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Submitted for the continuous Assessment of B.A. TOURISM AND TRAVEL MANAGEMENT
MALARKODI.K REG NO. 09/105040
DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY, TOURISM AND TRAVEL MANAGEMENT ETHIRAJ COLLEGE FOR WOMEN (AUTONOMOUS) CHENNAI ± 600008
Department of History,Tourism and Travel Management Ethiraj College For Women Chennai - 8
CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the field trip report organised by the DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY, TOURISM AND TRAVEL MANAGEMENT forII year B.A. TOURISM AND TRAVEL MANAGEMENT students to HYDERABAD is submitted by MALARKODI.K during february 2011 as a partial fullfillment of continuous assessment for the core paper TRAVEL AGENCIES AND TOUR OPERATORS -II and that the field trip report represents the independent work on the part of the candidate . DATE : STATION: CHENNAI Subject Teacher Ms.Sarah Jacob, M.A.,M.Phil., Assistant Professor, Ethiraj College,Ch-8
Head of the Department Dr. Tmt.S.Subbalakshmi, M.A.,M.Phil.,Ph.D,PGDTM , Head of the Dept. of History, Tourism and Travel Management, Ethiraj College,Ch-8.
Class Teacher Dr.R.K. Maya, M.A.,Ph.D,PGDHRI, Assistant Professor, Ethiraj College,Ch-8.
MALARKODI.K 09/105040 II BA Tourism and Travel Management Ethiraj College for Women (Autonomous) Chennai-600008
STATEMENT BY THE CANDIDATE
I hereby state that the Field Trip report on Hyderabad for the partial fulfillment of continuous assessment for the Core Paper µTRAVEL AGENCIES AND TOUR OPERATORS ± II¶ is my original work and that it has not been copied from any book or any available source material.
PLACE: CHENNAI DATE:
MALARKODI.K Head of the Department Dr. Tmt.S.Subbalakshmi, M.A.,M.Phil.,Ph.D,PGDTM Head of the Dept. of History, Tourism and Travel Management, Ethiraj College,Chennai - 8.
This project report is the result of the project work carried out in the Department of History, Tourism and Travel Management, Ethiraj College for Women, Chennai - 600 008, for B.A. degree in 2nd TTM. I sincerely acknowledge my gratitude to the Management of Ethiraj College for Women and Dr.Tmt.THAVAMANI, M.com, M.phil, Phd., Principal, Ethiraj College for Women for having permitted me to go to field in this great institution.
I express my sincere gratitude to Dr. Tmt. S. Subbalakshmi MA, M.Phil, Phd, Reader, Head of the Department of History, Tourism and Travel Management for her encouragement and support.
I express my sincere thanks to my project supervisor, Tmr.J.Marthal Nalini(Reader),Selvi.S.Banumathi Madam(Reader), Ms.Sarah Jacob Madam (Reader), Ethiraj College for Women. My special thanks to all faculty members in the Department of History, Tourism and Travel Management for their constant encouragement.
My truthful thanks to my parents for sending me to such a wonderful field trip and giving permission to attend the field trip report .
Station: Chennai Date:
Thiru¶s Tours and Travels 1-A, Brindavan Street, West Mambalam, Chennai-600033 Ph: 24806033; Fax: 23728424. Cell: 9841289636, E-mail: email@example.com Hyderabad Tour Day01 19/11/10 DEPART CHENNAI Evening departs Chennai Central railway station to Hyderabad by Charminar Express (Train No. 2759) at 18.10hrs. All students should assemble in their respective berths by 17.00hrs. (Coach no. S10) ± Over night journey by TRAIN. HYDERABAD Morning 08.00hrs arrive Hyderabad. On arrival, check into hotel. After lunch visit Golconda Fort. - Night halt ± Hotel Pearl Regency. HYDERABAD Morning after breakfast visit to Birla Mandir, Salarjung Museum. After Lunch visit NTR Memorial, NTR Gardens and Lumbini Park. Night halt ± Hotel Pearl Regancy. HYDERABAD ± CHENNAI Morning after breakfast visit Charminar, Mecca Masjid. Lunch at place of stay. Evening transfer to railway station to board train to Chennai. Depart by Charminar Express (Train No. 2760) at 18.30hrs. (Coach No.S13). Overnight journey by TRAIN. ARRIVE CHENNAI Morning arrive Chennai Central at 08.15hrs and depart home with ³Sweet Memories of the tour´. Rs.3000/- per student. (All students and staff should bring their college ID card)
Note: Reservation in train is done by computerized method by railways. Hence the organizer is not responsible for allotment of berths in train TARIFF INCLUDES: 1) All transfers, 2) Concession train fare ticket for onward and return full fare, 3) A/C Accommodation on multiple sharing basis with, 4) All meals, 5) Transport as per itinerary, 6)Toll, permit and parking charges, 7) Escort. TARIFF EXCLUDES: 1) Photo & video graph charges, 2) Entrance fees, 3) Personal expenses like Telephone, Telegraphy, Laundry and other items of purely personal.
S. No. Chapter Page No.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Introduction Hyderabad Trip Conclusion Appendices Bibliography
9-14 15-30 31-35
INTRODUCTION Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for more than twenty-four (24) hours and not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.
Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. In 2008, there were over 922 million international tourist arrivals, with a growth of 1.9% as compared to 2007. International tourism receipts grew to US$944 billion (euro 642 billion) in 2008, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 1.8%.
Since the beginning of time humans have traveled. Food, water, safety or acquisition of resources (trade) was the early travel motivations. But the idea of travel for pleasure or exploration soon emerged. Travel has always depended upon technology to provide the means or mode of travel. The earliest travelers walked or rode domesticated animals. The invention of the wheel and the sail provided new modes of transportation. Each improvement in technology increased individuals' opportunities to travel. As roads were improved and governments stabilized, interest in travel increased for education, sightseeing, and religious purposes. One of the earliest travel guides was written by Pausanias, a Greek, which was a 10 volume guide to Greece, for Roman tourists in 170 A.D. Tourism is a collection of activities, services and industries that delivers a travel experience, including transportation, accommodations, eating and drinking establishments, retail shops, entertainment businesses, activity facilities and other hospitality services provided for individuals or groups traveling away from home. The World Tourism Organization (WTO) claims that tourism is currently the world¶s largest industry with annual revenues of over $3 trillion dollars. Tourism provides over six million jobs in the United States, making it the country's largest employer.
Definition One of the earliest definitions of tourism was provided by the Austrian economist in 1910, who defined it as, "bob total of operators, mainly of an economic nature, which directly relate to the entry, stay and movement of foreigners inside and outside a certain country, city or a region." Hunziker and Krapf, in 1941, defined tourism as "the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity." In 1976 Tourism Society of England defined it as "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes." In 1981 International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined Tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home environment The United Nations classified three forms of tourism in 1994 in its Recommendations on Tourism Statistics: Domestic tourism, which involves residents of the given country traveling only within this country; Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country; and Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another country. The UN also derived different categories of tourism by combining the 3 basic forms of tourism: Internal tourism, which comprises domestic tourism and inbound tourism; National tourism, which comprises domestic tourism and outbound tourism; and International tourism, which consists of inbound tourism and outbound tourism. Intrabound tourism is a term coined by the Korea Tourism Organization and widely accepted in Korea. Intrabound tourism differs from domestic tourism in that the former encompasses policy-making and implementation of national tourism policies. Recently, the tourism industry has shifted from the promotion of inbound tourism to the promotion of intrabound tourism because many countries are experiencing tough competition for inbound tourists. Some national policymakers have shifted
their priority to the promotion of intrabound tourism to contribute to the local economy. Examples of such campaigns include "See America" in the United States, "Get Going Canada" in Canada, and "Guseok Guseok" (corner to corner) in South Korea. Before people are able to experience tourism they usually need disposable income (i.e. money to spend on non-essentials); time off from work or other responsibilities; leisure time tourism infrastructure, such as transport and accommodation; and legal clearance to travel. Individually, sufficient health is also a condition, and of course the inclination to travel. Furthermore, in some countries there are legal restrictions on travelling, especially abroad. Certain states with strong governmental control over the lives of citizens (notably established Communist states) may restrict foreign travel only to trustworthy citizens. The United States prohibits its citizens from traveling to some countries, for example Cuba. Types of transfer and tours When purchasing a seat in a bus tour. You will join a different party for every service. One day your tour group may have fifteen persons; next day your tour group may have four persons or even just the two of you. But always with the services of a local host, you will never be on your own during the operation of a transfer or a tour. Most SIB tours in Latin America will have six to twenty five persons. Except in Rio or Buenos Aires, you will not have a 40-passenger bus like in Europe, unless you are part of a large group traveling together. The disadvantage of a SIB tour is that buses pick up from several hotels and the guides give the tour in several languages. The advantage is the price. The hotel pick-up time may take up to 90 minutes. This type of tour is not recommended for VIP or impatient travelers; they get annoyed by the time wasted stopping at several hotels and by the multi language tour guide. Fiesta Tours Int'l has created a new category of Seat-in-Bus tour, we call it Seat-in-Bus Premium (semi-private); tours are guided only in one language, vans pickup travelers from no more than three hotels and most of the times the groups are eight people or less, we use deluxe vans in Lima and in Cuzco, and best available vehicle in the rest of the country. The average extra cost per person is $20 for a half day tour, and $30 for a full day tour.
TYPES OF TOUR PACKAGE
FIT or Foreign Independent Traveler For travelers who do not want to be part of a group, but they want to travel in an organized tour. This is the most popular way to travel to Latin America. A tour for FIT's can be operated as a Seat-in-Bus tour (SIB) or as a Private Tour. Foreign Independent Traveler "does not mean" you will be on your own; you will always have a local host for every service you have arranged. Group Tour When the same group follows the same itinerary from beginning to end. Variations or modifications of the itinerary are impossible. Optional Pre and Post Tours are very popular for group tours. A group tour can be locally hosted or fully escorted.
Fully Escorted In addition to your local tour guide, a tour manager travels with you throughout the complete itinerary, and he is available 24-hours a day. The Tour Manager main responsibilities are to oversee the complete operation of the itinerary, organize dinning outing and activities during the free time in the itinerary. Sort of hold your hand during the whole trip. Fully Escorted Group Departures were very popular several years ago when Latin America was less popular than it is today. The price of a fully escorted tour is higher because all the participants must share the cost of the airline ticket, meals, hotels and remuneration of the tour manager. Airlines usually provide one free ticket for groups larger than 25 persons and hotels will grant one complimentary room for groups using 15 or more rooms.
Inclusive tours, including the GIT, generally are put together by a tour organizer who packages together travel, accommodation and other services, such as insurance, meals, and sightseeing. The cost of purchasing the package is cheaper for the tourist than the escost to purchase each component separately Adventure tourism As a kind of tourism in India, adventure tourism has recently grown in India. This involves exploration of remote areas and exotic locales and engaging in various activities. For adventure tourism in India, tourists prefer to go for trekking to places like Ladakh, Sikkim, and Himalaya. Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir are popular for the skiing facilities they offer. Whitewater rafting is also catching on in India and tourists flock to places such as Uttranchal, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh for this adrenalin-packed activity. Transport: Transport refers to means of traveling from one place to another. Air, railways, road and sea are the basic categories that transport is divided into. Road transport: Coaches and tourist cars provide scope for self employment. Drivers with good conversation skills and knowledge of different languages are ideal for this job. Tour operators: These individuals organize tours and manage travel and stay of their clients. They conduct tours to known tourist attractions and some of them help the tourists indulge in adventure sports like river rafting and rock climbing. To do this
job, you have to have a pleasant personality, detailed knowledge concerning travel and language skills suitable job.
Time share companies: These companies own/manage holiday resorts with time shares owned by different members of these companies. It leads to another set of companies which provide services relating to sale/transfer/exchange of these time shares with an international network of resorts. You have the option of working with resort owning companies or time share exchange companies like RCI India Tourism : It is a land of history, culture, festivities mediation, adventurous, wildlife, beaches and more. If you want to see places of worship, there are sacred sites such as the Jain temples, Sikh Gurudwaras, and Buddhist Stupas speckled in different parts of travel of India.
GOLKONDA FORT Golkonda, a ruined city of south-central India and capital of ancient Kingdom of Golkonda (c. 1364±1512), is situated 11 km west of Hyderabad. The most important builder of Golkonda was Ibrahim Quli Qutub Shah Wali, the fourth Qutub king. Ibrahim was following in the spirit of his ancestors, the Qutub Shahi kings, a great family of builders who had ruled the kingdom of Golkonda from 1512. Their first capital, the fortress citadel of Golkonda, was rebuilt for defense from invading Mughals from the north. They laid out Golkonda's splendid monuments, now in ruins, and designed a perfect acoustical system by which a hand clap sounded at the fort's main gates, the grand portico, was heard at the top of the citadel, situated on a 300-foot (91 m)-high granite hill. This is one of the fascinating features of the fort. They ruled over the Telangana region and some parts of present day Karnataka and Maharashtra. Construction Fort built on a granite hill that is 120 meters (400 ft) high and is surrounded by massive crenelated ramparts. The beginnings of the fort date to 1143, when the Hindu Kakatiya dynasty ruled the area. The Kakatiya dynasty were followed by the state of Warangal, which was later conquered by the Islamic Bahmani Sultanat. The fort became the capital of a major province in the Sultanate and after its collapse the capital of the Qutb Shahi kings. The fort finally fell into ruins after a siege and its fall to Mughal emperor AurangGolkonda Fort The 13th century Golconda Fort was built by the Kakatiya kings. The Kakatiya¶s ascent to power can be traced to the reign of the Western Chalukyas. Kakartya Gundyana, a subordinate of the Eastern Chalukyan monarch, Amma II (945 CE-970 CE), established the Kakatiya dynasty. The dynasty's name comes either from its association with a town known as Kakatipura (since the kings bore the title ³Kakatipuravallabha´) or from their worship of a goddess called Kakati. A temple dedicated to goddess Kakatamma exists in Warangal so Kakatipura could be another name for Warangal itself. Kakatiyas' ancestors belonged to the Durjaya family. In the 16th century, Golkonda was the capital and fortress city of the Qutb Shahi kingdom, near Hyderabad. The city was home to one of the most
powerful Muslim sultanates in the region and was the center of a flourishing diamond trade. Golkonda was located 11 km west of the city of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh state, India (location. According to a legend, the fort derives its name from Golla Konda, which is a Telugu word for Shepherd's Hill. It is believed that a shepherd boy came across an idol on the hill. This led to the construction of a mud fort by the then Kakatiya dynasty ruler of the kingdom around the site. The city and fortress arazeb. After the collapse of the Bahmani Sultanat, Golkonda rose to prominence as the seat of the Qutb Shahi dynasty around 1507. Over a period of 62 years the mud fort was expanded by the first three Qutb Shahi kings into a massive fort of granite, extending around 5 km in circumference. It remained the capital of the Qutb Shahi dynasty until 1590 when the capital was shifted to Hyderabad. The Qutb Shahis expanded the fort, whose 7 km outer wall enclosed the city. The state became a focal point for Shia Islam in India, for instance in the 17th century Bahraini clerics, Sheikh Ja`far bin Kamal al-Din and Sheikh Salih Al-Karzakani both emigrated to Golkonda. The Qutb Shahi sultanate lasted until its conquest by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in 1687. The fortress held out against Aurangzeb for nine months, falling to the Mughals through treachery. Kancharla Gopanna, popularly known as Bhaktha Ramadaasu, a devout Hindu who constructed Bhadrachalm temple without informing the sultan at that time Tana Shah, was kept in a jail located inside the fort. Golkonda was once renowned for the diamonds found on the southeast at Kollur Mine near Kollur (modern day Guntur district), Paritala (modern day Krishna district) and cut in the city during the Kakatiya reign. India Diamond#History, at that time, had the only known diamond mines in the world. The Mines of Golkonda themselves yielded diamonds of trifling quantity. Europeans knew that diamonds were found only in these fabled mines. Golkonda was, in fact, the market city of the diamond trade, and gems sold there came from a number of mines. The fortress city within the walls was famous for diamond trade.
Magnificent diamonds were taken from the mines in the region surrounding Golkonda, including Darya-e Nur, meaning sea of light, at 185 carats (37 g), the largest and finest diamond of the crown jewels of Iran.Its name has taken a generic meaning and has come to be associated with great wealth. Gemologists use this classification to denote a diamond with a complete (or almost-complete) lack of nitrogen; "Golconda" material is also referred to as "2A". Many famed diamonds are believed to have been excavated from the mines of Golkonda, such as:
y y y y y
Darya-e Nur Nur-Ul-Ain Diamond The Koh-i-noor The Hope Diamond The Regent Diamond
By the 1880s, Golkonda was being used generically by English speakers to refer to any particularly rich mine, and later to any source of great wealth. During the Renaissance and the early modern eras, the name "Golkonda" acquired a legendary aura and became synonymous for vast wealth. The mines brought riches to the ruling Qutb Shahis of Hyderabad State, who ruled Golconda up to 1687, then to ruling Asaf Jah of Hyderabad State, who ruled after the independence from the Mughals in 1724, until 1948,, when Hyderabad was annexed, to become an Indian state Golkonda consists of four distinct forts with a 10 km long outer wall with 87 semicircular bastions (some still mounted with cannons), eight gateways, and four drawbridges, with a number of royal apartments & halls, temples, mosques, magazines, stables, etc. inside. The lowest of these is the outermost enclosure into which we enter by the "Fateh Darwaza" (Victory gate, so called after Aurangzeb¶s triumphant army marched in through this gate) studded with giant iron spikes (to prevent elephants from battering them down) near the southeastern corner. At Fateh Darwaza can be experienced a fantastic acoustic effect, characteristic of the engineering marvels at Golkonda. A hand clap at a certain point below the dome at the entrance reverberates and can be heard clearly at the
'Bala Hisar' pavilion, the highest point almost a kilometre away. This worked as a warning note to the royals in case of an attack. The whole of the Golconda Fort complex and its surrounding spreads across 11 km of total area, and discovering its every nook is an arduous task. A visit to the fort reveals the architectural beauty in many of the pavilions, gates, entrances and domes. Divided into four district forts, the architectural valour still gleams in each of the apartments, halls, temples, mosques, and even stables. The graceful gardens of the fort may have lost their fragrance, for which they were known 400 years ago, yet a walk in these former gardens should be in your schedule when exploring the past glories of Golconda Fort. Bala Hissar Gate is the main entrance to the fort located on the eastern side. It has a pointed arch bordered by rows of scroll work. The spandrels have yalis and decorated roundels. The area above the door has peacocks with ornate tails flanking an ornamental arched niche. The granite block lintel below has sculpted yalis flanking a disc. The design of peacocks and lions is a blend of Hindu - Muslim architecture. Toli Masjid, situated at Karwan, about 2 km from the Golkonda fort, was built in 1671 by Mir Musa Khan Mahaldar, royal architect of Abdullah Qutb Shah. The facade consists of five arches, each with lotus medallions in the spandrels. The central arch is slightly wider and more ornate. The mosque inside is divided into two halls, a transverse outer hall and an inner hall entered through triple arches. Much thought went in to building this gate. A few feet in front of the gate is a large wall. This prevented elephants and soldiers (during enemy attacks) from having a proper ramp to run and break the gate. The fort of Golconda is known for its magical acoustic system. The highest point of the fort is the "Bala Hissar", which is located a kilometer away. The palaces, factories, water supply system and the famous "Rahban" cannon, within the fort are some of the major attractions. It is believed that there is a secret underground tunnel that leads from the "Durbar Hall" and ends in one of the palaces at the foot of the hill. The fort also contains the tombs of the Qutub Shahi kings. These tombs have Islamic architecture and are located about 1 km north of the outer wall of Golconda. They are encircled by beautiful gardens and numerous exquisitely carved stones. It is also believed that there was a secret tunnel to Charminar.
The two individual pavilions on the outer side of Golconda are also major attractions of the fort. It is built on a point which is quite rocky. The "Kala Mandir" is also located in the fort. It can be seen from the king's durbar (king's court) which was on top of the Golconda Fort. The wonderful acoustic system of Golconda fort speaks volumes about the architecture of the fort. This majestic structure has beautiful palaces and an ingenious water supply system. Sadly, the unique architecture of the fort is now losing its char. The ventilation of the fort is absolutely fabulous having exotic designs. They were so intricately designed that cool breeze could reach the interiors of the fort, providing a respite from the heat of summer. The Huge gates of the fort are decorated with large pointed iron spikes. These spikes prevented Elephants from damaging the fort. The fort of Golconda is encircled by a 11-km-long outer wall. This was built in order to fortify the fort.
Qutub shahi tombs The tombs of the Qutb Shahi sultans lie about one kilometer north of Golkonda's outer wall. These structures are made of beautifully carved stonework, and surrounded by landscaped gardens. They are open to public and receive many visitors. Trivia The place is also known as Mankal (The Mahakali temple located inside the fort, and the festival of Bonalu of twin cities begin here). René Magritte's painting Golconda was named after the city. y y In the roleplaying game Vampire: the Masquerade, "Golconda" is "a mystical state of enlightenment where... the Beast and human aspects of a vampire are in balance" y In the classical ballet La Bayadere, the Raja character is said to be the Raja of Golkonda.
SALAR JUNG MUSEUM
The Salar Jung Museum is an art museum located at Dar-Ul-Shifa, on the southern bank of the Musi river in the city of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. It has a collection of sculptures, paintings, carvings, textiles, manuscripts, ceramics, metallic artefacts, carpets, clocks, and furniture from Japan, China, Burma, Nepal, India, Persia, Egypt, Europe, and North America. The museum's collection was sourced from the the property of the Salar Jung family.
History The Salarjung Museum is the third largest museum in India housing the biggest one-man collections of antiques in the world. It is well known throughout India for its prized collections belonging to different civilizations dating back to the 1st century. Nawab Mir Yousuf Ali Khan Salar Jung III (18891949), former Prime Minister of the seventh Nizam of Hyderabad, spent a substantial amount of his income over thirty five years to make this priceless collection, his life's passion. The collections left behind in his ancestral palace, 'Diwan Deodi' were formerly exhibited there as a private museum which was inaugurated by Jawaharlal Nehru in 1951. Old timers believe that the present collection constitutes only half of the original art wealth collected by Salar Jung III. His employees siphoned off part of it, since Salar Jung was a bachelor and depended upon his staff to keep a vigil. Some more art pieces were lost or stolen during the shifting of the museum from Dewan Devdi to the present site.  Later in 1968, the museum shifted to its present location at Afzalgunj and is administered by a Board of Trustees with the Governor of Andhra Pradesh as ex-officio chairperson under the Salar Jung Museum Act of 1961. Collections Nawab Mir Yousuf Ali Khan Salar Jung III The Salarjung Museum is a royal treat to the connoisseurs with a collection of over 43000 art objects and 50000 books and manuscripts. The collections include Indian Art, Middle Eastern Art, Far Eastern Art, European Art, Children Art along with a Founders gallery and
a rare manuscript section. Indian Art includes stone sculptures, bronze images, jade carvings, painted textiles, wood carvings, miniature paintings, modern art, ivory carvings, textiles, metal-ware, manuscript, arms & armour etc. Middle Eastern Art contains the collection of carpets, paper (manuscripts), glass, metal-ware, furniture, lacquer etc. from Persia, Arabia, Syria, and Egypt. Collection of Far Eastern Art exhibit porcelain, bronze, enamel, lacquerware, embroidery, painting, wood & inlay work from China, Japan, Tibet, Nepal and Thailand etc. Oil and watercolor paintings form an important part of the European Collection.It is also a designated 'Manuscript Conservation Centre' (MCC) under the National Mission for Manuscripts established in 2003. Gallerie The museum building in a semicircular shape with 38 galleries, spread on two floors, displays only a part of the original collections. The ground floor has 20 galleries and the first floor has 18 galleries. The exhibits on different subjects are displayed in separate galleries. Each gallery is huge and has many artefacts on display including ones dated back to the 17th century. Apart from the galleries, there is a reference Library, reading room, publication and education section, chemical conservation lab, sales counter, cafeteria etc. Guides are available at fixed timings free of charge. Important Exhibits There are Aurangzeb's sword, daggers belonging to empress Noor Jehan, emperors Jehangir and Shah Jehan, the turbans and chair of Tippu Sultan, furniture from Egypt, paintings on display. Among the sculptures stands out the world famous statue of Veiled Rebecca by G.B. Benzoni, an Italian sculptor, in 1876. Her beautiful face hazily is visible through a marble but gossamer veil. Equally captivating is a double-figure wood sculpture. It stands before a mirror and shows the facade of a nonchalant Mephistopheles and the image of a demure Margaretta in the mirror. The eastern section is of equal importance with its wide variety of silk weaving and different art forms, including layer wood cutting paintings, porcelain works and many more, dating back to almost 2nd century. 
The Clock A bewildering variety and array of clocks greets the visitor in the clock room. There are ancient Sandiaers in the form of obelisks to huge and modern clocks of the twentieth century. Others in the range vary from miniature clocks which need a magnifying glass to imbibe their beauty and complexity to stately grandfather clocks from as far away as France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland and Britain. A visual delight is the musical clock Salar Jung bought from Cook and Kelvy of England. Every hour, a timekeeper emerges from the upper deck of the clock to strike a gong as many times as it is the hour of the day. The Indian Parliament has declared the museum an Institution of National Importance.The museum is open from 10:00 to 17:00 (except on Fridays).
BIRLA MANDHIR TEMPLE History The temple is built on a 280 feet (85 m) high hillock called the Naubath Pahad on a 13 acres (53,000 m2) plot. The construction took 10 years and was consecrated in 1976 by Swami Ranganathananda of Ramakrishna Mission. The temple does not have traditional bells, as Swamiji wished that the temple atmosphere should be conducive for meditation. The Temple Though the chief deity is Lord Venkateshwara, the temple has panHindu character with deities of Shiva, Shakti, Ganesh, Hanuman, Brahma, Saraswati, Lakshmi and Saibaba. The selected teachings of holy men and Gurbani are engraved on temple walls. Birla temples are open to all, as identified by Mahatma Gandhi and other Hindu leaders as one of the major social evil that was to be reformed in modern India as part of Freedom struggle. The temple complex overlooking the southern side of Hussain Sagar offers a magnificent panoramic view of the twin cities of Hyderabad and
Secunderabad. It presents a colorful and spectacular sight when illuminated at night.Other nearby structures are Andhra Pradesh Secretariat, Assembly and Birla Planetarium
NTR GARDEN Early beginnings In 1999, a land of 5 acres (20,000 m2) from a 55-acre (220,000 m2) plot was utilized for erecting a memorial for N. T. Rama Rao, the former Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. It was planned to further expand this area, which has since been referred to as NTR Gardens, by constructing a museum about N. T. Rama Rao. This memorial was a part of the Buddha Purnima Project that was being handled by Hyderabad Urban Development Authority (HUDA) for the beautification and development of the Hussain Sagar lake and its surroundings as a major tourist attraction. In 2000, the Government of Andhra Pradesh expressed its plans to develop this area with several projects such the NTR Gardens itself, a rock garden and an IMAX theatre. Few days later, a government official firstly said that the rock garden will be taken up by Dubai-based NRIs at a cost of Rs. 27 crores. Secondly the IMAX theatre project, which was said to cost Rs. 52 crore was allotted to a private firm. Both these projects were to be executed in the same 55acre (220,000 m2) plot which housed the memorial. Controversy Upon the beginning of work at these gardens in January 2000, a petition by two non-profit organizations sought an immediate stoppage of construction activity at the gardens. They contended that regulations showed the area around the lake as a recreation zone which must be kept away from all constructions for commercial or residential purposes. Since they claimed that these proposed projects violated all these, they sought a public hearing and an environment impact assessment before allowing these projects to continue. Accordingly the local apex court instructed the authorities to stop the construction until further orders.
A media report suggested that according to the 1980 HUDA Master Plan, the area where the NTR Gardens are located originally was a water body, but a gazetted notification in 1994 could allow such construction activities. Present In 2001, the extensive work at 34 acres (140,000 m2) of gardens was completed at a cost of Rs. 40 crores. Besides a variety of plants, the gardens also house a souvenir complex, a visitors train, restaurants and a waterfall. LUMBINI PARK History In 1994, Lumbini Park was constructed at a cost of INR 2.35 crores on 5 acres (0.020 km2; 0.0078 sq mi) of land adjacent to Hussain Sagar. In 2000, the Buddha Purnima Project Authority (BPPA) was established to maintain specially designated development areas in Hyderabad. Among tourist attractions such as Necklace Road and NTR Gardens, Lumbini Park is being maintained by BPPA. To enhance the inflow of visitors, it constructed additional facilities for laser auditorium, boating facilities among other visually appealing features such as gardens and musical fountains. In 2006, the park was named as T. Anjaiah Lumbini Park in honour of the late Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. Features The Lumbini park is surrounded by the state Secretariat, the tranquility of the Hussain Sagar lake and the exotic Birla Mandir standing majestically atop a hillock. At the main entrance of the park, a large floral clock allures the visitors. The clock is rich with brightly colored flowers of different shades. The park offers a lot of entertainment for children. Scores of little kids can be seen around the swings and slides. The park is also provided with a foyer for waiting passengers who wish to enjoy a boat ride in the Hussain Sagar. Boat riders can have a wonderful view of the giant, monolithic Buddha in granite and also the sculptured life story of the "Prince of Peace".
The highlight of the Lumbini park is the spectacular Musical dancing fountain and water cascading provided with colorful lights. The fountains dance to the tunes of popular numbers from Hindi and Telugu fim songs. The Lumbini park comes alive in all its splendor at night with glowing sodium vapor lamps and the kiss of the cool breeze
Lumbini park is a small public, urban park of 7.5 acres (0.030 km2; 0.0117 sq mi) adjacent to Hussain Sagar in Hyderabad, India. Since it is geographically located in the center of the city and is in close proximity to other tourist attractions, such as Birla Mandirand Necklace Road, it attracts many visitors throughout the year. Constructed in 1994, the park is presently being maintained by the Buddha Purnima Project Authority that functions under the directives of the Government of Andhra Pradesh. In 2007, it was one of the targets of the 25 August 2007 Hyderabad bombings that killed 44 people.
This park is situated on the The park is named after the birth place of Lord Buddha. At the entrance, you have a big clock made to appear beautiful surrounding it by flowers.
There is a play area towards you left and a small pool with a backdrop of a small man-made waterfall. There is a small car track for kids below five years. There is also boating facility available with motor boats, speed boats and two small ferries called as Bhagamati and Bhagirathi. These two ferries have some local dance troops who entertain you through you journey to the Buddha Statue that stands in the middle of the Hussain Sagar Lake.
A view of the surrounding areas of the lake and the statue in the centre of it, especially during night times is real enchanting. The cool breeze in the evening with illuminations all around the banks of the lake adds to the spectacle of the park.
History Sultan Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, the 5th ruler of the Qutb Shahi dynasty built Charminar in 1591 shortly after he had shifted his capital from Golkonda to what is now known as Hyderabad. He built this famous structure to commemorate the elimination of a plague epidemic from this city. He is said to have prayed for the end of a plague that was ravaging his city and vowed to build a masjid (Islamic mosque) at the very place where he was praying. In 1591 while laying the foundation of Charminar, Quli Qutb shah prayed: "Oh Allah, bestow unto this city peace and prosperity. Let millions of men of all castes, creeds and religions make it their abode, like fish in the water." Charminar was given to a contractor by the name of Sanamvenkata Balaya to construct it and today one can see the city as evidence of the prayer being answered. The Mosque became popularly known as Charminar because of its four (Persian/Hindi char = four) minarets (Minar (Arabic manara) = spire/tower). The structure is made of granite, lime, mortar and, some say, pulverised marble, was at one time the heart of the city. Initially the monument with its four arches was so proportionately planned that when the fort was opened one could catch a glimpse of the bustling Hyderabad city as these Charminar arches were facing the most active royal ancestral streets. There is also a legend of an underground tunnel connecting the palace at Golkonda to Charminar, possibly intended as an escape route for the Qutub Shahi rulers in case of a siege, though the exact location of the tunnel is unknown. Construction Charminar has the signature style of Islamic architecture. This great tribute to aesthetics looks sturdy and solid from a distance but as one moves closer, it emerges as an elegant and romantic edifice proclaiming its architectural eminence in all its detail and dignity. Charminar looks equally spectacular at night when it is illuminated. Apart from being the core of the city¶s cultural milieu, it has become a brand name.
Charminar is a beautiful and impressive square monument. Each side measures 20 m, and each of the corners has a tall, pointed minaret. These four gracefully carved minarets soar to a height of 48.7 m above the ground, commanding the landscape for miles around. Each minaret has four stories, marked by a delicately carved ring around the minaret. Unlike the Taj Mahal, Charminar's four fluted minarets of Charminar are built into the main structure. Inside the minarets 149 winding steps guide the visitor to the top floor, the highest point one can reach, which provides a panoramic view of the city. The actual mosque occupies the top floor of the four-storey structure. Madame Blavatsky reports that each of the floors was meant for a separate branch of learning - before the structure was transformed by the Imperial British administration into a warehouse for opium and liqueurs. A replica of the Charminar built in the Bahadurabad locality of Karachi, Pakistan in 2007 A vault that appears from inside like a dome, supports two galleries within the Charminar, one over another, and above those a terrace that serves as a roof, bordered with a stone balcony. The main gallery has 45 covered prayer spaces with a large open space in front to accommodate more people for Friday prayers. It is said that, during the Mughal Governorship between Qutb Shahi and Asaf Jahi rule, the south western minaret "fell to pieces" after being struck by lightning, but "was forthwith repaired" at a cost of Rs 60,000. In 1824, the monument was replastered at a cost of Rs 100,000. The monument overlooks another beautiful and grand mosque called Mecca Masjid. The area surrounding Charminar is also known by same name. A thriving market still lies around the Charminar, attracting people and merchandise of every description. In its heyday, the Charminar market had some 14,000 shops; today the famous markets known as Laad Baazar and Pather Gatti, near the Charminar, are a favourite of both tourists and locals alike for jewellery, especially known for exquisite bangles and pearls respectively. In 2007, Hyderabadi Muslims living in Pakistan constructed a smallscaled quasi replica of the Charminar at the main crossing of the Bahadurabad neighborhood in Karachi. The "replica"'s poor quality of construction, decoration, lack of proportions, however, are all at a stark contrast to the grandeur, beauty and proportionality of the ancient original in Hyderabad. It stands as a telltale of the
general decline in Islamic art, architecture and fortunes in the past few centuries. An artistic monument of Charminar made of 50 Kilograms of Chocolate and 3 days of labor, was on display at The Westin, Hyderabad, India. Lindt chocolatier Adelbert Boucher created the scaled model of Charminar which was on display on September 25 and 26, 2010. MECCA MASJID History and Construction Mecca Masjid was built during the reign of Sultan Muhammad Qutub Shah, the 6th Qutub Shahi Sultan of Hyderabad. The three arched facades have been carved from a single piece of granite, which took five years to quarry. More than 8,000 workers were employed to build the mosque. Muhammed Qutub Shah personally laid the foundation stone of the 'mosque'. Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, the French explorer, in his travelogue observed, ³It is about 50 years since they began to build a splendid pagoda in the town which will be the grandest in all India when it is completed. The size of the stone is the subject of special accomplishment, and that of a niche, which is its place for prayer, is an entire rock of such enormous size that they spent five years in quarrying it, and 500 to 600 men were employed continually on its work. It required still more time to roll it up on to conveyance by which they brought it to the pagoda; and they took 1400 oxen to draw it´ Architecture and Design The main hall of the mosque is 75 feet high, 220 feet wide and 180 feet long, enough to accommodate ten thousand worshippers at a time. Fifteen arches support the roof of the main hall, five on each of the three sides. A wall rises on the fourth side to provide Mihrab.At the peak of the minarets flanking the mosque is an arched gallery and above that a smallish dome and a spire. Inscriptions from the Qur'an adorn many of the arches and doors.The main structure of the mosque is sandwiched between two massive octagonal columns made out of a single piece of granite
The cornices running around the entire mosque structure and the floral motifs and friezes over the arches remind the tourist of the great attention paid to detail in Qutub Shahi architecture. On the four sides of the roof of the main mosque are ramparts made up of granite planks in the shape of inverted conches perched on pedestals. From the cornice of the mosque, its minarets are not as high as the minarets on the mazaar (Nizams tombs) haven from their cornice. The octagonal columns have arched balconies on level with the roof of the mosque with an awning for a canopy above which the column continues upwards till it is crowned by a dome and spire. Tombs The entrance courtyard of the mosque, a rectangular, arched and canopied building housing the marble graves of Asaf Jahi rulers. This structure came up during the rule of the Asaf Jah rulers. It contains the tombs of the Nizams and their family. At both ends of this resting place for the Asaf Jahs and very much a part of it, are two rectangular blocks with four minarets each. These minarets have elegant and circular balconies with low ornamental walls and arches. Above them is an octagonal inverted platter from which the rest of the minaret soars till it is arrested by a dome and a spire. Maintenance Issue The Mecca Masjid is a listed heritage building, however lack of maintenance and growing pollution in the location has withered and cracked the structure. It received a chemical wash in 1995. To prevent further damage, the Andhra Pradesh government made Charminar a Traffic Free Zone in August, 2001. Chandrababu Naidu was the then Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. Legends On the edge of the pond are two stone and slab benches and whoever sits on them, according to legend, returns to sit on them again.A room in the courtyard is believed to house the hair of the Islamic prophet Muhammed.
³The longest journey starts With just one step´ -Jao Je Chang ³Travelling is a Pleasure King.´ Every travel ends with a enormous pleasure and most memorable incidents. We enjoyed from the beginning till the last day of the trip equally. It was an awesome feeling altogether. We also learned how travelling is important in everyone¶s life and we gained more information and enjoyed each and every single moment spent. Especially we enjoyed the nature which is a gift of god. I¶m glad to say my teachers gave a lot of freedom to enjoy and they have been with us having fun. We even forgot that we were missing our family. Three teachers accompanied us. Each one of them was very jovial. It was the first time that we stayed with our friends for a long time and we played like children. It was the best time which I will remember even after my studies. I gained many experience, some of them are as follows: Travel: Normally I enjoy Travel in my life. But it has been quite different. Because it was with friends. We started at 6.30 pm by Charminar Express. It has been fantastic spending our leisure time with friends. Food: Every place is known for a special dish, similarly Hyderabad is famous for Dum Biriyani and Pulav Retty sweets. I can¶t forget the food which was provided by Pearl Regency Hotel. The food was very spicy and delicious and one thing I noted that they used coriander powderto the food. It gives a new taste than our usual food. Finally they gave icecream after food. Each food is something different when compare to Chennai food. I enjoyed and ate nicely.
Culture: Culture is an important aspect in our country. In Hyderabad each and every people were so cultured and they are more friendly and happily welcomed the outsiders to show their place. I liked their culture. Religion: Religion is the core of India. In Hyderabad most of them are Hindus and Muslims. The Hindus called ³Teluganas´ they were Naidu¶s and Reddy¶s. But places like Charminar, Mecca Masjid, Muslim occupied. Language: I learned how language is very important when we go to other places. In Hyderabad many people Telugu and some pople speak Hindi. Since we were new to that place. We learned the basic language from them i.e Telugu and hindi. The interesting fact is that my friends also speak Telugu and Hindi. Costumes : The costumes of the people are not different. It¶s very similar to Tamil nadu like Saree, Pant, Shirt and many people were neaty dressed. In Charminar we saw many Muslims, using over coats for their pyjamas. Best time to visit: Hyderabad is a city that has a moderate climate throughout the year. The best time to visit the pearl city is after the Monsoons, that is between October & November. We enjoyed that moderate climatic condition. Enormous History in one single city: There are many places in Hyderabad having interesting History behind it. The citadel of the Qutub-Shahi dynasty which ruled the Hyderabad Region from 16th century. We came to know who were the kings ruling, and enemies who came to attack them. One of the most remarkable feature of the fort is its acoustics, where the of clapping hands in the grand portico can be heard in the Durbar Hall, located
top the hill. In addition to its massive defences, there are also the palaces and mosques of its kings and nobles and the lovely pavilions, garden and Turkish baths of their queens, princess and favourites. And also we came to know other buildings inside the fort consists of the Habshi Kamans, Ashlah Khana, Ramasasa¶s Kotha, Taramati Mosque, a camel stable, private chambers, Nagina Bagh, Ambar Khana etc. We came to know about their way of living their civilisation. There are many gardens, lakes, etc. Especially Golconda fort was a massive structure and the entire was built in rocks. Everyone who visit Hyderabad should definitely see the fort.
The guide name Baba was explaining about the Golconda fort, he told us entire constucion about the fort. It was interesting and at the same time it was also very useful to us. Spiritual monument: Brila Mandir is fully constructed with White Marbel, the Temple is the combination of the Traditional Northern & Southern styles of Architecture. White Marbel increases the glory to the Temple. It is dedicated to Lord Venkateswara, the presiding deity of the Temple at Thirumala- Thirupathy. While entering the Temple we cleaned our foot before itself. There was a huge queue to Garba griha. We enchanted the slogan of ³Govindha Govindha´. After we enter the Garba griha. There was a huge idol lord Vishnu. We worshiped Lord Vishnu. One man collection: salar jung museum is one of the important place. Which helps us provide knowledge. This is also called ³one man collection´. Because from the name we get to know, it is collection of One man named ³ Mir Yusuf Ali Khan Salar Jung III ´. Its a huge structure containing many Monuments, weapons, paintings, furniture, vessels, etc. One of the interesting thing in Salarjung Musem is
³Musical Clock´ . The clock rings every 1 hour. We gained more information about the past.
Funny moments: My funny moments were while travelling in bus & train. When the bus came to the spot, we would rush to get a seats. It was so funny & crazy. In train, we travelled and singing & dancing together. We took funny photographs in train and other places. Shopping: All these was quite memorable. Everybody likes shoppings, even i like it. Near the charminar, there was a lad bazaar. The market is truly a shoppers paradise-one can buy traditional Hyderabadi glass & stone- studded Bangles, Skirts, Bags, Belt set with sparkling Mirrors and Beds. Pearls is the one of the most purchasing product in the city. No one can go without purchasing it. Each and every pearl is admirable and pretty. We purchased lot of bangles and pearl set with my Teacher and i bought many things for my mom and relatives.
We learned many things which are uncountable and cant be express in words. Starting from the departure till the arrival was so marvellous.
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http://www.wikipedia.com http://www.answer.com http://www.indianmonuments.com Travel Development by A K Bhatia
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