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BEETHOVEN'S EIGHTH SYMEHONY:

AN INTERPRETIVE ESSAY .

BY
STEPHEN WRIGHT

Document submitted t o t h e f a c u l t y .of


t h e School of Music, I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y ,
i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of t h e requirements
f o r t h e d e g r e e Master of Kusic
December 1980
This document i s a c r i t i c a l examination of Seethovents
.Symphony no. 8 a s seen from t h e viewpoint of a conductor; it
r e p r e s e n t s my attempt t o develop a performance philosophy f o r
t h i s work. Throughout t h i s essay I d e r i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e
conduct o r from my examination, both i n terms o f a p p r o p r i a t e
emotional a t t i t u d e s f o r t h e conductor and s p e c i f i c methods of
o r c h e s t r a l execution and baton technique.
One comment on t h e scope o f t h i s essay i s appropriate.
This i s n o t an t l a n a l y s i s l l i n t h e usual sense of t h e word, because
it lacks the theoretical r i g o r characteristic of a t r u e analysis,
and because i t involves s u b j e c t i v e and emotionally oriented i d e a s
t h a t , while important t o a conductor, would n o t be a p p r o p r i a t e
t o a theoretical analysis. This is a record o f how I , as a con-
ductor, b e l i e v e t h i s work should be performed; emotions and sub-
SectiVe judgements a r e a v i t a l p a r t of conducting, and they
n u s t be considered, though i t i s often d i f f i c d t w - i f n o t impossible--
t o t h e o r e t i c a l l y j u s t i f y such ideas.
CONTENTS

FXEFACE ..... .. . . . .... .... . .... . iv


BEETHGVEN ' S EIGHTH SYIdFHOl'iY
ANINTERERETIVEESSAY . :
0 . a . 0 0 1
Introduction . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1
F i r s t Kovement
Second Movement .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3
10

. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. ..
T h i r d DIovement 13
F o u r t h I.;ovement 16
Conclusions a 23
AIEEKEIX: BEZTHOVEN'S USE OF THE SFORZANUO
,.
HARK1::G I N H I S E I G E T f i S Y F ~ i k I 0 D ; Y a a a .a 0 . a 26
LIST OF EXABZLES

. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
2 i r s t movement. b a r s 1-12 3
5
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
F i r s t movement. b a r s 82-89
F i r s t movement. b a r s 100-104 6
F i r s t novement. b a r s 108-111 6
F i r s t movement. bars 142-145
sirst movement. b a r s 200-205 . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 7
9
. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
P i r s t movement. motive used i n coda
Second movement. b a r s 1-4
9
10
Second movement. bars..20-23
Second movement. b a r s 28-23
Second movement. b a r s 75-78
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 11
12
13
Third movement. b a r s 3-6
Third movement. b a r s 38-40
. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 14
15
2 o u r t h movement. b a r s 1-10
Fourth movement. b a r s 51-53
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 17
F o u r t h movement. b a r s 104-107 . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
F o u r t h movement. motive of c?eveloprnent
18
19
19
F o u r t h movement. b a r s 154-160.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 20

. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
?ourth nlovenent. b a r s 279-2Pl 21
r'ourth movement. b a r s 282-286 21
Second movement. b a r s 48-54 27

iii
BEETIiOVEN1S EIGHTH SYMPHONY:
AN INTERFRETIVE ESSAY

Introduction
Imagine, i f you w i l l , t h e dilemma of a conductor approach-
i n g t h e Eighth Symphony of Beethoven f o r t h e f i r s t time. The
problem of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r t h i s work i s considerable, f o r t h e
p i e c e i t s e l f i s an anachronism: an apparent .reversion t o C l a s s i c a l
s t y l e by a composer who i s himself t h e c e n t r a l t r a n s i t i o n a l f i g u r e
i n t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l s h i f t t o Romanticism. Should t h e work be
approached as if i t i s a r e a l C l a s s i c a l symphony? Should t h e
conductor attempt t o b r i n g t h e p;bise, balance and c l a r i t y of
Mozart t o t h e music, o r should he ignore t h e work's C l a s s i c a l
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and f i l l t h e work with Beethovenian f i r e and fury?
The preconceptions t h a t t h e inexperienced conductor i s
l i k e l y t o have on f i r s t encounter with t h e Eighth a r e of no help.
Fusic h i s t o r y p r o f e s s o r s and survey textbooks o f t e n devote only
minimal a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s symphony, u s u a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z i n g i t as
r e g r e s s i v e and conservative. It i s r a r e l y played i n comparison
t o t h e symphonies t h a t surround i t i n t h e Beethoven canon ( t h e
Seventh and Ninth Symphonies), and audiences and c r i t i c s a l i k e ,
puzzled by Beethovents apparent anachronistic tendencies, have
shown l i t t l e sympathy f o r t h e piece. A l l of t h i s t e n d s t o g i v e
t h e young conductor a r a t h e r d i s t o r t e d impression of t h i s prob-
lematic work; b e f o r e h e opens t h e s c o r e f o r t h e first t i m e , h i s
2
g e n e r a l impression of t h e work is t h a t of a s t r a n g e l y conservative
but l a r g e l y harmless l i t t l e work, lightened with an occasional
Haydnesque musical joke.
Barnination of t h e work y i e l d s a d i f f e r e n t impression. To
be s u r e , i n t h i s work t h e r e i s C l a s s i c a l form and gesture--
reduced o r c h e s t r a t i o n , s h o r t e r movements, p e r i o d i c themes--but
they mask an i n t e r i o r which i s t r u e Beethoven. The elemental
power and pure force of Beethoven' i s indeed present here, b u t u s u a l l y
as an undercurrent only. C l a s s i c a l g e s t u r e and c h i l d l i k e innocence
hold t h e power d e l i c a t e l y i n check, but i n a few t e r r i f y i n g out-
b u r s t s , we glimpse t h e master s o r c e r e r t h a t i s behind t h i s b r i l l i a n t

---
tour de force. of s t y l i s t i c anachronism. Think of t h e summit
Beethoven has reached i n h i s composing c a r e e r ; t h e astounding
Seventh Symphony, with i t s compelling l o g i c and organic growth,
immediately preceded t h i s work; c e r t a i n l y a sudden resumption of
C l a s s i c a l traits was an e n t i r e l y self-conscious a c t , t h e work of
a man who i s d i s t i n c t l y aware of h i s own enormous power and h i s
a b i l i t y t o make t h i s power t a k e any form h e chooses.
Beethoven uses enough of t h e t y p i c a l C l a s s i c a l g e s t u r e s i n
t h i s work t o l u l l h i s audience and i n v i t e t h e i r e of c r i t i c s who
c r y "Regression! 'I, but t h e s e conservative elements a r e e f f e c t i v e l y
n e u t r a l i z e d by t h e moments of pure t e r r o r and f u r y i n t h e o u t e r
movements. Humor i s p r e s e n t , of course, b u t o f t e n it i s humor at
t h e expense o f t h e audience, i n which Beethoven himself l a u g h s a t
our complacency and i n f l e x i b i l i t y .
Beethoven's Eighth Symphony i s not a C l a s s i c a l work except .
i n t h e most s u p e r f i c i a l r e s p e c t , and t h e only proper i n t e r p r e t i v e
approach f o r t h e conductor i s one which maintains t h e C l a s s i c a l
poise on t h e s u r f a c e with a constant undercurrent o f power,
elementalism and fury. An i n t e r p r e t i v e examination o f t h e s c o r e
proves t h i s .

F i r s t Movement
The first movement opens with a C l a s s i c a l gesture--a
r a t h e r ordinary theme s t a t e d i n antecedent-consequent fashion:

Example 1 : F i r s t movement, b a r s 1-12

The only t h i n g even s l i g h t l y unusual h e r e i s t h e extreme c o n t r a s t


-
of f o r t e and piano i n t h e first two p h r a s e s , and t h e subsequent
-
r e p e t i t i o n of t h e consequent phrase f o r t e with an e l i s i o n . All
of t h i s seems remarkably conservative; t h e use of t h e winds con-
c e r t i n o - s t y l e i n b a r s 5-8 is. especially.Eaydnesque, as i s t h e
e l i s i o n i n b a r 12. And y e t Haydn r a r e l y begins a work i n t h e
way Beethoven does h e r e , merely s t a t i n g a theme b a l d l y w i t h . n o
i n t r o d u c t i o n ; t h i s sudden plunge i n t o thematic waters without
t h e s l i g h t e s t i n t r o d u c t o r y g e s t u r e i s pure Beethoven, and t h e
conductor must a d j u s t h i s mood accordingly--one should n o t attempt
t o compensate f o r t h e lack of a symphonic i n t r o d u c t i o n by engaging
i n a lengthy " s i l e n t introduction" on t h e podium.
The m a t e r i a l which follows is much more t y p i c a l of Beethoven;
4
i t i s an extended passage of s u s t a i n e d f o r t e notes znd a g i t a t e d
accompaniment f i g u r e s , with dotted eighth-sixteenth rhythms in-
jected f o r increased forward impetus. The C l a s s i c a l conservatism
of t h e opening phrase i s f o r g o t t e n with astonishing swiftness as
we plunge onward. The e n t i r e passage i s w r i t t e n a t a sustained
-
f o r t e , and t h e conductor who f o o l i s h l y introduces i n f l e c t i o n s of
crescendo and diminuendo i n t o t h e s u s t a i n e d notes r i s k s t o t a l
emasculation of t h i s monolithic music. I n bar 2 8 Beethoven
introduces h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c hammered sforzando, placed on t h e
t h i r d beat h e r e , t h u s e s t a b l i s h i n g an emphasis on t h e t h i r d b e a t
which i s t o continue throughout t h e movement. The v i o l e n t e f f e c t
of t h i s t h i r d b e a t accentuation cannot be overdone. Harmonically,
t h e passage h a s a r r i v e d a t t h e domin&t of E-flat--rather distant
from t h e C major t h a t t h e normal s o n a t a form b l u e p r i n t c a l l s f o r .
After t h i s apocalyptic a r r i v a l , Beethoven g i v e s u s a sus-
penseful b a r of r e s t i n which, c r i n g i n g , we await an additional
onslaught of musical fury. ~ u t th i s i s n o t t o be; as if t o say,
"Ch, I was only joking,n t h e composer g i v e s u s hopping s t a c c a t o
.chords piano, i n t r o d u c i n g t h e u n p r e t e n t i o u s , l i l t i n g second theme
i n D major--impossibly f a r away from t h e E - f l a t implied by t h e
sforzando chords we have j u s t heard. Thus, i n t h e space of l i t t l e
more than f o r t y b a r s , we a r e presented w i t h a most unusual p a t t e r n
of events--a seemingly C l a s s i c a l opening g e s t u r e which metamorphoses
i n t o something dark, v i o l e n t and d i s t i n c t l y non-Classical, which
i s i t s e l f magically swept away and replaced with g e n t l y l y r i c i s m
which i n v i t e s u s t o f o r g e t t h e t e r r o r s we have witnessed. This .

p a t t e r n of e v e n t s , i n which t h e pure power of ~ e e t h o v e nb r i e f l y


peeks from behind t h i s self-conscious C l a s s i c a l mask, i s one which
r e c u r s throughout $he work, and t h e conductor must constantly hold
h i s f u l l emotional Fury i n r e s e r v e f o r $ust t h e s e moments.
Beethoven then modulates i n t o C major and has t h e woodwinds
play t h e second theme i n t h e l l c o r r e c t wkey of t h e dominant t o
please the purists. This i s followed by a vague and mysterious
t r a n s i t i o n a l passage b u i l t on sequences of diminished seventh
chords; however, %he conductor should &ard a g a i n s t allowing h i s
b e a t t o become sfnailarly vague, o r sloppiness i n t h e execution of
t h e broken diminished seventh chords w i l l i n e v i t a b l y r e s u l t . This
passage makes an angry crescendo, goaded on by t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of
sforzandi of ever-increasing i n t e n s i t y , and we a r r i v e a t t h e
c l o s i n g section. The f i r s t c l o s i n g i d e a i s a b r i g h t mhch-like
theme w r i t t e n i n hemiola; i t s heavy scoring c a l l s f o r a small
and l i g h t beat from t h e conductor, l e s t t h e passage become pon-
derous and draggy. The second closing i d e a i s a long, seamless,
sinuous melody w r i t t e n under one long phrase mark; h e r e t h e con-
d u c t o r should s t r i v e f o r an u t t e r l y continuous flow with no gaps.
Xo crescendo should be i n t e r p o l a t e d i n t o t h e end of t h i s melody;
t h e extreme c o n t r a s t between i t and t h e r e c u r r e n c e of t h e hemiola
march i d e a must b e maintained. Idhen t h e v i o l a s and c e l l o s t a k e
t h e melody i n b a r 82, staggered bowings a r e necessary t o 'maintain
continuity:

Example 2: F i r s t movement, b a r s 82-89

Beethoven ends t h e exposition with two thoroughly un-Classical


elements. The first i s a s o l i d , non-melodic Nblock" of C major
made up of sustained f o r t i s s i m o notes i n t h e -winds a g a i n s t
measured tremolo and arpeggio f i g u r a t i o n i n t h e s t r i n g s . Again,
t h e conductor should be warned against destroying t h e monolithic
e f f e c t o f t h i s "blockfi with dynamic i n f l e c t i o n s ; t h e winds must
be urged t o play a s t e a d y , l a s e r - l i k e f o r t i s s i m o , without worry
of covering t h e f i g u r a l m a t e r i a l of t h e s t r i n g s . The "blockw i s
followed by a passage of hammered octave Cs:
VLhS.

Example 3: F i r s t movement, b a r s 100-104

The appearance of t h e octave, %he s t a r k e s t and most elemental of


a l l , i n t e r v a l s , s i g n a l s a r e t u r n t o t h e Beethovenian f u r y gLimpsed
e a r l y i n t h e exposition--a f u r y which i s t o dominate t h e develop-
ment.
The development begins i n a somewhat h e s i t a n t manner.
Beethoven s t a r t s w i t h t h e o s c i l l a t i n g octaves t h a t ended t h e
exposition, t o g e t h e r with a motive e x t r a c t e d from t h e opening
b a r of t h e f i r s t theme, which i s passed among t h e woodwinds i n a
somewhat noncommittal manner:

Example 4: F i r s t movement, b a r s 108-111


This i s followed by t h e sudden, shocking r e t u r n of the' above-
mentioned vblockw. A l l o f t h i s i s repeated with z movement i n t o
B-flat major and y e t again ,in"A major. This whole s e c t i o n of t h e
development has a s t a t i c , meditative q u a l i t y , as i f Beethoven i s
searching f o r a way t o proceed ( a s i n t h e opening of t h e f i n a l e
of t h e Ninth Symphony); a mood of patience and d e l i b e r a t i o n i s
required of t h e conductor here.
It i s when Beethoven f i n a l l y moves i n t o t h e region of A
t h a t t h e development t a k e s o f f . On t h e t h i r d r e p e t i t i o n of t h e
woodwind dialogue, t h e r e i s a crescendo i n d i c a t e d i n t h e s t r i n g s ,
s i g n a l i n g , perhaps, t h a t " t h i s i s i t " ( t h e crescendo should not
be i n t e r p r e t e d as a crescendo from piano t o f o r t i s s i m o , however;
3eethoven d i r e c t s t h e winds t o continue piano, and they should
not. be covered by t h e s t r i n g s ; i n any case, t h e suddenness of t h e
f o r t i s s i m o "blockw should be maintained). Beethoven e a g e r l y s e i z e s
upon t h e A , and a f t e r hammering joyously away a t it i n octaves
f o r a few bars, a f r e n e t i c development of t h e f i r s t - b a r motive
begins. It .should be noted t h a t from bar 143 t o 160, whenever t h e
motive i s taken up by a new c h o i r of instruments, i t always e n t e r s
one b e a t prematurely :

1Y2

Example 5: F i r s t movement, b a r s 142-145

T h i s continues t h e emphasis on t h e t h i r d b e a t noted e a r l i e r ,


except t h a t here' i t h a s a q u a l i t y of impatience; i t i s as i f t h e
first beat is f i l l e d w i t h such energy t h a t i t becomes u n s t a b l e and
8
d i s p l a c e s i t s e l f i n time, becoming t h e t h i r d b e a t o f t h e previous
bar.
Beethoven continues t o pound away f a n a t i c a l l y at t h i s motive
f o r t h e remainder of t h e development, moving i n t o d a r k e r and
d a r k e r t o n a l regions--D minor, G minor, C minor, F minor, D-flat
major, and f i n a l l y B - f l a t minor. This development b u i l d s slowly
and g r a d u a l l y over t h e space of f i f t y - s i x bars, b u i l d i n g with
t h e ~ d d i t i o nof i n s t r u m e n t a l f o r c e s and t h e c o n t i n u a l i n c r e a s e
o f harmonic tension. The conductor must pace t h e g r a d u a l accum-
u l a t i o n of energy and f o r c e with g r e a t c a r e ; he must conserve h i s
own i n n e r energy l e v e l as well as exhort t h e o r c h e s t r a t o "save,"
so t h a t something i s l e f t f o r t h e f i n a l triumphant fff of t h e
recapitulation.
The r e c a p i t u l a t i o n i t s e l f presents no p e c u l i a r problems,
though t h e conductor should be aware of t h e d e p a r t u r e s from t h e
exposition; t e x t u r a l i n v e r s i o n occurs i n b a r s 190-196 and l a t e r i n
206-216, as t h e c e l l o s and basses take m a t e r i a l p r e v i o u s l y entrusted
t o t h e higher instruments. Beethoven also enjoys a joke a t t h e
audience's expense i n b a r 201; here he i n s e r t s a " f a l s e s t a r t , "
making t h e l i s t e n e r t h i n k , erroneously, t h a t a new. -
f f section
i s being launched (example 6 ) . It should be noted t h a t Beethoven
w a i n p r e s e n t s t h e second theme i n t h e ttwrong key" i n i t i a l l y -
though h e r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s changed; we h e a r it first i n
3-flat major, then i n t h e v c o r r e c t w key of F major.
O f course, aeethoven h a s n o t exhausted all of t h e p o s s i b i l -
i t i e s i n h e r e n t i n h i $ seemingly-banal opening m a t e r i a l ; he thus .
i n t r o d u c e s a developmental coda, c e r t a i n l y l o n g e r t h a n any con-
ceived by Haydn o r Nuzart. I n t h e r e s t f u l key of D - f l a t major,
Example 6 : F i r s t movement, b a r s 200-205

a p a s t o r a l c l a r i n e t p l a y s t h e theme legato, s e t t i n g off a s t r e t t o


development of a motive derived from t h e t h i r d bar of %he theme:

Example 7: F i r s t movement, motive used i n coda

An extremely p r e c i s e beat i s required of t h e conductor t o coordinate

t h e s t a c c a t o s t r i n g playing i n t h i s section.
The conclusion i s notable f o r t h e way i n which i t b u i l d s
i n t o what we think w i l l be a t y p i c a l Beethoven ending (i.e., an
extended fortissimo r e i t e r a t i o n of cadence harmonies), only t o
recede i n t o p i z z i c a t o chords played piano, ending with a f i n a l ,
whimsical statement of t h e f i r s t - b a r motive. Surely i t i s a mis-
t a k e t o i n s e r t a r i t a r d a n d o i n t o t h i s f i n a l bar, as some conductors
do; as bars 43, 51, 240 and 248 show, Beethoven was q u i t e capable
10
o f c a l l i n g f o r such tempo fluctuations when he wanted them.

S ec ond Movement

The essence-of t h i s symphony i s energy; f o r t h e most p a r t


t h i s energy wears a cheery and jovial face, excepting a few places
'

where t h e pleasant veneer i s stripped away ' t o reveal raw, violent


power ( a s i n t h e development section o f t h e first movement). Such
an energy-soaked atmosphere w i l l not admit even t h e momentary lapse
o f an Adagio movement, s o Beethoven gives u s a bright and sunny
A l l e g r e t t o scherzando instead (including t h e scherzando element
perhaps as a compensation f o r t h e lack of a scherzo movement).
It i s well known t h a t t h i s movement has its origins i n a tune
w r i t t e n i n t r i b u t e t o 3eethoven1s friend Johann Maeleel, t h e
inventor o f t h e me'tronome and many other amusing mechanical gadgets. 1
Indeed, a mock-mechanical atmosphere pervades the e n t i r e movement;
we hear t h e ubiquitous ticking of MaelzeZfs invention i n t h e
repeated staccato B - f l a t chord i n t h e winds heard a t t h e o u t s e t ,
and l a t e r i n t h e ' d e l i g h t f u l f i r s t theme:

Bample 8: Second movement, bars 1-4

element of g e n t l e , a f f e c t i o n a t e parody i s present here; Maeleel


is caricatured here n o t as a technological wizard, but only as a
fiaker of amusing toys, nothing more. Eeethoven, by eliminating the

' ~ e o r ~Grove,
e Beethoven and H i s Nine Symphonies (Third
ed. 1898; r p t , New York: Dover Publications, 19621, p, 293.
11
trumpets and timpani, e f f e c t i v e l y prevents t h e music from taking
on any degree of p r e t e n t i o n o r . g r a n d i o s i t y ; s u r e l y t h i s implies
a s i m i l a r l y l i g h t and unpretentious approach from t h e conductor.
Frequent sforzando o u t b u r s t s underline the u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y
of t h e s e mechanical toys, and following t h e second theme we hear
a sudden, a g i t a t e d explosion of s i x t y - f o u r t h n o t e s from t h e s t r i n g s ,
as i f t h e mainspring of a wind-up t o y has broken, causing t h e
gadget t o run amuck momentarily:

Ob.

CI.

Example 9: Second movement, b a r s 20-23

These s u r p r i s e s should not be t o o v i o l e n t l y executed by t h e con-


ductor; a mere t o y has no power t o t h r e a t e n us.
The mechanical atmosphere o f ' t h i s movement w i l l not. permit
any l a p s e s i n t o sentimentalism; when a l e g a t o tune e n t e r s i n t h e
winds i n b a r 29 and t h r e a t e n s t o expand i n t o something broad and
l y r i c a l , Beethoven quickly checks i t with a r e t u r n t o s t a c c a t o
playing ( example 10).
Eschewing any attempts a t development (which would s u r e l y add
&ample 10: Second movement, b a r s 28-33

t o o much weight t o t h i s l i g h t and a i r y movement), Beethoven moves


d i r e c t l y i n t o a r e c a p i t u l a t i o n , preparing t h e B-flat major cadence
with a repeated five-note p a t t e r n i n t h e c l a r i n e t s and horns ( b a r s
37-39). The r a l l e n t a n d o t h a t some conductors introduce i n b a r
39 i s q u i t e unnecessary, as Beethoven has included everything
necessary, both harmonically and i n s t r u m e n t a l l y , t o i n d i c a t e t h e
l i n e of demarcation t o t h e l i s t e n e r .
Zeethoven t r e a t s t h e r e c a p i t u l a t i o n with h i s u s u a l freedom;
t h e r e - a r e two major d e p a r t u r e s from t h e e x p o s i t i o n ( o t h e r than
t h e normal- adjustment of t o n a l a r e a s ) : an ornamental v a r i a t i o n
of t h e f i r s t theme i n b a r s 44-48, and- a canonic treatment of t h e
second theme i n bars 52-56. Fortunately, t h e canon i s s o e f f e c t i v e l y
scored (pungent c l a r i n e t s and bassoons i n octaves v e r s u s v i o l i n s , .
v i o l a s , f l u t e s and oboes) t h a t l i t t l e h e l p from t h e conductor i s
needed t o i n s u r e c l a r i t y .
13
The b r i e f coda contains a coy and understated g e s t u r e t h a t
r e c a l l s t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e f i n a l e of t h e F i r s t Symphony: b

t i n y smirk (derived from t h e first t h r e e n o t e s of t h e first theme),


goaded a t f i r s t t e n t a t i v e l y by t h e woodwinds, then b e l l i g e r e n t l y
by t h e f u l l orchestra:

' ?I.

ob.

CI.

&ample 11 : Second movement, b a s s 75-78

The movement then ends as innocently as i t began,. with a r e t u r n


( v i a successive rhythmic diminukion) t o t h e repeated s i x t y - f o u r t h
notes.

Third Movement
The t h i r d movement i s marked Tempo d i Menuetto, and f o r t h e
c

first and only time i n t h e Beethoven symphonies, t h e composer


g i v e s u s what appears t o be a t r u e minuet (excluding t h e t h i r d
movement of t h e F i r s t Symphony, which, though marked Menuetto, i s
a c t u a l l y a scherzo). Upon s u p e r f i c i a l examination, t h i s movement
seems t o be a r e a l r e t u r n t o t h e C l a s s i c a l minuet s t y l e ; t h e def-
i n i t e three-to-a-bar pulse and dancelike swing a r e c e r t a i n l y i n
evidence. But a c l o s e r examination r e v e a l s t h a t here, as i n t h e
other movements, we have only a t h i n veneer of Classicism; Beethoven
takes t h i s archaic form and works h i s w i l l upon i t , transforming
it i n t o something d i s t i n c t l y h i s own. Though t h e general out-
l i n e of the minuet-trio-minuet form i s followed, t h e c o u r t l y and
a r i s t o c r a t i c manner of t h e 'Classical minuet i s dropped i n favor
of a rough, massive, and pqstoral approach. This i s a minuet f o r
t h e common people, f u l l o f t h e sounds of stamping f e e t and t h e
homely, a r t l e s s grace o f folk melodies; it i s not unlike t h e
uPeasantsf Kerrymaking" of the Sixth Symphony i n t h i s respect.
I t i s as though Beethoven, a c t i n g as a s o r t of musical Robin Hood,
has taken t h e minuet away from t h e a r i s t o c r a t s and given it t o
the peasants.
The main tune of t h e minuet i s a. long and relaxed theme
of continuous winding eighth notes, whose spontaneous q u a l i t y i s
perhaps a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e f a c t t h a t , according t o Grove, Beethoven
flfound t h i s melody almost a t once.lt2

Example 12: Third movement, b a r s 3-6


<

Thick, maasive scoring i s t h e norm throughout t h i s minuet,


and boisterous f a n f a r e s (derived from t h e i n i t i a l two. n o t e s of t h e
theme) c o n s t a n t l y intrude; t h e o v e r a l l impression i s o f a band of
15
v i l l a g e mua5cians who occasionally become l o s t ( i n t h e hemiola
dwindling-out o f the f i r s t s e c t i o n of t h e second s t r a i n , b a r s 19-
24), and cannot r e s i s t joining i n a t every opportunity ( i n t h e
o r c h e s t r a l creseendo i n b a r s 24-34, i n which t h e other voices
g r a d u a l l y i n t r u d e upon a l y r i c a l s o l o bassoon, ending t h e phrase
i n a joyous f o r t i s s i m o ) . Beethoven even allows t h e audience a
laugh a t t h e expense of t h e o r c h e s t r a i n b a r 38, where t h e wood-
winds a r e given t h e two-note f a n f a r e motive one b e a t ahead of
t h e b r a s s , so t h a t a superimposition of t o n i c and dominant r e s u l t s :

PI.

' tr.
1PJ

Example 13: Third movement, b a r s 38-40

The condu'ctor's g e n e r a l approach f o r t h i s minuet should be e n t i r e l y


i n accord with t h e naive, unsophisticated mood of t h e music, Cor-
r e c t balance of p a r t s should be maintained, of course, b u t t h e
d e l i b e r a t e massiveness of t h e scoring should n o t be suppressed.
The pace should be j o v i a l and unhurried--but n o t t o o slow; Weingart-
n e r t s suggested tempo o f ) = 108 i s perhaps best.3 The i n t e n t i o n a l

' ~ e l i x Weingartner, On t h e Performance of Beethoven's Sym-


honies, t r a n s . J e s s i e Crosland (Leipzig: Breitkopf & H a r t e l , 1907) ;
<pt. i n Weingartner on Music and Conducting: Three Sssays by Felix
Weingartner (New York: Dover Eublications, 19691, p, 1'12.
16
tonic-dominant c l a s h i n bar 38 must not be underplayed.
The t r i o (not marked so by t h e composer) r e p r e s e n t s a d i s t i n c t
mellowing o f t h e mood i n t h e minuet; t h e primary elements h e r e a r e
a p a s t o r a l melody played by two s o l o horns, with a f l o r i d answer-
i n g phrase i n t h e high r e g i s t e r of t h e c l a r i n e t . The scoring i s
d r a s t i c a l l y reduced, and'the only t r a c e o f t h e enthusiasm of t h e
minuet i s i n t h e somewhat s i m p l i s t i c accompaniment of arpeggio
t r i p l e t s i n t h e c e l l o s , which continues throughout t h e t r i o . It
i s i n t h e second s e c t i o n of t h e t r i o (b,ars 64-78) t h a t s t r a n g e
things begin t o happen; t h e simple melodic s t r u c t u r e of t h e first
s e c t i o n disappears, and we hear a b r i e f f a n t a s i a of thematic frag-
ments; i t is as i f our aforementioned v i l l a g e musicians, unwilling
t o give up t h e s e r e n e mood they have e s t a b l i s h e d , a r e extending
t h e t r i o by improvisation.

Fourth Movement
The Allegro vivace movement i s t h e f i n a l piece of evidence
proving t h e t r u e non-Classical s t m c e of t h i s symphony. Though i t
i s constructed upon t h e most unpretentious and harmless thematic
m a t e r i a l , i t s u r p a s s e s i n s t r u c t u r a l v a s t n e s s and elemental f o r c e
anything composed by Haydn o r Elozart. The movement i s a s o n a t a
--
form of wildly exaggerated proportions--the developmental coda i s
a s long as t h e combination of exposition-development-recapitulation
t h a t precedes i t . The scoring, d e s p i t e t h e conservatively small
o r c h e s t r a , i s o r i e n t e d toward pure f o r c e and sheer noise. Hammered
repeated n o t e s and s f o r z a n d i i n t h e winds dominate; t h e timpani,
Cuned i n octaves f o r t h e first time i n h i s t o r y , continue t h e first
movementt s preoccupation with t h i s s t a r k i n t e r v a l ( a s well a s fore-
shadowing t h e crashing timpani s o l o s of t h e second movement of
t h e Ninth ~ymphony). The pace of t h e movement i s continuous,
driven by motivic fragments with unrelenting forward impetus; even
t h e r e l a t i v e r e l a x a t i o n of a l y r i c a l second theme i s undercut by
a g i t a t e d repeat ed-not e. accompaniments. Power and f u r y a r e at t h e
h e a r t of t h i s movement, and once t h e veneer of C l a s s i c a l innocence
has l u r e d t h e audience i n , t h e r e i s no escaping t h e onslaught.
The opening theme i s u t t e r l y s i m p l i s t i c i n c o n s t r u c t i o n ,
and it i s t h e t r u e measure of Beethoven's mastery t h a t such a
huge outpouring of music could .arise from such innocent beginnings:

Bample 14: Pourth movement, b a r s 7-10

A deceptive C l a s s i c a l perkiness dominates t h e theme, and 'it


dwindles harmlessly t o i n an extending phrase. Then, from
nowhere, we have t h e most t e r r i f y i n g and shocking n o t e i n t h e
i

e n t i r e work: a sudden f o r t i s s i m o C-sharp, played i n unison and


-
octaves by t h e e n t i r e orchestra. This n o t e i s no mere Haydnesque
s u r p r i s e ; i t i s a sudden, unprovoked outburst of naked f o r c e . The
h o r r o r of t h i s n o t e i s amplified by t h e f a c t t h a t it i s u t t e r l y
meaningless i n t h e c o n t e x t ,of t h i s passage; i t e x e r c i s e s no in-
f l u e n c e on i t s musical environment u n t i l much, much l a t e r i n t h e
movement; h e r e , t h e exposition proceeds without i n c i d e n t a f t e r
t h e C-sharp has appeared--the n o t e simply stands as a musical enigma,
The C-sharp h a s a humorous aspect, c e r t a i n l y , b u t -the humor i s en-
18
t i r e l y at t h e l i s t e n e r s 1 expense; i f we laugh, it i s because we
have taken Beethoven1s s i d e , " laughing at t h e p e r p l e x i t y of t h e
C-sharp's victims. It i s humor of an aggressive, vulgar s o r t ;
Beethoven shoves t h e l u r i d n o t e a t h i s audience as a young boy
might wave a dead rat t o f r i g h t e n a l i t t l e g i r l . The implications
f o r t h e conductor a r e self-evident here; he must do everything
he can t o i n v e s t t h i s n o t e with a l l of t h e v i o l e n c e and raw energy
of t h e f i r s t movement of t h e P i f t h Symphony o r t h e s t a r k lightning-
b o l t chords t h a t begin t h e Eroica.
The second theme follows a llwrong-keyn design similar t o
t h a t i n t h e first movement; t h e theme i s presented i n i t i a l l y i n
t h e f i r s t v i o l i n s i n A - f l a t major, then i n t h e f l u t e s and oboes
i n t h e "proper" key of C major. L y r i c a l c o n t i n u i t y and breadth
should be s t r e s s e d h e r e by t h e conductor. A b r i e f countermelody
which always appezrs with t h i s theme (played by d i f f e r e n t i n a t r u -
ments on every appearance) contains one of t h e r a r e examples i n
Eeethovenls symphoniis of a dynamic i. e. a melodic cresc-

-
endo followed by an immediate diminuendo:

Ikample 15:
P-=== -
Fourth movement, b a r s 51-53

This, i n accordance with t h e unusual dynamic. g r a d a t i o n s , should


have an organic q u a l i t y , a r i s i n g smoothly 2nd seamlessly from t h e
second theme.
The development s e c t i o n begins i n t h e same h e s i t a n t manner
a s t h a t of t h e f i r s t movement, dwelling on a few melodic fragments;
- PI.

Ob.

C1.

PC.

VI.

Example 16 : Fourth movement, b a r s 104-1 07

t h e r e i s even a " f a l s e start" camparable t o t h a t i n b a r 201 of t h e


f i r s t movement (example 16). When t h e development a c t u a l l y g e t s
under way i n bar 109, i t proves t o be a s w i f t canonic treatment
of a motive derived from b a r s 5 and 6 of t h e first theme:

Example 17: Fourth movement, motive of development

This canonic development seems t o be c a l c u l a t e d t o s a t i s f y t h e


p u r i s t s among u s who i n s i s t on a "learned d e v e l ~ p m e n t ;i~t i s com-
plex and d e a l s i n canons of both s i m i l a r and c o n t r a r y motion,
b u t i t i s n e i t h e r as v a s t o r a8 powerful a s t h e development t h a t
occurs i n t h e coda. I n f a c t , t h e conductor has l i t t l e t o do h e r e -
o t h e r than maintain t h e energy l e v e l and s e e t o t h e f r e q u e n t
sforzando b u r s t s of whole and h a l f n o t e s t h a t goad t h i s development
onward. It i e i n t h e conclusion of t h i s s e c t i o n t h a t Beethovenian
obsessions creep i n ; t h e s t r i n g s s e i z e upon t h e two s l u r r e d quarter
n o t e s of t h e motive and eagerly converge on a D-sharp t o E f i g u r e
t h a t i s repeated seven times; t h e f i r s t v i o l i n s a r e d i r e c t e d t o use
t h e i r open E s t r i n g s , and t h e t o t a l e f f e c t i s b e s t described a s
fanatical. This emphasis on E r e s u l t s i n a joyous r e t u r n of t h e
theme i n the dazzling %rong1f key of A major. Beethoven spans t h e
i n c r e d i b l e d i s t a n c e from A major t o F major by a b r u t a l l y simple
procedure: t h e o s c i l l a t i n g octave Es a r e unceremoniously moved
up one half-step t o an o s c i l l a t i n g octave F i n t h e timpani:

160
PI.

Ub.

CI.

PC -

Example 18: Fourth movement, b a r s 154-160

Perhaps Eeethoven h e r e i s .parodying our need f o r modulatory passages


t o smooth over such seams.
After a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y f r e e r e c a p i t u l a t i o n ( i n which t h e
"wrong keym p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e second theme i s preserved) and a
modulation i n t o % f l a t major, Beethoven again g i v e s u s t h e h e s i t a n t
t r a n s i t i o n a l passage thak introduced t h e development s e c t i o n , but
t h e r e p e t i t i o u e course of t h i s passage i s a b r u p t l y c u t o f f i n a
sudden b u r s t of impatience:

Example 19: Fourth movement, baF's 279-281

Then a t o t a l l y new i d e a i s introduced: a d r e a r y and impossibly


l o n e l y tune .of descending h a l f notes:

@ample 202 Fourth movement, b a r s 282-286


,
T h i s new tune s e t s a very gradual accumulation of f o r c e i n t o

motion. Descending and ascending s c a l e s , a l l derived from t h e new


theme, a r e t r e a t e d s e q u e n t i a l l y with c o n t i n u a l i n c r e a s e s i n orch-
e s t r a l ' f o r c e s , culminating i n a monolithic marchl'ike procession
( b a r s 314-335). The challenges f o r t h e conductor h e r e a r e con-
s i d e r a b l e ; t h e tempo must be maintained with r o c k l i k e s t e a d i n e s s ,
and t h e slow buildup of tension must be p e r f e c t l y paced so t h a t a
climax i s not reached too soon.
A f t e r a b r i e f q u a s i - r e c a p i t u l a t i o n ( i n which P major i s
22

introduced by t h e same a b r u p t method a s i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n from t h e


development t o t h e r e c a p i t u l a t i o n ) we a r e taken i n t o t h e second
s e c t i o n of t h e coda, and t h e method by which t h i s t r a n s i t i o n i s
made i s t r u l y astounding. The " t e r r i b l e C - ~ h a r p , as
~ ~ Grove c a l l s
i t , 4 appears again, repeated i n s i s t e n t l y f i v e times; now, t h e
h o r r i f y i n g enigma i s solved as t h e note f i n a l l y has an e f f e c t on
t h e musical s t r u c t u r e , becoming t h e dominant n o t e of F-sharp minor.
The music t h a t follows i s t h e most f o r c e f u l and f u r i o u s of t h e
e n t i r e work, fill of b r u t a l octaves, hammered repeated n o t e s and
i n t e n s e sforzandi. The theme i s s t a t e d i n t h e a n x i e t y - f i l l e d key
of P - s h a r ~ minor; then, i n a passage which should be ~ a r f o r n e d ,
according t o Weingartner, "with triumphant s t r e n g t h , v 5 repeated
Fs i n t h e horns, trumpets, and timpani force t h e music t o r e t u r n
t o P major (bar 391). But t h e a r r i v a l of t h e flhome key1* brings no
r e l a x a t i o n of tension; i n an embodiment of pure fanaticism, v i o l e n t
sforzando q u a r t e r n o t e s continue t o pummel t h e audience f o r six-
t e e n b a r s (on t h e first b e a t of t h e b a r f ~ o m394 t o 397, then
on both t h e f i r s t m d second b e a t s from 398 t o 407), ending i n
ul abrupt r e t u r n t o t h e l y r i c a l second theme i n bar 408.
The s i n g l e t a s k of t h e conductor i n t h i s s e c t i o n ( b a r s 379-
407) i s t o maintain i n t e n s i t y . The sheer b r u t a l i t y of t h i s pass-
q e shoilld n o t be u n d e r s t a t e d i n t h e s l i g h t e s t ; t h e conductor
should not f e a r t o execute t h e frequent sforzandi with t e r r i b l e
force. Pure, undiluted power should be s u s t a i n e d a t a l l times.
- The fermata h a l f r e s t i n b a r 438 marks t h e beginning o f t h e

4 ~ r o v e ,Beethoven and H i s Nine Symphonies, p . 303.


'Veingartrier, On t h e Performance of Beethovent s Symphonies,
p. 175.
23
t h i r d section of t h e coda, and t h i s i s t h e t r u e concluding s e c t i o n
of t h e work, f o r it i s only i n t h i s p a r t o f t h e v a s t coda t h a t we
have a r e a l f e e l i n g of closing--provided through Eeethoven's
t y p i c a l emphasis, re-emphasis, and re-re-emphasis on cadence har-
monies. The conductor must t a k e c a r e h e r e t o maintain a steady
tempo t o t h e f i n a l bar; because t h e rhythmic a c t i v i t y of t h i s
s e c t i o n i s considerably simpler than what precedes it, t h e r e may
be a tendency t o rush (on t h e p a r t of both o r c h e s t r a and conductor)--
and a f a s t e r tempo w i l l make t h e f i n a l b a r s sound very ordinary
indeed .
Conclusions
T h i s symphony i s no r e g r e s s i o n ; it i s a b r i l l i a n t t o u r d e
f o r c e executed by a mature composer i n f u l l command of h i s powers.
Beethoven possesses a d i s t i n c t awareness of h i s powers, and h e
shapes h i s m a t e r i a l s with deliberation and c a l c u l a t i o n . The
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c elemental power and f u r y of Beethoven t h e Romantic
i s h e r e , but i t i s disguised as Classicism, and t h e c l e v e r n e s s
and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n 6f t h i s r u s e i s such t h a t many have been l e d
t o i g n o r e t h e o u t b u r s t s of t r u e ~ e e t h 0 v e n i . mf o r c e t h a t t h e work
contains,
Elemental f o r c e , such as t h a t which manifests i t s e l f i n
3eethovenfs music, o f t e n d i s p l a y s t h e c a p a b i l i t y of t a k i n g any
form i t chooses. This property i s c o n t i n u a l l y i n evidence here--
t h e r e i s an undercurrent o f power throughout t h i s work, b u t it i s
power held very d e l i c a t e l y i n check, power t h a t o f t e n d i s p l a y s a
d e c e p t i v e l y harmless f a c e t o t h e world, We, t h e l i s t e n e r s , a r e
l u l l e d by t h i s deceptive g e n t l e n e s s and a r e consequently more
s e n s i t i v e when t h e explosions o f f u r y d o come.
There i s h u m ~ ri n t h i s symphony, t r u e , but it i s humor which
i s u s u a l l y at t h e audience1s expense. Instead of t h e s o r t of
"wrong noteu jokes a C l a s s i c a l composer would indulge i n , we
have .abrupt modulations,, f a l s e starts and unexpected dynamic out-
c r i e s t h a t parody t h e complacency and i n f l e x i b i l i t y of conservative
listeners. Beethoven does a l l t h e laughing, as a god might laugh
a t t h e confusion and consternation of h i s bumbling, bewildered
children.
S e r e n i t y and innocence are captured i n t h e second and t h i r d
movements, but even t h e s e movements contain elements d i f f e r e n -
t i a t i n g them f r o m t h e i r C l a s s i c a l models. The cherished slow
movement o f t h e C l a s s i c a l symphonists i s replaced by a scherzo-
l i k e i n t e r l u d e o f constant mechanistic energy and a f f e c t i o n a t e
parody. The minuet, long t h e province of t h e a r i s t o c r a t i c c l a s s ,
i s transformed i n t o a loud and b o i s t e r o u s peasant dance. For
both of t h e s e i n n e r movements, an understated approach i s wholly
i n a p p r o p r i a t e ; unbuttoned, u n i n h i b i t e d enthusiasm should p r e v a i l .
<

!The conductor who chooses t o perform t h i s work must c o n s t a n t l y


remember t h a t Classicism manifests i t s e l f i n t h i s symphony only
on t h e most s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l , ;h undercurrent of power and fury
must c o n s t a n t l y be kept i n r e s e r v e , and t h e conductor should be
a k l e t o launch i n t o an o v e r t expression of t h i s power a t any time,
j u s t as Beethoven allows h i s power t o erupt from i t s serene p o i s e
a t unexpected moments. The conductor should ' t a k e Beethoven's s i d e
i n t h i s music--participating i n t h e d e l i b e r a t e manipulation of the.
l i s t e n e r , overdoing t h i n g s when Beethoven overdoes them, exploding
i n t o anger and frenzy along with t h e composer. Perhaps t h e con-
ductor, when preparing t o s t e p out on s t a g e t.0 perform t h e Eighth
Symphony, should t h i n k of t h e f i n a l e 1s ubiqubtous C-sharp--for
this n o t e embodies a l l of t h e power, laughter, v i o l e n c e and
radiance of t h e work. This i s a p i e c e tha* cannot be overdone.
BEETHOVBNtS U S E OP T H E SFORZANDO MARKING
I N H I S EIGHTH SYMFHONY

One of t h e most puezling performance problems occurring


i n t h e Eighth Symphony of Beethoven i s t h e seemingly i n c o n s i s t e n t
u s e of t h e sforzando ( s f ) marking,throughout t h e work. The b e s t
example of t h i s apparent inconsistency i s i n t h e second theme of
t h e second movement (example 21 ) . I n b a r 50 Beethoven i n d i c a t e s f on
t h e first beat of t h e bar and sforzando on t h e t h i r d b e a t (count-
i n g t h e eighth note as t h e b e a t ) . Yet i n a p a r a l l e l passage,
b a r 52 (bassoons and c l a r i n e t s ) , sforzando i s i n d i c a t e d f o r both
t h e f i r s t and t h i r d beats. I n b a r 53, t h e v i o l i n s , v i o l a s , -

f l u t e s and oboes t a k e ' t h e sane p a t t e r n ; h e r e t h e s t r i n g s p l a y


sforzando on b e a t s one and t h r e e , b u t t h e winds have sforzando
-
only on t h e t h i r d beat, with f o r t e i n d i c a t e d on t h e first beat.
These apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n s can be r e s o l ~ e di f we'asswne
t h a t ( 1 ) Beethoven h a s no o t h e r method .of i n d i c a t i n g accentuation
besides the -
sf symbol, ( 2 ) he w i l l n o t w r i t e -
sf u n l e s s t h e dy-
namic l e v e l f o r t e o r f o r t i s s i m o has a l r e a d y been e s t a b l i s h e d
c l e a r l y , and ( 3 ) he i s unwilling t o w r i t e t h e symbols sf and
over t h e same beat. I n bar 50 of t h e second movement, t h e f o r t e -
marking i s necessary t o show t h e concluding l e v e l of t h e crescendo;
once t h i s dynamic l e v e l i s e s t a b l i s h e d , Beethoven i s f r e e t o
write -
s f on t h e t h i r d beat. The c l a r i n e t s and bassoons a r e
TI.

Ob.

CL

rr.

VI..

*vc.Cb.

Example 21 : Second .movement, bars 48-54


28
already playing f o r t e i n bar 52 (having reached t h a t l e v e l i n
bar 50) and thus Beethoven i s able t o write af on both the
first and t h i r d beats. The same can be said of bar 53; the
-
sf can be indicated o'n both t h e f i r s t &nd t h i r d beats since
the s t r i n g s already have been given a c l e a r f o r t e marking i n
bar 50. 3eethoven does not i n d i c a t e sforzando f o r t h e f i r s t
beat of bar 50 i n the s t r i n g s or t h e first beat o f bar 53 i n

-
t h e f l u t e s because he must w r i t e t h e f o r t e marking t o e s t a b l i s h
-
t h e dynamic level, and he i s r e l u c t a n t t o w r i t e sf and over
t h e same beat. The one exception t o t h i s obvious p a t t e r n i s
i n the oboes, bar 53; t h e oboes a r e given a f o r t e marking i n
b a r 50 and thus t h e r e i s no reason f o r Beethoven t o o m i t t h e
sforzando on t h e f i r s t " b e a t as he does. However, t h i s f i r s t
beat does contain a f o r t e marking; Beethoven thus evidently
wants t o r e i t e r a t e t h e dynamic l e v e l a f t e r t h e oboes' bar of
r e s t i n bar 51. I n any case, t h e inclusion of t h e -
f marking
-
makes an additional s f marking impossible.
3ased on these assumptions ( t h a t Beethoven cannot w r i t e
t h e sforzando marking under c e r t a i n circumstances) and t h e
occurrence of t h e sf marking i n p a r a l l e l passages where f o r t e
has been established previously, I would add t h e sforzando mark-
i n g t o t h e following places i n t h e score: f i r s t movement, bar
323 ( f i r s t beat, all p a r t s ) ; second movement, bars 13 and 15
(second h a l f o f f o u r t h beat, a l l p a r t s ) , 20 and 50 ( f i r s t beat,
v i o l i n s and v i o l a s ) , 53 ( f i r s t beat, f l u t e s and oboes); t h i r d
movement, beat preceding first complete b a r ( a l l p a r t s ) ; fourth
movement, bar 124 (horns and trumpets).
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Primary Sources
Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony no. 8 i n F major, op. 93.
Leipzig: Verlag von Breitkopf & HZrtel, n o d .
----------. Symphony no. 8 i n F major, op. 93. London:
Ernst Eulenberg, Ltd., nod.
----------. Symphony no.' 8 i n F major, op. 93. New York:
Edwin F. Kalmus, n.d.

Secondary Sources
Grove, George. Beethoven and H i s Nine Symphonies. Third ed.
1898; r p t . New Yoqk: Cover P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1962.
'deingartner, F e l i x . On t h e Eerformance of Beethoven1s Symphonies.
.
Trans. J e s s i e Crosland. Leipzig: Breitkopf & K ~ r t e l , 1907.
Rpt i n Weingartner on Xusic and Conducting: Three Essqys
by F e l i x 'Ideingartner. Yew York: Dover Eublications, 1969,
pp- 57-234. '