Ub rary of eon gr •..

Calalog Ing In Publication Data
S@ ior, John. M" 1951n

Optlcal fiber communications-

Bibliography: p.
index. 1. Optical communications. TK5103.59.846 1984

2- Fiber optics, I. Title, 621.38'0414


ISBN0-13-638248-7 ISBN O~13-638222-3

{case) (pbk, ~

Britieh libRII ry Cataloging in Publication Datil
Senior, John


Optical fiber com rn unications,
1, Optical cornrnun lcations 1- Title

Fiber optics

ISBN 0-13-638248-7 ISBN 0-13-638222-3




~ 1985 by Pren'llca-H aU Inte rnational. I nc., London
All rights reserved, No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieve I system, Or transrnlttsd. in any form or by any means, electroruc. mechanical, photocopvlnq, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of Prentrce-Hallinterostiona L lnc., London. For parmlsslon within tile United States contact Prentlce-Hall inc. Englewood Cliffs, NJ 0763:2.

ISBN 0-13-638248 7 ISBN 0-13-638222 3 {PBK}
Prefl ti ce ~HaII In te rna t ionaI, Inc" L on don Prentice-Hall of Australia Pty, l.td.. Sydnev
of India Private Ltd" New Delhi Prentice-Hall of Southeast Asia Pte" Ltd., Singapore Pre n ti ce - H a Ij Inc, E nqtewoo de Ilffs, New Jers« y Prentice-Hall do erasil Ltda 'I Rio de Jeneirc WhttehQ!1 Books Ltd., Wellington, New Zealand

Prentice-Hall Prsntlce-Ha!l

Canada, lnc., Toronto

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Typeset by Piotail Studios Ltd., Ringwood, Printed in the United States of America

Hants., UK.







Glossary of Symbol. and Abbreviations




Historical Development


1.2 The General System 4 1.3 Advantages of Optical Fiber Communication References 10



2 .1




Ray Theory Transmission 12 2.2.1 Total internal reflection
2.2.2 Acceptance angle



Numerical aperture 15 2.2.4 Skew rays 19 Electromagnetic Mode Theory For Optical Propagation 22 2.3.1 Electromagnetfc waves 22 2.3.2 Modes in a planar guide 24 2.3.3 Phase and group velocity 27 2.3.4 Phase shift with total Internal reflection and the evan-escent field 2.3.5 Goos-Haenchen shift 34
2.3.6 Cylindrical fiber 34 41



2.3.7 Mode coupling 2.4 Step Index. Fibers 43 2.4.1 Mul1imode step index fibers 2.4.2 Sing1e mode step index fibers 2.5 Graded Index Fibers 48 Problems 57 Refere nces 59



3.1 3.2





Introduction 62 Attenuation 63 Material Absorption Losses 3.3 ~ Intrl nslc absorption 1 3~3.2 Extrinsic absorption




L.lnelr SCltter'ng LOI•• I 6a 3,4, 1 RI V~.gh le.ttlrl ng i 89 :I.4,2 M~.leltterl ng 71


• IV

Nonlinear Scattering Losses 71 3.5.1 Stirn ulated Bri Iloul n scatterinq

Stirn ulated Raman scattering Fiber Bend Loss 73 3.6 Dispersion 76 3.7 Intramoda I Dispersion 80 3.8 81 3.8. 1 M aterial disperslon 84 3.8.2 Wavegu~de dispersion 3.9 lnterrnodat Dlsparslon 84 3.9.1 Multimode step inde~ fiber 3.9.2 Multimode graded index fiber 3.10 Overall Fiber Dispersion 93 3.1 0.1 Multimode fibers 93 3.10.2 Single mode fibers 94 3.11 Modal Noise 98 3.12 Polarization 100 100 3.12.1 Modal birefringence Problems 104 References 108


72 72






lntroductlon 11 1 Preparation of Opttcat Fibers 112 113 Uquld Phase (Melting) Techniques 4.31 Fiber drawing 114 118 4.4 Vapor Phase Deposition Techniques 120 4.4+ 1 Outside vapor phase oxidation (DVPO) process 4.4.2 Vapor axial deposition (VAD). 121 4.4.3 Modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) 123 4.4.4 Plasma-activated chemical vapor deposition {PCVD) 125 4.4+5 Summary of vapor phase deposition techniques 126 4.5 Optical Fibers 126 _.!' 4.5. 1 Mu~t[mode step index fibers 127 ...j( 4.5.2 Multimode graded index fibers 128 4.5.3 Single mode fibers 130 4.5.4 Plastic-clad fibers 131 4.5.5 All-plastic fibers 132 133 4.6 Optlca' Fiber Cables 4.6.1 Fiber strength and durability 134 138 4.6.2 Stability of the fiber tra nsmission characteristics 138 4.7 Cable Design 4.7.1 Fiber buffering 13 B 139 4.7.2 Cable structural and strength members 4.7.3 Cable sheath and water barrier 140 4.7.4 . Exam pies of fiber cabl es 141 Optical Fiber Connection 144 4.8 146 4.8.1 Fiber alignment and joint loss 4.9 Fiber Sp~ices 166 4.9.1 Fusion splices 157 4.9.2 Mechanical splices , 59 4.9.3 Multiple splices 163 _4.10 Fiber Connectors , 64 .. 165 4+ 11 Butt Jointed Connectors 4.1 1.1 Ferrule connector 166 167 4.11.2 Biconical connector


4.11.3 4.11.4 4.11.5 4. 11.6 4. 11.7
4. 12

Ceramic caplllarv connector
Double eccentric connector


168 1 70


Triple ball connector 169 Sing Ie mode fiber con nector Multip1e connectors 170 Expanded Beam Connectors 1 72 173





5.1 5.2


5.5 5+6


Introduction 183 Fiber Attenuation Measurements 186 5.2.1 Total fiber attenuation 186 190 5.2.2 Fiber absorption loss measurement 194 5.2.3 fiber scattering loss measurement Fiber Dispersion Measurements 196 5.3. 1 Time domain measurement 197 200 5.3.2 Frequency domain measurement 202 Fiber Refractive Index Profile Measuremen1s 5.4.1 Interferometric methods 202 5.4.2 Near field scanning method 204 5.4.3 End reftectlon method 206 Fiber Numerical Aperture Measurements 209 Fiber Diameter Measurements 212 5.6.1 Outer diameter 212 5.6.2 Core diameter 214 Field Measurements 215 5.7.1 Optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR)


Problems References


OPTICAL 6.1 6.2



.., 1.4


Introduction 231 Bas.c Concepts 233 B.2.1 Absorption and emission of radiation 234 6.2.2 The Einstein relations 236 6.2.3 Population inversion 238 6.2.4 Optical feedback and laser oscillatlon 240 6+2.5 Threshold condltlon for laser asci llation 244 Optical Emiss;on From Semiconductors 245 6.3.1 The p-n junction 245 6.3.2 Spontaneous emission 248 6.3.3 Carrier recombination 250 6.3.4 Stimulated emission and lasing 253 8.3.6 He1erojunctions 258 8.3 .. 8 Semiconductor materials 260 The Semiconductor Injection Laser 262 1.4.1 Efflclencv 264 1.4.2 Strip. geometry 265

'tl.' It .~e.2
• tl.1

Multtmod. tnj.ctlon Lisera


L••• ,.mod..
ruct\l rtl


Optlolt Ol.ltpu t pow,r .... "' dlVllopmln,.

2e B


218 270


CONTENTS 6.6 6.7
271 Single Mode Injection Lasers 272 6.6,1 Single mode operation Single Mode Structures 273

6.7.3 6.7.4

273 -Burled heterostructure (BH) laser 274 /Transverse junction stripe (TJS) laser Cha nne11 substrate la se rs ed 274 Distributed feedback (DFB} lasers 276

Large optical cavity (LOC) lasers 277 Longer Wavelength I njection Lasers 278 6.8 Injection Laser Characteristics 281 6.9 6.9.1 Threshold current temperature dependence 6.9.2 Dynamic response 283 6.9.3 Self pulsations 284 6.9.4 Noise 285 6.9.5 Mode hopping 286 6.9.6 Reliability 287 288 6.10 Injection Leser Coupling and Packaging Lasers 289 6.11 Nonsemfconductor Problems 290
Ref ere nc e s





7.1 7.2


Introduction 29 B LED Efficiency 298 7.2.1 The double heteroiunction



LED Structures 303 7.3.1 Planar LED 303 7.3.2 Dome LED 304 7.3.3 Surface emitter (Burrus type} LED



7.3.4 Lens coupling 30B 7.3.5 Edge emitter LED 308 LED Characteristics 310 7,4.1 Optical output power 310 7.4.2 Output spectrum 311 7.4.3 Modulation bandwidth 313



31 8

7.5 Modulation Problems 321 '~eferences 323





8.2 8.3 8.4

Introduction Device Types

326 327


Optical Detection Principles 328 Absorption 329 8.4.1 Absorption coeffecient 329 8.4.2 Direct and indirect absorption: silicon and germanium 8.4.3 IU-Valloys 331 Quantu m Efficiency 332
Responsivity 333 Long Wavelength Cutoff





8.8 Semiconductor Photodlodss Without lnternal Gain 336 8.8.1 p-n photodiode 336 8.8.2 p-i-n photcdtods 338 Semiconductor Photodiodes With Internal Gain 340 8.9.1 Avalanche photodiodes 340 8.9.2 Silicon reach-through avalanche photodiodes 342· 8.9,3 Germanium avalanche photodlodes 343 8.9.4 Ill-V alloy avalanche photodiodes 343 8.9.5 Drawbacks with the avalanche photodiode 344 8.9.6 Mu ltiplication factor 345 Phototranslstors 345










352 Introduction Noise 353 9.2. 1 Thermal noise




Oark current noise 353 9.2.3 Quantum noise 354 9.2.4 Dig ltal sianalling qua ntum noise 9.2.5 Analog tra nsrntsalcn quantu m noise Hacslver Noise 359



p-n and o-i-n photodiode
Receiver capacitance



9.3.2 9.3.3

Ava la nche photodlode {AP D) receiver

9.3.4 Excess avalanche noise fa ctor 371 372 9.4 Receiver Structu res 9.4.1 Low impedance front end 372 9.4.2 High impedance (Integrating) front end 9.4.3 The transimpedence front end 374 377 9.5 FET Preamplifiers 379 9.5.1 Gallium arsenide MESFETs 9.5.2 PlN-FET hybrids 379 Problems 381 384 References



, 0.2



Introduction 386 The Optical Transmitter Circuit 388 10.2.1 Source lirnttattons 388 10.2.2 LED drive circuits 391 10.2.3 Laser drive circuits 399 The Optical-Hecelver Circuits 403 10.3.1 The preamplifier 404 1 0.3+2 Automatic gain control (AGe}



10.1 ;Dlgltll S~.t.ml .. '-........... .

, 0.4.1 Componen1 choice . , O.4~2 MuJtlpi.~dng 417
41 a

Sy.tem Deli;n





415 416

10.6 Digital System Planning Considerations 423 10.6.1 The regenerative repeater 424 , 0.6.2 The optical transmitter 426 10.6.3 The optical receiver 427 10.6.4 Channel losses 438 10.6.5 Temporal response 439 10.6.6 Optical power budqstlnq 444 , 0.6.7 Line cadi ng 446 Analog Systems 449 10.7.1 Direct intensi1y modulation (D-~M) 451 10.7.2 System planning 457 1O~ 7.3 S ubca rrier intensity modu lation 460 10.7.4 Subcarrier double sideband modulation (DSB-IM) 10.7, 5 Subcarrier frequency modulation (FM-I M) 463 10.7.6 Subcarriar phase modulation (PM-1M) 466 10.7.7 Pulse analog techniques 467 Coherent Systems 470 473 479




10.8 Problems References


11 .1 11 .2 I n trod ucti on 484 Public Network Applications 486 , 1.2.1 Trunk network 486 , 1.2.2 Junction network 489 11.2.3 local and rural networks 491 11.2.4 Submerged systems 493 Military Applications 494 11.3.1 Mobiles 494 495 , 1.3.2 Communication links 497 Civil and Consumer Applications 11.4.1 Civil 497 11 .4.2 Consumer 499 Ind us tri a I App Iica t ions 500 11.5.1 Sensor systems 501 Computer Applications 506 11.6.1 local area networks 508 In1egrated Optics 512 , 1.7. 1 Planar waveguides 51 3 integrated Optical Devices 517 517 11.8.1 Beam splitters and switches , 1 .8.2 Modu lators 521 11 .8.3 Periodic structures for fllters and injection lasers 11.8.4 Bistable optical devices 526 , 1.8.5 Optoelectronic inteqration 530 11 .8.6 Su mmary 532


11 .3


11 .5

11.6 11.7 11 .8



The Field Re~ations In a Plan a r Guide Variance of a Random Variable 540 539

Appendix Appendix Appen~ix Appendix
Appendix Appendix

Variance of the Sum of independent Random Variables 541 Speed of Response of a Photodiode 542 Closed loop Transfer Function for the Transtrnpedance Amplifier Gaussian Pulse Response 544





- ,..,- ..-.~, .~




The concept of guided lightwave communication along optical fibers has stimulated a major new technology which has come to maturity over the last fifteen years .. During this period tremendous advances have been achieved with optical fibers and components as well as with the associated optoelectronics. As a result this new technology has now reached the threshold of large scale commercial exploitation .. Installation of optical fiber communication systems is progressing within both national telecommunication networks and more localized data communication and telemetry environments. Furthermore, optical fiber communication has become synonymous with the current worldwide revolution in information techno1ogy .. The relentless onslaught will undoubtedly continue over the next decade and the further predicted developments will ensure even wider application of optical fiber communication technology in this 'infermation age'.. The practical realization of wide-scale optical fiber communications requires suitable education and training for engineers and scientists within the technology. In this context the book has been developed from both teaching the subject to final year undergraduates and from a successful series of short courses on optical fiber communications conducted for professional engineers at Manchester Polytechnic. This book has therefore been written as a comprehensive introductory textbook for use by undergraduate and postgraduate engineers and scientists to provide them with a firm grounding in the major aspects of this new technology whilst giving an insight into the possible future developments within the field. The reader should therefore be in a position to appreciate developments as they occur. With these aims in mind the book has been produced in the form of a teaching text enabling the reader to progress onto the growing number of specialist texts concerned with optical fiber waveguides, optoelectronics, integrated optics, etc. In keeping with the status of an introductory text the fundamentals are included where necessary and there has been no attempt to cover the entire field in full mathematical rigor. However, selected proofs are developed in important areas throughout the text. It is assumed that the reader is conversant with differential and integral calcu1us and differential equations. In addition, the reader will find it useful to have a grounding in optics as well as a reasonable familiarity with the fundamentals of , solid state physics. Chapter 1 gives a short introduction to optical fiber communications by considering the historical development, the general system and the major advantages provided by this new technology. In .Chapter 2 the concept of the optical fiber as a transmission medium is introduced using a simple ray theory approach. This is followed by discuslion of electromagnetic wave theory applied to optical fibers prior to consideration of Ii,htwave transmission within the various fiber types, The major transmission cha r acteris tics of optical fi bers are th en di sCU ssed in so me detail in C h apter 3. Chapters 4 and 5 deal with the more practical aspects of optical fiber communication. and therefore could be omitted from an initial teaching program. In Chapter 4 the



and cabling of the various fiber types are described, together with fiber to

This chapter is intended to provide sufficient background for the reader to pursue u se f u l 1a bora tory wo r k with opti cal fibers. Chapters 6 and 7 discuss the light sources employed in optical fiber communications+ In Chapter 6 the fundamental physical principles of photoemission and laser action are covered prior to consideration of the various types of semiconductor and nonsemiconductor laser currently in use, or under investigation, for optical fiber communications. The other important semiconductor optical source, namely the light emitting diode, is dealt with in Chapter 7. The next two chapters are devoted to the detection of the optical signal and the amplification of the electrical signal obtained, Chapter 8 discusses the basic principles of optical detection in semiconductors; this is followed by a description of the various types of photodetector currently utilized. The optical fiber receiver is considered in C hap ter 9 with partie uJar em ph as is on its perform an ce in noise. Chapter [0 draws together the preceding material in a detailed discussion of optical fiber communication systems, aiming to provide an insight into the design criteria and practices for aU the main aspects of both digital and analog fiber systems. A brief account of coherent optical fiber systems is also included to give an appreciation of this area of future development, Finally, Chapter [1 describes the many current and predicted application areas for optical fiber communications by drawing on examples from research and development work which has already been undertaken, This discussion is expanded into consideration of other likely future developments with a brief account of the current technology involved in integrated optics and optoelectronic inte gra ti on. Worked examples are interspersed throughout the text to assist the learning process by illustrating the use of equations and by providing realistic values for the various parameters encountered, In addition, problems have been provided at the end of relevant chapters (Chapters 2 to 10 inclusive) to examine the reader's understanding of the text and to assist tutorial work. A Teacher's Manual containing the solutions to these problems may be obtained from the publisher. Extensive end-of-chapter references providea guide for further reading and indicate a source for those equations which have been quoted without derivation. A complete glossary of symbols, together with a list of common abbreviations employed in the text, is provided. SI units are used throughout the text. I am very grateful for the many useful comments and suggestions provided by reviewer s which have resulted ins ignifican t improvements to this text. Thanks must also be given to. the authors of numerous papers, articles and books which 1 have referenced whilst preparing the text, and especially to those authors, publishers and companies who have kindly granted permission for the reproduction of diagrams and photographs. Further, r would like to thank my colleagues in the Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at Manchester Polytechnic for their many helpful comments on the text; in particular Dr. Norman Burrow, Dr, John Edwards and Stewart C usworth for the time spent checking the manuscript. I am also grateful to my family and friends for tolerating my infrequent appearances over the period of the writing of this book~ Finally, words cannot express my thanks to my wife, Marion, for her patience and encouragement with this project and for her skilful typing of the

fiber connection or jointing, Chapter 5 gives a genera] treatment of the major measurements which may be undertaken on optical fibers in both the laboratory and the field.

.""! "T



Manchester Polytechnic

J. M. Senior




:_ _._ .


Glossary of Symbols and Abbreviations


constant, area (cross-section, emission), far field pattern size, mode amplitude, wave amplitude (A 0) Ei n ste in coefficient of s p on taneou s em is sio n peak amplitude of the subcarrier waveform (analog transmission} fiber core radius, parameter defining the asymmetry of a planar guide (eq n. 11.6)~ baseband message signal (aCt) integer 1 or 0 con stan t, electri cal band wid th (po s t detection), m agneti c flux den sity ~ mode amplitude, wave amplitude (Eo) Einstein coefficients of absorption, stimulated emission
modal birefringence bandwidth of an intensity modulated

optical signal m(t)


optical bandwidth recombination coefficient for electrons and holes hit rate, when the system becomes dispersion limited (BT (DL)) normalized propagation constant for a fiber, ratio of luminance to composite video constant, capacitance, crack depth (fiber), wave coupling coefficient per unit length effective input capacitance of an optical fiber receiver amplifier opt ic al detector ca pa citan ce capacitance associated with the feedback resistor of a transimpcdance optic al fi ber re ceiv er amplifier total optical fiber channel loss in decibels, including the dispersionequalization penalty (CLD) velocity of light in a vacuum, constant (el ~C2) tap coefficients for a transversal equalizer amplitude coefficient, electric nux density distance, corrugation period, decision threshold in digital optical fiber transmission f req uen c y deviation ratio (s u bcarr ier PM) dis persio n -equaliza lion pen a It y in deci b els frequency deviation ratio (subcarrier PM) fi be r core diameter, di stan ce ~ width of th e a b so r pti on regio n (photot

wave amplitude total cap aci tan ce

detector)'! pi n diameter (mode scr am b1er) fiber outer (cladding) diameter electric field, energy, Youngs mod ulu S '! expeer ed value of a ran dam v ar iable




activation energy of homogeneous degradation for an LED Fermi level (energy), quasi-Fermi level located in the conduction
E~ (E Fe)" valence band (Ep.,.) of a semiconductor separation energy between the valence and conduction semiconductor (bandgap energy) subcarrier electric field (analog transmission) hands


in a


fn fd



optical energy separation energy of the quasi-Fermi levels electronic charge, base for natura] logarithms probability of failure, transmission factor of a semiconductor-external interface, excess avalanche noise factor (F(M) ) Fourier transform arion noise figure (amplifier)
frequency peak to peak frequency deviation (PFM-IM) peak frequency deviation (subcarrier FM and PM) pulse rate (PFM~IM)



Go Gsn

open loop gain of an optical fiber receiver amplifier amplitude function in the WKB method optical gain (phototransistor)
Gaussian (distribution)



H A(ro) Heq{w) HOL(ro) Hout(ro) h


degeneracy parameter gain coefficient per unit length (laser cavity) transconductance of a field effect transistor threshold gain per unit length (laser cavity) magnetic fieJd optical power transfer function (fiber), circuit transfer function optical tiber receiver amplifier frequency response (including any equalization)

H CL (00)

closed loop current to yo] ta ge transf er fu nction (receiver amp] ifier) eq ualiz er tr an sfer fu ncti on (freq uen cy response) open loop current to voltage transfer function (receiver amplifier) output pulse spectrum from an optical fiber receiver Planck's constant, thickness of a planar waveguide, power impulse response for an optical fiber (h(t») optic al fi ber receiver am plifier impu lse res ponse (i nc1udi ng an y eq ua 1iza~

I" r


effective thickness of a planar waveguide common emitter current gain for a bipolar transistor optical fiber impulse response output pulse shape from an optical fiber receiver in pu t pulse s h ape to an optical fi ber recei ver transmitted pulse shape on an optical fiber link electrical current, optical intensity
radiation induced photocurrent bias curre nt for an opti cal detector collector current (phototransistor) dark current (optical detector) maxim urn optica l intensity
photocurrent generated in an optical detector threshold current (injection laser) electrical current


(optical receiver)

material dispersion parameter. distance between mirror s (laser) bea t len gth ina sin gle mode optic al fiber coherenc e len gth in a sin gle mode 0 pt ical fiber char acteris tic length (fiber ) cons tan t with dimensions of length lateral misalignment loss at an optical fiber joint transmi-ssion loss factor (transmissivity) of an optical fiber azim uth al mode number. total number of guided modes or mode volume. for a multi mode step index fiber (M ~). N1. integer angu lar f r eq uen cy de vi a tion (su be arrier F M) phase deviation constant (subcarrier PM) length (fiber). current density t b resho ld cur ren t den s i (i njection I a ser) ty V-I Bal tz mann's con stan t. distance. length atomic spacing (bond distance) wave coupling length avalanche multiplication factor. for an elliptical crack (K[c) wave propagation constant in a vacuum (free space wave number). wave vector for an electron in a cry stal. m odifi ed Bes sel function stress intensity factor. group index of an optical waveguide (N 1) numerical aperture of an optical fiber . N2.GLOSSARY OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREV~AT10NS xiii i~ + lamp' iD ld idet If • optical receiver preampJifier shunt noise current optic a l r ecei ver pre a m plifier total n oi se cu rren t decision threshold current (digital transmission) ph otodiod e dark noi se ell rren t output current from an optical detector n oi se current gen erated in the feed ba ck res istor of an optical fi ber receiver tr an si mpedance preamplifier total no ise curren t at a digit al opti ca I f ber re eei v er multiplied shot noise current at the autput of an APD ex eluding dark n 01se current I.noise equivalent power integer. integer mod ula tion index NA NEP .Rig It J ITS • j K J1h shot noi se current on the pho toe urrent for a photodiode rn ultiplied shot noise current at the OUtput of an APD including the dark noise current signal current obtained in an optical fiber receiver the r ma I noi se current gen er ated ina resistor tota l sh ot noise cu rren t for a photod iod e wi thou t inte rn al gain Bessel function. N3). con stan t de pendent on the optical fi ber properties.g. density of atoms in a particular energy level (e. ratio of ioni za tion rates for holes and electrons. fOT multimode graded index fiber (M g). mean value (M J) and mean square value (Mt) of a random variable safety margin in an optical power budget o ptimum avalanche multiplication factor excess avalanche noi se factor. minority carrier concentration in n type semiconductor material. intensity modulated optical signa] (m(t) )1 mean value of a random variable. (als 0 denoted as F(M) ) radial mode number ~ Wei bull distribution parameter.

positive type semiconductor material.g. nJ). minority carrier concentration in p type semiconductor material.xiv GLOSSARY OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREV'ATIONS defined by equation 10. n J ~ n2. R in' Rout) upward transition rate tor electrons from energy level 1 to level 2 downward transition rate for electrons from energy level 2 to level I effective input resistance of an optical fiber receiver preamplifier bias resistance. for optical fiber receiver preamplifier (R ba) critical radius of an optical fiber radiance of an optical source ratio of electrical input power in decibels for an optical fiber system feedback resistance in an optical fiber receiver transirnpedance preamplifier load resistance associated with an optical tiber detector ratio of optical output power to optical input power in decibels for an optical fiber system tot al load resis t an ce wi thin an opti c al fi be r receiver r a dia l distanc e fro m the fiher ax is. radius of curvature of a fiber bend. of detecting a zero when a one is transmitted (P(O/l))~ of detecting a one when a zero is transmitted (P(l/O) ) total power in a baseband message signal a(t) thres hold 0 ptical po wer fo r B ri llou in seat terin g optical power coupled into a step index fiber optical power density d . mirror re t1 ecti vi t y. F r esn e1 rene ctio n coefficien t. of detecting a one 1evel (P(1)). average photoelastic coefficient. probability. stress corrosion susceptibility. optical output power p q R optic al po wer em itted from an optic al sou rce optical power in a guided mode mean input (transmitted) optical power launched into a fiber internally generated optical power (optical source) total power in an intensity modulated optical signal m(t) mean output (received) optical power from a fiber mean optical power travelling in a fiber initial output optical power (prior to degradation) from an optical source peak received optical power reference optical power level threshold optical power for R am an scatterin g backscattered optical power (Rayleigh) within a fiber o pti c al power sea ttered fro m a fi ber frequency spectrum of the mean input optical power launched into a fiber freq uency spectrum of the mean output optical power recel ved from a fiber crystal momentum. type semi condu ctor materia] effective refractive index of a planar waveguide negative refractive index of air electrical power.80 refractive index (e. ele ctro-o ptic coeffici en t J• . of error (p(e) )t of detecting a zero level (P(O) ). of detecting z photons in a particular time period (p(z) )~ conditional probability.. electrical resistance (e.c. fringe shift photodiode responsivity. probability density function (p(x) ) integer..g.

emitter supply voltage voltage reading corresponding to the total optical power in a fiber voltage reading corresponding to the scattered optical power in a fiber electrica 1 vo It age amplifier series noise voltage receiver amplifier output vo1tage VO\Ic(/) velocity output voJtaie from an RC fitter eire u it .. Sf Sj(r) Sm(m) SIN a planar.. nominal pulse period (PFM-IM) ]0-90% rise time at the regenerator circuit input (PFM~IM) 10-90% rise time for an optical source total 10-90% rise time for an optical tiber system tot ali nsertion los s at an op ti cal fi ber j oi n t tern per at ure rise at time t maximum temperature rise time time constant width from the center -. guide-cladding interface reflection and transmission coefficients respectively for the magnetic field at a planar guide-cladding interface incident photon rate at an optical detector fraction of captured optical power. GLOSSARY OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS ge nerated electron rate ina n opt ical detec tor reflection and transmission coefficients respectively xv for the electric field at . nomalized frequency for an optical fiber or planar waveguide bias vo]t age for a photod i0 de Vc Vee VEE cutoff value of normalized frequency VeE collector supply voltage collector-emitter voltage (bipolar transistor) Vopt V.. with peak to peak signal power l{S/N)1>-P 1~with rms signal power [(SiN) rrns] t heoreti cal C oh esive strength pin spacing (mode scrambler) temper ature .(: V .time in sertion los s re sul t ing from an an gular otTset bet ween jo inted optical fibers 10-90% rise time arising from intramodal dispersion on an optical fiber TR Ts To TT Tt t te T~yst Too link I0--90% ri se ti me for an opti ca 1 detector fictive temperature in serti on los s res u lti n g fro m a lateral 0 IT between j 01n ted opti c al fi b ers set 10-90% rise time arising from intermodal dispersion On an optical fiber link threshold temperature (injection laser)...:. macroscopic stress f r act u re stres s phase function in the WKB method spectral density of the intensity modulated optical signal m(t) peak signal power to rms noise power ratio.TOU p .. ' crack velocity .v.( . IO~90% rise time td tf te switch on delay (laser) ]Ie pulse U V Vbias eigenvalue of the fiber core electrical voltage. v A(J) "eI .

shunt admittance. constant. Iateral offset at a fiber joint random variable 20 z Z III electrical impedance coordinate. E " Tt lli ~ llang TID llep 11lat 'lpc llT su rface energy of a material Rayleigh scattering coefficient for a fiber reJative refractive index difference between the fiber core and cladding phase shift associated with transverse electric waves # uncorrected source frequency width phase shift associated with transverse magnetic waves optical source spectral width (linewidth) intermodal dispersion time in an optical fiber delay difference between an extreme meridional ray and an axial ray for a graded index fiber delay difference between an extreme meridional ray and an axial ray for a step index fiber ~with mode coupling (STsc) electrical permittivity.. random variable coordinate. thickness distance.. attenuation coefficient per unit length for a fiber YR Ll OJ OE OH OA OT sr. T number of photons a verage or mean number of photons arriving at a detector in a time period par ameter). evanescent field penetration depth. .) solid acceptance ang1e quantum efficiency (optical detector) angular coupling efficiency (fiber joint) coupling efficiency (optica1 source to fiber) differential external quan tum efficiency (opti c at source) external power efficiency (optical source) internal quantum efficiency (optical source) lateral coupling efficiency (fiber joint) overall power conversion efficiency (optical source) total external quantum efficiency (optlcal scuree) . ~ ~ p ~c ~o ~r loss coefficient per unit length (laser cavity) conn ector los s at trans rnitter and receiver in dec ibels signa] attenuation in decibels per unit length fiber cable loss in decibels per kilometer fiber joint loss in decibels per kilometer signal atten uation in nepers absorption coeffi cien t rad Iation atten u a tion coefficient wa ve propag ation constant gain factor (injection laser cavity) isotherm a1 com pre s stbil ity pro portional ity con st ant degr adation rate average number of photons detected in a time period r ch ar ac teristic re fr active index profile for fi ber (profile optimum profile parameter (ao ) 'Y Yp angle. reJative (s.xvi Vp GLOSSARY OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS phase velocity X x W We Wo eigenvalue of the fiber cladding. oTs . slab Y y Z constant. random variable electric pulse width optical pulse width random variable coordinate. of free space (€o). a Ucr IlJB arc J nj aN u.

variance (02) rms pulse broadening resulting from material dispersion in a fiber rms pulse broadening resulting from interrnodal disperion.c) sc alar q u an ti t y representing E or H field angular frequency.) oodId mark Jllvw. rll 't' (0 A-D analog to digital CMOS CNR complementary metal AGe AM APD a. (CTV CDH close eire uit televi si 0 n con stricted dou b~e II. period for perturbations in a fiber ell totT period for pert ur ba tion s in a fiber optical wavelength long wavelength cutoff (photodiode) wavelength at which first order dispersion is zero magnetic permeability. critical angle (q. bit period. relative permeability (u. Bragg diffraction angle (80) acoustic wavelength.er.c. 'tf q.).GLOSSARY OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS xvii angle. pulse duration 3 dB pulse width (t(3 dB)) spontaneous transition lifetime between energy levels 2 and 1 time delay in a transversal equalizer 1/ e full width pulse broadening due to di s persion on an optic at fiber link group delay injected (minority) carrier lifetime radiative minority carrier lifetime linear retardation angle. Laplacian operator (V2) rm s pulse broadening res ul ting fro m in tr amodal dis per sian in a fiber aT 01t 121 tE te tg '1'.. in a step index fiber (O"~) total rms pul se broaden ing in a fiber or fiber link rms spectral width of e mission from optical source time period. of the subcarrier waveform in analog transmission (mc )~ of the mod ulati ng signa l in analo g trans mis sian (ro m) spot size of the fundamental mode vector operator. BER BH ASK BOD CAM alternating current automatic gain control ant p litude mod ula lion a valanche photodiode amplitude shift keying bit error rate bur ied hetero str u ct u re (injection laser) bistable optical device computer aided manufacture • sion oxide silicon carrier to noise ratio CPU CSP CW central processing unit channelled substrate planar (injection laser) continuous wave or dB O-IM D-A operation digital to analog decibel direct intensity modulation DBF CATV common an tenna televiDBR d.ion heteroj unction (injectio n DH distributed feedback (inj ection la s er) distributed Bragg reflector (injection laser) dire ct cur re n t do ub1e heteros true t ure or heteroj unction (injection 1 r or LED) ••• . (rrns pulse width).c. permeability of free space (JJo) optic al sou rce band width in gig ahertz polarization rotation in a single mode optical fiber spectr at density of the radiation energy at a tr an sition f req uen cy f standard deviation. fiber acceptance angle (Sa). in a graded index fiber (O'g).

:..:.. reflecto m etrv veo VHF VPE PCM pes outside vapor phase oxidation pulse amplitude modulalion pulse code modulation WDM ultra high frequency vapor axial deposition vo ltage co n trolled 0 scillator very hi gh frequency vapor phase epitaxy WKB plastic-clad silica (fiber) : ~'.XVIII ••• GLOSSARY OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREV'ATIONS DSB EH EMI EMP erf ference erfc FDM FET double sideband (amplitude modulation) traditional mode designation el ectrom agneti c in ter- PCVD pla sm a.witch point zen rI•. ••••• ZO .:.:: • "~ .:' .. Telegraph and Tele• • commurncanons pulse width modulation reach-through avalanche photodiode IF ILD 1M 10 I/O lSI LAN LED LOC LP LPE MCVD MESFET MISFET Nd:YAG high frequency high voltage intermedia te freq uen cy inj ecti on laser d iod e intensity modulation integrated optics input! 0 utput in ters ym bo 1 interference local area network Jig h t em itt in g diode large optica1 cavity (injection laser) linearly polarized (mode notation) liquid phase epitaxy modi fied c he rnical va por deposition met al Schottky fi eld eff ect tr a ns istor metal in te gr ated -se mi ~ cond ueto r field effect 8DM SHF SML S.~~'-. •..act iva ted chemical vapor deposi- pew PDF electrom agnetic pulse FM FSK FWHP HDB HE He~Ne HF HV error function co mp lementary error function frequency division multiplexing field effect trans istor frequene y modu1ation freq uenc y sh ift keying f u1l width half po wer hi gh den s ity bi pol ar tr ad itiona 1 m ode de sign ation helium-neon (laser) tion PF.:..1...:.~ dJodI . plexing Wentzel... Kramers.NR TDM TE TEM TJS TM TTL UHF VAD radio f req uen cy in terference root mean square re lax atio n osci lla t 10n return to zero surface acoustic wave space division multiplexing super high freq uency separated multiclad layer (injection laser) signa] to noise ratio time division multiplexing tr ans verse e1ectric tr ansverse electro m ag ~ netic transverse junction stripe (injection laser) tr an s ver se m agn eti c tr an sistor. . Brillouin (analysis techniq ue) for IT adad Rber wide band ...tr an sistor logic NRZ OTDR OVPO PAM transistor neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminumgarnet (la ser) n onret urn to zero optical time domain ...M PIN~FET tion plano-convex waveguide (injection laser) pro ba hi lit Y den s ity fun c ~ pulse frequency tion ]0 wed modula- p-i-n photodiode folby afield effect PM PPM PSK PTT PWM RAPD RFJ rms RO RZ SAW transistor phase modulation pu lse position mod u1 a tion phase shi ft keying Post. .. WPS wavelength division multi .

.' .. This modulated carrier is then transmitted to . The use of visible optical carrier waves or light for communication has been common for many years. as well as microwa~'e..e. I I· r 01' .a~d millimeter. an electromagnetic tva ve wh ich acts a s a .. reflecting 'mirrors and.. low capacity communication links. if limited.I: I wavelength A. as early as 1880 Alexander Graham Bell reported the transmission of speech using a light beam l Ref..G When the information is to be conveyed over any distance a communication system is usually required.lQllt~prop_.. Simple systems such as signal fires. carrier for the information signal. although some investigation of optical communication continued in the early part of the 20th Century l Refs. dust and atmospheric turbulence. snow.v. The otophone proposed by Ben just four years after the invention of the telephone modulated sunlight with a diaphragm giving speech transmission over a dlstance of 200 m . the required destination where it is received. This was due to th the lack of suitable light sources and the problem that light transmission ln the atmosphere is restricted to line of sight and scvere]y affected by disturces such as rain. mod ulating the informa 1ion onto. information transfer. Moreover. However. . superimposing ~or . W-tb&T'ONDEVELOPMENT !b HISTORICAL .. . Within a communication ~system the information transfer is frequently achieved by .:: elj: ~ : • . .. 2 and 3 I its use was limited to mobile. equals th e f in hertz or A -=. Nevertheless frequency and hence longer wavelength electromagnetic waves" (i. 'communication' may also be achieved using an electrom agnetic carrier which is selected from the optical" range of frequencies. . 11. more recently ~ signalling Iamps have provided successful. the t~lhl in reciprocnl of ~.aUon vlcuum c tlmes the waves in free the frequency For . fog. and the original information signa] is obtained by demodu]ationl Sophisticated techniques have been developed for this process using _electromagnetic carrier waves operating at radio frequencies ~--: . However. wave frequencies.1 Introduction Communication may be broad ly defined as the transfer of in formation from one point to anothe. actio and microwave) proved suitable carriers for information transfer in the :r. . or elcctromaanetic space. .th.

V HF and UHF) leading to the introduction of the even higher frequency microwave and. For this reason radio communication was developed to higher frequencies (i~e. 8 J to avoid degradation of the optical signa] by the atmosphere. In this context it may also be noted that communication at optical frequencies offers an increase in the potential usable bandwidth by a factor of around 104 over high frequency microwave transmission. OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS: PR~NCIPLES AND PRACTICE Depending on their wavelengths these electromagnetic carriers can be transmitted over considerable distances but are limited in the amount of information they can convey by their frequencies (Le~ the information-carrying capacity is directly related to the bandwidth or frequency extent of the modulated carrier. the previously mentioned constraints of light transmission in the atmosphere tended to restrict these systems to short distance applications. 1000 dB k m") and were therefore not comparable with the coaxial cables they were to replace (i.2 atmosphere. Initially the optical fibers exhibited very high attenuation (i. Although the U5e of laser for free space optical communication proved somewhat limited. thus giving an im proved sy stern perform ance f Ref.. despite the pro blerns some mod est free space optical commun lea tion lin k s have been implemented for application s such as the lin king of a television cam er a to a base vehicle and for data Iinks of a few hundred mete rs between bu ildings. being far less affected by these atmospheric " . 41. the invention of the laser instigated a tremendous research effort in the study of optical components 10 achieve reliable information transfer using a lightwave carrier.e. In theory.. In addition the 10\\1" beam divergence of the laser made enhanced free space optical transmission a practical possibility. millimeter wave transmission . There were also serious problems involved with jointing the fiber cables in a satisfactory manner to achieve low loss and to enable the process to be performed relatively easily and repeatedly in the conditions. latterly. The relative frequencies and wavelengths of these types of electromagnetic wave can be observed from the electromagnetic spectrum shown in Fig+ 1~1. The proposals for optical communication via dielectric waveguides or optical fibers fabricated from glass were made almost simultaneously in 1966 by K ao and Hockharn [Ref. 51~ This device provided a powerful coherent light source together with the possibility of modulation at high frequency. Such systems were viewed as a replacement for coaxial cable or carrier transmission systems. 5-10 dB km' )..e .. There is also some interest in optical communication between satellites in outer space u s ing similar techn iq ues [Ref. . 6 J. which is gener all y Ibn ited to a fixed fraction of the carrier freq uency). A renewed interest in optical communication was stimulated in the early 1960s with the invention of the laser I Ref.. However. the greater the carrier freq uency ~ the larger the available transmission bandwidth and thus the information-carrying capacity of the communication system. Nevertheless. 7 J and Werts I Ref.. An additional benefit of the use of high carrier frequencies is the general ability of the communication system to concentrate the available power within the transmitted electromagnetic wave.

. g 0 .. ~--1 > +-' -0 .l -::.. 1-1 . . :! CI - ~ I!"I":..IOC::.. ~- .. -0 __.J ~ . . ::I W +-' ~ ~ ..... . :...l "po- ot" ...... m - . oil § o ~ "C CD Cf. Z ..-.----1 ..... §- -0 .' Ef·····'·-.... . a M ---< .5 I.._ E (_...IJ CL.. ~ ~ :::: .. ~ 0.. 0 C · CJ· ~ 1.I! ~ . . "++-' ---< a i:.... ...0 aJ c:: 0 0 rI'1 Cl ] ~ ~ !.! ~ ~ .:: .I 0 ~ ~ ::r: ~ t 0 ... ~ ~ ~ . >...1j :... '0 ~ oJ... 0 ...... ..:..........r:..._ ~ . ....l. C. i :J.....-. s: c:f. u ...I ::::.c.. m d 0 :L. ~ 00 .. .. u :0::::: 1..I ~ .: u- . c: ~ Q} o:... ~~ 0:'11 -!: ....f...1 • ...J..INTRODUCTION 3 . C 0 .0 0 I .~ s: ::I ~ 0 E E u J. ....:_ tr... 0 c l"""":- . 0 ~~ m e ~ 8 n E..:.~· ::to I. a ~ . E ::) U C1J r...o ~~ ~ ......1 :: ~ (j) t.£...c::::: . CJl I .G e a '..I ::I V:6 ~ . J.. f'<) Co e.f ~ ~ 1-1 ~ ~ I I ....::& E - .-.5 :. e 0 0 II.....a ~ d. en r:l..:.........-.. • • . Q........ E ~ [...L tP"" 'f""I' ~ 3:---i .... . f'""J .'I I- .:: ~ ~ ..._..I.I. r :::E • . t) rti E Q) Q) Q) T_ 0::-."..I: "1l . ... 1"4 [.. ~ ~ ~ _2 e 100') E ~~l >T :..: IP Ino .... 0 ..c ~ V"... ~ II ~ -0 Q) ... ."""- ~ . .... ...... . a .- o!(o :s f"1""I u +-" ~ t -... ! ! u 0 ~ >- :~ ~r-- ~ 5_ ~ : .. E: E 6 M 01 .

91 and 7000 hr ~Ref. the transmission medium. A block schematic of a general communication system is shown in Fig. * These devices were originall y fa bricated from alloys of galliu m arsenide (Al Ga As) which emitted in the near infrared between 0. In electrical communications the information source provides an electrical signal. within the space of ten years opti cal fi bcr 10sses were reduced Lo below 5 dB km ' and suitable low loss jointing techniques were perfected. More recently this wavelength range has been extended to include the 1. as wen as detectors (i.6) indicating An optical fiber communication * Projected laser lifetimes a substantial are currently in the region of IO~ to IOI!i h (see improvement since 1977. ' Ji.e.6 urn region by the use of other semiconductor alloys (see Section 6. in parallel with the development of the fiber waveguide. 101 to be obtained by 1973 and 1977 respectively. injection lasers and 1ight emitting diodes). However.6) to take advantage of the enhanced performance characteristics displayed by optical fibers over this range.I I focused on the other optical components which would constitute the optical fiber communication system.. i I 1.2 I THE GENERAL SYSTEM 1 I I I I ~ '~ system is similar in basic concept to any type of communication system. Similar developments in the generally simpler structure of light emitting diodes and detector photodiodcs also contributed to the realization of rel ia ble optical fiber communication. usually derived from a message semiconductor . The com munication syste m therefore consi sts of a transmitter or modulator linked to the information source. . Y. but significant advances in the device structure enabled lifetimes greater than 1000 hr r Ref.e. 1-1 . the function of which is to convey the signal fr01TI the information source over the transmission medium to the destination.2(a). ~I ' I I ! I' .Thus semiconductor optical sources (i.. 'prior to discussian of these ad vantages we will briefly consider the salient features of the optical fiber communication system. and a receiver or demodulator at the destination point. photodiodes and to a certain extent phototransistors) compatible in size with optical fibers were designed and fabricated to enable successful implementation of the optical fiber system. attention was also . 1. Nevertheless.8 and 0. Since optica1 frequencies are accompanied by extremel y small wavelength s the development of all these optical com pon ents essentially required a new technology .4 OPT~CAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS: PR1NCIPLES AND PRACT~CE field . The achievem ent of these impressive results h as stemmed from the enorm ous amou nt of work directed into these areas due to the m aj or distinct advantages offered by optical fiber communications.3.9 11m. Section 6. Initially the semiconductor lasers exhibited very short lifetimes of at best a few hours. .

..2 tal The general communication system. fi beI blc ~f -- Optical detector - l. For optical fiber communications the system shown in Fig .. lating a carrier w hich. Therefore. For long haul applications these factors necessitate the installation r repeaters or line amplifiers (see Section 1O~4) at intervals. where it is transformed into the original electrical :. transmitted to the receiver.t~jcal transmit .i:I.-------~_~------~_--~_rl 5 In iorma t ion ~()un:e . sysluin 1 1 I I I n (()fm source at jon . 1. The tran s mission rnedi urn c an con sist of a p air of wires. ~ m:.:1. both to remove ·Ilanal distortion and to increase signal level before transmission is continued '.unication.. and is subject to degradations due to contamation by random signals and noise as well as possible distortions imposed by hanisms within the medium itself. . -~~ Optical 'SOlJ rce -- ()p tj ('. 1.] (. to a transmitter C01n prising electrical and electronic components which converts the signal into a suitable form for propagation over the transmission medium. This is often achi eyed by modu.L -I 1 1 Dr. in any communication stem there is a maximum permitted distance between the transmitter and the ftceiver beyond which the system effectively ceases to give intelligible com:m.. or suffers Joss. In this case the informalouree provides an electrical signal to a transmitter comprising an ..I NTRO DUCTION .."~lin auon () P tical Iibur corm n L! n i UI.::diurn -- Re'.2(b). to the desti nation. as in Fig..lectrical receive _.' system. tion sy 5 tvrn ----------~~----------~-----------~ __ I Fig.information signal (dernod ulated) before being passed. a coaxial cable or a radio link through free space down which the signa] is . 1.. I 1 1 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1 Transmitter ([11 (H~ ul ator) --- T ransrn issio. -However it must be noted that in any transmission medium the signa] is attenuated.. as mentioned previously ~ may be an electromagnetic wave. (b) The optical fiber communication signal which is not electrical (erg . sound).:-Coh'[' (dcrnodul ::.Il()r) - 1 1 1 1 --L I 1 1 Des t! ua lion I I---~-----------~-~-----------~~---I------~----------~-----------~----------I I 1 C ommurucatior.2(a) may be sidered in slightly greater detail.. -- Fko:.4own the link.

requiring a far higher signa] to noise ratio at the receiver than digital modulation. Although often simpler to implement. for electrical interfacing at either end of the optical link and at present the signal processing is usual1y performed electrically. modul ation.6 OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE electrical stage which d rives an optical source to give mod ulation of the lightwave carrier. Hence a digital optical signa] is launched into the opticaJ fiber cab1e. p~i~n or avalanche) and. A] so the linearity needed for analog modulation is not alway s provided by semiconductor optical sources. 1.2(b) analog modulation involves the variation of the light emitted from the optical source in a continuous manner. the signal obtained is decoded to give the original digital information. Thus there is a requirement. The optical source which provides the electrical-optical conversion may be either a semiconductor laser or light emitting diode (LED). For these reasons.3 shows a block schematic of a typica1 digital optical fiber link. The ava1anche photodiode (APD) detector is followed by a front-end amplifier and equalizer or filter to provide gain as wen as linear signal processing and noise bandwidth reduction" Finally. The transmission medium consists of an optical fiber cable and the receiver consists of an optical detector which drives a further electrical stage and hence provides demodulation of the optical carrier" Photodiodes (p-n. at this stage it is instructive to consider the advantages provided by lightwave Amplifier and Laser drive circuit eq ual it.r:.e. which may alter thl." The optical carrier may be modulated using either an analog or digital information signal. Figure 1.~h~ system shown in Fig . laser source and an avalanche . 1. analog optical fiber communication Jinks are general1y limited to shorter distances and lower bandwidths than digital links. especially at high modulation frequencies. on-off pulses). phototransistors are utilized for the detection of the optical signal or the optical-electrical conversion. The various elements of this and alternative optical fiber system configurations are discussed in detail in the following chapters. Fig.8). . in some instances. however ~ discrete changes in the light intensity are obtJined (i. analog modulation with an optical fiber communication system is Jess efficient.::~ .::T Decoder Digital in f OTLTIa tio n :yL) Dlgiud output I)ro:.. In ..3 A dlqltal optical fiber link usinp a semiconductor photodiode (APD) detector. However.. Initially the input digital signal from the information source is suitably encoded for optical transmission. The laser drive circuit directly modulates the intensity of the semiconductor laser with the encoded digital signal. W ith digital. I I :1 Ijt: Significant situation developments are taking place in optical signal processing in the future (see Sections I L 7 and ] 1.

~r a . i.:c-1"1.. electrical communications..." ._"':""t."r2.~r. ...:_. _.h~~~. __....-_.. whlch are rabricated from alas s or somet imes a p last ic po lymer . satellites and even ships.~~gplQ...... da:i~ ......._.l1p._.• ..... Mt. even when such fibers are covered with protective coatings they are far smaller and much lighter than corresponding opper cables.h.. . the information-carrying capacity of optical fiber systems is already proving far superior to the best copper cable systems..I:' .~f._.j y to..~........e.." .. . . ..·I..:c~a~~r...oIatlon . ' -.........j ...:.II:tot!iII •.... This is a tremendous boon towards the alleviation of duct conion in cities.'\..... over more convention'al -: ..~.. -~~ti:.8... •••••• .... --..... ...- _..--..... ·._ed~b~y--o p t"'ical fiber communications ..... systems currently operating with modulation bandwidths of 700 MHz)+ At present._~ay~ surpassed even the most optimistic predictions creatadvant Hence it is useful to consider the merits and special ~-~. -~ ....:.. .:.~.. " ~I 1III..~C~!Y!.... '''.....".. as well as allowing for an expansion of signal transmission thin mobiles such { as aircraft.a~_s. -.s ._c a~~]:...: . ~~e·a~tu -o-tl~e-r.e..-' foreseen advantages and then consider additional features \Vh1Ch have become.1.-.._appar. " ... ...~f e~~~~~_ . -...2... ..e.:...eni. IPpa!e.~.•::..!!!llY :..i-= "" .......~..--:... ..':.:. .. ••_.~r~i~~--~.... Therefore.. r-e._~X~ ~iq ue was ori !TIY S.along .... ........ 8IIotrlaai l..._:..---. ... it is certain that the usable fiber system bandwidth will be extended further towards the optical carrier frequency in the f ulure to provide an Information-carrying capacity far in excess cables or a wideband radio system. Hence. Mcreover. .I~.. ._. " ":=... . "'.u.~_~~-~~~ ... .:~~~~~. -..... ~:Sfogtex4 '<)' . ... j 'i :-. ..w !1. ..~~~_a .. (a) Enormous potential bandwidth The optical carrier frequency in the range 1013 to 1016 Hz (generally in the near infrared around IO'" Hz hor 105 GHz) yields a far greater potential transmission bandwidth than metallic cable systems (i. ..-ere.-: ...d~."i.. _3lhic. ...pt as the technology developed....?r~:~_~~~t: __ ~P'9~_§. coaxial cable bandwidth up to around 500 MHz) or even millimeter wave radio systems (i...r___..:. ~e c~~l~~<~tl)x<s..._ .. _'l...3 _ ADVANTAGES OF OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIO~ __....... . .i:..:.."n ~tJJ~ -ad . _.r.. of that obtained using copper (b) Small sIze and weight pptical fibers have very smal1 diameters which are often no greater than the 1iiameter of a human hair.-. ~ ..'NTRODUCTI 0 N 7 communication via optical fibers in comparison with other forms of line and radio communication which have brought about the introduction of such systems in many areas throughout the world.....J".~ r \..trJgf... . modulation at several gigahertz over a few kilometers and hundreds of .. ".gJ... megahertz over tens of kilometers without intervening electronics (repeaters) is possible. 1. I .. Ifiber.~ :. ......:.... the bandwidth available to fiber systems is not fully utilized but . By comparison the losses in wideband coaxial cable systems restrict the transmission distance to only a few kilometers at bandwidths over a hundred megahertz...

e. Therefore.]). The fiber cable is also not susceptible to lightning strikes if used overhead rather than underground. (g) Ruggedness and nexibillty production Although protective coatings are essential. Moreover. thus red ucing both system cost and complexity . the fibers may a]80 be bent to quite smalJ radii or twj. Together with the already proven modulation bandwidth capability of fiber cable this property provides a totally compe1ling case for the adoption of optical fiber communication in the majority of long-haul telecommunication applications. Unlike the situation with copper cables. they do not exhibit earth loop and interface problems. Furthermore. unlike their metairie counterparts.2) and this feature has become a major advantage of optical tiber communications. this property makes optical fiber transmission ideally suited for communication in electrically hazardous en viron merits as the fi bers create no arcin g or spark haz ard at abrasions or short cireu its.2 dB km' (see Section 3. computer network) applications. Hence the operation of an optical fiber communication system is unaffected by transmission through an electrically noisy environment and the fiber cable requires no shielding from EMI.s are electrical OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE II insulators and therefore. This feature is obviously at tractive for military. in theory. It facilitates the implementation of communication links with extremely wide repeater spacing (long transmission distances without intermediate electronics). any attempt to acquire a message signal transmitted optically may be detected. even when many fibers arc cabled together. unlike communication using electrical conductors. crosstalk is negligible . Perhaps surprisingly for a glassy substance. i " " (f) Low transmission loss The deveJopment of optical fibers over the iast 15 years has resul ted in the of optical fiber cables which exhibit very low attenuation or transmission loss in comparison with the best copper conductors.. without drawing optical power from the fiber)..t~d .3. Fibers have been fabricated with losses as low as 0. (e) Signal security The light from optical fibers does not radiate significantly and therefore they provide a high degree of signal security. banking and general data transmission (i. it is fairly easy to ensure that there is no optical interference between fibers and hence .. opticaJ fibers may be manufactured with very high tensile strengths (see Section 4~6.e. a transmitted optical signal cannot be obtained from a fiber in a noninvasive manner (i. (d) Immunity to interference and crosstalk Optical fibers form a dielectric waveguide and are therefore free from electromagnetic interference (EMI)~ radiofrequency interference (R F I)~ or switching transients giving electromagnetic pulses (EMP).

cable str uctu res have been developed (see Section 4. installation and maintenance. F urthermore. Nevertheless. I . Hence with fewer repeaters. may be a deciding factor . Both. The Jow cost potentia] of optical fiber communications not only provides Itrong competition with electrical line transmission systems. there are other possible cost advantages in relation to shipping. optical fiber communication on long-haul links are generally reduced to those for equivalent electrical line systems because of the 10w loss and wideband properties of the optical transmission medium..ton n. However.)'~teml are reasonably wideband the relatively short span 'line of sight' trlnlmil. . in comparison with copper conductors. although this cost ben efi t gives a net gai n for 1ong -ha u I links this is not usually the case in short-haul applications where the additional cost incurred.~ . a nd the lack of production volume.W· tllII of kilometer It' ..these factors also tend to reduce maintenance time and costs. optical fiber cabJe is reasonably competitive with coaxial cable. As yet this potential has not been fully realized because of the sophisticated. and therefore expensive. transportation. (h) System reliability (I) Poten ti al low cost The glass which generally provides the optical fiber transmission medium is made from sand-not a scarce resource+ So. However. the reliability of the optical component s j s no longer a problem with predicted lifetimes of 20-30 years now quite common.g. these optical fiber cables are generally superior in terms of storage. Although these . and ease of maintenance These features primarily stem from the low loss property of optical fiber cables which reduces the requirement for intermediate repeaters or line amplifiers to boost the transmitted signal strength. . At present. handling and installation than corresponding copper cables whilst exhibiting at least compar able strength and durability.eccssitates expensive aerial towers at intervals no greater than a .. the requirement for intermediate repeaters and the associated electronics is reduced . due to the electrical-optical conversion (and vice versa).7 . but also with microwave and millimeter wave radio transmission systems.. As indicated in (f'). but not with simple copper wires (e. system reliability is generally enhanced in comparison with conventional electrical • conductor systems.4) which have proved flexible. Fu rthermore.. optical fibers offer the potential for 10\\' cost line communication. Taking the size and weight advantage into account. processes required to obtain ultra-pure glass. giving a significant cost advantage. . as well as the features indicated in (c) and (d) which may prove significant in the system Moreover. it is likely that in the future it will become as cheap to use optical fibers with their superior performance than almost any type of electrical conductor.. compact and extremely rugged.. twisted pairs).I NTRO DUCTI 0 N 9 wit hout damage. overall system costs when utilizing choice . handling.

'Survey or near infra-red communication systems" J." 22 M. f-i. Addison-Wesley ~ J 974. The E lect ric ian. I~26~ John Wiley. Morgan (Eds. C.). Rinehart & Winston. Kao and G. 1980. Leu. Optical Communications. a general understand ing 0 r the basic nature and properties of Iight is assumed. H.). 1977. Phys. M any advantages are therefore provided by the use of a lightwave carrier within a transmission medium consisting of an optical fiber.As-Ga. S. G. Werts. Free-space optical cornmun ications'. Optical Physics. Jenkins and H. IEE~ 113(7)~pp. REFERENCES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 A. Thomson. pp. a few of which are indicated in Refs. Granada~ 1981. 220~ 22].. I948. (6th edn. Principles of Optics. J. '" istorical remark s'~in Optical Fibre Communication by the Tech nical H Sta t f of C S EL T ~ Me Gr a w . A. Lett. Ben. I. Sandbank (Ed+)~ Optical Fibre Communication Systems. together with their practical realization. C ambridge University Press. K uhn. J oh n WHey.I. R. 1981. Pergamon Press. P. 1976. Russer. G. Am. r. (2nd edn. H 01 t. 1981. J. 1973. B+ Casta. McGraw-HiH.. E+ Hecht and A.I 13 ~ 1977. F~ G. (3 rd cdn .83~ ] 973. R. However.). If this is lacking. Optics. WoJf (Ed. Dymen L. 5-16. '" Light sources for optical com munication \ Infrared P hys . C. ] 6-22. H.. K. Optics. Optical Fibre Communications. 38~pp. R~ Goodwin. 30(2). LOJ1d~~ 187 pp. N. Huxford and J+ R. John Wilcy~ 19RO. pp. Al As~ double heterostructure lasers with 30°C half lives exceeding 1000 h'. Kraemer. 1979. 23(4). M. 1966. pp.. Geometrical and Physical Optics. "Selen ium and the p hotophone '. John Wiley. 'Introduction to optical communication'. R +S+ Longhurst. l880. Appl. F+ Peters. C..). pp. J. Lipson . C. Phys. 26-32. Karp.Ji i11. Smith and J. Soc. A. M. pp. Signal. Hockharn. E+ White. Z aj ac. "Stimulated optical radiation in ruby" Nature . John WileY1 1980. 967~980. Hwang and H. are described in the following chapters. 1966+ R. Beese. 115] -l l58. Fundamentals oj Optics (4th cdn.).. J. R+ Fowles. w. 1961... Gagliardi and S. 1976. L. 'Contin uous operation of Ga. C. O. pr. '" Propagation de la Iu rniere coherente dans les fibres optiq ues \ L 'Onde Electrique. the reader is directed to the many excellent texts encompassing the topic. . A. Hartman. Handbook oj Fiber Oplics~ Theory and Applications. 253-268. Appl. Opt. Proc. Howes and D. 'Dielectric-fiber surface waveguides for optical frequencies'. P.As lasers with consistently low degradation rates at room temperature'. S+ G. 493--494 1960.10 OPTICAL F'BER COMMUNICATlONS: PRiNCIPLES AND PRACTICE j '. ] 975. PP+ 181-1. J ntroduction to Modern Optics (2nd cdn. Born and E+ Wolf.}~ Longman.. 2 l4~ 2 15. J + E+ Mid winter ~ Optical Fibres for Transmission. 46. T~H. The fundamental principles giving rise to these enhanced performance characteristics. Lipson and H. A. 1980. Mairnan. 1 1 -i 1_. Platt. M+ Pion and W. Bourne: 'Ga. V. A. 110.

These proposals stimulated tremendous efforts to FIQJ It 1 Opt~cl!Il fiber wavagulde cllddlng of slightly tn. 3 and 4l for a clad dielectric rod in the mid 1Y50s in order to overcome th esc pro blem s.2 Optical Fiber Waveguides 2.1 The INTRODUCTION transmission of light via a dielectric waveguide structure was first proposed and in vcstigated H ond ros and Debyc work was reported by Schriever in 1920 l Ref. showing the core of refractive index n1 surrounded by lower refractive Index nl.g. The cladding supports the waveguide structure w hilst also. The invention of' the clad waveguide structure led to the first serious proposals by Kao and Hockham I Ref. 11 . 5 ~. 2 L However .5. the ligh t energy travels in both t he core a nu the cl adding allowing the associated fields to decay to a negligible value at the + at the begi n n ing of the 20th Cen 1u ry ~ ln ] 9 10 i ReL 11 cond ucted a theoretical study and ex peri m ental cladding-air interface. Th is structure is illustrated in Fig. endoscopes) led to proposals I Refs. 2. proved to be an impractical waveguide due to its unsupported structure (especially when very thin waveguides were considered in order to limit the number of optical modes propagated) and the excessive losses at any discontinuities of the glass-air interface. Nevertheless.and Werts l Ref. 6! in 1966 to utilize optical fibers as a communications medium even though they had losses in excess of 1000 dB km '. a transparent dielectric rod ~ty picall y of silica glass with a refractive index of aro und 1. su rrounded by air. substantially reducing the radiation Joss into the surrounding air. I which shows a transparent core with a refracti ve index n I S U frau nded by a tran sparcnt cladding of sligh 11 lower refractive y index n].. when sufficiently thick. interest in the application of dielectric optical waveguides in such areas as optical imaging and medica] diagnosis (c. I n essence.

1-1 ~6 urn) \\'0 uld result in lower losses and reduced signal dispersion .2 2. This has resulted in improved conventional glass refining techniques giving fibers with losses of around 4. Section 2. gives a brief account of the 5 waveguiding mechanism within graded index fibers. which may be analyzed utilizing simple ray theory+ However. t he concepts of geometric optics are not sufficien L \vhen con sidering an types of optical fiber and electromagnetic mode theory must be used to give a complete picture. es pee ially a rau nd ].2 we con tinuc the discussion 0(' light propagation in optical fibers using the ray theory approach in order to develop some of the fundamental parameters associated with optical fiber transrnission (acceptance angle" numerical aperture. Hence at longer wavelength s... 7 J+ Also progress in glass refining processes such as depositing vapor-phase reagents to form silica r Ref. 8 J has allowed fibers with los scs below l dB km 1 to be fabricated.55 urn. T he refractive index of a mcdi U In is defined as the ratio or the velocity of light in a vacu urn to the velocity of ligh t in the rued iu rn. Foll owi n g~ in Section 2 . it is necessary to consider the optical wavcguiding of cylindrical glass fibers. Furthermore.3 In this section the electromagnetic mode theory is developed for the planar (rectangular) wa veg uidc prior to consideration of the cyl indric al tiber.2. -0.). When a ray is To consider . as silica fibers were studied in further detail it became apparent that transmission at longer wavelengths (] . However..4~ we discuss optical propagation in step index fibers (both multimode and single mode). reduce the attenuation by purification of the materials.1 RAY THEORY TRANSMISSION Total Internal Reflection the propagation of light within an optical fiber utilizing the ray theory model it is necessary to take account of the refractive index of the dielectric medi UlTI. 91~ In order to appreciate th e transmission mechanism of optical fi hers \vith dimensions approximating to those of a human hair. this provides a basis for the disc ussion of electromagnetic wave propagation presented in Section 2. Such a fiber acts as an open optica1 waveguide. Most of this work was focused on the 0 .. A ray of 1ight travels more slowJy in an optically dense medium than in one that is less dense..9 um wavelength band because 8 the first generation optical sources fabricated from gallium aluminum arsenide alloys operated in this region.12 OPTICAL FlBER COMMUNICATIONS: PRINCIPLES AND PRACT!CE . and the refractive index gives a measure of this effect. + 2. fibers with losses as low as O~2dB km " have been reported l Ref. In Section 2.2 dB km " r Ref. The following sections will therefore outline the transmis sion of light in optical fibers prior to a more detai1ed discu ssion of the v ariou s.This produced a shift in optical fiber source and detector technology in order to provide operation at these longer wavelength s. I. types of fiber. Finally. etc .

g. u.l) Jig..I~%) H] '" \ . This is the limiting case of refraction and the angle of in cidence i5 now known as the critical angle ~. It may be observed that the ray approaching the interface is propagating in a dielectric of ref ractive index n J and is at an angle $1 . as shown in Fig. L(J w (a ir) i ndex 1~"2- IJ . where ~~ is greater than $] .' H~. If the dielectric on the other side of the interrace has a refractive index N2 which is Jess than n1 then the refraction is such that the ray path in this lower index medium is at an angle ~2 to the normal. As nl is greater than n2. . glass-air): (8) 'refraction.ght rays incident on high to low refractive index interface (e. refraction occurs as illustrated in Fig..OPT~CAL FIBER WAVEGU~DES 13 incident on the interface between two dielectrics of differing refractive indices (c.2 L.! High i nLlt:":-.. to the norm al at t he surface of the interface.' the angle of refraction is always greater than the angle of incidence. 2.g. 2.. glass-air).. (b) the Ii miting ca se of refra etten showing the crltlca ~ ray at an angle ~c. The angles of incidence ~ l and refraction ~: are related to each other and to the refractive indices of the dielectrics by Snell's law of refraction ~ReL 10] ~ which states that: or ----_ It may also be observed in Fig. ~c) tota I lnternal reflection where '" >~ . Thus when the angle of refraction is 900 and the refracted ray emerges parallel Lo the interface between the dielectrics the angle of incidence must be less than 90°. 2. Partial iu ccrnal r\' Ill:l:~ Il in Incident ray {·.2(a).2(a) that a small amount of light is retlected back into the originating dielectric medium (partial internal reflec- tion).

The light ray shown in Fig. Since on] y rays with a sufficiently s ha1 low g razing angle (i.2(c) that total internal reflection occurs at the interrace between t\VO dielectrics of differing refractive indices when light is incident on the dielectric of lower index from the dielectric of higher index. (2.3 assumes a perfect fiber. Hence it may be observed in Fig. It must also he noted that the light transmission illustrated in Fig.e.3 is known as a meridional ray as it passes through the axis of the tiber core+ This type of ray is the simplest to describe and is generally used when illustrating the fundamental transmission properties of optical fibers. and that any discontinuities or imperfections at the core-cladding interface would probably result in refraction rather than total internal reflection with the subseq uent loss of the light ray into the cladding. l.j' .1) the value of the critical angle is given by: (2. Figure 2. 2. From Eq.2 Acceptance Angle Having considered the propagation of light in an optical fiber through Lota) internal reflection at the core-cladding interface. it is useful to enlarge upon the geometric optics approach with reference to light rays entering the fiber. 2.' it) d ex r J addln g I Fig.2.3 illustrates the transmission of a light ray in an optical fiber vi a a series of total internal reflections at the interface of the silica core and the slightly lower refractive index silica cladding" The ray has an angle of incidence ~ at the interface which is greater than the critical angle and is reflected at the same angle to the normal.14 OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICAT!ONS: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 2. and the angle of incidence of the ray exceeds the critical value. with an an gle to the normal greater than ~c) at the core-cladding interface are transmitted by totaJ . 2~3 The transmission of a light ray in a perfect optical fiber. This is the mechanism by which light at a sufficiently shallow angle (less th an 900 . 2.n Vr.2(b).2) A t angles of incidence greater th an the critical angle the Iigh t is reflected back into the originating dielectric medium (total internal retlection) with high efficiency (around 99+9cyo).$c) may be considered to propagate down an optical fiber with low loss . 2...

. . .'.. \. .. • OPTICAL FIBER WAVEGUIDES 15 i / / . Hence. any rays which are incident into the fiber core at an angle greater than Oa will be transmitted to the core-cladding interface at an angle less than and will not be totally internally reflected. the core-cladding interfaces arc parallel and there are no discontinuities) an incident meridional ray at greater than the critical angle will continue to be reflected and will be transmitted through the fi ber.the ray emerges into a medium of the same refractive index from which it "vas intern al reflection.'o\..!" I I I I I \ / \ Cladding \.:C'J)L~rjC_~ _ I CUrll. is refracted into the cladding and eventually lost by radiation. 2~4 which illustrates a meridional ray A at the critical angle ~~ within the fiber at the core-cladding interface. I J ·. it is clear that not all ray s enteri n g the f ber core will conti n uc to be propagated down its length.4 where the incident ray B at an angle greater than 6. i.e. ./ /" B Fig. 2. lomedm el referred to I. From s ym metry consideration s it rna y be noted that the output angle to t he ax i s will be cq ual to the input angle for the r ay ~ ass uming .. If the fiber has a regular cross section (i.I I Conical angle halt IA"':L.2. input.2. 2. it is possible to continue the ray theory analysis to obtain a • 8. This situation is also illustrated in Fig. . . e~ +(' 1 . However. It may be observed that this ray enters the fiber core at an angle to the fiber ax i s and is refracted at the aircore interface before transmission to the core-cladding interface at the critical angle. the m IxJmu m or total acceptance anaJe. The geometry concerned with launching a light ray into an optical tiber is shown in Fig.3 Numerical Aperture The acceptance angle for an optical fiber was defined in the previous section ..4 The acceptance angle f)a when launching light into an optical fiber. Thus for rays to be transmitted by total internal reflection within the fiber core they must be incident on the fiber core \v ithin an acceptance cone defined by th c co nical half angle 6[p Hence Oa is the maximum angle to the axis that light may enter the fiber in order to be propagated and is often referred to as the acceptance angle" for the fiber.

Hence (2. apart from relating the acceptance angle to the refractive I I.. (2.. {2.3) becomes no sin 91 == n I cos ~ U sing the trigonornetrical written in the form: relationship sin 2 ~ + COs2 ~ = 1. .5. cladding and air" This leads to the definition of a more generally used term. (2~l): no Considering the right-angled si n a! = n I sin 92 in Fig..18 OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE relationship between the acceptan ce an glc and the refractive indices of the three media involved.. then: (2. Combining these limiting cases into Eq. Also in this limiting case 6 becomes the acceptance angle for the fiber Sa. Assuming the entrance face at the fiber core to be normal to the axis.3) triangle A Be indicated (2. __. It must be noted Lhat within this analysis.. as with the previous discussion of acceptance angle.5) may be (2.. we are concerned with meridional rays. 2..2.1• The ray enters the fiber from a medium (air) of refractive index no.. Figure 2. then considering the refraction at the air-core interface and using Snell's law given by Eq. . Eq. (2. which is slightly greater than the cladding refractive index nl. Fig.7).6) When the limiting case for total internal reflection is considered ~ becomes equal to the critical angie ~c for the core-cladding interface and is given by Eq.. the numerical aperture (NA) of the fiber. (2+6) gives: 1 (2~7) Equation (2 .5) Eq .. within the fiber.5 shows a light ray incident on the fiber core at an angle 81 to the fiber axis which is less than the acceptance angle for the fiber 9. and the fiber core has a refra-ctive index n 1. .4) where 9 is greater than the critical angle at the core-cladding interface.2). namely the core.5 The ray path for a meridional ray launched into an optical fiber in air at an input angle less tha n the acceptance anqle for the fiber. .t.

50 and a cladding refractive index of Determine: (a) the critica I a ngle at th e core--ctadd i ng inta rfa ce: (b) lhp..10) aperture are a very useful measure of the light-collecting ability of a fiber .9) we can write: NA The relationships '""w n l (26.. The numerical aperture may also be given in terms of the relative refractive index difference 6.1 _ for Ll4 1 Hence combining Eq.50 :.:. (2. Solution: (a} The critical angl e . (c) the acceptance angle ina ir for the fi beL . Hence the N A is defined as: (2. Hence electromagnetic mode theory must be applied in these cases given in Eqs.OPTICAL FIBER WAVEGUIDES 17 indices. 1 .47. ] 0) for the numerical I Ref.:. 12 L Example 2.1 A stllca optical fiber with a core diameter large enough to be considered by ray theory analysis has a core refractive index of 1. ~2.9) 1'"'00.5C1 . 1.: n'i. for smaller dia meters they break down as the geometric optics approach is invalid. at the core-claddi ng interface is give n by Eq. (2. serves as the basis for the definition of the important optical fiber parameter ~ the numerical apertu re (N A). When interference phenomcn a arc con sidercd it is found that only rays with certain discrete characteristics propagate in the fiber core.::::::: -sinn. However. They are independent of the fiber core diameter and will hold for diameters as small as 8 urn. This becomes critical in small core diameter fibers which only support one or a few modes. NA fo r tho fiber.(. "c.:. This is because the ray theory model is only a partial description of the character of light It describes the direction a plane wave component takes in the fiber but does not take into account interference between such components.8) and (2.) ~ (2.8) Since the N A is often used with the fiber in air where nu is unity ~ it is simply equal to sin 9 It may also be noted that incident meridional rays over the range 0 ~ 9 9~ will be propagated within the fiber. . (2.47 1 sln-' . Thus the fiber will only support a discrete number of guided modes.8) with Eq.2) where: 1..q.: 7S. between the core and the cladding which is defined as: 01• 1 ~ (2.

30 .9) for the relative refractive index difference Ll gives: 1 I n. . 2. (c) Considering Eq...502 - 1.n ~ rz 1 = (1. n2 1 interface is: 4-c . (2.j I· Example 2.01 ~ 0.02P 0. lt may be assumed that the concepts of geometri C optics hold fo r the fi ber. Hence n2 17l . 8) th e nu meri ca I apertu re is: N A = (n~ -..21 1 i I = For small anqlss the solid acceptance ~ ""W I. = sin - n1 = sin 0-99 :I I . (2.40 .16)~ = 0.1 - A 1 . (2.4 72) 1 ~ -.25 _.. I' angie in air ~ is given by: sin 2 nO.. = 1_46 (O. (2. (2~)7 n I r I.(2. . 10) wi rh 11 = 0_a 1 gives the nu me rica I a perture as: NA .2) the critical angle at the core-cladding .99 From Eq. Fu rthe r ca leu Iate the criti ca ~a ng Ie at the corc-claddlng interface within the fiber.0.18 OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE (b) Fro m Eq. ~ -. Using Eq. 1t Oa Hence from Eq ..04 0.2 A tvpica ~ relative refractive index d ifferance fo r an optl ca I fibe r desiq nod for lonq distance transmission is 1%_ Estimate the NA and the solid acceptance angle in air for the fiber when th e core Index IS 1.1 3 rads I.46. Solution: Usi ng Eq.30 _. (2-8) the acceptance angle in air an is given by: ea = sln " NA = sln " 0.(2 -8}: 1tO.. . . 17. I.

In order to calculate th e acceptance angle for a skew ray it is necessary to define t he direction of the ray in two perpendicular planes. When the light input to the fiber is nonuniform.skew rays from the fiber in air will depend upon the n urn her of reflections they undergo rather than the input conditions to the fiber.. another category of ray exists which is transmitted without passing through the fiber axis.1 The heHeal path taken by a skew ray in an optical fiber: (a) skew ray path down the f~b..OPTICAL FIBER WAVEGUIDES 19 In the previous sections we have considered the propagation of meridional rays in the optical waveguide . The geometry of the situation is illustrated in Fig.. possible advantage of the transmission of skew rays becomes apparen t when their acceptance condition s are con sidered.... A further (h) . Hence . the point of emergence of'.6(b) that the helical path traced through the fiber gives a change in direction of 2"1 at each reflection where y is the angle between the projection of the ray in two dimensions and the radius of the fiber core at the point of reflection. . 1 1.6 and are called skew rays. at an angle 90. (b) eros . The ray is refracted at the air-core interface before travelling to the point B in the same plane. to the normal at the fiber end face. It is not easy to visualize the skew ray paths in two dimensions but it may be observed from Fig. 2. However..... giving a more uniform output. skew rays will th ercfore tend to have a smoothing effect on the distribution of the light as it is transmitted.r. unlike meridional rays. which greatly outnumber the meridional rays. These rays. The angles of incidence a nd reflection at the point B arc <p which is greater than the critical angle for the core-cladding interface. follow a helical path through the tiber as illustrated in Fig.7 where a skew ray is shown incident on the fiber core at the point A. 2. The amount of smoothing is dependent on the number 0(' reflections encountered by the skew rays.. 2.sectional view of the fiber.

+ (2+]] ) r sm e == cos + == (I . requires multiplication by cos y and sin O~ Hence.13) into Eq4 (2. (2. (2. and {} is the angle between the ray and a line AT drawn parallel to the core axis. the reflection at point B at an angle ~ may be given by: When considering cos y sin e = cos tit (2. Hence Eq. to the the ray between A and B it is necessary to resolve the direction of the ray path AB to the core radius at the point B~ As the incident and reflected rays at the point B are in the same plane..----9s All' {na) Fig.sin2 $)+ case for total in tcrnal reflection is now con sidcrcd then becomes equal to the critical angle ~c for the core-cladding interface and following Eq. this is simply cos ~~ However.12) may be written 1f the limiting + as: cos Furthermore. Hence substituting for sin from Eq. Eq <I U sing the becomes: trigonometric cos al relationshi p 81 n 1 q. (2. Thus to resolve the ray path AB relative to the radius BR in these two perpendicular planes. y sin 9". then y is the angle between the core radius and the projection of the ray onto a plane BRS normal to the core axis. if the two perpendicular planes through which the ray path A B traverses are considered.2.11 ) cos/ ~ = 1.2.nf n2 (2~13) using Snell's law at the point A following Eq.20 OPTICAL FIBER COMMUN~CATIONS: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE __.7 The ray path within the fiber Gore for a skew ray incident at an afigle normal at the air-core interface.2~ and 9 is the internal axial angle. cos ~c )! = ( 1 .l4) where the maximum input axial angle for meridional rays as expressed in Section 2. .1)~ we can write: . (2.l4) gives ~ a e represents a . (2~2) is given by sin ~c == n21n I.

.. (2. but for most communication design purposes the expressions given in Eqs.. nO S otution: The accepta nee a ngle for meridional rays ls give n bv Eq.. t2" 8) with = 1 as: 9a sin-"1 = 23..1 7} the accaptan ce ang Ie for skew rays is ~ y = 500 In this axe mpls.4 The skew rays change di rection by 100-0 at each refl ection. (2+] 3) is no longer necessary as all the terms in Eq. Hence as may be observed from Fig. 6~ sk cw ray s tend to propagate on Iyin the ann ular region near the outer surface of the core. Compare the acceptance angle tor me rid ions I rays with that for skew rays wh ich change direction by 1000 at eac h reflecti on. it may be noted that skew rays are accepted at larger axial angles in a given fiber than meridional rays. In lact for meridional rays cos y is equal to unity and Oa~ becomes equal to 8a Thus although Sa is the maximum conical h alf angle for the acceptance of meridional rays.. It may be noted that the inequality shown in Eq. depending upon the value of cos y. This increased light-gathering ability may be significant for large N A fibers.OPTICAL F1BEA WAVEGUIDES 21 C os ~c SIn ... Thus the acceptance conditions for skew rays are: " Ill} Sin ... However.% cos y == NA (2. the acceptance ang Ie for th e skew rays is about 1 5 Q 9 rca tc r th a 11 the correlpondlng angle for meridional rays.. (2. 4 Example 2.8) derived for meridional rays.3 An optical fiber in air has an NA of 0..6~ NA = sin-1 0. However/ it must be noted that we have on~y complred the acceptance angle of one oartlcu lar skew ray PC31 h. l6) and in the case of the fiber in air (no 1): sin 6. 2. 9as cos 'Y == (''ti =-: n2_ ~ ))1 NA (2.10) for meridional rays are cons idered adequate.8) and (2. e~~ ~ -n J no cos y n . by comparison with EqL (2. {2. -__ 1 1 ( n~ ) ! flo cos y nT (2~ 15) where 9~lS now represents the maximum input angle or acceptance angle for skew rays.-.4. Whe n the light . it defines the minimum input angle for skew rays.. and do not fully utilize the core as a transmission medium.15) are specified for the limiting case.1 7) Therefore.. th eretore Hence usi n 9 Eq. they are complementary to meridional rays and increase the lightgathering capacity of the fiber.

(2.20) (2~2] ) D == EE B~ till j. The basis for the study of electromagnetic wave propagation is provided by M axwell's equations l Ref.- riE ot 2 (2.1 Electromagnetic Waves model for the propagati on of light in an optical In order to obtain an improved fiber ~electromagnetic wave theory must be considered.E. (2.20) and (2.19) gives V x (V x E) == -~I.24) Then using the divergence conditions of Eqs. 131. The four field vectors arc related by the relation s: (2. Subs tituting for D and Band iaki ng the cu r1 of Eq s.3.) electric flux density D and magnetic flux density B as the curl equations: VxE==-~ (jB of aD (2~18) VxH~- of (2.1 (2~22) of the where E is the dielectric permittivity and is the magnetic permeability medium. magnetic field H.22 OPTICAL F. For a medium with zero conductivity these vector relationships may be written in terms of the electric field E./2 rad i a ns.BER COMMUN1CATIONS: PR1NCIPlES AND PRACTICE input to the fiber is at an angle to the fiber axis. I 8) and (2.3 ELECTROMAGNETIC MODE THEORY FOR OPTICAL PROPAGATION 2.. 2.21) with the . 19) and the divergence conditions: (no free charges) (no free poles) where V is a vector operator.23) (2. it is possible that y will vary from zero for meridional rays to 900 for rays which enter the fiber at the core-cladding inte rface giving acceptance of skew rays over a conical half anql e of n.

OPTICAL FIBER WAVEGUIDES 23 vector identity v x (V x Y) == V(V · Y) .27) where". For rectangular Cartesian and cylindrical polar coordinates the above wa ve equation s hold for cac h com ponen t of the field vector ~ every co m portent sa tislying the seal ar wa vc equation: (2. then the Laplacian operator takes the form: (2.26) where V2 is the Laplacian operator. or circular fibers. described by cylindrical polar coordinates (r. may represent a component of the E or H field and Pp is the phase veloci ty (velocity of propagation of a point of constant ph asc in the \\1ave) in the dielectric medium. The velocity of light in free space c is therefore C==--~ l (Jlo Eo)! (2. are the relative permeability and permittivity for the dielectric medium and llo and Eo are the permeability and permittivity of free space.29) described by rectangular Cartesian coordinates (x~ y. or VW= 2 0 'II 2 or2 +--+r 1 o 'if or r a~2 1. z) are considered.28) where Ilr and e.lary to consider both these forms for a comp1ete treat- . cp. 0 '¥ 2 +-~ OZ2 0W 2 rl. It follows that v p ==~- 1 1 (us) ~ (2.V2 (Y) we obtain the nondispersive w ave eq uation s : (2. z).30) If planar waveguides.peotivelYt It ia nece.25) and (2.

8(a)). the magnitude of the propagation vector or the vacuum propagation constant k (where k -= f kl) is given by: k==~ 2n: A (2.34) The component of the propagation constant in the x direction P. When is the an g le bet ween the wave propagation vector or the equivalent ray and the guide axis .\_ is: (2.3. 2.24 OPT1CAL FIBER COMMUN~CATIONS: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE ment of optical propagation in the fiber although many of the properties of interest may be dealt with using C artesian coordinates. 8( a). the plane wave can be resolved into two component plane waves propagating in the z and x directions as shown in Fig. whilst the components of r specify the coordinate point at which the field is observed.35) The com poncnt of the plane wave in the x direction is reflected at the interface bet ween the higher and lower refractive index media.32) where ro is the angular frequency of the field. the most important form of which is a uniform plane wave given by: tV == Wo expj(ro/- k ~ r) (2.2 Modes in 8 Planar Guida The planar guide is the simplest form of optical waveguide. The com pon ent of the propagation constant in the z direction ~= is given by: e (2. As the refractive index within the guide is HI ~ the optical wavelength in this region is reduced to Alnl whilst the vac u urn propagation con stan t is increased to n I k. The basic solution of the wave equation is a sinusoidal wave.. k is the propagation vector which gives the direction of propagation and the rate of change of phase with distance. 2. t is the time.33) It should be noted that in this case k: is also referred to as the free space wave number. We may assume it consists of a slab of dielectric with refractive index n f sandwiched bel ween two regions of lower refractive index n2' In order to obtain an improved model for opti cal propagation it is useful to consider the interference of pi ane wave components within this dielectric waveguide. The conceptual transition from ray to wave theory may be aided by consideration of a plane monoch romatic wave propagating in the direction or the ray path within the guide (see Fig42. When the total . When ~ is the optical w a velength in a v ac u u m.

. phase change" after two successive reflections at the upper and lower interfaces (between the points P and Q) is equal to 2 mt: radians... 2. However.0) standing wave.------~ - ~_~ __. This situation is illustrated in Fig. where the electric field is a maximum at the center of the guide decaying towards zero at the boundary between the guide and cladding. 2+8(b). it may he observed from Fig.I) Fig. The phase shift on reflection at a dielectric interflce til dc.": . 2.... 4 Nevertheless the optical wave is etTectively confined within the guide and the electric fiel d distribution in the x direction docs not chan gc as the wa vc propagates in the z di rection.t should be noted that there is a phase shift on reflection of the plane wave at the interface I a.. In this illustration it is assumed that the interference forms the lowest order (where m _.. . In effect Eq 54 (2.344. .2. 2.. a phenomenon which is discussed in Section 2. . -" x ~iH~~ti~~~_.8(b) where the interference of two plane waves is shown.8 The formation of a mode in a planar dielectric guide: (a) a plane wave propagating in the guide shown by its wave vector or equivalent ray~the wave vector is resolved into co m po nents in the z and x dire ctions: {b) the interference of plana waves in the guide forming the lowest order made (m = 0).~-______I Jj re crion t1n~ll~L. The sin usoidally vary ing electric field 1n the z direction is also shown in Fig. where m is an integer. phaBe chartae with distance travelled.:: uxss Guic'i. well as B..34) and (2~35) define a group or con gruence of ray s which in the .. A specific mode is only obtained when the angle between the propagation vectors or the rays and the interface have a particular value as indicated in Fig.8(b) that the electric fie1d penetrates some distance into the cladding ..8(b)~ The stable field distribution in the x direction with only a periodic z dependence is known as a mode.ldi[)~ l'.OPTICAL FIBER WAVEGUIDES 25 ~ (Juid... then constructive interference occurs and a standing wave is obtained in the x direction.'~t'~) ClH.3 .it with in Section 2.

.~z) describes a mode propagating in the z in the z direction we may consider plane w aves correspond ing to rays at different specific angles in the planar guide .2.9 shows examples of such rays for In == I.. When light is described as an electromagnetic wave it consists of a periodically varying electric field E and magnetic fie1d H wh ich are orientated the dominant modes propagating direction..::nc t 1'8t iLJ II -_ ---...--- _---- . and the corresponding transverse of three lower order modes (m = 1 21 3) in the planar r .d d ll~g p. These plane waves give constructive interference to form standing wave patterns across the guide following a sine or cosine formula. we denote the mode propagation constant by ~~ where ~ -_ ~z. ati()n / E] ect r iI.-:.26 OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE case described represents the lowest order mode..----... Hence the light propagating within the guide is fanned into discrete "modes each typified by a distinct value of 9. -. These modes have a periodic z dependence of the form exp (-J131! z] where ~.--.. Figure 2. It may be observed that m denotes the number of zeros in this tran s verse field pat tern. If we now assume a time dependence for the monochromatic electromagnetic 1ight field with angular frequency OJ of cxp Urnt)'! then the combined factor exp j(rot .---. To visualize "' Claduuig penet . I n this way m signifies the order of the mode and is known as the mode number.: hecomes the propagation constant for the mode as the modal field pattern is in varian t except for a period ic z dependen eel Hence for notati onal simplicity ~ and in common with accepted practice. 3 together with the electric field distributions in the x direction.9 Physical model showlnq the ray propaqation electric (TE) field patterns dlelectric guide.: field E Ttl (j. 2..___ -.___ Fig.--.

. However . whether plane or otherwise.36) where ro is the angular frequency of the wave ... This wave packet docs not travel at the phase velocity of the individual waves but is observed to move at a group velocity rg given by v ==- oro B~ g (2..\"0 waves of slightly different frequency propagating together is illustrated in Fig. OPTlCAL FIBER WAVEGU~DES 27 2. If propagation in an infinite medium of refractive index n J is considered. then the propagation constant may be written as: ~= "l -=--c A 2ft nl ro (2.~. 2... As a monochrornati c Iight wave propagates along a waveguide in the z direction these points of constant phase tr avel at a phase velocity Pp given by: (2. and light energy is generally composed of a sum of plane wave components of different frequencies.10. For plane waves these constant phase points form a surface which is referred to as a wavefront. . 3 Phase and Group Velocity Within all electromagnetic waves. there are points of constant phase. it is impossible in practice to produce perfectly monochromatic light waves..38) . Often the situation exists where a group of waves with closely similar frequencies propagate so that their resultant forms a packet of waves.~ .3 . The form ation of such a wa vc packet resulting from the combination of t \.37) The group velocity is of greatest importance in the study of the transmission characteristics of optical fibers as it relates to the propagation characteristics of observab1e wave groups or packets of light.

.28 OPTICAL F1BER COMMUNICATIONS: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE -.10 The formation of a wave packet from the combination of two waves with nea rly equa I frequencies. where c is the velocity of light in free space. (2. Fig... The envelope of the wave packet or group 01 waves travels at a grou p velocitv Vg.36) we obtain the following relationship for the phase velocity: (2.. 2.. where in the limit group velocity: om/op becomes dro/d~'I the -0) 21tA.40) The parameter NJ is known as the group index of the guide. (2..37)._ . .39) Similarly employing Eq.. (2.. Equation (2.34) where we assume propagation in the z direction only and hence cos 9 is equal to unity.} c (2. Using Eq .. .. ..33) and (2.).38) follows from Eqs. ( A dA c ~ dnl _~) 1 ...

Since the phase fronts must match at all points along the interface in the z direction. The VIr/ave equation in Cartesian coordinates for the electric field in a loss less medium is: As the guide-cladding interface lies in the y-z plane and the wave is incident in the ..~z)~ In addition. where the arrowed lines represent wave propagation vectors and a component of the wave energy is shown to be transmitted through the interface into the cladding. 2.. transmitted and reflected waves are indicated (soltd arrowed lines} together with their components in the z and x directions {dashed arrowed lines) . l-Y.4 Phase Shift with Total Internal Reflection Evanescent Field The discussion of electromagnetic wave propagation in the pl anar wa vegu ide gi yen in Section 2. In order to appreciate these p hcnomena it is necessary to use the wave theory model for total internal reflection at a planar interface. 2.11 incident on the guide-cladding interface of a planar dielectric waveguide. 3 ~2 drew at ten tion to certain phenomen a th at occur at the guide-cl adding interface \v h ich are not a pparent from ray theory considerations of optical propagation. the three waves shown in Fig. 2. Therefore from the discussion of Section 2~3~2 the wave propagation in the z direction may be described by exp j(rot . then v/oy may be ass umed to be zero.3. When the components are resolved in this plane: ~_\'J 11~ cxp ( j~xz.-..~ ."'(-z plan e onto the interface... there will also be propagation in the x direction.'{) I I I X III (Claddlug H I lC uide l Y iJXP ) Hw! ~~).OPTICAL FIBER WAVEGUIDES 29 and the 2. A wave . l FIg.1 I I I . This is illustrated in Fig. l l . (:(1 ~ ~ P U(1l. The wave vectors of the incident. 11 w ill have the same propagation con stant ~ in this direction.

47) ~_:. wi th am pii tudes A ~B and C respectively win have the forms: A B == Ao == exp ~(j~_d x) exp j(rot . (2.] l. Maxwell's equations require that both the tangential cornponents of E and H and the normal components of D (==-: EE) and B (== tiH) are continuous across the boundary.: (nT k1 - ~2) == -~T When an electromagnetic wave is incident upon an interrace between two dielectric media.46) are used to represen t the electric field components in the y direction E_I' and the boundary conditions are applied. (2.51) Algebraic results: manipulation of Eqs.52) . When Eqs .I .r2X) Co exp C Using (JPx~ x) exp j(rol .L and r. If the boundary is defined at x --= 0 we may consider the cases of the transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes.~z) cxp j(W! ~ ~z) (2. Initially let us consider the TE field at the boundary.49) and (2. I 7.45) == Bo exp -(j~.51) provides the fo11owing ( 2. the transmitted and the reflected. the incident. by (2..30 OPTICAL FtBER COMMUNICAT10NS: ~xl - PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE n2 k cos ~2 (2.44) and (2.50) Applying the tangential differentiating E'~Igives: boundary conditions and equating liz. Thus the three waves in the waveguide indicated in Fig. then the normal components of the E and H fields at the interface may be equated giving: Ao I I: .~z) cos/ ~ + sin ' (2~46) the simple trigonomctrical relationship 4l ---== l: (2. 2.44) (2.43 ) where Pod and ~x2: are propagation constants in the x direction for t he guide and cladding respectively.j I + Co -= 80 Furthermore it can be shown (see Appendix A) that an electric field component in the y direction is related to the tangential magnetic field component H~ following: (2.

Under the conditions of tota] internal reflection Eq4 (2. When both ~xl and ~x2 arc real it is clear that the reflected wave C is in ph ase with the incident w ave A. Con tinuation of this process results in ~x2 passing th rough zero. where under the condition s of tota] internal reflection the reflected wave h as an equal amplitude to the incident wave. (2.52) and (2.52) may therefore be written as: Co == A 0 ( ~_'d + j ~2) . ] 41. but undergoes a phase shift corresponding to OE degrees.56) and (2. l2 I Ref. (2.OPTICAL FIBER WAVEGUIDES 31 Bo == Ao ( 2Px( ~_\"I ) ~. A similar analysis may be applied to the TM modes at the interface which leads to expressions for reflection and transmission of the form ~Ref.48)~ the components ~. These curves illustrate the above results. ~x2 -J~2 where we observe there is a phase shift of the reflected wave relative to the incident wave . == A 0 exp 2 JUE +5:.53) correspond to the Fresnel relationships lRef. This is signified by OE which is given by: Furthermore the modulus of the reflected wave is identical to the modulus of the incident wave (I CO I~ I Au ~).47) and (2.R and rET are the reflection and transmission coefficients for the F: field at the interface respectively. The expressions obtained in Eqs.c..\'l and ~_T2 decrease.\"2 + == AOrfT where rJ-. 10] for radiation polarized perpendicular to the interface (E polarization).57) . as ¢t I is increased the component P2 (i . a point which is signified by ~ J reaching the critical angle for total internal reflection. The curves of the amplitude reflection coefficient I rER I and phase shift on reflection. ~) increases and following Eqs.2" During this process Pod remains real because we have assumed that nl > nl_. If ~l is further increased the component ~_Y2 becomes imaginary and we may write it in the form -jr. against angle of incidence 4t l' for TE waves incident on a glass-a ir interface are displayed in Fig" 2.' . This corresponds to parti at reflection of the' incident beam" However. 14 ~: (2.

:-c.rio n l. such th at ~x! goes to zero.56) and (2.~z) (2..O}.2.... (2.57) correspond to Fresnel relationships I Ref. However. as indicated previously. Reproduced with permission from J. where rHR and r"T are respectively the reflection and transmission coefficients for the H field at the interface.5 Fig. Substituting for ~ x2 in Eq. Before the cri tical angle for total intern al reflection is reached and hen ce when there is only partial reflection. -----~ 0.U~ rl:R Hjl'h' n t . ]0 L but in this case they apply to radiation polarized parallel to the interface (H polarization). and then becomes imaginary ~ again results in a phase shirt when total internal reflection occurs. in this case a different phase shill is obtained corresponding to Co _. John Wiley & Sons Inc" 1979. co nsiderations or an increasin g angle of inciden ce ~ I. Midwinter. ~ x2 becomes imagi nary and may be written as -j~2.32 OPTICAL FIBER COMMUN~CATIONS: PRINC1PLES AND PRACTICE Rc fJ..60) . Furthermore. Optical Fibers for Transmission. (12. However. The second phenomenon of interest under conditions of total internal reflection is the form of the electric field in the ciaddi ng of the g uidc. E.Au exp (2jOH) where (2~59) the phase shift obtained on total interna1 reflection is dependent both the angle of incidence and the polarization (either T E or T M) Thus upon 0 f th e ··1 radiation.. the field in the cladding is of the form given by Eq. when total interna1 reflection occurs.45) gives the transmitted wave in the cladding as: B == Bo exp (~~2X) exp j(rot .12 Curves showing the reflection coefficient and phase shift on reflection for transverse electric waves aga i nst the an gle of incidence for a 9 lass-a i r interface (n1 = 1-5.. Again the expressions given in Eqs. n2 = 1. (2~45)..

(c) The cladding thickness must be sufficient to allow the evanescent field t.13 The exponeutia I~y decaying waveguide. is often referred to as an evanescent field./ alls. It gives rise to the follow in g rcq uirernen ts: + (a) The cladding should be transparent consist to light at the wavelengths over which the guide is to operate. This may occur withi n distances eq ui valent to a I'C\V wa vclcngths of the tr an sm ittcd light. however ~ the magnitude of the field falls off rapidly with distance from the guide-cladding interface.o decay to a low value or losses from the penetrating energy may be encountered . _ . .. ~'. Figure 2.. or lh l~ ~ II. A field of th is type stores energy and tran sports it in the directi on of propagation (z) but docs not tr ansport energy in the transverse di rection (x). L. Fig. Therefore the most widely used optical fibers consist of a core and cladding both made of gl ass. In many cases.13 shows a diagrammatic representation of the ev ancscen t field. but it provides a far more practical solution. . The penetration of energy into the cladding underlines the importance of the choice of cladding mat eri al.OPTICAL FIBER WAVEGUIDES 33 . eva nescent field in the cladding of the optical Thus the amplitude of the field in the cladding is observed to decay ex ponentially" in the x direction Such a field. Nevertheless the existence of an evanescent field beyond the plane of reflection in the lower index medium indicates that optical energy is transmitted into the cladding. 2. ln this case a growing exponential field is • 'phYIJCIUy improbable Aoiution.. This in part explains _the poor performance (high losses) of early optical vva veguides with ai r c] add in g.::. The cl adding refractive index is thus hig her than would be the case with liquid or gaseous cladding giving a lower numerical aperture [or the fiber. (b) Ideally the cladding should of a solid material in order to avoid both damage to the guide and the accumulation of foreign matter on the guide \1. These effects degrade the reflection process by in tern cti on wi th the evanescent Held... exhibiti rig an ex poncn ti ally decaying am pl itude. • It should be noted that we have chosen the sign of ~1 so that the exponential field decays rlther than lrowB with dlatance into the cladding.i\"L~ n t p 1a nc ave ~~I K'.

4)+ step index .34 OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATlONS: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 2. TE (where E... 2. ~ I The phase change incurred with the total internaJ reflection of a light beam on a planar dielectric interface may be understood from physical observation . 141 although it is very small (d ~ O. The cy 1jndrical waveguide.. These modes correspond to meridional rays (see Section 2. this concept provides an important insight into the guidance mechanism of d ielectric optical waveguides.:»: ~--F.. The geometric reflection appears to take place at a virtual reflecting plane which is parallel to the dielectric interface in the lower index medium as indicated in Fig.. .6 Cylindrical Fiber Th e exact so] u tion of M ax wei ~ equations for a _cy lindrical homogenco us core '5 dielectric waveguide" involves much algebra and yields a complex result I ReL ] 5l~ Although the presentation of this mathematics is beyond the scope of this text. it is useful to consider the resulting modal fields. however. is bounded in two dimensions rather than one.::-lnt crfucc <.2).2.. In common with the planar guide (Section 2. I and m. However.ctration depth .06-0~ 10 11m for a silvered glass interface at a wavelength of 0.3. However.2. re i'<.5 i Goos Haenchan Shift t. 2J 4" Utilizing wave theory it is possibl e to determine this lateral shift l Ref. This lateral displacement is known as the Goos-Haenchen shift after its first observers ..3.. !' R(: fl cc ti n~r __ .14. Virtu al rc llc c tin!.3.. == 0) and TM (where Hz == 0) modes are obtained with in the dielectric cy Under.55 11m) and difficult to observe. For the cylindrical waveguide we therefore refer to TE1m and TM1m modes. hybrid * This type of optical waveguide with a constant refractive index core is known as a fiber (see Section 2. plane -PGi". of a light beam on reflection at a dielectric interface 2. Thus t\VO integers. Careful examination shows that the reflected beam is shifted laterally from the trajectory predicted by simple ray theory analysis as illustrated in Fig.J I !i I ti ft Fig. are necessary in order to specify the modes in contrast to the single integer (m) required for the planar guide.1) tra velling within the fiber.14 The latera! displacement {Goos-Haenchen shift}. - L!J.

03 (24yO) for optical communications fibers. mode theory gives domin an t transverse field components. This corresponds to small grazing angles a in Eq.1. Such modes are said to be degenerate. The superpositions of these degenerating modes characterized by a common propagation constant correspond to particular l~P modes regardless of their HE~ EH~ TE or TM field configurations. 2. The mode subscripts I and m are related to the electric field intensity profile for a particul ar LP mode (see Fig. Thus an ex act descri ption of the modal fields in a step index fiber proves somewhat complicated.P) modes are not exact modes of the fiber except for the fundamental (lowest order) mode.1 that the notation for labelling Table 2.4) within the fiber are design ated HElm and EH/n~ depending upon whether the components of H or E make the larger contribution to the transverse (to the fiber axis) field. These modes which result from skew ray propagation (see Section 2. EH. The relationship between the traditional HE~ EH~ TE and TM mode designations and the LP"11 mode designations are shown in Table 2. in weakly guiding fibers is very small.2.34)~ In fact ~ is usually Jess than 0. 15(d». Hence approximate solutions for the full set of HE. These linearly polarized (L. and Hz are nonzero also occur within the cylindrical waveguide.1 Correspondence between the lower order llnearlv polarized modes and the traditiona I exact modes from which they are formed l. T here are in general 21 field maxim a around the circumference of the fiber core and m field maxima along a radius vector. Furthermore. (2 .OPTICAL FIBER WAVEGU!DES 35 modes where E. as 6. These fibers satisfy the weakly guiding approximation I Ref 161 where the relative index difference ~ ~ I. However. then HE-EH mode pairs occur which have almost identical propagation constants. TE and TM modes may be given by two linearly polarized components I Ref.inearlv pol a rized Exact _"r . it may be observed from Table 2. This linear combination of degenerate modes obtained from the exact solution produces a usefu 1 sirnpl ification in the analysis of weakly guiding fibers. 16 J. For weakly guiding structures with dominant forward propagation.. Fort un ately the analy sis may be simplified when considering optical fibers for communication purposes.

" -. the HE and EH modes has changed from that specified for the exact solution in the cylindrical waveguide mentioned previously.15 The electric field configurations for the three lowest LP modes illustrated in terms of their constituent exact modes: (a} LP mode deslqnations: (b) exact mode desig nations..t r#.. (d) Intensity distribution of Ex for the exact modes indicating the electric field intensity prof I e for the correspond i ng LP m odes..DI l..~~ *1 '~~ LPjL "[ \1m I.+drl r dr r "~ d 'V 2 I dw- Id 2 d+· 2 '" + (nJ k .._) (aj (.. 17 J . the scalar wave equation can be written in the form I Ref.~ )V = 0 2 1 2 (2. Using Eq.' . 2. It may" be observed from the field configurations of the exact modes that the field strength in the transverse direction (~~x or h~r) is identical for the modes which belong to the same LP mode. are shown in Fig.j l Fig..38 OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS: PRiNCIPLES AND PRACT~CE Tl:."1" " .31) for the cylindrical homogeneous core waveguide under the weak guidance conditions outlined above. together with the electric field distribution of thci r constituent exact modes.61) . +..1 respecti vely.. Hence the origin of the term 'linearly polarized'. (c) electric field distribution of th e exact modes..15. The subscript I in the LP notation now corresponds to HE and EH modes with labels I + I and /. A~f~ \<_J_Y . (2 . The electric field intensity profile for the lowest three LP modes. 2.

&.._ i 1 - t. and r and ~ are cylindrical coordinates.. (2.d IGlln.~ ~. ---- .6 .. -_ .. ] ntroducing the solutions given by Eq.. (2.. Sol ution s of the wa vc equation for the cyl i ndrical fiber are separable... I .& J/tr) 0_6 ..4 0 r .-"'- 0. ...) . ......0. \.. .r J . ...) Vlrl... 6 -t / 8 Ij l{) (a) 2. The propagation con stan ts of the guided modes ~ ]ie in the range n2k <~< n.1 OA O. ---.6 J) results in a the dominant LO 0.t r. ~ 1.. k is the propagation constant for light in a vacuum. 0.63) into Eq._--- • . ~ .U 1. . ~ .62) wh ere III is the refractive index of the fiber cladding...--+-~---+---+--+--+------I -. for 1 J '.. modified B•••• I funct~on K.E(r) cos l~ } exp (rol . r .OPTICAL FIBER WAVEGU1DES 37 where '41 is the field (~..: .. ~ ~ l 3 --. -- ._ • .. ._..tlon of thl al••11 function JI (r) for I == 0 L 2/ 3 (first four orders) plotl. L .4 ..2 ~-.. o . (r) aga inat .._ .) (.--. . n J is the rcfr acti ve index of the f her core. The periodic dependence on ~ following cos 1$ or sin 14tgives a mode or radia1 order l.8 _ .63)... D-: I--I-------II--t-·0-4 ~ -0.63) where in this case 't' represents transverse electric field componcnt.0 0. .k (2.0 0 . . L __ . or H).. . {b) Qr.6 .. Hence the fiber supports a finite number of guided modes of the form of Eq.- . l..4 l.- . ...8 i ! --_.~z) { sin l~ + (2. ~ K~(r} I I r-.~. K I f... r) :. (2..ph of ttl. ••••• - i l I I 5 r ( l.-1... ...oI. -' ·Ii] (r) :=. having the form: W ~.

..10).... ..'.A (2. (2.67) W -== a(~2 - 1l~ k? The sum of the sq uares of U and W defines a very user ul quantity I Ref... :": • . _:.8) and (2. within this chapter there should be no confusion over this point. .:i:.. ... - '.. (-":"1 ~ .:: ·tt~~ --. the normalized frequency may be expressed in terms of the numerical aperture N A and the relative refractive index difference A respectively as: V==-a(NA) 21t . • • p' •• _.. r :: ....65) K(WR) ==GJ(U)-t / K1(W) for R >1 (cladding] where G is the amplitude coefficient and R == ria is the normalized radial coordinate when a is the radius of the fiber core.However. 2.69) • When used in the context of the planar waveguide.. are defined as: U == a(I1T k2 _ ~2)+ )+ frequency" V where (2. using Eqs ..' • • ..':-~:' •• : I ml I ".... _:.: •••• £': ._. .:. the field vanishes as r goes to infinity and the solution s in the cladding are therefore modified Bessel functions denoted by K/ These modified functions decay exponentially with res pect to r as ill u str ated in Fig...- ._ • .. _ ·::~···~1 ~ .. ••• .64 ) refractive index core.:~~-:.. The electric field may therefore be L For a step index fiber with a constant given by: for R < 1 (core) (2...:a.. . Eq ..' .__.. U and W which are the eigenvalues in the core and cladding respectively. • .... (2..... I:~ ~ _ .:... 16(b)..38 OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE differential cq ua tion of the form: (2. __ ---.... 2.l..1. It may be noted that the field is finite at r == 0 and may be represented by the zero order Besse] function Ju...:.. •• • • ...... -..... 7~1)" • • _L.. _. Furthermore...J . ... V is sometimes known as the normalized f lm thi c knes s as it re] ares to the thick ness 0 f the i u ide layer (see Section J 1. 18l which is usually referred to as the normalized It may be observed that the commonly used symbol for this parameter is the same as that normally adopted for voltage..16(a) ._~L"'_ ....66) (2. • .. In the core region the solutions are Bes sel function s denoted by J t: A graph of these grad u ally dam ped oscillatory functions (with respect to r) is shown in Fig...: ...:..64) is a Bessel's differential equation and the solutions arc cylinder functions. However.

Unguided or radiation modes have frequencies below cutoff where ~ < kn2.)~ I (2.70) The normalized frequency is a dimensionless parameter and hence is also sornetim es simply called the V number or val uc of the fiber. .72) with Eqs. In this case the mode is said to be cut off and the eigenvalue W = 0 (Eq .72) Solving Eq. but the difference is very small. (2. 2. Solutions of the waveequation giving these states are called leaky modes. (2.. In the weak guidance approximation the field matching conditions at the boundary require continuity of the transverse and tangential electrical field components at the core-cladding interface (at r == a)" Therefore. l81: (2. wave propagation does not cease abruptly below cutoff.7] ) Referring to the expression for the guided modes given in Eq. Nevertheless.62)~ the limits of ~ are n2 k and n l k.OPTICAL FIBER WAVEGUIDES 39 == ~"A. and hence W is imaginary. and often behave as very lossy guided modes rather than radiation modes. (2.n~ n~ ni - (2. Considering the limi t of mode propagation when ~ == n2 k ~ then the mode phase velocity is equal to the velocity of light in the cladding and the mode is no longer properly guided. using the Bessel function relations outlined previously. such that some of the energy loss due to radiation is prevented by an angular momentum barrier ~ Ref 201 formed near the core-cladding interface. (2~66) and (2. hence b must lie between 0 and 1. As indicated previously this range of va1ues for ~ signifies the guided model or the t fiber. an eigenvalue equation for the LP modes may be written in the following form I Ref. Alternatively as ~ is increased above n-k.67). 2n anl (2ll. less power is propagated in the cladding until at ~ = n1 k all the power is confined to the fiber core. It is also possible to define the normalized propagation constant b for a fiber in term s of the parameters of Eq.68) so that: b~l u2 (~/k)2 ~~~==~~~ V2 . Modes exist where ~ < kn.67) allows the eigenvalue U and hence ~ to be calculated as a function of the normalized frequency" In this way the propagation characteristics of the various modes and their dependence on the optical wavelength and the fiber parameters may be determined.

16 [. In Fig. Appl. . 2. 1 against norma Ii led freq uancv {V. T~1o_' T~1)3 Ill" 1<:1 ·1 Em Fig.n LP J". These waveguide patterns (often called mode pattern s) may give an indication of t he predominant modes propagating in the fiber. the Bessel functions Jo and J arc plotted against the normalized frequency and where they cross the zero gives the cutoff point for the various modes. I PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE LPn LP. 10.. unless 1 1 • 1 . .83 giving a cutoff value Vc for the LP02 mode of 3. The electric field distribution of different modes gives similar distributions of light intensity within the fiber core. 2~17 [Ref.I llEu 1[t::2~ ·[·M 1)2 HI·: 1 J ™oJ 11:.5 j 1 nr 1 J J] 1:·:!.83+ It is therefore apparent that fibers may be produced with particular va1ues of norma1ized frequency which allows only certain modes to propagate+ This is further illustrated in Fig.405 ~gi vi 11 g a c utoff val ue Vc of 2.40 OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS: . occurs when the normalized frequency is a and this corresponds to the cutoff for the LPol mode. 16 J which shows the normalized propagation constant b for a nu mber of LP modes as a function of V. It may be observed that the cutoff value of normalized frequency VI. 2. It may be observed from Fig" 2+ 17 that the value of Vc is different for different modes. Glope. 2~ 18 j Ref. ·1971. the first zero crossing for J 0 is when the normalized frcq ucncy is 2 .!: ---- LP(I) LP J 3 LP(l4 G. 2. 17 The a IIowed reg ions for the LP mod es of orde r I· 0. Both the LP notaL ion and the corresponding traditional H E. which occurs when p == n!_ k corresponds to b == O~ The propagation of part icular modes within a fiber may a lso be con firmed through visual analysis. for a circu la r opti cal waveg u ide with a consta nt refractive index core (step index fiber). The lower order modes obtained in a cylindrical homogeneous core waveguide are shown in Fig.405 for the LP 1 ~ 1TIOdCr Similarly.(101 II F~J. Hence the cutoff point for a particular mode corresponds to a distinc live value of the normalized frequency (where V == Vc) for the fiber.. p... 2552. In addition. the second zero of J i corresponds to a normalized frequency of 3. EH~ TE and TM mode notations are indicated.15. Reproduced with permission from D. The field intensity distributions for the three lower order L P modes were shown in Fig.] 9 we ill u strate the mode pat tern s for two higher order LP modest However. Opt. For example the first zero crossing J. However.

.«. 2..11.. (J.. Appl...OPTICAL FIBER WAVEGUIDES 41 0.""'-..6 ()_:: .01.. I I .... 1971.". 10. However.r."-- o .3..-"""""'-_.:..18 The norm aIized propa ga tio n co nstant b as a fu nction of normalized frequ ency V for a nurnbar of LP modes...._""""""--.. 1. 2552.1\... Gloge....""'--I.. o... 2.&. p.. ~ Fig.19 Sketches of fiber CrOSS section s illustr at i ng the d i stinctive lig ht I nte nsitv linear~y distributions (mode patterns} pol a rized modes generated by propagation of individual the fiber is designed for the propagation of a particular mode it is likelv that the superposition of many lTIOUCS will result in no distinctive pattern. Reproduced with permission from D.......7 Mode Coupling We have thu s far con sidered t he propagation aspects of perfect dielect ric w avegu ides. variations in the core diameter irrcgu Iariti cs at the 1 ..w:~"""""-~-... wa vegu ide perturbation s such as devi at ion s or the fi bcr axis from straightness.8 Q.0 Fig~ 2...1......

This mode conversion is known as mode coupling or mixing. It is usually ana1yzed using coupled mode equations which can be obtained direct1y from Maxwell's equations. 2r20 Ray theory iUustrati ons showing two of the pcssi ble fiber pe rtu rba rions wh ich give mode cou pi i ng: (a) i rreg ula ritv at the core-cladding inte tiace.7~3. 10. However. (b) fiber bend.. the theory is beyond the scope of this text and the reader is directed to Ref.. These will have the effect of coupling energy tra velling in one mode to another depcndin g on th e specific pertu rba tion . ] 7 for a comprehensive treatment.42 OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS: . PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE lrrvgulurlty ----- I \ I Fig. core-cladding interface and refractive index variations may change the propa- gation characteristics of the fiber. a major one being in relation to the dispersive properties of fibers over long distances.20 which illustrates two types of perturbation.. 11 may be observed that in both cases the ray no longer maintains the same angle with the axis. In electromagnetic wave theory this corresponds to a change in the propagating mode for the 1ight. 2. . . Thu s individ u al modes do not norm all y propagate throughout the length of the fiber without large energy transfers to adjacent modes even when the fiber is exceptionally good quality and not strained or bent by its surroundings. Mode coupling affects the transmission properties of fibers in several important ways.. Ray theory aids the u nderstan ding of th is phenomenon as shown in Fig... This is pursued further in Sections 3..

73) Figure 2.21 (b) shows a single mode or monomode step index fiber which allows the propagation of only one transverse electromagnetic mode (typically HE 11)" and hence the core diameter must be of the order of l. The refrac '" Live index profile may be defined as: (core) (cladding) in both cases. 10 J. This i s illustrated in Fig. . -----4r--~__.21 The refractive index profile and ray tra nsrnission in step index fibers: ~a) mu IUmode step index fiber. 2.l m or greater" which is large cno ugh to allow the propagation of many modes within the fiber core.1m. 2~2] which illu strates the two maj or types of step indcx fiber. ...21(b) as corresponding to a single ray path only (usually shown as the axial ray) through the fiber. This is because the refractive index profi1e for this type of fiber makes a step change at the core-cladding interrace as indicated in F ig.OPTICAL F1BER WAVEGUIDES 43 2." --r "" a Pill. 2.21 (a) shows a rnultimode step index fiber with a core diameter of arou nd 50 J. (b) single mode step index fiber.21 (a) by the many different possible ray paths through the fiber.The propagation of a single mode is illustrated in Fig.. is known as step index fiber.. 2. Figure 2. r Cluddlng .. (2. ..4 STEP I NDEX FIBERS The optical fiber considered in the previous sections with a core of constant refractive index n l and a cladding of a slightly lower refractive index n.

2.. (c) Lower tolerance requirements on fiber connectors .4. facilitating easier coupling to optical sources.. Solution: (a) The normal ized freq uency may be obta ined from Eq (2 ..44 OPTICAL F~BER COMMUNJCATIONS: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE The single mode step index fiber has the distinct ad v an tage of ]O\V inter modal dispersion (broaden i ng of tr an smitted light pul scs). M .. Nevertheless it is the guided modes wh ich are of para mou nt importance in opti cal fiber com munication s as these are confined to the fiber over its full length" It can be shown I Ref. However. ] 61 that the total number of guided modes or mode volume M~ for a step index fiber is related to the V value for the fiber by the approxi rna t e ex pression: . relative refractive index difference. These arc: (a) The use of spatially incoherent optical sources (e.. moue propagation does not entirely cease below cutoff.. It was indicated in Section 2.g. most light emitting diodes) which cannot be efficiently coupled to single mode fibers. Modes may propagate as unguided or leaky modes which can travel con sider able distances along the fiber. as well as core diameters.1 Multimode Step Index Fibers I step index fibers allow the propagation of a finite n u m bcr of gui ded {modes along the channel. (b) ttl e nu mbe r of guided modes. However. whereas with multirnode step index fiber considerable dispersion may occur due to the differing group velocities of the propagating modes (see Section 3..85 urn.. for lower bandwidth applications multirnodc fibers have several advantages over single mode fibers. The number of guided modes is dependent upon the I ph ysical parameters (i.3..48.5% is operating at a wavelength of 0.4 step index fiber with Q particular step index fiber .. ._ ~_'2 r M ultimode . lf the core refractive index is 1 . 2 mod es p ropagatin g in a which allow s an esti rna tc of th c n urn bcr of guided m ultimode 2.70) whe re: I core diameter .e... cspeci all y w hen compared wi th single mode fibers.9)" This in turn restricts the maximum bandwidth attainable with m ul timode step indcx fi hers.. as onl y one mode is transmitted. Example A rnultirnode of 80 11m and a relative index: difference of 1..6 that there is a cutoff value of normalized frequency V( for guided modes below which they cannot exist. estl mate: (a) the normalized freq uency for th e f ber. core rad ius) of the r fiber and the wavelengths of the transmitted light which are included in the normalized frcq ucn c'i V for the fiber. (b) Larger numerical apertures .

c.015)7 = 75-8 (b) The tota I nu m ber of 9 u 'ded mod ss ls giv8n by Eq. Hence for the transmission of a single mode the fiber must be designed to allow propagation of only one mode .6).3.405 (see Section 2.4~ th e optical power is Iaunchcd into a large num her of gu ided modes each havi ng d iffcrcnt ~pa ti al field di stri bu lions. mode can exist. Multimode step index fibers do not lend themselves to the propagation of a single mode due to the difficulties of maintaining single mode operation within the fiber when mode conversion (i .6 2 2873 Hence this fi ber ha s aV rl umber of aDr roxi m a tf. and are well confined to the fiber core lRef. (2.85 X 10-f) . The cutoff norma1ized frequency for the L.4.OPTICAL FIBER WAVEGUIDES 21t al11 1 45 2 rt x 40 x 10 6X V:::: - )" ~2d) ~ ------.74) as: v2 2 5745. For single mode operation . coupling) to other g uid ed modes takes place at both input mismatches and fiber imperfections. etc+ In an ideal rnultimodc step index fiber with properties (i. Hence the limit of single mode operation depends on the lower limit of guided propagation for the LP II mode. Also the majority of these guided modes opera te far from cutoff.Ji viriq nca rly 3000 t] LJ i dod modes. The properties of the cladd ing (e .---.!ly 76 }.P! l mode occurs at V~ 2. Following the previous discussion of rnultirnodc fibers this may be achieved through choice of a s u itab le normalized freq uency for the fiber. and the optical power launched into a particular mode remains in that mode and travels independently of the power 1aunched into the other guided modes. relative index difference. 1 . whilst all other modes are attenuated by leakage or absorption.. 2. th ick ness) therefore do not significan tly affect the propagation of these modes. only the fundamental LPn.. Thus single mode propagation of the LPOl = . propagation constants.{2 X 0. there is no mode coupling. 16 l. Thus most of the optical power is carried in the core region and not in the cladding.g.. core diameter) which arc independent of distance.2 Single Mode Step Index Fibers The advantage of the propagation a f a singl e mode V\J·i thin an optical fiber j s that the signal dispersion caused by the delay differences bet ween different modes in a multimode fiber may be avoided (sec Section 3.9). Therefore as ill u str ated in examp1e 2 .48 1 0.c.

(2.75) mode. it is possible to achieve si ngle mode operalion with a slightly larger core diameter.4 x 0-85 x 1 .4 x 0.5%) and co re refractive index (1 . (2. and possibly the relative refractive index difference fol1owing Eq.4 in order that it may be suitable for sing~e mode operation. Example 2.4 the single mode fiber must have a much smaller core diameter than the equivalent multimodc step index fiber (in this case by a factor of 32). estimate the nnw maximum core diameter for single mode operation when the relative refra ctive index diff ere nce is redu ced by a fa eta r of ten. However.85 x 10-6 2n: x 1.70). It is clear from example 2.6 ~m.85 urnl Further.48 x (0. Both these factors create difficulties with single mode fibers.75) by reduction of the core radius. 4. It may bB assumed that the fiber is operating at the same wavelength (0. 70) the COrP radius a is: as there is no cutoff for the fundamental VA. core diameter for single mode operation is now approxlmarelv 8 IJ. the maximum core diameter Red ucing the rela tive refractive Eq.48 x (O. it is apparent that the normalized frequency for the fiber may be adjusted to within the range given in Eq.03)7 I = 1 -3 urn for single mode operation is approxirnatalv Therefore 2. It must be noted that there are in fact two modes with orthogonal polarization over this range. (2. Also.70) gives: index d iffere nee by a facto r of 10 and ag a i n u sin~l a= Hence the maximum 2. The small core diameters pose problems with launching light into the fiber and with field join ting. (211r~ 21t 2. a nd the reduced relative refractive index difference presents difficulties in the fiber fabrication process.. (2 .-. a1beit still much Jess than the diameter of multimode step index fiber ~ by reducing the relative refractive index difference of the fiber. Solution: Consideri ng th e re Iationship 9 ivan in Eq. Hence from Eq.m.. {2.46 OPTICAL F~BER COMMUNICATIONS: PRINCfPLES AND PRACTICE mode is possible over the range: o~ V < 2.5 that in order to obtain single mode operation with a maximum V number of 2 ..405 (2..ves single mode operation is 2_4. a=---- 2nn. .6 Esti m ate the maxi mu m core dia meter for an optica I fibe r wi th the sa me re lative refra ctive index d lfference (1 ..0 urn. -~---X o" 1..003P -.48) as the fi be r given in example 2.75} ( the m axi mu m V va hJH for a fiber which g. and the term s Ingle mode applies to propagation of Ugh t of a parti cu lar polarizati on.

. W fibers also tend to give reduced losses at bends in comparison with conventional single mode fibers.d distan:..4.:..2) arc taken into account Therefore the total fi her cross section for single mode fibers is of a com parable size La multirnodc fibers+ Another approach to single mode tiber design which allows the V value to be increased above 2~405 is the W fiber l Ref. .. 201. The fundamental mode will be fully supported with small cladding Joss when its propagation constant lies in the range knJ < ~ < kn l I f the undesirable higher order modes which are excited or converted to have values or prop agation con stant ~ < kn 3 ~ they will leak th rough the barrier layer between al and Q2 (Fig.6..-==. with V values less than 1.. Conseq uently these modes will lose power by radiation into the lossy surroundings. conventional / n. 2. Estimates [Ref. . The refractive index profile for this fiber is illustrated in Fig+ 2. Thus the exponentially decaying evanescent field may extend significan t distances into the cl adding.... 21 J show that the necessary cladd in g thic kness is of the order of 50 11m to avoid prohibitive losses (greater than 1 dB krrr ' ) in single mode fibers..OPTICAL FIBER WAVEGUIDES 47 problem with single mode fibers.22) into the outer cladding region 113 . 231.. over half the modal power propagates in the cladding lRef. IJ~ core axis (r) Rilld~. with low relative refractive index differences and low V values is that the electromagnetic field associated with the L·P IU mode extends appreciably into the cladding.~ from ~ •• 11112 The rl1ractlve fndex profi~e for the single mode W fiber... Thi s design can provide single mode fibers with J arger core di am ctcrs than the desirable + and undesirable single cladding approach which proves useful for easing jointing difficulties. .. For instance.~ . Usc of such t\VO step cladding allows the loss threshold between the A further modes to be substantially increased. .. 11 is therefore essen ti al t ha t the cladding is of a s uitable thick ness._---~--~-. especially when additional losses result ing fro m microbending (see Section 4...-----~ u.22 where two cladding regions may be observed. a nd has low absorption and scattering losses in order to reduce attenuation of the mode.

th this profile.l:S Radial distance (rl Fig..index variation may be represented as: r <a (core) (cladding) (2.23~ and a is the prof Ie parameter index profile of the fiber core... ":.24.48 OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 2.76)}.::. :. r· I wavcguiding properties profile core.... "-/ . Using the concepts of : ~: . of graded index tiber with a parabo1ic refractive index ~~.--~"""""""'-~~__:__-____''---~ -.76) r~a w here ~ is the relative refractive i nd_ex difference which gives the characteristic refractive tion (2.5 GRADED INDEX FIBERS <Gr aded index f bers do not have a con stan t refracti ve index in the core" but a decreasing core index n(r) with radial distan ce from a max im u m val ue of III at . index profiles for different va Iuas of (t (give n in Eq.he axis to a constant value n2 beyond the core radius a in the cladding. 76) which is a convenient method of expressing the refractive index profile of the fiber core as a variation o f a allows representation of the step index profile when a == oo.I CMe a :U.. ~---. Equa the best results for multimode optical propagation have a near parabo1ic refractive index profile core with a ~ 2" Fibers with such core index profiles .. 2.: .. This range of refractive index profiles is illustrated in Fig" 2..are well established and consequently when the term 'graded index'! is used without qualification it usually refers to a fiber \\. 2.. profiles at present produce A multimode graded index fiber with a parabolic index profile core is /...23 Possi ble fibe r refractive (2. It may be observed that the meridional rays shown til/appear to follow curved paths through the fiber core. - ..:.. This .I. Re fra cti vc j nde x (H{r) . a parabo1ic profile when a --= 2 and a triangular profile when a == 1.4J . filustrated in Fig. For this reason in this section we consider the i \\0' hich The graded index. If! Graded index fibers are therefore sometimes referred to as inhomogeneous core fibers• • • •r :'.

These travel for the most ... ...!~~.ray travels back towards the core axi s. ~!:!J_~mechanjsrn is iq. . . This compensates for the shorter path lengths and red uces dispersion in the fiber..-/.__________..-.~....~ i~ .I Cli.. the ...L ..Lddin:! '( Fig..24 Th e refractive fiber. To..-. 2.. 2.--.. g-r·Eiding.-\ 11.-..... . the near axial rays are transmitted through a region of higher refractive index and therefore tra vel with a lower velocity than the more extreme rays.26. and . Multirnode graded index Qbcrs exhibit far less intermodal dispersion (sec Section 3~9. : -.:'tk c tiu n . incidence.:..vfler-e~a-ray i.-:. . ........ thedifferent group velocities 'ofthe modes tend to be normalized by ·the-index ..T/~.~ shown to be gradually curved..lq_. }I~\ - ·~:-l . -_ -- .~~d~_.index fiber. Again considering ray theory.. A similar situation exists for skew rays which follow longer helical paths as illustrated in Fig. a gain being conti nuou sly ref ractcd.~~p._. 2:r3"-.I--------I _1_ Fig. ---r -... Fig. the rays travelling close to the fiber axis have shorter paths when compared with rays which travel into the outer regions of the core.-- 'II '..--- .i I in k r nal rl. -------.-- . 2..25 An expanded ray diagram showing refraction at the various high to low index interfaces with ina graded index fi ber 91ving an overa II curved ray path.... with ~Hl ever-increasing angle of. index profi Ie and ray t ra nsm lssion ina multi mode graded index geometric optics.. the gradual decrease in refractive index from the center of the core creates many refractions of the rays as they are effectively incident on a ]!lr~~_ number of high to ~~~_ ~~~~e~~i~_~err~es.. Although many different modes are excited in the graded ./ .'I.1!l}lti.~_str~te.2) than !...-: =.... ~~~ers due to their refracti~~c index profi1e.~ I .~J2 s' .... However. until the conditions for total internal reflection arc met..! ..- ...- ---...OPTICAL FIBER WAVEGUIDES r 49 .

" '_J' : .' . .. Consequently..' -.g Fig.. The ray is contained within two cylindrical caustic surfaces and for most rays a caustic does not coincide . Approximate field solutions of the same order as geometric optics are often obtained employing the WKB method from quantum mechanics after Wentzel. L. Substitution of Eq .61) (in which the constant replaced by n(r)) and neglecting the provides approximate solutions for function S(r)" It may be observed refractive index of the fiber core nl is.. Using the WK B method modal solutions of the guided w ave arc ac h ieved by ex pressing the field in the form: . E . However. (2..77) into the scalar wave equation of the form given by Eq .. 2. =.with the .1~ (r)e}..\ ~ 1 . + G"I (r)e jS{r-) - l ( cos I*' • sm 'r l~) . Hence multirnode graded index fibers with parabolic or near parabolic index profile cores ha vc tran smission bandwidths which may be orders of magnitude greater than multirnode step index fiber bandwidths. such multimode graded index fibers have the advantage of la rge core diameters (greater th an 30 11m) coupled with bandwidths suitable for long distance communication. although they are not capable of the bandwidths attainable with single mode fibers..24 that a light ray propagating in a graded index fiber does not necessarily reach every point within the fiber core.. ef~': where G and S are assumed to be real functions of the radial distance r..- ~ -t:i.' . / Core CJilJJ ir:. : .. (2..' part lower index region at greater speeds thus 21VJng the same mechanism of mode transit time equalization... Kramcrs and Brillouin I Ref 241. .50 OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE I -.)tn G . accept less light than corresponding step ind ex fibers with t he same relative refractive index in the difference... NA~ fj" V) may be applied to graded index fibers and give a comparison between the two fiber types. The parameters defined for step index fibers (i...L_.. second derivative of OJ (r) with respect to r the amplitude function Gj(r) and the phase from the ray diagram shown in Fig . 2.26 A helical skew ray path within a graded index fiber . Graded index fibers.e . Electromagnetic mode theory may also be utilized with the graded profiles. it must be noted that for graded index fibers the situation is more complicated since the numerical aperture is a function of the radial distance from the tiber axis.: • •• I. therefore.

Hence the caustics define the classical turning points of the light ray within the graded fiber core.1 coefficient) and .. the field decays towards the fiber axis giving: j G l (r) ~ Deimft I~ [2 - (n2 (r)k2 - Pl).8 J) G2 (r) == 0 where the integer m is the radial mode number and (2..~2)r2 . This facilitates the joining together of the two separate solutions described previously for inside and outside the interval rl < r < T2 ~ Thus 'the W KB theory provides an approximate eigenvalue equation for the propagation constant p of the guided modes which cannot be determined using ray theory. the field decays a way from the fiber axis and is described by the eq nations : G (r) 1 == Dejm1t 11/2 ~ (n1(r)k2 ~ ~2)r2 P == 0 (2.1)2 1t (2.: fl and r == '2 The result of the W K B approximation yields an oscillatory field in the region rl < r < r2 between the caustics where: r G I (r) = G2.OPTICAL FIBER WAVEGUIDES 51 core-cladding interface..~2)r - [21+ - dr r -- 1t r 4 (2. The solutions at the turning points can then be expressed in terms of Hankel functions of the first and second kind of order f IRef. 251: 1 [ The WKB method does not initially provide valid solutions (n2(r)k2 ~I .-2 It (2~80) (2.. Fortunately this may be amended by replacing the actual refractive index profile by a linear approxim ation at the location of the caustics.82) A Iso outside t he outer caustic in the region r > rz. The W KB eigen val ue equation of which ~ is a solution is given by [Ref.79) Outside the interval r < r < r 2 the field solution must have an evanescent form. In the region inside the inner caustic defined by r < rl and 'assuming rl is not too close to r = 0.86) .P J+ - dr r = (2m .85) O2 (r) of the wave equation in the vicinity of the turning points../21+ (where D is an amplitude S(r) ~ J rl l(n1(r)k2 1 . 251..(r) == D/l(n2 (r)k2 ~ ~2). These turning points defined by the two caustics may be designated as occurring at r::.

27 together with the correspondin g \V K B solution. F igurc 2~2 7 i 11 ustrates the The properties of the WKB solution r~ I I .~~. Finally the amplitude coefficient D may be expressed in terms of the total optical power PG within the guided mode. 28J..-.. : .. . .na ! 2 I I (2.. D where == ~4(_Ilo_/~€o_)~_PJ_G n. 2.52 OPTICAL FIBER CQMMUNICAT10NS: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE where the radial mode number m -= 1. in most cases it must be solved approximately or with the use of n u m ericai techniq ucs. . 2.88) may be observed from a graphical representation of the intcgran d give n in Eq...(32) and t/2/r2) that ate im porta nt in th e WK B solution and which define the tu rni ng poi nts r 1 and r 2' Also shown is an example of the corresponding WKB solution tor a guided mode where an oscillatory wave exists in the region between the turninQ points . 3 . Th is iss hown in Fig. (2. This eigenvalue equation can only be solved in a closed analytical form for a few simple refractive index profiles. . Considering the power carried between the turning points rl and r2 gives a geometric optics approximation of I Ref.87) (2. 7 2 Graphica I represents tio n of the fu net ions (nZ(dk2 . 2 . Hence.79).. ~~ and determines the number of maxima of the oscillatory field in the radial direction.r Fig.

for r > rJ the field resumes an oscillatory behavior and therefore carries power away from the fiber core... Moreover.28 . even when J is fixed the curve (n2 (r)Ji2 .OPT~CAl FIBER WAVEGUIDES 53 functions (n2 (r)t.27 changes to one corresponding to Fig. In this case a third turning point r ~ '.~2) is no longer negative for large values of r and the guided mode situation depicted in Fig . 6 ~4 'lit 2.PI) which changes into a decaying exponential (evanescent) form outside the interval Tl < r <'1 (i. 2. . Now the field displays an evanescent..~~) no longer goes negative and a third turning poi nt fJ Occurs.1 is created when at r == a the curve (n 2 (r)k2 .28 SimHar graphical represe ntaticn as that illustrated in Fi g. when P /r2 > n2 (r)k2 . 2. Here the cu rve (na~r)k2 . In addition. . the curve /21r2 moves higher and the region between the two turning points becomes narrower. 2.~2) becomes constant. Unless mode cutoff occurs at ~ == n 1 k the guided mode is no longer full y contained within the fiber core but loses power through leak age or tunnelling into the cladding.! ) to drop below r2 it. (n2 (r)k2 . / r2 < 112 (r)k 2 .2 ~ ~2) and ([2 /r).27.e. th us allowing the curve (f.e. exponentially decaying form in the region '2· < r < r3 as shown in Fig .28. As the value of ~ decreases below n2 k.. when p. The two curves intersect at the turning points r == rl and r == '24 The oscillatory nature of the WKB solution between the turning points (i.panda to ~eaky mode sol utlons in the WKB method.P2) can also be clearly seen~ It may be noted that as the azimuthal mode number I increases. 2.Pl) is shifted up and down with alterations in the value of the propagation constant Therefore modes far from cutoff w hie h have large values of ~ exhibit more closely spaced turning points.. Th is corr. This situation corresponds to the leaky modes mentioned previously in Section 2~3.

This plane is displayed in Fig~ 2. 1~ I ~~ l . 2.92) is not exact for rea] fibers. Equation (2+92) docs. (2 111 + {~ k -[ . however.(0) can be evaluated using a change of variable tr orn r to U .=. (2. (2. Therefore. occupied by leaky and radiation modes. {2.92) is an exact solution of the scalar wave equation for an infinitely extended parabolic profile medium.76): Substitution of Eq. (2.29. although Eq.2 V(2~). (2.90) The integral shown in Eq.. 2. Hence Eq. (2.86)+ However. It depicts a constant value of P following Eq. g9) Into Eq.. (2+86) gives: (2.92) is ex act even though it was derived from t he approximate W K 8 eigen val ue eq u alion (Eq. all the points in the mode number pi ane lying below the line ~ == n2 k are associated with guided modes whereas the region above this line is. allow us to consider the mode number plane spanned by the radial and azimuthal mode numbers m and I.92) and occurs when ~ = n 2 k. (2.29 where each mode of the fiber described by a pair of mode numbers is represented as a point in the plane.. The tnode number plane contains guided. r == r 1 and r . Furthermore" practical parabolic refractive index profile core fibers exhibit a tru nc ated par abolic distribution which merges into a con stant refractive index at the cladding .e. the wave eq ua tion is only an approx imate representation of Maxwel I's equation. .__ I1 ka l 1) ] (2.r~}~ then we can write indefinite integrals I RcL 291+ As the square (2. (2. The concept .9 I) for ~ ~ gives: ~ ..9 I ) Solving Eq. r': The integral obtained may be found ina standard table of root term ill the resulting expression goes to zero at the turning points (i. leaky and radiation modes.54 OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE The W BK method may be used to calculate the propagation constants for the modes in a parabolic refractive index profile core ltber where following Eq.92) lt is interesting to note that the solution for the propagation constant for the various modes in a parabolic refractive index core fiber given in Eq. The mode boundary which separates the guided modes from the leaky and radiation modes is indicated by the solid line in Fig.-.

12)+· Hence the modes are said to be fourfold degenerate. kQ(2A}~ (2. unity and sln vanishes. (2~70)." If we defirie the mode boundary as the function In =/(/) then the total number of" guided modes M is given by: M =4 J~ m 1 ".. 2.94). these modes represent only a small minority and thererort may be nCllected.. ~ -:. . For each pair of mode numbers m and I the corresponding mode field can have azimuthal mode dependence cos l~ or sin 1$ and can exist in two possible polarizations (see Section 3. However. Equation (2+93) allows the derivation of the total number of guided modes or mode volume M~ supported by the graded index fiber.U fib e I' ~'S "" mod Fig.95) into Eq. utilizing Eq. (2.29 The mode nu mber modes.PI::! k (j u id I.. I. f(l) dl as each representation point corresponding to four modes occupies an element of unit area in the mode plane. 25] that: (2.OPTICAL FIBER WAVEGU~DES 56 of the mode plane allows us to count the total number of guided modes within the fiber. p' an e illustratinq the mode boundary a nd the gu ided fiber • An exception to this are the modes that occur when 1= 0 which are only doubly degenerate II COl become. (2. we have: (2. It can be shown lRef. the normalized w hen A ~ 1 is approxirn ately given by: frequency V for the fiber v Substituting = n.94 ) Furthermore.96) I Mode boundary: .95) Eq. I..

ample 246 A graded index fiber has a core with a pa ra bol ic refra ctive ind Ax profi Ie \IV"" i ell ha s a d la meter of 50 urn.- V2 um x t3 ..2 1 x 10 6 "7 31.. single mode operation -5 index fibers may also be designed for single mode operation although there is no obvious advantage to this as in the step index case.3 5 x to. 02 r:: 1 Hence the maximum core approxirn atelv 6. x 1 0 . diameter which allows.. .96) where fo r pa rabotic profi Ie: M Hence the fiber supports ~- . . The fiber has a n U me rica I a pertu re of 0. Solution: Usi ng Eq.. = 3. mode operation is V a parabolic refractive inrlex profile corp t-Jas H refractivu 1.5 a nd a relative index difference of 1W).2.6 J1m.69).56 OPTICAL F~BER COMMUNICATIONS: PRINCiPLES 777.2/2P . may be obtained from EQ. (2..247 approximately 24 7 ~LJjded rnodas.~ v2 4 986 4 .. However. Ex.4 J The mode vol u me may be obta ined fro m Eq. Solution: Using Eq. E5t1 m ale the total number of guided modes propagating in the ffber whe n it is ope rating at a wavel ength of 111m. AND PRACTICE index profile core fiber (a 2).4 1 _ . Example 2. it may be shown I Ref.(2 -95) where: 8= -- v}~ 2.3 lim.'3 2rtfll~2~~~ 2 rt xl. - NO . f2. 301 that the cutotT value of normalized frequency Vc to support a single mode in a graded index fiber is given by: Graded -. IIUXTOH C:OLLIGI. M~ ~ V 2/4 which is ha]f the number supported by a step index fiber (a == 00) with the same V value .. (2. The maximum core radius.7 A graded index fiber with index at the core axis of maximum possible core wavelength of 1. Esti mate the diameter which allows single mode operation at a 97} the maxi rnu m va Iue of norma lized trequen cv for sin gle 2_4{ 1 + 2/0) I = 1 r = 2_4( 1 +. the normalized frequency for the fiber is: Hence for a parabolic refractive v= --~ a(NA) A 21t 211 x: 25 x 10 = -------- 6X 0.

It may be noted that the critical val ue of normal ized frequency for the parabolic profile graded index fiber is increased by a factor of on the step index case.OPTICAL FIBER WAVEGUIDES 57 = Vc Therefore. ( b) the critical angle at the core-cladding interface. Hence significantly larger core diameter single mode fibers may be produced utilizing this index profile. 2.2 The velocity of light in the the critical angle at the numerical aperture and the has a core diameter suitable core of a step index fiber core-cladding interface acceptance angle for the for consideration by ray S-l.4 fiber core. 381 for use in single mode tran srnission at wa velengths of 1. Show how this is related to the fiber numerical aperture and the refractive indices for the fiber core and cladding. A step index fiber has a solid acceptance angle in air of 0. Such fibers have recently generated some interest ~Ref.59. light in a vacuum is 2+99A x 1O~ m is 2.1 Using simple ray theory ~describe the mech anism for the transmi ssion of light within an optical tiber.. The maximum V number which permits single mode operation can be increased still further when a graded index tiber with a triangular profile is employed.55 urn: y2 V3 PROBLEMS 2. The velocity of 2. A step index fiber with a large core diameter compared with the wa velength of the transmitted light has an acceptance angle in air of 220 and a relative refractive index difference of 3%+ Estimate the numerical aperture and the critical angle at the core-cladding interface for the fiber. Estimate the speed of Jight in the . Determine the fiber in air.33.3 Define the relative refractive index difference for an optical fiber and show how it may be related to the numerical aperture. An optical fiber has a numerical aperture of 0.115 radians and a relative refractive index difference of 0. It is apparent from Eq. Briefly discuss with the aid of a suitable diagram what is meant by the acceptance angle for an optical fiber. 2 . (2. 2 .9%. and the same relative refractive index d iffcrence.97) as in the step index case. it is possible to determine the fiber parameters which give single mode operation.20 and a cladding refractive index of 1. Determine: (a) the acceptance angle for the fiber in water which has a refractive index or 1. Comment on any assumptions made about the fiber..405 (1 + 2/a)+ (2.97) that the increase in this case is by a factor of over comparable step index fiber. assuming it analysis. and is 80°.01 x 1O~m S-l. This gives a core diameter increased by a similar factor for the graded index fiber over a step index fiber with the eq uiv a1ent core refractive index (equivalent to the core axis index).

.49~ Estimate the shortest wavelength of light which allows single mode operation when the relative refractive index difference for the fiber is 2%.. of light in optical 2.7 2.45 and a core diameter of 60 urn.58 2. .10 Describe with the aid of simple ray diagrams: (a) the multirnode step index fiber. A step index fiber with a suitably large core diameter for ray theory considerations has core and cladding refractive indices of L44 and 1.. Describe the effects of these phenomena on the propagation fibers. um is 1100.11 2. Derive an expression for the acceptance angle for a skew ray which changes direction by an angle 3y at each reflection in a step index fiber in terms of the fiber NA and y.. 2. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of these two types of fiber for use as an opti cal chan nel. use in the determination of the number of guided modes propagating within a step index fiber~ A step index fiber in air has a numerical aperture of O.. (b) Goos-Haenchen shift: 2. Within the fiber they change direction by 90° at each reflection. It may be assumed that ray theory holds for the fiber..13 . with the aid of suitable diagrams. The number of modes propagating at a wavelength of 1. 3 A single mode step in dex fiber has a core diameter of 4 . - .8 the following concepts in (c) mode coupling.l6~ a core refractive index of 1. Determine the acceptance angle for meridional rays for the fiber in air.9 Define the normalized frequency for all optical fiber and explain its.. Discuss the modifications that may be made to electromagnetic mode theory in a planar waveguide in order to describe optical propagation in a cylindrical fiber ~ Briefly discuss. and a core refracm tive index of J . estimate the number of guided modes propagating in the fiber. Explain the concept of electromagnetic modes in relation to a pi an ar optical waveguide.5 OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATlONS: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Briefly indicate with the aid of suitable diagrams the difference between meridional and skew ray paths in step index fibers..42 respectively.. . 2..12 2. In problem 2..12~ it is required to increase the fiber core diameter to 10 ~m 2. Calculate the acceptance angle in air for skew rays which change direction by 150 Q at each reflection. optical fiber transmission: (a) the evanescent field.9 urn is transmitted+ Further. A rnultimode step index fiber has a relative refractive index difference of 1% and a core refractive index of L5.. Esti mate the dia meter of the fiber core.6 Skew rays are accepted into a 1arge core diameter (compared to the wavelength of the transmitted light) step index fiber in air at a maximum axial angle of 42°. (b) the single mode step index ti ber .. Determine the normalized fre- j quency for the fiber when light at a wavelength of 0.

3~o and a corc diameter of 40 11m.17 A graded index fiber with a parabolic index profile supports the propagation of 742 guided modes.45.60 ~ (b) 83. and the cJadding of a graded index fiber is 0. Nat~". van Hee).18 l. 'A new method of transporti ng opt leal images without a berrat Z I tiona\.15 The relative refractive index difference between the core axis. 2. Annal. The tiber has a numerical apertu re in air of O~3 and a core diameter of 70~. 56] 28~2° 2.26'1 15. discuss the transmission of light through the fiber. U sing simple ray theory concepts. AI C S. and determine the cutoff value of the normalized frequency for single mode transmission in the fiber.. 6 1 2.5 has a characteri slic index profile (a) of 1+90 a relative refractive index difference of 1.45 92 urn 1. 1954. . Estimate the number of guided modes propagating in the fiber when the transrn itted light has a wa velength of 1. 2.2° O.14 Explain what is meant by a graded index optical fiber. 2. 1 Anlwers to Numerical Problems 2.1 2. Hondros and P.6° t 2. A multimode graded index fiber has an acceptance angle in air of 80 Estimate the relative refractive index difference between the core axis. Physik. giving an expression for the possible refractive index profile. 4. Indicate the major advantage of this type of fiber with regard to multirnode propagation. 3.. 63(7)~ pp. Determine the wavelength of the light propagating in the fiber. 'Blectromagnetic waves in dielectric wires'. Debye 'Electromagnetic waves along long cylinders of dieiectric'.52.2 um. + 2 .3 2.60 0 .13 2. pp~465-476.. Lond.17 2. 39. Further estimate the maximum diameter mode operation at the same wavelength.32% (a) OJ 72..18 A graded of the fiber which gives single index fiber with a core axis refractive index of 1.8 (a) 8. p.. Estimate the maximum possible relative refractive index difference for the fiber. Schriever. Estimate values for the numerical aperature of the fiber when: (a) the index profile is not taken into account ~ and (b) the index profile is assu med to be triangular.16 0.7% when the refractive index at the core axis is l.11 x 108 m s~ 1 34.56 urn 2MB 33~5.11 2.1 7 ] 0+42% 94. 1920. 1910+ 0 . (b) 0.55 urn.37 75.OPTICAL F~BER WAVEGUIDES 59 whilst maintaining single mode operation at the same wavelength.16 2. Annal. Comment on the results.2 2.12 2. 645-673. Physik.4 2111 2.. 173.4 urn REFERENCES . D.. 32(3).9° 2. and the cladding when the refractive index at the core axis is 1.

2nd edn. J. 113~ pp. John Wiley. 1965. E. Principles of Optics. Midwinter. Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides. The Feyman Lectures on Physics. 1767-1783. O'Con nor. M. pp. 10M. " 21 22 D. ]966... 1980. Werts . Mac C hesn ey. Gradshteyn edn... Phys. Chynoweth (eds).. 1 966. Prog. 28(])~ H. 10.-980. Academic Press. 'Ultimate low-loss singlemode fibre at 1. [974. 173" pp. in glass optical waveguides'. W. 1777-l824. A+ Hockharn. 1-58. 967. 115 1-1 J 58. 01 shansky . TechL J'<I S I. P ~B. 7 S.. Fundamentals of Optical Fiber Communications. . 16 17 Optical Fibers for Transmission. J.. Wiley. 'Cylindrical dielectric waveguide modes'.. 37-l00. SOC~ 1969+ J~ Opt. Lazay. 1972.). Wolf. Int. ]979. P. pp. 11 W. Vol. Sandbank (ed. Takahashi and T+ Kawashima. + pp. I 969 D~ Gloge. D. QE-I0~ pp.. K. 6 A. '·A flexible fibrcscope. Nature. 51( 2). D~ Marcusc. Phys. Phys. 879-887~ 1974. D. 25--41. Ramsay and G+ A. "A syrnptotic expressions for eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of a dielectric or optical w avcg uide'. B. Series and Products. Kapany. M. Light Transmission Optics.Preparation of Jaw-loss optical f brcs u sing simultaneous vapour phase deposition and fusion' ~ PrOCL 10th Int.. 'Propagation de la lurniere coherente dans lcs fibres optiques'. Academic Press. Academic Press. S. John E. Fesbach. pp. Trans IEEE M icrowave Theory Tech.. Opt. "Propagation in optical fibre waveguides" in C. Snitzer. in E. pp.60 4 OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS: PRlNCIPlES AND PRACTICE and N~S. Appl. 5 K. E~ Miller and A. ] 974. Snyder. R. 1979. 1982. 46. Methods of Theoretical Physics. Vol. D. Academic 1+S. Hockham. "Preparation of low" loss multi-component glass fiber" Tech+Dig. pp. W Di M arcel1 o. using static scanning'.. Electron Lett. P. pp. 341-366. Allan. 'Weaklv guiding fibers'. 23 24 S. 196 L D. L 'Onde E lectrique. 15(4) . pp. 2. in M. Addison-Wesley. Mod. H. . Marcusc. Opt. Hopkins r pp. IEEE J+ Quantum Electron. 'Dielectric-fibre surface waveguides for optical frequencies' . 62 L 197"7. 'Characteristics of a doubly clad optical fiber with a low index cladding. 6th edn. 25 26 27 28 29 A~ Ghatak and K. Rev. A m. 1979. Kao and O. T. 11. 4th Press. 'Guiding properties of fibers'... Gloge.55 urn'. O. PP+ 3-128:t North-Holland ] 980~ D. paper 6-40. Born and E. l06~ l08<1 1979. 1980+ 12 D~ C. Lond.. Con! on Glass. 'Optical power flow in rnultirnode fibers'" Bell S ySI. Kawakami and S. 'Graded index optical waveguides'. 1976~ D+ Marcuse.. Oxford University Press..) Optical Fibre Communication Systems. p. p p. C.. Fiber Commun. Y. ~Ray concepts in optical fibres'. Indian J. New 1S 19 20 A. Morse and H. Hosaka and T. Nishida. F. Miya.. McGrawHilL 1953. Barnoski (ed. Rep. "The optical fibre as a transmission medium'.] 7.491-498. Gloge. Miyashita.. M TT . 9 T. 2252-2258<1 1971. Theoret. Proc IE R. Fibre Optics. in Optical Fiber Telecommunications. Tcrunuma. pp. York. B~ Beck . WoJf (ed. Ryzhik. 'Propagation pp. Van Nostrand Reinhold. E. M. and L M.. 42~ 1979. 13 14 15 R+ P+ Feyman. Glogc. Agarwal. and Opt. 39-41 ~ 1954. ]980. 1130-]] 38. 'Optical Fiber Waveguides'. B.. Pergamon Press.. Tables oj Integrals. R+ S imp so nand P. 51 . 41-54~ J 980.. -. Thyagarajan... 8 J. Con! Integr.. Progress in Optics Vol xvttt. AL J~ Marcatili.).

. Okoshi. 4] 0-421. 313-325. 40(3)~ pp. ~ 5 117/8).. "Optical waveguide theory' . Optical Fibers. 36 37 38 H.OPTICAL FIBER WAVEGU~DES 61 30 31 32 33 34 35 K. Soc. pp.. W. An Introduction TO Optical Wapeguides~ John Wiley. 'Analysis of wave propagation in optical fibers having core with {l-power refractive-index distribution and uniform cladding" IEEE Trans. 1979. A+ Sammut. W. Gambling. Circuits and SYSI. Eng. 1982+ M. A. Iga. Y. ((_lSA)~ 374~ ppr 13-15~ 1983. IEEE Trans. H. Suematsu and K~-I. Saifi. Unger. 1 981. 1977. 89~ 1 01. Okamoto and T. Academic Press . Opt. G. Ragdale . M+ J.... PrOCr I REE Aust. Micro~vave Theory Tech. Adams. T. 1981. MTT -24~ pp.~ CAS-26 (12). 101] -lO 19. Planar Optical Waveguides and Fibres ~ Clarendon Press. 'Developments in the theory of fibre optics'. "Triangular index monomode fibres' in Proc. pp. A. Introduction to Optical Fibre Communications. 1976+ C. 'Optical fibre transmission lines' ~ The Radio E lectron. John Wiley ~ 1 982. Okoshi. Yeh. Eng. Pask and R. SPJE Int. 1979~ C. A. Hartog and C+ M.

The other characteristic of primary importance is the bandwidth of the fiber . com paratively low loss fibers h ave been incorporated into optical cornm unication system s throughout the world. Nevertheless.I in th c Iabora tory Hence. The huge potential bandwidth of optical communications helped stimulate the birth of the idea that a dielectric waveguide made of glass could be used to carry wideband telecommunication signals. at the time the idea may have seemed somewhat ludicrous as a typical block of glass could support optical transmission for at best a few tens of meters before it was attenuated to an unacceptable level. A major breakthrough came in 1970 when the first fiber with an attenuation below 20 dB k m. Therefore. Since 1970 tremendous improvem ents h ave been made leading to fi bers with losses of less than 1 dB k m . + 82 t.. This occurred.J was reported [Ref. This level of attcn uation was seen as the absoJ ute minimum that had to be achieved before an optical fi ber system could in any way compete economically with existing communication systems. and Werts in 1966.1 INTRODUCTION Th e basic tran smission mech all isms of the variou sty pes of opti cal fiber waveguide have been discussed in Chapter 2.1 in the celebrated papers by Kao and Hockham. careful investigation of the attenuation showed that it was largely due to absorption in the glass.3 Transmission Characteristics of Optical Fibers 3. as indicated in Section 2. . This is limited by the signal dispersion within the fiber. copper. Hence. ] I. manganese and other transition metals which occur in the third row of the periodic table. These transmission characteristics are of utmost importance when the suitability of optical fibers for communication purposes is investigated. However. caused by impurities such as iron. the factors which affect the performance of optical fibers as a transmission medium were not dealt with in detail. However. The transmission characteristics of most interest are those of attenuation (or loss) and bandwidth. research was stimulated on a new generation of 'pure' glasses for use in optical fiber communications. which determines the number of bits of information transmitted in a given time period.

. together with the associated limitations on fiber bandwidth. p. addition and subtraction require a conversion to numerical values which may be obtained using the . prior to a discu ssion of overall fiber di spcrsion (in both mu1timode and single mode fibers) in Section 3~! O. Therefore in this ch apter VlC discuss the mechanisms within optical fibers which give rise to the major transmission characteristics mentioned previously (attenuation and dispersion). I ] ~ Finally Section 3. 1 3. 2].. whilst also considering other perhaps less obvious effects when light is propagating down an optical fiber (modal noise and polarization).TRANSMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF OPT~CAL FIBERS 63 once the atten u arion was reduced to acceptable levels attention was directed towards the dispersive properties of f bcrs. The various attenuation mechanisms (matcri al absorption.8 and 3.6. _I Po (3. in Section 3~7.. In order to appreciate these advances and possible future developments.. optical fiber communications became especially attractive when the transmission losses of fibers were reduced below those of the competing metallic conductors (less than 5 dB km") .division. Again this has Jed to substantial improvements giving wideband fiber bandwidths of tens of gigahertz over a n urn ber of kilometers lRef. Sections 3.. Modal noise in multimode optical fibers is then considered in Section 3.2 with calculation of the total losses incurred in optical fibers. the optical transmission characteristics of fibers must be con sidcred in greater depth . Following this . as with metallic conductors. linear scatterin g. The decibe1 which is used for comparing two power levels may be defined for a particular optical wavelength as the ratio of the input (transmitted) optical power Pi into a fiber to the output (received) optical power p{) from the fiber as: number of decibels (dB) == 10 log. However.2 ATTENUATION The attenuation or transmission loss of optical fibers has proved to be one of the most important factors in bringing about their wide acceptance in tclccornm un ications. As charm e! atten uation largely determined the maxim urn transmission distance prior to signal restoration. We begin the discussion of attenuation in Section 3.9 dea1 with intramodal and interrnodal di spersian mechan isms .3 to 3. f ber bends) are then considered in detail in Sections 3. Signal attenuation within optical fibers.1 ) This logarithmic unit has the advantage that the operations of multiplication and division reduce to addition and subtraction" whilst powers and roots reduce to rnuldplication and . is usuall y ex pressed in the logarithmi c u nit of the decibel. nonlinear scattering.12 presents a brief account of pol arization within single mode optical fibers.. dispersion in optical fibers is described.

Example 3. ] Po (3. km lenqth of fiber is 120 ~WJ the mean optical power at the fiber output is 3 }1W.:. t he loss inc urred alo n 9 10 km of the fiber is qiven by -crusL 2 x 10 .. .. Therefore.. (3. (3..= 20 + 9 .0 8 2.20 dB However.- I Po 10 lug to 40 1a ~ g 10 0 120 j". (d) the nu medea I input/on tput POW8 r ra ti 0 i n (r. 10-6 _.1 When the mean optical power launched into an 8.:.2) is usually expressed in adsL = 10 log. aliBi . -- 3 x 10-6 = 1 6. the loss due to t he splices ls 9 dB.~ . ~ 29 dB . Determine: (a) the overall signal attenuation or loss in decibels throuqh the fiber asaurninq there are no connectors or splices: (b] th e signal atten uat ion per ki lorneter fo r the fibe r_ {c) th e ove rail sig na I atten ua t ion for a 10k m optics I lin k using the sa m c fiber "''\1 i t h SP"CBS at·1 km intervals each giving an attenuation of 1 dB.0 dB krn :" (c) As adB 2 dB km -1. 16.64 OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE rel at ions hi p~ p. Hence.0 d8 {b} The signa I a tte n uation per ki 10 meter for the fi ber may he simp Iy obtn i ned bv dlvidiriq the result in (a) by the fiber length which corresponds usinq Eq. ~ p. the overa II signal attenuation in dr~Gbe Is th ro LI q h the i fiber is: p.3) where. signa I attenuation 10 log 10 _. 1}..3) where adB is the signal attenuation .~IO(dBl J 0) Po In optical fiber communications the attenuation decibels per unit length (i.per unit length in decibels and L is the fiber length.~_ S elution: (a) Us i ng Eq. the avera II sign aI a tten u at ion for the lin k is: siqnal atteriuation . dB krrr ') following: (3.e.:: 1 6-0 dB hence. the link also has nine splices rat 1 km hrtervals) each with an attenuation of 1 dB.

It may be observed that there is a fundamental absorption edge. They may be categorized within several maj or areas which include material absorption.3.7 urn wavelength range as illustrated in Fig. IJ Also in the infrared and far infrared. and the wa veg uide structure. 3.. It is instructive to consider in some detail the loss mechanisms within optical fibers in order to obtain an understanding of the probJems associated with the design and fabrication of low 10 ss waveguides. connector and splice losses are dealt with in Section 4. These mechanisms are influenced by the material composition.8-]. (3.. OLJtp ut power u~ed where: within optical fibers. There are also losses at connectors and splices as illustrated in example 3. This is due to the stimulation of eJectron transitions within the glass by higher energy excitations. The absorption of the light may be intrinsic (caused by the interaction with one or more of the major components of the glass) or extrinsic (caused by impurities within the glass).. normally at wavelengths above 7 urn..8.1. the pre par ation and purification tech niq ue. mode coupling radiation losses and losses due to leaky modes.1 Intrinsic Absorption An absolutely pure glass has little intrinsic absorption due to its basic material structure in the near infrared region .. material scattering (linear and nonlinear scattering). which shows a possible optical attenuation against wavelength characteristic for absolutely pure glass r Ref 31.. fundamentals of absorption bands from the interaction of photons with molee ular vibrations within the alass· ace ur These gi v e ab sorpti on peaks which + . E'I... However. A number of mechanisms are responsible for the signal attenuation 3~3 MATERIAL ABSORPTION LOSSES absorption is a loss mechanism related to the material composition and the fabrication process for the fiber. 3. the peaks of which are centered in the ultraviolet wavelength region . Material 3. which results in the dissipation of some of the transmitted optica1 power as heat in the waveguide. it does have two major intrinsic absorption mechanisms at optical wavelengths which leave a low intrinsic absorption window over the 0.2) III '::lV 65 he {cD To obta i n a numeri eel I ve Iue for the i np LIt. 1. curve and microbending losses. The tail of this peak may extend into the window region at the shorter wavelengths as illustrated in Fig . However.TRANSMISS~ON CHARACTERISTICS OF OPTICAL FIBERS ratio.. in this chapter we are interested solely in the ch aracteristics of the fiber.

sp ectra fo r the i ntri ns lc loss mecha n isms in pu re G e02-S~02 ! again extend into the window region.3). 41. P-o (8~1 Jim). the infrared absorption peaks occur at much longer wavelengths which are well into the far infrared (up to 50 urn) giving less attenuation to longer wavelength transmission compared with oxide glasses..7 :.66 OPTICAL FIBER COMMUN~CAT~ONS: PRINCIPLES AND \\. For instance in some nonoxide glasses such as fluorides and chlorides.l!:}' (I.1 1 Th e atte nuatlcn 9 Ia 55 [Ref. above 1~5 urn the tails of these largely far infr ared absorption peaks tend to cause most of the pure glass losses. f PRACTICE U. 31. Hence. Some of the more common metallic impurities found in glasses are shown in the Table 3.3 LS 1. Transition element contamination may be reduced to acceptable levels (i. 1 1. However. . X O. I! 1 0. 5] (see Section 4 4) which largely eliminates the effects of these metallic t impurities.)h ~'VTP ~] un .03 .. the effects of both these processes may be minimized by suitable choice of both core and cladding compositions. 3. I P11'V ((I n en 1. together with the absorption losses caused by one part in 109 [Ref.6 Figr 3.312 B-O Extrinsic Absorption In practic al op tical fiber s prepared by con v ention at melting tee hniques (see Section 4. av ele [)g tn (/J.e.3 l U-J II)rmn'~ I 0. 0 1.0 urn) within the glass. one part in 1OJO) by glass refining techniques such as vapor phase oxidation IRef. a major source of signal attenuation is extrinsic absorption from transition metal element impurities. ~ l. m ) O.: V) I 0.2 um). The strong absorption bands occur due to oscillations of structural units such as Si-O (9.0 ir 1. It may be noted that certain of these impurities namely chromium and copper in their worst valence state can cause attenuation in excess of 1 dB km' in the near infrared region.2 urn) and Ge-O (11. (7.1..' C".

0..1 0. ...This shows the absorption spectrum for the hydroxyl group in silica.15 0.2. Kackr K. B. Schuttz.6 0.68 NF+ Mn V4t 400 650 460 725 0..irs t At tcnuation 1)\' (d]~krn-1) 1 er lone Third o. These hydroxyl groups are bonded into the glass structure and have fundamental stretching vibrations which occur at wavelengths between 2.88 um completing the absorption spectrum shown in Fig. Lett" 22. C. another major extrinsic loss mechanism is caused by absorption due to water (as the hydroxyl or OR ion) dissolved in the glass . 2+ 625 685 1. The fundamental vibrations give rise to overtones appearing almost harmonically at It38..95 IJ. 307..2 [Ref.72 urn as illustrated in Fig..) f- 1..2 um depending on group position in the glass network.13 and 0. Reproduced with perm'selon from D.2 that the only significant absorption band in the region below a wavelength of 1 11m is the second overtone at 0 . 6] . D. combinations between the overtones and the fundamental Sial vibration occur at 1. 3.7 and 4..1 Absorption losses caused by some of the more common metallic ion impurities in glasses together with the absorption peak wavelength Peak wavelength (rirn] O"ne part in 109 (dB km :') c-C2+ Fe Cu2 .3. 1 0.. crtonc t ] 0'-' 800 lOOO I~OO L400 ]600 FII. Appl. Furthermore. '873. 3. p.95 and 0.2 The absorption spectru m for the hydroxyl (OH) 9 roup in si tica..2 3+ 2.7 However. Phvs..m which causes attenuation of about 1 dB km ' for one part per million (ppm) of I. 3.TRANSMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF OPTICAL FlBERS 67 Tabla 3..24) 1.. Maurer and p.1 850 1100 Fe.. It may also be observed in Fig .

68 OPT'CAL F~BER COMMUNICATlONS: PR~NCIPlES AND PRACT~CE tJ At ten [J. hydroxyL At longer wavelengths the first overtone at 1.3 and 1. lm-J LLation J Fig.3 which shows the attenuation spectrum of an ultra low loss single mode fiber [Ref. This is approaching the minimum possible attenuation of around 0418 dB km' at this wavelength [Ref. Since most resonances are sharply peaked. but is radiated from the fiber. 8 11m and its sideband 3 at 1424 urn are strong absorbers giving attenuation of about 2 dB krrr ' ppm and 4 dB krn' ppm respectively.55 Jll11 and is 0. narrow windows exist in the longer wavelength region around 1. It must be noted that as with all linear processes there is no change of frequency on scattering. 3. 4 3. 3] It may be observed that the lowest attenuation for this fiber occurs at a wavelength of 1.2 dB km'..55 urn which are essentially unaffected by OH absorption once the impurity level has been reduced below one part in 10'. Linear scattering may be categorized into two major types: Rayleigh and Mie scattering. . This process tends to result in attenuation of the transmitted light as the transfer may be to a leaky or radiation mode which does not continue to propagate within the fiber core. Both result from the nonideal physical properties of the manufactured fiber which are difficult and in certain cases impossible to eradicate at present. 343 The m easu red attenuation spectrum for an ultra low loss stng ~e mode fibs r (sol fd Ii ne) with the ca lculated attenuation spectra for some of the loss mecha nism s contributing to the overall fiber atten uatlon (da shed and dotted lines) [Ref. This situation is illustrated in Fig. 31.4 LINEAR SCATTERING LOSSES Linear scattering mechanisms cause the transfer of some or all of the optical power contained within one propagating mode to be transferred linearly (proportionally to the mode power) into a different mode. 8].







Rayleigh Scattering

Rayleigh scattering is the dominant intrinsic loss mechanism in the low absorption window between the ultraviolet and infrared absorption tails. It results from inhomogeneities of a random nature occurring on a small scale compared with the wavelength of the light. These inhomogeneities manifest themselves as refractive index fluctuations and arise from density and compositional variations which are frozen into the glass lattice on cooling. The compositional variations may be reduced by improved fabrication, but the index fluctuations caused by the freezing-in of density inhomogeneities are fundamental and cannot be avoided. The subsequent scattering due to the density fluctuations, which is in almost all directions, produces an attenuation proportional to l/A 4 following the Rayleigh scattering formula [Ref. 9 J. For a single component glass this is given by:
81t·~ 'YR -- J}.I d'p" ~J(TI

where VR is the Rayleigh scattering coefficient, A is the optical wavelength, n is the refractive index of the medium, p is the average photoelastic coefficient, Pc is the isothermal compressibility at a fictive temperature TF, and K is Boltzmann's constant. The fictive temperature is defined as the temperature at which the glass can reach a state of thermal equilibrium and is closely related to the anneal temperature. Furthermore, the Rayleigh scattering coefficient is related to the transmission loss factor (transmissivity) of the fiber following
the relation IRef. 10]:

where L is the length of the fiber. It is apparent from Eq. (3~4) that the fundamental component of Rayleigh scattering is strongly reduced by operating at the longest possible wavelength. This point is illustrated in example 3.2.

Example 3.2
has an estirnatad fictive temperature of 14QOK pressibility of ·7 x 10-11 m2 N-1 I Ref. 111. The refractive coeHi clant for silica are 1 .46 and 0_286 respective Iy theoretlca I atten u ation 1n d acibets per ki lometer d UP. to scattering in silica at opticai waveleriqths of 0.63, 1_00 Silica

with an isothermal comindex and the phctoelastic

1 11. Dete rm i ne the th (~ fu nd a me nta I R avl H i qh

and 1.30 urn. Boltzmann's

constant is 1 .381 x 10J K-l. Solution: The Rayleigh scatter: n~ coeffic ie nt m(:LY be ob t a i nad fro m Eq. (3.4) for each wave Ie ngth. However. the 0 nly variabl e in 8 ach c3."'C i So the wavelenqt h and therefore the constant of pronortionalitv of Eq. {3_4) applies in all C(lse~- Hcncn:


.8n3n8p2.~C KTF 3A4

.. ,





248_ 1 5 x 2 0.65 x 0.082 x 7 x 10-

1.38 1 x 10 -23


140 a

3 x A_4
1,895 x 10-28




of 0.63

. =- 1. 1 99 x 1 0-3 m-1 O. 1 58 x 1 0 -24 for one kilometer of fiber may he obtained x 10-3 uslnc Eq 1_895

x 10-28


The trarisrnisslon (3.5) .

loss factor Lkrl"l

.:. exp (-YR L) = exp (_.1.199
= 0-301



The attenuation Eq. (3.1) where:

due to Rayre~gh scattering

in dB kln-1 may be obtained




10 log10 (1/ Ckm}

= 10



.. 5.2 dB km-1

At a wavelength

of 1.00 jim:

1.895 x 10-28
"fR •

1 0-.24

-:- 1. 89 5 x 1 0-4 m-1


Eq. (3.5):
= exp (-1.895






axp (-O.1895}

and Eq. (3 _1): Attenuation

= 10


1-209 = 0.8 dB km·-


At a wavelen gth of 1.30 urn:
1 ,89 5

YR =
Using Eq- (3 ,S}:


1 0 --.28 10-24

2.856 x




x 10--4

= axp {-O.664

x 10-4


10J) =- 0,936

a nd EQ- (3, 1) : Attenuation


10 10910 1-069

~ 0,3 dB krn "

Rayleigh scattering in silica at wavelengths of O~63; 1.00 and 1.30 um, from example 3~2, is 5t2, 0.8 and 013 ~B k rrr ~ respectively These t heo retica! res ults are in reasonable a8reem~nl
The theoretical attenuation








with experimental work. For" instance the lowest reported value for Rayleigh scattering in si Iica at a wavelength of 0.6328 urn is 3.9 dB k m J I Ref. 11 j However, values of 4~8 dB k m ( t Ref. 12] and 5~4 dB krrr ' [Ref. 131 have also been reported. The predicted attenuation due to Rayleigh scattering against wavelength is indicated by a broken line on the attenuation characteristics shown in Figs. 3.1 and 3.3.



Mia Scattering

Linear scattering may also occur at inhomogeneities which arc com parable in size to the guided wavelength. These result from the nonpcrfect cylindrical structure of the waveguide and may be cau sed by fiber imperfection s such as irregularities in the core-cladding interface, core-cladding refractive index differences along the fiber length, diameter fluctuations, strains and bubbles .. When the scattering in homogeneity size is greater than AI 10, the scattered intensity which has an angular dependence can be very large. The scattering created by such inhomogeneities is mainly in the forward direction and is called Mie scattering. Depending upon the fiber material, design and manufacture Mie scattering can cause significant losses. The inhomogeneities may be reduced by:
(a) removing imperfections due to the glass manufacturing process; (b) carefully controlled extrusion and coating of the fiber; (c) increasing the fiber guidance by increasing the re1ati ve refractive ditTere n ce.

index 1evels.

By these means it is possible to reduce Mie scattering

to insignificant




Optical w a vegu ides do not always behave as completely linear channels whose increase in output optical power is directly proportional to the input optical power. Severa] nonlinear effects occur ~ which in the case of scattering cause disproportionate attenuation, usually at high optical power levels. This nonlinear scattering causes the optical power from one mode to be transferred in either the forward or back ward direction to the same, or other modes, at a different frequency .. It depends critically upon the optical power density within the fiber and hence only becomes significant above thresho1d power levels, The most important types of nonlinear scattering within optical fibers are stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering, both of which are usually only observed at high optical power densities in long single mode fibers. These scattering mechanisms in fact give optical gain but with a shift in frequency

thus contributing to attenuation for light transmission at a specific wavelength ..




it may be noted that such nonlinear phenomena can also be used to give optical amplification in the context of integrated optical techniques (see Scctio n l l.8.4 )~ 3.5,. 1 Brillouin Stimulated Brillouin Scattering


scattering may be regarded as the modulation of light through thermal molecular vibrations within the libcr. The scattered light appears as upper and lower sidebands which arc separated from the incident light by the modulation frequency. The incident photon in this scattering process produces a phonon" of acoustic frequency as well as a scattered photon. This produces an opti cal frcq uency shi ft which varies with the sea ttcri ng angle because the f req ucn c y of t he sound wave varies with acoustic w a vclcngth, The frcq ucncy shirt is a maxim urn in the back ward direction reducing to zero in the forward direction making Brillou in scattering a mainly back w ard proces s. As indicated previously ~ Brillouin scattering is only significant above a threshold power density. Assuming the polarization state of the transmitted
light is not maintained (see Section 3~12), it may he shown threshold power PB is given by:

I Ref. ]6] that the

where d and A are the fiber core diameter
both measured in decibels per kilometer and v is gigahertz. The expression given threshold optical power which fiber before Brillouin scattering 3.5.2 respectively,

and the operating


micrometers, ~lB is the fiber attenuation in the source band wid th (1.c. injection laser) in in Eq, (3.6) allows the determination of the must be launched into a monornodc optical occurs (sec example 3.3)+

Stimulated Raman Scattering

Stimulated Raman scattering is similar to stimulated Brillouin scattering except that a high frequency optical phonon rather than an acoustic phonon is
in the scattering process. Also, Raman scattering occurs in the forward direction and may have an optical power threshold of up to three orders of magnitude higher than the Brillouin threshold in a particular fiber. U sing the same criteria as those specified for the Brillouin scattering threshold given in Eq. (3 .6)~ it may be shown [ReL l6] that the threshold optical power for stimulated Raman scattering PR in a long single mode fiber is given by:

* The


freq uencyj,


is a quantum of an elastic wave In a crystal lattice When the elastic wave has a the q uantized unit of the phonon has energy IV joules, where h is Planck ~~con-




'W' atts




5.9 x 10-2 d2

where do, A and


arc as specified

for Eq .. (3.6),

Example 3.3
A long sinqls mode optical fiber has an attenuation of 0-5 rib krn' when operatinn (It a wavelength of 1,3 IJ.m. The fiber core diameter is 6 urn ancl the laser 50uru~ bandwidth is 600 MHz, Compare the threshold optical powers for st imula tcrl Bri llouin and Ra rna n scatteri ng wit hin the fi ber at the wavel tHl~J1 11spc ci fiod. S olution: The threshold optica I powe r lor sti mu lated 8 rillou i n sea tteri n ~J is givell by Eq, (3.6) as:


4,4 x 1 0-3d2A_



4.4 x 1O-J X 62 80,3 mW

1 ,32



x 0_6

The threshold
fro rn Eq. (3,7

w here:

power for stimulated

Rarnan scatterinq

mHy be obtained




5.9 x 1 O-~d~Aa("IB

= 5 ,9 x 10-.2
= 1.38



1.3 x 0,5


In exam ple 3.. , the Bri110 uin thresho1d occu rs at an optical power level of 3 around 80 mW whilst the Raman threshold i~ approximately 17 times larger. It is therefore apparent that the losses. introduced by nonlinear scattering may be a voided by usc of a sui table optical signal level (i.e. work i ng below the threshold optical powers), However, it mu st be noted that the B rillou in threshold has been reported ~Ref. 1 71 as occurring at optical powers as ]0\\; as 10 m W in single mode fibers. Nevertheless, this is still a high power level for optical communications and may be easily avoided. Brillouin and Raman scattering are not usually observed in multirnode fibers because their relatively large core diameters make the threshold optical power levels. extremely high, Moreover it should be noted that the threshold optical powers for both these
scattering mechanisms may be increased by suitable adjustment of the other parameters in Eqs, (3.6) and (3.7). In this context, operation at the longest

wavelength is advantageous although this may be offset by the reduced fiber attcn uation (from R ayleigh seat tering and material a bsorpt ion) normally obtained.




Optical fibers suffer radiation losses at bends or curves on their paths. This is due to the eneriY in the evanescent tield at the bend exceeding the velocity of






, ,


( ore



Fig. 3.4

An illustration of the radiation loss at a f ber bend. The part of the mode in the cladd i ng outsi de the dash ed arrowed 11 e may be raq uired to trave I faster th an n the velocity of Iig ht in order to ma ~ntaln a pi a ne wavefront. Since it ca nnot do this. the en.ergy contained in this part of the mode is radiated away,

light in the cladding and hence the guidance mechanism is inhibited, which ca uses light energy to be fad iated from the fiber. An ill u str a tion of thi s situ aHan is shown in Fig .. 3..4 .. The part of the mode which is on the outside of the bend is required to tr avel faster than th at on the in side so th at a \va vef ron t perpendicu lar to the di rcction of propagation is mai nta ined. Hence part of the mode in the cladding needs to travel faster than the velocity of light in that medium. As this is not possible, the energy associated with this part of the mod e is lost th rough radiation. The loss can generally be rcprescn ted by a radiation atten u ation coefficient \vhich h as the form [Re[ ] 9l : a;" "_" c, exp (-c2 R) where R is the r adi us of cu rv at ure of the fiber bend and c I ~ C2 arc constan ts which are independent of R. Furthermore, large bending losses tend to occur at a critical radius of curvature R( which may be estimated "from I Ref. 201:
I J'




It may be observed from the expression losses may be reduced by:

given in Eq. (3.8) that possible bending

(a) designing fibers with large relative refractive index (b) opcr atin g at the shortest wavelengt h possible.

differences ~

Both these factors therefore have the effect of red ucing the critical bending radi us as ill ustr ated in the following exam ple,






Example 3 .. 4




flbe rs have the foHowing


a racteri


index of 1.500 with a rela tive retre ctive in dex diff erenee of 0_2 % and an operati ng wavelength of 1-5 5 IJ.m(b) A co re refra ctive index ths sa me as (a) bu tare lative refractive i nd ex cI iffe renee of 3% and an operating wavelength of 0.82 urn.
CDre relrac live


Esti mate th e crit ica I rad iu s of


rva tu rc at whic h ta r~3ebending losss s occur in both index d itfere
11 ce

S olution:
(a) The re lative refractive

6. is.

q iver1 by Eq. ~2.9) as ~


ni =

n~ - 2~n~






-.. 2.241
US! ng Eq. (3.8) for the critica I rl:nl.us of curva l u rc:

Re ::::::

3 n F~~ -- .. -

3 x 2.250 xl.

---------. -----

55 x 10-6

41t(n~ - n~)3"2


(h~ Again, ftom Eq, (2.9}:


n~ = n~ - 2dn~


2_250 2.11 5

0.06 x 2.250

Substituting into Eq. (3.8):

Re :"'-' ----


x 2_250 x

.... ------.--




(0. 1 35)3':.2

~ 9 J-Lm

Example 3~4 shows that the critical radius of curvature for guided modes can be made extremely small (e.g. 9 urn), although this may be in conflict with the preferred design and operational characteristics, Nevertheless for most practical purposes, the critical radi us of c urv at ure is su fficientl y srn all (even when considering case (a) which characterizes a long wavelength single mode fiber, it is approximately 1 mm) to avoid severe attenuation of the guided models) at fiber bends. However, modes propagating close to cutoff, which arc no longer fully guided within the fiber core, may radiate at substantially larger radii, of curvature, Thus it is essential that sharp bends, with a radius of




curvature approachi ng the critical radi US~ are a voided w hen optical fiber ca bles are installed, Finally, it is important that microscopic bends with radii of curvature approximating to the fiber radius are not produced in the fiber cabling process. These so-called microbends, which can cause significant Josses from cabled fiber, arc discussed further in Section 4+6.2..



Dispersion of the transmitted optical signal causes distortion for both digital and analog transmission along optical fibers. When considering the major implementation of optical fiber transmission which involves some form of digital modulation, then dispersion mechanisms within the fiber cause broadening of the transmitted light pulses as they travel along the channel. The phenomenon is ill ustr a ted in Fig. 3.5 w here it rna y be a bserved that each pu Isc broadens and overlaps with its neighbors .. eventually becoming indistinguishable at the receiver input The effect is known as intersyrnbol interference (ISl). Thus an increasing number of errors may be encountered on the digital optical channel as the] SI becomes more pronounced. The error rate is also a function of the signal attenuation on the link and the subsequent signa! to noise ratio (SNR) at the receiver. This factor is not pursued further here but is considered in detail in Section ]O~6.3. However, signal dispersion alone limits the maximum possible bandwidth attainable with a particular optical fiber to the point where individual symbols can no longer be distinguished. For no overlapping of light pulses down on an optical fiber link the digital bit rate B T must be less th an the reciprocal of the broadened (th rough di sper sian) pulse duration (Zr), Hence:




. '.

This assumes that the pulse broadening due to dispersion on the channel is "t which dictates the input pulse duration which is also r. Hence Eq. (3.9) gives a conservative estimate of the maximum bit rate that may be obtained on an optical fiber link as ] /2 t . .. Another more accurate estimate of the maximum bit rate for an optical channel with dispersion may be obtained by considering the light pu Ises at the output to h ave a Gaussi an sh ape with an rms width of G.. Un Iike the relation shi p given in Eq, (3.9), this analy sis allows for the existence of a certain amount of signal overlap on the channel, whilst avoiding any SNR penalty
which occurs


intersyrnbol interference becomes pronounced. bit rate is given approximately by (see Appendix D)~ when BT(max)~



bit s"







i ':~ )


I}is t i ~1 K) L~bl; ~, lscs g'_! u


Time Co L1l P OSI t I,,: ~, a t tern

~o z cro j,'\'1,!1


In t crs Y [:1 b I)1 iI ~[L! r t l! ru;



f lS l )

Fig. 3.5

All ill ustration us in 9 the digital bit patts rn 1011 of the broaden i ng of light pulses as they are t ra nsm itted along a fiber: (a) fiber input: (b) fi ber outp ut at a distance L 1; {c) fiber output at a d ista nee L'l > L"

It must be noted that certain

term in the numerator of Eq (3" I0) as 0.25. However, we take the slightly more con, serv ati ve estimate given, following DIsh an sky ~Ref. 9] and Gam bling et al. l Ref. 27 j. Equation (3. 10) give s a reason ably good approx im arion for other pulse shapes which may occur on the channel resulting from the various dispersive mechanisms within the fiber. Also 0' may be assumed to represent the rms impulse response for the channe1 as discussed further in Section 3.9. L The con version of bit rate to bandwi dth in hertz depend s on the digital constant

sou rces

l Refs. 25 ~ 261 give the

coding format used, For metallic conductors when a non return to zero code is employed, the binary one level is he1d for the whole bit period 1:. In this case there are two bit periods in one wa velength (i .e. two' bits per second per hertz), as illustrated in Fig. 3.6(a). Hence the maximum bandwidth B is one half the maximum data rate or
(3.11 )






/p J






'" .....








.... .-






.... .....





.... ""


"' ..... ..........






rh l pa t tc 111

I / I


/ .... \

\ .........







/ ....






( \





Fig. 3.6











SCh8 rna ti c illustration of the re 1 atloriships of th e bit rate to wavel ength digita 1 codes: {a) non retu rn to zero (N RZ); (b) retu rn to zero (RZ},


However. when a return to zero code is considered as shown in Fig. 3~6(b), the binary one level is held for only part (usually half) the bit period. For this signalling SChC1TIC the data rate is equal to the bandwidth in hertz (i.e. one bit per second per hertz) and thus B]" == B+ The band wid th B for m etall ic cond uctors is al so us u ally d efi ned by the electrical 3 dB points (i,c, the frequencies at which the electrical power has dropped to one half of its constant maximum value). However, when the 3 dB optical bandwidth of a fiber is considered it is significantly larger than the corresponding 3 dB electrical bandwidth for the reasons discussed in Section 7.4.3. H ence~ \\1hen t he limitation s in the handwid th of a tiber due to dispersion are stated (i~e. optical bandwidth BlJpL), it is usually with regard to a return to zero code where the bandwidth in hertz is considered eq ual to the digita1 bit rate. Within the context of dispersion the bandwidths expressed in this chapter will follow th i s general criterion un less otherwise stated. H owever ~a s is made c]ear in Section 7 ~4+ \\1hen electro-o ptical devices and 0 ptical fiber sy st em s 3~ arc considered it is more usual to state the electrical 3 dB bandwidth, this being the more useful measurement when interfacing an optic a] fiber link to electrical terminal equipment, Unfortunately the terms of bandwidth measurement are not always made clear and the reader must be warned that this omission may 1ead La some confusion when specifying components and materials for optica1

fiber communication svsterns . ... Figure 3~7 shows the three common optical fiber structures, multimode step index, multirn ode graded index and single mode step index, whilst diagrammatically illustrating the respective pulse broadening associated with each tiber type. It may be observed that the multimode step index fiber exhibits the greatest dispersion of a transmitted light pulse and that the mu1timode graded index fiber gives a considerably improved performance. Finally. the single mode flber gives the' ... minimum pulse broadening and thus is capable of


_. ":::·:·.:~t::..r:::··
:'0.1..... _ .• : .. ::.:&i.....'oi:&~








the greatest transmission bandwidths which arc currently in the gigahertz range, whereas transmission via multimodc step index fiber is usually limited to band width s of a few tens of megahertz. However, the amount of pulse broadening is dependent upon the distance the pulse travels within the fiber and hence for a given optical fiber link the restriction on usable bandwidth is dictated by the distance between regenerative repeaters (i.e. the distance the light pulse travels before it is reconstituted) .. Thus the measurement of the dispersive properties of a particular fiber is usually stated as the pulse broadening in time over a unit length of the fiber (i.e, ns krn""). Hence, the number of optical signal pulses which may be transmitted in a given period, and therefore the information-carrying capacity of the fiber is restricted by the am ount of pulse dispersion per unit length. In the absence of mode coupling or filtering, the pulse broadening increases linearly with fiber length and thus the bandwidth is inversely proportional to distance. This leads to t he adoption of a more useful parameter for the ill formation-carrying



Ou tpu t pulse



. Amp


M ut timode

gr adcd


n ber


,........, Am~



Schematic diagram showing a multimode step index fiber, multimode

graded Index fiber artd single mode step index fl bar r and Illustrating the pulse broadenlng dUI to lrit.,modll d~8perllon In each fiber type,

I Ghz km and 100 G Hz km for multirnodc step index. 5MHz _ (b) Th e dispersion per u nit length rn ay be acqu ired 5i rnply by d i v ldin \-l th e toted dispersion by the total Iength of the fiber.9 = 75 MHl km In order to appreciate the reasons for the different amounts of pulse broadening within the various types of optical fiber. 3..7..67 ns km " (c) The bandwidth--Iength product may be obtained in two vvays_ Hrstlv by simplv rnultiplvinq th€:! maximum bandwidth for the ffber link by its length.9}' where: assuming no lSI mav he B[)rt=BT=-=_~·L 1 1 0.. Hence: B 0 [}t L = 5 MHz x 1 5 km 75 MHz km par un it length U 51 ng Alternative Iy it may bs obta i ned from the dispersion (3.. B0pt x L).". waveguide dispersion. . 0. (3. 3.S over a no lntersvmbot {a} the maximum possible bandwidth on the i nterference ~ (b) the pulse dispersion per unit length: (c) the bandwidth-length product for the fiber. Example 3.67 X 10. These include materi a! dispersion.80 OPTlCAl F1BER COMMUNICATIONS: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE capacity of an optical fiber which is known as the bandwidth-length product (i.8 INTRAMODAL DISPERSION dispersion Intrarnodal or chromatic may occur in all types of optical fiber and .... The typical best bandwidth-length products for the three fibers shown in Fig.9) where: 1 Bu~lL . Solution: (a) The rna xim LL m possible opti ca I bandwidth vv h i ch is equ iva lent to ttl e maximum obtained possible bit rate (for return to zero pulses) from Eq.I . it is necessary to consider .2 i I 21 x 10-8 .. 2 x 6.e.5 A rnultimods distance graded index fiber axhlblts of 1 5 krn: Esti mate: total pulse broadening link assurninq of 0_1 .1 x disper-sion -- 10-6 15 = 6. Eq. in termod al dispersion and profile dispersion which are considered in the following sections. are 20 MHz krn. the di spersi ve mechani srns invol vcd. m ultimode graded index and single mode step index fibers respectively .

then there may be propagation delay differences between the differ en t spectral components of the transmitted signal. whereas for the LED it is likely to be a significant percentage).13 ) For a source with rrns spectral width 0..8. Hence the group delay is given by: (3. This causes broadening of each transmitted mode and hence intrarnodal dispersion..c.8-0. d2 nldk2 *..14 ) As the first term in Eq. and a materia] is said to exhibit material dispersion when the second differential of the refractive index with respect to wavelength is not zero (i.37) and (2.40).0).into the fiber from the optica1 source. and a mean wavelength A. The pulse spread due to material dispersion may be obtained by considering the group delay 'tg in the optical fiber which is the reciprocal of the group velocity r~ defined by Eqs. then: (3. ]4) usually dominates. (2. 3. It occurs when the phase velocity of a plane wave propagating in the dielectric medium varies nonlinearly with wavelength. Since optical sources do not emit just a single frequency but a band of frequencies (in the case of the injection laser corresponding to only a fraction of a per cent of the center frequency.15) i.1 Material Dispersion Pu Ise broadcni ng due to material dispersion result s from the different group velocities of the various spectral components launched.TRANSMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF OPTICAL FIBERS 81 results from the finite spectral linewidth of the optical source.12) where nl is the refractive index of the core material. (3." .9 urn wavelength range. especially for sources operating over the 0. The pulse delay material dispersion in a fiber of length L is therefore: tm due to (3. The delay differences may be caused by the dispersive properties of the waveguide material (material dispersion) and also guidance effects within the fiber structure (waveguide dispersion). (3~13) in a Taylor series about A where: (3. the rms pulse broadening due to material dispersion am may be obtained from the expansion of Eq.

3. ··_ll_1 (f2: CA 0_025 dJ\.f:l with fl n rms spe ctra I width of 20 nm flt this wavelength..998 )\ 105 x 850 7":". inc the material dispersion parameter a! a wavelength of 0.} ) I or sirn ply I d:: n I / d]. (3~] 6) into Eq.18) and which is often expressed Example in units of PH nm " krrr". (3. Detcrn .16) Therefore substituting the expression obtained in Eq.2 S nm -1 km-' 2.82 OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICAT10NS: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Tm Hence the pu lsc spread rna y be cv al ua ted by con side ri n g the dependence of on A~ where from Eq. which 1 d1m (3. 98 ..15)~ the rm S p u] se broadeni ng due to m ateri al di spersion is gi yen by: (3. -- 2 C' dA I . II owevcr. it may be given in terms of a material dispersion parameter M is defined as: M-~-~-· L· dA.02 5.6 A qlass fiber exhibits material dispersion given by I A2(d2n~:/dA2) I of 0.1 7) as: 0AL Om ~ - d n1 '"A.13): dA (3.1 ps nm -1-1 km The rrns pulse broadening IS given by Eq. a nd estimate the rms pulse broad eni n 9 per k i 10m etc r fa r a qood LED so U n.C (J}~2 =- n. (3 . I 7) I The material dispersion for optical fibers is sometimes quoted as a value for A 2 (d 2 n J / df. ~3.85 11m.} I. S olutton: The m at~ rial d isperslon para meter may be 0 bta i neel fro m Eq_ (3 _1S·): A d 2n 1 M.

.85 urn.mple 3~e I. of 0. p. Gambling. 11. rml pu~.85 x 10--6 . I' i 81 ili s p~rs i 0 n [[1 {. Also the use of an injection laser with a narrow spectral width rather th an an LED as the optica 1 source leads to a substantial reduction in the pul se broaden ing due to material dispersion. A.1 8}: Hence.n· by:' -' following .ll tvr d iSVo. 1975.::::.3 urn (for pure silica).8 shows the variation of the material dispersion parameter M with wavelength for pure silica I Ref. 200 Rl'gi(}ll of Ilt. Ex.1 10- = 1. glw• .02 nm 'T~.3. Lett.00 12 x 0. It may be observed that the material dispersion tend s to zero in the longer wa vclength region around 1. 281.. N.: 1(: r a u. 3.TSi I) II puru.n I.TRANSMISS~ON CHARACTERISTICS OF OPTICAL F~BERS 83 Therefore in terms of the material dispersion parameter M defined by Eq.7 Estim ate the rms pu lse broadening per kitorneter for t hH fi bor in exa mp I e 3 _6 VVhfHl the optics I SOu rce used is ani njection lass r vvith a relative spectra ~ wid t h (j')I. even in the shorter wa velcn gth region.x.00 121 ~ 0. mpl. (3. 176. Solution: The rrns spectral width may be obtained from the relative spectral width by: O'~ = 0../A. ~13 j:.l~ I~HlI-1 f.l"rl-=) Flg. Payne and W. Electron. Reproduced with permission from D.0012 at a waveienqth of 0.:_f 1~giI) 1 t:: . the rms pulse broadening (1m per kilometer X due to material dispersion: 12 t1 krn) = 20 >< 1 x 98.e broadening In terms of the material dispersion parameter . This provides an additional incentive (other than 10\\1 attenuation) for operation at longer wavelength s where the material di spersion may be minimized . 1.8 The material dispersion parameter for silica as a function of wavelength.96 ns km- 1 Figure 3.