Structural Steel Design &

Timber Design

Peter B. Keating, Ph.D.

Associate Professor Department of Civil Engineering Texas A&M University

Structural Steel Design

American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC)

3 Design Methods

- Allowable Stress Design (ASD)

- Plastic Design (Load Factor Design)

Chapter N of ASD Manual

- Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) ~ Second Edition, Volume I & "

4 - 1

LRFD DESIGN METHOD

Design Equation:

<PR

n

where

Qi - nominal load effect (service loads)
Yi - load factor corresponding to O, (usually > 1.0)
2:y.Q. - total factored load effect (or required strength)
I I
Rn - nominal resistance
<P - resistance factor corresponding to R; « 1.0)
<PRn - design strength LOAD COMBINATIONS

(Note: differ from ACI Code!)

1.40

1.20 + 1.6L + 0.5(L,or50rR)

1.20 + 1.6(L, or 5 or R) + (0.5L or 0.8W) 1.20 + 1.3W + 0.5L +0.5(L, or 5 or R) 1.20 + 1 .OE + 0.5L + 0.25

0.90 ± (1.3W or 1.0E)

(A4-1 ) (A4-2) (A4-3) (A4-4) (A4-5) (A4-6)

For members subject to dead and live load: 1 .20 + 1.6L

See Examples A-1 and A-2, p. 2-9

4 - 2

MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL

a

Rupture

E = 29,000 ksi

, 8 - -------------t---

_ 1 __

8r = 0.002

0.1 < 8r < 0.3

DUCTILITY

STRUCTURAL STEELS
ASTM Grade Yield Stress Tensile Stress
Designation r, (ksi) Fu (ksi)
A36 36 58-80
A572 42 42 60
50 50 65
60 60 75
65 65 80
A588 50 50 70
A852 (plate only:) 70 90-110
A514 (plate only) 90 90-130
A514 (plate only) 100 100-130
See Table 1-1 f p. 1-15 for complete listing and availability 4-3

STRUCTURAL STEEL ROLLED SHAPES

I[

Channel

C

W Wide Flange

L

Angle

S Standard

J~ WT Tee

(cut from W)

Section Properties in Part 1 of the LRFD Manual (Vol. I)

YJl_ELDED BUILT-UP MEMBERS (Symmetrical Cross Sections)

bf I _1_t h3 + 2 bftf( h~tfr 1
1-- ·-i =
tf x 12 w
=:J 1
- i-- tw I I
h Sx x x
= =
x x C (h+t,)/2 z

x

See Tables 4-183 to 4-185 for section properties of selected built-up wide-flange sections

4-4

TENSION MEMBERS

- Gross Section Yielding (GSY)

- Net Section Fracture (NSF)

- Block Shear Rupture (BSR)

- Serviceability Check

L

~ 300

Least Radius of Gyration

r .

min

(L in inches)

II:: ~~

GROSS SECTION YIELDING (GSY)

p

-->~ p

Prevents excessive elongation of the member

Design based on the Gross Area, Ag

4 - 5

----------------------------------------~

NET SECTION FRACTURE (NSF)

-1 r-- f( = PIAg

p ~-(-

J

I

.. ~.

-----:>:;.- P

~ole > f t

Prevents fracture at a connection

Design based on the Effective Net Area, Ae and Net Area, An

¢Pn O.75FuAe

O.75FuUAn

NET AREA. An

---j I-- - d ---.-j 1--- d

I~~ ~

Net area is the reduced gross area owing to the holes

f---- - -- w - -----1

Ag - Aholes Ag - dhole X t

d net d hole

- Damaged Zone

d + 1/16" + 1/16"

bolt

4 - 6

Staggered Holes

If the holes are staggered, a correction factor is used to account for the increased tensile strength on an inclined fracture path:

p <

p >

f 9 ,

1,2 3

I f ---;

s S

1 2

Correction Factor

Example:

Determine the net area for the plate shown. Assume the holes are for 7/8" dia. bolts.

t

4"

r

p >

1,2

3

1/2" x S"

.J<.

I

2" 5"

Path 1-1

( 1/2)( 8) - 2 ( 1/2)( 7/8 + 1/16 + 1/16) + 1/2 J3f. 4(4)

3.13 in2 ~ controls

Path 2-2

4 - 2 (1/2) (1) + 1 /2 ~ 4(4)

3.78 in2

Path 3-3 An

4 - 1 ( 1/2) ( 1 ) 3.50 in2

4 - 7

Net Effective Area, Ae

Defined as the reduced gross area or net area to account for nonuniform stress distributions

Ineffective

Material

L

Critical Section

SHORT CONNECTION

Critical Section

p

L

LONG CONNECTION

REDUCTION COEFFICIENT

When the load is transmitted by bolts or welds through some but not all of the cross sectional elements, the effective area is given as:

where

u

1 _ x L

x L

connection eccentricity, in. length of connection, in.

4-8

---.-.-------------------------------~

E:xample Determine the reduction coefficient and tensile capacity for the angle shown bolted to the gusset plate. Assume A36 steel and a single row of 7/8"

dia. bolts. L 6x4x1/2

4" : I

__ ::::!:i =:::!:-$lall:;=~ -===:JI---

-+-+-+ 3" 3"

n c.. -- i x

~,

From Section Property Tables: Ag = 4.75 in.", X

0.987 in.

u
NSF:
¢Pn =
=
GSY:
¢Pn = -

1 -!_ = 1

L

0.987 6

¢ Fu U An

0.75 (58)(0.84)[4.75 - 0.5 (718 + 1/8)] = 155 kips

¢FyAg

0.90 (36)(4.75) = 154 kips ~ controls

-----------------------------------------------------~

Reduction Bolted Welded
Coefficient, U Shapes Shapes
0.90 Wand WT shapes Wand WT shapes
with b, > 2/3d with b, > 2/3d
w I at least 3 bolts
0.85 Wand WT shapes All other cases
with b, < 2/3d,
C, and L, shapes
with at least 3 bolts
0.75 All shapes N.A.
with 2 bolts in line 4 - 9

u

[

I

0.85

IL

I

T

r----~----- p

===) ----~

[

p

p

f" --

l ,-.;.

.~=-::-~=-----=-~ -----.:-~-~-:::-_::-=:_:)

Bolted Flat Plates: U - 1.0

Welded Flat Plates:

- with end weld: U = 1.0

no end weld: U = 1.0 U = 0.87 U = 0.75

/

L

-----_ ---1

L > 2w

2w > L > 1.5w 1.5w> L > w

/

w

p ~

~~ - -- j

p ----;..

No Weld

Li

- -l

~: 8

i-i ~

/

4 - 10

BLOCK SHEAR RUPTURE:

W

L

c

WT

Note: Fracture path must surround entire bolt pattern(s)

BLOCK SHEAR RUPTURE:

(AISC-LRFD J4-3a)

where

-- Tension Fracture

¢ = 0.75
Agv gross shear area
Ant net area in tension
¢Rn = <P ( 0.6 Fu Anv + r, Agt ) Shear Yielding

(AISC-LRFD J4-3b)

where

Tension Yielding

~--.---~

=

0.75

net area in shear gross tension area

Shear Fracture

Equation with Larger fracture term controls

4 - 11

---------------------------------------.

Example

Determine the design strength of the single angle bolted connection shown. Assume A36 steel and 13/16 in. holes.

Tension Yielding

x = 1.18in.

Shear Fracture

Block shear rupture pattern:

7.5"

Atg = 1.5(0.5)
= 0.745 in.2
Agv = (6 + 1 )(0.5)
= 3.75 in.2 Agl, AnI

Ant = (1.5)(0.5) - 0.5[(0.5)(13/16 + 1/16)] = 0.53 in.2 Anv = (7.5)(0.5) - 2.5[90,5)(13/16 + 1/16)] = 2.66 in.2

Example (cont.)

Controlling fracture term:

Fu Ant = 58(0.53) = 30.7 kips

0.6 Fu Anv == 0.6(58)(2.66) = 92.6 kips <1ilJ

.. shear fracture controls

BSR: ¢Pn = ¢(0.6 Fu Anv + Fy Agt)

= 0.75(92.6 + 36(0.75)) = 89.7 kips <1ilJ

NSF: U = 1 - x = 1 - ~ 0.80

L 6

¢Pn = ¢ Fu U An

= 0.75(58)(0.80)[(3.75 - 0.5(16116)] = 115 kips

GSY: ¢Pn = ¢ F; Ag

= 0.90(36)(3.75) = 122 kips

4 - 12

COLUMNS

The AISC column design provisions based on Euler column buckling behavior

Euler column has pinned ends

L iZ

Buckled

Deflected End conditions for building columns

Shape differ

Determine the effective column length, KL

-y

Can relate a building column back to the Euler column using K

BRACED FRAMES

(Sidesway Inhibited)

p

1

p

1

r

I

L

J

L

Bracing

K 1.0

0.65

0.8

Note: K <::; 1.0 for braced frames

4 - 13

,-----------------------------------------,

UNBRACED FRAMES (Sidesway uninhibited)

p p
1 1 1 1 C;J (~;-S1
! -::,--<
L
L If K

1.2

2.1

2.0

Note: K > 1.0 for unbraced frames

RELATIVE STIFFNESS

j L~_ GA 'L~
G Lc lying in the plane
'L}y_ of buckling
- Lg
c = columns
B GB
9 - beams or girders 4 - 14

G, K Gn (; I K c,
')()o 10 ')()O
100 -100 100.0 1000
5.0 -50 ')()O 500
30 09 30 30.0
20.0
20 20
3.0 100
08 9.0
10 - 10 BO
7.0
08 08 60
0.7 07 5.0 5.0
0.6 07 06 40 4.0
0.5 0.5 20
0.4 04 30 30
03 03 20 2.0
05 15
02 07
10 LO
0.1 01
a 05 0 0 1.0 0
SIDESWAY INHIBITED SIDESWAY UNINHIBITED CONTROLLING AXIS

Larger value controls

c;::: =~~=0r~--<.:.~~~--=-'..-1 '"

,~

:~

,t,

'" ,~

"

),~

I -_~-=-. =-= ~I::::_~ -..c_,,"'--_ .. --J

,y

Calculate:

KL I!y rn ~-E

4 - 15

"

,

________ !.:.2 _

"

"

"

x x

" y

1-- CRITICAL BUCKLING STRESS

when Ae :::; 1.5

when Ae > 1.5

Fer = [O.877]F

}..2 y

e

Note: can use Tables on pp. 6-147 to 6-151

DESIGN LOAD

(E2-2)

(E2-3)

(E2-1)

(J)
(J) 1.0
Q)
L..
.......
en F
-
-0 cr
Q) Elastic
>- Fy
-- Buckling
(J) 0.39
(J)
Q) -
L..
....... Inelastic
en
x Buckling
ctl
~
0 1.5
Column Slenderness, ""'c 4 - 16

Note:

Buckling of singly symmetric and unsymmetric columns require consideration of flexural-torsional buckling (see LRFD Appendix E)

LOCAL BUCKLING

bf b, 95
:- ~ :s; ---
2 t, {F;
L_ ~~L
-r
- -- tw I
I
Ih
t ( ! h 253
1 :s; ---
t t {F;
I ,-~ w
~
bf
2 COLUMN DESIGN TABLES Part 3 - AISC-LRFD Manual
:~~_ y

COLUMNS
W shapes
Design axial strength in kips (<I> = 0.85)
_. __ y
Designation W12
~_ I
WIlft 210 190 170 152 136 120
--._ .. _-----
r, 36 50 36 50 36 50 36 50 36 50 36 50
_ -
0 1890 2630 1710 2370 1530 2120 1370 1900 1220 1700 1080 1500
6 1840 2540 1660 2290 1490 2050 1330 1830 1190 1630 1050 1440
.:: 7 1830 2500 1650 2260 1480 2020 1320 1810 1180 1610 1040 1420
c 8 1810 2470 1630 2220 1460 1990 1300 1780 1180 1590 1030 1400 ~21 L <421 J 369 I 369 I 320 I 320
Q
;0 9 1790 2430 1610 2190 1440 1960 1290 17SO l1SO 1560 1010 1380
>- 10 1760 23BO 1590 21SO 1420 1920 1270 1710 1130 1530 1()()() 1350 tie.
0>
5 _.
"' 11 1740 2330 1570 2100 1400 1880 1250 1880 1110 1490 984 1320 2.11 2.15 2.11 2.13 2.09 2.12 2.07
~ 12 1710 22BO 1540 2050 1460 540 333 462 276 383 232 322
6 1380 1840 1230 1640 1090 966 1290
~ 13 1680 2230 1510 2000 U50 1790 1210 1590 1070 1420 948 12SO 48 31 44 28 40 26 36
If>~ (KiPS) J/~l~ LIN I JI N 1 LULU 12380 1500 1760 1120 1320 815 960
p. (kips) 731 1020 610 847 493 684 397 551 316 439 247 343
Lp (~) 13.7 11.6 13.5 11.5 134 114 133 11.3 132 112 130 11.1
L. (~) 129 84.2 117 766 105 689 94.7 62.1 846 55.7 755 SO.O
---_. I __ L___
I A (in '> 61.8 55.8 I 500 44.7 399 353
I. (In 4) 2140 1890 I 1650 1430 1240 1070
! 11 (In4) 664 589 ! 517 i 454 398 345
. 'r (In) 328 325 322 319 3 16 3 13
I Ra1io r,f 'T 1.80 179 178 L 177 1 77 176
~ .. (Kl//IO 61400 54100 ; 47100 41000 I 35000 30700
P~y(KLJ< /10 19000 16900 j __ -'4800_ 13000 11400 9900
~--_- 4 - 17

COLUMN DESIGN TABLES

For W-shapes, design loads are for weak-axis (Y - Y) buckling.

Can use for strong- axis buckling by using an equivalent slenderness ratio:

( ~L 1 eqiv

(!fl x

r

x

r y

When designing, do not know r)ry. Estimate using the range of values given at the bottom of the design tables.

Example: For the column shown, select the lightest W12x for a design load of 750 kips. Use A36 steel.

(KLJx = 2.0(20) = 40 ft.
r
(KLJy = 0.80(20) = 16 ft.
(KLl 40
x 2.50
20 ft. (KL ly 16 T

From AISC-LRFD Column Design Tables: r /ry ranges from 1.75 to 1.80 for W12x columns with a design capacity of approximately 750 kips at (KLly = 16 ft.

(KLlx rx

Since-- = 2.50 > - = 1.75 to 1.80,

x-x (KLly r,

axis buckling controls. Since Column Design Tables are for (KLly, must find equivalent KL for the x-x axis:

(KLlx 40

( ( K L ) y) equiv =: ~ _-

r)ry 1.75

Use W 1 2x 136 since ¢Pn = 788 kips at (KLly = 24 ft.

x-x

./ y-y

22.9 ft.

4 - 18

DESIGN OF STEEL BEAMS

Flexure

- Lateral Torsional Buckling

Shear

Deflections

Bearing

p

x - x

Strong Axis Bending

( ';

--:~. "_....,.---;- ~--

L

------#----

Weak Axis Bending

4 - 19

STRONG AXIS BENDING OF I-SHAPED MEMBERS

Maximum design moment capacity:

Plastic"

where Z, is the plastic section modulus about the x-x axis

~c: Mp
1:;-
0 My
ro
a.
ro Mr
o
C
CIl
E
0
:::2: ~

Inelastic'

Elastic -\-

The beam may fail prior to reaching ¢Mp due to local buckling or
lateral torsional buckling
LOCAL BUCKLING
b ,
Flange bf 65 (FLB) r~----I
- <S; --
2 t, {F; r- I I
-.-- .. --._ 1-
--- I--f
w
Web h 640 (WLB) d I h
- S -- i
t {F; I
W • ,
- _- _----
, l J
t
f f 4 - 20

LATERALLY UNBRACED BEAMS (Compact Sections)

If L; > Lp must reduced ¢Mn due to lateral torsional buckling

Lb is the distance between compression flange bracing points Lp is the maximum unbraced length that allows <t>Mp

I

-------7 Lateral Buckling

In-Plane Deflection

Lb Function of the slenderness ratio

Lateral Bracing Provided By:

~ . . ,,' .'\". . . .

q[C:

• '-I '.<,,' :C1 ",

'L\ -

I

Continuous Support

Supported at Intervals

4 - 21

Nominal Moment Capacity - Mn

L,

If c, < t., ~ t,

[ ( L L 1

Mn = Cb M - (M - M ) b p

p p r L-L

r p

Unbraced Length. L

< M

- p

<M

- p

Moment Correction Factor

The design equations based on a constant moment along the unbraced length, Lb

r----------------~

Accounts for moment gradients between bracing points

M1 is the smaller and M2 is the larger bending moment at the end of the unbraced length.

New Method in 2nd, see p. 6-53 and Table 4-1, p. 4-9

4 - 22

M,

C .. ~')M

.,;,..~ :;:+~ z

M, ~ . _

~-.-.--~

----.;

M,

M,/M2 Negative

M,/M2 Positive

~.

~----

1.0

Note: conservative to use Cb

1.0

BEAM DESIGN CURVES

Part 4 (pp. 4-113 to 4-116)

~ 135.0

~

~ 132.5

u c

_; 130.0

, 0.

1 127.5

'"

o

~ 125.0 >--

z

OJ

~ 122.5 o

~

8 10 12 14 16 16 20 22 24 26 28 UNBRA.CED LENGTH (05 ft increments)

4 - 23

Beam Chart Observations

Beam Charts for C, = 1.0

The horizontal portion of each curve defines ¢Mp

Limit of ¢Mn = ¢Mp at Lp is given by •

Limit of inelastic bending strength (Eq. F1-2) at L, is given by 0

A solid curve or line represents the lightest and, hence, most economical section

A dashed curve or line indicates that a lighter section with equivalent or larger moment capacity exists

Designing with the Beam Charts:

Select first solid curve or line above intersection point for most economical section

When Cb > 1.0

Conservatively assume Cb as is, or calculate:

1.0 and use the beam charts

».:

Make selection and check ¢Mp > M;

Note: Mequiv is only used to enter the beam charts.

4 - 24

---_._-----------------------------------.

Load Factor Design Selection Tables

LOAD FACTOR DESIGN SELECTION TABLE
For shapes used as beams z,
<j>b = 0.90
Fy= 36 ksl Fy= 50 leal
BF 4 Lp ~oMr ~oMp Z. Shape +tMp +tMr 4> 4 SF
KIps Ft Ft Klp-tt KJp-tt In.' KJp-ft KIp-ft A A .. KJP.
12.7 16.6 5.6 222 362 134 W24xSS 503 342 ".7 lU 18..11
8.06 232 7.0 228 359 133 W18x65 «99 351 6.0 17.1 13.3
2.90 56.4 12.8 230 356 132 WI2x87 495 354 10.9 38.4 5.12
2.00 rr.« 11.0 218 351 130 W1Oxloo 488 336 9.4 SO.8 3.66
5.57 32.3 103 228 351 130 W16x67 488 351 8.7 23.8 9.02
11.3 17.3 5.6 216 348 129 W21x57 484 333 4.8 13.1 18.0
4.10 40.0 103 218 340 126 W14x74 473 336 8.8 28.0 7.12
7.91 22.4 7.0 211 332 123 W18x60 «81 324 6.0 16.7 12.8
2.88 51.8 127 209 321 119 W12x79 4«8 321 10.8 35.7 5.03
4.05 37.3 10.3 201 311 115 W14x68 431 309 8.7 264 6.91
1.97 68.4 11.0 192 305 113 W1OX88 «24 296 9.3 45.1 3.58
7.65 21.4 7.0 192 302 112 W18xSS 42Q 295 5.9 16.1 12.2
10.5 162 5.4 184 297 110 W21xSO 413 234 4.6 12.5 16.4
2.87 48.2 127 190 292 106 WI2x72 405 292 10.7 33.6 4.93
6.43 22.8 67 180 284 105 W16x57 394 zrr 5.7 16.6 10.7
3.91 34.7 102 180 275 102 W14x61 383 zrr 87 24.9 6.51
7.31 2Q.5 6.9 173 273 101 WI8xSO 379 ~ s.a 15.6 11.5
1.95 60.1 10.8 168 264 97.6 W10xn 368 258 92 39.9 3.53
2.80 44.7 12.6 171 261 96.8 WI2x65b 3S8 264 11.8 31.7 4.72 Select the lightest W18x for a simply supported beam shown. Assume wD = 2 kip/ft (including the beam weight) and wL = 3 kip/ft. Use A36 steel and assume lateral bracing the end supports only.

w

1.2(2) + 1.6(3) 7.2 kips/It

[II rim [Tnl run 111=

7.2(20)2 8

20'· O·

360 k-It

360(12)

133 in."

0.9(36)

Lb 20 ft and C; = 1.0 since Mmax occurs inside t.;

(LRFD 2nd Ed. allows c, = 1.14)

From Beam Charts (p. 4-128) use W18x76

4 - 25

Example Repeat last example assuming that the compression flange is laterally braced at midspan as well as at the end supports.

Lb = 10ft, conservatively assuming C,

1 .0: Use W18x71

Using the correct value for C; (2nd Ed.)

C; = 1 .30 from Table 4-1 (p. 4-9)

MeqUiv = 360/1 .30 = 277 kip-It

Try W18x55, check Z, = 112 in." < Zreq = 133 in." .N...G_._

The beam can also be checked for adequacy by following the W18x55 curve back up to its plateau (Q>Mp) which in this case is 302 k-It.

FLEXURAL SHEAR

Typically, the beam selection is based on satisfying the bending moment requirements and then checked for shear

The web of a W-shape section resists the shear force, therefore the shear capacity of the cross section is given as:

..

/d . ,~.'

Shear capacities for W-shapes are tabulated in the Maximum Factored Uniform Load Tables (pp. 4-35 to 4-108)

Shear controls the design for short spans and when concentrated loads are applied close to a support.

4 - 26

Example Verify the shear capacity of the W18x71 selection in the previous example.

7.2(20)

72 kips

2 For W18x71: d = 18.47 in., tw = 0.495 in.

¢Vn = 0.9(0.6)(36)(18.47)(0.495) = 178 kips> 72 kips ../

Using beam table (p. 4-50) <p Vn - 178 kips ../

DEFLECTIONS:

(AISC-LRFD Chapter L)

The z= Edition only states" Deformations in structural members and structural elements due to service loads shall not impair the serviceability of the structure."

Often, the design of floor beams is controlled by deflections

Dead load deflection is negated by reverse camber at fabrication

From AISC-ASO, the deflection due to live load is limited by:

L

6. < ----

L - 360

where L is the span length in inches, t1L calculated based on unfactored live loads.

4 - 27

Example Check deflection criteria for the W18x71 section selected in the previous example.

For W18x71: Ix = 1170 in."

5w L 4 L

---

384£1

5 (3/12)(20x 12)4 384(29,000)( 1170)

= 0.32 in.

(watch units!)

20(12)

0.67 in . ./

360

.. W18x71 O.K.

CONCENTRATED LOADS:

- Local Web Yielding (Sec. K 1 .3, p. 6-92)

- Web Crippling (Sec. K 1 .4, p. 6-93)

R

N t1 .: '

--- - - -

N + SA

N .2.Sk

,

'25

f--.--..,,----.------~--+- -----

N I[

4 - 28

LQCAL WEB YIELDING:

Greater than a distance d from the end of the member:

¢R = 1.0 (N + 5 k) F t

n y w

At or near the end of the member:

¢R = 1.0(N+2.5k)Ft

n y w

Can use Maximum Factored Uniform Load Tables (at bottom)

<PR1 + cpN R2 and <pR for N = 3 ~ "

(end bearing)

WEB CRIPPLING:

At a distance not less than d/2 for the end of the member:

( )[ J1.5ff

2 N t; ywt,

¢Rn = 0.75(135)tw 1 + 3 d t; ---c-

At or near the end of the member:

for N/d <; 0.2 cjlR .. 0.75(68) t; 1 • 3( ~l [ tt: r ~ F~:tf

for N/d > 0.2 cjlR 0 0.75(68) .: 1 + ( 4: - 0.2) [ tt: r ~ F~:tf

4 - 29

----- .. _-----------------------------,

Example Determine the adequacy of 3 in. bearing plates for the end supports of the W18x71 of the previous problem.

72 kips

Using beam table, p. 4-50:

Local Web Yielding:

cpR1 + NcpR2 - 66.8 + 17.8(3) - 120 kips .I

Web Crippling:

CPR3 + NcpR4 - 95.9 + 7.44(3) - 118 kips .I

COMBINED LOADING

- BIAXIAL BENDING

- COMBINED AXIAL TENSION AND BENDING

- COMBINED AXIAL COMPRESSION AND BENDING

BEAM-COLUMN

Use Interaction Equations:

L Load Effect <; 1.0

Design Strength

4 - 30

_- -

BIAXIAL BENDING:

x

p

y

- x

y

»: MUY

+ -- s: 1.0

¢Mnx ¢MUY

where

¢Mnx :<; ¢Mpx (may be reduced due to L TB)

¢Mny - ¢Mpy (no L TB for bending about y-y axis)

Example Verify that a W18x50 of A36 is adequate for the following loading: Mux = 100 k-ft and Muy = 20 k-ft.

W18x50: Z, = 101 in." and Zy = 16.6 in."

M

uy

+ --

¢MUY

100(12) 20(12)

----- + -----

0.9( 101 )(36) 0.9{ 16.6)(36)

0.37 + 0.45 = 0.81 < 1.0 ./

:. W18x71 of A36 steel is adequate

4 - 31

AXIAL TENSION AND BENDING:

N

p

I

p

P

For u ~ 0.2

¢tPn

1.0

For

P

u < 0.2

¢tPn

Consider all possible failure states for a tension member (GSY, NSR, BSR)

AXIAL COMPRESSION AND BENDING:

p

N

I

p

.- ... _4-J

__ I.:._ _

NL + Pl1 4

AISC-LRFD estimates the P-delta effect using a moment magnification factor, B,

4 - 32

--------<-------------------------------,

MOMENT MAGNIFICATION FACTOR (Braced Frames)

B1

~ 1.0

where

(Euler Buckling)

Cm Moment Correction Factor (similar to Cb) (see Chapter C, p. 6-41)

1 .0 for conservative design

BEAM-COLUMN INTERACTION EQUATIONS

For

p

u

1.0

< 0.2

Note: P-delta effect occurs in both axes for biaxial bending

4 - 33

Example Determine the adequacy of a W1 Ox30 of A588, Gr. 50 steel for the loading condition shown. Assume that the member is laterally braced only at the end supports.

~=============.~ Ft = 80 kips X - X

Ag = 8.84 in.2 Z; = 8.84 in.3 fx = 4.38 in.

fy = 1.37 in.

Wu = 0.5 kfft LLr::II 'TIl J I ITT lIT J

~ :~Pu

~~~ y - y.-~'

80 kips

12' - 0"

Check column buckling: since (KL)x = (KL)y = 12 ft, v-v axis controls

(~fL )

y

1.0(12)(12) 105~0

= 105, A = -- = 1.39 < 1.5

1.37 cy n 29,000

Example (cont.)

CPcPn = 0.85Fcr Ag = 0.85(0.685(139)-2)(50)(8.84) = 167.5 kips

v-v bending: Muy = 0.5(12)2/8 = 9.0 k-ft, No x-x bending: Mux = O.

Cmy = 1.0 (transverse loading and unrestrained ends (pinned))

P = n2(29,OOO)(8.84) =

ely (105)2

229 kips, 8,y = 1_,0 __

1.0 - 80/229

= 1.54

PjCPcPn = 80/167.5 = 0.478 > 0.20 .. Use Eq. (H1-1a)

4 - 34

STRUCTURAL FASTENERS

Head

Shaft

Unfinished Bolts:

Hardened Washer

A307

Nut

High-Strength Bolts: A325 A490

Tj = Clamping Force

See Table 8-15, p. 8-27, Vol II [Table 1-A, p. 5-3, 1st Ed.]

4 - 35

HIGH-STRENGTH BOLTS SUBJECT TO SHEAR:

Bearing: A325-X

A490-X

A325-N A490-N

N = threads in shear plane(s) X = threads excluded

Slip Critical:

-,,~:t~

t

A235-SC A490-SC

BOL T HOLE TYPES
STD e
Bearing-Type Connections:
Hole cannot be oversized by more ovs (i)
than 1/16" in the direction of ~
loading ~ (I)
NSL ~
Slip-Critical Connections:
Oversized holes reduce the friction NSL CID
surface, reducing the resisting force
against slip ~
LSL 4 - 36

BEARING TYPE BOLT STRENGTH

where

Fv - nominal bolt shear strength
- 24 ksi for A307
- 48 ksi for A325-N
- 60 ksi for A325-X
- 60 ksi for A490-N
- 75 ksi for A490-X
Ab - nominal area of bolt
Ns - number of shear planes (1 or 2) See Table 8-11, p. 8-24, Vol. II [Table 1-0, p. 5-5, 1 st Ed.]

SLIP-CRITICAL TYPE BOLT STRENGTH

New to LRFO 2nd Edition, can base strength on factored loads (see Appendix J, p. 6-130)

cprn - cp 1 .1 3J1TmNs
where
- 1 .0 for standard (STO) holes (see p. 6-130 for
other hole types)
J1 - slip coefficient (function of plate surface
finish)
- 0.33 for unpainted clean mill scale (Class A)
Ns - number of slip planes (1 or 2) 4 - 37

Bolt Connection Nominal Diameter d, in.
Designation Type Loading 3/4 I 7/8 I 1 11 -1 /8 11-1/4 Hole Types
-
A325-SC Slip Critical Single Shear 10.4 14.5 19.0 20.9 26.5 Standard
Double Shear 20.9 29.1 38.0 41.8 53.0
Single Shear 8.88 12.4 16.2 17.8 22.5 Oversized round
and short slotted
Double Shear 17.8 24.7 32.3 35.5 45.0
Single Shear 6.26 8.73 11.4 12.5 15.9 Long slotted
Double Shear 12.5 17.5 22.8 25.1 31.8 parallel
Single Shear 7.31 10.2 13.3 14.6 18.5 Long slotted
Double Shear 14.6 20.4 26.6 29.2 37.1 transverse
A325-N Bearing-Type Single Shear 15.9 21.6 28.3 35.8 44.2 Standard and long
threads in shear or short slotted
plane Double Shear 31.8 43.3 56.5 71.6 88.4
A325·X Bearing-Type Single Shear 19.9 27.1 35.3 44.7 55.2 Standard and long
threads not in or short slotted
shear plane Double Shear 39.8 54.1 70.7 89.5 110
-----
A490-SC Slip Critical Single Shear 13.1 18.3 23.9 29.8 38.0 Standard
Double Shear 26.1 36.5 47.7 59.7 76.1
Single Shear 11 .1 15.5 20.3 25.4 32.3 Oversized round
and short slotted
Double Shear 22.2 31.1 40.6 50.7 64.7
Single Shear 7.83 11.0 14.3 17.9 22.8 Long slotted
Double Shear 15.7 21.9 28.6 35.8 45.6 parallel
Single Shear 9.14 12.8 16.7 20.9 26.6 Long slotted
transverse
Double Shear 18.3 25.6 33.4 41.8 53.3
A490-N Bearing-Type Single Shear 19.9 27.1 35.3 44.7 55.2 Standard and long
threads in shear or short slotted
plane Double Shear 39.8 54.1 70.7 89.5 110
A490-X Bearing- Type Single Shear 24.9 33.9 44.2 56.0 69.1 Standard and long
threads not in or short slotted
shear plane Double Shear 49.7 67.7 88.4 112 138 Table: Design loads (kips) for structural bolts subject to shear (from AISC-LRFD Vol. II, Tables, 8-11 and 8-17).

4 - 38

----------------------------------------,

SPACING BETWEEN BOLTS:

Use 3" for 1.0" dia. or less

EDGE DISTANCE:

t., = 1.5d

Use 1.5" for 1.0" dia. or less

J

L e

BOLT BEARING:

cprn - O. 75(2.4)d t Fu
where
d - nominal diameter of the bolt
t - thickness of the connected part (plate)
Fu = specified tensile strength of connected part Reduced bearing strengths when spacing criteria not satisfied (see Sec. J3.1 0)

4 - 39

Example Determine the maximum design load (axial tension) for the single shear lap splice shown. Assume four 7/8" dia A325-N bolts, STD holes, and A36 steel.

Bolt Bearing:

From Table 8-11 (p. 8-24) ¢Rn = 4(21 .6) = 86.4k

L. = 1.5" ~

s = 3'

,.. .,;

1/2" x 6"

GSY:

. :--

, , ,

. :

,

(

9 = c_ccc==-c:2'>

¢Pn = 0.9(36)(0.5)(6) - 97.2 kips

NSF:

¢Pn = 0.75(58)[(0.5)(6) - 2(7/8 + 1/8)0.5)] = 87.0 kips

Example (cont.)

Bolt Bearing:

¢rn = 0.75(2.4)(7/8)(0.5)(58) - 46.7 kips/bolt

¢Rn = 4(46.7) = 183 kips

Check Bolt Spacing

Smin = 3d = 3(7/8) = 2.63 in. < 3.0 in. O.K.

t., = 1.5d = 1.5(7/8) = 1.31 in. < 1.5 in. Q__,_&_

.. ·--.mEn - 87.0 kips (Net Section Fracture of the plate)

4 - 40

NET SECTION SHEAR STRENGTH

Similar to net section fracture of tension members

Shear Fracture Plane

1

O. 75(0.6)Fu An

An = Agv - Aholes

Lt (d + 1 /8")t

= - n holes bolt

cpRn = 0.75(0.6)Fu t [L - nholes(dbolt + 1/8")]

E_G_CENTRIC LOADS ON BOLT GROUPS

Vector or Elastic Method (Conservative)

f

v,x

r

f M 'critical
=
v J
f X
f v
v.v r P

f =--

v,d LAi

I (f + f )2 + f2

v,d V,Y V,X

Use Eccentrically Loaded Bolt Group Tables (pp. 8-40 to 8-87, Vol//)

[pp. 5-63 to 5-86, pt Ed.)

Based on Instantaneous Center of Rotation Method

4 - 41

ECCENTRIC LOADS ON BOLT GROUPS

--- -
Table 8-19.
Coefficients C for Eccentrically Loaded Bolt Groups
Angle = 0°
It
ereq = - or ~Rn = ex Q'n
$fn f~
where
Pu ::: factored force. kips fO ."'j
"n = design strength per bolt. kips _~ .. ~._u
oRn ::: design strength of bolt group, kipS ~-~.4-.-
e = eccentricity of PIJ with respect to centroid ~ . .
of bolt group. in. (not tabulated. may be ~ .-~-.-.~.-
determined by geometry) ·-·f-·-t·-
e, ::: horizontal component of e. in. ~
s ::::: bolt spacing. in.
C = coefficient tabulated below.
e" Number of bolts in one vertical row, n
--
5, in. in. 1 2 3 4 5 I 6 7 8 9 10 11
f----
2 084 2.54 4.48 659 872 io.e 129 150 17.0 19.0 210
3 0.65 2.03 368 567 777 9.9t 12.1 142 16.3 183 204
4 054 1.67 306 4.86 684 893 11,1 132 15.4 175 19.6
5 0,45 1.42 259 421 6.01 800 10.1 122 144 165 187
6 039 1.22 225 3.69 5.32 717 9.16 112 13,4 155 177
7 035 108 1.99 327 4.74 646 833 103 124 14.5 167
8 031 096 178 2.93 427 5.86 760 950 11.5 13.6 157
9 028 086 160 265 3.87 534 697 875 107 12.7 14 7
10 026 078 146 242 353 490 642 810 9.91 11.6 13.8
3 12 022 066 124 206 301 419 551 7.01 8.63 lOA 12.2
14 019 0.57 108 178 262 366 4.82 6 15 761 919 109
16 017 051 095 157 232 324 427 5A7 679 823 978
18 015 OA5 085 1 41 207 290 383 492 611 I 743 885
20 0.14 0,41 0.77 127 188 263 348 447 555 I 676 807
I 24 012 0.34 065 107 1.58 221 293 377 4.69 i 572 685
I 12 230 225 21.7 208 198

188 178 168 159 142

127 11 4 10.4

9481

806

Example

Determine the maximum design load that the bolt group for the crane rail support can carry. Assume A325-X, 7/8" dia. bolts in single shear.

10' P u

,r--- ~- -

--- -

1

From Table 8-24

¢rn 27.1 kips

From Table 8-19 (p. 8-46)

C 1.46

1.46(27.1)

39.6 kips

4 - 42

WELDS

Weld Types:

- fillet weld

- complete penetration groove weld

- partial penetration groove weld

- plug and slot weld

Weld Processes:

- Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)

- Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)

ELECTRODE - FILLER METAL

Match Weld Metal:

Base Metal:

Fy = 36 ksi, Fu - 60 ksi

Use E60XX electrodes (Can use E70XX)

Base Metal:

Fy = 50 ksi,

F = 70 ksi

u

Use E70XX electrodes

4 - 43

-~-------"-------------------------------.

DESIGN STRENGTH OF FILLET WELDS

Theorectlcal Weld Face

Theorecticar Weld Throat

Weld Face

O.75(O.6)FEX O.707a

Weld Root

strength per unit length

1-0(

I

I ~

a

For E60XX, <pk w

1.19 kips/1 /16" of weld

For E70XX, <t>k w

1 .39 kips/1 116" of weld

A fillet weld size, a, of 5/16 in. is common since it is the maximum size that can be placed down in one pass.

Fillet weld along plate edge cannot exceed the plate thickness minus 1/16 in. when the plate thickness is 114 in. or greater.

4 - 44

Example Two plates of A36 steel are to be spliced using a 5/16 in. weld. One plate is 1 "x8" and the other is Y2" x 6". Determine the required weld length based on the smaller plate capacity.

GSY: P = 0.9(36)(0.5)(6.0) - 97.2 kips

5"

Use E60XX electrodes

1" x 8" ft

J

Lreq -

1/2" x 6" f{

6"

97.2

-~---

0,75(0.6)(60)(0.707)(5116)

~ ~ J

- 16.3 in.

5/16"

ECCENTRIC LOADS ON WELD GROUPS

L

XLf

f ---+

kL

kL

C

p

p 0----

P CC,D

L

C,DL

CC,L

D C,

number of 1/16" fillet weld size Electrode Coefficient (= 1.0 for E70XX) (see Table 8-37, p. 8-158)

4 - 45

-_---------------------------------------~

ECCENTRIC LOADS ON WELD GROUPS

c--------·· -- .---.----.-.----------------

Table 8-38.

Coefficients C for Eccentrically Loaded Weld Groups Angle = 0°

where

it = factored force. kips

o : number of srxteenms-ot-an-tnch in the fillet weld size

J = characteristic length at weld group, In a = e .. II,in

e .. = horizontal component of eccentricity 01

Pu wrth respect to centroid 01 weld qrovp. In

C = coefficient tabulated below which includes 0;::- 075 C, ::::: electode strength cocrtc.em from Table 8-37

(1 0 for E70XX electrodes

mOl

I ·1 p. Specie! Case

_ .. J/ * (Load nol ;n plane of weld group)

\ j Use C-values for k = 0

~AnY #QlIol dislone,s

k
IJ 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 OJ 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
0.00 278 278 278 278 278 2.78 278 278 278 278 278 2.78 278 278 278 278
0.10 278 278 278 278 278 277 275 274 273 271 270 2fi1 264 261 259 278
0.15 2.75 275 2" 273 271 2.70 269 267 2.66 2.64 2.63 2.60 258 2.55 253 250
020 264 263 263 262 2.60 2.59 2.58 2.57 256 255 254 2.52 250 H8 2.<6 244
025 2.48 248 248 2.47 247 246 246 245 245 244 2.44 2.43 2'1 2.40 239 238 Determine the maximum design load that the weld group shown can support. Assume 5/16 in. fillet welds made with E60XX electrodes.

Use Table 8-42

11" P u

/ --------- -

(p. 8-187)

L = 10", kL = 6"

k = 0.6

x = 0.164 (from bottom row) xL = 0.164(10) - 1.64"

ex = aL = 11 - 1.64 = 9.4" .. a = 9.4/10 = 0.94

For a = 0.94 and k = 0.6, C = 1.51 C1 = 0.857 (from p. 8-158)

5/16"

'0"

1 I I I I

I

, L. __ .-_-_......,___,-J-+-J

6"

C C, D L

= 1.51(0.857)(5)(10)

64.7 kips

4 - 46

----------------------------------------------------------~

COMPLETE PENETRATION GROOVE WELDS

Use "Matching" weld metal

No explicit design

I:ARTIAL PENETRATION GROOVE WELDS

[-----

a

o

o

/ , ,

(~~¥Z

t = 0 - 1/8" t = D

e e

Weld Metal: ¢Fw Aw

O.80(O.60)FEX Aw

Base Metal: ¢FwAw

4 - 47

STEEL CONNECTIONS

a) b)

SIMPLE CONNECTIONS (Shear)

Double Angle (Framed Beam Connection) Single Angle

Seated Beam

MOMENT CONNECTIONS (Shear and Moment)

Flange Plate Split Tee End Plate

DOUBLE ANGLE CONNECTION

Column
Beam
,l---
I~ • • 1
• •
• •
• •
• •
',_--- (s) (~)

4 - 48

DOUBLE ANGLE CONNECTION

1) Shear Capacity of the beam web

2) Bolt hole bearing strength of the beam web

3) Shear Capacity of the bolts (double shear)

4) Bolt hole bearing strength of the angles

5) Net section shear capacity of angles (usually controls)

6) Gross section yielding of angles

7) Shear capacity of bolts at column (single shear but 2x)

8) Bolt hole bearing capacity of the column flange

BOLTED DOUBLE-ANGLE CONNECTIONS

~-- __ --~-- __ -- __ ------- ----------- __ --~

I Fr= 3S ksi I

Fu= 58 ksl .

Table 9-2 (cont.].

All-Bolted Double-Angle Connections

Table 9-2

(pp. 9-22 to 9-87)

11a-ln. Bolts

f-- S_R_OWS -l ASTM Thread Hole I-- __ A"ng-.,..le_Th_lc,knes __ S.:....,. In,. _-j

Desig. Condo Type 'I, 5/,6 %

W30. 27. 24. 21. 18 524.20.18 MC18

1111111 ~llill

4 - 49

Bolt and Angle Design Strength. kips

A325 N

124 155 186 216

x

124 155 186 248

SC SID 124 145 145 145

Class A

OVS

115

124

124

124

SSLT

124

124

124

124

r-.--r-~---~---1--~--~ SC

STD

124

155

186

216

WELDED FRAMED BEAM CONNECTIONS

------ll

As an alternative to bolting, the angles can be fillet welded to the beam web.

Beam

L

Design Tables are given on pp. 9 -88, 9-89, and 9-90 (E70XX)

Bolt bearing in the beam web is no longer a concern if welded

UNSTIFFENED BEAM SEATS

Column

"I /

i ,

Angle Stabilizes Top Flange

\

R

Beam

Flexible Angle

4 - 50

1 }

~ 1'-,<,> - - ,-' -: ,-,"- 'I" tv n - - n r: '~-I'l "V eb

"'} _,c...~ ._r_. ." ... ',1 ~ vi Ul.... ... ~ I " lJ

l.ocal "'/(;0 vieldir.q and WeD crippi.nqof bean; web Be:ndif1g c:ap:v_;i~V of anqle

Bolt hole boarinc capacity of angle

Bolt shear strenqth at angle-column connection Bolt bearing capacity of column flange (web)

')1 .£./

3) 4) 5) 6)

Design tables arc provided:

p. 9-136 for bolted connections p. 9-137 for welded connections

I -_--
!.ltiSTIFFENFD B'-A "II '-'EA T~
~-:. I.~.~-,,~
1/2" --r-
-1- r- R
u
N
Critical r--- --]
Section ,
.~~ V-------;
~ /_, /0
I-I
I I e
3/8" -,; c---- -,
I
t 1- "I-
I
f-- -
I L'f
. 4 - 5 i

,------ MOM f::f\lT_C QN I'J_ECJlQ~--------------------'

A moment connection is made by connecting the flanges

The design of lhs connection ~s -::1"1')11 CG~;;,d

p-

;} t

c=========== ,

i - \

)

on t:18 maqnirude of the terce carried ~hroL!gh the beam flanges:

!vi

II

p -

ut cE-<:-_.___

where

d ; = moment arm and is either the full depth of the beam, d, or d - t, depending on the type of connection

The shear is still carried by a web connection

----------------------------,

MOM~tJl__C_QI-H.~_£C_TIQhj - 'vVELDED FLANGES

The flanges are welded to the column using complete penetration groove welds

Full Penetration Groove Weld

d =, d - t,

• (,r-,

Only need to match the, weld metal with the base meta!

The shear is carried by an end-plate shear connection

4 - 52

,--"-"-------"------------------------------,

FLANGE-PLATEJ2 MO!\llENT CONNECTIONS

Hanqe-tc-Beam rlange Connection

Flange Plate

fillet welded

(top plate narrower than beam flange)

(bottom plate wider than beam flange)

bolted (single shear)

I

/

u.

• • • •

r

Plate-to-Column Connection

- fillet welded

- complete penetration groove weld

MOMENT CONNECTIONS

The beam flange force, Puf, may cause failure of the column flange and or web

The tension force causes:

r.. (tension)

- flange bending

- local web y!elding

Pu, (corn pression)

The compression force causes:

- web crippling

- compression buckling

The column resistance to these failures is reduced at the end or top of the column (free end)

4 - 53

---.~----------------------------------,

TIMBER DESIGN

National Design Specifications for vvood Construction (NDS®)

Revised 1991 Edition (Green Cover)

American Forest & Products Associate 1111 19th Street, N. W., Seventh Floor Washington, D.C. 20037

Attn: Publications Dept.

National Design Specifications Supplement

Contains sawn lumber section properties, allowable stresses for lumber and glued laminated timber

ASD DESIGN METHOD

Design Equation:

f

F

where

f -

design stress level due to the load effect load effect divided by the member section property

F -

allowable stress level

material resistance divided by a factor of safety

4 - 54

r--- ... -------------------------------------------- __ ~

STRUCTURAL SAWN LUMBER CATEGORIES

Structural

Dimension

,. I

! Beam s & Stringers

l __ ~ .. _

b = 2" to 4" b ?: 5" b ?: 5" b = 2" to 4"
d ~ 2" d ;> b + 2" d s b + 2"
used primarily as used primarily weak-axis
bending members as columns bending Section Properties of Standard Dressed Sawn Lumber

(NDS-Sup Table 1 B)

X·XAxIS y.y AXIS
Standard Area Moment Moment
Nominal Dressed of Section 01 Section of Approximate weight in pounds r
Size Size (54S) Section Modulus Inertia Modulus Inertia of piece when density of ,
bxd bxd A S", lu Syy Iyy
inches x inches in2 in3 in4 in3 in~ 251b1113 30 1bII13 351b1113 40 Ibn
1 x 3 3/4 x 2·1/2 1.875 0.781 0.977 0.234 0.088 0.326 0.391 0.456 0.52
1 x 4 3/4 x 3·1/2 2.625 1.531 2.680 0.328 0.123 0.456 0.547 0.638 0.7~
1 x 6 3/4 x 5·1/2 4.125 3.781 10.40 0516 0.193 0.716 0.859 1.003 1.14(
1 x 8 3/4 x 7·1/4 5.438 6.570 2382 0.680 0.255 0.944 1.133 1.322 1.511
1 x 10 3/4 x 9·1/4 6.938 1070 49.47 0.867 0.325 1.204 1.445 1.686 1.92:
1 x 12 3/4 x 11·1/4 8438 15.82 8899 1.055 0.396 1.465 1.758 2.051 2.34-
_. --
2 x 3 1-1/2 x 2·1/2 3.750 1.563 1.953 0938 0.703 0.651 0.781 0.911 1.04:
2 x 4 1·1/2 x 3·112 5250 3.063 5.359 1.313 0.984 0.911 1.094 1276 1.451
2 x 5 1·1/2 x 4-1/2 6.750 5.063 11.39 1.688 1.266 1.172 1.406 1.641 1.87~
2 x 6 1·1/2 x 5112 8250 7563 2080 2063 1.547 1.432 1.719 2005 229:
2 x 8 1·112 x 7·114 1088 13.14 47.63 2719 2039 1.888 2.266 2.643 302
2 x 10 1·112 x 9114 1388 2139 9893 3469 2.602 2.409 2891 3.372 3.8~
2 x 12 1·1/2 x 11·114 16.88 31.64 1780 4219 3.164 2930 3.516 4102 4681
2 x 14 1·112 x 13·114 1988 4389 2908 4969 3.727 3.451 4.141 4831 552
_ .. -- .. __ .. - f---- 1---- ._-
3 x 4 2·1/2 x 3·112 8750 5104 8932 3.646 4.557 1.519 1.823 2127 2.4:J
3 x 5 2·112 x 4·112 11 25 8438 1898 4688 5.859 1 953 2.344 2734 3.12~
3 x 6 2·112 x s 112 1375 1260 3466 5729 7.161 ·2.387 2.865 3342 3.81~
3 x 8 2·112 x 7 ·1/4 18.13 21.90 7939 7552 9.440 3.147 3776 4405 5.03~ 4 - 55

ALLOWABLE STRESS

Allowable stress values for wood differ for different stress orientations and member types due to its anisotropic nature

The following designations are used for the tabulated allowable design stresses:

extreme fiber in bending

tension parallel to grain compression parallel to grain compression perpendicular to grain horizontal shear

end grain in bearing

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

~.~ ~~ ~.~.-.- .. ~ -.--.... .•....... )

- ~.. \ '

~ .-~. ... 1

_.. "

~-~--

~-. 1:"" ---~ ~D

-_--_ ..

--------"

--~-~-71······l

l;tj Fv

____ ~ J/ /

4 - 56

NOS Sup. Base Design Values for Visually Graded Lumber

Sp.._"CI€S and ccmmerc.at c-aoo

DOUGLAS FlR·LARCH· .'

Setect Structural No.' & Btr

No 1

No2

No 3

Stud Construction Standard

Utility

parallel to grain r

perpeno.cvtar to grain F"

par auct 10 grain r

1<50 " 50 1000 875 500 675 1000 550 275

1000 775 675 575 325 450 650 375 175

95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95

625 625 625 625 625 625 625 625 625

1700 1500 1450 1300 750

825 1600 1350 875

DOUGLAS FIR·LARCH (NORTH)

Select Suoctura! No 1/No2

No 3

Stud Construction Standard

Utility

1300 825 475 650 950 525 250

800 500 300 375 575 325 150

625 625 625 625 625 625 625

1300 900 825 475 650 925 525

875 600 525 300 425 600 350 150

1 900000 1 800 000 1 700 000 , 600000 1400 000 1,400,000 1.500.000 l,400.CXXl

95 95 95 95 95 95 95

9Q 90 90 90 90 90 90 90

520 520 520 520 520 520 520 520

1900 1350 775 850 1750 1400 925

1 900 OOC· 1 600 DOC , 4000::>0 , .400,000 I,SOO,OOO 1.400.000 1,300,000

wells W\NPA

DOUGLAS FlR·SOUTH . .

Select Structural No 1

No 2

No3

Stud Construction Standard

1550 1400 1300 750

825 1550 1300 875

1 .:.0000-) 13000:)0 1 200000 1 lOOGGD 1.100,000 1.200.000 1,100,000 1.000.000

NlCt.

';".:.IrA

NOS Sup. Base Design Values for Visually Graded Lumber

SpeOesard commercial grade

SOUTHERN PINE

Size ciassitcaton

GOOng Rules Agency

Dense Select Structural

Select Structural

Design values in pounds per square incIt tps.)

Berding F,

Tension parallel to grain

F,

Shear para/Ie( to grain

F,

Compression perpeoccutar 10 grain F'l

Corroresson parejet

10 grain

F,

Modulus of Etastcity E

Non-Dense Select Structural NO.1 Dense

NO.1 2·-4~lck

3050 2850 2650 2000 1850 1700 1700 1500 1350 850 875

1100 625 300

2700 2550 2350 1750 '650 '500 1450 1250 1150

750 775

2450 2300 2100 1650 1500

1650 1600 1350 1100 1050 900 875 825 775 475 500

625 350 175

1500 1400 1200 950 900 800 775 725 675 425 425

1350 1300 1100 875 825

100 100 100 100 100 100 90 90 90 90 90

100 90 90

90 9Q 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90

90 90 90 90 90

660 565 480 660 56S 480 660 565 480 565 565

565 565 565

660 565 480 660 565 480 660 565 480 565 56S

660 565 480 660 565

2250 2100 1950 2000 1850 1700 1850 1650 1600 97S 975

1800 1500 975

2150 2000 1850 1900 1750 1600 1750 1600 1500 925 925

2050 1900 1750 1800 1650

1.900.000 1.800.000 1.700.000 1.800.000 1.700.000 1.600.00v 1.700.000 1.600.000 1.400.000 1,400,000 1.400.000

SPIB

NO.2 Dense 2~-4~ Wide

No2

No.2 Non-Dense No.3

S1ud

Dense Select Structural

Construction -;- -4~thick.

Standard

Utility 4 ~ wKle

Select Structural

Non-Dense Select Structural

No 1 Dense

No2 Dense 5- -6- w.oe

No 2

No 2 Non Dense No3

SlUd

No 1 Non OenS€

1.500.000 1.300.000 1.300.000

1.900.000 1.800000 1,700.000 1800000 1.100.000 1.600.000 1700000 1.600.000 1.400.000 1.400.000 , .' ~OOOOO

Select Snvctor a:

Dense Setect Structural

Non-Dense Setect Structural

No 1 Dense

No 1

4 - 57

1.900000 , .800000 1.700.000 1.800.000 , ,700.000

---.-------------------------------------------~

ADJUSTMENT FACTORS

Tabulated design values of allowable stress for various species and grades of structural lumber may require modification for certain load conditions and applications:

F'

LeX F

Design Value

Adjustment Factor

E

Duration of load, Co Size, CF

I I

X I X I X: : X I X I

- -- - - -___[_ ---- -___[_ -----___[_ - --- -___[_ -- ---___[_ -----___[_ ------

I I I I 1 I

X : X: : : X: :

------___[_-----___[_-----___[_-----___[_-----___[_-----___[_------

I I I I I I

X: : : : : :

------___[_-----___[_-----___[_-----___[_-----___[_-----___[_------

I I I I I I

: : : : X: :

------___[_-----___[_-----___[_-----___[_-----___[_-----___[_------

I I I I I I

X:X:X:X:X: :X

Lateral stability of beams, CL Lateral stability of columns, Cp Wet use, CM

See NDS Table 2.3.1 for complete listing

CD - DURATION OF LOAD

Accounts for the fact that wood can support higher stresses for shorter periods of time

Tabulated allowable stresses are for normal duration of load

Ty~e of Load Duration of Load Modification Factor, CQ
Dead load Over 10 years, permanent 0.9
Floor live load 10 years 1.0
Snow load 2 months 1.1 5
Roof Live load 7 days 1.25
Wind or earthquake 1 day 1.33
Impact 2 seconds 2.0 Conservative to assume CD = 1.0

4 - 58

BEAMS AND BENDING MEMBERS

Allowable bending stress:

F'

b

where

M S

F'

b

[C X Fb

Co CM CL CF c; c; CD C, X Fb

Some factors may already be incorporated into the tabulated values

For sawn lumber 2" to 4" thick loaded on the wide face, apply Flat Use Factor, Ctu'

REPETITIVE MEMBER FACTOR

For dimension lumber 2" to 4" thick used as joists, truss chords, rafters, studs, planks, decking, or similar members:

where

C,

repetitive member factor 1 .15

Requires:

- 3 or more members

- spacing ~ 24" c/c

- floor, roof or other load distributing

elements

24" clc

maximum

4 - 59

-------------------------------------------,

STABILITY OF BENDING MEMBERS

Nominal Depth to

Width Ratio

Rule

2: 1 or less

No lateral Support is required

The ends shall be held in position, as by full-depth solid blocking, bridging, hangers, nailing or bolting to other framing members, or other acceptable means

One edge shall be held in line for its entire length Bridging, full-depth at intervals not exceeding 8 ft unless both edges are held in line or unless the compression edge of the member is supported throughout its length to prevent lateral displacement, as by adequate sheathing or subflooring, and the ends at points

3: 1 to 4: 1

5: 1 6: 1

7: 1 Both edges shall be held in line for their entire length

ALLOWABLE SHEAR STRESS

For rectangular cross-sections, the shear formula simplifies to the following:

3V 2bd

where:

d b V

depth of the cross-section (in.) width of the cross-section (in.) design shear force or reaction

When calculating the shear force, V, all loads within a distance d from either support may be neglected (loads applied to one surface and beam fully supported by the opposite face

4 - 60

-_._--_._--------------------------------,

SHEAR AT NOTCHED BENDING MEMBERS

Notched in tension face:

[2:~~1 [~l

dn

d

,

/ //

where

d depth of unnotched member

d; depth of member remaining at a notch

V shear force determined by conventional means

souo RECTANGULAR COLUMNS d

fIT

r

Determine effective column length:

KL

Lelr ~ 50 (75 during construction)

K

1 0

0.8

1.2

2.1

2.4

0.65

4 - 61

-- .. ----. --------------------------------,

COLUMN STABILITY FACTOR - C;

where

tabulated compression design value multiplied by all applicable adjustment factors except C;

K £1

cE

(L)d)2

0.3 for visually graded lumber

BEARING PERPENDICULAR TO GRAIN

Based on net bearing area:

For bearing less than 6" in length and not nearing than 3" to the end of the member:

Bearing area factor

Lb - 0.375 Lb

where L; is the bearing length measured parallel to grain (in.)

4 - 62

-----------------------------------~

BEARING PARALLEL TO GRAIN

F'

g

BEARING PERPENDICULAR TO GRAIN

" 90" ~

------'V

Direction of Load

Direction of Grain

CQNNECTIONS

Design tables given in NOS

• General Provisions - Part VII

• Bolts - Part VIII

• Lag Screws - Part IX

• Split Ring and Shear Plate Connectors - Part X

• Wood Screws - Part XI

• Nails and Spikes - Part XII

Strength values a function of specific gravity of the wood (see N OS Table 8A)

4 - 63

STRUCTURAL GLUED LAMINATED TIMBER

Fabricated from relatively thin laminations of wood. Stronger, higher grades of wood placed at the outer laminations

Require application of adjustment factors as per NOS Sup. Table 5A, and NOS Sec. 2.3 and Part 5

NOS Sup. Table 5A provides design values (allowable stresses, etc.) for different lamination combinations with various wood species. Section Properties for glued laminated timber are given in NOS Sup. Table 1 C

Lamination designation given as XXF-VY where XXF is the tension zone bending stress (x 103 psi), V is for visually graded wood, and Y is for the lamination combination (see UBC Standard No. 25-11).

NOS Sup. Oesign Values for Glued Laminated Timber

Design values ., pounds per square inch (psij
BENDING ABOUT x-x AXIS (Loaded :a~~~~ ~~y ~Sminations)
(Loaded Perpendicular 10 Wode Faces of Laminations)
Bending Compression Shear ParaReI
Perpendicular to Grain 10 Grain
(For Members
WrtIl Mu~ipIe
$pedes Tension Compfession Shear Compression Shear Piece Tel
Outer Zone Zone Peraaet Modulus Perpendicular Parallel laminations Modulus Pa
Laminations! Stressed Stressed Tension Compression 10 of to Grain 10 Which are Not of
Combination eo.. in Tension inTensiof16 Face9-IO Face9_10 GfainlO Elaslicity Benalng (Side Faces) Grain Edge Glued)" Elasticity G
Symbol' laminations5 F ... F_ FC1u Fel"" F~ ED F.,., FeiN F", F", E,.,
VISUALLY GRADED SOUTHERN PINE
16F-Vl SPISP 1600 800 5609.10 560'0 200 1,400,000 14SO 560 175 90 1.300,000 9
16F-V2 SPISP 1600 800 5609.10 560'0 200 1,400,000 1600 560 175 90 1,400,000 io
16F·V3 SPISP 1600 800 6SO 650 200 1,400,000 14SO 560 175 90 1,300,000 9
1SF-V .. , SPISP 1600 800 56Q9.IO SfJO'o 90'0 1.300,000 975 470 ISO 75 '.200.000 6'
'6F·VSI SPISP '600 ,600 56()9.10 560'0 200 1,400,000 1600 560 175 90 1,400.000 '0
2OF·Vl SPISP 2000 1000 650 560'0 200 1,500,000 14SO 560 175 90 1,400,000 io
2OF.V2 SPISP 2000 1000 650 560'0 200 1.600,000 14SO 560 175 90 1,400,000 ICY
2OF.V3 SPISP 2000 1000 5609.10 560'0 200 1,400,000 1600 560 175 90 1,400,000 1()(
2OF-V47 SPISP 2000 1000 650 560'0 90'0 1,500,000 1100 470 150 75 1,300,000 r.
2Of-V51! SPISP 2000 2000 650 650 200 1,600,000 1450 560 175 90 t,400,()(X) 10!
22F·Vl SPISP 2200 1100 650 650 200 1,600,000 1600 560 , 75 90 ',500,000 1 O~
22F·V2 SPISP 2200 1100 5609.10 560'0 200 1,400,000 1600 560 '75 90 1,400.000 io
22F·V3 SPISP 2200 1100 650 560'0 200 1,600,000 1500 560 '75 90 , ,400.000 to!
22F-V47 SPISP 2200 11()() 650 560'0 90'0 1,600,000 1250 470 155 60 1,400,000 8:
22F·VS" SPISP 2200 2200 650 650 200 1,600,()()() 1600 470 175 90 1,500,000 10~
2'F·Vl SPISP 2400 1200 650 560'0 200 1,700,000 1500 560 175 90 1,500.000 III
24F·V2 SPISP 2400 '200 650 6S0 200 1,700,000 1600 560 175 90 1,500.000 11\
24F·V3 SPISP 2400 '200 650 650 200 1,800,000 1600 560 175 90 1.600,000 1 1 ~
24F-V47 SPISP 2400 ,200 650 560 90'0 1,700,000 1250 470 155 60 1.400.()()() 8!
24F-VSft SPISP 2400 2400 650 650 200 1,700,000 1600 560 175 90 1.500,000 , \ ~
?d.I=-VI> SPKP ?dnA ,?~ «0 0<0 000 4 ........... " ........ • ~ .... A --- -- 4 - 64

NOS SUQ. Section PrQQerties Qf Glued Laminated Timber

SOUTHERN PINE (based on , ·3/8~ thick laminations) WESTERN SPECIES (based on 1 112a thick.laminallons)
X-X AXIS y-y AXIS X-X AXIS
Net Area Moment Moment Nel Area Moment
Finished Number 01 Section of Section of Finished Number 01 Section of
Dimensions of Section Modulus Inertia Modulus Inertia Dimensions 01 Section Modulus Inertia
b , d laminations A So I .. Syy Iyy b x d Laminations A S .. I ..
inches x inches in2 in3 in" in3 in" inches x inches in2 in3 in"
6-314 x 19-114 14 129.9 416_9 4012 146.2 493.4 5-lf8 x 31-112 21 161.4 847_5 13350
6·3/4 x 20-518 15 139_2 478_6 4935 156_6 528_6 5-1/8 x 33 22 1691 930.2 15350
6·3/4 x 22 16 1485 544.5 5990 167.1 563_8 5-1/8 x 34-1/2 23 1768 1017 17540
6314 x 23-3/8 17 157.8 614.7 7184 1775 599_1 5-1f8x36 24 184.5 1107 19930
63/4 x 24-3/4 18 167.1 689_1 8528 187.9 634_3 6-3/4 x 7-1/2 5 50.63 63.28 237_3
6·3/4 x 26-1/8 19 1763 7678 10030 198.4 669.6 6-3/4 x 9 6 6075 91.13 410_1
6-3/4 x 27-112 20 185.6 850_8 11700 2088 704.8 6-3/4 x 10-1/2 7 7088 124_0 6512
6·3/4 x 28-7/8 21 194.9 938.0 13540 2193 740.0 6-3/4 x 12 8 8100 162.0 972.0
63/4 x 30-1/4 22 204.2 1029 15570 2297 7753 6-3/4 x 13-1/2 9 g, .13 205_0 1384
---"---- 6-3/4 x 31-5/8 23 1-_2'35 1125 17790 2402 8105 6-3/4 x 1S 10 101 J 2531 1898
63/4 x 33 24 2228 1225 20210 2506 845.8 6-3/4 x 16-112 11 111 4 306.3 2527
63/4 x 34-3/8 25 2320 1329 22850 26' 0 881.0 6-314 x , 8 12 121 5 364.5 3281
6 3/4 "( 35-3/4 26 2413 1438 25700 2715 9162 6-314 x '9-112 13 1316 4278 4171
6-3/4 x 37-118 27 2506 1551 28780 2819 951.5 6-3l4 x 21 14 1418 496.1 5209
6-3/4 x 38·1/2 28 259.9 1668 32100 292.4 986.7 6-3/4 x 22·112 ,5 151.9 569.5 6407
6-3/4 x 39-7/8 29 2692 1789 35660 302.8 1022 6-3/4 x 24 16 1620 648_0 7776
6-3/4 x 4'-1/4 30 2784 1914 39480 3132 1057 6-3/4 x 25-' 12 17 172.1 73'-5 9327
6-3/4 r 42-5/8 31 2877 2044 43560 3237 1092 6-314 x 27 18 1823 8201 11070
6-3/4 x 44 32 297_0 2178 47920 334.1 1128 6-3/4 x 28·112 19 1924 913_8 13020
6-3/4 x 45-318 33 306.3 2316 52550 344.6 1163 6-3/4 x )0 20 202.5 1013 15190
63/4 x 46-314 34 3156 2459 57470 3550 1198 6-3/4 x 31·1/2 21 2126 " 16 17580
6-3/4 x 46-1/8 35 3248 2606 62700 3654 1233 6-3/4 II: 33 22 2228 1225 20210
0-1/2 x: 8-1/4 6 70.13 96.42 397_7 99.34 4222 6-3/4 x 34-1/2 23 2329 1339 23100
81/2 x 9-518 7 8181 1312 6316 1159 492.6 6-3/4 x 36 24 243.0 1458 26240
B 1/2 x 11 8 9350 171.4 942.8 1325 5629 6-3/4 l( 37-11;:> 25 253 I 1582 29660
8-1/2 x 12-318 9 1052 216.9 1342 149.0 633.3 6-3/4 l39 26 2633 ,711 33370
8-1/2 x 13·3/4 10 , 16.9 267.8 1841 1656 703.7 6-314 x 40-' f2 27 273,4 1845 37370
B 112 x 15-1/4 11 1286 324_1 2451 182.' 774.1 6-3/4.0.:42 28 2835 1985 41670
8-1/2 x 16-112 12 140.3 3857 3182 '98.7 844.4 6-314 x 43-112 29 2936 2129 46300
81/2x 17·7f8 13 151.9 452_6 4046 215.2 914.8 6-3/4 x 45 30 3038 2278 51260
8·1/2 x 19-1/4 14 1636 525.0 505J 231.8 9852 6-314 I( 41')., r? 11 .'11'1 Q ?4"l"l """'" 4 - 65

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