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HVDC LIGHT: NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR BETTER ENVIRONMENT

www.final-yearprojects.co.cc | www.troubleshoot4free.com/fyp/
Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects, Presentation, seminar, summer training report and lot more. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. This is only for Educational Purpose.

LIST OF CONTENTS
Chapter Page No.

Abstract………………………………………………………………………2
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Introduction………………………………………………………………….3 HVDC Light…………………………………………………………………4 HVDC Light Technology………………………………………………….5 Historical Background & technological Overview……………………..6 HVDC Light Basic Principle………………………………………………7 Power system Basic Benefits……………………………………………...9 HVDC Light Characteristics………………………………………………10 Technical Features………………………………………………………….12 HVDC Light Cable………………………………………………………….15

10. Reason Behind choice of HVDC…………………………………………..16 11. Difference between HVDC & Classical Light……………………………18 12. HVDC Light Advantages……………………………………………………20 13. HVDC Light Fault Performance……………………………………………21 14. HVDC Light Applications…………………………………………………..22 15. Conclusion……………………………………………………………………23 16. Bibliography………………………………………………………………….24

ABSTRACT
DR. AIT- ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING www.final-yearprojects.co.cc | www.troubleshoot4free.com/fyp/

Page 23

HVDC LIGHT: NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR BETTER ENVIRONMENT

www.final-yearprojects.co.cc | www.troubleshoot4free.com/fyp/
Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects, Presentation, seminar, summer training report and lot more. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. This is only for Educational Purpose.

Transmitting power at high voltage and in DC form instead of AC is a new technology proven to be economic and simple in operation which is HVDC transmission. The HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) technology is used to transmit electricity over long distances by overhead transmission lines or submarine cables. It is also used to interconnect separate power systems. A further development in this technology is HVDC light where HVDC light converters are used for faster and efficient conversion of power.

HVDC Light is a fundamentally new power transmission technology developed recently. It is particularly suitable for medium to small-scale power transmission applications. This new transmission and distribution technology, HVDC Light provides an important role to today’s requirements on our network systems and opens up new opportunities for both investors and environmentalist alike.

HVDC light technology for transmission of electric power is introduced in this paper. Its features, advantages and applications are pointed out. HVDC cables, their design, underground laying, their advantages and applications are also added. The paper also gives a note on the advantages of HDVC light cables over AC underground cables.

1.

INTRODUCTION

DR. AIT- ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING www.final-yearprojects.co.cc | www.troubleshoot4free.com/fyp/

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ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING www.cc | www. It provides improved power quality and power flow control as well as Introducing extruded DC-cables which have no technical limit to distance which can be installed. Competition in the electricity power industry. So what is the solution? HVDC Light technology has the potential to play an important role in achieving this solution. HVDC Light DR.troubleshoot4free. causes public resentment and are often met by political resistance. which limit the distance of traditional AC underground cables to around 80km. marketoriented network service. coupled with continued load growth requires that the existing transmission system assets are utilized more effectively and sometimes closer to their technical limits. summer training report and lot more.HVDC LIGHT: NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR BETTER ENVIRONMENT www.cc | www.co. An overhead line change the landscape. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. Cables rarely meet with public opposition. it is getting increasingly difficult to obtain permits to build new high voltage Overhead transmission lines. A cable doesn't change the landscape and it doesn't need a wide right-of-way. 2. Presentation. But. even though the cost of laying AC cables is rapidly reducing it still costs more than equivalent over head lines.com/fyp/ Page 23 . People are increasingly concerned about the possible health hazards of living close to overhead lines. seminar.co. This is only for Educational Purpose. the right-of-way occupies valuable land. And.final-yearprojects. In Australia. There are many examples today of public agitation against overhead power lines and the call for them to be buried. and can provide an alternative to overhead lines particularly when the total capital and environmental costs are considered. more powerful AC lines. On the other hand laying an underground cable is an easier process than building an overhead line. Currently there is little incentive for putting high voltage lines underground particularly when the Network Service provider is predominantly driven by cost to provide performancebased transmission services at a competitive price. One solution would be to simply build new.com/fyp/ Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects. we have two such examples where HVDC Light technology with underground DC-cables has been implemented in a competitive. There are technical constraints. Media reports which link living close to power lines with higher cancer risks and leukemia in children don’t help the situation. As the existing AC lines become loaded closer to their thermal capacity with increasing losses and reduced power quality we face the risk of declining network stability. at Direct Link and Murray link. AIT.troubleshoot4free.final-yearprojects.

to keep the voltage and frequency stable. the technology now reaches 1. It offers numerous environmental benefits. summer training report and lot more. AIT. "HVDC Light is the most interesting power transmission system developed for several decades. A number of underground transmissions up to 350 MW are in commercial operation and more are being built.co. HVDC Light® was introduced in 1997.turned 10 years in November 2009. HVDC Light® has the capability to rapidly control both active and reactive power independently of each other.ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING www.HVDC LIGHT: NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR BETTER ENVIRONMENT www. including “invisible” power lines." HVDC Light® is a state-of-the-art power system designed to transmit power underground and under water. In the upper range.final-yearprojects. HVDC Light® is the successful and environmentally-friendly way to design a power transmission system for a submarine cable. It has the potential of changing the way transmissions are built in the future. HVDC Light® increases the reliability of power grids.Gotland HVDC Light . HVDC LIGHT TECHNOLOGY DR. oil-free cables and compact converter stations. also over long distances. 3. This is only for Educational Purpose. This gives total flexibility regarding the location of the converters in the AC system since the requirements of short-circuit capacity of connected AC network is low (SCR down to zero).final-yearprojects. seminar. and the technology extends the economical power range of HVDC transmission down to just a few tens of Megawatts (MW).troubleshoot4free.troubleshoot4free.com/fyp/ Page 23 .200 MW and ±320 kV. an underground cable or network interconnection. neutral electromagnetic fields.cc | www. The first commercial project delivery . Presentation. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors.cc | www.com/fyp/ Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects.co.

HDVC light is a transmission system including cables. seminar. While the transmitted active power is kept constant the HVDC Light converter can automatically control the voltage of the connected AC network by compensating the generation and consumption of reactive power within the capacity of its rating. The AC to DC converters employs the latest in power semiconductor technology. Traditional HVDC. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. This is only for Educational Purpose. Fig: Layout of a 330MW HVDC Light converter Station The converter stations are designed to be unmanned and virtually maintenance free. The response time for a change in voltage can be as quick as 50ms.cc | www. direct current transmission technology and is well suited to meet the demands of competitive power market for transmission up to 330MW and for DC voltage in the ± 150kV range.com/fyp/ Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects. It consists of two AC to DC converter stations and a pair of underground cables interconnecting each converter station. Presentation. HVDC Light is a high voltage. This fast control makes it possible to create any phase angle or amplitude which can be done almost instantaneously providing independent control of both active and reactive power. is designed for high voltage.cc | www. AIT. thyristor controlled converter. In the presence of a fault on the existing AC system the HVDC Light converter can rapidly assist with voltage support to avoid severe disturbances in the local grid. or if you like HVDC Heavy.ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING www. As its name implies.troubleshoot4free. Operation can be carried out remotely or automatically based on the requirements of the Network Service contract.final-yearprojects. direct current transmission above 300MW and for DC voltage up to ± 600kV.final-yearprojects. Historical Background and Technological overview DR.HVDC LIGHT: NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR BETTER ENVIRONMENT www.co. From a system point of view it acts as a motor or a generator without mass.troubleshoot4free. which are factory assembled and pre-tested to provide short delivery and a fast response to the competitive market demands. These standardized modular designs allow for delivery times as short as 12 months. HVDC Light design is based on modular concept build up from standardized designs with compact transportable modules. This technology provides the HVDC Light converter with a switching speed 27 times faster than a traditional HVDC. converters.co. etc. summer training report and lot more. the IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor). With this speed of response HVDC Light will be able to control transients up to around 3Hz. transformers. thereby helping to keep the AC bus voltage constant. 4.com/fyp/ Page 23 .

HVDC Light® has the capability to keep the voltage and frequency stable. seminar. In 1954.com/fyp/ Page 23 .final-yearprojects. introduced to HVDC applications by ABB in the 1990s. or converts an AC signal to DC. which allows better stability for the overall grid. HVDC Light® cables are insulated by extruded polymer. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors.HVDC LIGHT: NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR BETTER ENVIRONMENT www. summer training report and lot more. both small and large.troubleshoot4free. called Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) lie at the heart of modern HVDC Light® converters. HVDC Light Basic Principle The key part of the HVDC Light converter consists of an IGBT valve bridge. Their strength and flexibility make the HVDC Light® cables well suited for difficult installation conditions both underground as a land cable and as a submarine cable. DR.com/fyp/ Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects. This was followed by many mercury arc installations. DC continues to play a major role in power transmission: HVDC (high voltage direct current) is the preferred option for long distance bulk power transfer.co. around the world. No special converter transformers are necessary between the valve bridge and the AC-grid. and for applications such as off-shore and windmill installations. and HVDC Light® (explained below) is the best alternative when bulk transfer and support of the AC System is desirable. If the desired DC voltage does not match the AC system voltage. a normal AC transformer may be used in addition to the reactor. first developed in the early 1900’s. HVDC Light® is HVDC technology based on another significant technological advance. This is only for Educational Purpose. AIT. Presentation. The latest technology. more reliable and more efficient than the older mercury arc technology. Direct current (DC) was the first type of transmission system used in the very early days of electrical engineering. when semiconductor devices made from silicon.troubleshoot4free. Alternating current is converted into direct current using “rectifiers. cheaper. uses semiconductor chips that can both rectify and control power more precisely.final-yearprojects. These chips.cc | www. Although the alternating current (AC) transmission system was developed later.co. A converter reactor can separate the fundamental frequency from the raw PWM waveform. known as thyristors. Beginning in the 1960’s. A voltage source converter transforms DC voltage into AC. referred to as voltage source converter (VSC) technology. proved to be lighter. A small shunt AC-filter is placed on the AC-side of the reactor. and allows for better control of power for distribution to customers.cc | www. AC and DC systems can be connected together. On the DC-side there is a DC capacitor that serves as a DC filter too. 5.” The first high power rectifiers to be used commercially for DC applications were mercury arc valves. the world’s first commercial HVDC link based on mercury arc converters went into operation between the Swedish mainland and the island of Gotland. mercury arc valves were typically replaced by a second generation of rectifier technology.ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING www.

troubleshoot4free. With the appearance of high switching frequency components. As in a VSC the current can be switched off. This is only for Educational Purpose. The fundamental difference between these two technologies is that VSC:s need components that can switch off the current and not only switch it on as is the case in PCC:s. Presentation. Conventional HVDC converter technology is based on the use of line-commutated or phase-commutated converters (PCC). NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. such as IGBTs (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) it becomes advantageous to build VSC (Voltage Source Converters) using PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) Technology.com/fyp/ Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects. seminar.cc | www.ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING www. there is no need for a network to commutate against. AIT. After low pass DR.final-yearprojects.co. By use of higher switching frequency components it is possible to use Pulse Width Modulation PWM) technology. summer training report and lot more.co. which are areas which lack rotating machines or networks that does not have enough power in the rotating machines (too low short circuit power).cc | www. In HVDC-applications it could then be of interest to use VSC technology in order to supply passive networks.troubleshoot4free.HVDC LIGHT: NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR BETTER ENVIRONMENT www. VSC TECHNOLOGY AND PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (PWM): In industrial drives the PCC (Phase Commutated Converter) technology which is used in HVDC is now almost totally replaced by VSC (Voltage Source Converter) technology.com/fyp/ Page 23 . Then only one converter is needed and the AC voltage is created by switching very fast between two fixed voltages.final-yearprojects.

Furthermore. In this case it is not necessary to have a transformer for the functioning of the converter.final-yearprojects. This makes the VSC using PWM a close to ideal component in the transmission network.ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING www.com/fyp/ Page 23 .troubleshoot4free.5 kV has recently become available in the market and soon higher voltages are expected. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. From a system point of view it acts as a motor or generator without mass that can control active and reactive power almost instantaneously. Presentation. as it is a MOS-device and the power need for the control of the component is very low and can be fed from the snubbed circuits. There is a fast development of the IGBT:s and components for the voltage of 2. The market for IGBT’s also increases very fast which add to the knowledge base of the technology itself and makes it an interesting component for small scale HVDC applications. The desired fundamental frequency voltage is formed through low pass filtering of the high frequency pulse modulated voltage. In the PWM Bridge switching very fast between two fixed voltages creates the ACvoltage.HVDC LIGHT: NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR BETTER ENVIRONMENT www.co.troubleshoot4free. filtering the desired fundamental frequency voltage is created. DR. which can be done almost instantaneous.cc | www. See figure 1.com/fyp/ Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects. IGBT From the above it appears advantageous to shift from present Phase Commutated Converter Technology for HVDC to VSC and PWM. This makes series connection possible with good voltage distribution even at switching frequencies in the kHz range. This is only for Educational Purpose. AIT.cc | www. With PWM it is possible to create any phase angle or amplitude (up to a certain limit) by changing the PWM pattern. Why has this not happened a long time ago? The correct answer is that there have not been semiconductor components available that have been good enough for the task.final-yearprojects. Hereby PWM offers the possibility to control both active and reactive power independently. summer training report and lot more. An entirely different concept compared with the classical HVDC converter. seminar. In this respect the IGBT is a very interesting component.co. it does not contribute to the short circuit power as the AC current can be controlled.

where permission for new transmission lines are not easy to get.HVDC LIGHT: NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR BETTER ENVIRONMENT www. This is only for Educational Purpose. The PWM pattern and the corresponding power frequency voltage of a VSC converter: 6.com/fyp/ Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects. The material is a tutorial for VSC interaction with the AC grid and shall not be treated as a performance specification of HVDC Light. building a HVDC Light® cable transmission may give more benefits than just the added Megawatts that come over the DC cable.co. seminar. "The Pulse Width Modulated Voltage Source Converter is a close to ideal component in the transmission network.ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING www. The following pages describe some of the system aspects where Voltage Source Converter (VSC) technology such as HVDC Light® can support the power grid. 7.final-yearprojects.final-yearprojects.com/fyp/ Page 23 .it can also improve conditions in the connected AC networks.troubleshoot4free.cc | www.co. ABB would therefore want to present some of the power system related advantages HVDC Light can offer. Presentation. summer training report and lot more. From a system point of view it acts as a motor or generator without mass that can control active and reactive power almost instantaneously.cc | www. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. AIT. Power System Benefits An HVDC Light transmission can do much more than just transmit power between two points ." In the congested power networks of today. Efforts have been made to give background information of different power system phenomena and to give an understanding of the possible performance improvements in the grid with the VSC technology. HVDC Light Basic Characteristics DR.troubleshoot4free.

economical. This offers new levels of performance regarding power quality control such as flicker and mitigation of voltage dips and sags. harmonics etc caused by disturbances in the power system (Fig 2).cc | www. only an AC-filter is installed. grid operators as well as for the general public. This offers the possibility to control both active and reactive power independently.ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING www. The most advantageous are the following: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Independent control of active and reactive power Feeding of power into passive networks ( i. AIT. DR. seminar.cc | www. summer training report and lot more. PQ Diagram 7. factory pre-tested Short delivery times Reloadable/Leasable Unmanned operation Robust against grid alterations 7. As the rating of the converters is based on maximum currents and voltages the reactive power capabilities of a converter can be traded against the active power capability.2 Power Quality Control The Light converter has s a switching frequency of 2 kHz that is 40 times faster compared to a phase commutated converter operated at 50 Hz.com/fyp/ Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects. The benefits are technical. network without any generation) Power quality control Modular compact design. Presentation.com/fyp/ Page 23 .troubleshoot4free. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors.e.HVDC LIGHT: NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR BETTER ENVIRONMENT www. no reactive power compensation equipment is needed at the station. While the transmitted active power is kept constant the reactive power controller can automatically control the voltage in the AC-network Reactive power generation and consumption of an HVDC Light converter can be used for compensating the needs of the connected network within the rating of a converter (Fig 1). Power Quality problems are issues of priority for owners of industrial plants. environmental as well as operational. Fig 1: Capability chart.final-yearprojects. In the presence of a fault which would normally lead to an AC voltage decrease the converter can be rapidly deblocked and assist with voltage support to avoid severe disturbances in local industries that are sensitive to voltage dips. The performance during steady state and transient operation makes it very attractive for the system planner as well as for the project developer.final-yearprojects.co. which can be done almost instantly.1 Control of Active and reactive power: The control makes it possible to create any phase angle or amplitude. An HVDC Light converter is easy to control (Fig 1). As a consequence.troubleshoot4free.co. The combined active /reactive power capabilities can most easily be seen in a P-Q diagram (positive Q is fed to the AC network). This is only for Educational Purpose.

4 Robust Against Grid Alterations: The fact that a Light converter can feed power into a passive network makes it very robust and can easily accommodate alterations in the AC-grid to where it is connected. seminar. Technical Features ● ● ● ● ● Advantageous for long distance cable transmission. Equal or longer service life than XLPE AC cables In summary. AIT.final-yearprojects. The response time for a change in voltage is 50 ms i. summer training report and lot more.final-yearprojects. This is only for Educational Purpose.co.HVDC LIGHT: NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR BETTER ENVIRONMENT www. DR.troubleshoot4free. HVDC Light combines the operational features of traditional HVDC converters with those of static var compensators to provide new levels of performance in terms of power quality during both steady state and transient operation. 8. should that be desired due to changed conditions. Power reversal without interruption.cc | www.3 Modular Compact Design. No increase of short circuit current.C network. The modular design also facilities a relocation of the converters.co.e.com/fyp/ Page 23 . The heaviest piece of equipment weights about 20 tons and is transportable by truck direct to site. Fig 3: Layout of 65 MVA HVDC Light Converter 7.ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING www. Fig 2: Ficker mitigation with SVC Technology 7.troubleshoot4free. With this speed of response HVDC Light will be able to control transients and flicker up to around 3 Hz. Factory pre-tested: Major electrical equipment is delivered in enclosures and tested at factory before shipment. for a step order change in the bus voltage the new setting is reached within 50 ms. Presentation. This eliminates the need of any buildings and also makes the installation and commissioning faster than for a traditional converter. This is a very valuable property in a deregulated electricity market where AC-network conditions in the future will change more frequently than in a regulated market. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. Can start up dead A.com/fyp/ Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects. thereby helping to keep the AC bus voltage constant.cc | www.

usually close together. by definition. Static fields. 8. The cables and converter stations are shielded. and also allows for rapid cable burial. The only field present is an extremely low static magnetic field in close proximity to the cables which is similar to the natural background field of the Earth.troubleshoot4free.cc | www. Presentation. HVDC Light® cables contain solid insulation.1 Underground & underwater: No visual impact: HVDC Light® cables are designed to be direct buried. The use of solid insulation eliminates the risk of oil leaks and spills in the marine environment.com/fyp/ Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors.ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING www.co. seminar.final-yearprojects.co.final-yearprojects.HVDC LIGHT: NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR BETTER ENVIRONMENT www. HVDC Light® cables can also be trenched into the seabed. Figure 2 demonstrates a bipolar DC system in which currents are flowing in opposite directions.com/fyp/ Page 23 . undersea research facilities). The resulting magnetic field decreases rapidly toward zero with distance from the cables. Fig: Diagram of a Bipolar Dc system The resulting static magnetic field is similar in magnitude and character to the Earth’s natural magnetic field. This is only for Educational Purpose.2 No Electromagnetic Fields: HVDC Light® cables do not have the same health concerns as AC power lines because they emit no varying electromagnetic fields.3 Low magnetic field: HVDC Light® cables are laid in pairs. As they carry the same current levels in opposite directions. AIT. Aquatic species can quickly recognize the area once installation is complete. fishers. the static magnetic fields from the cables largely cancel each other out. which is an improvement on other types of HVDC and HVAC cables.g. which minimizes disruption to nearby residents and stakeholders (see Figure 1). which results in no electric fields. which minimizes the risk of damage to the cables by third parties (e.troubleshoot4free. 8. summer training report and lot more. DR. Cancellation occurs where the magnetic fields (as denoted by the blue and red arrows) overlap. This results in no visual impact. since oil can escape into the environment from liquid-insulated cables. 8.cc | www. which use oil or liquid-impregnated paper insulation. do not fluctuate (unlike the fields associated with AC transmission lines) and do not induce currents in nearby objects as fluctuating magnetic fields are known to do.

which has been successfully type tested to150kV DC. Presentation. accessories and installation services .com/fyp/ Page 23 . HVDC Light Cable: The HVDC Light cable is a new design triple extruded.The cables are operated in bipolar mode.4 Low acoustic noise: HVDC Light® cables do not make noise as do AC transmission lines. Noise within the converter stations is mitigated through containment of equipment within the converter station building and through properly designed acoustic properties of the walls and roof. seminar. compared with overhead power lines. all combine to provide substantially lower overall environmental impacts than the AC transmission alternatives. following a comprehensive R & D program.co. and the low visual impact of converter station structures designed to blend in with the surrounding community.troubleshoot4free. DR.final-yearprojects. XLPE cables on DC has been overcome with this new design.troubleshoot4free. polymeric insulated DC cable. It is a new lightweight cable similar in appearance and characteristics to a standard AC. One cable with positive polarity and one cable with negative polarity. The cable system is complete with cables. The cables have polymeric insulating material which is very strong and robust.com/fyp/ Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects.co. summer training report and lot more. the elimination of the need for wide swaths of clear-cut right of ways. This strength and flexibility make the HDVC light cables perfect for severe installation conditions. XLPE cable except that the problem associated with space charges which breakdown the insulation when using AC. 8.ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING www.5 Low overall environmental impact: Buried cables. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors.cc | www. DC underground cables provide significant advantages. AIT. 9.HVDC LIGHT: NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR BETTER ENVIRONMENT www. the freedom from concern relating to oil leakage into the environment. This is only for Educational Purpose. 8. The layout of the converter station also can be designed to minimize noise and to meet local noise requirements.cc | www.final-yearprojects. the absence of electromagnetic fields.

To attain this power balance. However. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. HDVC cables can now also go overhead with Aer 10.co. seminar. which means that the active power leaving the DC network must be equal to the active power coming into the DC network. Reactive power is the portion of power flow that represents the energy alternately stored and released by the inductance and/or capacitance in the system and is used to control voltage on the transmission network.co. while the other station adjusts the transmitted power within the power capability limits for the HVDC Light® system. In HVDC Light® systems.HVDC LIGHT: NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR BETTER ENVIRONMENT www. AIT. This is only for Educational Purpose. Active power is the component of transmitted AC electrical power that can be utilized by consumers and residents to do usable work. Presentation. the active power can be continuously controlled from full power export to full power import. Reason behind choice of HVDC over HVAC 10.final-yearprojects.com/fyp/ Page 23 . The rough cables can be installed less costly with ploughing technique.1 Independent power transfer and power quality control The HVDC Light® system contributes to grid stability and controllability by allowing independent control of both the active and the reactive power flow within the operating range of the HVDC Light® system.troubleshoot4free. Reactive power is measured in ‘volt-amperes reactive’ (VARs).troubleshoot4free.cc | www. minus the losses in the HVDC Light® system.cc | www. Power in an AC system can be considered to consist of two types: active power (also referred to as ‘real power’). ● ● ● The sub marine cables can be laid in deeper waters and on rough bottoms. and reactive power. one of the stations controls the DC voltage. Each of the HVDC Light® stations also can control its reactive power flow independently of the other station. DR. summer training report and lot more. the flow of active power to the DC network must be balanced.ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING www.com/fyp/ Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects.final-yearprojects.

10.HVDC LIGHT: NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR BETTER ENVIRONMENT www. Presentation. The higher voltage level at which the HVDC Light® converter allows a transmission system to operate allows more power to be transferred through the AC lines. is also an important feature.troubleshoot4free. in August 2003. The voltage magnitude and frequency are determined by the control systems of the generating stations. frequency support and fast time response provided by HVDC Light® are much needed during such conditions. HVDC Light® is particularly beneficial in reducing the costs associated with the grid restoration process. HVDC Light® can support the grid with the reactive power necessary to minimize disruption to the grid and electricity customers . or a blackout. AIT.3 Fast restoration after blackouts HVDC Light® can efficiently aid grid restoration after a blackout. If the grid is exposed to an imminent voltage collapse. and thereby played a major role in the restoration of power to the grid.2 Increased transfer capacity in the existing system The fast and accurate voltage control capability of the HVDC Light® converter makes it possible to operate the grid closer to its full capacity. costs are reduced.com/fyp/ Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects. which can interrupt power supply. This is only for Educational Purpose. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. By speeding the restoration process.cc | www. the support provided to the AC grid by the converter stations. The voltage support. one of the major limiting factors for power transfer is voltage stability. The only requirement is that the other converter for the DC system is unaffected by the black-out.co. DR.final-yearprojects.troubleshoot4free. seminar. If there is a voltage collapse.com/fyp/ Page 23 . summer training report and lot more. In traditional AC power transmission systems. and works as follows: The HVDC Light® converter station normally follows the AC voltage of the connected grid. the HVDC Light® converter can instantaneously switch to its own internal voltage and frequency and disconnect itself from the grid. For example. Black-start capability. when the north-east USA experienced a blackout.co. Black-start allows for an HVDC Light® system to greatly decrease the time for AC grid restoration.ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING www. ready to be connected to a “black” network to provide the first electricity to important loads. The converter can then operate as an idling “static” generator. Energy costs during the period of instability can be considerably higher than normal. the Cross Sound Cable Project (which interconnects Connecticut and Long Island) provided voltage and frequency support.cc | www. 10.final-yearprojects.

troubleshoot4free. In the upper range. The vast majority of classical DC cables are submarine cables.final-yearprojects.troubleshoot4free.com/fyp/ Page 23 .HVDC LIGHT: NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR BETTER ENVIRONMENT www. the technology now reaches 1.cc | www.cc | www. HVDC Light.co. HVDC Light can also be build with over head lines .exemple Caprivi Link Interconnector Modular: DR. comes in unit sizes ranging from a few tens of MW. Differences between HVDC and Classical Light Power range: Classical HVDC is most cost effective in the high power range. 1. AIT.ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING www. on the other hand. above approximately some 250 MW. DC transmission circuit: The DC transmission circuit for classical HVDC can be an overhead line or a DC cable. HVDC Light is by nature bipolar.com/fyp/ Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects. Therefore two cables are needed.final-yearprojects.co. This is only for Educational Purpose.200 MW and ±320 kV. The cables are normally mass-impregnated (MIND) cables suitable for HVDC with a copper conductor and insulation made of oil impregnated paper. The DC transmission circuit for HVDC Light is made by extruded polymer cables both for land transmissions (underground) and across water (submarine). summer training report and lot more. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. seminar. Presentation. The DC circuit is not connected to ground.

In fact the same converter can be used as a SVC and it is then called SVC Light. which can be done almost instantly. This is only for Educational Purpose. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. and at zero active power the full range of reactive power can be utilized.troubleshoot4free. and even at zero power.co.ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING www.g. Conventional HVDC is always tailor made to suit a specific application. Therefore the circuit is quite different from conventional HVDC : DR.cc | www. The power reversal is obtained by changing the direction of the DC current and not by changing the DC voltage as for conventional HVDC.e. and without any filter switching or converter blocking.cc | www. It is extremely effective to eliminate flicker e.com/fyp/ Page 23 . But this control requires additional equipment and therefore extra cost. This offers the possibility to control both active and reactive power independently. Unlike conventional HVDC. Most of the equipment is installed in enclosures at the factory.troubleshoot4free. from arc furnaces.co. summer training report and lot more. Converter station circuits: HVDC Light converter stations are Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) employing state of the art turn on/turn off IGBT power semiconductors. lacking synchronous machines)! Active and reactive power control: Classic HVDC terminals can provide limited control of reactive power by means of switching of filters and shunt banks and to some level by firing angle control. AIT. that normally has a 5% minimum current. (IGBT = Integrated Gate Bipolar Transistors. Presentation.) Independence of AC network: HVDC Light does not rely on the AC network’s ability to keep the voltage and frequency stable.HVDC LIGHT: NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR BETTER ENVIRONMENT www. The active and reactive powers are controlled independently. seminar.com/fyp/ Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects. The HVDC Light control makes it possible to create any phase angle or amplitude. the HVDC Light converter can operate at very low power.final-yearprojects. Active power transfer can be quickly reversed by HVDC Light without any change of control mode. the short circuit capacity is not important.final-yearprojects. Low power operation and power reversal: Unlike conventional HVDC converters. HVDC Light can feed load into a passive network (i. HVDC Light is based on a modular concept with a number of standardized sizes for the converter stations.

NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. the land can continue to be used and there is virtually no magnetic radiation associated with the bi-polar DC cable. The installation of a DC cable has no environmental impact. You simply bury it and forget it. wind. ● There are considerable cost savings to the community in terms of amenity. ● DR. This is only for Educational Purpose. earthquakes and fire.final-yearprojects. insulator replacements. ● Faster and easier issue of permits using DC underground cables. ● The width of the corridor to install the underground cable can be as narrow as 4 meters.com/fyp/ Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects. seminar.cc | www. AIT. ● Operation and maintenance costs of the transmission easement are virtually eliminated as there is no need for long term contracts to maintain the easement with suitable access roads. constant trimming and removal of regrowth vegetation and public safety and security. summer training report and lot more. Function Converter valves Connection valve . which will give greater flexibility with the selection of a transmission route.co.cc | www. thermo graphic checks of conductors joints.final-yearprojects.co. property values and possible health risks.HVDC LIGHT: NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR BETTER ENVIRONMENT www. ● The system reliability is enhanced with reduced risk of damage from natural causes such as storms.com/fyp/ Page 23 .ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING www. an underground cable has no visual impact on the landscape. Presentation. Underground cables rarely meet with public opposition and often receive political support. Once it's installed the cable route can be replanted with Native vegetation.AC grid Classical HVDC Thyristor Converter transformer HVDC Light IGBT Series reactor (+ transformer) Only small filter DC capacitor Not needed Filtering and reactive compensation 50% in filters and shunt capacitors DC current smoothing Telecom between converter station controls Smoothing reactor + DC filter Needed 12.troubleshoot4free.troubleshoot4free. HVDC Light Advantages Reduced environmental impact.

13.final-yearprojects.troubleshoot4free.cc | www.com/fyp/ Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects. DC cable faults Cable faults are very rare. DC cables can carry up to 50% more power than the equivalent AC cable. summer training report and lot more. AC network faults When a temporary fault occurs in the AC system (on the rectifier or the inverter side). Presentation. HVDC Light fault performance An HVDC Light transmission behaves differently compared to an AC or an HVDC Classic transmission if there is a ground fault or short circuit. The other converter will stay connected and can continue to stabilize the AC voltage using the inherent reactive power capability. AIT.troubleshoot4free.cc | www.com/fyp/ Page 23 . DC-cables have no technical limit to distance. which generally have a technical limit of around 100km due to reactive power and losses.final-yearprojects. Unlike AC cables. This is only for Educational Purpose.co. DC cables can be ploughed direct in the ground or laid together in narrow trenches. the converters are blocked and the transmission is disconnected from the AC grid at both ends. seminar. There is no need to install groups of cables to achieve the required power rating. Converter station faults DR. DC cables have a longer life expectancy than AC cables due to its lower Operational stress level of around 20kV/mm. when considering the cost of installing an HVDC Light underground transmission it is important to consider the total life cost benefits and not just the initial up front capital costs. They are as a rule caused by mechanical damage. When a DC cable fault occurs. In summary. At a permanent AC fault the converter will be blocked and disconnected from its AC grid. power is restored to the pre-fault value.HVDC LIGHT: NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR BETTER ENVIRONMENT www. Therefore submarine DC cables are often buried (except in deep waters) to prevent damage from anchors and trawls. the HVDC Light transmission may suffer a power loss depending on the fault impedance and severity.ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING www. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors.co. this is detected. Compared with AC underground cables the HVDC Light cable also has some significant advantages to be considered: ● ● ● ● ● ● DC cables require only two cables between each converter station. As soon as the fault is cleared. As there is no need to maintain wide distances between groups of cables.

1.cc | www. off the Swedish mainland. Presentation. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. Applications to date include connecting wind power generation to the grid.co. Applications: Some HVDC Light applications: Underground power links Connecting wind farms Powering islands and remote loads Interconnecting networks City center infeed Oil and gas offshore platforms Multiterminal HVDC Light grid HVDC Light technology has been well proven since the first successful pilot installation in March 1977 with a number of commercial projects undertaken and in operation. seminar. HVDC Light converter stations are provided with an elaborate protection system that is designed to detect fault conditions or other abnormal conditions that might expose equipment to hazard and/or cause unacceptable disturbances.co.com/fyp/ Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects. The converter will be blocked and disconnected from its AC grid.com/fyp/ Page 23 .final-yearprojects.troubleshoot4free. summer training report and lot more.cc | www. This is only for Educational Purpose. The link has been transmitting power since November 1999. that Most of the HVDC Light converter station equipment is located inside a building .ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING www. transmitting 50MW back onto the grid. They often require expansion within a few years and wind generators absorb reactive power from the grid for magnetization.final-yearprojects.HVDC LIGHT: NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR BETTER ENVIRONMENT www. Wind generation is often placed in remote locations where the grid is weak and short circuit power capability is quite low. This includes Gotland. Advantages ● ● Flexibility to be expanded Limits the short circuit power contribution DR.a fact provides the station with a good protection against flashovers. AIT. The other converter will stay connected and can continue to stabilize the AC voltage using the inherent reactive power capability.troubleshoot4free.

Once the cable is installed the cable route can be replanted with native vegetation providing a net gain in native vegetation.co. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. Underground cables facilitate the issuing of permits.final-yearprojects. It is an ideal vehicle for privately funded developers to link different regions and trade energy. A meshed DC grid can be built which connects the wind farms Another application for HVDC Light is interconnecting different Networks.cc | www. This is only for Educational Purpose. reactive power support into the network. Unlike Government Utilities there are no rights of acquisition for a private developer.co. a key advantage is that it provides accurate control of the transmitted active power and independent control of the reactive power in the connected AC networks.final-yearprojects. it is relocatable and can be expanded to meet growing demand. The cable route requires no easements over private land for installation. Rapid construction of the HVDC Light allows a fast response to market conditions of market-driven network services.ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING www. Presentation.HVDC LIGHT: NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR BETTER ENVIRONMENT www. ● ● Supplies reactive power to wind generator. Conclusion HVDC Light is a new technology that has been specifically developed to match the requirements of the new competitive electricity markets.troubleshoot4free. 15.troubleshoot4free. and the overall impact on vegetation is absolute minimum. The converter stations at each end can act independently of each other to provide ancillary. summer training report and lot more. Moreover. It allows us to supply power to remote locations and islands replacing local diesel generation. DR.com/fyp/ Page 23 . AIT. thereby capacity rights for fully commercial network are readily defined.com/fyp/ Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects. independently to active power it receives. In this application the advantages provided include: ● ● ● ● ● The flow of energy over the link can be precisely defined and controlled.cc | www. seminar. The technical merits are that by virtue of their standardized prefabricated modular constructions which lead to short delivery times. It provides the ability to connect renewable generation to the AC grid.

final-yearprojects. www.com 6.co.com/fyp/ Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects. summer training report and lot more.cc 6. www.abb.cc | www.final-yearprojects.pdf 3.newmaterials.troubleshoot4free. 16.com/fyp/ Page 23 .pennnet.com 4.final-yearprojects. Usually it’s much easier to obtain permission and public approval for an underground cable transmission compared with an overhead line. A pair of lightweight DC cables can be laid direct in the ground in a cost-effective way which is comparable to or less than a corresponding total life cycle cost of AC overhead line. www.cc | www. For these reasons HVDC Light provides an important role as a business concept and opens up new opportunities for both investors and environmentalist.vattenfall. This is only for Educational Purpose.co.troubleshoot4free.pepei. especially in residential areas.HVDC LIGHT: NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR BETTER ENVIRONMENT www. seminar.abb. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors.hvdc_eng.com DR.www. an underground cable pair has no visual impact on the landscape. As opposed to an overhead line. ABB products – hvdc and hvdc light 2.ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING www. www. Presentation. www.co. AIT.mena. Bibliography 1.com 5.

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