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Assignment the Brain

Assignment the Brain

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05/04/2011

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Running head: THE BRAIN

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The Brain Tiffany Nicole Cooper University of Phoenix PSY 240 Jwaundace Belcher January 07, 2011

The Brain Today I am going to talk about an amazing organ that acts as a control center by receiving, interpreting, and directing sensory information throughout the body. We all know it as our brain. The brain is divided into three major parts including; the forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain. The subjects we are going to discuss today are all different parts of the brain which include; Myelencephalon, Metencephalon, Mesencephalon, Diencephalon, and the Telencephalon.

Beginning with the Myelencephalon, which is the most inferior portion of the brainstem, this part has many functions that we find vital to live. Its functions include autonomic functions, breathing, conduction pathway for nerve tracks, digestion, sneezing, swallowing, and heart rate. According to Rice University (2000) “[An interesting part of the Myelencephalon from a psychological perspective is the reticular formation. It is a complex network of about 100 tiny nuclei that occupies the central core of the brain stem from the posterior boundary of the Myelencephalon to the anterior boundary of the midbrain.]” The next part of the brain that I am going to discuss is the Metencephalon, which is located below the posterior portion of the cerebrum and the medulla oblongata. It is a division of the hindbrain. Its major functions include; arousal, balance, cardiac reflexes, circulation, fine muscle movement, muscle tone maintenance, and sleep. According to Rice University (2000) “[The Metencephalon houses many ascending and descending tracts and part of the reticular formation. These structures create a bulge, called the Pons, on the brain stem's ventral surface.”] The Pons is the bridge to the cerebellum.

The Mesencephalon is the portion of the brain of the brainstem that connects to both the hindbrain and the forebrain. The Mesencephalon has two divisions- the tectum and the tegmentum. The tectum or “roof” is the surface of the midbrain. The tegmentum is the division of the Mesencephalon ventral to the tectum. Major functions of the Mesencephalon include; controlling responses to sight, eye movement, pupil dilation, body movement, and hearing. The Mesencephalon is generally an unimportant structure in the study language and the brain. The Diencephalon is located between the cerebral hemispheres and above the midbrain. It is divided into two different parts; the thalamus and the hypothalamus. The thalamus is the large, two-lobed structure that constitutes the top of the brain stem. The hypothalamus lies under the thalamus, and plays an important role in the regulation of several motivated behaviors. The Diencephalon has many functions including; chewing, equilibrium, eye movement (vision), facial sensation, hearing, phonation, respiration, salivation (swallowing), and smell/ taste. The Telencephalon is the anterior portion of the brain, rostral to the midbrain. Its major functions include; the determining of intelligence, determines personality, interpretation of the sensory impulses, motor functions, planning, and organization, sense of smell, and touch sensation. The Telencephalon is the largest of the divisions of the human brain, and it is what sub serves language. According to Rice University (2000), “[Of the sub-cortical and interior portions of the Telencephalon, the basal ganglia, which partially surround the diencephalon, participate in motor functions, including articulation of speech, and the hippocampus and the amygdaloidal nucleus, which lie deep within the lower part of the cortex, are very important in emotional expression.]” The hippocampus is responsible for remembering one’s own events in history and other kinds of what are known as declarative memory, and it is a very important part of

Semology. A good way to draw boundaries and divide the brain into three parts show as following: 1. The Forebrain: the Telencephalon and the Diencephalon 2. The Midbrain: the Mesencephalon 3. The Hindbrain: the Metencephalon and the Myelencephalon

In conclusion, we have learned about different parts of our most important organ that we all have. Without our brains, we would not be able to function, unlike the scarecrow in “The Wizard of Oz.” He was able to function without his brain, but in reality without a brain, your body would not work. We have discussed five different parts of the brain including; Myelencephalon, Metencephalon, Mesencephalon, Diencephalon, and the Telencephalon. We have learned that all the different parts of the brain have their functions in our bodies. I know that I, for one, am glad that all my brains and their functions are in tack!

References:

1. Rice University. (2000). Langbrain. Retrieved from http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~lngbrain/cglidden/myelen.html

2. About.com. (2011). Divisions of the brain. Retrieved from http://biology.about.com/library/organs/brain/blmetenceph.htm

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