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CARICATURING A Series of Lessons Covering All Branches of the Art of Caricaturing FULLY ILLUSTRATED CHICAGO FREDERICK J. DRAKE & CO Publishers .


The many plates illustrate all points necessary. especially illustrating I shall consider my time well spent. Wishing you much 6021294 . and success. Chapter XII has been made up of assignments and suggestions. no illustrations Ttfere spared. Acting upon the assumption that it is easier to work if ones assignments are already made. which makes this book a complete course in caricaturing. It has been made as brief as is consistent with clearness and complete' ness. Mitchell Smith. and each of the points illustrated are explained in illustration.Foreword In the writing and illustrating of this book my aim has been to produce a comprehensive and concise treatise on the art of caricaturing. If you obtain half as this much pleasure and profit from the use of it. Although the text is brief. In addition to the text with reference to that particular the plates there are many caricatures of famous men included. book as I derived from writing.


Contents Frontispiece PAGE Facing Tide 7 11 Foreword List of Illustrations Chapter I Pen Lines and Material 15 Chapter Chapter II III The Face and Head Expression 2J 31 Chapter Chapter Chapter IV Exaggeration 37 43 V VI Comic Figures Action Shading and Shadows 47 55 61 Chapter VII" Chapter VIII Technique Chapter IX Animals Lettering 69 75 81 Chapter X Chapter XI This and That Chapter XII Assignments and Suggestions 85 .


List of Illustrations PAGE George Arliss " Frontispiece Plate 1 14 Nicola.". The Great '. Robert Tristram Plate 10 Plate 11 Poet 44 46 48 49 11 Benjamin Disraeli . The Magician 16 17 Gladstone Frederick. 18 19 Robert Herrick Plate 2 Plate 3 22 24 26 27 Bolivar Qemenceau Plate 4 30 32 33 Plate 5 Marshal Foch Plate 6 36 38 Plate 7 Bismarck Plate 8 Plate 9 39 40 42 Coffin.

Woodrow Wilson Plate 15 60 Charles G. Dawes 62 63 Jack Dempsey Plate 16 Plate 17 64 68 . : Plate 18 .12 List of Illustrations PAGE Hate 12 Lorado Taft 50 51 Marshal Joffre Plate 13 Plate 14 52 54 '56 57 . 70 71 Josef Lhevinne Charles Darwin Plate 19 72 74 76 80 84 87 Caret Garrett Joe Byrns Booth Tarkington Giovanni Martmelli .



The such as surgery. etc. and shaped with round. caricaturing should procure a number of drawing pens in various sizes. Art gum erasers. hard surface bond paper gives satisfactory results. and is also very good for sketching. All drawings should be completely drawn with pencil before drawing in ink. and one should keep a supply of good paper for this 15 . Other materials needed are. But if the drawings are not intended for publication. a good quality of heavy. Nearly -all art work requires more or less hand that were outlined with a lettering pen m lettering. square or oblong nibs. black waterproof drawing ink Higgins is very good and pencils for sketching arid drawing. thumb tacks for fastening the drawing paper or board to the drawing board will also be needed. because every artist should learn to manipulate the lettering pen and brush in lettering.effect markedly original These lettering pens may be had many sizes. especiaU^^owl poin^ens for drawing heavy lines for the outlines of cartoons. The most satisfactory material to make the drawings on is a good grade of Bristoli Board. Caricaturing requires a great deal of sketching. The student.CARICATURING Chapter I Pen Lines and Materials necessary material used in drawing caricatures are few and inexpensive if we compare them to the tools of some of the professions. mttrtTBook are reproduced a number of caricatures widely used of which enabled the artist to get an. Gillotts drawing pens are perhaps the most The student of all pens by cartoonists and pen apdtjnk artists in generaL For drawing cartoons and caricatures siw^70J^opand^^ are the ones moat uattk-Qtber si?es and styles oipBSsmay be very useful. or. prospective student is advised to obtain some of these.

for the benefit of beginners who are not familiar this medium of drawing. NICOLA After which sudden outburst of scholarship and philosophy. let us consider the manipulation of the pen. with the thumb and first and second fingers with is right hand. . to mental and mind never to return from that oblivion where all things material eventually go. held the same as in the proper position for The drawing pen of the writing. that is.16 Caricaturing record ideas and impressions before they escape from the purpose.

There are some examples Crosshatch in the iUustrations m this book. of F. E. lines. irregular lines^ and shaky GLADSTONE lines are most frequently used. shading and etc. heavy slow lines. . On Plate 1 are illustrations of various kinds of lines. of pen lines are used in cartooning and caricaturing. fast lines.A variety Fine lines. F and G are called Crosshatch of lines and they are used for shading. dots. Plate 1. especially.

Plate 9. Ends of lines dhat do not have their termination in other lines are usually An example of this is Fig. S. was made with a small camels hair brush. 3. L is also drawn with the same brush. they lines as in are are best drawn by drawn increasing or rapidly. Plate 10. drawn thusly. R. and is termed Spatter. N M which will be explained later. See Fig. 4. is dots drawn with the brush. . T and U decreasing the pressure on the pen. which should have. FREDERICK THE GREAT K on Plate 1 every cartoonist Lines such as these are sometimes used to stripe trousers.18 Caricaturing Graded Q.

It is not necessary. HERRICK In the drawing of caricatures and cartoons or any other com' mercial art. The artist should know that all work intended for line .Pen Lines and Materials V and 19 W are stamped with pads of denim and knit goods. however. For pen and ink work the engraving is made on a sine printing plate. to know all about these processes of reproduction. One can often create something original by experimenting* and trying many ways and techniques of drawing an object* or was used in drawing caricature. for that matter the artist should know something about the processes of reproduction for that particular form of art work. The same pad used in stamping W the caricature of Robert Herrick. respectively.

it naturally follows that the pen lines are also reduced in the same proportion in breadth. of course. Drawings are usually reduced about one-half the original dimensions in reproduction. in drawing for reproduction one should use heavier lines than appear in a printed drawing. Notice that the outlines are invariably the heaviest. making the entire line the same thickness. somewhat like printing type. which makes them really one'fourth the original sise. Colored inks do acid eats not photograph well. or thickness. reduced in proportion.2o Caricaturing rqproducttons should be made on white paper or Bristol Board with black drawing ink. and avoid that cut off appearance that results from bringing the pen to an abrupt stop at the same pressure. and how the pressure on the has been decreased pen gradually at the end of lines to taper them. Study an accomplished artist's work and take advantage of what he knows. . except the photographed' lines. which is then treated with acid. Notice also how the lines have been drawn. which are left in relief. This is the road that leads to success in art. while the lines for shading and such. Study the many drawings in this book to see how they have been drawn. Since the dimensions are. neither does black ink on colored paper. Therefore. The drawing to be reproduced is photographed on a chemically treated sine plate. are finer. and put your own original ideas in the drawing. This away the surface of the sine.


22 Caricaturing PLATE 2 .

and the mouth is erne third of the distance from the end of the nose to the bottom of the chin. brows. and C. Although the features of the head and face are exaggerated in cartoons. than it is to draw hands well. etc. as B. beginning with the eyes. but in drawing a caricature of a definite face it is better to A make guide lines for the top of the head and bottom of chm in the proportions outlined in the preceding paragraph. line lines necessary in drawing a cartoon. Lines B. Near the center of this line draw a horizontal line. 1. nose. mouth. as FF. but to learn to draw it well requires diligent study and practice. fifth. Next draw line EE for the brows and the top of the ears. This line will be equidistant from the eyes and split the nose and mouth in two equal parts. and parallel to. chin. 1 guide for the bottom of the ears and end of nose. the top of the ears are about on a line with the eyebrows. third. Kg. Since the subject of this book is 23 . Fig. The next step is to place the features with a pencil. draw a perpendicular line for the center of the face. It may not seem reasonable to the beginner when told that it is much easier to karn to draw the head well. and the bottoms on a line with the end of the nose. and GG as a . the nose is as long as the distance from the nose to the bottom of the chin. second. in life they follow closely definite proportions. These propertions are as follows: The eyes are about midway between the top of the head and the bottom of the chin. fourth. These are all the are drawn equidistant from. 1. hair. To draw a front view cartoon of the head. and finish by drawing There are many ways of drawing the features in a cartoon.Chapter II The Face and Head The head is not so difficult to karn to draw. ears. Fig. which vary with the different expressions. Plate 2.

24 Caricaturing FIG 4 / jCss* ) PLATE 3 .

In good photographs the wrinkles. also. or color. under nose. shadowy and conspicuous features are more easily seen which helps one to know what to exaggerate to get a good likeness of the subject being caricatured. drawn from portraits.The Face and Head caricaturing. be good likeness by drawing from photographs. How this is done is illustrated on Plate 3 with the <^catures of Ex-Kaiser William. This is vary useful. Attention called to the highlights on the eyes. Note in Fig. because there are a great many little tricks for doing this. Highlights on eyes and placed correctly on the drawing. only this will lifelike in caricatures. The nose. and faces other than Caricatures are either direcdy front views. corners of eyes. For the student who easier to get a or from photographs or has not studied drawing from life it will. 2 the outlines for the black shadows under eyebrows. . which heightens the effect. For example. Another advantage of drawing from photographs is that the head is more easily proportioned correctly. The Mack bow tie and other Do shading give the drawing tone. The features are drawn used. Figure 1 was drawn Kg. and under difrt on the white collar. However. mouth and other features may likewise be measured and placed correctly. This is because the various features can be measured on the photograph and enlarged proportionately in the drawing. wrinkles. under mustache. he can determine the correct proportions because he can measure the width of the head on and hair are more easily seen the photo and get the width of the head in die drawing accordingly. With two positions it jp sometimes possible to construct a third view. 25 be dealt with here. if one is going to make the drawing five times as high as the head in the photograph. These outlined shadows have been from a photograph with little exaggeration. Some of these methods are illustrated in the caricatures of Von Hindenburg on Mate 7. not forget shadows under ears in profiles. perhaps. while blacked in on the large drawing giving it life and sparkle. one disadvantage of drawing from photographs is thai you can only get one viewto work from. which they do not understand. life. To make except in ones where extreme exaggeration iff a drawing appear lifelike is ratter difficult fof beginners. unless you have photographs in different positions of the same subject. 2 is exaggerated a great deal. and invariably used to is is make the eyes lifelike.

Fig. hair. 2 was made from a late photograph. . m Figures 4 and 5 are such that it was possible to draw a profile also. 4) I BOLIVAR the same view as the one as Figures 3 and 5 are simply caricatures of the same subject in different techniques and degrees of exaggeration. Although drawing from photographs has some advantages. By using these two was constructed showing the old man with drawings a third (Fig.26 Caricaturing on this plate was drawn from an old photo taken while he was Crown Prince. The shape of the nose. forehead. and other features Grown Prince.

hold a a arms length and sight over the top of pencil. Next place the thumb on the pencil in line vertical position at with the bottom of chin* The length of pencil from your thumb to the . CLEMENCEAU There is also a way to measure from life to aid the artist in getting pencil in the true proportions in mating a drawing. or whatever putting object you are measuring. the top of pencil in line with the top of the head. while others are improved by using other There is only one sure way to determine which is best. when possible. and this 27 should always be done are better positions. and that is by experiment. Caricatures of some subjects drawn in profile. To do this. In life drawing many sketches of different views and positions can be made to determine the best.The Face and Head drawing from life also has its advantages.

at most. With age the head becomes more diminutive. chin. women and children g6od-^3^ects for . easier to draw. by the loss of teeth and straightening of the lower jaw The nose is more powerful if not larger and the features in more prominent. and the jaw bones. adding to the character and dignity of general are years. and the face shorter. and the bony structure becomes more prominent at the forehead. also. which illusion is caused by the aforementioned relaxation and drooping of the flesh above and below the eyes. but is good for characteristic of the difference in 4jwing from still life. will Caricaturing be used for the height of the head in your drawing. length of noee. The pencil mine the width of the drawing. The dome of the skull appears broader. tendons. The features and proportions the various ages should also be considered here. The eyes also appear deeper in their sockets. the eyes are somewhat below the center of the head. in proportion to the si2 of the head. placing is then held horizontally to deter' guide lines that far apart. and furrowing the face with wrinkles in the face and forehead. the neck is much smaller than in an adult. and to get a good of. and blood vessels to be more in evidence. can This method is be properly proportioned by using this method. muscles. The height of forehead. and the and head as a legs are much shorter in proportion to the length of the torso. not only useful in drawing from life. bridge of the nose.. The peculiarities of infancy and early youth are as follows: The cranium and forehead are much larger in proportion to the rest of the head. the features whole are more gracefully rounded. With old age the flesh becomes flabby and falls away from the bones. because of these characteristics mentioned in the likeness preceding paragrapLyTbe smooth rounded features of youth are difficult to Models of advanced age are draw and obtain a good br very little likeness for the reason that thero is nothing. in o^p fn rtkhV^">fcj^^ are sd3o)h4 is the reason that caricaturing. etc. causing the bones. caused boxes.28 top.



laughter. separately and Surprise is similar to fright except that the mouth as wide and the eyebrows are not lifted as much. or knit. sneer. are To help their you do this. smile. Note in Attention the shape of eyes. The eyes are pardy covered by the brows. anger. mouth. The eyes are pardy dosed at the corners. Just an exaggerated drawing. and the hair stands on end. The eyes are opened very wide. or closed depending on the particular expression desired.Chapter HI Expression Expression as a cartoon is is very important cartooning and caricaturing. Study these drawings carefully and analyze each expression. with the forehead wrinkled vertically. and forehead in all the different expressions illustrated. be opened slighdy. The corners of the mouth are drawn upward and may. Also the hair stands on end or is disorderly. pain. so is the expression in a cartoon m On Plate 4 are illustrations of twelve of the most used expressions. surprise. eyebrows. and so is the mouth. and very often the teeth are visible as in the illustration. The corners of the mouth are drawn downward. nose and mouth.shall be considered mam characteristics noted. attention. is not opened In Anger the brows are drawn down in die center and are knotted. They labeled underneath each drawing: fright. weeprrig. stupidity. . each expression . and contentment. anticipatioti. and irregular. Study the wrinkles around the eyes. In fright the eyebrows ire lifted and the forehead wrinkled. In Smiling the brows are lifted in an arched position.

32 Caricaturing PLATE 5 .

opened.Expression drawn with one eyebrow drawn down over the eye. Such mouths as are used in the illustrations of fright and surprise would not be suitable here. The nose is turned up slightly and wrinkled. Note particularly the eyes and mouth. in Pain are knotted somewfeat as in anger. which is partly closed. That is. One corner of the mouth is up and the other down. is FOCH corner of the mouth should be elevated on the side on which the eyebrow nose is is down. The proper relation should be kept between the features. Sneer. the 55 The expression. . The eyebrows The wrinHed and the mouth is.

His nose trouble (mustache) takes on a new that of aspect in this a rather he is drawing. Especially the eyes. nose. etc. the eyes more closed. in a line. Expression should be suited to action and vice versa. Pkte 5 are some reproductions of caricatures in various expressions and poses of s<5me rather famous men: Adolph Hitler and Admiral Coontz. In the illustration of The eyes are partly. or entirely dosed. while in Fig. is A very good thing for beginners in to study the expressions used Popeye. For example. is more . expression difficult with some animals than with others. feet off the ground. Figure 1 has a stern look obtained by representing the mouth. smiling. Stupidity is expressed the illustration. the brows are higher. Study the illustrations of Note how the brows. tonsils.. and Moon Mullins are especially good in this respect. Figure 5 is a profile of Hitler. brush perhaps. Although these expressions are suitable for cartoons. showing teeth. The only difference being. 7 rather calm. They were drawn this way so that you might more easily see JKJW to represent these many expressions. and mouth are drawn. angry. Weeping note how the eyebrows are drawn. and tears are drawn to hdp the Anticipation and Contentment. expressions in omcatures are seldom exaggerated as much as the illustrations on Ptfte 4. tongue. some of the better comic fright should is. expression. In straight Figures 2 and 3 note that the same general principles were used as in the expressions. On "Smile" and "Anger" on Pkte 4. eyes. However. have a body with the characteristic action of fright. or really the mustache. and the is by drawing the eyes about half dosed as in mouth drawn down on one side. In Uproarious Laughter the nose for the moves upward to make room mouth to stretch big and wide.34 _ Laughter is Caricaturing very similar to smiling. Figures 8 and 9 are to illustrate that animals can be stiff drawn with almost any expression. and the mouth opened wider. In Fig. that fingers far apart. Figure 4 is a two thirds front view caricature of Hitler. 6 he has a grouch. Drunkenness expressed much the same. or what you will. a head and face with an expression of strips.


36 Caricaturi unng PLATE 6 .

hair. there is only one way to determine what degree will give the best results and resemblance to the model. What to exaggerate depends entirely upon the features of the subject being caricatured. On 37 . it may also be exaggerated. having a likeness of one particular person. and 3. supposed to have a likeness of the carica' if Since the caricature is naturally follows that it the most noticeable features are be easier to get a likeness of the model. tured. exaggeration of the face and head in caricaturing is the purpose of this chapter. Figures 1. If the nose or ears are large exaggerate these as in the caricature on the jacket of this book. Page 39. note the various degrees of exaggeration. will is by experiment. and that exaggerated. The most noticeable. As to the degree of exaggeration. accentuated as the artist has done in the drawing of Bismarck. However. if not always. The chin. Really that is what they are exaggerations. exaggeration of form. For example. 2. The three forms of exaggeration in a humorous drawing are. expression. and exaggeration of action will be treated in a separate chapter on action. It is always wise to make a number of pencil sketches trying various degrees of exaggeration. Plate 3. used in the drawings of Lafayette. if the model has a round face and large eyes exaggerate these. caricature is an exaggerated drawing. etc. accentuated. the Exaggeration Plate 6. This statement raises the question of what to A exaggerate. before making a finished drawing with pen and ink. See the caricature of Andrew Carnegie on Plate 14. or prominent features of the model are usually. and action. Or a prominent jaw may be beard. and different techniques.. and Ex'Kaiser Wilhelm II.Chapter IV Exaggeration Exaggeration is the life of a cartoon or caricature.

38 Caricaturing PLATE 7 .

Figures* 1 saye and 3 are only sketches. Attention caricature of William is called to the difference in exaggerthis plate is a ation of the hair. only more so. John Masefield. make a drawing as true to life as possible using little exaggeration. it BISMARCK Poet. The was made the large finished drawing. nose. Figure 4 on Makepeace Thackeray. of the English Practically the same thing was done in the two drawings and as Figure 2 seemed best. while Figure 2 is exaggerated features are more. and ear. and chin. which features to study this and make several sketches to determine .Exaggeration There is little 39 accentuation in Figure 1. jaw. second. mustache. enlarged in Figure 3. chin. In drawing caricatures a good rule to follow is this: first. especially the eyes.

40 Caricaturi wring PLATE 8 .

There is one don't. 1. Also the caricatures on Plate 8. Extreme exaggeration was employed in the large head on this time a fairly good plate which gives a humorous effect. The caricatures of Ex Kaiser William II. or express. third. experiment to see which technique priate for the exaggeration used. The Also see the two caricatures of General John J. beard and other features. and naturally suggests squaring character of a soldier. Plate 3. the artist endeavored to represent a conceited man By with a strong wflL Likewise. Figures 4 and 5. and ear were accentuated most in Expression and exaggeration should also be employed to bring out. in exaggeration. and two'thirds front view. and at the same ways of caricaturing the likeness was retained. make 41 sketches of profile. and exaggerating the jaw. By doing all this sketching and experimenting you can get much better results. the character of the Jjerson caricatured. and certainly the mustache is far too good a chance ation for the alert and original caricaturist to omit. Study the caricatures of different Howard Thurston on Plate 15. 2. are examples of this point. In Fig. for an example of same person. of a great German. People with deformities are invar" unfortunate iably sensitive and no one would want to hurt such an person. using a stern expression. chin. Ybu will also see that the head is rather square. Never emphasis deformities. Pershing. Note how the eyelids droop in this drawing. . jaw. Plate 13* these drawings. Plate 7 9 the exaggeration in Fig. front. If you are drawing is most appny n life. caricature obtaining as a reward for study and sketching a very original 1. < especially. There is little for exaggerup. or grave abnormalities.Exaggeration exaggerate. and in the finished drawing you will note that a likeness was retained from Figure while the strong character of the Old Soldier was enaphasised. an character of effort was made to represent the Von Hindenburg in the caricatures of him. very strong and fort'like.

42 Caricaturing PLATE 9 .

as in Fig. from The most difficult cartoons to keep for reference or models when needed. especially between slender and corpulent figures. drawing from his own hands as a model. the proportions of the limbs and torso may vary much in various types. body to draw is the hand. Draw head as in Figure 1. by turning the toes out. in drawing a sideview comic figure. 43 . in the average figure. the torso and legs are of equal length with the knee midway of the Icgi exclusive of the foot. so necessary in drawing a body for the head. and finish as etc. 5. wrinkles. However. Some of the various ways of getting humor in the feet are. Note the proportions of Figures 3 and 5 on Plate 9. Figure 7 shows a different technique. The hands should reach midway of the thf^h and the elbow half way of the arm. 2. The same procedure is used.. Since comic figures may be such gross exaggerations. This is illustrated to give it life. adding buttons. Fig. and from other artists* work. For the beginner or amateur. is it You should know the proportions of a comic figure.Chapter V Comic Figures Just as a framework is necessary in drawing the head. Quite a lot of humor can be added by well drawn and well placed hands and feet. turning the toes up at the end. legs and arms. and 6 on the same part of the plate. exaggerating. It would be wise to clip hands that are good in various positions. or in. which makes the elbow near the hip when the arms hang vertically. The amateur should give this item a good deal of study and practice. Draw clothing. m by Figures 4. 3. Next block in body. it is better to draw a sort of skeleton Plate 9. for a guide as in Figure A.

Note also how the tie and collar are else. elbows. However. These will be treated in the two succeeding chapters. See examples of this on Plates 9. CfllTOEtL V^V COFFIN // \-TfT- Qothing is really a little difficult. the lapels* buttons. worn out shoes. The rich man is usually represented with patent leather shoes with white spats as Figure 6. Plate 9. a good comic figure must have action and proper shading. drawn. 1 1 and 12. . while a hobo has ragged. The shoes should be in keeping with the other clothing. That is. knees.44 _ - Caricaturing the foot. fine results here as everywhere drape naturally to get a good effect. a well dressed man has shined shoes. and elsewhere. this purpose at the shoulders. 10. and drawing it in other awkward positions. It diligent study gets the body and should Wrinkles and folds are used for but much fit should button'holes and pockets.


46 Caricaturi unng PLATE 10 .

In Figure 2 this has been improved by having this man sit more on his spine and moving his knees up by putting his feet on a footstool. as if threatening to hit somer thing. or stillness. the feet. or cartoon composition. cravat. Plate 12. It is the item that creates greatest interest in a cartoon. hair standing on end.Chapter VI Action Action is all important in cartooning. In anger the hands are tightly dosed and shaking. even though the figure is not in motion. Straight and gracefully curved lines express order. except just its comical appearance. or foot stamping the ground. In cartoons. Angles in lines. The characteristic actions for stupidity are. Of course action is exaggerated in cartoons just as expressions and forms are exaggerated. On Plate 10 is illustrated this kind of action. much room for improve- Action should be suited to expression. or if standing. hat. Figure 2. there is in the drawing of this cartoon. it is necessary to have what cartoonists term action. might be classed as anger and determination combined. or between lines help to express disorder. Do you not think this is a better cartoon than it would be if the sailor was standing erect. 47 . Appropriate action for fear might be as follows: running. and the "crows nest" was ment larger. and fingers spread wide apart. and other clothing. and conversely. Note also the difference in Figures 4 and 5 on Plate 10. jumping off the ground. hat flying in air. Figure 3 is another example of action without motion. causing them to take dumped form with awkward positions. and a general disorder of the hair. However. In Figure 1 the man is sitting erect and has little interest about it. hands and feet relaxed.

Caricaturing FlGl FI63 FIG 5* PLATE 11 .

cartoonists. especially Popeye and Moon Muflins. Tony Sarg. and in the cartoons of Herbert Johnson.Action Study the appropriate actions for the various other expressions. and other top notch . will find some examples in this book. Other good examples of 49 You DISRAELI action you can find in the daily comic strips.

PLATE 12 .

See Figure 2. Action and Shading. There are various other details that must be watched dosdy. and these details require dose study. but it is usually drawn straight. 51 The hands in different positions are necessarily drawn differently. while the rear foot is bent at the toes with the heel off the ground. such as the weight of dothing. In walking. the TAFT qrward foot may or may not have the heel resting on the ground. Plate 12. feet and other parts of the body change position rapidly and this causes a shifting of wrinkles and folds in the clothing.Action In the act of walking. the hands. keeping the proper relationship between the .

walking figures (2 and 3) on Plate For running action study Figure 1 on Plate 12. and others. ground. and the other with the fingers pointing upward. of course. Note the action of the arms and legs in running. and downward on the forward swing. Drawing them off the ground improves the action a great . The knee of the forward leg is bent upward. The elbow is. The feet are drawn partly open practically the same as in walking.52 Caricaturing arms and legs in action. except that they are off the other is bent downward. while that of the is The forward hand is dosed. Also Figure 6. Note the comical action in the 12. Plate 9. bent upward JOFFRE of the arm in the backward swing.

and 5 on Plate 11. short curved lines to the right of the hat causes an illusion that makes it seem that the hat is also in a twirling The motion. An example of this is the feet of Figure 3 on Plate 12. Keep the weight of the body balanced properly on the feet. hat blowing off. shouting type of baseball fan the player in what to do next. In Fig. The use of skeletons in drawinstructing ing comic figures as explained in tfe preceding chapter. The front and twcKthirds front view figures in motion are in perspective. but you will see the arm in foreshortened somewhat For this foreshortening is position. 4. in acquiring is was meant to doubly useful good action. showing the movement and direction of tie hat. as you may the above mentioned drawing* Other details that add to the is action are. note how the body is balanced on the the legs were in a vertical position here. 3.Action deal. 4 on this same plate see the notes flying from the singing man^s mouth. but only picking up the brief case. 53 and see in dooe by simply drawing a shadow underneath. Analyse the action of Figures 1. . In Figure 3 mentioned immediately above. So in the above mentioned motion of the front and two-thirds front figures the hand and foot in front appear larger. and underneath. Figure 1 represent the excitable. Also use heavy lines for the nearer objects and conversely for the more distant objects. Especially note the fine streamlines running back from the feet. and to the rear of the man. then the hand would have to support part of the weight of the body. and from the head. drawn employed. which it is not feet. you can not see the length of the arm. If me stands in front of you and points his hand and arm at you. tie and coat tails blowing backward. For an example of hands in perspective you are referred to Figure 2 on Plate 11. If is doing here. and the dust sucked upward and forward ov^r the shadow. The hand will also appear larger in comparison to the arm because it is positions nearer the eye of the observer.

54 Caricaturing PLATE 13 .

at wrinkles.Rgure 1. the trousers striped. 11 and 12 Suitable shading gives a cartoon a professional appearance. solid black. and a cartoon of a cowboy would be shaded differently from either the rich man or the tramp. naturally be shaded quite differently from one of a rich man. Figure 2 illustrates checks and Fig. and the vest shaded with parallel lines. Plates 9. Sometimes stripes illustrate these various styles of shading. drawn and highlighted. When it is consistent with the technique and purpose of the cartoon. cartoon of a tramp would Shading helps to express character. stripes. and the proper technique to be used in the cartoon. say the coat should be solid black. The caricatures on Plate 7 are good examples of shadows on the head. The different methods of shading are. plaid and wriggly stripes. For example. but are only shaded with a fine pen. Shadows are also very important in drawing cartoons and carica' the various plates in this book note how the cartoonist has tures. style. Also how the shoes and hats are drawn. under nose. Note also how the white spats are drawn on Plate 12. and stipple or spatter. Your attention is called to the shadows under eyebrows. There is no outline of the white parts. plaids. shaded. color. dots. due to the different type. checks. mustache and 55 . are not solid black. Plate 11 is an example. and material of the clothing. under upper eyelids. Lettering pens or a small brush are used for making large stripes or for solid black areas. A On handled the shadows. In Figure 4 note how the socks are drawn. weave. cross hatch.Chapter VII Shading and Shadows Shading is employed to put tone and life into cartoons* In shading the artist must take into consideration the purpose of the cartoon. 3. it is advisable to employ a variety of shading.

56 Caricaturing PLATE 14 .

and under the spats on the shoes. Figure 5. They appear under the collar. The right foot bafl player. lapels. buttons. Shadows under the shoes aid in making if the feet appear in contact with the ground. 57 and shadow under the coat on the in the completed full figure caricature at the right. the trousers. belts.Shading and Shadows chin. Plate 11. by causing the features to stand out more prominently. These shadows aid in giving the drawings depth or perspective. WILSON In th' drawings on Plates 11 and 12 are other applications of shadows. and under the shoes. of the foot' would appear on the ground an . pocket flaps. trouser bottoms. vestt coat tails.

represented by lines drawn in the same general direction as the surface direction. This is an error often made by beginners. so are they used to that they are off the ground. Therefore. on which his shadow was cast. Curved strokes are essential in representing line The rounded objects. . Now if there was a house or board fence directly back of this figure.58 Lancaturing appropriately drawn shadow bodi feet are off the ground. or curvature of the surface on which the shadows fall. it is in the Although absolute accuracy is not necessary in cartoons as more serious arts. and straight Surface direction is lines in representing plane surfaces. In Figure 3 on Plate 10. Just as was drawn just back of the toe. shading on the mast. crows nest. Notice that these cross hatch lines are show drawn so that the shadow seems to be laying flat on the ground. but would appear as if in the air. Shadows that are not in perspective should conform to the shape of the object from which the shadow is cast. shadows are used to make the feet contact the ground. Figure I on Plate 12 illustrates this point. notice that the black shadow under the crows nest follows the curva' ture of the mast. resting on its edge. and in a line parallel with the direction this man is running. the beginner should watch carefully for such errors and correct them. and tele" scope also bring out the surface direction. direction of light and shadow should be maintained a composition. gross incongruities will ruin an otherwise good cartoon. if one object in the composition throughout is lighted from the East with the shadow cast Westward. all other objects in the The same ingly from the same same composition should be lighted and shaded accorddirection. In that case the shadow would have the approximate shape of this figure in silhouette. With the lines drawn vertically and hori' spntally the shadow would not appear flat on the ground. If the shading lines were drawn vertically and horizontally they would not make a satisfactory shadow. That is. then the shadow would be drawn with vertical and horispntal lines. As it is.


60 Caricaturing MAGICIAN KATE 15 .

and 16. 4. pebbled surfaced board. naturally he wifl be represented differently from what he would otherwise. basketball. in other words. such as: boxing. and 16. If it is to harm the caricatured. and 5 on Plate 3 represents 61 . 13. hunting. somewhat as the caricatures on Plates 8. Somewhat the same technique is employed in political cartoohs. 13. football. Figures 1. a caricature drawn for newspaper reproduction is usually drawn 'with pen and ink lines similar to the drawings on Plates 8. fishing* horseback riding. Ripley of "Believe It Or Not" fame produces his drawings by this method. in which Presidents. Here again the purpose of the drawing may determine placed so as to the way it it whether should be drawn. and others. or rather may influence the artist in choosing the technique. Wash is seldom used Technique is in this country for A large newspaper drawings. For example. the style or method used in producing a work of art. Around diis central figure are drawn smaller action figures illustrating one or more sports. golf. By "purpose of the cartoon" is meant is intended to aid or injure the one caricatured. Names. In caricaturing the purpose of the drawing may influence the technique of the artist. Often in these humorous drawings the central figure is drawn with a small body and a large caricatured head.Chapter VIII Technique the method of performance in art. baseball. comments and other lettering and details are make a good composition. Cabinet Members. caricatures are used in sports cartoons for number of newspapers. and other statesmen and prominent men may be caricatured. Governors. VicerPresidents. Congressmen. Senators. dates. Some artists use Lithographic Pencils on a specially prepared. Sports cartoons may of course illustrate various sports.

There is no doubt that he is stern and strong willed. . but even in them one can discern that he is no weak person by his stern features and prominent jaw. Figures 2 and 3 on the same DAWES plate represent more of a kindly old gentleman.62 Caricaturing the Ex'Kaiser as a rather stern. even though cartoonists of today do not go as far as Nast did. ruthless. if he can acquire reproductions of same. It shoulcl be interesting for the student to study some of the caricatures of Thomas Nast. and strong willed monarch. but not so terrible as these caricatures represent him.

The caricatures .Technique Humor is very important in newspaper cartoons. and these are. Coffin. There are three ways of putting this quality in and exaggeration. some and some with lines. Charles Darwin. although caricadifferently. Some of these are spattered. Lorado Taft. T. and Jack Dempsey. expression. action. Marshal Foch. The character of the person and the shape of the features has determined the technique used. are drawn with straight light and very heavy lines which were made with a lettering pen. A them. DEMPSEY of Hindenburg. for which they were most adapted. some with curved lines. Some of the caricatures in this book might be termed modernistic. Especially the caricatures R. cartoon is rather flat and uninteresting if it lacks these qualities. Carnegie. It is assumed that the above tures of named caricatures are best the same men might be drawn as they are. There are also others of this type.


might be drawn with curved lines, but it would not be as good as this drawing and would lack its originality. perhaps T. Coffin could hardly be drawn well with However, the drawing of


Woodrow Wilson



straight lines

due to the round face. Neither could that of Carnegie, for

the same reason.


are simply not adapted to the techniques

.employed in some of the other drawings. If the head is drawn in a modernistic technique, the body, if a body is u&d, should be in the same style. This was done in the caricatures of

Hindenburg and Howard Thurston.

Since stipple, or rather spatter has been employed in a number of drawings in this book, it seems appropriate to explain here the

procedure for this method of drawing.


large caricature of Carnegie






on the

eyebrows, and beard. As one can readily see, first an outline drawing is made. If it is suitable to be spattered, a stencil is cut for this

a sheet of transparent paper, sufficiently large, over the drawing and trace the outlines of the areas to be stippled (spattered)* If transparent paper is unavailable, the
this stencfl, place

To make

drawing may be traced with carbon or graphite paper. In this way the drawing to be traced would be placed on top. The next step is to cut
out the portions to be spattered from the
stencil, as

the shaded area in

Figure 2, Plate 14. single edge razor blade, or a pocket knife is very useful to cut the stencil where it is inconvenient to cut with shears.
Place the stencil over the outline drawing so that the cut out portions register perfectly with the outlines of the drawing to be
stippled. Thumb teck the two together, or place weights on them to hold them in the desired position. Pour a small quantity of drawing ink in a saucer or similar receptacle. An old tooth brush is used for



Dip the brush lightly in the ink and draw the brisdes across

litde practice will teach

a coin or other suitable object as illustrated in Figure you to do this properly.

Plate 14*


Some solid black should also be used with this spattered shading to give contrast and thereby improve the drawing as a whole. In the
Hindenburg Caricature, Pkte 7, spatter shading has been used on the body and in tie lettering underneath, as the same technique should be employed consistently throughout an entire drawing or composition,
as stated previously in this chapter.




For this technique, Lamp Quite often wash is used in caricaturing. used with a water color brush. First an outline Black water color is drawing is made with a pen and black waterproof drawing ink on water
color paper.





applied with a camels hair brush.

Additional washes are used for the darker parts, and an effort is
to blend the



frontispiece is a reproduction of

an air'brushed caricature

This drawing was made for study of George Arliss by Eddie Burgess. a theatrical display, and the artist has produced something original and
very good. This caricature has originality, humor, and most important of all, it has a fair likeness of the subject caricatured.
Caricatures of


subjects are better


in one technique,

while others are best caricatured in another technique.
judgment, and experiment.

The only way to

determine the best technique for any particular subject

by good

68 Caricaturing PLATE 17 .

Chapter IX

caricaturing of animals should be learned along with the caricaturing of the human form. Cartoons of animals are frequently used in newspaper drawings; especially political cartoons* in which


they are employed as symbols of
nations of the World.

political parties,

or of the various

These symbolic animals and the things they represent are listed immediately below. The donkey is the symbol of the Democratic Party. The elephant represents the Republican Pirty; G. O. P. (Grand Old Party) Other symbolic animals are, the Tammany Tiger, the British lion, the Chinese Dragon, the American Eagle, and the Russian Bear. Animals are sometimes used as symbols for ball teams. Wildcats, Panthers, Tigers, Bulldogs, and others are employed for this purpose. Practically the same rules used in caricaturing the human body

are used in caricaturing animals. The greatest difference is that of form. As in the case of the human form, the forms of animals are exagger* ated; the most prominent features being accentuated most. Action and expression are also exaggerated. The expressions of animal* are prac^
it is

the same as that of humans and the same rules apply, although sometimes more difficult because of the difference the form of


the head, from the form of the human head and face. The action in the movements of animals is necessarily different from human action; especially in the quadrupeds. The actions of walking, running and galloping are essentially the same in all animal^ except apes and other bipeds. These actions are rather difficult to describe, and should be 'studied from life, and from the work of artists who are *p of anfmal$ especially good in the dr^ffey^st1








at one In walking, quadrupeds only have two feet on the ground is forward If the right rear foot tome. Take the horse for an example. front foot is slightly off the ground and on the ground, then the right left rear foot is in front of the rear foot. At the same time the


lifted to

foot is also lifted and be brought forward, and the kft front and down with each is moved alternately up moving forward. The head can only and the tail also varies in action. These descriptions

and the principles of the various actions, impart to one a general idea, drawn one must for as stated previously, to get the actions correctly

draw from use a good drawing for a model, or else


3. Plate 17. Fig. 6. Plate 18. and die bronco is also . All be under the body. galloping gives In galloping the feet are moved in pairs. on Plate 8. Fig. 1. Running action is similar or trotting action is little used in cartoons because The running a better effect. considering the and tail are blown to rearward. Galloping height of the head. although they under the body. feet are off the ground with shadow underneath to improve The head is thrust forward with die nose held higher. Swimming and bucking. Plate There g.72 Caricaturing to walking except movements are faster. climbing. Both pairs are either more forward. action is illustrated by Figure 5. and Figure 2. or the front pair are may DARWIN still rear. the action of standing. The mane 17. and the rear feet are extended to the the action.

Plate 18. The expression should be consistent with the style. you must also consider the idea to be expressed. suits and shoes. donkey drawn to criticise the Democratic Party might be drawn sled: and fat if it was intended to criticise the party for reckless spending. the donkey in a cartoon for the aid of the Republican Party. spectacles. a donkey drawn in a political cartoon intended to aid the Democratic Party should be sleek and fat with a merry expression. For example. on the other hand. The pelican in Figure 2 is also an trample of accentuating the most noticeable features. . Quite often comic animals are represented wearing human apparel. A drawn to illustrate However. moth-eaten. The fish which has just escaped from tie pelican's beak adds interest to the drawing. or to criticise the Domx crats should be drawn with a starved. Examples of this are Figure 4. Plate 17. such as hats. stupidity: ears drooping and eyelids heavy and pardy dosed donkey a book for children might be represented quite differently from either of the two above. and quadrupeds are given the same action as bipeds.Animals flying are illustrated 75 by Figures 1 and 2 on Plate IS. You need only to use good judgment in delErmining what to do and must have a basic knowledge of a thing to be capable of using the best judgment. In caricaturing animals the style of drawing is influenced by the purpose for which it is drawn. Of course there are exceptions to this rule. down-and-out appearance. and Figure 5. but as a general rule it is A quite true. such as. Other examples are Mickey Mouse and Felix the Cat. You should always consider the purpose of a cartoon and choose the style accordingly.

74 Caricaturi urtng PLATE 19 .

and block letters suggest strength and power. In fact there are is first included so that the student may know the many books published on lettering and the student is advised to obtain a good one on this subject and learn to do good lettering. Note the word "Hindenburg" on Plate 7. enough for a book in itself. In pen and ink cartoons and caricatures. lettering is often exagger" ated. practice is necessary to acquire the dexterity required to do good lettering. This caricature shows strength of character. Cartooning. forms of letters. and other materials used for caricaturing.Chapter X Lettering Lettering is necessary in most forms of commercial art. and pencils. It should also be of an for same. and the materials However. The shading on the letters is also made to match the drawing. For lettering you should have lettering pens in various si^es and styles. this s&ort chapter steps in lettering. the word "Carnegie" on Plate 14. Oily the most important points in lettering can be treated here. . or Caricaturing should acquire some knowledge of this subject. a T square for making vertical and horizontal guide lines. guide lines. which is also somewhat of a block form. Lettering is really not very difficult. Therefore. The student of Commercial Art. for lettering is a long subject. appropriate style to harmonise with the technique of the drawings- Note how this was done on the plates of this book. but it requires a knowledge of the various strokes. black lettering ink. Block letters were used to harmonize with the caricature. paper. just as the drawings are exaggerated. especially. so it is apparent that this style of lettering was the most appropriate for this drawing.

Gothic letters are those having the elementary strokes of even width. German Text. and Text. AH slanting fetters are classified as Italics r^rdkss <rf their oder . They are. and the letters derived from the two. Gothic. Roman. Text letters heavy stroke^ indude all styles of Old English.76 Caricaturi ring There are three classes of letters used by letter craftsmen. All letters having elementary strokes consisting of light and or rather lines are classified as Roman. The four top lines on Plate 19 are GARRETT Gothfc.

and the numerals The arrows on in show the order well learned. and Text Italics. h. For Gothics there is either a round-nib pen. respectively. Note the number and distance of these lines. if drawn slanting are designated as Gothic Italics. or slanting guide lines for Italics. The pen to use is one that will best produce the demen' tary strokes of a letter with the least amount of effort. balance. In the words "King" and "Mars" the letters are outlined and shaded. pen However. For lettering. Roman. Special care should be given to the layout of lettering in regard to composition. Spacing of letters is another important item . also. or if Italics^ with the same slant. Capitals rest on the line on which the body of the small letters rest. the small letters b. Roman Italics.S. O. There is quite a variety of lettering on the other plates in this book which the student may study. Romans may be made with a round-nib pen by using double strokes as in the words "DOUBLE-STROKE" on Plate 19. k. until were made. q.andG. and y extend downward. The beginner should the strokes and their order have been various strokes overlap in seme letters. As you will see. square the paper with the drawing board and draw horizontal guide lines with a T square as illustrated on Plate 19. according to the preceding definition. These complete strokes are illustrated separately on Plate 19.g. f. or a square-nib pen. p. and how the letters are placed between them. for the letters C. and t extend upward from the body of the letters. the four top lines of lettering illustrate the direction of strokes employed in constructing the letters. Different styles of lettering pens are adapted to the various classes of alphabets. The chisel pointed and the oblong-nib pen are adapted to the Roman and Text fetters. d. They are Gothics. and Text. Lettering should first be drawn in with pencil and then with the It is advisable for beginners to proper lettering pen. so that all letters can more easily be made perpendicular. There is no fixed rule . j. See "Card" on the plate. which the strokes use this plate for a guide. and extend to the uppermost guide line. while the letters g. The Q.Therefore Gothic. draw vertical guide lines. 1. d> e. classifications. etc.

Some of the alphabet are broader than others. many ways of New shading .78 Caricaturing for the spacing of letters. letter styles may be originated from the three basic alphabets. although to a less extent than the fine arts. that is. letters The only practical way to determine the proper space for them is. and there axe them. and the may determine the space. Some require more space than others. by one's aesthetic sense. while some are narrow. Lettering provides an outlet for artistic expression. letters Certainly ugly gaps and crowded are detrimental to the appearance of lettering. combination of letters in some words to obtain a pleasing result or effect.


Caricaturing BYRNS .

objects eye level. The from the relative si^e of an object is determined by the distance it is you look through a small aperture. and importance. color. such as a hole punched in paper with a small pencil lead. above the level of the eye they descend to the eye level. than it is nearer the eye. If there is much bright color near one side of a painting. which is also the "Horizon Line. Tones and values should be balanced. on a plane surface. lines. as they appear to the observer. distant objects are simply drawn with finer really amounts to the same thing. the effect of distance on the appearance of objects." Besides the relative sizes of objects in perspective. there must be a balance of the objects represented. arranging objects in a pleasing group is called composition. there is another way to obtain the illusion of distance in drawings. To fill 81 . Objects of most interest should be placed near the center of the composition. If upward and inward run meet and vanish at an indefinite point. No large open or blank spaces should be permitted to detract from a composition. would descend and bear inward toward the track until they converge and vanish at eye level. in three dimensions. which In art. then the attention of the eye will be attracted by the bright color to that particular side.Chapter XI This and That Perspective is the art of representing objects. according to si?e. So rails till road track. In line drawings. Stand in the center of the track and see how the telegraph wires beside the R. This is by color. To obtain a pleasing group. Another good example of perspective is a raileye. Color is less brilliant at a distance. you may see a large mountain at a distance. R. below the level of the eye. In they of this nature. ascend to perspective. and subdued colors are used for the remainder of the picture.

of Library Congress. It is unnecessary to tefl the . note how large open spaces were avoided by the placing of the comic figures.82 Caricat wring in such places lettering and other detail may be used in cartoons. in the same technique. with a few exceptions. the drawings to." for reference as models when needed. may be copyrighted. Clippings are also an aid in getting ideas composition in a clipping may be adapted for an A original drawing. postage. For indoor detail. You should do this previous to the printing of the work for there are some requirements as to the of the printing. fences. etc. on 11. There is also a specified place for this notice in books. requesting the required forms and information. pictures on wall. D. anything from memory. especially Copyright Notice. written with pen and ink or typewriter white letter sise paper. Drawings intended for sale should be made on a good grade of and a margin left all the way around the drawings. For compositions representing outdoor scenes. Enclose and'require first class Bristol Board. very likdy because no one can draw for drawings. if you should pay publish something you wish to Copyright. As suggested before. doors and furniture may be used. otherwise you would collect a large number that would never be used. houses. in which entirely different objects or figures may be used. according to ones need. Stealing another's ideas. or at least. Don't copy outright an entire figure or composition. outdoor details may be employed. actions. and name of the owner of same. and lettering other detail. for this is really stealing. as well as expensive. postage for the return of the drawings. windows and curtains. smoke. However. etc. and is punishable by Federal Statutes To copyright drawings before submitting them to Editors or Publishers is unnecessary. you should keep a "morgue of clippings. trees. Washington. attempting to steal. pertaining Literature. Practically just all artists do this. and then it is necessary to a fee. techniques. &/2 x if possible. which should contain the date of Copyright. Only printed matter. They should be mailed flat. as: clouds. C. either in Art or is termed Plagiarism to Copyrights.. write to die Register of Copyrights. Of course will only want to you keep unusually good examples of various kinds. automobiles. On the plates in this book. Only send good drawings of a reasonable quantity Enclose a neat and terse letter to the one you are sending .

regardless of if profit or recognition. such as: a small humorous body. The Saturday Evening Post. otherwise he will return it to you if you have enclosed proper and sufficient postage for that purpose. and not how or why you can do it. of. for he wifl consider If it upon its merits regardless of your training and experience. and in Theatrical Displays. your work and it is suitable for his publication he will purchase it. It is the quality of your he likes work. to draw. Skiing. So. Fishing. etc. How exalted and wonderful it is to create life something good! and from photographs dipped from in Histories magazines and newspapers* Good studies may also be found and English Books containing pictures of writers and poetsPractice caricaturing from Success is to the ambitious and the persistent. Caricatures are also employed to a considerable extent in the theatrical business. Colliers. American Magazine. few artists There is pleasure in Art for the one that enjoys drawing. Golf. and one who does not care for drawing will perhaps never succeed anyway. Bookman. Always strive idea for originality. and try out any Art should be in you should think The greatest pleasure in creating something original. Esquire and others. Hobby Caricatures are perhaps best for this purpose. They are used in Posters. see Frontispiece. An example of the latter is the caricature by Eddie Burgess. Do much sketching. Books.. and are widely used in Newspapers. and other printed matter. They are made with a large head and some hobby or sport. take my dear reader.This and That Editor your qualifications in submitting free lance work. Do not be d^ couraged have. that interest editors most. Newspaper Ads. you do not gain recognition immediately. Magazines. if you really like SUCCESS as your If whatever deter goal and let nothing you from your course. Another good method for selling caricatures is to sell the original caricature to the subject from which it was made. Some of the maga2^nes using caricatures are. illustrating Painting. you do this your success is assured . Caricatures are becoming rather popular.

84 Caricaturing TARKINGTON .

The amateur needs something of the professional's experience and imagination in the form of suggestions to add to his own initiative in producing an original work of art both drawings and suggestions which he can grasp and follow..Chapter XII Assignments and Suggestions This final chapter of assignments is included to facilitate study of the principles of caricaturing explained and illustrated in the preceding chapters. not far advanced. However this does not mean that some are not gifted with more imagination than others* but that whatever imaginative powers one has must be developed. Look at some cylindrical object such as a barrel with the left eye. and it is especially difficult for the novice to study without a guide for his efforts. It is accomplished by the careful repro- duction of lines. many will be beginners. lights and shades. Although it is presumed that the majority of people who use this book will have had some practice in drawing. colors. one of the greatest artists of all time. But the most perfect drawing cannot entirely overcome some degree of flatness in a picture. This is due to the fact that an artist draws only one picture and our eyes see two pictures when viewing objects in reality. just as a very talented artist must develop his talent by study. or at most. Even Michael Angelo. had to learn to draw just the same as a less talented artist. The author knows from personal experience th&t it is much easier to study when one has definite assignments of work to be done. then vice versa and you will note that you see farther around the right side with . dosing the right. Perspective is the science of representing things as they appear rather than as they really are. To a great extent the imagination must be developed. but he probably learned much quicker and with less effort.

By means of the stereoscope one looks at two pictures. Add your own originality of execution and you have the most you can do with your present knowledge and skill. and farther around the left side with the left eye. Of course such simplified drawings exaggerating the most distinctive characteristics of the per' son they portray are little more than suggestions of those prominent features which our eyes catch. leaving out different A sketching. trying die good rule to follow in doing this is to first lines much not necessary. Next make another drawing exaggerating the most distinctive characteristics and simplifying the drawing. exaggerating and simplifying as as the drawing will stand and still retain a good likeness. draw per' fecdy straight lines without the aid of a ruler or some kind of straight . exaggeration. Your purpose when beginning should be perfection rather than speed. There are four essentials of a good caricature: a likeness of the person portrayed. not exaggerating. So each eye gives a slightly different picture of the barrel or other object. Speed will come with practice. PracIt is practically impossible to tice these horizontal strokes. free from nervousness. Some faces seem to have been made to order for cartoonists while others are very difficult. Practice these lines until you can draw them evenly and steadily. and the objects in the picture stand out in startling perspective. it will be necessary to draw them slowly at first. It is only by experiment that one learns the easy ones. (2) Figure B on the same plate is also produced with the 303 to space pen. These two visual images are combined in the brain into one visual percept. Keep sketching. The best method of attaining these four essentials in one drawing is by much study and ways of drawing one caricature. ' ASSIGNMENTS NUMBER (1) 1 With parallel lines in a Gillott's pen number 303. Be careful them as evenly as possible. Only slight pressure is used in such light lines as these. our minds suggesting the balance. practice the vertical Figure A. Unless you have done considerable work with a drawing pen. draw a picture as much like the subject as possible.86 Caricaturing the right eye. simplicity or economy of lines used in drawing. seeing them as one. Plate 1. and originality.

D illustrates shaky lines which have movement from They are termed dynamic because they convey the sense of movement. . and by the variation. Free hand lines are not supposed to be straight hard lines* such as the draftsman employs. and variety to prevent monotony. but should have slight variation to convey feeling. However. the variation or irregularity serves mostly as a relief from the monotx ony which results from exact repetition of a stroke or motif. This movement is obtained by the longer oblique stroke opposed by a shorter stroke. should be less difficult (3) The wavy vertical lines in Figure for the beginner than the preceding exercises.ssignments and Suggestions 87 edge. C MARTINELLI (4) Figure left to right.

Figure 1 should be drawn in pencil. for you remember that drawings are usually reduced to ^2 se & reproduction. O. This type of tone often employed for shadows and not infrequently for shading of is clothes. Practice them until you have gained some facility and and sure* ness in handling the pen. You may change the expressions. R.Caricaturing (5) Figures E and F are termed Crosshatch. then erase the pencil guide lines and you have an interest' ing head. (2) care to. static lines do not convey the feeling of motion. Copy Figure 4. Make important that you attain facility in drawing graded this ability you can hardly do professional looking several sheets of the exercises in Figures Q. and L. be treated later. Give your imagination free range. with a (8) Make is several copies each of Figures will I. (11) V Make Make careful and exact copies of the four caricatures first which are included (12) in the chapter. Finish as in Figure 3. and W. 2 Figure ! With a ruler or T"square draw the lines as in Draw them twice as large as they appear on this plate. saipe plate. therefore. in Figures C D to form a dynamic Crosshatch. and P. S. original caricatures of these four men. Without work. J. andU. and add a small body if you . T. Re(10) Also see what you can do with Figures member that originality is one of the most important aspects of any kind of art. Over these pencil guide lines sketch in the face of Figure 2. Feel free to make any changes which you think will improve them. (6) G shows a combination of the lines lines static. NUMBER (1) Plate 2. Practice larger pen. Spatter work (9) It lines. (7) Movement is obtained by opposing strokes in the herring' this pattern of strokes bone weave of Figure H. and employ more or less exaggeration accent ing to your mood. draw it with ink. K. Also of N. Parallel hatch are Static is or straight lines in cross' the opposite of dynamic.

The cartoonist This illustrated makes animals express their feelings also. incentive to conquer. respectively. (5) Figures 4. and (6) is interested. Copy these. and (3) Draw each expression in profile sad. 6. Draw five heads of children. instead of as a discouraging factor. draw ten sised eyes. and 3. Colliers. 5. and 2/3 front view. Block them out with die aid of guide lines. view. such as different variety shaped and (6) Going back to Plate make ten diagrams of Figure these guide lines. on Plate 3. you need further Refer to this subject in Chapter IL (10) Youth. and the caricature of Qemenceau on page 27. by Figures 8 and 9 on the same plate (5). on page 1. etc. 2. (7) Using similar diagrams. Draw ten heads in 2/3 front. 2. (2) For each expression draw a small comic head but simplify further the features and expression. in magazines. comic (8) The head But in 2/3 front is more difficult than the front or should only serve as a greater profile. angry. illustrate the head in 2/3 froot 26. Plate 3. etc. vary the features. (5) Draw the caricature of Bolivar. (9) Age. If this greater difficulty help. refer to drawings in this book and to cartoons such as Esquire. 5 and make (4) For further practice of expression turn to Plate exact copies of Figures 1. (4) Figures 4 and 5. the sfcern and angry expressions? 7 show Der Fuehrer smifitig. Using comic heads. make several copies of each expression illustrated on Plate 4. NUMBER 3 (1) For the purpose of memorizing the essentials of expression. Draw these. (7) Copy Foch outright the caricature of on page 33. front view.(3) For further practice in drawing the head in direct front view. Can you express the smile. draw ten side view (profile) heads* Employ the same form of variation as in exercise 6. copy Figures 2 and 3. Draw five heads of old men and five of old women. Saturday Evening Post. noses of different length and shape. Reprcx . To get original in your work.

(5) Draw several original heads. For an explanation of spatter shading as used in Figure 3. As for noses make them long. (9) for smile* Draw a donkey's head. and 3. fifty Draw about pug. fat. 1. 1 Note the snorting expression of the pony. slender. (3) Originate ? comic figures in front view. (2) Copy Figures 5. Copy Figure 3 following the procedure as illustrated. sises. (6) Copy the head Copy Copy all you (7) three drawings on Plate 8. 6. but be sure to retain a likeness of the subject. and degrees of exaggeration ranging from mere dots and slits to the large. short.90 Caricaturing duce exactly the parallel (8) line and Crosshatch shading in view. Get a slender. (2) (4) Copy Figures 2 and 4 on Plate 6. refer to Chapter VII and the accompanying Plate. page 39. and 3. except substitute anger NUMBER (1) 4 eyes in various shapes. jaws. and 2/3 front. employ the method of block' ing out figures as illustrated in Figures A. Make double chins. 14. of Bismarck. Draw a large variety of ears in all shapes and si^es. chins with beard and stubble beard. Change any part wish. B. suitable ones selected from your work in exercises 1. roman. Also get variety and exaggeration in hair. (3) crooked. side Draw an elephant's head as above. and flat. and short figures. "comehither'" eyes of an irresistible young lady. profile. smiling. fat. pointed chins. Also both caricatures of Masefield on this same plate. Plate 9. and chins. No. tall. and 7. this drawing. using for features. and 4. . Plate 7. as 3 and 4 except 2/3 front. Get the same expressions and selection of actions as in the originals. Also same shading. 2. Note the difference in exaggeration and technique. (8) Figures NUMBER 5 (1) In all exercises for this section. (4) (5) Same Same as Exercise 3 except in side view. Draw them front.

Get plenty (4) Copy the action action into it. Draw the it with a shadow chair is setting in the sunlight. Also represent the shadow on end. Can you (8) Draw a football player kicking hard kick? quately represent a to first base and really make (9) Draw a baseball player running him step on it! Suggest the stadium full of wildly cheering fans. punching a bag. (1) For further practice But and spatter in shading. to bring tones of different values for the different planes Draw a cast. only ade' Good cartoons suggest rather than portray faithfully. suggest a gesticulating. (2) Copy all figures on Plate 10. How can you show the curvature shadow. NUMBER 7 in the use of parallel lines. reread carefully. Copy these and shading illustrations on Plate 12.NUMBER (1) 6 action before beginning the Read carefully the chapter on following exercises. (5) For a change and rest from figures. of (6) Draw a boxer. it (Chapter VII) before doing the exercises for this chapter. (3) Plate 11 illustrates several good action studies. about 4 inches high and (3) Draw a cylinder standing of the surface? 2 inches wide. copy the caricatures on pages 44. They show the essential with everything superfluous omitted. and 51. Make hair dishevelled. side view. Use Crosshatch for lie flat on the ground? Does it stand on edge? Why? . (7) Draw Hitler making a speech. copy the drawings on pages 56 and 57. It also casts a shadow. block. eyes wild with emotion. Does the shadow seem to A beneath. Place M crowd listening. (2) sible. (10) Do two action figures of your own choosing. Crosshatch. carefully. Remember simplicity is essential for good cartoons. mouth opened wide. Use a model if posShade the and have the light coming from only one direction. Draw (4) the shadow. and arms and hands wikfly on a balcony and very simply. Also the one on page 52. out the form forcefully. 49. a football. using cube of about 2 inches square.

This drawing has crosshatch. f NUMBER 8 (1) Copy the caricature of Jack Dempsey on page 63. front view. Draw him. his feet to the fence and a part on the fence. (9) pair of shoes are on the floor. parallel lines. (8) Draw a vest and trousers as if they were on a man but don't draw the man. Have you gotten a pleasing contrast between your light and dark side of fence. Note the simplicity of this drawing. Can you represent water simply? This a good exercise.92 Caricaturing (5) A burglar The moonlight of his shadow casts a is running very rapidly beside a board fence. Reproduce the technique of the original drawing. page 54. Place shadows where needed. Place shadows under lapels and buttons. The toes are turned up this and show slightly. All drawings should be mack twice the sise which they appear in this book. Make wrinkles as if coat were is on a man. (4) Copy the drawing of Coffin on page 44. and shade it according to what you have (10) Remember all learned. without the man. The boat is small and the man is so heavy that it is almost standing on end. Note this is entirely different from die one on page 63. Also the shadow of the man is shown on the water. Note the flying notes which (3) Copy signify that Paderewski is playing. Draw an original composition. Suggest houses on other is shadow from few bushes and trash to represent an alley scene. Draw them with shadows which emphasize A contact with the floor. also a tones? (6) Draw a fat man in a boat fishing. Hate 13. The solid black affords contrast and lends color to the drawing. the composition on page 64. note . and heavy stripes. these tricks of shading and shadows. as tie author has depicted? (5) In the Can you obtain the same expression two caricatures of Pershing. (2) Copy the drawing on page 62. Draw shadow beneath the end of boat which is above water. (7) Draw a man's coat.

How can you suggest flying dust and the rapidity of his head movements? (5) Finland. dog.OJP. Draw Draw the Russian bear eating a man which is labeled this in the style of a propaganda cartoon for news' (6) Draw the British lion being subdued by Mahatma Gandhi. draw a caricature using soft lead pencil and wash. (7) Using any model you prefer. can you best express the This is another propagandist^ idea. draw a bucking horse ridden by (2) Draw a cowpuncher. you have an NUMBER 9 (1) After rereading Chapter IX. then draw an (9) (7) Draw an elephant. for such work will not be of any help in developing your ability to draw* Draw them carefully with the same actions and expressions. unless you think you can improve them. front feet. Can you make the donkey look lasy and slow? How should his ears be? His head? What about shading and shadows? (3) With the help of Plate 8. another one with crayon or any other medium you If (8) prefer. Note the simplification and exaggeration in Figure 2. How idea? New boxing gloves on man and his wife and (8) Take a good gag pertaining to a illustration of the joke. brush try a caricature in this medium. standing on rear . side view. Deal. labeled G. make copies of all animals on Plates 17 and 18. air Draw Learn to exercise initiative and originality. the reins with the other. Suggest a landscape of cactus and distant mesas. with Jack Garner in the saddle.the difference in treatment or technique. Have him holding a tep gallon hat in one hand. Make a drawing of this idea . Copy these as exercises in Also make a drawing of Sam InsulL technique. (6) Copy the two caricatures of Howard Thurston. apply it to a rooster and hen. Do not draw them just to get them done. papers. punching a bag which is labeled by a Draw Peter Rabbit riding on a sled which is being pufled which wifl interest children.feet. (4) Draw a woodpecker pecking on a snag. Plate 15. a donkey..

" "John Dewey. and lay out the Draw pencil guide lines in pencil also. before lettering beginning with the not necessary to make the fine arrowed lines which plate merely for the purpose of indicating the direction and order of the stroke. shows another style approIn the same style letter "Marshal Foch. Draw the two o's interlocking or passing through each other as links of a chain. (6) Letter your name with conjoined letters as in "Ignace Paderewski." * (?) Letter the words "Brandenburg and "HohensollenT in the style of the word "Hindenburg" on page 38. lettering pen. two (7) Letter several other words in a style similar to that of the above exercise. Where will the (2) Draw a straight road viewed from its middle.94 Caricaturing (10) sistent Draw any and in five animals you wish with any actions and expressions. Letter the following in the same style: "Crown Prince. NUMBER (1) 11 Draw falling from right to shadows fall? a house in perspective. 32. comic style. Have sunlight left and shade accordingly. For help in these per' . Always use guide lines." This (3) (2) is words a style often used in newspaper cartoons. NUMBER (1) first 10 Copy the lettering on Plate 19. any views you choose. copy the word "William II. Note the shadows cast by letters upon other letters. Develop originality by drawing correctly but differently. page 24. All lines will converge at the horizon. Letter the word Roosevelt in the same style." page priate for cartoons. (3) Draw a Also the interior of a room showing windows and door in perspective. table in perspective. page 22. But have expressions con- with action and vice versa. but shade the letters differently." (4) The word "Coonts. It is are on die Copy the words "Drawing the Head" as they appear on Plate 2." page 64. On either side is a fence* There is also a telephone line on one side of the road. From Plate 3. Develop your imagination by originating ideas." "Ferdi- nand.

Dawes. Ochs. etc. Ernest Lubitsch. Herbert Hoover.. Remember that distance is suggested by graduated tones. Bernard M. John W. William G. and those which are superfluous. . Calvin Coolidge. Sen. those of less importance subdued. Senator Borah. care of the Publisher. Roosevelt. Woodin. D. Raymond Moley. Eugene O"Nefl. draw an interior scene showing a man and a pretty girl. Jack Garner. the darkest in foreground and lightest in the distance. Dr. W. pictures on Arrange various items of the picture to put across the idea. H.spective drawings refer to Chapter XI. Leopold Stokowski. Jimmy Durante. McAdoo. "Diszy" Dean. Bfll Tilden. entirely eliminated. NUMBER 12 (1) In magazines. and F. Address him. Note: criticism of The Author of this book offers profitable and constructive your work. Pat Harrison. balance of tones with most important items most noticeable. Joe E. histories. (4) For an exercise in composition. Clark Gable. for balance of objects. Brown. Raymond Ditmais. J. Charles G. windows. Dr. Davis. etc. Jim Barley. Baruch. walls. furniture. apply ing what you liave learned in the eleven preceding sections: William Bankhead. look up pictures of the following people and draw caricatures of them. Edgar Hoover. encyclopedias. Al Smith. Adolph S.

Illustrated Jokes and How to Sell Picture Animating and Chalk Talking. FREDERICK 600-610 J. U. Cartoon Animals and Backgrounds. pencil and brush of Eogene Zimmerman (Zim). Cloth Binding CONTAINS over two hundred original drawings from the pen. whose work needs no introduction. School and College Humor. Painting and Decorating. ad writers and sign painta wealth of humorous suggestions that can be applied profitably. will find this and even the professional cartoona reference book worth times its price. Articles How to Illustrate BBGXNKIHG with the simplest kind of practice sketches. Table of Contents by Chapters. A Word Practice ture. 160 Pages. the book leads you a dozen interesting' chapters to Sports Cartooning. Every imaginable phase of cartooning is explained and illustrated in f ulL Teachers. DRAKE & Co. Furniture Finishing. Write for our complete free catalog of books on Lettering. ist Drawing. Action and Perspective. Mixing Colors. Com- Wash ers will find mercial artists. etc. Designing. Introduction.0O complete trating. Sketches Faces in Carica- Comic Figures and Simple Cartoons. Seasonal and Holiday Cartoons. . may illustrate their own writing. Show Card Writing. School and college students can turn their art ambitions into profitable channels. Them. PUBLISHERS W. Character and Expression. preachers and professional chalk-talkers will find the book full of material that can be worked into illustrated lectures. Interior Decoration. Van Bora SL A. Sign and Scene Planting. Political and Editorial Cartooning. CHICAGO. about Materials. Authors and humorists mastery of humorous illus- Not a dull page in the course. printed on Plate Paper. $2.A COMPLETE COURSE IN CARTOONING Size 6% x 10% inches. S. many Humorous Them.




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