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JUL 92


3 OF 9


II. CATEGORIES OF PIPING Category I Pipe Lines falling into this category are t~ be brought specifically to the attention of the Chief Piping Mechanical Engineer. The level of investigation will be established on an individual case basis. Obviously this review is to be done very early in the project and prior to any formal analysis or the establishment of any support philosophy. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Lines in high pressure service where the pressure is in excess of that allowed by ANSI 816.5 Class 2500 rating for the specified design temperature and pressure. Lines in high temperatures service where the design metal temperature exceeds 10000F. Large diameter pipe where the pipe diameter exceeds 48 inches. Lines designed for greater than 22,000 cycles.
Li nes in Category "Milfluid servi ce (per ASME/ ANSI


Lines in Category II which, in the judgment of the analyst, should have analysis in excess of those required for Category II. Systems as noted: a. b. Ethylene transfer piping LNG piping


Category II Pipe A) Lines in this category require mandatory computer analyses. Load sensitive Equipment 1. Lines connected to reciprocating pumps and compressors, centrifugal compressors, and turbines whose normal operating temperature exceeds 2500F and are 3 diameter or larger.


Lines connected to pumps and .....





JUL 92


4 OF 9


a. b. c.

are 411 or larger and norma lly operate at 3000F or more. are 12" or 1 arger and nonna lly operate at 2500F or more. lines one site or larger than equipment notzle and normally operate at 2500F Or higher.

3. Air-cooler piping. B) Stress Sensitive Equipment 1. lines connected to ASME Section VIII Division 2 vessels. 2. 3. lines connected to fire heaters or furnaces. lines connected to aluminum equipment.

4. All lines designated as Category II in Figure 1. Category III Pipe lines in this category require mandatory investigation; however, the analysis can be done by any of the recognized approximate methods such as guided cantilever, Kellogg or Grinnell or Tube Turns charts, etc. Documentation is required. All boiler code piping, power plant piping. All yard piping where line size is 611 and larger. All lines designated as Category III in Figure 1. Category IV All lines designated as Category IV in Figure 1. lines in this category can be analyzed by visual inspection or approximate methods.






JUL 92


5 OF 9




5000 P E R 4000 r A T U 3000 R E 2000 E G 1000 R E E -500 F -2000













12" 14"









JUL 92


6 OF 9



EXTENT OF COMPUTER ANALYSIS General: 1. 2. 3. Run thermal only Run weight at rotating or sensitive equipment for spring sizing only.
00 not run unless specific case warrants and with job

leader's con~ent:

b. Wind.

a. Combined weight and thermal.

c. Multi Temperature cases, piCk the most extreme. d. Lines in yard for loop sizing or anchor loads. Runs including these items are strongly discouraged: e. Pressure. f. Code compliance. g. Systems with expansion Joints. 4. For computer analysis, minimize the extent of the piping system to be analyzed. This can be done by using restraints to divide the system into parts of various degrees of flexibility; and then analyze only the parts with clear flexibility problems. For example, for lines connected to load sensitive equipment, see if it is possible to analyze only the part of the system in the vicinity of the equipment with the rest of the system isolated by restraints or clear visible flexibility.

Pressure Stress: Corrosion Allowable: Manufacturers Under Tolerance: Corrosion allowance and manufacturers under tolerance are used by Systems Engineering Group to determine the wall thickness and to construct the piping specifications. Code compliance for sustained longitudinal stress using the net minimum wall thickness is accomplished through the combination of that analysis and limiting the support spans. Limiting the support spans in accordance with Kellogg standards ensure that the sustained longitudinal stresses are within the code allowable stress and separate calculations for verification are not performed. Neither the corrosion allowance nor the manufacturers under tolerance are to be included in the thermal expansion stress calculation.

These values. KELLOGG COMPANY SUBJECT 4000 PAGE JUL 92 DESIGN MANUAl- PIPING MECHANICAL 9 OF 9 Calculations Print-outs shall be on 8-1/2" by 11" papers. The first can be overridden for sustained loads by specifying "WS1F=0" in the "option" line. Simflex will automatically use 75% of the code stress intensification factor when calculating stresses for a weight case. SIMFLEXANALYSIS/CODE REQUIREMENTS Stress Intensification Factor o In accordance with the requirements for piping designed to ASME/ANSr 831.DATE THE M. There is no provision to override the intensification factor in the weight plus thermal case. Stress intensification factors are used for steady state stress when designing systems in accordance with ASME/AN$I 831. It will also use 100% of the code stress intensification factor when a thermal plus weight case is specified. Unacceptable stresses due to sustained loads should be reviewed to see if reduction due to an unnecessary use of the stress intensification factor would bring the stresses to an acceptable level. W. . if this would bring the loads within the allowable. should be reduced by the appropriate ratio of hot modulus to cold modulus.3. Reaction Loads Reaction loads are calculated by Simflex based on the cold modulus of elasticity.1 requires 75% of the intensification factor be used for steady state stress. 831. Stress intensification factors are to be used when calculating longitudinal bending stresses due to fatigue type loading. when checking rotating equipment nozzle loads.1. V. They are not to be used when analyzing ductile material for steady state stresses such as pressure and/or weight.

Air Cooler: This is an air heat exchanger sometimes referred to as a tlFinFan". Blind or. This is found on the border line (area match line) of a drawing area and means: ~ontinued Qn Qrawing number xx-xx. Usually employed for purposes of restraint. electricsimulation or thep~essure pulses in a piping system which are generated by a reciprocating compressor or pump. translatory nor rotational displacement of a pipe in any of the three reference. if any. etc. Blind Flange: A flange which does not allow flow past it.. used to hold back or turn aside the flow of liquids.rlgld. Anchor: A. Bellows: THe flexible element of an Expansion Joint.axes. KELLOGG COMPANY SUBJECT APP. Branch: A plpe which intersects the main run of pipe. C PAGE: NOVas DESIGN MANUAL· PIPING MECHANICAL 1 OF 10 DEFINITION OF TERMS Ac:oustic:AI1alog: An . W. xx-xx: .D. gases. It is a physical portion of the plot plan and its boundaries are shown on the "Planni~g Plot Plan". Battery Limi t: The boundary or interface between process and off-sites.· support. consisting of one or more corrugations and the end tangents.restraint which permits neither. or brace. diameter than the main run. C. Area: ~vision made to enclose related processes and functions within a plant. They are sometimes located at grade but very often they are located above the pipe rack on extended pipe rack or columns. such as a wall or screen. It is often of smaller Branch Connection: THe junction of a branch with a header or main run pipe.DATE THE M.O. Baffle: An obstructing device.

the total movement of a bellows is proportional to the number of corrugation.. which takes. Corrugation: THe smallest flexible unit of a bellows. C PAGE NOV 88 DESIGN MANUAL· PIPING MECHANICAL Xx 2 OF 10 This means tHat the centerline of pipe ..breaks (cracks) them in the presence of a catalyst into smaller molecules. Constant ..s capable of applying a relatively constant force at any displacement within its useful operating range (example: constant springs or counterweights). Also called a oampin9: THe re~uction of the amplitude of deflections due to vibration or pressure pulses through the action of friction forces. . of Cold Springing: Synonymous with"pre-stressing" pipebychanging the overal. Clevis. See Pipe Support Attachments.l length of the pipe from the nominal length to reduce anchor forces and moments caused by thermal expansion. W. KELLOGG COMPANY SUBJECT APP. saddle.DATE .~ :~~~:~g:~s(~~~a~1~e~u~g~dth!t~e~5~tion heat gain.. See Pipe Support Attachments. Coefficient of Expansion: . . iI Clip: An attachment which is welded to a vessel to which other attachments or supports are bOlted.Effort Support: A support wHich .s at elevation XXXl_XX'I. heavy hydrocarbon molecules and. XXx f i . THE M. o rod to a plate. Cat Cracker: Term fora fluid cata lytiC cracking unit (FCCY> ..f the "U". The amount Of growtH per unit of length of a material due to a temperature - Cold Box: ~~n::. ~~p.~i~gt~g~a !~~i~:!~~n(~~~~. Cradle: A support which is contoured to the underside of a pipe. lo . . Used to connect a ~ .: AIIU" shaped piece with holes at each end .







4 OF 10


Drum: small pressure vessel. Ears: Sin~le welded lugs on pipe to fatil iUte handl ing, lifting, etc. Support Attachments. See Pipe

Elbow: A fitting in a piping system attathedtothepipe (welded, screwed, soldered, etc.) to facilitate change in direction. See Pipe Support Attachments. Elevat;ph: 1. The.height.above some reference. 2. Same as the side view on a drawing.

This means that the bottom of pipe is at elevation xxx'-xx".
Egualiz;ngRings: Devices used on some Expansion Joints which fit snugly in the roots of the corrugations. The primary purpose of these devices is to reinforce the bellOWS against internal pressure. E~Uipment: T~e general term for a machine or device which serves some process function. Ex~ansion Joint: A ~evice containing one or mOre bellows used to absorb dimensional changes, such as those caused by thermal expansion or contraction of a pipe line, duct, or vessel. Flange: A pipe fitting used to bolt two items together. FleXibilitf: The genera term used to describe the allowance made to enable piping to expand or contract under temperature changes without inducing excessive stress. Flexibility Factor: The ratio of the increased deflection due to ovalization to that predicted by conventional beam theory. Used to determine the actual bending stresses in curved pipes.

El •.xxx '... xx":






NOV 88


5 OF 10

Flexibility Temperature: The temperature used. in making thermal expansion stress calculations. called "flex temperature".


Foundation: The supporting concrete base for a wall, building, piece of equipment, etc. Gasket: A plece of deformable material placed between flanges to make a jOint leakproof. Grade: ~evel of the ground (which is considered to be elevation 100-0" for standard Kellogg jobs.) Guides: Mechanical restraints used to control lateral movement of the piping in one or two directions, but does not provide complete fixation. Hanger: Any member or mechanism that carries the pipe in tension connecting the pipe support attachment to a supporting member above. Header: A plpe that distributes or collects flow from two or more branch pipes. Hydrostatic Test: Pressure test prior to initial operation with liquid to assure leak tightness. Internals: All pans, baffles, deflectors, pipes, nozzles, etc. which are included inside a vessel. Invert Elevation: This is used normally on underground pipe and refers to the bottom inside of the pipe. lateral: A branch connection where the secondary connection leaves the main pipe at an angle other than 900• lug: An ear like projection welded to a pipe or vessel by which some device is held or supported. See Pipe Support Attachments.





NOV 88


6 OF 10


is Pump Out and refers t~.1ines and collector. llnes in a closed system that are-used-to evacuate drums, tanks and towers and transfer the material to some storage or disposal area.

P.O. :

This means foint Qf !UPport. Pad:
Same as reinforcing pad.

P.O.S .. :

Pipe Jtack: A major pipe support structure.that may have one or more levels with pipe entering and leaving at intermediate ..evels •.This is used to carry a large l group of straight pipes. This is sometimes referred to as Pipe Alley, Rack, Pipe way Dr Yard. Pipe Span: .' The distance between adjacent Supports on a run of pipe. PipeSup~ort: A genera term referring to an entire assembly which transmits the piping reactions to a suitable fOUndation. Pipe Support Attachment: Any lug, trunnion, sHoe, clamp or other device attached to pipe by weldlng or bolting, which transfers the reactions from the piping to a supporting member. P'P'elies of pipe, fittings, flanges, bolting, gaskets, valves, and other components, or the;rpressure-containing parts, used to convey, distribute, mix, separate, discharge, meter, control, or snub fluid flows~ Piping includespipe-suppor~ing elements, but does not inclu~e support structures such as building frames, bents, foundations, or equipment. . Piping.Components: Mechanical elements. suitable for joining or assembly into pressure tight fluid-containing piping systems. Components include pipe, tubing, fittings, flanges, gaskets, bolts, valves, and devices such as expansion joints, flexible joints, pressure hose, traps, strainers, and separators. Pipinq System: A piplng installation, or a portion of a piping installation for which a single set of design conditions apply.





NOV 88


1 OF 10

Plan Viewot'Plan: Same as the top view. Planning:. ... .... '. .'.. .. The detailed development and definition.ofthe designt~nfigutationoT the facilities to be engineered, outlining scope of work and design conditions. Plann i1'19" Layout Draw; n9: The.initial study of areas in a plant, showing the location of major equipment and vessels. Plug .. Valve: A cone shaped valve used in an "Orthoflowi'catcratket to control the flow of catalyst. This is a high temperature errosive service. See slide valve. Pneumatic Testing: . A test prior to operation, where the installed piping is filled with pressurized air to assure tightness and absence of leaks. Pot: A pressure vessel smaller than a vessel or drum. Pressure Vessel: A large container for which the inside pressure is significantly different from atmospheric.


Process: The general term referring to the actual steps or operation involved in ~:~e~~~i~~~d~~;t!nd~S~~:~f,a!t~~~osed to the support functions

Process Release: The release of the detailed description of flow for the process units to General Engineering. Production: The actual engineering of a job. See Planning. Pulse Bottles or Pulse Dam~enets: Devices used to suppress t~e pressure pulses caused by reciprocating compressors. There are two basic types: Volume bottles and Pi filters. Reducer: A transition piece between two end-to-end connected pipes of different diameters.

Reinfotcement: Materi.connection. ejectors. air coolers..: AlDind which circles a pipe used for support. KELLOGG COMPANY SUBJEct APP.DATE . Restraint: Any device which prevents. Attachments. ill. Similar in function to a plug valve. See cradle.al. See Pipe Support . pumps.at a frequency at or near the natural frequency of the system. . Reinforcing Rings: See Equalizing Rings.PIPING MECHANICAL 8 OF 10 Reinforcing . etc. used in many cat crackers.ruI. The response to even a small impulse at the resonant frequency is greatly amplified. resists or limits the free movement of the piping. but offering no resistance other than friction to horizontal motion. usually spring supports. Le. ReSi 1i ent Sup~ort: Supports whic~ hold weight but permit some pipe movement.Valve: A catalyst control valve. Shim: ~eel block used to fill the gap between the pipe or pipe support and the support upon which the pipe rests.or. errosive service. Saddle: . turbines. Sensitive Equipment: An item due to its construction or material is limited to a lower allowable stress than that of the pipe. W. C PAGE NOVas DESIGN MANUAL . S1ide . These are Resonance: The phenomenom of a piping (or other) system responding to 8nexcitation .addedto increase the pressure strength in a branch . The control element is gate shaped and in a high temperature. THE M.Pad. Sliding Support: A device providing support from beneath the piping. It forms a ring around the branch and is welded to the pipe and branch.

e.ice.laBH:~~ yard bents. Stress: .O. inch) S Unit stress (pounds per sq.. KELLOGG COMPANY SUBJEct APP.which petmitsrotation v in at least one direction.S. M Z Supeort: A plpe restraint usually used to carry weight..: This means Top of Steel. i. St/: . the plant which is used to support .Out: The condition when the pipe or vessel is filled with stearn as a purge medium. The action of Iead on a unit area.DATE THE M.. S = A p S Ii A . T. inch) M • Moment (inch-pounds) Z • Section modulus (in3) Ii P • Load ( pounds) unit stress (pounds pet sq. Supporting Member: Anystructur~l shape or pipe which is used to transmit the piping reaction into the foundation. expressed as bending. C PAGE NOV 88 DESIGN MANUAL· PIPING MECHANICAL 9 OF 10 ~~f~df. Support Steel: The structural steel located-throughout pipe and equipment. Tangent Line: The llne of intersection between the curved head and the cyl indrical sides of a vessel... in a pipe rack running parallel to the pipe and connecting Stearn. but prevents translatory movement of a pipe .. tension. inch) BENDING S . pounds per square inch ( or pounds per square foot). Area (sq. compression etc.. W. Tangent: The straight uncorrugated portions at the ends of the bellows on an expansion joint.

~... ·.... =-..)3Ea Oil AI .i' .)3E( al1TllC ..=4.... __ .. 12= (_SJ.O... .I._..·...e..... . .___..~j4I111'1R·}... _ .. -:-..... MIN 1 DUE TO STRESS EQUATION f~._.__r.... ..23)t1~-·~ ___ ...-.."..S.....~'.- --- ••••• -. '~. eS71..:. d¢ •...=-::=J:.28 lET E=27... _ _..t*_# oyo.8 - 1 C=Jl 2 - ~.._. -. ·j.""_--.)3E(a~T)lC 1-2 12 = (SJ..ISl7-U __ ........Q..... zz.\.95 II' FOR C.... AT 2000 THE AVERAGE a=6.-.#_-'6- ....."........- 2 -- -7""...I...-...r • _ M= ~_~_I cr~T) l ( S = 12 (S..¥.9xl06 ~..-~~· ..)MC _ (S. *....1..""_....J!l = 3El 3 M1 3EI.4."....:f·. FOR S"" STANDARD WALL HEADER 8.._ ........... . ......._.._!'!!I!!I'..~·<. _a... _ ~····4.j~ M=PJ => P=r I 6- 8·=..."''--''''''_'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''__ PAGE 16 A....~.'a. .... III HAND FLEXIBiliTY METHOD... c .. . .. 0- T .- .._ .............

)- .(20. "-:"' ' " ~' DlT.0054 Ol T 0= ACTUAL 0..(~:I.000)(12) . • . . I iii I • TO KEEP THE STRESS BELOW 20000 · f - PAGE 17 (min . • I. • ." ..T= To -70= CHANGE IN TEMPERATURE OF PIPE WHOSE EXPANSION . (min12 )=0. I . . ." .).0.I.'.JOl T . l= LENGTH OF PIPE WHOSE EXPANSION IS BEING ABSORBED IN FEET..9xlO& )(6. . .0011 {S. ('i2 _ 3 (27 .0. .. CS7I-D507-15 . . . OF BEN:DING lEG IN ·INCHES.23x1o-6) 2. .. I (mini? )=0.--' I I I _ I i t (.) . IS BEING ABSORBED IN DEGREES FAHERENHEIT. '.

.....~..' . AT 200°F -FOR 14'· STD WALL PIPE 1==313 a LIMIT [mln P TO P S 2000ib_ 13=/ 3 (21... .._.'.... 8.-. MIN S of L= -- 1 DUE TO FORCE EQUAtiON r l. E=27. ."(min 13)=O.9xlOI AVE Q =6..• ' ..S..~ ! PAGE 18 • _------ ...0018ITl (miI113)=O. :c ..• ' .•••• ~ •••• # . WHERE 1= MOME~JT OF INERTIA OF BENOING lEG IN INCHES' . T=TD-70~ CHANGEIN TEMPERATURE OF PIPE WHOSE EXPANS·ION IS BE ING ABSORBED IN DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.- .. AND l= LENGTH OF PIPE WHOSE EXPANSION IS BEING ABSORBED IN FEET. ~.1~6:J ~.68TL .:_.. OM ... "_ ••• " •• r •.- :. ....~ :xl0~&) In . " . i~ CS71-05~7 -11 " ••• _ •• O..23)(10-1 FOR C. •• .~._."...-. - . .. ...._-------tp ..

....'. FOR 0 =0....-. ....05" .. f~ ~~------____.-I· I _ 1. l' ".~.. _ .· E=27.:. . =0._ ..20.666 _... 13".-. 6 I.=~~:.... .. .. . · .. .. l--------.051 "'161 1000(1728) .____..~""'l ..02)(2:0) =292 6 1000(1728) .17ft..-. _.:~~~.PAGE 19 rt/· FORCES FROM CANTILEVER FORCE CHART.64ft ...10.......__ .~----------~~----~----/.....:_._.. FOR 2" SCH 40 1=0.. ..05.S. 1 =6..-.'! I P=10001b FOR C. .3(27~9x106HO.9x106)(3. 0...' ! . _...~ -~'.::4..3EI & P~:~..___...=1....-.- =pi 3EI ..9xl06 6. ! ~ I~. 0...~:... i_ l FOR 3" SCH40 1=3....02 = 3(27.4P ------------1 _j "':> ._ _ r= c: r.-'>.'!LI'J FOR 8 =2" CS1'-0S01-U ----~----....:--- ____ ..:_~.66~nO. .

... to .05" 6 r l....: _.375" . .. 2S S=10... . 0=3..000 E=27. l" 3(n~~.5)(2.._1 .0) 2(10....' .. f = 3EIlo .375){O. 2Sg2 M 3EI = 3El = 3EO -.FOR 3".....5" 12 = 3(27......----_.._- ...10.-~ ...86ft FOR 0..26ft FOR 0 =2" ______ _..9xl0· 8 =0.05.... M=Pl 8= --.05) =345 1 =1.....15. -.. STRESS FROM CANTILEVER STRESS CHART• ...9)(106)(3.06H2.. P . FOR 2" 0=2..000)(144) .._- ". 0.... )Z .. 0... I c PI... 0---- CS7l-lSlJ-1I .....2(10..~~:- ...000)(144) =203 44 . ~~:.: PAGE 28 o.. _j 3 21 • S~~~~I '. 1 =14.-..___ ......

. & s=(i E r 4~4 .._ .. it .4t SPAN CHARTS 1.~'.( . ..s. 21 241 (WITH UNITS CORRECTION fACTOR 12) . UNIFORM LOADS PAGE 21 r1 A L C:X--.. .50W1 384EI EI 4 4 (WITH UNITS CORRECTION fACTOR Inl) 14 = 3MAX EI ·4. '.. . MAXIMUM SPAN DUE TO DEFLECTION LET 6=lin "--~ 14=4. :: w1 0 21 . CORRECTION FACTOR 11021) I'-i.00xl0· H WD \ MAXIMUM SPAN DUE TO STRESS LET S 5.5W .. 2 ../ . ~=Mc = MD :::w1 u ~ I .l 1111111 WEIGHT W= fOOt - • ..4..5W (WITH UfUTS..' i \]4£4_. .. b.4 Q . ~4ll . 3- SAACSi?Wk. 12 = 6 =6 I 21S.2 (AT A ANDII 6.. WD lAX (WITH UNITS CORRECTIONFACTOA 1112) = W1 --= 4. 4... 15000psi ·3=---- (4.':-.05xl01 )1 EWD2 . _2 2 MIUXI:12 wl.= ----24EI wx2 (l-X)-__ .'~:... _ . . 12 = (3. Sf ". .

J ..:. M =M ~M T U C = W.. • . .>--'. ~.2 ·2 Pa b·· 22 (WHEN a> bl 2 .U +RAC RaT =Rsu +Rsc CS7. '~" :. . s= -. _. .. -_'... '.'li" I: CONCENTRATED LOADS PAGE 22 B MMAX=}..__ ..:. .... .-0S07 -%0 ~--~--~------------~.~~~. ".M 0 T 21 RAT =R.. -----~~ .e 12 + Pa b 12 r ..: .

since two more elbows (flexible elements) will be added to piping. This Document and its Contents May Not be Used or Copied Without the Expressed Approval of Kellogg Brown & Root Inc. Inc. from bottom (as shown on page) move up to curve representing the given pipe diameter and turn left to find the loop length h. To size the expansion loop. first find the total thermal growth by multiplying the thermal expansion coefficient for a given temperature and the pipe material (from chart on page) to total length between anchors. then enter that number on the expansion loop sizing chart. It is good practice to use elevated loop versus flat. Loop width W must be at least half of the loop length. L Where: L = Total length between anchors (ft) W~h/2 (ft) h = Loop length (ft) W = Loop width (ft) A = Distance to first anchor (ft) A = 20 ft for pipe sizes 3" to 20" A = 45 ft for pipe sizes above 20 22 This is the Proprietary Information of Brown & Root Energy Services A Division of Kellogg Brown & Root. it is recommended to use expansion loop. .5. Place loop approximately in the middle of the pipe run between anchors.2 THERMAL EXPANSION LOOP SIZING For long pipe tun with total thermal expansion from 6" to 12" (usually on pipe rack). The first guides on each side of the loop should be located as recommended below.

. Inc... r'rl v/f' ~ VA/'" I I I I I I i II iII I II I I I l I e = Total Expansion Between Anchors (in) This is the Proprietary Information of Brown & Root Energy Services A Division of Kellogg Brown & Root.0 ~~~/ VV~:'J.-~ 1 I' I i' I I I I I ' I I ! i I lWI . This Document and its Contents May Not be Used or Copied Without the Expressed Approval of Kellogg Brown & Root Inc. ./"'=:V=:=:= /~ ~ l NPS 36 NPS4 NPS 3 10.0 ::::=:=:=:=::::=:=:=:=:1I :::=:=++i=:=::=:I.Expansion Loop Sizing Chart I I ~-4-+I-+I~~~4-+I-+~~~~I-+I-+~-r~+-+-~~-bV~NPS42 I 50.

A.3 6000 support Load s 5000 -=-S~~~:r ~ i ~-SO t ~- t 1. 1051/ 1201/ 15011 1901/ 220/1 SUPPORT LOAD (LBS) 6" 8" 10" 311 4" 3000 2000 S t t zo' SUPPORT LOAD 20' t S 1000 o 3" NOMINAL PIPE SIZE 4" 6" 8" 10" .APPROXIMATE WEIGHT LOAD Pullman Kellogg V1.312 PM-P&P P. OF 20' 3" IN'StJL.0' s ~O' 4000 PIPE SIZE WT.

4 16000 t SUPPORT LOAD 20' 14000 FIPE 12000 SUPPORT LOAD (LBS) ( SIZE 12" wt. tOADS I P. 250" 260" 290" 3~0" 350" 420" 14 16" n 18" 20" 24" 10000 8000 6000 ~ 20' 4000 t tt SUPPORT LOAD 20' ~/ I ~ ~ 2000 12" 14" PIPE SIZE 16" 18" 20" I 24" NOMINAL .. OF 20' 3" INSut. A.312 18000 1I NON~CRtTtCAt WT.APPROX1MATE UEtGHT LOAD Pullman Kellogg PM-P&P V!.

This stress equation is based on2a semi-restrained with end moments equal to O.> o S SH TV) '=' :.:~~ CH \~" i. The allowable span (L) in feet formu 1a below: l• based on stress. sho"ld be eel culated separately for deflection and stress.~t.ng) for the material and temperature indicated. obta . 'L. \..4W a . ined from (d) . unit weight (W) in pounds per foot.llowable span el) in feet based. t'f\ . 2.." . 3._j V . stress used in making weight calculations should be taken as 1/2 of the allowable hot stress (Sh) in PSI as given in ASHE/ANSIB31.ives a hoop stress of Sh) and a longitudinal stress of 1I2(Sh.3 (code for pressure." at (Eh) for the ptpe material The a. on deflection the fonnul a below.ity destgn temperature.. D'ea:n!" X 2UJ .0l2...wL'"L 4.lOWl • 5.~!.SUBJECT DATE THE M.. b.ing (pipe span) are as follows. KELLOGG COMPANY 3110 1 of 6 PAGE 03 JUN 88 DESIGN MANUAL· PIPING MECHANICAL BASIC DATAFOR PIPE SPANCALCULATIONS The requi rements for calcul ating the maximum pipe support spae. Determine the modulus of elastic..: ~3' luLL ~. "Z.. This allows for a pipe internal pressure (which g. thickness of the pipe. section modulus (Z) in inches based on the corroded.~ 7..~ is.ion approximately 5/8" for lines inside battery 1imits 1 ines outside battery limits.. thtckness) Th. n inches is and 1-1/2" fo. Determine the total the sum of: a.VL. 'I.. The nonnal 1 imTt of de. is obtained. 1. continuouS) .fleet..=. s Pi pe wei ght (based on non-corroded Weight of water Weight of insulation Determine values of moment of inertia (1) in inches and.. _ . 6. The allowable tensile.r .. 4 l. c. The shorter of the two.. .i. is the maximum allowable span..'11s: from the L6 /.). pip. I Sh Z 2. s . 2.. Note that spans. t.t5ih ] • j2. M _f·'l. W.

a pipe can.13 or d· ~ (Fn)2. w. 9. {d By substituting Fn .8058 Sht ~ where. KELLOGG COMPANY 3110 2 of 6 PAGE 03 JUN 88 DESIGN MANUAL· PIPING MECHANICAL 7.verage li pipe a natural frequency (Fn) of 4 cycles per second should be used. d = 0. An important reason for limiting.\ t I·r . deflection is to make the pipe sti ff enough. Hot allowable stress of the pipe in pounds per square inch ~b ~ t· ( 7 ~ (_ r?J . 4 CPS.. a. The allowable load per linear 1F) that.. (For lines inside battery limits). i.tside di ameter of pipe in inches Sh . of high enough natural frequency. t • Corroded wall thickness of pipe in inches D ..SUBJECT DATE THE M. W. The formula for the relationship.. between ptpe deflection natural frequency (Fn) is as follows·: Fn • 3. I~U-t. For the. which is approximately the deflection limit stated in Item 6. Ou.61. is calculated as follows: F • 0.in the above equation. (d) and 8. to avoid 1arge amp tude response by any sli ght perturbing force.ithstand to prevent flattening.e.

!J"I( 5 .8'5 /.:: .c 0. s UJ a: LINE UAIII-IOOI l.S f= Si!3!: ~----~==~===== V (0._F_I.00(0 I_ OF _--=r.=-2::.3~ / VL. -304 L r!:. ~ (O.04//0 JS/NG ~c/NF FAD THI«= O. 02 . 1/ 10/. -= leo..../.. (0.O.:. Er-w_.:-6.:' /b 31(0) /6'0... FADS " jl J)/A1::: THJ<. .~_J'_~-f9~J:. Me In) ./25 II? srec .<0 514...12 7" -I- r " .ATTENING (~C/8JG'CT e« t...5 10 5( O.. FOR: LOCATION: SUBJECT: + tV) . 37? 4 /~ ''7 /.KG·0195 (04·95) PAGE __ PROJECT NO.__ --::-C.::. 20 =3G wt ..7 ok I J 58:.33 /7H1< ~ NONe: C1 ~ )) T= =: 0. /7 '= (R.7 x/.5f'AN:- 20 r« + /05.. .02!.. II I( 31.0.17 3]3. In 2.rf .5 f 1..'L: S. MA.04 = O.-:-'I---:--::i)oA/"ILD z.=0.7t:....358 CL [.< 55'./J"J" F ])r So ~JI~ 10700 51.4- x ( 5/ 1. (fJ 0 30ArJGCft:.125 + ~..r":- 7./fr!l) . = .875) . 5/4... ..52. NO. 1 2 3 4 DATE BY CHECK REVIEW APPROVE _ Z 0 (j) S.5 7) _-= 7584 . .5 3602...3 I Ft.f '/ WGAR.5 I.3/ = / 9. /&2) O 0.) 0.C::>: I u /3 55. -:-:- SOA/VILLE -:----:-c-:-__:_-} LouISIAHA.. . I YD = 6'""SS /b 117 VL = 3~O.

2 3 4 iii 7.. 0 1 "2.4= 50) = //1r.4 St_EEpcR.>< 0. ../25 - (0." FR.o. L Y s"'L '2 x '2. ...<.0 LOCATION: SUBJECT s LU a: f3t :: 5.4 x / £lo.g0 ?k ( I~ 700 /:>t.41AJ 5 7:- '2.4 3580 pJ. __ 0F --.3J / 0 ) .KG·0195 (04·95) PAGE __ FOR: + PROJECT NO. '1 4- r x i. 50.! x 2..3726 r~ 0.. NO..EJS = (f o )( Z v=I .. IV) IN IAJlD5. 5T: 7584- + 3S.<. 3.-c.4 2 >< W : 20'.1::: 4G. /1 :: .. oS re.=--_ _ _ _ _ (j) DATE BY CHECK REVIEW APPROVE z 0 :3 S€I' '7(. = 7/1.2.



Pressure . Spans shall be used for Hnes of equivalent or smaller corrosion anowance than those specified in the table.K.In accordance with the "weight tables·· in appendix A.) .PIPING MECHANICAL * Spans 1 imited by stress (aJ1 others limited by deflection).ight tab 1es·· in append ix A for the purpose of determi. 2. GENERAL NOTES: Hydrostatic Testing .Based on (5/8·· max.SUBJECT DATE THE M.In accordance with M. design practice. (Refer to subject 3400) Corrosion Allowance .ASTMA-I06 . (Maximum . Unit line weights shan be used in conjunction with the ··we. For bare p. Pulsating Lines .Spans are adequate without the addition of auxiliary supports for lines on shoes. Deflection . KELLOGG COMPANY 3110 4 of 6 PAGE 03 JUN 88 DESIGN MANUAL . Temperature (OF) .7500F) -.support loadings. W.As indicated.As indicated. The actual working spans shall be a function of "L" as indicated on the Htypical piping diagrams" shown in subject 3140. HAil. Pipe walls require reinforcing at point of support bearing in accordance with subject 7500.ipe lines see subject 7500. GENERAL APPLICATION: 1.ASTM A-53 .API-5L GR.W. Insulation Weight .Spans shall not be used. Spans shall be considered basic and represent the value "L".ning.Spans shall be used for all pipe material of equivalent or higher tensile strength than carbon steel . BASIC CONDITIONS: Material .

5 1II•..:?··::t 1_1"-.ynOR 'ISULATIO" ~'I:-::r£::-r--~Sp~.LIQU. -if.D'lf. •. I' ~~~.o 7)t 77t 'It '11.J' 1 1/2 1 11'1 J·.1 liz 11.'..T' " SIZE III.Eiilu . 110. .H -ii.If " 18 II ~~:::-:~-.. 10 U :~ ~.L. 57 61 . BUE PIPE PIPE .".100.-r-"m:--I'-IIT-.+ "..: .~:r-.. 1 lIZ I 1/2 1$.U "..'" 1 I 11.U· n ~. 20. 11:1.Il If ') O.~:go~ :n __ 'J!.'H~i" JJ'. HI.2 n8.._.0 '!P.. 1 liz n I lIz '.--'f-Hi-r-'I~:~f'rl_.SPAll Lain FEET E'!PTY III. _".50 116.SULATlO" III. :n.1.o 1 )'1 1 liz ~.5S "• ..5". 1 1/2 J II 31:9$. ALllU. .'D tASF".SUBJECT DATE THE M.03 1 .E' fEET fE£T Ill.. 1 112 i~:: 10 '1 1 t/z 11. KELLOGG COMPANY 3110 03 JUN 88 DESIGN MANUAL· PIPING MECHANICAL 5 of 6 PAGE TABLE OF BASIC SPANS & UN:IT LINE WEIGHTS (OUTSIDE BATTERY LIMIT) r--------T-------------~~------------------------"'P£ ----~------------~ riPE ..0 5%T 5'1 55t 111.IO!' CORl..ll1 '.10· CORR ALI. I lIz 1 liz 1 111 10.112 to .80 '. fEET ... ·OEfUCT. ZO I eo 'lo~ -..13 . Lain . WEI-~IT ~SPAii"-DEFUCT.:.'_"'hU . 10 20 II 1 1/2 1 III '.). W. ItEIMi" U/FT WATU- FII. rD-[-FU--CT-.--1-l~I U -l'~~f-r--l&:'~~.11 I. 51 7.0 )/.0 1'12.'" '11.1 0.1 SI 51 I) "". 1"".5. -I-S-'-U-' "O'-E-FU. .~ 11..fJO j~~:f' ..0' I~ 1 lit 311.1 . LB/fT ~~' • .-. SCII. I' "'. '!tI.2 108.'it.-..~·-n.t-II U.'" 1. SS 1 .'''. SO I II' • "l'l/z 21 •.'.1'-5:'1"" J j/i" .'1'" 12 If i 1 1/2 III J. ".

Diagrams" shown in subject 3140.ASTMA-I06: .ASTMA-53 .flection .• Testing . where drainage of lines is required.Spans shall not be used. shall be.trength than carbon steel . KELLOGG COMPANY 3110 6 of 6 PAGE 03 JUN 88 ALL SPANSREPRESENT THE VALUE uL*" + Pipe walls require reinforcing. . used for lines cf equiva. shall be considered basi c and represent. THE M.to 400°F. design Temperature . Uriit line wei ghts sha:ll be used.tion x (.•) Where less than the max.As indicated (1-1/2" max. Spans. The actual work.ping. accordance with subject 7500 at po.SUBJECT DATE . "A"• . the slope between adjacent supports shall be equal to the deflection indicated when the actual span equal s the correspond.Spans shall be used for all pipe material of equivalent. shall be a function of "l*" as indicated on the "Typical Pi. with M.PIPING MECHANICAL GENERAL PPLICATION: A 1. the span is limited by stress.: DESIGN MANUAL .Up. are limited by deflection.\ 4 Basic Span J 3. De. For other spans.lent or smaller corrosion.As indicated. W. allowance than those specified i.ight tables" in appendix A for the purpose of determining support loadings .ight tables" practice.Actual Span. bearing in .API-5L GR. the val ue "1*". in appendix A. All others.See subject 7500 (Refer to subject 3400) Hydrostatic Pulsating Lines . Corrosion Allowance . in conjunction with: the "we. identi fied with an asrer+sk.Insulation Pressure Weight . 2. Spans.n.: Slope • Deflec. the table.W. BASIC CONDITIONS: Materi a 1 ..ing basic span.K.ingr spans. indicated.int of support. or higher tensile s.imum deflection is.In accordance ""_ ~accordance I __ with the "we.

L ~.. rI ANCHM -::-:___' /" ClJIOE ~.'--'::i: T:------==--.T"B'. PII'O. 1 1-1/2 2 3 4 6 B 10 12 13 14 14 16 18 20 24 28 30 36 42 48 54 17 19 23 27 30 33 34 36 39 41 45 50 51 52 59 63 67 M.) <:) v ___.---:-=-_~vr_· . Qtl(o.. SCoIot£ lo\lQ. 10 hA" MINIMUM "I:f MINIMUM FT..I. 15 15 15 15 22 22 22 22 22 30 30 30 30 38 38 38 38 45 45 45 25 25 25 25 25 25 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 8 8 8 8 8 8 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 NOTES: 1.."'_" ~-----...T r T~~~B'~...:::~=-) (TYP.. Rt'Y: I!ISU! !)Jilt P£!CRf'lIo.. NO.~~ ClIP.. b.) _(_TYP."~ 3_L.. "A" DIMENSION IS DESIGNED TO TAKE 4" MOVEMENT.I GUIDE SPACING PIPE RACK FOR LINES CHART B ~ ClIENT.c." PIPE SIZE IN.4" 1I ~J ~ . TlC .' . FT.----'. b. 0li'l'11.. S b... o. _- ABa LUMMUS CREST INC. M. b. : . . b. THE ABOVE SPACINGS MAY BE VARIED TO SUIT COLUMN SPACINGS OF PIPE RACK. 2. "c" MINIMUM FT. b. Hbutton._"C" ------. All . .. l_l.-c. Ow.I. 3 4 4 5 5 7 B 9 10 10 '1 12 13 14 15 16 16 18 19 20 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 125 125 125 125 150 150 150 M._ .

J! ~'2 r... KEU.52 0.l":2 . R t·-rICOt' '"'-T SilllJ1e miter bend or widely sp. T.OGG COMPANY 9590 1 OF 4 PAGE JUL sa DESIGN MANUAL· PIPING MECHANICAL.9 with '. (4'.. Flexibility Factor k In-fIIanI I. (6'.' Jill' 0._.5T [Notes (2).:r. FLEXIBILITY AND STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACfORS TABLE [)"ll FLEXIBIUTY FACTOR k AND STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTORI Stress IntensitlCa\lon FICW (Nota W.' s ~ 'z (1 + [Nota WI" h''' Jil" 2.W. (2). .:~1.9 Jill' niu .. (4)-(7)] II 1.. ~ ~Dt.' 1+ cot.. (3)J.z !.Jced miter bend 1.65 0.DATE SUBJECT THE M. (4)] Weldin9 tee per ANSI B16. (4). 2'2 Z '~. . R1'· bftld . .cliut· n. .75 Jil" Closely spaced miter bend s < 'z (1 + WI·6) (Nota (2).' "us _cot' . 1 G.. (5)] I_52 h'/~ 0.. ([fff.. Ovt'1ll&M I.' "Zll 0. Characteristlc Fltxlbillty " r WeldilllJ elbow or pipe bend [Notes (2)..

9 ..9 (f + ~f.050..9 4.s f 1. Flexibility Cltarac:teris&ic " Skftcfl Reinforced fabricated tee With pad or Siddle tNotes (2).... lrtI° T "z" 0. (integrallY"illforced) (Notes (2). < 1.) f ( 1+.5 L r.S '2 Unreinforced fabricated tee (Notes (2).4- f '2 Branch wtfded-on fittlll9 1 0..'2 '2 Welded·ill COIItour IlIMrt with 1 (Notes (2).Jz. I.11 (CONT'D) FACTOR k AND STRESS INTENSIFICATION FlCtor (Notes (2). (11)] '.9 .3'2 f . I. (4)] 1 r. ('''. THE M.. (Notes (2).9 0. (4).. em 111"'91. ~ 0.5T "z/J 0.9 f ExtIvded weldlll9 tee with '. (8)] 1 "z" 0.SUBJECT DATE . KELLOGG COMPANY 9590 JUl 88 DESIGN MANtJAL • PIPING MECHANICAL 2 OF 4 PAGE FLEXIBIUTY TABLE 1). Stress Jtttensjfiution FACTOR i flexibility FK\Or t Out. (4). (4)] 1 "z1J 0. (9)] /ill' "z1J 3. W..~ ~1.

. i'""< .8 1. f' ~ ~ ~ 3 ~ 2 1.xibility fletor for mitln Ie... r-.SUBJECT DATE THE M. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ::.. /' Fllxibility fector for . ~ ~ ~ <. t End:flangedl:...flanged c...0 2 1.75 0.4 0..iflc:atlon flCtOl' i • 0. r- " ~ 0.OS 0..2 Charletlriltic ChartA 0. -ooa 14 c: II .375 I""'" ~ ~ - """""" ~ ~ r-. II I.651h ""~ 10 8 8 r-.6 lA "" ~ ~ ~ ~ 1. 0...50 0.r-.04 O... KELLOGG COMPANY 9590 3 OF 4 PAGE JUL 88 DESIGN MANUAL· PIPING MECHANICAL FlEXIBIUTY 100 80 60 TABLE 1). r-..! c: -..."r'r-."" . <.5 r-.. -. j~ 1~ !. • h"' 0.03 0.10 0."""""'" " !'./" V VV V . 20 15 '" " . j ..15 0.. l5 0 s: 0. W. ii :: 4 "' ""r-...·h .Ibowsle· 1. 40 30 .521h SlIS ~ V kP\ ~ V / Stress Inten. ~ ~ ~ r-.5 1 r.02 0.3 h 0.11 (COHT'Dl FACTOR k AND STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTOR i P'- V ~ ~ iIIIo. 1 .00 u . '" 2 Ends. 0.25 Chlrt B ./ .2- a .9/h'1J3 V Stress intlmiflc:atlon flCtor/.751h 'JJ'3 V I'V' -.. " '/ FI./ "< r\ .

pipe Nl .6).. are. e6) The designer Is cautioned tNt cast buttwelded fittings mayllave considerably heavier wailS tIIIft tNt of the pipe wItJI whlchtJley are used. (11) When tile radius and tJIickness limits are not met for this component. matdli".11 joint.3 1. It. 0}"'·''-: 0. or socket weld lIange Flexibility Flctor k 1 1 1 1 1 5 Intensification Factor i 1.6. for: ttlS. and '. and In the absence of more. 7 . reducer. Nornend. . F1hibillty factor for torsion equ.attlchect to 0111. In any .' {~~ -t- 0 _ V. or weld IItCk lIange Double-welded slip-on fllnge Fililt welded jOint. . or corru9lted or creased bend [Note (10)) TABLE 0-1 (CONrD) NOTES: .47/'2 (9) The designer must be satisfied tNt this fabrication Ills a pressure rati".3. (2) The lIexibility factor k in tJIe Table applies to: bendl". elbow or pipe bend 1'6 .SUBJECT DATE THE M.-: lleavy... pipe. tile stress intensifiution 'a. or botJI end.l1li111 radius of matchi". (3) A sil19leintensification factor equal to 0.:.aIS: 0. 1191 Cwith ANSI B16.. stub) Threlded pipe joint. KELLOGG COMPANY 9590 JUL 88 DESIGN MANUAl.6 2.pressure ell! signif'icantJy affect the malJllitl.· PIPING MECHANICAl. entering with the compuUct.. 7. +6 divide I by (tH~).9!It""IIIQ· be used·· for botJI/. Cll For Code references to tJlis Appendix. .one-hIIf angle bttwftn adjacent miter axes 'z .directiy applicable dau (see parL 319.3. dividek by 0 T.3. The ftexibility factors· k and stress InttnsIflcatkln factors I sftall: not be less thin· unity. tile values of k and I in the Table shill: be corrected by the factors· ~.ctors shown apply to bendi".. and to the intersection point. from the formulas liven above.9 11.the crotch tIIictness of tees ""1..2 1..ture is IS follows. (4) The values of k and I can be read directly from Cllart A by enteri". (showIt b. wtlich CIII be read directly from Cllart B.- [. 304.. or thrllded fllnge COml9lted straight. To correct vaIue:s.plane •.9. W. the nomina' wa" thickntsl of the. to straight.7 f"': -_ ['+)'25(~}(~)'" (Z~ ~ 1. fictors for torsion equal unity~. 4 OF 4 sUm PAGE Description Butt welded joint. If deslrtd. 319.4Ccl s .' ~ (I) WhenT. at center line D" .for elbows and miter bends. apply.. fabricated tit. see para. Lal'9t errors may be introduced unless the effect of theM greater thicknesses is con~ (7) In large diameter tJlin-walleibows and bends •. over· the tiflctlw lie 1tngUI. pi".ldft of k and I..for tees. _-I.. from the Table.outside diameter of branch (5) Where.bend radius of weld'".miter spaci". wltJI·the dIarIctIristIc It cOlllpllttd.see definition· in para. the nominal wall thickness of the fitting .BotJI factors.0 1. is > 1~ use It .5 LIp joint . equivalent. (10) F. The data 'n Table for 11M in the abstnce of II'ICIn directly appliCable diU. pad or SIddle thickness .. pipe.3 2. flanges.tor used stIIll be that for III unreInfon::ed. center lilies in tJIe sketches) for curved and miter bends. .

...I!-~~.. I' • i I ~l±:Ifili~:t=!=t:t=~ ILL. r (rj~ .. W.1~l.J.1::1 • I l_t±::ttW='j't'ttltt:t:~+-= j' • ." • I ..· PIPING MECHANICAL 1.'L. KELLOGG COMPANY 3120 PAGE 03 JUN 88 DESIGN MANUAL.. I 1. OF 2 IMPOSED LOADS ON HORIZONTAL LINES 5 ..:J..SUBJECT DATE THE M. __J i-:~ .

0. 3110 'l_cJ -' S . 3110 The we. 201-0" P ..ic allowable span in feet. 2.s and insul ation in pounds per foot.factory answer..ludtng: the content. that. the nearest support in feet ..cally downwardto find PIWS. conditions: L . than the actual P. The distance from the pOint.. 2... Assumet.. Ware fixed.5 is reached.ired. The imposed load in pounds 'L_.. W. the max.il the curve where SIt .tght. the system. then either S."tally to the right unt.SUBJECT DATE THE M. inc.ften more or less fixed . then move vert. Usually.. in feet _p .. left where DIS • 0.. P and Oi that could possibly be varied and even they are o... from Subject... W" Since Land.5 x 122.s. 6150 Ibs.401_0n W .122..2. the best approach is... The actual span between the supports.i. of the supporting line./ Enter the chart at the.41-0" Icad) rw S . Since the maximumP is greater and no changes. is workable . P or D must be reduced.~ y •1 . KELLOGG COMPANY 3120 2 OF 2 PAGE 03 JUN88 DESIGN MANUAL· PIPING· MECHANICAL EXAMPLE The following infonnation 'ZD is known: )( L . W. leaves only 5. Move horiz.5 WS P ..imum allowable P. 5000 lbs (actual D . of the imposed load to. D and S and using the chart solve for the maximumload that P could be and compare this figure with the actual P. ~ D .p--s !W O· 4' • 0.. 20' . If the actual imposed load P is greater than.... are requ. The bas..82 lb/ft 5 .2 ~.82 x 20 . to take the actual figures for L.he following.5 • • • Maximum . from Subject.. Sometimes a reduction to two or more of these figures will result in a sati..2.


which.1ong the bottom line where dimension "A" equels 15'-0": then move up. KELLOGG COMPANY SUBJECT 3130 0.9L 3. - ."is fixed at 15'-0" "l n from subject 3110.s 33' -0" Enter the chart at the point a." Line is liquid filled line is insulated Design temperature 3000F Dim.vertfca. in th.3 JUN 88 DESIGN M:ANUAL • PIPING MECHANICAL CHARTO. All dimensions are in feet EXAMPLE Enter the chart with either dimension "All or 118".DATE THE M.int where curve "L" is intersected equal to 33'-0": then mo. Preferably use the dimension that has the pO. "A. Assumethe foll owing condi t ions: Line size 8" Schedule 40 Corrosion a.nt of support to be varied. equals 121-6". The sum of d.lly to the po. I N 2 OF 6 PAGE !!Qlli.is example..llowance 0. 1. 3110. W.10.i.ntof support fixed and allow the other po'. 0.imum dimension of "8". For determination of basic span L see Subject.vehorizontally to the right to find the max.imensions C & 0 in Chart I must be equaJ to at least 2. This means that the actual dimension of N8'1 must be 12'-6" or less.

...SUBJECT DATE THE M. KELLOGG COMPANY 3130 PAGE 03 JUN 88 DESIGN MANUAL· PIPING MECHANICAL CHART NO.e " 10 .. . OVERHANG. 9 7 6 S .. -4 ..0 so • PLAN 20 \' " L . II LINES 3 OF 6 FOR HORIZONTAL e '70 . VARIATIONS..( l 2 '. W.s 2 I 1J 20 '0 .

in this example. the bottom line.SUBJECT DATE THE M.ints of support fixed and allow the other dimension to be varied. vertically to the point. For determination of basic span L see Subject 3110 3. equals. All dimensions are in feet EXAMPLE Enter the chart with either dimension "A" or "B". "A" is fixed at 10'-0'" "L" from subject 3110 is 40' -0" Enter the chart at the poi. II N 4 OF 6 PAGE !!Qill. KELLOGG COMPANY 3130 03 JUN88 DESIGN MANUAL· PIPING MECHANICAL CHART O. This means that the actual dimension of "B" must be. where dimension "A" equals 10'-0". - . W. then move up. Assumethe following conditions: Line size 12" Schedule 3/8" wall Corrosi on allowance 0.10" Line is water fi ned line is uninsulated Design temperature 100°F Dim.nt aTong. 1. which. where curve "L" is intersected equal to 40' -0". The sum of dimensions C & 0 in Chart II must be equal to at least 0. 22'-6". Preferably use the dimension that is fixed by the po. then move horizontally to the right to find the maximum dimension of "B".9L 2. 22'-6" or less.

t"::_c?': :. ...:: ! I : :' d~ ' '8' ci : d oJ : : 0: ....SUBJECT DATE THE.1 :~: .0L EXAMPLE ..8L 1. .00L..PIPING MECHANICAL... "A" . ._ _ ..4L Q... CHART NO.: ~~ . . O. III OVERHANG VARIATIONS FOR HORIZONTAL LINES 5 OF 6 PAGE 'B' :~ ~ a oJ oJ oJ oJ oJ :: : 1.8L O..• -_ ... KELLOGG COMPANY 3130 03 JUN· 88 DESIGN MANUAL.. _.. ··t···.. W. M.

22L (min •. . See the Tabl e r. When a compl ete di agram does not apply. KELLOGG COMPANY 3140 PAGE J.PIPING MECHANICAL. For imposed loads see.45L (min.) 0.SUPPORT LOCATIONS General Notes 1. For overhang variations see Subject TABLE I SUSTAINED LENGTH SPAN.5.. system.) Less.. 2.22L o. The actual pip. the system. broken down into typ+cel d. The basic span shall be adjusted accordingJy by the sustained pipe on either side of the support..22L or 1. 3110. see Subject. for pipe cuts+de battery lim.iag.it. 4.10L* L or L* 0. For the determinat.ion of the. of .ng.licable sections from different diagrams. 1 OF 10 TYPICAL PIPING DIAGRAMS .SUBJECT DATE THE M. than 0.i. W. LENGTH 1. basic span L for pipe withi n battery limit or "L*. Subject 3120 3130 length. can be used to make up. 90L* . app. can usuany be. II II 3.ULY 88 DESIGN MANUAL.rams as shown on the following pages.90L or o .

See Subject 3150 for Guide Spacings.. .. DIAGRAM NO. DIAGRAMS . W. - -: . ".SUBJECT DATE THE M.2 . TYPICAL PIPING.1 See Subject 3150 for Guide Spacings. ~.. KELLOGG COMPANY 3140 2 OF 10 PAGE JULY 88 DESIGN MANUAL.SUPPORT LOCATIONS See Subject 3130 for Overhang Variations. DIAGRAM NO. .• PIPING MECHANICAL..

W.4 .· PIPING MECHANICAL TYPICAL PIPING DIAGRAMS .SUBJECT DATE THE M.3 See Subject l150 for Length over Radius of Gyrat. KELLOGG COMPANY 3.140 PAGE JULY 88 DESIGN MANUAl..SUPPORT LOCATIONS 3 OF 10 /' see Subject 3150 for Length/Radius of Gyration DIAGRAM NO.ion DIAGRAM NO.


ength/Radius. OiS ~.SUBJECT DATE THE M. 5 OF 10 PAGE TYPICAL PIPING DIAGRAMS . of Gyration. KEllOGG COMPANY 3140 JULY sa DESIGN MANUAL· PIPING MECHANICAl. See Subject 3. DIAGRAM NO. W.8 .7 ..~. 3150 for L.SUPPORT LOCATIONS See Subject.150 for Guide Spacings See Subject 3130 for Overhang Variations. DIAGRAM NO.

9 See Subiect 3150 ~ for length over Rad'. DIAGRAM NO. See Subject 3150 for Guide Spacing DIAGRAM NO.IAGRAMS . KELLOGG COMPANY 3140 6i Of 10 PAGE JULY 88 DESIGN MANUAL· PIPING MECHANICAL TYPICAL PIPING D.of gyrat ion. 10 .SUBJECT DATE THE M. . us.SUPPORT LOCATIONS See Subject 3130 for Overhang Variations. W. See Subject. 3150 for Gutde Spacings.

See Subject 3150 for Length/Radius of Gyration .SUPPORT LOCATIONS 7 OF 10 See Subject 3150 for Leng.SUBJECT DATE THE M. KELLOGG COMPANY 3140 PAGE JULY 88 DESIGN MANUAL· PIPING MECHANICAL TYPICAL PIPINGi DIAGRAMS . 11 See Subject 3130 for Overhangi Variations. DIAGRAM NO. See Subject 3.150 for Lengith/Radjus of Gyration.• DIAGRAM NO.th over RadJus of Gyration. W. 12 .

. See Subject 3130.. 8 OF 10.· PIPING MECHANICAL TYPICAL PIPING.SUBJECT DATE THE M. PAGE JULY 88 DESIGN MANUAL. DIAGRAMS . Variations. KELLOGG COMPANY 3140. l3 See Subject 3130. 14 . for Overhang. DIAGRAM NO. for Cverhang Variations.SUPPCRT LCCATICNS DIAGRAM NO. W.

15 See Subject 3120 for Imposed Loads. DIAGRAM NO. W. Variations.SUPPORT LOCATIONS / See Subject 3130 for Overhang Variat. 16 .130 for Overhang.SUBJECT DATE THE M. DIAGRAM NO. See Subject 3.ions. PIPING DIAGRAMS . KELLOGG COMPANY 3140 9 OF 10 PAGE JULY 88 DESIGN MANUAL· PIPING MECHANICAL TYPICAL.


9 18.8 23.2 19.1 22.th over radi us of ~ 4" diameter and ~=('4-'1 d.4 67.1 15.0 30. ratios gyration (L/R): L/R <= 200 for lines L/R <= 120 for lines G of 1eng.7 64.6.9 53. 55.6 21.7 68.9 24.7 44.7 48.2 23.7 46.3 13.7 12.8 36.8 51.8 61.7 19.9 6.1 77.8 10.2 57.4 48.6 22. vertical supported at the lowest e.SUBJECT DATE THE M.5 34.4 29.1 14.8 84.levaUon.0 10.8 69.0 27.4 44.iameter (*) Compression member is defined for use in this table as a.4 25.7 15.7 Guide Spacings are based on the fall owing.5 13.1 10.0 42.3 16.2 80. line .4 36.0 54.0 7.3 40. COMPANY 3150 1 OF 1 PAGE JUL 88 DESIGN MANUAL· PIPING MECHANICAL VERTICAL GUIDE SPACINGS FOR COMPRESSION MEMBERS(*) ( FEET ) LINE SIZE SCH 10 SCH 40 SCH 80 SCH 160 6.7 43. W.7 62.0 12.6 82.9 25.7 60.0 37.9 28.4 9.0 111 1-1/211 211 2-1/2" 3" 411 611 811 10" 12" 14" 16" 18" 20" 24" 7. KELLOGG.4 18.

" 37'-0." 17'-0.F.F.PIPING MECHANICAL VERTICAL." 53'-0.TES 1.1-0." 45'-0." 371-0. 50 P. 40. GUIDE SPACING.ng fonnula: hI • h x 0. Wind Pres." 40.1-0.'-0.'-0." 31'-0" 34'-011 35' -0.1-0" 18" 20.SUBJECT DATE THE M." 27'-0." 24'-0. Wind Pres. the reduced guide spacing (hI) may be found by the fo." 341-0" 36'-0" 2" 3" 4" 6" 8" 10. Wind Pres." 12" 14" 16" 24'-0." 561-0." 511-0." 19'-0." 38'-0.2 Where: l r -_"" J Figure 1 Figure 2 ~ II I ~/2 l." 25'-0" 271-0" 28'-0" 30." 25'-0." 45'-0." 23'-0" 25'-0" 28'-0.S." I" Wind Pres.S.llow." 30." 40. TABLE MAXIMUM SPACING DF GUIDES ( h ) Pipe Size Insul." 40." 20. -0." 421-0. KELLOGG COMPANY 3300 1 OF 3 PAGE JUN 88 DESIGN MANUAL ." 20.'-0." 17'-0" I" 22'-0.____4 KIN Figure 3 Figure 4 .S. 15'-0" 131-0" 151 -a" 16 -0" 1 141-0" 14'-0" 16'-0.1/0.11 481-0." 18'-0." 231-0." 281-0." 17'-0." 1" I" 18." 1-1/2" I" 20.F.11 431-0. W. For lines with insulation thicknesses larger than those shown.1-0. Thick 3D P.S.'-0.1-0" 321-0." 33'-0." 20'-0." 29'-0.F. 45 P. P." 321-0." 47'-0.F." 27'-0." 35'-0. 111 19"-0." 60." 22'-0. Wind Pres." 50." 24" 3" 3" 3" GENERAL No.S." 41'-0. 35 P." 22'-0." 1 2" 2" 211 2" 2" 3" 31 '-0'1 331 _on 351-0." 451-0.'-0" 22'·0." 381-0.

2. 0t:h _f!L r ~ h/2 + 3' f SUPPORT sn MIN h/Z MIN . of pipe in inches + twice the actual insulation thickness in inches.ps attached to the vessels and items such as nozzles. 02 • 0. The guide spacings shown are only for lines that are supported above the guides.0. 3. platfonn clips and known weld seams. THE M. be sure to check for interferences between the guide c1 i. In setting the guide elevations. as shown in the nomenclature.PIPING MECHANICAL 01 • 0.t rIDE h GuXDE h/Z + 3' t SlIP PORT tGiiI!!E h • ~ h/Z HIN h/2'UII Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 FI!Jure 4 .SUBJECT DATE . nozzle reinforcing pads. W.0. as shown in Figures 1 through 4. KELLOGG COMPANY 3300 2 OF 3 PAGE JUN 88 DESIGN MANUAL . of pipe in inches + twice the given insulation thickness in inches from the above table •.

.ipe is resting on a support structure.very third yard bent or equivalent 26" diameter and over .Horizontal Pipe on Support Structures 6" diameter or 1ess . • PIPING MECHANICAL 3 OF 3 PAGE HORIZONTAL GUIDE SPACING FOR WIND VIBRATION .lent 8" to 24" diameter . Adjust for pipes which are shielded from the wind.SUBJECT DATE THE M.ide spaci ng indicates a greater spacing. KELLOGG: COMPANY 3300 JUN 88 DESIGN MANUAL. A hanger restrains pipe motion less than when the p. or where the pipe is shielded from the wind. W. .Horizontal Pipe Supported by Hangers Usua 11y gu ide at every other hanger except where the vertical gu.every fourth yard bent or equivalent This spacing allows for the effect of friction on the unguided supports which restricts vibrating motion.e.every other yard bent or equtva.

Shear axis "VL" is parallel. A-Position on vessel at junction. B-Position on vessel at junction. 2) Ml-axis: Perpendicular to the nozzle centerline along convenient global axis. C-Position MLaxis. 3) M2-axis: Cross the P-axis into the MI axis and the result is the M2-axis. along negative on vessel at junction.User's Guide WRC 107 (Vessel Stresses) 107 to define the applicable orientations of the applied loads and stresses for both spherical and cylindrical vessels are shown in the figure below. along negative MI axis. means stress on inside of vessel at junction. D-Position MLaxis. on vessel at junction. The stress state in the vessel wall when the nozzle has a reinforcing pad can be estimated by considering a solid plug. WRC Axes Orientation It has also been a common practice to use WRC 107 to conservatively estimate vessel shell stress state at the edge of a reinforcing pad.D. along positive M2 axis. and in the opposite direction as the bending axis "MC". Equipment and Component Compliance 12-9 . if any. along negative M2 axis. means stress on outside of vessel wall at junction. means stress on outside of vessel wall at junction. C-Position on vessel at junction. and and gloaxis To Define WRC Stress Points: u-upper. SPHERICAL SHELLS CYLINDRICAL SHELLS To Define WRC Axes: I) P-axis: Along the Nozzle centerline and positive entering the vessel. D-Position on vessel at junction. along positive on vessel at junction. along positive MI axis. with an outside diameter equal to the O. 2) MC-axis: Along the vessel centerline positive to correspond with any parallel bal axis. B-Position MCaxis. means stress on inside of vessel at june- tion. of the reinforcing pad. I-lower. 3) M2-axis: Cross the P-axis with the MC and the result is the ML-axis. l-Iower. To Define WRC Axes: I) Pvaxis: Along the Nozzle centerline positive entering the vessel. A-Position MCaxis. along positive on vessel at junction. and in the same direction as the bending axis "ML". To Define WRC Stress Points: u-upper.CAESAR If . subjected to the same nozzle loading. along negative Note: Shear axis "VC" is parallel.

._1I35IQII1EM'. Inc. • =3.82 55 This . 24 0.isthe Proprietary Information of Brown & Root Energy Services A Division of Kel10gg Brown & Root.= KlI'ClLI'IM'D&Ii Ute. This Document and its Contents May Not be Used or Copied Without the Expressed Approval of Kellogg Brown & Root Inc.

. Example No.Locate in such way that offset inE-W run of sub-header 3 will be sufficient to absorb thermal growth. Calculate nozzle movements base on support and anchor location IE. This Document and its Contents May Not he Used or Copied Without the Expressed Ap.2 HOT TEMPERATURE PIPING EXAMPLE NO. Use Table on page 17.APPENDIX CHot Temperature Piping. Knockout drum. Use Table on page 18 to obtain required-offset leg. Follow IB and determine total thermal expansion for each sub-header.2 APPLICATION: FLARE SYSTEM ON OFFSHORE PLATFORMS PIPING DESIGN TEMPERATURE: 93 °C (200 OF) STEP 1: Study Expansions 1A. H4 . STEP 2: Locate Expansion Loop Anchors First size thermal expansion loop using chart on page 20. Then locate loop approximately in the middle of pipe run (Header I). Pipe Header 1.provaJ of Kellogg Brown & Root Inc. IC. Sub-headers 2. Calculate total E-Wexpansion based on total length of piping in that direction and coefficient of expansion for piping design temperature and material. 3. STEP 3: Locate Anchors HI. close to elbow but offset in E-W direction must be enough to absorb thermal 56 This is the Proprietary Information of Brown & Root Energy Services A Division of Kellogg Brown & Root. and 4. H3 . H5 -Locate approximately in the middle of sub-header 2.Locate close to middle of E-W run. Inc. (shown). H2 . H6 -Locate expansion.Locate on both sides of the expansion loop so that maximum expansion going to the loop from each anchor must not exceed 6" (150 mm).

Use guide spacing chart. normal operation.provalof Kellogg Brown & Root Inc.bridge movement to calculated thermal expansion. STEP 4: Locate Guides Guides help to keep pipe in place laterally during system start-up. 57 . platform . Do not locate guide close to branch connection and elbows to permit piping expansion. Inc. earthquake.gg iBrown & Root. wind transportation. STEP 5: Locate Pipe Support Use pipe support span table for maximum allowed span and follow rules on page to prevent overhang. This Document and iits Contents May Notibe Used or Copied Without the Expressed Ap.NOTE: In case of piping system run on two or more platforms and bridges. relative platform movement.add relative platform -platform. This is thePropraetary Information of Brown & Root Energy Services A Division of Kello.

<J~Y.~. Inc. This Document and its Contents May Not be Used or Copied Without the Expressed Approval of Kellogg Brown & Root Inc.~ 58 This is the Proprietary Information of Brown & Root Energy Services A Division of Kellogg Brown & Root.<. . ! ~ ~ ~ . .: ~ Ii i e• E ~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~ :..

Example No. It Cold Separator and Cold Exchanger .Locateon line matching centerline of cold separator. l A. IC. From table on page 18 find offset leg required.Calculate nozzle movements based on support and anchor location (shown).3 APPLICATION: GAS CONDITIONING (DRYING) PIPING DESIGN TEMPERATURE: -:50 °C (UPSET) OPERATING TEMPERATURE: _220 C STEP I: Study Expansions Piping under cold temperature will contract opposite to expansion under hot temperature.3 COLD TEMPERATURE PIPING EXAMPLE NO. use table on page 17. This Document and . lB. Add all applicable equipment expansions. Do not locate guide close to branch connection and elbows to STEP 4: Locate Pipe Support 59 This Is the Proprietary Information of Brown '&RootEnergy Services A Division of Kellogg Brown . also applies to equipment. permit pipe growth. Inc. H4 .Locate approximately in the middle of E-W pipe run.& Root. . Use coefficientofexpansion (contraction) for piping design temperature and piping material.APPENDIX D Cold Temperature Piping. Calculate total contraction of piping in E-W direction based on distance between equipment. STEP 3: Locate Guides Use guide spacing chart. STEP 2: Locate Anchors H3 .its Contents May Not be Used or Copied Without the Expressed Approval-of KeJloggBrown & Root Inc.

Use pipe support span table for maximumallowed overhang. span and follow rules on page 8 to prevent 60 This is the Proprietary Information ·ofBrown&RootEnergy Services A Division of KeUoggBrown&Root. Thisi[)ocumentanditsContents May Norbe Used or Copied Without the Expressed ApprovaJofKeJ)oggBrown & Root Inc. . Inc.

ANCHOR ANCHOR & GUIDE COLD TEMPERATURE PIPING APPENDIXE Line SpacingChart 61 This:istheProprietarylnformation of Brown & Root Energy Services A Division of Kellogg Brown & Root. Tbis Document and its Contents May Not be Used or Copied Without the Expressed Approval of Kellogg Brown & Root Inc. .~ IS NEGATIVE (TYP. 2) LEGEND 6 THERMAL GUIDE EXPANSION DIRECTIONAL ~ DIRECTIONAL . Inc.

The following should be used to aid in establishing non-rotating equipment.

arrangements and locating anchors on


The following expansion: information shall be used to locate the anchors and origin of thermal

The stacking or plot arrangement on multiple shells in interconnected service. Where a close couple arrangement is proposed, it is preferred to see all interconnecting lines such as shellto-shell and channel-to channel, plus bypass lines where operation can be maintained on partial capacity. Location of anchor point related to piping connection (vertical and horizontal). Where piping parallels horizontal equipment, anchor the end, which provides the most compensating expansion. Identification of exchanger service, i.e., reboiler, condenser or cooler, and identify nozzles as shell or channel. Exchanger shown below is for process streams in both channel and shell, with shell cover end anchored. The objective, in most cases, is to utilize exchanger expansion to compensate for piping expansion (see sample on page 35). Stacked exchangers are similar with expansions accumulating from the anchor point. The vendor's stacking arrangement should be reviewed by the Piping Stress Engineer before outlines are approved.


This is the Proprietary Information of Brown &- R99t Energy Services A Division of Kellogg Brown &- R99t, Inc, Tb's Document and its C~>ntentsM~y N9t be Used or Copied Without the Expressed Approval of Kellogg Brown & R09t Inc.







Note: Thermal expansions shown for alternative anchor location.


This is the Proprletary Information of Brown 4SI. Root Energy Services A Dlvision of Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. This Document and its Contents May Not be Used or Copied Witbout the Expressed Approval of Kellogg Brown & Root Inc.





f'' '


















Note: Try to anchor the pipe at the same centerline of exchanger anchor (as shown), This

will equalize thermal growth of the exchanger and the pipe (~l = ~2). In this case loads from piping to the nozzle "N" due to thermal expansion will be minimum.

This is the Proprietary Informatlon of Br()W:Q~ Root Energy Services A Divisi():Qof KeUogg BroW:Q & Root, Inc. This Document and its Contents May Not be Used or Copied Without the Expressed Approval of Kellogg Brown ~ Root I:Qc.






THERMOSYPHON REB OILERS Thennosyphon reboilers may be supported from the adjacent vessel or from independent structures from grade. In either case, the method and location of support shalf be determined by Piping Stress. Location of the supports. will be determined on the basis of minimizing differential movements between the reboiler piping and the vessel. If hot oil is to be circulated through the reboiler prior to start up, or if there is an appreciable difference in temperature of the reboiler and vessel, the reboiler may require spring supports and lor additional flexibility in the piping.


This is the Proprietary Information of Brown & Root Energy Services A Division of Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. This Document and its Contents May Not be Used or Copied Without the Expressed Approval of Kellogg Brown & Root Inc.



II----... t ...______j_









Note: Locate support to minimize differential thermal expansion Lll and Ll2.


KETTLE REBOILERS The horizontal reboiler anchor location depends upon its relationship to the vessel. It is normally anchored at the reboiler support closest to the centerline of the vessel. The reboiler bottom elevation should be located as close as possible to the.vessel tangent line elevation to reduce footage of piping required to accommodate vertical growth. The reboiler elevation must also meet process requirements as specified on the Flow Sheet. Example layouts are shown below.

42 This is the Proprietary Information. of Brown & Root Energy Services A Division of Kellogg Brown. & Root~Inc. This Document and its Contents May Not be Used or Copied Without the. Expressed Approval of Kellogg Brown. & Root Inc.



43 This is the Proprietary Information of Brown & Root Energy Services A Division of Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. This Document and its Contents May Not be Used or Copied Without the Expressed Approval of Kellogg Brown & Root Inc.


The following information shall be used to determine thermal expansion and related criteria. Location of support points of vessel with respect to nozzles Locate anchor at the end of the vessel which will provide the most compensating piping expansion. Shell diameter and nozzle projection. Shell material. Any fireproofing or insulation. Design temperature - Do not use design temperature shown on vessel drawing; use operating temperatures shown on the line list for inlet and outlet piping. effect for





~=Therrnal expansion.

This is the Proprietary Infurrnation of Brown lk Root Energy Services A Division of Kellogg Brown &. Root, Inc. Tbis Document and its Contents M~y Not be Used or Copied Without the Expressed Approval of Kellogg Brown 8.. Root Inc.


Shell diameter and nozzle projection Shell material Shell temperatures . and whether fireproofed. or both.8 VERTICAL VESSELS The following information shall be used to determine thermal expansion: Point of support. .Use operating temperatures of bottom. intermediate and top outlet piping from line list. skirt height. insulated. Do not use design temperatures as given on vessel outlines. Root Energy Services A Divisj()n of K~lIogg Brown & Root. 40 This is the Pruprletary lnf()rm~tioll of Brown 8r.8. Inc. This D()CUmellt and its C()lltellts M~y N()t be Used or C()pi~d WjtllQut the Expressed Approva] of K~U()gg Brown & Root Inc.

The values so determined are usuatly to low to be practical.e input or threat . interfering with the internal moving parts. However. but that It Is imposSible. :he foundation.S. TEXAS. often used to make the calculated piping load satisfy the given allowable. either from expansion ot a pipe or from other sources. because many equipment indeed cannot take too much a load. Figure 1 shows a typical pump installation which can be divided into three main parts: the pump body.A. Unusual configurations and restraining systems are. it is important to design the piping system to impose as little stress as possible on the eqUipment. The practical practice is for tHe equipment manufacturer to specify a reasonable allowable piping load and for the piping deSigner to deSign the piping system to Suit the allowables. . all these efforts are very often just exercises of computer technology. The problem is that a weak link exists that is often overlooked in the design of ar. CopyngJu 1993 by Gulf Publishing Company. generally have a very low allowable piping load. PEE ~ENG ENG1NEERrNG. These toacs. aspeclatty the rotating equipment. it is preferred to have no piping stress imposed on an eqUipment. as Well as shell deformatioh. Without tr. This notion is not necessarify true. The main reliability problem has not been Salved. This document may not be reproduced in any form withaui permission from the copyright owners. It also complicates the layout of the piping system in meeting the allowable. PENG. HOUSTON. ALLOWABLE LQAD Process equipment. Ail rights reserved. U. The allowable piping loads given these days are generally determined sOlely by the eqUipment manufacturers Without any pcHticipatiol1 from the piping engineering community. the routine Proceedings of tbe 1993 Improving Reliability in Petroleum Refineries and Chemical and Natural Gas Plants conference. C. Piping engineers often think the manufacturers give low allowables to protect their own interests. A better designed equipment with some common sense piping arrangement is the basis for imprbving reliability. equipment. can cause Shaft misalignment. Ideally. and 1he pedestai/base plate.EQUiPMENT RELIABILITY IMPROVE~JcNT iHROUGH REDUGED PIPE STRESS L. The load and stress imposed from a connecting piping system can greatly aftsct the reliability of an equipment.rorn the plplng or equipment engineers. The low allbwable pipe load given by the manufacturer results in a weaker machine for enduring the day to day operating enVironment. Therefore.

c '"j rn 14~==~==~==~==~==~~==~==~=== 7j500 Psi . --- API Std·610 Altowable 2 4 O~--~----~--~---+----~--~--~----4 6 8 10 14 ~EMA SM-23 Allowable 16 Pipe Figure 2....... inches Allowable Piping Loads ..... Sizes...PRESSURE PART PEOESTAU BAsE PLATE FOUNOA 1'10N Figure 1. .. PIpe Stress ! c: Q) I' E o *~ i . The Weak Link o o o ./) .. t...

The API Std-617 uses 1. Surprislnqly. is also massive and stiff due to the lirfHtations of the soil bearing capacity. The pump body is designed to be as strong. thing. Figure 2 shows the comparison of the pipe strength.85 times the NEtv1A allowable. if not stronger. The toundaticn.design of the pump assembly can have different ~jgnlficance on different parts of the pump. notmally designed with the combined pump/motor assembly weight. the API formally adopted it to its pump standards. ThiS desigh basts creates a very weak pedestal/baseplate which can take very little load from the piping. Without considering the taking of any piping load.lready been seen in pump applications. The pipe strength curve is oased on a 7500 PSI bending stress. Unfortunately. the problem can actually be rectified very eaSily. Nowadays. of course. the pedestal/baseplate is generally deSigned only by the pump weight. It should ce notso that the attowaole pipe stress aga:nst thermai expansion can be as much as t~ree times hlgner than 7~OO CSt. RecognIZing the popular demand for the 2X or 3X baseplate. By understanding the situation. the cost of a 2X or 3X pump was only marginally mote than that of a regular pump.30 times the NEMA values for the aJlowables. For example. the allowable API Std-610 piping load. but the allowable piping load is still not large enough to be desirable. and the NEMA allowable piping load. The API Std-617 3 centrifugal compressor and the ASME/ANSI B73.1 vendors often use 1. In other words. hence the tamous story of the vendor who claimed his eqUipment cannot take any piping load. pump application engineers who long realized the low allowable piping load problem customarily specified dOUble (2X) or triple (3X) base prates 10 increase the allowable piping load by two or three times. at present this philosophy has not been shared by other manufacturers. Since the sixth edition of the API Std-610 1 . The weak link. most vendors have more sense than to claim such a. . than the piping so that the body can resist the same internal design pressure as the piping. Actually. However. the pedestal/baseplate is a different story. and the ANSI 873. it should not have been the least bit surpriSing. the strength of the whole pump assembly has become fairly uniform that no additional ailowable can be squeezed out without adding a substantial cost.1 4 pump are not tar behind. Improvement has a. respectively. the allowable has been increased to a level that makes the 2X and 3X specification no longer necessary. since all a vendor has to do to make it 2X or 3X is to provide a couple of braces or stiffners. the 1956 NEMA 2 turbine allowable load is probably the most unreasonable 01 its kind. is the pedestal/baseplate assernoty. to most engineers.

In addition. This is a common mistake made by inexperienced engineers who think that a restraint can only tnerease the stiffness. The operational engineer had to put a large cross beam to anchor atl the iccps in the field to suppress the vibration to a manageable level. Although extensive loops are used in the piping given in the figure.nc system. Typical examples that cart CaUSeunreliable operation are discussed ih the following. Figure 3 shows a pump piping system which was designed without any restraints installed. The excessive flexibility makes the systern prone to vibration. Fot low allowa. This is a tact and should be understood by all parttes concerned.e flexibility of the system as a whole and will increase the maximum stress and force in the system. -:-his snows that the function of the Original . EXOESSIVE FLEXI81L1rr Adequate piping flexibility at an equipment is reqUired to reduce the piping load to the acceptable value. and a restralntnq system is generaUy required. thus increaSing the load.cops were lost bv tne ancnor. It is true that a restraint will tend to decrease tr. Therefore. a good design should consider the realistic flexibility trorn the support structure and the propel" USe of the protective restraints. The piping still experiences larger than normal vibrations due to flow disturbance causea by the loop . because it is easily excited by small. disturbing fluid forces. A svstern similar to that shown in Figure 3 excenenced very severe vibrations in one petrochemical plant. an extensive expansion loop.ble items. it is cleat that the piping load that can be apphed to an equipment is much smaller than the strength of the pipe itself. the piping load still may not meet the equipment allowable due to the lack of a restraining system.Looking at Figure 2. However. Because Of the elaborate design of the piping system attached to a SenSitive equrprnent. such as a large size steam turbine. a piping system . has difficulty meeting the allowable load imposed by the equipment.nd overlook engineering tundarnerttals. no matter how flexible it is. the equipment alloWable load is the ControiJihg factor. a properly deSigned restraint can shift the stress from the portion of piping near the equipment to a portion further away from the equipment. in designing the piping connected to an equipment. engineers may Sometimes get too trapped in the computer maze a. the piping loops enhances the internal fluid disturbance by creating cavities and other flow discontinuities due to excessive pressure drops. However. Without the properly located restraints.

Too Much FlexibiUty (a) FRICTION f A (b) z~x (c ) CHOCKING (d) Figure 4. Problems with Theoretical Restraints .THE FIELD ANCHOR BEAM INSTALLED IN Figure 3.

such as a low friction plate or a An INEFFECTIVE SUPPORT MEMBER is another problem otten encountered in the protective restraints. would then be used. Therefore. but hydraulically stili open to many THEORetICAL RESTRAINTS A properly designed piping system generally has some restraints to control the movements and to protect the sensitive eqUipment. This friction effect can cause a. the natural fix is to place a Z-direction stop near the nozzle connection. This may be all right on the computer. the calculated reaction at the eqUipment is often very small. However. real piping system. the friction at the stop surtaca will prevent the pipe from expanding to the poSitive X-clrectton. A GAP is generally required in the actual installation of a stop. A proper type of restraint. . SOrtie important discrepanCies are described in the FRICTION is important iii the deSign of the restraint system near the equipment. As shown in Figure 4 (c). For the support to be effective. In the deSign calculatlorts. jf the computer shows that the Z-direction reaction is too high. However. The engineers direct instinct is to always put the fix at the problem location. its effectiveness is questionable due to the innerent gap. Figure 4 (a) shows a typical stop placed against a long Z-directioh line to protect the eqUipment. but in reality it is very ineffective. if the friction is ignored.s result on paper. fixed.to the closeness of the stop to tne equipment.which is structurally directional changes. For instance. high X-direction reaction to the equtprnent. the pipe has to be bent or moved a oistance equaJ to the gap before the stop becomes active. because ot the gap. there are also restraints whiCh are placed in desperation by piping engineers trying to meet the allOWable load of the eqUipment. this is almost the same as strut.lys. These pitfalls are caused by the differences between the real system and the computer model. but do not work on a. the support member A has to be at least one order of magnitude higher than the stiffness of the pipe which is very stiff in this case due to the support's relatively short distance from the nozzle. Due . follOwing. A calCulation including the friction will predict this problem beforehand. in reality. but are often very ineffectiVe and sometimes evert harmfuL Figure 4 shows some typical sttuanons Which WOrk on the computer. These so-catted computer restraints give a very good computer ana. Figure 4 (b) shows a popular arrangement to protect the equipment. if a stop is placed too close to the nozzle connection.

EXPANSION JOINT An alternative solution to meet the allowable pipe loadihg 10 an equipment is the use of bellow expansion joints. This pressure end terce has 10 be resisted either by the anchor at the scuroment or by :he tie-rod straddling the bellow. The bellow joints are also often used for fitting the large multi-unit assemblies as shown in Figure 5 (b). This not only creates an occupational safety concern.bending the equipment that much before the pipe reaches the stoo. pushing the whole equipment up. the pipe can no longer slide along the stop surface. This gives the appearance of solving the problem. it is often found to be very undesirable due to the difficulty in maintenance.s. CHOKING is another problem relating to the gap at the stop. such as the pipe connected to a . when covered with insulation. WHen the temperature rises to a point When the radial expansion is completely choked by the support. but it can also cause cracks due to thermal shock trom the environment and/or weather changes. Due to blindness anxiety. the cellow IS not able to transrnrt or absorb the axial internal pressure end force. The oellow is flexible axially. Although a properly . such as flanges and valves. For instance. Some engineers are aWa. As shown in Figure 4 (d). The axial expansion will then move upward. With the exception ~. '/ery lOW pressure applicators. the expansion joint looks just like a pile of blanketed scraps. One important factor often overlooked by engineers in the installation of a bellow expansion joint is the pressure th rust force Inside the pipe. because the equipment generally can only tolerate a much smaller deformatiOn than the construction gap of the stop. when the gap is not prOVided. but another problem is actually waiting to occur. Therefore. In real applications. We all know to pay attention to the longitUdinal or axial expansion of the pipe. the pipe will be choked by the stop as soon as the pipe temperature starts to rise. Nobody knows exactly what is going on inside the mixed layers of covering. the bellow exoansror: joint is very popular in the exhaust system of a steam turtnne driVe which has an extremely low allowable pipe load for pipes 8" and above.re of the conseouencas of the gap at the stop mentioned above and try to solve it by specifying that no gap be allowed at the Stop. but we often forget that the pipe expands radially as well. Regardless of the constant objection from plant engineers.nstausd and maintained bellow expansion joint should have the same reliabihty as other component. many installers have resorted to an uninsulated arrangement. This is not acceptable.

Tie-Rods on Expansion Joints -8 - .SHOULD NOT BE ANCHORED ( a) NUTS SHOULD BE TIGHT ( b) Figure 5.

. reliable oiant. the reduction of pipe stress is not at all straight torward. When the nuts are loose. the pressure end torce simply pushes the pump way out of alignment. u ell probteOls.e taken by thetie . It is time to realize that if something works well in a plant day in and day out.nsome to.non IS very rmportant in cesiqrunc a good. The pressure thrust force has to b. ancno r flexibility etc. Since there are so many things.are no: strong enough to resist the pressure end teres equal to the pressure times the ballow cross section area.jd~~. shaky layout only because a computer liked it that way.. the pipe expands from the ancnor toward the bellow [oint. simple working iavout changed to a complicated. but the construction was not done property. The expansion joint layout scheme appears to be sound.. The large pressure thrust force pushes the turbine. However. one engineer had loosened the tie-rod nuts. FigureS . many engt~eer$ •. When the baSe elbow is anchored. apparentlY thinking the tie-rods defeat the purpose of the expansion jOint. We often see a good. The start-up was very shaky and had to be quicKly halted. ma. causing shaft misalignment and severe Vibrations. One very important resource often ignored in this country is the experience found in operating plants. It took qUite aWhile before anyone discovered that the problem was caused by the loose tie-rods. like friction. SOrn~hOW.Figure 5 (a) shows one of many steam turbine exhaust pjpingsinst~lled at a petrochemical plant.re$~ltin~ .storage tank. The tie-rods Were supposed to be locked.. undouotectv. In this case.jS not ObViOUS.king the tie-rod 100sS and ineffective. operational problems. the tie-rod loses its function as Soon as the pipe starts to expand. . FigUre 5 (b) is a similar sttuaticr. computers are important tools. .tts. Other practical approaches may be explored to further improve overall reliability. that cannot be given accurately. computer results need to be interpreted carefully.rq(j. = OTHER PRACTICAL CQNSIDERATIONS above. before the start-up operatfon. I As discussed . regardless of wnetner cr not tne computer predicted it to be good. The bellow expartsron jOints were used soleiy for fitting up the connections. but they are only as good as the information we give them. The actual installation had a sliding base elbow anchored With four bo.sho\Vs two. it should be considered good. most equipment . Especially when dealing with the loW allowable of some equipment. the technique becomes tricky and very often only works on paper. this problem often escapes the eyes of even experienced engineers. The process orevou.this.

Alternative Macnrne Assemblies .tine PUmp's SI i din g Bas e Figure 6.In .10- ..

LITERATURE CITED 1 API Standard 610. an extra strong baseplate is required. 3 API Standard 617. if we have that strong of a baseplate in the first place. such as the use of sliding supports. D. but it is important to distinguish the difference between the movement of the whole assembly and the movement of only the pump or turbine." National Electrical Manufacturers Association. assembly moves.C. 4 ASME B73. 2 NEMA SM-23. that these movable assemblies are just potentlal alternatives. if the piping load is still within the allowable. To make the sliding base or the spring support scheme workable. spring supports. . When the whole. Washington.1M-1991. and more compact in··line arrangements as shown in Figure 6. One should not be oversold on the idea and blindlly use it in a plant. D. Washington. SF6cification for Horizontal End Suction Centrifugal Pumps tor Chemical Process. That is. New York. Washington.ood that engineers do not feel too confident on the movable assembly.C. however. It should be noted. the allowable piping load would have increased substantially. It is underst. 'Cemrifugal Pumps for General Refinery Services.' American Society at Mechanical Engineers. can also be seriously considered. Then again.Other ideas. the shaft aliqnrrrent can still be maintained if the distortion of the equipment is not excessive.C." American Petroleum Institute. D." American Petroleum Institute. "Steam Turbines for-Mechanical Drive Service. "Centrifugal Pumps tor General Refinery Services.

9 "a" and "b" .5 2.in2 (Ge) - Discharge Gravitational constant use 32.PSIA (VI) . Piping Design should have a reference copy on file.in2 from "Instruments Specifications" sheet originated by the Control Systems Group. Pressure (p) .FT/SEC.use the set pressure plus 14.16 Ft-LBF/BTU elbow area (AI) .6 2. LBM/SEC from "Instruments 2.7 2.8 2. 3.FT LBF .2 2.Appendix valve inlet (ho) Stagnation enthalpy at the safety BTU/LBM .use values from the FPSADG and for steam use Ko = 1.0 DESIGN 2.4 2.2 LBM . CONDITIONS of the thrust spool showing 2.3 Ratio of Specific Heats (Ko ) ./' FLUOR DANIEL DESIGN GUIDES PIPE ST~ESS SAMPLE COMPU'I'A'I'IONSNUMBER PRESSURE SAFETY VALVE REACTIONS 4-11 1 of 2 8-18-92 PAGE OATE 1. Piping Design shall provide a stress routing and the support locations. "JII - 778.7 of the valve 2.3 (superheated) and Ko = 1.10 Pressure 2.0 GENERAL 1.1 Orifice area of valve (A) . B31.from AS ME 31.from ABME .1 (saturated) Mass Flow Rate (W) Specifications" Sheet.1 1.2 (DLF) .SEC2 (PI) .1 .BTU/LBM . Values II.11 Velocity at discharge at discharge elbow exit elbow exit 2.2 This section deals with the calculation forces from pressure safety valves.1 Appendix I 2.PSIA .from steam tables.12 Dynamic load factor fig.

0 DESIGN 3. reaction + 1) AP calculation (PSADG) (x.1-1980 Appendix II p = W(b-l) 1 A 1b 2 (ho-a) J Gc (2b-lj V= 1 2GcJ(ho-a) (2b-l) T= .2 Formal analysis per ANSI B31.the time to go from fully closed to fully open .1846~ Wh 3 EI .~~ SAMPLE COMPUTATIONS SAFETY NUMBER PAGE DATE 4-11 2 of 2 8-18-92 VALVE REACTIONS PRESSURE 2. 2.SEC.6 period (T) ..13 Safety valve opening time (to) .SEC .14 Safety valve installation 3.1 Simplified F= ./ FLUOR DANIEL DESIGN GUiDES PIPE ST~SS . 3.obtain from Control Systems Engineer..

260· .49 765..250 .0540 Z Conmound c Specific Heat K C v 0 _E_ C Ib.7 p = Inlet pressure at time of opening..240 . CA A 28..FLUOR .41 (AIR) SHOULD BE USED IN .8 T 1.9 W = Absolute temperature = oR = 0 = Flow rate = pounds per hour . 705.70 1114.16 58.~ 2. .94 17..J1 ---BTU N2+02.l)J 1.4 K o 1. C6H6 CsH1b C4~0 1.1 of 4 9-72 .09 272.67 1.074 . .09 560. 3. .280 •398 Acetylene A:-gon lL'=lIIlonia.oR BI'U A'.07 1. 731.'" -- =!-b.5 (!Co ~·l ) (Ko + l)/(Ko .0 DEFINITIONS 1.09 1657. 905.~ Be:lZene Benzene (ethyl) Butane.0704 (normal) .24 1...PAGe.74 2 .39 557.290 .40 547.11 106.320 .16 .363 .224 .6 M 1. { ..2 C = Orifice area of valve or disc = 520 = [KO = square inches 0.03 78.0682 .3 F 1. Ratio of specific heats.12 238.7) 1.0 NOTE THAT K ~ 1.290 .1 A 1. psia (set pressure plus 14. .cp/Cv Coefficient of discharge Molecular weight of gas or vapor F + 46 0 = = = 1.399 ..31 714. OR .274 . 1.215 .0661 ~.397 .0517 . 1012.271 .ANY SYSTEM WHERE IT IS POSSIBLE FOR AIR TO BE RELIEVED FRCM THE SYSTEM..5 K Force = lb.41 1.523 . 1.274 .•0560 551.• 262 .97 26.04 39.12 1.241 .1 DESIGN GUIDES PIPE STRESS ANALYST DESIGN GUIDE HUMBER . . DATE - 4.0 GAS PROPERTIES AND PHYSICAL CONSTANTS Formula Molecular Weight Critical Constants V Pc Tc c .

.-.iP~ f' 1. Z c BTU lb..69 549.'1y1 ~CL C!'-.402 .!le Carbc~ .754 .410 . 370.--------.__ PIPE STRES$ANALYST OEstGN GUIOE "HUMBER .69 972.tric N2 NO Oxide -- .0682 .269 . 1306.02 36.40 1.01. 33.115 ..408 " -- ~ ..24 1. T""""-----------..----_..50 28.20 1.12 ~i· """r'" """.r .270 . CL2 C2H6 C 2'''4 tr 58.0348 1120.31 914.165 BTU K 0 Butane (iso) C4H10 CO CO~ t::..5168_ 1200.0705 .4Q '" . ... 440.69 750.~..270 .16 PAGe-.269 . OR .06 1.3/1b.37 1.01 70.40 1.291 .::y1ene Eelium Heptane (ncreal.254 .12 28.0787 ."le P.290 .398 Ee:lCa.69 226.1'Jride !i!trogen ?1:.08 16. OR ~ C Specific Heat Cv lb.2 ..270 ..0515 .177 .290 .387 .362 1..00 100.05 1.89 584.a ft..50 34..248 '.137 .250 ._~ . 30..01 44.290 .0105 ..04 50. .1ori-de F~·Crogen SUlfide Methane ··2 HCL H2S CH4 188. .00 734.0685 E-t..290 .343 .420 .270 1..17 2.19 749.199 .30 1.39 343.20 86... 492.0515 1073.19 672.78 509.248 .0993 930.:>xide Cr-_lcrine Ethe. 673.191 .41 1.) (normal) He C'fJ..260 . ----_.31 1.201 .264 .20 1.32 1.65 241..290 .0725 510.6 C6~4 t.290 3.rogen Cb.399 ..05 4.527 ..07 28.084 .91 30. .89 ._ DATE ~ '9'. ' ~ DESIGN GUIOES ~ Conmcund FcrnrJla MolecUlar Weight T RO e Critical Constants V Pc c psf.['3t.6l 1.240 .352 .A... 74~.290 .153 .40 Car-een ~!cr~oxide Di. 529. ..192 .0280 708.375 2.sc.19 59.379 .231 1.51 27.jCrogen r.69 547..177 .288 .10 1. ..-:1 r' .

0308 .2 With impact factor of (2) and consider11lgthat W = CKAP (M/T)t F =.1' KoT (lfo+ I}M ~t .0 REACTION FORMULA.0685 .~ .08 Pe!:.0373 . 1165.6 (K6+ 1) AP F 4.61 829.95 362.3.26 !\iitrous Oxide ?~ 20 44.290 .09 3206.ane (iso) C Eu 5 Propane Sulphur Dioxide ioTater Cy% S02 H2O .156 1.445 .40 Oxygen Pentane (normal) C5~2 .. CK [.176 1..00 114.05 . 4. 483.370 1.69 1142.389 ..89 277.15 44.09 64.16 <.69 665.147 ..278 .89 845.lL BTU BTU lb.332 1. .2 Rupture disc reaction = 0.371b.118 1.397 .388 .232 octane (!'lormal) CgH18 O2 . PBESstmE: SA. oR .270 .0690 .00 72.400 <0219 .15 12. = 0.1 PSV reaction F .269 .14 .1 With no impact factor I ~ = wE .382 <1.0400 . .3.> 366 4.34 4.22 32. .221 .IS3 4.06 I8~01 1024.361 1.378 ( Ko+ 1 ) AP . 617.0730 .342 1.286 .25 774.3 Simplified formula 4.Fm'Y VALVE REAcTIONS 3 9-72 Corroound For:nula Molecular Wei~t Critical COnS~~ts V Pc c c psia ft.07 . 7300 490.256 .FLUOR DESIGN GUIDES PIPE STRESS AHAL YST DESIGN GUIDE NUMBER PAGE DATE 4. OR lb.0682 .290 . F T Z c Snecific Heat K C C 0 -L .i.

1ly~t'eqll.ired this dimension is less t. . specifications. r rp tf0Cy r~·'2.'lan if 24" and stack height is 6' or less. lSS I·{I {qC( \~'2. *{= 4-Do V1r-<D~' I 'D 0 ~ol) OtSCH. Check vendor specification for support requirements.FLUOR DESIGN GUIDES PIPE STRess ANAL YSf DESIGN GUIDE NUMBER PAGE DATE 4.3 Moments from thrUsts must be considered as part of the stress analysis. Keep to a minimum.0 REACT!ON LOCAT!ON AND TAIL PIPE ~-* --t [j ** * Dimension ** to be kept to a m:inimu:tn. 5.2 Reactions may be ignored in closed flare or relief systems. 5.16 4 9-72 PRESSOBE SAFE1'Y \TALVE REACTIONS 5. See vendor.4'L I ~ REf. No support genera. Forces are opposite to open pipe end.

as well as providing construction and service of air coolers. They are: 1 . pipe supports. specified on the Piping. 2412A The Forced Draft Fan Air Cooler It is one where the fan is. and guides located on the air cooler structure can be supplied elther by equipment vendor or Civil/Structural Technology or Piping Mechanical Technology or combination of the three. 2412 1YPES OF AIR-COOLED HEAT EXCHANGERS There are two basic types of air coolers. gear. The design criteria for supports and guides are determined Piping Mechanical Technology and. the analysis and supporting of basic information about the Depending.DATE THE M. with the air cooler vendor. Planning Drawings. the the any by Close cooperation and communication wtth the equipment requisition engineer is usually required at an early stage to coordinate these requirements. located in a housing. The motor drive is hung below the housing with a short belt. KELLOGG COMPANY SUBJECT 2410 PAGE FEB 96 DESIGN MANUAL-PIPING MECHANICAL t OF9 AIR COOLERS 2411 GENERAL STATEMENT This manual subject provides design information concerning piping connecting to air coolers. and size of the air cooler nozzles and headers. or linkage to the fan shaft.. The Forced Draft Air Cooler ... below the tubes and blows air upward past the tubes. material. upon the location.W.

. and blows upward. SUPPORT PASS PARTITION . This "sucks" air past the tubes below. A typical air cooler bay is 14 feet wide and may contain one or more bundles (services). Header boxes have one or more. The motor drive is hung below the cooler with a long drive shaft extending through the tube bank. Tube length of 32 feet is. drive..W. partition plates in order to have multiple passes as shown . to the fan above. common. and associated platforms. Air coolers may be single or multiple pass. KELLOGG COMPANY FEB 96 SUBJECT 2410 PAGE DESIGN MANUAL-PIPING MECHANICAL 20F9 24128 The Induced Draft Air Cooler This type of air cooler has the fan located in a housing above the tubes. I I ~ The Induced Draft Air Cooler Both types have fixed tube sheets supported in a deep channel frame which in tum supportsthe fan housing.THE M.


the air ceeler vender as the minimum acceptable fer each nezzle by the requisitio.DATE FEB 96 THE M. (ft-1bt.r co. ot this do. (6750) 6000(6750) 3000(3375) 1200(1350) 600 (675) 250 (270) 150 (165) 5500(3945) 2500 (2820) 2500 (2250) 2000 (1920) 1200 (1350) 1000 (1125) 600 300 (675) (345) (225) so 4' 3' 2' 1 'h' 1500(2700) 900 (1695) 750 (1125) 450 (675) 4200(3375) 2100(2370) 800 (900) 400 (450) 150 (165) 100 (120) 4500 (3375) 4500(2820) 4200(2475) 2100 (1800) 800 (900) 400 (450) 150 (165) .) NeZZLE TOP & B01TOM OF MANIFOLD MOMENTS. 5000(5625) 4000(4500) 4000(4500) 4000(4500) 1500 (1695) 800 (900) 500 (570) 400 (450) 300 (345) F.me vendors.. the vendor if larger than established aUewables. 100 (120) 200 250 (345) 150 (225) .wablesare applicable for each project. design their equipment fer larger leads and will indicated them en their drawings. but final values must be mutually agreed upon by M.. THE FORCES St ARE GIVEN TO MAXIMUM OF 2 INLETS & 2 OUTLETS PER SECTION APPUCABl. raft..lervendo. AU. Kellegg and the vender.) Table 1 SIZE 14' 12' 10" 8" F.. C4S-tE-84) are issued to. 3000 (3375) F.W. So. KELLOGG COMPANY SUBJECT 2410 PAGE DESIGN MANUAL-PIPING MECHANICAL 60F9 2414 LOADING CONSIDERATION Nezzle leadings shewn belew (per specificatien.mmunity.o.f the printing.E TO. and as o. Actual calculated values may be transmitted to. It sheuld be cenfirmed which allo. 2500(5625) 2000/ (4500) 2000(3375) M. W.cument. Leads shewn in ( ) are per specificatien C45-1E.ning engineer. AIR ceeLER NeZZLES FORCES (1bf. 6000(6750) 5000(5625) 5000(4500) My 7000 (7875) 6000 (6750) 6000. D these leads have net been reviewed by the air co.

W.'s air cooling systems. The. connecting branch pipe flexibility may have to be considered in the review of inlet pipe on a two pass cooler if this method is utilized. expand as necessary to insure that the nozzle allowables are not exceeded. to slide the air cooler bundles to absorb the differential: movement. must be designed to allow the piping and air cooler to. Provide sufficient flexibility in the connecting.DATE THE M. the branch piping diameter may be increased with a. In the first case. one of the following two methods are used to absorb the differential growth between inlet/outlet pipe headers and the header boxes: 1.. reducer next to the connecting flange to minimize pressure drop. are located across the top of the piping yard rack and are supported by the yard rack steel. air cooler nozzles are on the exchanger header boxes which extend beyond the yard rack steel. the header will usually be located so that it can be supported independent from the yard rack steel or the air cooler structure. usually critical in an air cooler circuit.. KELLOGG COMPANY SUBJECT 2410 PAGE FEB 96 DESIGN MANUAL·PIPING MECHANICAL 70F9 2415 SUPPORT CONSIDERATION The majority of Kellogg. Pipe supports and guides from the air cooler structure. i . Provide sufficient stiffness in the connecting branch pipe. Note that outlet. up an air cooling system. branch pipe to absorb the differential movement. 2. If the branch pipe flexibility design requires excessive pipe and fittings. When there are several bays of air coolers making.

possible without vendor involvement should ioads change late in the project. will be located directly of the required nozzJe force and the thermal also be given to the in line with the exchanger nozzles. criteria. should extend between sections of the air coolers and be. piping. the header and the vendor must be notified weight. 2416 NOZZLE LOADS The nozzle loadings shown in Table 1 are issued to the.W. In most.. The air cooler anchor is normally located near the inlet nozzle end. due to the header piping load. Expansion joints may also be an option. On induced draft units. The anchor location and the supports. Teflon slide plates may also be included in the design details by the fabricator. Some vendors design their air cooler nozzles with greater allowables. the. The anchor location of the air coolers. is determined by Piping Mechanical Technology and specified on the Piping Planning Drawings. the major support beams can be supplied either by the air cooler vendor or M. cases. KELLOGG COMPANY SUBJECT 2410 PAGE DESIGN MANUAL-PIPING MECHANICAL 80F9 Air cooler units may have to be separated to extend support steel between them. In the second case. In cases where the inlet nozzles are located on the top of the equipment. due to the larger diameter inlet piping. Kellogg. The advantage of a MWK supply is the quick response. W. Air Cooler Vendors. clearly defined early in the Planning.DATE FEB 96 THE M. equipment vendor. The vendor allowables will be shown on the equipment drawings.. Proper clearances between the header boxes and their supports and between the header boxes themselves must also be checked. but space limitations and pressure thrust must be considered. an additional vendor and shown on the Piping. allowables. supplied by Civil/Structural Technology or by the . Requirements for this must be. supports. Bays may be cold set as clearances are available.. . are to be specified on the Piping Planning Drawings and issued to the vendor as required. as the minimum loads to be accepted for each nozzle. Phase. the tube bundle friction load due to hydrotesting must Planning Drawings.

. stress problems due to differential growth. KELLOGG COMPANY SUBJECT 2410 PAGE FEB 96 DESI.W.simple as possible and "ChristmasTree" configurations should be avoided if possible. 2418 TYPICAL PLANNING COMMENTS Typical planning comments for air coolers are shown on the attached drawing.DATE THE M. In cases where the air cooler system is made up of several exchanger units the formal calculation must have the restraints and bundle flexibility of each unit defined in detail in the calculation. Appropriate consideration shall be given to air cooler piping systems where block valves are used On the inlet and/or outlet nozzles to avoid potential. Thevendor must be notified of any planning comment information which may affect the air cooler system design as quickly as possible during planning.GN MANUAL-PIPING MECHANICAL 90F9 2417 STRESS ANALYSIS The air cooler system inlet piping stress analysis calculations may include the entire piping system from the vessel outlet to the air coolers anchor location. The inlet and outlet piping configuration should be kept as.

8. 8. I T .1 Single Pass Air-Cooler . The inlet header box may be directionally fixed and the outlet box free to slide to allow for tube expansion.3 Lateral Header Box Movement 32 This is the Proprietary Information of Brown & Root Energy Services A Division of Kellogg Brown & Root. . J 8.5. Inc..5. 8. This Document and its Contents May Not be Used or Copied Without the Expressed Approval of Kellogg Brown & Root Inc. Double Pass Air-Cooler J: ]_ ~6 f--IL -~: --[] THERMAL EXPANSION T The inlet and outlet are at the same end.2 sr ]_ IL 6 : = THERMAL EXPANSION ~6 CQ..5 AIR-COOLED EXCHANGERS The following shall be considered when establishing equipment studies...5. This end may be directionally fixed.

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