as the Assj-rian monarchy became inde-
from B. C. 1250, to B. C. 730, the Assyrians pendent when this dynasty was founded, it
maintained their supremacy over Western follows that the foundation of the Assyrian
Asia, after which the Medes revolted and Empire dates from that year. As Berosus
formed an independent kingdom east of the also placed the fall of the AssyrianEmpire
Zagros mountains. The Assyrian mon- at 625 B. C, that empire must have existed
arch\-, thus reduced, lasted one hundred six hundred and .seventy-five years.


IE history of Assyria is divided dudlive region where nature so readily sup-
into three periods — the period plied everj'thing requisite for the support of
of its subjection to Chaldcea, man, with .so little exertion on his part — it

from the time of the settlement was there that the Assyrians had grown
of the Ass}'rians in the Tigris from a family into a tribe or nation, and had
valley and Upper Me.sopotamia to B. C. developed a religion and learned the most
1300; the Old Assyrian Empire (B. C. 1300- essential of the arts. The style and char-
745); and the New or Lower Assyrian Em- adter of the Assyrian archite(5lure indicates
pire (B. C. 745-625). that it originated in the low flat alluvium
The origin of the Assyrians is shrouded where brick and bitumen were the only
in obscurity, although it is known that the}' building materials. The cuneiform writing
were a Semitic tribe originally dwelling in of the As.syrians also shows its Chaldtean
Chaldaea, the Scriptural Shinar, and that origin; while their religion was verj^ nearly
they migrated to the middle Tigris ^•alley identical with that of their southern neigh-
during the general movement of Semitic and bors, the onh' essential point of difference
being that the chief Assyrian god, Asshur,
' '

Hamitic tribes from the land of Shinar, '

some time after Nimrod's death. Says the was unknown in Chaldaea. The monu-
Mosaic account: "Out of that land went mental and tablet inscriptions thus verify
forth Asshur and builded Nineveh, and the the statements of the Pentateuch, in repre-
city Rehoboth, and Calah, and Re.sen be- senting the Assyrians as originally dwelling
tween Nineveh and Calah; the same is a in Chaldaea, and at an early period migra-
ting northward to the middle Tigris region.

great city.
Itwas before their settlement along the It is not known whether the Semitic and
middle Tigris, and while they yet dwelt in Hamitic migrations from Chaldaea, their
the flat alluvial plain in the southern portion mother country, were voluntar>' removals on
of the Tigris-Euphrates valley — that pro- the part of the migrating tribes themselves,
POLITICAL Ills '/ V )R )


or conipulsor)- colonizations inaugurated affairs of Chaldaea, deposing a usurper and

and carried out by the Clialdnean nionarclis. restoring the rightful claimant, his own rela-
One body led by Terah, Abraham's father, tive, to the throne. Intermarriages occurred
reni()\-ed from Ur to Harran: another from between the royal families of Assyria and
the shores of the Persian Gulf to Syria, Chakkea at this early period; and Asshur-
Canaan and Phoenicia; and a third, the upallit, the last of these three Assyrian
Assyrian branch, larger than either of the kings, had given a daughter in marriage to
other two, ascended the Tigris valley, occu- the Chaldaean king, Purna-puriyas. On the
pied Adiabene, with the neighboring dis- death of the latter, his son, Kara-khar-das,
tridls, gave its own tribal name of Asshur to became king of Chakkea, but lost his life
its chief city and territory, and was known in attempting to jjut down a rebellion of
to adjacent peoples first as a separate tribe, his own subjects, and was succeeded by a
and afterwards as an independent and pow- usurper, Nazi-bugas. Thereupon A,s,shur-
erful nation. The date of their settlement in upallit marched an army into Chaldaea,
Assyria is uncertain, but it must have oc- defeated and killed the u.surper, and placed
curred before the reigns of the Chaldsean Kurri-galzu, another sou of Purna-puriyas,
kings, Purna-puriyas and Kurri-galzu, in on the Chaldaean throne.
the fifteenth century before the Christian The tablet just referred to shows the
era. A temple to Anu and Vul was erecled power and influence of Assyria at this early
on the site of Asshur, as early as the nine- day as fully equal to that of her more ancient
teenth century^ before Christ, by Shamas- southern neighbor. After the events just
Vul, the son and viceroy of the Chaldaean narrated Assyrian history is a blank for
king, Ismi-Dagon. sixty years, only the names of the kings
The Assyrians were likelj- at first gov- being known to us. The bricks of Kileh-
erned in their new country by viceroys under Sherghat show us that Asshur-upallit was
the Chaldsean sovereigns. Bricks of a Baby- succeeded as king by his son, Bel-LI'SH, or
lonian description have been discovered at Bellikhus, who was followed in succession
Kileh-Sherghat, the site of the ancient by his son Pudil, his grandson Vul-lush
Asshur, the early Assyrian capital, which I., and his great-grandson ShalmanESER I.

are belie\^ed to be older than any distincflly All that is known of Bel-lush, Pudil and
Assyrian remains, and which were in all Vul-lush I. is that they eredled or repaired
probability stamped by these viceroys. Very important edifices at A.sshur (now Kileh-
soon, however, the Assyrians liberated them- Sherghat), which remained the capital of
selves from the Chaldaean yoke and founded Assyria for several centuries later. This
an independent kingdom of their own in place, located on the west bank of the Ti-
their new abode, while the old Chaldaean gris, was not favorably situated, the most
Empire continued to flourish in the alluvial fertile region of Assyria being on the east

plain at the head of the Persian Gulf. The bank; but Calah and Nineveh were not yet
co-existence of two kingdoms side by built.
side is attested by a mutilated tablet of much Shalmaneser I., who reigned from B. C.
later date, containing a .synchronistic record 1320 to B. C. 1300, is chiefly distinguished
of Assyrian and Chaldaean annals from a as the founder of Calah (now Nimrud), the
very remote antiquity. This tablet gives which the Assyr-
.second of those great cities
us the names of three of the most ancient ian kings delighted to embellish with mag-
Assyrian monarchs —
Asshur-bil-nisi-su, nificent edifices, and which in the of
BuzuR-AssHUR and Asshur-upallit the — .several centuries succeeded Asshur as the
first two of whom are recorded as having capital. Calah was advantageously situated
concluded treaties of peace with contempo- on the east bank of the Tigris, forty miles
rar>' Chaldsean, or Babylonian .sovereigns, north of A.sshur, in a region of exceeding
while the third interfered in the domestic fertility and great natural strength, being
protected on one side by the Tigris and on shaken off, and Babylonian kings with
the other by the Shor-Derreh torrent, while Semitic names, and perhaps of Assyrian de-
itwas defended on the south hy the Greater scent, were engaged in wars with the As-
Zab and on the north-east by the Khazr, or syrian monarchs. The Babylonian king-
Ghazr-Su. The inscriptions of Asshur-izir- dom was not permanently subjected to the
pal show us that Shalmaneser I. undertook Assyrian dominion until the time of Sargon,
expeditions against the tribes on the upper in the latter part of the eighth century be-
Tigris,and founded cities in that region, and even under the dynasty of the
fore Christ,
which he colonized with settlers brought Sargonida; the Babylonians were constantly
from other distant quarters. Shalmaneser's and were only reconciled to As-
in revolt,
extension of the Assyrian dominion to the syrian rulewhen Esar-haddon united the
northward ranks him as the first known As- two crowns and reigned alternately at Baby-
syrian conqueror. With the death of vShal- lon and Nine\'eh. Nevertheless, from the
maneser I. in B. C. 1300 ends the first period time of Tiglathi-Nin's conquest Assyria

of Assyrian historj" the period of its sub- was recognized as the ruling power in the
je(5lion to Chaldcea. Tigris-Euphrates valley, as is fully .shown
Shalmaneser I. was succeeded on the As- by its conquest of, and its imposition of a

syrian throne by his .son Tiglathi-Nin I., dynasty upon, the southern kingdom. Its
the founder of theOld Assyrian Empire, influence was therefore felt, even while its
which embraces the second period of As- yoke was rejected; and from the time of
.syrian historj' ( B. C. 1300-B. C. 745). Tiglathi-Nin's conquest, throughout the
The date of this monarch is seen to syn- whole period of Ass^'rian ascendenc}' in the
chronize with the time given by Berosus as Tigris-Euphrates valley, the process of
the beginning of the .sixth Chaldsean, or Semitizing the Chaldseans went on the ;

Babylonian dynasty, and b}- Herodotus to names of the Babylonian kings during all
the founding of the Assyrian Empire. The this time being Semitic, whether those kings
inscriptionsmention Tiglathi-Nin as trans- recognized the domination of Assj-ria or
ferring to Assj'ria the supremacy hitherto were at war with that power.
claimed and exercised by Chaldsea, or Tiglathi-Nin I., who was the eighth and
Babylonia, in consequence of a successful last Assyrian king of the line founded by
war with the latter kingdom, which circum- A.sshur-bil-nisi-su, died about B. C. 1280.
stance induced him to in.scribe upon his sig- After an inter\'al of half a century there fol-
net-seal this title: "Tiglathi-Nin, King of lowed another series of eight kings, known
A.ssyria, son of Shalmaneser, King of As- to us chiefly through the celebrated Tiglath-
and conqueror of Kar-Dunyas. Who-
.syria, Pileser cj-linder, which gives us the succes-
my device or name, maj' Asshur
ever injures sion of five of them, but completed from the
and Vul destroy his name and country." united testimony of .several other documents,
This signet-seal, recovered six centuries the most important of which are the Baby-
later at Babylon by Sennacherib, shows that lonian and Assyrian synchronistic tablet
Tiglathi-Nin I. reigned personally for some and the mutilated statue of the goddess Ish-
time in that city, where he afterwards estab- tar now in the British Museum, which bears
lished an Assyrian dynast)- of dependent an inscription giving the names and di-
kings — probably a branch of his own family. re6t genealogical succession of the last three
On a genealogical tablet he is called "King of these monarchs. The combined reign.s

of Sumir and Accad, a title not bestowed

' of these eight sovereigns embraced about
on any of the other kings. one hundred and sixty years, from about
ChakUea, or Babylonia, was not, however, B. C. 1230 to B. C. 1070.
from this time permanently subjedl to As- Bel-kudur-uzur, the first king of this
syria. Nearl\- a century after Tiglathi- .second .series, is only known on account of
Nin'.''. conquest the .\ssyrian supremac}' was his unsuccessful war with the contemporary
iH^i.rric.ii. ///S7()h')'. 143

king of Bal)\li)n. Tlu- Scinilic line of kings that he warred with Nebuchadnezzar I., or
established at Babj-loii l)y the Assyrians Nabu-kudur-uzur, of Babylon, who began
were dissatisfied with their state of vassal- the struggle by in\-ading A.ssyria by way of
age; and during Bel-kudur-uzur's reign in the Zagros mountains, but was repulsed by
Assyria, Vul-baladan, the Babylonian vassal As.shur-ris-ilim in person in this mountain
ruler, attempted to throw ofiFthe yoke of his region, and driven back. Nebuchadnezzar
Assyrian suzerain, and the war which fol- invaded Assyria a .second time, directly from
lowed ended in the defeat and death of Bel- the south, but was defeated by Asshur-ris-
kudur-uzur in a great battle about B. C. ilim's general, and driven back, leaving to
1210. the victorious Assyrians fortj- chariots and

NiN-PALA-ziRA was the second Assyrian a baiuier.

monarch of this second series. It is not Tiglath-Pileser I., the son and succes-
certain whether he was related to his prede- sor of Asshur-ris-ilim, who died about B.
cessor, but he avenged his death. The in- C. 1130, was the first Assyrian king of
scriptions call him "the king who organized histor)^ we possess elaborate details.
the country of Assyria, and established the The discover}' of his inscription on two du-
troops of AssA'ria in authority." Sooii after plicate c}dinders, now in the British Mu-
he ascended the throne, Vul-baladan of seum, and which was by
tran.slated in 1857
Babylon, encouraged by his triumph over SirHenry Rawliuson, Mr. Fox Talbot, Dr.
Bel-kudur-uzur, invaded Assyria and at- Hincks and M. Oppert, has given us the
tacked Asshur, its capital, but was com- record of events during the first five }-ears
pletel}- defeated in a battle under the walls of his reign.
of the cit\- and fled into his own dominions, The Tiglath-Pileser inscription begins by
leaving Assyria in peace during the re- naming and glorifying the "gjeat gods"
mainder of Nin-pala-zira's reign. who "rule over heaven and earth," and who
AsSHUR-DAYAN I., the third king of the are "the guardians of the kingdom of Ti-
second series, enjoyed a long and prosperous glath-Pileser." These deities are "A.sshur,
reign, according to the inscription of Tig- the great Lord, ruling supreme over the
lath-Pileser I. He made a successful raid gods; Bel the lord, father of the gods, lord
into Babylonia and returned to Assyria with of the world; Sin, the leader, the lord of
valuable spoils. He also tore down the de- empire; Shamas, the establisher of heaven
lapidated temple eredled by Shamus-Vul, and earth; Vul, he who causes the tempest
the son of Ismi-Dagon, at Asshur; and the to rage over hostile lands; Nin, the cham-
structure was not rebuilt until sixty years pion who subdues evil spirits and enemies;
later. and Ishtar, the source of the gods, the queen
Mutaggil-Nebo, the son and succes.sor of victorj', she who arranges battles. These


of Asshur-dayan I., reigned from about B. gods, it is said in this inscription, have
C. 1 170 to B. C. 1 150. The Tiglath-Pileser placed Tiglath-Pileser upon his throne, have
in-scription informs us that "Asshur, the "made him firm, have confided to him the
great Lord, aided him according to the supreme crown, have appointed him in
wishes of his heart, and established him in might to the sovereignt}^ of the people of
strength in the government of Assyria." Bel, and have granted him preeminence, ex-
AssHUR-Ris-iLiM, the son and successor altation and warlike power; and are in-


of Mutaggil-Nebo, reigned between about voked to make the "duration of his empire
B. C. 1 150 and B. C. 1130; and the inscrip- continue forever to his royal posterity, last-
tion of his son, Tiglath-Pileser I., calls him ing as the great temple of Kharris-Matira."
"the powerful king, the subduer of rebel- Then follows a self-glorification of the
he who has reduced all the
lious countries, king with an enumeration of his titles,
accursed." The synchronistic tablet of Ba- thus: "Tiglath-Pileser, the powerful king,
bylonian and Assyrian history informs us king of the people of various tongues; king
' ;


of the four regions; king of all kings; lord heaps, like moimds of earth. Their mova-
of lords; the supreme; monarch of nionarchs bles, their wealth, and their valuables 1
the illustrions chief, who, imder the aus- plundered to a countless amount. Six thou-
pices of the Sun-god, being armed with the sand of their common soldiers, who fled be-
scepter and girt with the girdle of power fore my servants, and accepted my yoke, I
over mankind, rules over all the people of took and gave over to the men of my own
Bel; the mighty prince, whose praise is territory' as slaves."

blazoned forth among the kings; the ex- The Moschians still refusing to pay trib-
alted sovereign,whose servants Assliur has ute, Tiglath-Pileser condudted a second
appointed to the government of the four campaign in their country and again sub-
regions, and whose name he has made cele- dued them, completely overrunning Comma-
brated to posterity; the conqueror of many gene, which was annexed to the Assyrian
plains and mountains of the Upper and Empire. He also attacked the neighboring
Lower country; the victorious hero, the tribes in their fastnesses, burned their cities
terror of whose name has overwhelmed all and ravaged their territories. He likewise
regions; the bright constellation who, as he invaded the countrj^ of the Khatti (Hittites),
wished, has warred against foreign coun- because two of their tribes had committed
tries, and under the auspices of Bel there — an aggression on Assyrian territory, and
being no equal to him has subdued the — completely chastising them, carried away
one hundred and twenty chariots and much

enemies of Asshur.
Tiglath-Pileser then recounts his con- valuable booty. He also invaded the moun-
quests during his first five years as king. tainous region of the Zagros, reduced its
The first people he subdued were the Mus- stronghold and seized much treasure.
kai, or —
Moschians believed to be the Me- Tiglath-Pileser's campaign was
shech of the Old Testament who were — against the Nairi tribes of the Euphrates
governed by five kings and inhabited the valley in Northern Syria and Mesopotamia,
countries of Alzi and Purukhuz, parts of the distridl subsequently known as Comma-
Taurus or Niphates. The Moschians had gene. These were ruled by many
negledled for fifty years to pay the tribute petty kings. Those east of the Euphrates
due from them to the Assyrians; and at this were easily conquered, but those west of the
time, with a force of twenty thousand men, river were only subdued after a desperate
they had invaded the neighboring coun- and protracfted struggle. The Assyrians
try of Qummukh (afterwards Commagene), gained a great vidlory, taking one hundred
an Assyrian dependency, and had subdued and twenty chariots, and pursued the Nairi
it; but were there attacked and defeated by and their allies to the Mediterranean. The
Tiglath-Pileser I. who then conquered Com-
, country was frightfully ravaged, and the
magene, burned its cities, plundered its tem- vanquished were required to pay a tribute
ples, ravaged the country, and carried away of twelve hundred horses and two hundred
cattle and treasure as booty or tribute. cattle.
The following is a passage from this in- In his fourth campaign, Tiglath-Pileser at-
scription: "The country of Kasiyara, a tacked the Aramaeans, or Syrians, who then
difficult region, I passed through. With occupied the narrow valley of the Euphra-
their twenty thousand men and their five tes for a distance of two hundred and fifty

kings, in the country of Qummukh I en- miles, from the territories of the Tsukhi, or
gaged. I defeated them. The ranks of Shuhites, between Anah and Hit on the
their warriors in fighting the battle were south-east, to Carchemish, the capital and
beaten down as if by the tempest. Their stronghold of the Khatti, or Hittites, on the
carcasses covered the valleys and the tops north-west. Tiglath Pileser says in his in-
of the mountains. I cut off their heads. scription that he reduced this region "at one
Of the battlements of their cities I made blow. " He first plundered the east bank

«^~^ i^/ ^




of the river, and then crossed the stream in which he had eredled and
of the Iniildings
boats covered with skins, and burned six of the improvements which he had intro-
cities on the west bank and carried away a duced. Among these buildings are the tem-
vast amount of boot}-. ples to Ishtar, Martu, Bel, II, and the pre-
Tigkith-Pileser's fifth and last campaign siding deities of the citj- of Asshur, his own
was against the land of Musr, or Muzr, in royal palaces, and castles for the military
the upper part of the present Kurdistan, defence of his dominions. Among his pub-
which was completely overrun, and its lic improvements he mentions the construc-
armies were defeated, its cities bunied and tion of works of irrigation, the introducftion
its strongholds taken. Ann, the capital, of cattle and wild animals from other coun-
was spared because of its submission, and a tries into Assyria, as well as of foreign veg-
tribute was imposed upon the countn,-. The etable productions, the increase in the num-
Comani, who, though Assyrian subjedls, ber of chariots, the enlargement of his do-
had assisted the inhabitants of Musr, were minions, and the growth of the population.
punished for their defetflion by Tiglath-Pi- Before speaking of the restoration of two
leser, who invaded their countn,-, defeated old temples in the city of Asshur, Tiglath-
their army of twenty thousand men, and took Pileser gives an account of his descent from
their towns and castles, some by stonn and Nin-pala-zira, the founder of the dynast\-,
others without resistance, burning the for- as follows: "Tiglath-Pileser, the illustrious
mer and sparing the latter, but destroj-ing prince, whom Asshur and Nin have exalted
the fortifications of both; and the "far- to the utmost wishes of his heart; who has
spreading country of the Comani was soon '
' pursued after the enemies of Asshur, and
reduced to submission and an increased trib- has subjugated all the earth the son of —
ute exadled from it. Asshur-ris-ilim, the powerful king, the sub-
After this fifth campaign, Tiglath-Pileser's duer of rebellious countries, he who has re-
inscriptionsums up the result of his wars —
duced all the accursed the grandson of
thus: "There fell into my hands altogether Mutaggil-Nebo, whom Asshur, the Great
between the commencement of mj- reign and Lord, aided according to the wishes of his
ray fifth 3'ear, forty-two countries with their heart,and established in strength in the
kings, from the banks of the river Zab to —
government of Assj^ria the glorious off-
the banks of the river Euphrates, the coun- spring of Asshur-dayan, who held the scepter
try of the Khatti, and the upper ocean of of dominion, and ruled over the people of
the setting sun. I brought them under one Bel; who in all the works of hands and
government; I took hostages from them; the deeds of his life placed his reliance on
and I imposed on them tribute and offer- the great gods, and thus obtained a long
ings." and prosperous life —the beloved child of
The king next boasts of his hunting ex- Nin-pala-zira, the king who organized the
ploits. He says that he killed with his ar- country' of Assyria, who purged his territo-
rows in the country of the Hittites, "four ries of the wicked, and established the
wild bulls, strong and fierce;" and in the troops of Assyria in authoritj'."
vicinitj' of Harran, on the banks of the river The temple torn down by Asshur-dayan
Khabour, he slew ten large wild buffaloes I., the great-grandfather of Tiglath-Pileser
and took four alive. He took these cap- I., and which had stood for six hundred and
tured animals, with the hides and horns of forty-one j^ears, was not rebuilt; and, after
the killed beasts, to Asshur, his capital citj-. its site had remained vacant for sixty years,
He also says that he slew nine hundred and Tiglath-Pileser, soon after his accession, re-
twenty lions in his various journeys, and at- solved upon the eredlion there of a new tem
tributes all these exploits to the protetflion pie to the old gods, Ann and Vul, believed
of the gods Nin and Nergal. to lie tutelan,^ deities of the city of Asshur.
This great monarch then gives an account Tiglath-Pileser relates the circumstances


•of the building and dedication of this new for the use of the Great Gods, my lords,
temple, as follows: "In the beginning of mj' Anu and Vul, and have laid down an adytum
reign, Ann and Vul, the Great Gods, my for their special worship,and have finished
lords, guardians of ni)' steps, gave me a it and have delighted the hearts
command to repair this their shrine. So I of their noble godships, may Anu and Vul
made bricks; I leveled the earth; I took its preserve me in power May the}' support !

dimensions: I laid down its foundations the men of my government May they es- !

upon a mass of strong rock. This place, tablish the authority of m^' officers ! May
throughout its whole extent, I paved with they bring the rain, the joy of the year, on
bricks in set order; fifty feet deep I prepared the cultivated land and the desert, during
the ground; and upon this substrudture I my time ! In war and in battle may they
laid the lower foundations of the temple of preserve me vicftorious ! Manj- foreign
Anu and Vul. From its foundation to its countries, turbulent nations, and hostile
roof I built it up was before.
l^etter than it kings have reduced under my yoke; to my

I also built lofty towers in honor of

two children and my descendants, may they keep
their noble god.ships, and the holy place, a them in firm allegiance ! I will lead my
spacious hall, I consecrated for the conven- steps" (or, "may they establish mjf feet"),
ience of their worshipers, and to accommo- "firm as the mountains, to the last days,
date their votaries, who were numerous as before Asshur and their noble godships
the stars of heaven. I repaired, and built, The list of my vi(5tories and the catalogue
and completed my work. Outside the tem- of my
triumphs over foreigners hostile to
ple I fashioned with the same care as inside. Acshur, which Anu and Vul have granted
The mound of earth on which it was built I to my arms, I have inscribed on my tablets
enlarged like the firmament of the rising and cylinders, and I have placed, [to remain]
stars, and I beautified the entire building. to the last days, in the temple of my lords,

Its towers I raised up to heaven, and its Anu and Vul. And
have made clean the

roofs I built entirely of brick. An invio- tablets of vShamas-Vul, my ancestor; I have

lable shrine for their noble godships I laid made sacrifices, and sacrificed vidlims before
down near at hand. Anu and Vul, the them, and have set them up in their places.
Great Gods, I glorified inside the shrine. I In after times, and in the latter daj-s * * *
set them up in their honored purity, and the if the temples of the Great Gods, my lords

hearts of their noble godships I delighted." Anu and Vul, and these shrines .should be-
The other temple, which Tiglath-Pile.ser come old and fall into decay, may the prince
I. says he restored, was one to Ann only, who comes after me repair the ruins May !

which, like the one just mentioned, was he raise altars and sacrifice vidtims before
originally built by Shamas-Vul, the son of my tablets and cylinders, and may he set
Ismi-Dagon. This building had likewise them up again in their places, and may he
fallen into decay, but had not been taken inscribe his name on them together with my
down like the other. Tiglath-Pileser says name As Anu and Vul, the Great Gods,

that he "leveled its site," and then rebuilt have ordained, may he worship honestly
it "from its foundations to its roofs," en- with a good heart and a full trust Who- !

larging and embellishing it. Inside the ever shall abrade or injure my tablets and
building he "sacrificed precious vicftims to cylinders, or shall moisten them with water,
his lord, Vul." In the temple he likewise or scorch them with fire, or expose them to
deposited a collecflion of rare stones and mar- the air, or in the holy place of God shall
bles, which he had procured in the countrj' assign them a place where they cannot be
of the Nairi during his wars there. seen or understood, or shall erase the writ-
Tiglath-Pileser's inscription ends with the ing and inscribe his own name, or .shall di-

following lengthy invocation: '

' Since a holy vide the sculptures and break them ofi" from
place, a noble hall, I have thus consecrated my tablets, maj- Anu and Vul, the Great


Gods, my lords, coiisig^ii his iiainc to perdi- nations rejecl. His buildings are temples
ditioii ! Maj- thej^ curse him with an irre- for the worship of the gods. His whole
vocable curse ! May the\- cause his sov- mind is deeply imbued with religious feeling,

ereignty to perish ! Ma\- they pluck out the showing that the gods are "in all his

stabilit}' of the throne of his empire ! Let thoughts. ' This religious feeling is highly
not his ofFsprius^ survixe him in the king- exclusive and intolerant.
dom !Let his ser\-ants be broken Let his ! The king, while exalting himself, is .still

troops be defeated Let him fly vanquished

! "the illustrious chief, who, under the aus-
before his enemies May Vul in his furj' ! pices of the Sun-god, rules over the people
tear up the produce of his land May a ! of Bel," and "whose servants Asshur ha.s

scarcitj' of food and of the necessaries of life appointed to the government of the four
afflict his countrj- ! For one day may he not regions." If his enemies fly, "the fear of
be called happy ! May his name and his A.sshur has overwhelmed them; if they re-

race perish !

fuse tribute, they withhold the offerings due

The document is then dated — "In the to Asshur." The king himself feels inclined
month Kuzalla (Chisleu), on the 29th day, to make an expedition against a countrj-;
in the year presided over hy Ina-iliya-pallik, "his lord Asshur, invites him" to proceed
the Rabbi-Turi." thither; if he collects an army. "Asshur has

The most striking feature of Tiglath-Pi- committed the troops to his hand." When
leser's inscription is its religious tone.His a countr\- not previously subjedt to Assyria
wars are not onlj^ wars of conquest, but thej^ is attacked, it is because the people "do not
are religious wars, designed to extend the acknowledge Asshur;" when its plunder is
worship of Asshur, as well as to enlarge the carried off, it is to adoni and enrich the
dominion of the Assyrian monarch. All temples of Asshur and the other gods; when
the king's successes in war and hunting are it yields, the first thing is to "attach it to

ascribed to the aid and favor of Asshur. the worship of Asshur." The king hunts
The wars were untertaken to chastise the "under the auspices of Nin and Nergal,"
enemies of Asshur, as the Hebrews fought or of"Nin and Asshur; " he puts his tablets
to punish the enemies of Jehovah. The under the protedlion of Anu and \'ul; he
commanding position which religion occu- life of one ancestor to his
attributes the long
pied in the hearts of the Assyrian kings and exceeding piety, and the prosperity of an-
people is proven hy the long and solemn in- other to the protecftion which Asshur be-
vocation of the Great Gods, the religious stowed upon him. The name of A.sshur
character and purposes of the wars, the ac- occurs in the inscription almost forty times,
count given of the building and renovation or once in nearly every- paragraph. Shamas,
of the temples, the dedication of offerings, the Sun-god, and the gods Anu, \w\ and
and the characteristic final praj-er. The Bel, are mentioned frequently; while Sin,
deep earnestness of this religious faith of the Moon-god, and the deities Nin, Nergal,
the Assyrians, in its outward manifestations, Ishtar, Beltis, Martu and II, are also ac-
displayed a zeal and fanaticism akin to that knowledged. All this is on an historical
of the Israelites in their wars with the Ca- inscription.
naanites, Philistines and other nations, or to The energetic charaeler of Tiglath-Pileser
that of the followers of Mohammed in their I. is fully attested by his militarj' exploits
warfare against the foes of Islam. The Assyr- during the first five years of his reign, as
ian king glorifies himself much, but he glori- displayed in the conquest of six neighbor-
fies the gods more. While fighting for his ing nations and many petty tribes; the
own and the extension of his own do-
credit humbling of forty-two kings; the traversing
minion, he likewise fights for the honor and of difficult mountain regions; the vicflories
glorj- of Asshur, the Great Lord, and the in battle; the sieges of towns; the stonning
other Great Gods, whom the neighboring and destruction of strongholds; the ravaging


of countries; the incessant employment of who possessed many cities; and above the
the monarch; his pursuit of the chase; his Aramaeans, also on both sides of the stream,
contests with the wild bull and the lion, in were the Khatti, or Hittites, who were di-
which he rivaled "the mighty hunter before vided into tribes, and whose chief city was
the Lord," counting his victims by the hun- Carchemish. North and north-west of the
dreds; while all this time he was concerned Khatti were the Muskai, or Moschi, a war-
for the welfare of his dominions, as shown like people, who endeavored to extend their
in the magnificent strucftures which he dominion eastward into the territory of the
eredled, the introducftion of the animal and Qumnuikh, or people of Commagene. The
vegetable producfts of other regions and Qummukh occupied and ruled the mountain
climes, the fertilizing of the land bj' works region on both sides of the upper Tigris,
of irrigation, and bis measures in general, and had many strongholds, most of which
improving the condition of the people, and
' were on the west bank of the river. East
obtaining for them abundance and security. of the Qummukh were the Kirkhi, while

Asshur was still the Assyrian capital, and south of them were the Nairi, who occupied
no other native city is yet named, though the region from Lake Van, along the line of
mention is made of "fortified cities." In the Tigris, to the district called Commagene
his inscription Tiglath-Pileser calls himself by the Romans. The Nairi had, at least,

' king of the four regions, '

' and also


' the twenty-three kings, each of whom ruled his

exalted sovereign whose servants Asshur own tribe or city. South of the eastern
has appointed to the government of the Nairi was the country of Musr, or Muzr,
country of the four regions. The Assyrian

' a mountain region densely inhabited and

territory seems at this time to have been abounding in strong castles. To the east
bounded on the east by the Zagros moun- and south-east of Muzr were the Comani, or
tains, on the north by the Niphates ranges, Quwana, the most powerful of Assyria's
on the west by the Euphrates, and on the neighbors, like the Moschi, able to raise
south by Chaldaea, or Babylonia. The an army of twenty thousand men. The
plunder of other countries poured wealth Comani and the people of Muzr were at this
into Assyria, the introduction of enslaved time close allies. Across the lower Zab,
captives cheapened labor, irrigation was im- skirting the Zagros, were the many petty
proved, new and animals were intro-
fruits tribes who offered little resistance to the
duced, fortifications were repaired, palaces Assyrian arms.
were renovated, and temples were embel- Thus, late in the twelfth century before
lished or rebuilt. Christ, Assyria a compa(fl and powerful
The countries bordering upon Assyria on kingdom, surrounded on her eastern, north-
the north, east and west exhibited condi- em and western sides, by weak neighbors.
and were divided
tions of political weakness, Centralized therefore under one monarch,
into a multitude of petty nations
and tribes, Assyria, with a single great capital, was
the most powerful of which could raise an easily able to triumph over foes, who, al-

army of only twenty thousand men. These though united in confederations to resist
nations lacked the essential elements of their common enemy, were easily dispensed
unity, being di\'ided into many separate after suffering a defeat. Only on her south-
communities governed by their own kings, ern border did Assyria have a powerful
who in times of war united against the neighbor in the ancient and venerable mon-
common foe, but who were too jealous of archy of Chaldaea, or Babylonia, whose
each other to even .selecfl a generali.ssimo. Semitic sovereigns, although established in
On the Euphrates, between Hit and Carch- that country by Assyrian mfluence, had re-
emish, were, first, the T.sukhi, or Shu- nounced all dependence upon their old pro-
hites; next above them, on both banks of tedlors. Chaldaea, almost equal in territor-
the river, were the Aramaeans, or Syrians, ial extent and population to Assyria, and as


much centralized and consolidated in her In a cavern from which rises theTsnpuat,
govenimeiit, served as a check to her ag- or eastern branch of the Tigris, near the vil-
gfressive and vigorous northern neighbor, lage of Korkhar, about fifty or sixty miles
thus preserving some semblance of the bal- north of Diarbekr, is a bas-relief .sculptured
ance of power in Western Asia. on rock smoothed for the purpose, consisting

In addition to the great cylinder inscription of a figure of Tiglath-Pileser I. in his

of Tiglath-Pileser I., more years of his
five priestly dress, with the right ann extended
annals exist in fragments, which give us ac- and the left hand grasping the sacrificial
counts of the continuance of his aggressive mace, wiih the following inscription: "Bj'
expeditions, principally in the dire(5lion of the grace of As,shur, Shamas and Vul, the
the north-west, during which he subdued the Great Gods, I, Tiglath-Pileser, King of As-
Lulumi in Northern Syria, attacked and took syria, son of Asshur-ris-ilim, King of As-
Carchemish, and pursued the fleeing inhabi- syria, who was the son of Mutaggil-Nebo,
tants across the Euphrates in boats. King of Assyria, marching from the great
Near the end of his reign Tiglath-Pileser sea of Akhiri" (the Mediterranean) "to
I. marched an army into Babj'lonia, and the sea of Nairi" (Lake of Van), "for the
ravaged its northern territories with fire and third time have invaded the countrj' of
sword for two years, taking the cities of Dur- Nairi."
Kurri-galzu (now Akkerkuf ), Sippara of the Tiglath-Pileser I. was succeeded on the
Sun, and Sippara of Anunit (the Sephar- Ass3'rian throne by his son Asshur-bil-
vaini, or "two Sipparas " of the Hebrews), KALA, of whom verj' little is known besides
Hupa (or Opis), on the Tigris, and finally his war with Merodach-shapik-ziri, king of
the great capital, Babylon, itself. Babylonia, the succes.sor of Merodach-iddin-
After the capture of Babylon, Tiglath- akhi. This war is recorded on the Synchro-
Pileser I. led an army np the Euphrates, nistic Tablet, along with the wars of As.shur-
and took several of the cities of the Tsukhi. bil-kala's father and grandfather, but the
But the Babj'lonian king, Merodach-iddin- injured condition of this portion of the tab-
akhi, captured some of Tiglath-Pileser' let pre\-ents us getting details from it. A
baggage during his retreat from Babj'lon. monument of Asshur-bil-kala's time —one
The images of the gods which Tiglath- of the oldest Assyrian sculptures yet remain-
Pileser had carried with him in his expedi- ing —bears witness that he was adluated by
tion against Babylonia, to secure him vidlor}- the same religious spirit displayed by his
b}- their presence, were captured bj- Mero- father, and that he also adorned temples and
dach-iddin-akhi, who carried them to Baby- set up images of the gods. A mutilated
lon,where they remained over four centuries female figure, supposed to be the image
as mementoes of victory. The Sj'nchronis- of the goddess Ishtar, discovered by Mr.
tic Tablet, the chief authorit},- for this war, Loftus at Koyunjik, and now in the British
says nothing of the capture of idols, Museum, bears a dedicators- inscription,
but this fadl is mentioned in a rock inscrip- almost illegible, from which it appears to
tion of Sennacherib's at Bavain, near Khors- have been .set np by A.sshur-bil-kala, the
abad. son of Tiglath-Pileser I. and grandson of
Thenceforth a spirit of ho.stility and jeal- Asshur-ris-ilim.
ous rivairs'marked the relations between It is suppo.sed that Asshur-bil-kala reigned
Assj^ria and Babylonia, and no more inter- from about B. C. mo
to B. C. 1090. His
marriages occurred between their roj'al fam- successor seems to have been his j-ounger
ilies, while wars between them were almost brother, Sha jias-Vui, I. of whom nothing,

constant, nearly every Assyrian king of is known except his building or repairing a
whose historj' we possess detailed knowl- temple at Nineveh. He is thought to have
edge, leading one or more expeditions into reigned from B. C. 1090 to B. C. 1070: being
Babylonia. thus contemporary with Samuel or Saul in
Israel. During the eleventh centur>^ before the sources of the Tsupnat river beside the
Christ, Assyria for a time passed under a sculptures .set up by his ancestors, Tiglath-

cloud, and its ancient glories were then Pile-ser and Tiglathi-Nin I. The A.ssyr-

eclipsed by the imperial splendor of the ian Canon assigns the reign of Tiglathi-Nin
Israelitish kingdom under David and Sol- II. between the years B. C. 889 and B. C.

omon. two centuries, between the

For 883.
reigns of Shamas-Vul I. and Tiglathi-Nin Asshur-izir-pal, the son and successor
II., who, according to the Assyrian Canon, of Tiglathi-Nin II., reigned twenty-five
ascended the throne of Assyria in B. C. years, from B. C. 883 to B. 858, whichC.
889, Assyrian history is a blank. The very- period one of the most flourishing in the

names of the kings are almost entirely un- annals of the Assyrian Empire. Asshur-
known to us for three-fourths of this period, izir-palwas an adtive and energetic mon-
from about B. C. 1070 to B. C. 930. The arch, and did not allow himself any repose.
inscription of Shalmaneser II., the Black- The limits and influence of Assyria were
Obelisk king, speaks of certain cities on the expanded in everj' diredtion, and her pro-
west bank of the Euphrates being taken gress in wealth and the arts was so rapid
from AssHUR-MAZUR, whose reign has been that she suddenly attained a point not pre-
assigned to this period. viously reached by any people. The size,

While Assyria, from the absence of records; magnificence and excellent artistic embel-
had apparently simk into insig-
at this time lishment of Asshur-izir-pal' s architectural
seems to have ex-
nificance, her influence .stru(5lures, the high skill in the pracftical
tended into Egypt, whose kings of the arts which they exhibit, the pomp and
Twenty-second Dynasty beginning with splendor of this reign which they imply,
Sheshonk I., or Shishak, a contemporar>- have e.Kcited the wonder and admiration
of Solomon, married Assyrian women of of modern Europe, which has seen that
royal or noble birth, who gave Ass>Tian the Assyrians nine centuries before Christ,
names to their children, thus introducing or nearly twenty-eight centuries ago, had
Semitic names in Egyptian dynastic lists. reached a degree of advancement in the in-
When Ass^-ria again emerged from dark- ventions and arts of practical life equal to
ness with the accession of Asshur-d.wan the boasted achievements of the modern
II. about B. C. 930, Asshur was still the ages.
capital of the kingdom. A.sshur-da^-an II. Asshur-izir-pal' s first campaign was in
was the first of a series of kings who re- the north, in portions of Armenia, where he
paired and enlarged public edifices, which is saj'she penetrated a region "never ap-
recorded to their honor in the inscription of proached by the kings his fathers." Here
a sub.sequent sovereign. Asshur-dayan II. he easily .subdued the mountaineers, the
reigned from B. C. 930 to B. C. 911. His Numi, or Elanii, and the Kirkhi, from
son and successor, VuvLUSH II., occupied whom has been derived the name of the
the throne from B. C. 911 to B. C. 889. modern Kurkh, as applied to some ruins on
Nothing is j-et known of the history' of these the west bank of the Tigris, about twenty
two kings, no historical in.scriptions of their miles below Diarbekr, some remains of
reigns being yet found, and no exploits be- which have been transferred to the British
ing recorded of them in the inscriptions of Mu.seum. Asshur-izir-pal took and de-
later sovereigns. stroyed the fortresses of mountain
TiGL.'VTHi-NiN II., the .succe.s.sor of Vul- tribes, and one captive was taken to Arbela,

lush II., reigned only six years; but accord- where he was flayed and hung up on the
ing to the inscriptions of his son and .suc- town wall.
cessor, Asshur-izir-pal, on the Nimrud mon- Asshur-izir-pal's second expedition oc-
olith, he recorded his militarj- exploits and curred in the same year as the first, and was.
also the facfl that he .set up his sculptures at diredted against the tribes to the west and

north-west of A,ss\Tia. He first overran the dozen petty kings. On his return, he built
Qummiikh, Serki and Sidikan,
countries of a city which the Babylonian king Tsibir had
or Arbau, and reduced them to tribute. destroyed at an early period, and named it

Then he took the field against the Laki Dur-A.sshur, in gratitude for the protedlion
bestowed upon him by Asshur,

of Central Mesopotamia, where the people " the Great

of the city of Assura had rebelled, killed Lord," " the chief of the gods."
their governor, and invited a foreigner to Asshur-izir-pal's fifth campaign was di-

govern them. The rebels submitted on rected to the north. Crossing the country
Asshur-izir-pal's approach and .surrendered of the Qummukh and receiving their tribute,
tohim their city and their new ruler, who the warlike king invaded the Mons Masius
was carried in fetters to Nineveh. The and took the cities of Matyat (now Mediyat)
rebellious inhabitants were cruelly punished and Kapranisa. He then crossed the Tigris
by Asshur-izir-pal, who plundered the city, and warred along the Niphates ranges
gave the houses of the rebel leaders to his against the people of Kasijara and other
own officers, placed an Assyrian governor enemies. He next invaded the country of
over the citj-, crucified some of the inhabi- the Nairi, where he says he destroyed two
tants, bunied others, and cut off the ears hundred and fiftj' strong walled cities, and
and noses of the remainder. The other put to death many princes.
kings of the Laki submitted, and sent in Asshur-izir-pal's sixth campaign was in
their tribute readily, though it was " a heavy the west. He started from Calah (now Nim-
and much-increased burden." rnd), where he crossed the Tigris, marched
In the second ^-ear Asshur-izir-pal under- through Central Mesopotamia, received trib-
took a third expedition. Marching north- ute from many subjecft towns, among which
ward, he reduced to submission the kings of were Sidikan (now Arban), Sirki and Anat
the Nairi, who had recovered their inde- (now Anah). He then entered the terri-
pendence, and exadled from them a yearly tories of the Tsukhi, or Shuhites, took their
tribute in and
gold, silver, horses, cattle city Tsur, and compelled them to surrender,
other commodities. Ascending the Tsupnat although the}- were aided by the Babylon-
river, or Eastern Tigris, he .set up his memo- ians; after which he invaded Babylonia, or
rial beside monuments hitherto eredled on Chaldsea, and chastised its people.
the same site by Tiglath-Pileser I. and by the His seventh campaign was likewise
first or second Tiglathi-Nin. The inscrip- against the Shuhites, who had rebelled
tions also give Asshur-izir-pal's own account against the Assyrian yoke and invaded the
of his severe treatment of the revolted c\ty Assyrian territories, being aided by their
of Tela, upon retaking
it, in the following north-eastern neighbors, the Laki. The allied
words: "Their men, young and old, I took army numbered twenty-thousand men, in-

prisoners. Of some I cut off the feet and cluding many warriors who fought in char-
hands; of others I cut off the noses, ears and iots. Asshur-izir-pal first reduced the cities

lips: of the young men's ears Imade a heap; on the east bank of the Euphrates, and, as
he says, made a desert of the banks of the

of the old men's heads I made a minaret. '

' '

I exposed their heads as a trophy in front Khabour, and impaled thirty of the chief
of their city. The male children and the captives on stakes, in punishment for the
female children I burnt in the flames. The rebellion. He then crossed the river on
city I destroyed, and consumed, and burnt rafts and defeated the Tsukhi and their
with fire." allies with great slaughter, many of them
Asshur-izir-pal's fourth campaign was in being drowned in their flight across the
the south-east, where he crossed the Lesser the river. Six thousand five hundred of the
Zab and entered the Zagros range, ravaged rebels were killed in the battle, and the west
the fruitful valleys with fire and .sword, took bank of the river was frightfully ravaged
many towns, and exadled tribute from a with fire and sword; cities and castles were


bunied, men were massacred, and women, went inland, and cut timber, set up sculp-
children and cattle were carried away. One tured memorials, and offered sacrifice on the
king of the L,aki escaped, but another was Amanus mountains. Among the plunder
carried in captivity to Assyria. An in- which he carried to Assyria were cedar
creased rate of tribute was exacfled of the beams for his public buildings at Nineveh.
conquered people, and two new cities were Asshur-izir-pal's tenth campaign, and the
built by the Assyrian king, one on either last recorded, was in the region of the Upper

bank of the Euphrates, the one on the east Tigris, where he defeated his enemies and
bank being named after the king, and the overcame all resistance, burned cities and
one on the west bank after the god Asshur. carried away many captives. The chief
Asshur-izir-pal's eighth campaign was "roj'al city" which he assailed was Amidi,
higher up the Euphrates, where the Assyr- now Diarbekr.
ian monarch in^-aded the country of the Beth- During all his ten campaigns, which were
Adina, to piuiish its people for giving refuge prosecuted during the first six years of his
to Hazilu, the king of the Laki who had reign, Asshur-izir-pal indulged in the sports
escaped capture after his defeat in the pre- of the He records among his in-
vious war. Asshur-izir-pal besieged the scriptions that on one occasion he killed fifty
people of Beth-Adina in their chief city, large wild bulls on the east bank of the
Kabrabi, which he soon took and burned. Euphrates, and captured eight of the same
The part of Beth-Adina east of the Euphra- kind of beasts; while at another time he
tes, in the vicinity of the modern Balis, was slew twenty ostriches and captured as many.
overrun and annexed to the Assyrian Em- This monarch's .sculptures bear testimony
pire, and two thousand five hundred cap- that hunting the wild bull was a favorite
tives were settled at Calah. recreation with him. He had a menagerie
Asshur-izir-pal's ninth and most interest- park in the vicinity of Nineveh, in which
ing campaign was the one against S^'ria. he kept various strange animals. He re-
After marching across Northern Mesopota- ceived, as tribute from the Phoenicians, ani-
mia, and receiving tributes from various —
mals called /rt!;^//A-, or pagdls believed to be
nations and tribes on the wa)-, the A.ssj'rian elephant.s —
which were placed in this zoo-
king crossed the Euphrates on rafts and en- logical enclosure, where he says they throve
tered the city of Carchemish, where he re- and bred. A certain King of Egypt sent
ceived the submission of the Hittite king, him a present of curious animals when he
Sangara, whose capital was that cit}-, and of was in Southern S3'ria. In an obelisk in-
many other princes, "who came reverently scription, designed to commemorate a great
and kissed his scepter." Then he "gave hunting expedition, he says he took all sorts
command to advance toward Lebanon." of antelopes to Asshur and killed lions,
He entered the country of the Patena, which wild sheep, red deer, fallow deer, wild goats,
embraced the region about Antioch and or ibexes, leopards large and small, bears,
Aleppo, and took their capital, Kinalua, wolves, jackals, wild boars, ostriches, foxes,
located between the Abri (or Afrin and Oron-
) hyenas, wild asses, and other animals not
tes; whereupon the rebel king, Lubarna, in yet identified. An inscription of his at

alarm, submitted and agreed to pay a tribute. Nimrud informs us that in another hunting
The Assj-rian monarch then crossed the expedition he slew three hundred and sixty
Orontes and destroyed some of the cities of large two hundred and fifty-seven

the Patena, and marched along the northern large wild cattle, and thirty buffaloes; and
flank of Lebanon to the Mediterranean. In that he sent to Calah fifteen full-grown lions,
this region he built altars and offered sacrifi- fifty young lions, some leopards, .several

ces to the gods, and then received the submis- pairs of wild buffaloes and wild cattle, along
sion of the leading Phoenician states, such as with ostriches, wolves, red deer, bears,
Tyre, Sidon, Byblus and Aradus. He then cheetas and hyenas. Thus, like his distin-

jjiiished ancestor, Tighith-Pileser I., As- out with sculptured slabs illustrating the
shur-izir-{)al was renowned alike as a war- king's various deeds, and which contained
rior and a Inniter. at the eastern end a raised stone platform
Asshur-izir-pal surjiassed his predecessors cut into steps or stages, which La>-ard be-
in the grandeur of his public edifices, and lieves was designed monarch's
to sup])ort the
the profusion of sculpture and painting in carved throne. A
grand jwrtal in the
their embellishment. The strudlures of the southern wall of the chamber, guarded on
earlier Ass\rian kings at Asshur were far in- either sideby .sculptured representations of
ferior to the buildings of Asshur-izir-paland winged man-headed bulls carved out of yel-
his successors at Calah, Nineveh and Dur- low limestone, opened the way into a .second
Sargina. The mounds of Kileh-Sherghat hall much smaller than the first, and with
have not revealed bas-reliefsor traces of build- less variety of ornament. This .second hall
ings which can be compared with those which was about one hundred feet long by twenty-
excite the wonder of the traveler at Nim- five broad, and all the slabs which adorned
rud, Koyunjik and Khorsabad. Asshur- it were ornamented with colossal eagle-
izir-pal's great palace was at Calah (now Nim- headed figures in pairs, facing one another
rud), which he raised from the condition of and separated by the sacred tree. This
a provincial town to that of a metropolis of second hall was connedled with the central
his empire. This palace was three hundred court by an elegant gateway towards the
and .sixty feet long and three hundred feet south, and communicated likewise with a
wide, had .seven or eight large halls, and third hall towards the east. This third hall
many more small chambers grouped round a was one of the most remarkal)le apartments
central court one hundred and thirt}' feet of the palace, and was better proportioned
long and almost one hundred feet broad. than most of the others, being about ninety
The longest hall faced toward the north, was feet long by twenty -six wide. It ran along

the first room entered upon coming from the the eastern side of the great court, with
city, and measured one hundred and fifty- which it was connecfted bj- two gatewaj'S,
four feet in length and thirty-three feet in and on the inside it was ornamented with
breadth. The others were of different di- more elaborately-finished sculptures than
mensions, some almost as spacious as the any other apartment in the palace. Back
largest one, while the smallest room had a of this eastern hall was another hall open-
length of sixtj^-five feet with a breadth of ing into it, somewhat longer, but only
less than twenty feet. The chambers were twelve feet broad; and this led to five .small
nearly or altogether square, and none of chambers, \\hich here bounded the palace.
them were more than thirty feet in their South of the great court were also two halls
greatest dimensions. The entire palace was communicating with each other, but these
raised upon a high platform, con.structed of were smaller than those on the north and
sun-dried bricks, but cased on the outside west, and were less profusely adorned. Mr.
with hewn stone. Of the two grand facades, Layard believes that there were also two or
one faced the north, and on that side was an three halls on the west side of the court to-
ascent to the platform from the town;- the ward the ri\^er. Nearly everj- hall had one
other, in the opinion of Mr. Layard, faced or two .small chambers adjoining it, which
the Tigris, which in ancient times flowed at were generally at the ends of the halls, and
the foot of the platform toward the W'est. connnunicated with them by large doorways.
On the northern were two or three
front The grand halls of this palace, so narrow
great gateways flanked with andro-sphinxes, for their length, were decorated on all sides,
or .sculptured figures representing the body first with ,scul])tures as high as nine or ten

of a winged lion with the head of a man. feet, and then with enameled bricks or pat-

These gatewaj-s led to the principal hall or terns painted in frescoes to the height of
audience chamber, which was lined through- seven or eight feet more. The rooms were
I-IO.-U. H.
sixteen or eighteen feet high. The square the other, a little farther to the east, compris-
chambers had no other embeUishnients than ing a shrine and chambers without a tower.
inscribed alabaster slabs. The tower of the first strudlure was partly
Asshur-izir-pal's .sculptures displaj' great builtby A.sshur-izir-pars son and successor,
boldness, force and spirit, but are usually Shalmaneser II. These temples were highly
clumsily drawn and roughly executed. As- adorned with embellishments, both inter-
syrian mimetic art suddenly sprung up at nally and externalljf; and in front of the
this period, the only specimens more ancient larger one was an ere(5lion indicating that
than this monarch being the rock-tablet of the Assyrian kings received divine honors
Tiglath-Pileser I., already referred to, and from their subjedls. On a plain square
the mutilated female statue brought from pedestal two feet high was raised a solid
Koyunjik to the British Museum and in- limestone block cut in the form of an arched
scribed with the name of Asshur-bil-kala, frame, within which was carved a figure of
the son and successor of Tiglath-Pileser I. the king in sacerdotal costume, with the
As.shur-izir-pal's ornamentation was his own sacred collar encircling his neck, and the
invention. Not a solitary fragment of a five chief divine symbols represented above
sculptured slab has been found about the his head. In front of this figure was a tri-

mounds of Kileh-Sherghat, while bricks angular altar with a circular top, resembling
have been found in abundance. This mon- the Grecian tripod. A stele of Asshur-izir-
arch was the first to use bas-reliefs on a pal, re.sembling the figure just described, has
large scale for architecftural ornamentation, been brought to England from Kurkh, near
and employ them to illustrate the history
to Diarbekr, and is now in the British Museum.
of the monarch. This king likewise adorned Asshur-izir-pal built a temple at Nineveh,
his edifices by means of enameled bricks which was dedicated to the goddess Beltis.
and painted frescoes upon plaster. A white stone obelisk, set up as a memorial
Asshur-izir-pal's .sculptures attest the sur- of his reign, is now in the British Museum.
prising advance made in manufadlures by The sculptures and inscriptions which com-
the Assyrians at this early period. The memorated his military and hunting exploits,
metallurgy of the time is represented by and which covered the four sides of this
swords, sword-sheaths, daggers, earrings, monument, are now almost obliterated. The
necklaces, armlets and bracelets. The char- obelisk a monolith, twelve or thirteen feet

iots, the harness of the horses, and the em- high, and two feet wide on the broader side
broidery which adorned the robes, further of the and less than fourteen inches on
attest the mechanical .skill of the Assyrians the narrower side. It tapers slightly and is

in the age of this famous king. The sculp- crowned at the top by three steps or gra-
tures bear testimony to the fa(5l that this dines. Fragments of two other obelisks
ancient people at this early day already rev- erecfled by this great monarch were discovered
eled in luxury, and that in the useful arts, at Koyunjik by Mr. lyoftus, and are likewise
in dress, furniture, jewelry, etc., they were now in the British Museum. One of these,

not far behind the modems. in white stone, had sculptures on one side
Besides the splendid palace which he only, being mostly covered by an in.scription
eredled at Calah, Asshur-izir-pal built many recording his hunting exploits in vSyria and

temples, the most important of which have his repairs of the city of Asshur. The other,
already been described. They occupied the in black basalt, had sculptures on every side

northwestern corner of the Nimrud plat- representing the great king receiving tribute-
form, and consisted of two structures; one bearers.
precisely at the corner, embracing the higher Asshur-izir-pal construdled a tuiuiel and
tower, or ziggurat, which stood out as a cor- canal by which the water of the Greater
ner buttress from the great mound, and a Zab was brought to Calah. He records this

shrine with chambers at the tower's base ;

fadl in his annals, and Sennacherib, who

/V V, / TICA I. HIS T( > A' >


repaired tlie tuinicl two centuries later, set ians of Damascus, were attacked by the ar-
up therein a tablet with an inscription com- mies of vShalmaneser II. , their hosts defeated,
memorating Asshur-izir-pal as its author.- their cities be.sieged and taken, their kings
Asshur-izir-pal's favorite capital was Ca- reduced to submission and forced to pay tri-
lah, although he beautified Asshur, the old bute.
capital, and the rising city of Nineveh. The Shalmaneser II. took tribute from the Phoe-
continual spread of the Assyrian dominion nician cities of Tyre, Sidon and Byblus;
northward necessitated the removal of the from the T.sukhi, or Shnhites; from the peo-
capital to amore central point than A.sshur; ple of Muzr, or Musr; from the Bartsu, or
and for that rea.son Calah, which was forty Partsu (believed to be the Persians), and
miles farther north, on the opposite or east from the Israelites. He thus traversed the
side of the Tigris, was selected for the seat entire region from the Persian Gulf on the
of government. Calah, located in the fer- south to the Niphates mountains upon the
tile and healthy region of Adiabene, near north, and from the Zagros range on the
the junction of the Greater Zab with the east to the Mediterranean sea on the west.
Tigris, was strongly protected b\' nature, Over this whole A'ast domain he made his
being defended on either side by a deep river. power felt, while his influence extended be-
The new capital rapidly grew to great- yond its limits, where the nations feared and
ness, and palace after palace rose on its high respected him and willingly sought his favor
platform, profuseh' embellished with carved bj' placing themselves under his protecftion.

woodwork, gilding, painting, sculpture and In the closing years of his reign he deputed
enamel; while stone lions, sphinxes, obelisks, the command of his armies to his favorite
shrines and temple-towers also adorned the general, Daj^an- Asshur, in whom he reposed
scene. The lofty ziggurat attached to the great confidence. Dayan-Asshur held an
temple of Nin stood forth preeminent amid important office in the fifth year of Shal-
the varied mass of royal palaces and sacred maneser's reign; and in the twenty-seventh,
temples, giving unity to the whole. twentj'-eighth, thirtieth, and thirty-first he
After his glorious reign of twenty-five was sent with an army against the Anne-
3'ears, Asshur-izir-pal —who styled him.self nians, the rebellious Patena, and the people
' The conqueror from the upper passage of of the region included in modem Kurdistan.
the Tigris to Lebanon and the Great Sea, In his twenty-ninth year the king himself
who has reduced under his authoritj- all led an expedition into Khirki, theNaphates
countries from the rising of the sun to the where he "overturned, beat to

going down of the same" died at no ad- — pieces, and consumed with fire the towns,
vanced age, and was succeeded on the throne swept the country with his troops, and im-
by his son, Shalmaneser II. pressed on the inhabitants the fear of his
Shalmane.ser II. inherited the warlike presence."
spiritand genius of his illustrious father; Shalmaneser's most interesting campaigns
and during his reign of thirty-five years, are those of the sixth, eighth, ninth, elev-
from B. C. 858 to B. C. 823, he conducted enth, fourteenth, eighteenth and twenty-first
twenty-three military' expeditions in person, years of his reign. Two of these campaigns
and entrusted four others to a favorite gen- were direcfted against Babylonia, three
eral. His twenty-three expeditions were against Een-hadad of Damascus, and two
undertaken during the first twenty-seven against Kha/.ail (Hazael) of Dama.scus.
years of his reign, and were diredled In his eighth j-ear, while Babylonia was
against the territories of neighboring peoples. rentby a civil war between King Merodach-
Babjdonia, Chaldcea, Media, the Zimri, Ar- sum-adin and his younger brother, Mero-
menia, Upper Mesopotamia, the country of dach-bel-usati, Shalmane.ser II. invaded that
the Upper Tigris, the Hittites, the Patena, kingdom ostensibly to aid its legitimate sov-
the Tibareni. the Hamathites, and the Syr- ereign, but reall)- for his own aggrandize-
ment. He at once seized several Babylonian ments of war. The coalition at once fell to
towns, and in the following year he defeated pieces, and the Hamathites and Hittites
and killed the pretender to the Babylonian submitted to the conqueror's 3-oke, Damas-
crown, entered Babylon and invaded Chal- cus being deserted by her allies.
daea, the countiy along the Persian Gulf, The next year Shalmaneser II. advanced
then independent of Babylon, and compelled against the Syrians of Damascus, who were
its kings to become his tributaries. He in- strongly posted in the Anti-Lebanon fast
the power nesses, and w^ere under the leadership of

forms us in his inscriptions that '

of his army struck terror as far as the sea." their new king, Hazael, who had treacher-
The wars of Shalmaneser II. in Southern ously murdered Ben-hadad. Hazael raised
Syria began in the ninth year of his reign. an immense army, including over eleven
He had extended his dominion in Northern hundred chariots, and took a strong position
Syria over the Patena and most of the in the mountain range dividing the king-
Northern Hittites. Alarmed at the rapid doms of Damascus and Hamath, where he
growth of the Assyrian power, Ben-hadad, was attacked and utterly defeated by the
King of Damascus; Tsakhulena, King of Assyrian king, losing sixteen thousand men,
Hamatli; Ahab, King of Israel; the kings of eleven hundred and twenty-one chariots, a
the southern Hittites; the kings of the Phoe- large amount of war material and his camp.
nician cities upon the coast, and others, This blow completely broke the power of
formed an alliance, but their combined forces Damascus, and three years later Hazael
were defeated by the King of Assyria, with made no resistance when Shalrnaneser II.
the loss of twenty thousand men killed in again invaded Syria and took and plundered
battle, while many chariots and much war his towns. In his inscription, Shalmaneser
material fell into the hands of the vicftori- II. .says: "I went to the towns of Hazael

oua Assyrians. of Damascus, and took part of his provis-

Five years later, in the eleventh year of his ions." He next saj's: " I received the trib-
reign, Shalmaneser II. again took the field utes of Tyre, Sidon and Byblus." Jehu,
against Hamatli and the Southern Hittites. King of Israel
— ".son of Omri," as he is

Suddenly invading their territories, he took called in the Assyrian inscription — sent a
many towns without resist-
ance ;but Ben-hadad of Da-
mascus joined the Hittites,
and though the allies were
again defeated by the Assyrian
monarch, the latter did not
succeed in extending his sway
over Southern Syria. Three
years afterward, Shalmaneser
II. again attempted the con-

quest of Southern Syria. Col-

ledling his people "in multi-
tudes that were not to be
counted," he crossed the Eu-
phrates with an anny of more
than a hundred thousand men
and marched southwards. This time he quantity of gold and silver, in bullion and
gained a decisive vicflon,' over the allied manufacftured articles, as tributes to the
armies Ben-hadad of Dama.scus, the
of Assyrian monarch. Sculptures at Nimmd
Hamathites and the Hittites, who fled in represent the Israelitish ambassadors pre-
dismay, losing many chariots and imple- senting this tribute to Shalmaneser II., the


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LMAMASiAf I >r 1[HU Rul D


yilfliililllllllllH^ll^'lliii^'i'li^^'lll|M^lllln^ll!^ll l'|li'|l'''l'i"'''"'''i"''':'lMi;i:l.'




articles appearing' carried in the hands or on copper bars and cubes, goblets, elephants'
the shoulders of the envoys." tusks, tissues, etc., and are carried in the
Like his distinguished father, Shalman- hand; but there are also animals, such as
eser II. had great taste for architecture and horses, camels, monkeys and baboons of va-
the other arts. He completed the :-iggurat rious types, stags, lions, wild bulls, ante-
of the great temple of Nin at Calah, which lopes, and the rhinoceros and elephant.
his father had commenced. He also built a As already related, the Israelites are one of
more splendid palace than the one eredled the nations offering tribute. The others
by his father on the same lofty platform of will now be noticed. The people of Kirzan,
that city, about one hundred and fifty yards a country adjoining Armenia, present gold,
from the former palace. This is known as silver, copper, horses and camels, and occupy
Central Palace of the Nimrud plat- the four highest compartments with
' '
the ' ' nine
form, and was disco\'ered by Mr. Layard on envoys. The Muzri, or people of Muzr, or
his first expedition. The ruined condition Musr, as we have obser\-ed, almost in the
of this magnificent edifice rendered it impos- same region, bring various wild animals and
sible for its modern discoverer to obtain a fill the four central compartments with six
clear idea of its ornamentation. Two mass- envoys. The Tsukhi, or Shuhites, from the
ive winged man-headed bulls partiallj^ de- Euphrates, are represented h\ thirteen en-
stroyed, in the grand portals of this great voys, bringing two lions, a stag and various
strudture, and the sculptured fragments of precious objecfts, such as metal bars, ele-

bas-reliefs, which must have adorned its phant tusks, and shawls or tissues; and are
walls, illustrate its points of similarity to given four compartments below the Muzri.
Asshur-izir-pal's great edifice. The sculp- The Patena, from the Orontes, fill three of
tures of Shalmaneser's palace were on a the lowest compartments, with a train of
grander scale and more mythological than twelve envoys bearing gifts similar to those of his father's building. of the Israelites. A stele of Shalmaneser II.
A famous monument of Shalmancser II. closely resembling those of his father, was
isan obelisk in black marble, in shape and brought to the British Museum from Kurkh
general arrangement resembling that of his in 1S63.
father already described, but of a Calah. where he and his father built their
and better material. This obelisk was dis- great palaces, was the usual capital of Shal-
covered lying prostrate under the rubbish maneser II. ; but he sometimes held his court
covering Shalmaneser's palace. It contained in the new city of Nineveh, and also in the
ba.s-reliefs intwenty compartments, five on old capital, Asshur. At the latter place
each of its four sides, the space about them he left a monument in the .shape of a stone

being covered with minute cuneiform in- statue representing a king seated, which
scriptions; the whole in an excellent state was found by Mr. Layard in a nuitilated
of preservation. It is somewhat smaller condition. In his later years Shalmaneser
than Asshur-izir-pal's obelisk, being only II. was troubled by a dangerous rebellion of
seven feet high and twenty-two inches on his eldest son, the heir apparent to the crown,
its broad face. Its proportions make it more Asshur-danin-pal. The rebellious prince
solid-looking and taper less than the former had a powerful popular support, and was
obelisk. The Shalman-
bas-reliefs represent proclaimed king at Asshur, at Arbela in the
eser II., accompanied by his and other vizier Zab region, at Amidi on the Upper Tigris,

chief officers, receiving tribute from five at Tel-Apni near the site of Orfa, and in
nations, whose envoys are ushered into the more than a .score of other fortified places.
royal presence by officials of the court, and The aged monarch called his second son,
prostrate themselves at the feet of the Great Shamas-Vul, to the command of the loyal
King before they present their offerings. troops, and this prince reduced the rebellious
The gifts are mostly articles of gold, silver, cities in succession and soon completely
PL )l.rriCAL HIS 71 >A' } •


crushed the revolt. Asshur-danin-pal, the beyond Amanus, the region between the
rebellious crown-prince, forfeited his claims two belonging to theTibareni (Tubal), who
to the crown by his treason, and is supposed had submitted as tributaries. The northern
to have been put to death; while his younger limits were the Niphates range "the high —
brother and conqueror, Shamas-Vul, became grounds over the affluents of the Tigris and
the heir to his father's kingdom, to which the Euphrates" —
where Shalmaneser II.,
he shortly' afterwards succeeded, upon Shal- setup "an image of his majesty." The
maneser's death, in B. C. 823, after an a(5live eastern frontier was in the central Zagro.s
and glorious reign of thirty-five years. region, the tra<5l between the Lower Zab and
Shamas-Vul II. reigned thirteen years, Holwan, then called Hupuska. On the
from B. C. 823 to B. C. 810. We will now south the Assyrian kingdom was still
briefly notice the extent of the Assyrian do- bounded by the territories of the Baby-
minion at his accession. Since the time of lonians and Chaldaeans, who j'et remained
Tiglath-Pileser I. the limits of the A.ssyrian unconquered.
Empire had been extended in different direc- These conquests and changes, which con-
tions, but mainly toward the west and the verted Assyria's former enemies into sub-
north-west. In this diredlion the Assyrian jedts, brought the empire into contadl with
limits had been pushed bej'ond the Euphrates new enemies on her western, northern and
over all Northern Syna, over Phoenicia, Ha- eastern sides. In the west the Assvrians

Ab.SVRIANS GLIiNi; Tu H.\TT1.1'..

math, and Samaria, or the Israelite kingdom. came in collision with the Syrians of Damas-
These countries were not, however, reduced cus, and with the kingdom of Judah,
to the condition of provinces; they still re- through their tributary', Samaria, or Israel.
mained under their own native kings, and In the north-west they found new foes in
retained their administration and laws ; but the Ouin, or Coans, who occupied the
they were virtually subje(5l to Assyria, as farther side of Amanus, near the Tibareni,
they acknowledged the suzerainty of the in a portion of what was subsequenth- called
Assyrian monarch, paid him an annual trib- Cilicia, and the Cilicians also, who are now
ute, and allowed his armies a free passage first mentioned. The Moschi had migrated
through their territories. On the west the from this section. On the north the Anne-
Assj'rian Empire extended to the Mediter- nians were at this time Assyria's onlj- neigh-
ranean, from the Gulf of Iskanderun to bors. Toward the east were the Manual, or
Cape Camiel or to Joppa. The north-western Minni, about Lake T 'nnniyeh; the Kharkhar,
boundary- was the Taurus mountain range in the Van region and in North-westera
Kurdistan; the Bartsu, or Persians, then in dered and burned, and the Assyrian mon-
South-eastern Armenia; the Mada, or Medes, arch went in hot pursuit of the flying foe.

east of the Zagros; and the Tsimri, or Zimri, Shamas-Vul II. next defeated the Babylon-
in ITpper Luristan. These new neighbors ian king, Merodach-belatzu-ikbi, at the
and enemies were all weak, and no power- head of an allied host of Babylonians, Ara-
fully-organized monarchy at this time ex- maeans, or Syrians, and Zimri, on the river
isted to contest with Assyria the dominion Daban; the allies losing five thousand killed,
of Western Asia. The Medes and Persians, two thousand made prisoners, one hundred
afterwards so celebrated as powerful nations, chariots, two hundred tents and the Baby-
at this period were no more important than lonian royal standard and pavilion. The
the other insignificant tribes and nations annals of Shamas-Vul II. here abruptly ter-
upon the Assyrian borders. Neither of these minate; but it appears from other circum-
kindred Ar>^an peoples had yet a capital stances that from this time, for over half a
cit}-, neither was united under one sovereign, century-. Babylonia, which had for a long
but each was divided into many tribes, time been a separate and independent king-
headed by chiefs, and dispersed in scattered dom, was reduced to the condition of a
and defenseless towns and villages. They tributan,-.

were thus in the same condition as the Nairi, The stele of Shamas-Vul II. contains one
the Qummukh, the Patena, the Hittites and allusion to a hunting exploit, stating that he
other frontier nationalities whose compara- killed se\-eral wild bulls at the foot of the
tive weakness Assyria had demonstrated to Zagros, while leading his expedition against
the world in a long course of wars in which Babylonia. His stele consists of a single
she had uniformly triumphed. figure in relief, representing the king in his
Like his father, Shalmaneser II. Shamas-, priestly dress, wearing the sacred symbols
Vul II. resided principally at Calah, where round his neck, standing with his right arm
he, like his father and grandfather, set up upraised, and enclosed in the usual arched
an obelisk, or rather a stele, to commemo- frame. This figure is somewhat larger than
rate his exploits. This monument, covered life, and is cut on a single solid stone, and

on three sides with an inscription in the then set on a larger block serving for a ped-
hieratic, or cursive characfter, contains an estal. The figure closely re.sembles that of
opening invocation to the god Nin, con- Asshur-izir-pal, already described.
ceived in the usual terms, the king's gene- Shamus-Vul II., upon his death, in B. C.
alogy and titles, an account of Asshur-da- 8 ID, was succeeded on the Assyrian throne by
nin-pal's rebellion and its suppression, and his son VuL-LUSH III., who reigned twenty-
Shamas-Vul's own annals for the first four nine years, from B. C. 8io to B. C. 781.
years of his reign. These infonn us that The .scant}' memorials of this king consist
he exhibited the same acflive and energetic of two slabs found atNimrud, of a short
spirit as his father and grandfather, con- dedicatory inscription on duplicate statues
ducting campaigns against the Nairi on the of the god Nebo, brought from the same
north, Media and Arazias on the east, and place, of some brick inscriptions from the
Bab}lonia on the south. The people of Nebbi-Yunus mound of Nineveh, and of
Hupuska, the Minni, and the Bartsu, or short notices of the regions in which he
him tribute.
Persians, paid conducted campaigns, contained in one copy
The fourth campaign of Shamas-Vul II. of the Assyrian Canon.
was against Babylonia, which country he Vul-lush III.was as warlike as any of his
entered from the north-east. He took a predecessors, and extended the Assyrian do-
strongly-fortified position of the Babj-lonians minion in every direction. He led seven
thousand of
after a vigorous siege, eighteen expeditions across the Zagros mountains into
the garrison l)eing and three thousand
.slain, Media, two into the Van region, and three
made prisoners, while the city was plun- into Syria. He says that in one of his

Syrian expeditions he reduced Damascus, a centur\- later, she was already, as described
whose kings had defied the repeated at- by the Hebrew prophet Ezekiel, "a cedar
tacks of Shahnaneser II. He counts as of Lebanon," "height was exalted
his tributaries in this region, besides Da- above all the trees of the field; and his
mascus, the Phoenician Tyre and
cities of boughs were multiplied, and his branches
Sidon, and the countries of Khumri, or Sa- became long," and "under his shadow
maria; Palestine, or Philistia; and Hudxnn dwelt great nations."
( Edom, or Idum^a ). On the north he Vul-lush III. calls himself the "restorer
received tokens of submission from the of noble buildings which had gone to de-
Nairi, the Minni, the Mada, or Medes, cay." On the Nimrud mound, between the
and the Bartsu, or Persians. On the south north-western and south-western palaces, are
he ruled Babj'lonia like a so\^ereign, re- chambers built by him, and on the Nebbi-
ceived homage from the Chaldjeans, and Yunus mound of Nineveh are the ruins of
in the great cities of Babylon, Borsippa and a palace erecled bj- him. The walls of the
Cutha, or Tiggaba, he was permitted to sacri- Nimrud chambers were plastered, and then
fice to the gods Bel, Nebo and Nergal. In painted in fresco with patterns of winged
one place he styles himself "the king to bulls, zigzags, squares, circles, etc. The
whose son Asshur, the chief of the gods, has superstitious regard of the nati\-es for the

granted the kingdom of Babylon


from ' supposed tomb of the prophet Jonah has

which it has been inferred that he appointed thus far thwarted all efforts of Europeans to
his own son viceroy of Babylon. explore the Nebbi-Yunus palace.
Thus, by the time of \'ul-lush III., early Sir Henr\- Rawlinson disco^•ered two rude
in the eighth century before Christ, Assyria statues of thegod Nebo in a temple at Nim-
was master of Babylonia in the south, and rud dedicated to that deitj- by Vul-lush III.,
of Philistia and Edom in the west. Her do- along with four colossal statues of the same
minion thus skirted the Persian Gulf on the god, and two others resembling those now
one hand and came into conta(5l with Egj-pt in the British Museum. These statues dis-
on the other. At the same time she re- play no artistic merit, as Assyrian sculptors
ceived the submission of some of the Median were trammeled by precedent and conven-
tribes on the east; and held Southern Arme- tional rules in religious subjects, and in rep-
nia, from Lake \'an to the sources of the resentations of kings and nobles, being thus
Tigris, on the north. She was in possession limited by law or custom to certain ancient
of all Northren Sj^ria, including Comma- forms and modes of expression, which we
gene and Amanus, and had tributaries be- see repeated with uniform monotony through
yond that mountain range. She ruled su- all the periods of Assyrian historj-.

preme over the entire Syrian coast from Issus These statues are interesting as containing
to Gaza; and her sway was acknowledged inscriptions showing that they were offered
bj- all the tribes and kingdoms between the to Nebo by an officer who was governor of
Mediterranean coast and the Syrian desert, Calah, Khamida (Amadiyeh) and three other
such as the Phoenicians, the Hamathites, places for the life of III. and of his
the Patena, the Hittites, the Syrians of Da- wife, Sammuramit, "that the god might
mascus, the Israelites, or Samarians, and lengthen the monarch's life, prolong his
the Edomites, or Idumseans. In the east days, increase his years, and give j^eace to
she had .subjugated nearlj- the whole region his house and people, and victory to his
of the Zagros, and had tributaries in the armies." This Sammuramit, wife of Vul-
highlands on the east side of that range. lush III., has been identified as the legend-
On th^ south she had either absorbed Babj-- ary Semiramis, whom the Greek historians
lonia, or made her influence supreme in that represented as a woman of masculine quali-
kingdom. Although she had not attained ties, the mightiest queen that ever reigned,

the highest pinnacle of her greatness until and whose conquests rivaled or surpassed


those of Cyrus the Great or Alexander the as his expedition against Menahem is fol-
Great. This Sammuramit, or Semiramis, the lowed, at most, thirty-two years later, by
Babylonian wife of Vul-lush III., gave that an expedition by Tiglath-Pileser II. against
king his title to the Babylonian dominions, Pekah, King of Israel. Berosus represented
and reigned jointly with him both in Baby- Pul as a Chaldsean king, whom Polyhistor
lonia and Assyria. The exaggerated stories calls Pulus, and is believed to be the Porus
of this princess, as transmitted to modern mentioned in the Canon of Ptolemy.
times through the accounts of Herodotus During this interval of Assyrian darkness
and Ctesias, have been exploded in the pres- and decay, under the first three successors
ent century; the renowned German histori- of Vul-lush III., the frontier kingdoms be-
ans, Heeren and Niebuhr, first pronouncing gan to assert their power and independence.
the story of her conquering career a myth, Babylon, which had remained under Assyr-
and patient explorers in the field of Assyrian ian sway since its conquest bj- Shamas-Vul
antiquity substituting for the shadowy mar- II. , the father and immediate predecessor of
vel of Ctesias a very prosaic Assyrian queen, Vul-lush III., reestablished its independence
a very common-place Babylonian princess, under Nabonas.sar in B. C. 747, from which
who never reall}' executed great works or point— thereafter known as the Era of Na-
performed great exploits. bonassar— the Babylonians thereafter reck-
With the death of III., in B. C. oned time. Enterprising Kings of Israel,
781, ended the brilliant Calah line of Assyr- such as Jeroboam II. and Menahem, also
ian sovereigns; and for a period of almost cast off the Assyrian j'oke and extended
forty years A.ssyrian historj- is again in- their own dominions, as did the tribes of
volved in partial obscurit}'. The Ass3'rian Armenia and the Zagros region. The
Canon informs us that three monarchs reign of Asshur-dayan III. was disturbed
reigned during this interval Shalmaneser by three foniiidable rebellions in the heart
HI. from B. C. 781 to B. C. 771, Asshur- of Assyria itself —
one at the city of Libzu,
DAY.'i.N III. from B. C. 771 to B. C. 753, and another Arapkha, the chief town of
Asshur-lush from B. C. 753 to B. C. 745. Arrapachitis, and a third at Gozan, the
During this short period Assj-rian conquests chief city of Gauzanitis, or Mygdonia. The
ceased, Assyrian glory for the time had inscriptions do not inform us of the re-
pa.ssed away, and a general decline seems to .sults of these revolts, but the degenerac}- of
have set in. None of these three kings left the military spirit, and the \'oluptuous and
any important buildings, memorials or luxurious disposition of the kings, give
monumental records. The onward march ground for the belief that the attempts made
of this great empire, which remained un- to subdue the rebels were failures. Asshur-
checked for over a century, was thus brought dayan III. and Asshur-lush spent their
to a .sudden halt. reigns mostly in inaction and inglorious
At this point there is an apparent contra- ease at their rich and luxurious capitals.
didlion between the native Assyrian records At the close of this period of darkness and
and the incidental allusions to their history decline, Calah, the .second city of the king-
as found in the Second Book of Kings. The dom, revolted, and thus inaugurated the
Scriptural Pul the —King of As,syria who


' dynastic and revolution which

came up against the land of Israel and re- ushered in the brilliant period of the New or
ceived from Menahem a thousand talents of Lower Assyrian Empire, founded by the
silver, "that his hand might be with him to great Tiglath-Pileser II.

confirm the kingdom in his hand" — is not It has been supposed that it was during
mentioned in the Assyrian inscriptions, and this period of general national weakness
is not named in the A.ssyrian Canon. The and decay, when an unwarlike sovereign
Scrii)ture records would make Pul the im- was reveling in inglorious ease amid the
mediate predecessor of Tiglath-Pileser II.; luxuries and refinements of Nineveh, and

when the Ninevites had abaudoued them- threatened destrucflion, was the Jewish
selves to vicious indulgences, that they were prophet Jonah. He sat in vain outside the
suddeul}- startled bj' a strange voice in their eastern limits of the city, waiting to behold
streets uttering the solemn warning: "Yet the destrucflion which he expected that the
forty days, and Nineveh shall be over- Lord Jehovah would visit upon the "great
thrown!" A strange wild man clad in a

city, which then is said to have had six



rude gannent of skin a traveler unknown score thousand persons that could not dis-
to the inhabitants, pale, emaciated, wearj^ — cern between their right hand and their
proclaimed in every quarter of the great and left." The expedted doom was not inflidled
luxurious city: "Yet forty days, and Nin- in fort}^ days, and Nineveh was not over-
eveh shall be overthrown! " Coming as this thrown until more than a century later.
cry did, when the glory of Assyria had de- With TiGLATH-PiLESER II., wlio became
parted, and when it had to defend its own King of A.ssyria in B. C. 745, began theJVcw
existence against the foes it had subdued in or Lowe}- Assyrian Empire (B. C. 745-625)
the da>s of its former prosperity, the people — the third and last, and the most brilliant,
were seized with consternation and alann. period of Assyrian history. Tiglath-Pile.ser
This dismay invaded the royal palace, and II. was thus the restorer of Assyrian great-
his frightened servants came and told the

' ness. The circumstances of his accession

King of Nineveh," who then sat on his are iniknown to us, but he was the founder
throne in the great audience-chamber, sur- of a new dynasty, and Rawlinson thinks he
rounded b}- all the wealth, luxun,-, pomp was a usurper, and places no reliance upon
and magnificence of his court. The mon- the story- of Bion and Polyhistor that this
arch at once "arose from his throne, and monarch from the humble station of a
laid aside his robe from him, and covered vine-dresser who had been employed in keep-
himself with sackcloth and ashes." After ing in order the king's gardens. In his in-
having an edidl framed, he "caused it to scriptions Tiglath-Pileser II. is repeatedly-
be proclaimed and published through Nin- represented as speaking of "the kings his
eveh, by the decree of the king and his no- fathers," and as calling the royal palaces at
bles, Let neither man nor beast,
saying. Calah "the palaces of his fathers," but he
herd nor flock, taste anything; let them not never gives the name of his actual father in
feed, nor drink water; but let man and beast an}- record that has come to the eye of mod-
be covered with sackcloth, and cry mightily ern archaeologists and antiquarians. This
unto God; yea,them turn everj' one
let circumstance gives ground for the conclu-
from his evil way, and from the violence sion that he owed his possession of the
that is in their hands." The fast thus com- crown, not to the legitimate title of heredi-
manded by royal authority was at once pro- tary- succession, but to the fortunes of a suc-
claimed, and the Ninevites, fearing the Di- cessful re\-olution which displaced the pre-
vine wrath, clothed theni.selves in sackcloth ceding d\-nasty.

' from the greatest of them even to the least Tiglath-Pileser II. undertook to effedl the
of them." From joy and merriment, from restoration of the A.ssyrian Empire by a
revelry and feasting, the great city turned series of wars upon his different frontiers,
to lamentation and mourning. The people seeking by his iniwearied activity and tire-

abandoned their vices and humbled them- less energ>- to recover the losses occasioned
selves; they " turned from their evil way," by the imbecility of his predecessors. The
and by a sincere repentance of their past chronological order of these wars, which
sins thej- sought to avert their threatened was previously unknown, is now definitely
doom. The haggard and travel-stained determined by the A.ssyrian Canon. Among
stranger who had alarmed the inhabitants his man\- military expeditions only those
of this great capital and metropolis to re- undertaken into Babylonia and vSyria are of
pentance, by announcing to them their any con.sequence. The expeditious of Tig-
) . —


latli-PileserII. against Babylon occurred Sj'rian wars of Tiglath-Pileser II. The
and fifteenth j-ears of his reign,
in the first common danger united Pekah, King of Sa-
B. C. 745 and 731. As soon as he was maria, and Rezin, King of Damascus, in a
fimily seated upon his throne he led an close alliance; and when Ahaz, King of
army against Babylon, over which, accord- Judah, refused to unite with them they in-
ing to the Canon of Ptolemy, Nabonassar vaded his kingdom and attempted to de-
throne him and put
' '

then reigned, and against the other petty the son of Tabeal
' in '

Chaldcean princes, among whom was Mero- his place. Ahaz applied to the King of As-
dach-Baladan, who reigned in his father's syria for help, offering to be his "servant"
city of Bit-Yakin. After attacking and de- —
his vassel and tributary if he came to his

feating several of these princes, and taking relief. Tiglath-Pileser II. gladly came to
the towns of Kurri-galzu ( now Akkerkuf the rescue of Ahaz, and with a large anny
and Sippara, or Sephar\-aim, and other places he entered Syria, defeated Rezin and besieged
in Chaldaea, Tiglath-Pileser II. compelled him in Damascus for two j-ears, when he
Merodach-Baladan to acknowledge him as was taken captive and slain. The Assj'rian
suzerain and agree to pay an annual tribute, king then invaded Samaria: and the tribes
whereupon the Assyrian monarch assumed of Reuben and Gad, and the half tribe of
the title of "King of Babylon" and offered Manasseh, who occupied the provinces east
sacrifice to the Babylonian gods in all the of the Jordan, were carried captiA'e to As-
chief cities (B. C. 729). syria and colonized in Upper Mesopotamia,
The first Syrian war of Tiglath-pileser II. on the affluents of the Bilikh and the
began in the third year of his reign (B. C. Khabour, from about Harran to Nisibis.
743), and lasted five years. During its pro- Some cities on the west bank of the Jordan,
gress he conquered Damascus, which had in the territory of Issachar, but belonging

recovered its independence and was governed to Manasseh —

among which were Megiddo,
by Rezin. He also subdued Syria, where in the plain of Esdraelon, and Dur, or Dor,

Menahem, Pul's old foe, was still reigning. —

upon the coast were also seized and occu-
He likewise reduced Tyre, whose reigning pied by the conquering Assyrians; and As-
common name of Hiram.
sovereign bore the syrian governors were placed over Dur and
The Assyrian monarch also subjedled Ha- the other leading cities of Southern Syria.
math, Gebal and the Arabs bordering upon Tiglath-Pileser II. then marched south-
Egypt, who were ruled by a queen named ward and subdued the Philistines and the
Khabiba. He also defeated a large anny Arab tribes of the Sinaitic peninsula as far

under Azariah, or Uzziah, King of Judah, as the borders of Egypt. He deposed the
but failed to reduce him to submission. native queen of these Arabs, and put an
Tiglath-Pileser II. did not conquer Judaea, Assyrian governor in her place. Returning
Idumaea, Philistia, Phcenicia, or the tribes of to Damascus, he there received the submis-

the Hauran, in hisfirst war; aud in B. C. 734 sion of the neighboring states and tribes;
he renewed the struggle by an attack on and before he left Syria he received submis-
Samaria, whose kiog at that time was sion and Ahaz, King of Judah;
tribute from

Pekah, and taking " Ijon, and Abel-beth- Mit'enna, King of Tyre; Pekah, King of
maachah, and Janoali, and Kedesh, and Samaria; Khanun, King of Gaza; Mitinti,
Hazor, and Gilead, and Galilee, and all the King of Ascalon; and from the Moabites,
land of Naphtali, and carr\'ing them cap- the Ammonites, the people of Ar\-ad, or
tive to Assyria," thus "lightly afflicting the Aradus, and the Idum^ans. Thus Tiglath-
land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali," Pileser II. fully reestablished the Assyrian
or the more northern part of the Holy Land, power in Syria, and restored to his emjiire
about Lake Merom, and thence to the Sea the territorj' from the Mediterranean on
of Gennesareth. the west to the Syrian desert on the east,
Then followed the most important of the and from Mount Amanus on the north to

the Red vSea and the frontiers of I'-gypt on he had sent messengers to So, King of
the south. Egypt, and brought no present to the King
Tiglath-Pileser II. afterwards .sent an- of Assyria, as he had done year by year."
other expedition into Syria, to ([ucll the dis- The Pharaohs of Egypt had been
orders occasioned hy the revolt of Mit'cnna, friendly to Assyria, but the Ethiopian dy-
King of Tyre, and the a.s.sassination of nasty which had recently conquered Egj'pt
Pekah, King of Israel, by Hoshea. The was the natural foe of the A.ssyrians, and
Tyrian king quickly submitted, and Ho.shea gladl\- accepted the proposals of Hoshea for

agreed to govern his kingdom only as an an alliance against Shalmaneser IV. Hoshea
Assyrian province; \vhereni)on the Assyrian then revolted against the Assyrian monarch,
anny retired beyond the Ivuphrates. withheld his tribute and declared his inde-
Calah was the chosen residence of Tig- pendence. Shalmaneser at once invaded
lath-Pile.ser II. Here he repaired and Judah a second time, and seized, bound and
adorned the palace of Shalmaneser II., imprisoned Hoshea. A year or two later
whose ruins are now in the center of the Shalmaneser led a third expedition into
Nimriid mound. Here he also erecfted a Syria and "came up throughout all the
new edifice, the most splendid of his struc- land," and laid siege to Samaria, B. C. 724.
tures. The sculptures which embellished But the siege lasted two 3-ears, on account
Shalmaneser' s palace were afterwards u.sed of the heroic resistance of the iidiabitants,
by Esar-haddon to adoni his own palace. aided by the Egyptians; and the city was
The new palace which Tiglath-Pileser II. only taken after the reign of Shalmaneser
built,was afterward ruined by some invader, \\ . had been ended by a .successful revo-
and then built upon by the las