N"~eJelJ ~a3.

;))~CPCll)

.,J.~.iltG'7Se5 ~ejDQ, 1l;Il~& S G;;JOO& SD~ 'lBiSJiJ"r::5o : OJ"@~ {:);6b~llSl~~

YOU ARE BORN TO BLOSSOM

'lake My Journey Beyond •..

APJ Abdul Kalam, with Arun K Tiwar:i

Tmlls(ated fmlll ElIgHsh to Telttgu Vadrevu China Veerabhadrudu

First Edition, 2009

rsBN : 978~81-8351-022-6

Reem Publications Pvt. Ltd. 4187/23. Ansari Road, Darya Gan], New Delhi-lIO 002 (!NDL'\.)

Tele: +9L-J 1-2326 2905. Fax; +91-11-2.3268122

Email: reem.publications@\.sru.net .

Exclusively Disoibuted by:

Jyoti Book Depot

(a. nnit of JBD Educational!! (P) Ltd.) ViJ;akhapatnam (A.P.)

Tele: 0891-6666063: Fax: 089J-254J203

8 ranc lie s:

Byderahad : 040-32998606. Vijaywada ; 0866-6611165

Published in arrangement with Ocean Paperbacks 4/J9 Asaf Ali Road, New Delhi-Llf) 002 (lNDIA)

Every effort h.as been made to avoid errors or omissions in this publications In it f ihi sOD_Je error~ ~lghl haver:ePI in .. A.ny mislake.error or discrepancy noted may be b:~~~ 10 o~; nonce and H shall be taking care of 11l the Den edition. It is notified thUl neither the publishers 110. the authors or seller will be respa[)slble for any damase or loss of any kind .

there from rna J be b HI. • " . o.J.U. In any IILUJlnCL".

. . . y pease rougnt to our nonce and the correction will he mcomorared JJJ' .1-

next ediuon, ~I" me

No part of this publication may be reproduced or Stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in an~ form or ~yany means, mechanical. photocopying. recording or olhenvise. wirhout prior wntt e n permlssiorr of the Pu blisher,

Typesel at iPallav: Graphics. Hyderabad. Primed at :

2006 ~~ 5::6 c5§_Ea e..5iJtojC co6o:iJ>6o <SK6 e;~~ o}>l:S-s"e.> ;;S~~..P'et iJc~;;Se.Jo:og ~~<::o. QJOepG'S6CClo:DO~ ~~~ ~JS:Jotxl;;Sd.. iil"os,eu. S":O ss CJ"~056~:Od ~s6acfu~O~ ~eY'oofuoe g)~~en @>3r:/J:.§ i5etS c5eJ~So <;lC ~p)6OSJ~ol~~ t.o~oe. NO~iJo~ @Q}Jl~ i\l'" g)J~~ W'b ~5N"O"cfu£'i ~W" G~~. @dS:><5 e..s<6.J~ ~6~a-a<':O§ ~ e) ~oaJ"e) oJOOJolgt>~ el) @l~05~~ ~e~ S"6SL§t6J.>:og ~fj)S 5"6s:06s~&;"GlS"eTl" <6:0;5;006. st'eo ~ .... e;:J"O"dSJ~ (!!j ~t6-o"e.> ~6s g)~~et e..~ .Dil~ g)0"e5~' ;;3lV"cfu~ ';fu~!§&~ g)OOS~no -t:S6J~~tSd. & ee- et ~ oS.:? e. N" et.i) O\s ~_!j, & ~ & a, s & re' o)JJ ~ g) t6J.> r::r> IDd_ t5Y>gJr>oeo-t:SKeJ~~ 8a~oW"..,.,' ~:O ~e,~tSJ. @o6:J~66:l ~;;S g)eJ!i\~ OSJo6c;JS;Go& 'iJ"S"'{j~ dlli6.Do:5J<oN"e.>otlJ':> a..StDae .. j"'c\S):O i§[Jc\S)cDS";o,

COl

~g)~~& ~~e FY'c6J <6:0 :a~~~ QSy.~o N"~ ;6ofuJ~fuIo-a6 N'd_6.

~~e£ ~~c6o& :o~o/"'r' $o~, e§6~o~6 ~g)ejo& ~§ ~~C©Sooe.:oo :Oreoli" ~e~ cllotmoO"?

a:loJ<ooO", @~;6;6;J!iJo€J";fu. 1941&;;3;fu <6a~ ~~QJDt!. ®~6 ~ U>;fu~60 c6oW"an~ ditR ~1lS;ooeJ& ~;fu..) e.i}ozysdiotJio c6:ot3~;;Sd -ec6;:;);(a:I~i"~£'i~ ®dSJS6 rJ"~ c6~e.>J ~O" ~lU6Ja<'~ g)~eoD<5c6.J6, !!!Ian;;) ~ @~Jc5~~ ~O"ru ~eDrS~ zyg)oW"tSJ. ss fff:30 ~dSJ;S i3lbrS esOO;:s ;;y> ~6J0J"~ ~.D~oe ~<S:l ~§ .;)K6C":O§ ~6~:oitl0e. ~g)e§o& ~ oJK6Ci>S:l;;3 o)y>eJ asJ,.c ;;3;:):, a..1& ®eJoS"6on"tS:ro, a..S dSJ~gOri"~ /'UDr;;<> e<663J'!F\~N'd.;;5;J. @"4lg)j~ o}>l:S~eJ e~Q''SdS:06 iJ"eY' ge.>~~<5 aJl'c;S~~<fu ;;:!6iBoJc6eJlb GoEl. @e§6 ~;;S ~O:H~,J6;:Sd :;)O"~~ru e§;S:,

5

~ooJ" ~G1J"alO& .DtS:'J LaJaJ-oJ..:5 6~o (~CJD~t?), fT'>6 ~o (~tmo£l~~), Cil";:S~~o (.':)O"f\), ~~S~o (;;)5~Ko) ;::> ~:~6:>. 8.oc).)e? L;;)®a.~J. o-D'&~ ~e5o~~('_)lb;:S Q6Jo (;:5~w~ @50'S-;;S) e.,S06t:JD:'J§ e..~:nOO71" ~oeJ;:ioe. -ea r:Y'e.ur'U cS-te.u r:Y'w/'b ~~~~ @Jo@:'J4so ~~~d)):'J a~J~iS:lJ' ;;m~e3cS~;:5~ O-D'. aoC:;~EJ cll~6i6,

(;

~C;)Se -t~. ;;JO~oSe :'JLO$J,Ci.SJ.6'CJ. ~ocs".. ~(JC;J§ eoSa-D"~~s fuo;06"v05~ ;5;fuJ,!3oatS:l. ;So&O':t071" .;)0' d!oW"&, ~iffio71" .;)eJ" e.,orzu~ eioi> g))~eJ;5,)oA, ;():'JJ.~6:leJi5Jo& i'f6DJ"~ ':!!I6cs:'J .;)~ f1;oooo& DSJ<fuc;':vvSJ @J~sgow l:3;;.)J~eJ~;:S @~;s6o~:ks:o ~oO:r>G))eio i6troJ~o5. ~Q"6£"O)~;S -6a g)U);;Sv<fu ~;;:DJEJn" O"eJ;:i~obJt> ~~ ~;se;6 g);fl~o71" ~OJ~:'J aoa Dil50ei l2Sn"~ @~~e)~~, @oe:3, 6rS~Qj) 6"<fu @ScrlJg&oi:SoSeJ~ ~Otmotl ®:J ~o6:lot::lo®;S ~~~oe,. iJoQD6El'l @a;;)OW~ .':)woSeJ O'SJ<>~ol'Uorzu Dil:'J~ 6rS~~ ~<fu @Sc'1iJ1>~oi$)sSoSeJ~;:S ~9;~ :y.oc'iJatn@o ~~eio& '»):'J:b. l2Sc'1iJ1>~otS;;seJ~;s ~el)l'U 6.av tSJo;;Jodi ~O"J~:a~ ~~ot). es N"eJ)l'U O~e.:l~ @lL.a~W71"~u)~ ii:J"~;::)~ @;;S71";;j-D;5 ~o!?Jooeoi:S.:J §";s;;se.>~Oa!1'" <fu<fu~e.J~ l:3~~ot).

iJ>6't:o~o& <fu;fu~eJ) ~o6o.le.:l~;:S a:!"~60.::S:;0!l\ (;J"e.uru 1!;lci>c:i-l:i'8>

Q ~ 'a ~ ~

.':);;seo.:s~o e3efloEl. @oi.S:l& ~tS6cS-1!;fu 1V60"~~.J. @o~6J. ~ 6:ad'

<fu:'J~ 1il'>!~o71" ~~cSd5Jo ~oEleoeJ"~. @~GJ ~;:S tn;:S~~ aJo~ow eoi§ ~cSS ~lf.:l ;:Jos~~;fu @O~ ~.5dil ;:JOS:lw6c5;)~fJ, ;6oa~~ L§e11~V$:) @otfl ~~S£W"~ Q.')ElOoi6JS:>oe,y.~. QoC:;Q.')o:a;fu ;:Slic)fJ":J:J 1!;90~~. * 6:a& ;n:'J~§05" :QOLEldilDJ"ot";SUJ", ~~crlJg;6~ e:leJ071"~ $ofJ1>OJJ. ~~Q.')6-i!:'J ®~fJ":b @oeJo6J. t)a 6-tl'fu ;36JSJ;$~"'.:lt'!)§ oil~~ ~ 90@clli DJ"ot;le.>f:S:lo>, ;fuo;;5f.;;S]fJ ~~!1'" ~e[loi$.)S:>:O eoeJ'ocil. (;J"e.:oK~ 6-i& OSJ:'J~ @~!lil~ @:'J~o..;SJSJofJ1>cil. ~ 6:a& ®acil ~;fu ;6.)~J~f;J as~J0..::5e.:J<>~:§ t:l"'ei9~ @~65"e:> S"tSwoeJc:SJo &'e.:lf\o~~:O a3;6.i6~~~71" clIoeJ'o6. ~56!:itn6~o eiruii?4 @5f\ ~ @J~oiJ";;S6El'l&§. ~;6g~otSQ.')e:>'~;6 ®r\~So eo~cS~~§.

<iJoilj~ ~Q'j {)o~;:S~~ O'SJ<>;::S~E; @~GJ~ ~r\8§ "",e.uru l:S~e.:l;6J ;:5,c{)ol)oo. ;fu)6e6~. ®,;§Q.')~071", ®Q.')sQ'j~OI1", :O~OI1" eoa 6~. @ 6:aU ;6.):O~ ~l9e.,~&r::J":O ;;J~ Il!!)g:rQo.S.-u~71" eo~, ~8 a..!36-0"~ e~6-e~ eot!.J<l6. 60S$:) &D;SO":'J!3~ ~;Sd.071" ~oa ~ ~&tS;:S:6J" e£ioMBoiS6. ~;:S~e~~;S ~o~e..JJ't:oobY> e...~t!) eot.:l)o6:O ;s~p. 66~ ~o).JU) ;3~¢J"~, ;fuc;S~§o71" g:n&:;'oiS:'JQJD~ ~Q"6!:O)ol1" .~

7

cli1c'fu 0U't) ~o6)!fl rosa!:);;y~:a l:J@r...)V. 6~O"e<6 oO~~cl~d ~IO~ ~&e..gCJ1"IOOS~ ®oc1.Dii".s~.)IOd. ~OW'JSJot\Jt>d"J . .i'J~rn do1J @g)Qc.tOB"6~c6J O"r!) ~~cloL~eD ~~J ~roeD.D~~o ~JS£I1"~ ~ LS~~ alS;.~OeJD1il. ~Q"6~o7i" QS:,;:60 oJ;sa~gtjY'aJ~eJ~ g,el)~OeJD~ GJ"'Ei.1,J ~ oo~;SLS-a'~ l:JOe;;) ~rSJ~e;o.;S;,oL~;&. ~o6.J!&o~ .iJ'>~ <l5K~otroe ;;S~ ®oO,D~;2p>~ GJoi:D!§J1O O"Rl gJe.u~!floe:J:;ro t5oeJt>6:l, 5"10 <pK~o~E. 6;)13:0 .J;;sJ.e~ ~~oi:561. @tn~oe @OOg)~f5oW ~;B g);61jD6, aJi.S:leGJ"a:;)~ .D'Qcfuono tl::lo~tJo. wc5.'O ~:Jo.;:)t:>"lOg ~~<.S~o SJ.>C'> !3e.u~E3"'OJJ,. t:5~;og .DQcli>Ol"r' ;,56..:±1!flo6lJ<l ~oGi e!!;:So~S~~;6 ~OJeD SJaW" ,€fa oo~G5 tS-a'c:SJ .,);;5Je5§ O"eJISJ. 9,§ oSJy.~056..o'6i ~c@. e..!3d- :J~~~~~:::l!30i? <6oob>oi:i~o, ;;Ja.g6~o.;:)~o eotmo~ ... 6a 6;;£& 05J;}~g ~K;6ofJJe:;)~ .D~.s~o ffii6J05Je')§ @t) @oO.D~:;Sor1"tl:;Q~ifu, ®eScb '@<SGSoe1:J ~B&eJJ 8"OSJ a~ru~ eSC".Sei ~~~ <l5K05o,fu~ !).t1',St;,~6. ~~;O§ OS5.eBe;I;6& !3~a~~ OSJc:SJ~eJJ .~ LS-a'~ aoE'l;6W"~. a!jrJ"~;;S6~tf ~;O~ ~!3~@& ~olS~~ ~!3~~ 6QJv~S~ iSJ.>fu @;;So~06l&o ;;m6e).i~~l!9"'6 ~.;.S ~~:a!& <6o-i!~~ e..~f))'sS.SJoW"'~ @ol§~ @J~®e;6;o 05J~~ g);;;J"S~eJc:SJ 6~oiSKeXJXJB"C:l. @txl;)oe3 .;5.)c:SJdJ;le:l 05Jol§~~05o,eQ"sl9J.!3e aoe~CSi1& Qi);;iJOS;>eJ!3~ @ot3 Q"5J!3 6~ ;;:D;fu~e)~~ iJ"eJ'> ~;6~oEL aoc~6~& ;:n;fu~e.; r5~J§Q @oc::i.D'l3'",S;:;)o 5"11", ;:Jt><g05cS~& QS.,;;iJ~en @UKS..-JoeS@;6 g)~~~ !:lIDFleoe.Jo'6:l. <V"~OS6i1& .fuifu~~ ~r5o ~e:1":Os am;;5,)e.:n @r5~e:l~ tlootnoO.

:;g_~~s rSo~C"o:iJ"~g ~oecS Ifut>~ e!i~o ea <V"~i'U c5-ieJ;.SJ ~acili6. i!§5~, .fuc3qS@, oJ<>§!3@ @~ ~[)Do~. ~ <v"e»f\> c5-tfe.lJ" ;:.,~r;:y>:O§"~ ~5"!'3e ~~onc e;;SdB"e». ~ecilie cSg)l¥ 16oQ"~, ~9e:lJ ~6J!$D;'s :OctDoSJ"~ i3;;.)JEO~ (!!Icj'li"'e.l;fu ~~oLS.sofl" @~VJBc\.'b<>e.l;) (!!IC;§<SrSJ,OQ, ei"5fpe .s~Ea 6-t. ~iia.;)8 <6:l~~ ~L;S;6)S",;6) GS~o t3;fus'~e.y:.:og @GS;;J6@;:5~cS~6~eJ;:.)J rJo:ill~~oiSJ~CS-i. ~§s.§ @&SilJ.6 c5~.

8

oi"Ji5 rJ;,ir>22"'~ ~6rSo5Joreo11"> ~6..)6t:Dg;;J'Oe:l~ ~rS ~~od ~i6 fu~ !'.J"4)6 i&llFl(6, ~~Eil, @l'&t:5iV"cStD~ QSffiy>relfueDn", ;;J5£<>!(s . t3oBi6 UOJexln' @IfJB~g;OSe.J~~ !'.J"l:j53eJ t5oB. -6a eJ"~~ ~;:;:r> 60n"~s ~oO;;5 e..!3 ~Bb'5:6J"5"GS:l e3c<> ~!l»6so :6J"~ ~6~6J~e.lfu;6 S~;6Stro> S"OJ. 'a,B @o06J.> !3Vfu!&9311" t5cS~OSe.lfu;:S ;;S~t e..~ rJGJ"e.:xl. aocs"'s"l1"ifu ;;l(S§;fu<>l?"e:lQ'}~, ~es g:)1!l);6e:lcS~, O".wfJa, ~oCS6S~~o, ~g~~vcS~ ~e;5~;:S @;6i?jjo~5"i>:l"D. ~~son" ~~e.lK:l5o{J fu~q;:, fu~e.l K:l50D <6o:5Jureo& 0))506 @OSl1"~;.S ~6l1"ll. ;;S,Boe ;illeJSJ..-J ~6JC'=[). 'QI,eJ)<iSoe ~jjo~6 3?O~6;o ;;S,rSo l2S~~.so~6S:l &fujdDe5o. aD" ~ID:IJ ~~

~ol'iE;ff S"<fu~6ao. '

@@e...SJ, @66!i'iFe1Jl:3 60rio& ;6;);;50 ~eoiSKe.l ~f!K,)S ~~eJ.oo .DC"s.::loeiJrna©rle.l ~~"6"eJe:lfbc5 @l'Q"6Q'}~ el!o~oe. <ti'~~~& Q'l.)<:)o ~eotS;6vfu;;S @~;6~~fJ. ~~~fJJ_ ~ocSW"~s .io<6!3J ecSl3Bot3 ~Q;;So g)c5S' ~ ;6~ g)S"rS@;;;J", e!!edJol§rS S5"o~p~, ~~fS~e:l~ ~6~61j~K~JR ~ ~~~~rJP @e36J e;S ~~6ilo~ ~r5c:SJ6";fu .~ ;&6~ ;;Sofu6J~ ~<6:lS£K[)1'1"'6 f:!);6'1!:J'>i'Jlli6 @Q"6cSe. t5ot:ooe. ~~.::lo&

Q~ 01.:

@ ~.~e ~o~ ~e:ge~ol'1'" eoD ~g)~~& s &::J~W"ci:l ®o~

g)wdSJ~o60n' ®il ~g)6"~ r5~~sSKe:nruB<'6 Cill<6o n;;sd_cJjla, g)6S& ~§"~~t3 a3"(tI~!'..lJ ~~Wl 13:r>W" se a..!3 ~~OJ"~ ~e.iJ~il.leS -O~O"e,)~~ 19KD~ ~rl€Xlrue9"Q)).

g)tS~i3JrSOE)olPo~;:5 §e>~~~o ~;;;l"<Sd.oeoS;:,c$o. O"~ ~c;5~i& iJroQJJrti' g)Ll"<'I;;S~re;6o SS";;) rS~~;6osS, tS"~~el;lg; ~~~e. ootDoB.

Q ~etl!! '" OJ I));'

@O c:J~diJo& ~i5 ~~oru5otJ. ::J.s<P"~o ruBon g)~~~ @e ~~;o~

~<5 ?S.iod~eJ§~g)QQryc @rSJroot;JoD t5obJoti s;,..~ .:s.,..e;$~e:lfu i.!oeJ)oEl. ~a w~e.u, ja a-E"'e.JJ" <5Cill;ll~<5~ ;;So6J&;fu;.So 05J;'s

1S 0.. 0 M

~~e)13J i5CSJcQl ~~oi:ie3o, @i!lJ.:J~oe!) t§5diJ6Jo @o~;;'DOi? OSJ<S a3"bo::rl:leJ'>

~J,;)&.1";:;:r>~d.. $oK;,')1il~oB,

~tSi.ia~o ~o~O'>O:OSofT'" g)~';:srJ;;);ro~Or1" 6ot!.JJo ~oJoe. Fi"cS..) i:§~~~e.D". O)~o;fue:lJ'> ~ ;;!'ie>.fu6<S~dSY>t:;"!SJ. g)6sdtos& e)~ofoBob.

..

;;S~6JeJ KJ5o.o .JouO g)~6~;S @&tS;6eJ<6J I;1"C~ciSJ ;;J;:D-ae:J,0 ;;J)f§§~i:S,)J~o&. t5a @ldtS;6e.n .,)06 g)~~@~OSotG e...~ I!llf&iJ<5 OS:iC?S @le?i:l;$§J 0"'Gl"'.;:nrt" .,jc::luocb6.Jr'j'Q ~oa tl9t! \£ g)Q~i6oe1'~ i6 @le5';'t:5<5eJ~;;S;oeJ. a.otil~c13!J"';;Jo!:sf:Oll'? "5i6J cflolr.::i;::)"'O f:Jt>.r\J<>o,. a;.t&:l ~e1~~~ 6z:S~IDJ 6~g)oW":fu. f;JO~(JG Qii<fu05.Jet r;Je1a3N"6~~~;fu e,,~ ,WtJeJ'>i1" 19BJ&~6JoO~, ®~O ~O) g)!§~~O'SJb f:Jt>rL~ @oe.JJot:;, ;:n6"!§~~ a:l~ ~i)~~.9 l6o;;lJ.e)G ;;JJel<V"eJ_!3e<6J 0,:)0;;:)0 ~<§:aocm G:l"&~l&:>. @lo:Xli6 OJti6> ~a~ ~QU;6oi1" g)~0J"~~!§0. ~ <V" oJ3~!3o @ 0016 ~J!&Jr;p"eJ~ ~~~~ ®~~o6eefl~. ~acfb6 eB~a 6.te>& ;;S~~ ~Q[iSO"OJJ!3 ~OS ~O'S.DI11S~;fu e~6-~ ~dD~o~, ®eJ'"K~ <6:JB .,j~6..;s ~d5J~0r;;;t' t5a ;;J)~!3o, ~-aq)g o~, ®otG ~~;;:)!§6f:a ~tS:llfl:O l6;S:J~ti:JJ §"GSl:So!oO, oJ~l05 c::5-:~ "fue.J<6JoG'J

(::f elf.) e.:l •

;3~ ea ;;.v ~ ~ 0& O"~ 0 (.;5' 0 6" ;3;3 e l.;:S ~Jlg,_ 0 (1" 6,.,<0" ~ • e!J;:So<tig)OiJ"'~ !J"'~~6 @lQ"'6;;:)50a. ro6 o.a<'ElJOeJtlJ "fua:u:!j f'i";;:)\ ;;:j~S"&

~ ~. ~ ~ ~

oJ~;:!dSJtJo, e~a3;;:j6il ;::)",dSJ!:iJe.) got) ;;:)~;:!cfuW".'Os ~~~05l:So

,

li>JaVGS~eiJ2<5 '(v~Ef'SrUow, ®OS~V03"eJJ!3[ln;;S 130& acf>SrUe:lf? !§ID~ ;;:)~Bd5:lt1o ;::)"'!:b s:'~ g)e.ne;S ~e.n ~c:JQ.)). ~<6JO!"e!)iO Itl'g)~ ~ooeJ;J oJo6JW;;SofueoEl ', <J" 6J~& ~'Bq)6 @ot5 g).o'SO!"~OjjDtl;;SJ. ;;:););;J6.o'§~ ttl;;J(fuc~ot::l GSS§& g)1'Uo~Oil" ~Co;;JO"rl~OI"l" eo~ ~~l1ScSJ ~OM~cfbtio .. N" ;;:j.'OelP"Koi1" .,)~ §e>~;S 6.o'et '@I g)i\',:)~ cfu;;J6~! (;J"6' e!J~~6o{l;:S ~~exl ;;3;;:):) le56~0/1" @;:l)~g)o-D r.lI~;6J. ;))<5 @SdSJol.'S"~J. ~~rig)JO;;SdiJ ~O;Sori'" ;j:6J ;foa~S;::)j ~~~~;::)j.

'WlSbdJJ ~o~C"d5:lo @e::o~olD ffiC"~C~e>trSJooFl S1>61~ 60& a6J;S~;;So, ~IDO, ~jgg;606JeJ{f~ @®~ @e.J);;Sot) g)~.s~ ~a~: @;Ie '(vo@SrJOw~§ ®@~oi1" ~!§~0i:)<:S ~;6S::li\b~0. c:J>otJ [2J8e..!3&!:SJ<. OJ"B0J"6 S"ra"E!t OJ"6.:l0J"ti:J oJoiSJ~~d. ~g~~ §"~ @I&iS;;:J"~GS:le>~, g)SiJovo ~l?"~s,.. ~exl;;Jen 6Bp"ti:J. £)t!j&~e.JJ ;;36to(\)!iJ~;6)J .~w ®oOJ2J"tDe? eo&. ®oc5Je7':6Jo oSJ5c:'m!pJjoIT"&5"'BS- -D"'&,o&, KE§6-l5"~o& fi'a,g ro~<to6JeJ ~Oe."exl ;;)0E.;:S ®~.?3 ~g)~6f:OlUl

10

~0lJ. (0»~6a~~ $,VS iiSe.g6o;6~ <oC»eJ:! i;)ej a.s il;;:yooorio& §":JJ. ~~~Sexl l60X0~~o~ ~GSt1o!botj .J!3J&GJ .(:i!~ iSJ"fuoiSco ~6:lKJ~;:Sd~' [;JaG ,e.,S S"g;;J)06 i§"SJ,.t.o s~ ;;S.l:itooB ;:sen;s eJ"eJ~ <S~GS~o ;&e.:l~ ¢6~ a..!3e!1 6a(;J".i:5;) t,eJ<OeJo.l1"cll.oE:l.

~eJ @l;bKl§ @oJotSotJ 5"<S;;S~;;5d. ~o~6 ~(fuoK.§e:l~~ot:J"Soo cJoJJJ~~oiSJ§";:SJ.a. ;;3~ S"~i1" 6a~.ru;;sd. 'J>~ tJ5d_eJES @~;;soe @(iliorl<ileJ~~§ ,~C"o:Y>oro @el. l;;J®e...!§a.6! @o1:$)8J'>e.J)tJttlol:l. 6a. §..@o~ <P"t56cj~0 ~rJ.Jocj~Oi1" t,eJ;;)0iJ"~~ rJ"diJ!36.s0 ;6~otS.Kvtil. ~,;i6J~5 t3~vea ~o~a'D"'~§ rt,m,g ri:l_9ooJl.tl, R"60J"bJ.eDJ ~~oe . 5"':0 ocKl ~Vi!J"el) ~L6o ';)gss g"~cllr:!'~i1"f)$y., §"o6-ii70e~a.§~6!§ ~o:l"S:O§ ~~ ;;:)Bg)J6~ e"'d_cm. ~ ;;J5~G:O eOl'lg;ooiJ"voe3 s;6[)o ~G5eJ:! ®ol:Jotj o.s;fuo{) @JCi3.J<li1"exl ~~~ 6"!:b torSo @)o"lT>~otS ;;Se.)~60lb:lol:l. g)C"S60Ko6' ®o~rooe::06'e~ @~iS~;:S G5;S~~ lIS ;6;:S6JlQ_ ,~:Oc:fu'>,FloD ;;S.no~SJ SJS~f:Jt>.'Os eJ~S011"a;:sd. to~til~ ~:;S, am;;') ~6d1YoeJ!&J 6IDdiJa~ OJ"6.\) ~-a:b06tio ~o .6a Q'2)§.6D~ O"oiJ~o e35Floe. ~a:Dg @cll:1~Oe .lS:l~~ ~'S&a,;fuofJ <;)~<So~ ~C'l to~o ~e.ia!3@£~ @I ;S:J~efl ;;s:';S!:iloJ~Jf!jg eJ~oiSl:SJ.

X~ ro~~i1" t:l"C"'~ tlee)&w~q& ~1:ll~eJ g)Ccl!SJe>;SS ~<6:l £5::J:: oS~;:S ~~ns~;fuofJ :;5 ~;stCStl66J!:b;6J. 'i:);6J_fJ;:Sd ~~a~ ea ~~!§oes fl~Q.)). I!!).g) .,)o&' g)f)J~;6;;JJI\5§ ~ol§5C"Ol)~, :JCJ1'SOSS0'5~ iJ"e:o :J S"tSf:OlOa~~ ~s'SooiS~a~. ®~0'5oeJ oJ~ ~W"e,);:s, l§5~e;~oSod :b~exl OJ" ~82e)~ ;:Jo~~i5 ttlN'd.,t». et:J"<&>6~g, ~~!:S '~f!:~ 360 el8e;,Ji1"~ oJo6J!:b g)~;;e~~o? ~~J. @~<fu.JsiG rIJ~1!o:Q ri~;w>~od .,j~.J~ 156~-SoW"cm? ~6s<'$tE @ . .j§'.499~'S~Fi"~.~~~ ;i3cfu~ 66.:l<>J"E& §"~eJ.~ aBf\ 'S;fufi";6i1"~ .,jol:SJ'So~. fi"~GS e;6f\oe ifu)6~;6~~ ~~f)J.

cfu;So .c:1it60J"0"~ C;iO~~;:SJ. ctiDKo6' e§g)~~o. ~fi~ e..'S ~Q')d.o~O 6;;s:'cS,6"c:m eJID~~~<tibOXl~ 'B~ t:.NOodle:t::l:l!r'!3 ~.so

~ .. ~ ~

..

11

o~~oCS~ oS~~;:SJ ;D~~O) §"oot1J~tl:l. ~ ~g~~ g)O@~OSiS ~!i6-e;6.)oD ~f.:£§"t:D0e? ~i6OJ<'f)g ~;6.)~!YoOl.SID~ ~ Qy>g)J ~alOi'1" ~aJ'>rSCfu>K~osvO"? ~® a.13&. ~;:S;;:»~, 6;::5 9,~ e§,g)l!lS'"t)Q&£i, ;;JB~gorl" g)~R:loiSC;<>~§c.O;rtor\Jcl6 S"c;<>? ~ LOS~v~ ~qJ)~!3o ~1:D.i'1" 23i>J"i!)~SCSJ. ~eJJ~oe @S.r&v~ ~:tf ;:S~r;r>LV"e.:u '<9;oSs~Kl§ a:JcS:le.:or\" ~ ~~~o ·fS5F\ .i5:ltSoo a.!3" @~;6) rJoO~oe - '.;)oCSJ~S"CSJ>, @Kl. ~.~;:5 ;ih)~e.J!Jd. g)~RloiSt:;"Kl§S"O" ~~oB?

1.

a5:Jt)f.J flore~ collo iS~o , , " .. ;"........ 15

eJ

~~;:S~ ~e.J8'ro(} 33

2.

3.

;;J~6;:SoA~oJ> 8"O~Ol)., , ,............................. 5 2

o.JO (i)

~::loiS~;fuo.tlt6Kl~oileoo 69

4.

5. o:Di6g~~ ~S'>::;Jo , 86

6. ,W?tJ;6) ~oD IDS:J.ot:5~o.......................................... 1'04

7. [!B":Oct:DiSvi6oef' §"~ eili6~e)j 11 7

8. ~~®~S ~@rI" [lOS 134

D~B~?tJ 149'

,~<6C~rn .. . .. .. .. .. .. . 155

,!:ie')~ieje.:o ".................................................... 1 7 4

;;DoD,.!:i 175

1

~ '" i606e§ e§g)~o& O"&o;5~~gso oJ.,) eoCJ1>? BCJ" ®EI ~ §"~~oe,§

c61a~ ~OJi~~ ;:JJseJ~~? ~Q"6ta ~;6~eJ <6:loe @.'S®~~olh~ ~~el) c6.:l;::5Jc:.\J:eJ <6Jol'. g)§e1eJ;$Jo ;.36Ji:l"t @ d~c;)S~g)J~? ~;6~ ;;:§4l~<SJ.. ~iill;;JS~ e>IDoB ;;)5i1o&do aO" ;:s.,tS:J~1D" ;ibe,iJ ~;BO)n !!;!)ol$Jru S"OtSo. ®bJ~oe5 C;,'3rn~:l ~ L~;ioDS ;i5~n C)~oa ;().,o~;&iV"? a~ e~;5)l6~;:,Uu? 2004 (!!)~2:ld:l& i5;5) ~~q;:o~ ~~;6~cil @S&~ @eJe)gEO~~Z (1879-1955) ~~;6 0.1:>0&60&, e....sot?~ gcru;6 !:iJo6JJoGt ~eJ~;6 ~~t;;" s,.,~;6.l~~' stJJoSo8 l;5~e; N'" ~;6~06" ~0:550W"O)J. ®e1J)oe1 @aGl"~o~i5:l;6 ~;:$ ~O"QU"I!) 0"~1Q)~el)

._ 1;1 I::

~e,o~d' EO~~~ @l;;)J~ 6";5) 05~a~;6.l t,!jo~ S'OO"J)eJ@o tlJoe 1905& tlJQ);)t:l~ o:5DJ;:$~l:il @l~l:il ~;6OSa3'>®

!!!l OS~oJ.> CV'" LOS 06 a W"g,)d_ ;:5~ I!) a f'i"

;funeJ;BdSJrie.H&:O .;)~~ (5a~0i:)

;ilrS' :J~ ~~~ OSJrSo L;Si§e1o .J~5604.1.1~ ;S~~ a~li" L;Su~oliJo~~. OSJiSo ~Q ~1he;JoJ5, ~dAJ"!).lSJd'm~ ~dS:>lfvrf ~ ~Q;]fil). SlCl?~Ot5 ~ ~~ .o~ ~~e:~ oJe;6.§rS~ ~~~o ;ffa:;,..I). 1

15

eol&a6:l.:.I 6::l5~5 g:)edd$,)o ..seoel;;) zy'f\)~D. I.!8dil;;) 20:ti -t8"~iiJl @e§So~ g).fJ~ ~ar;g)S;S~e.t !'.,,~~i'1" KJgo~ ~o[J'>dJ. solO e)o)J ~g)aso(!)o&~ ~o5ll ~Qi)5"'b;6 ~~oiSo ~~~ ®.;5~N"e;I~, ~6iJop~§ l'Ueso,:tie:l~ :tiYJ;;) S'b"'so6Jv, ~~;;j~e;I ~e;jg)),t)? ~Wv~ ~~eJ.~ (1473-1543), 7'IDDd:bo 7'IllID (1564-1642)e.D r&-a,woSe§ i;l"g~ e;;'>5~~ (1809-1882) $Joe;;'> cs.J6cSe1~oSo~Ja. ~~s ~iitJ.!lJ (1643-1727) lSJ606"'SSCi<4t'a ~c;o~o s.s.,f'{';:;Y;d~tJaCJV C?cfuiS @~oJ8;;)5 (1847-1931) ~e;I~S IDeJ{) S;;5.)I'i"~O~ B::5jOO iP:6 ~e;l~O ~o g)~d5Jo~J.. Qi)B ~6tiorV' i3c;5Jtb;&. @~~ rifi~'8"~~~ ~. ~5.;;JSB (18'77 -1947) l6~d'hOi'1" r'iJeow IDri6l'1" ~""t>tl"e,61oosE.7JS~

Ci I:J: -G n f"'I")

~~OJ"';;J~.;S:r>~re!5 (1887-1920P~ @~~rSS ®-$!e) @a~~ ,~

K~ oJ~ eoae? ~~5 ~8c:5!5e.u i5fu<S @g)~6e;e.u, iiY"e~ 1IDe.n~Oi!) @&is;:5e;> e,gno ~E[)o~::);~ ~~~~, <0~el) c:5~seoi$~Oll eo8t:llo~, @ ;;S,tu..e3"e:l$J a:l"e5Kl ®6o i1;fusOKe;I ~o&§Doe) osewrSo a!:3~o:Il

~ ~

eo e e OfJ. @eooc50e5(l3g:}aJ.&6E:.>v:fu go 6J~o cllJo e;1g) ~~ O"e;lOcllJo

12l<l5g)Ot:5~OXl tiioE.eom. ss @lg:}¥~eJ) ;Dalon" ru§o~W>OGl eo~<iJ<'? e...~ iJJAd' g);i1;6. ;J~cJ:ijo~'~ LoJa~eoc~o 'ClSJW'g£o5"'~ @ @'5~$~ K:Jgo~!fu 0":tifJ'>~§ ~l?a C"~$~ g))owo8, ~'S:jOcsO eoB eoooID.

eo ~:§.so .ffi, ®o-Eo ..:Xl~6";m,., 6~§ ;:SorooOoEl;;) @js @o;at>e> tfu~~~ ®~~ 6.:s~. L6:Ji'J~§ ~~~g)-6.so ;(Poe. oiPotj ~~i'Jg-tlS~O rUeo~rS tSt:5i'5 ~E'l. oJe~eiJe.u ::;)e~.s~~~liJ .,)~~ a,S6J~OXl ~~~[) omo~@ ~e,~~t;j<'e i:5Jo~rS~ri" 65Bifro&O"e.u 05.Do6J§"~d'h;D ~~o~~ t5i:l<S. ~ ~!:biQ ;ill~1Po~e.u ~~~9 ,~K'iJ q)e)'S"G~rS ~O)~ til.lV'd..®'il E'jJ"~;6 §":;)cl O~~('J~eJJ @g15~~O,-yg zy>g:}ot:5roE,oEl. S"::,} jcu oS.Jt.lo, ~, a:;;wo~ eoSwJDf'lo,;:)JS";;j e1J">~o.iFIDJ.. ~OI:$Jil1" oJ~r;~r)wrO~i\ld.o. 3 @O"ri g)[)d'ho ~ (1578-1657) oS~tbo6:til5~ ~<SoS83"®g OSJ'O;:5~Q<;50o& eoe 6_!1@'5~6 iJ~oS~ fue06, fuoa e..13 c;5o~O"r) §DeJJ~oS60 ,fu50b i3IDd5:J6J.

e)

16

;:r> @,:S.n';5oSo;fuo~ ~;fu 16~oIDoa!bt:loe3! <fu'o;6oSt:5B~& ~e9 c6:>Jr\osG~ I!!lj~<S~5~~®Of.':l:l1> §"af)s>vo ~ctDo8. @e ~o6~e:l ~8o g)'O";illo. @~~ ~ rJ~<So. £) ~~~exl, tJ ;:6~6v o)Ba§"~Ol).

.;1J

l!!lo)jl6 ~~11'" .,)c5f1' iJS:lJ;6~ri" l6c6:Jt0 ;::So~ o)e~&60 ~6o:D~oEl.

e!JO ';)t!' ei>J";:)JI[l~ooS~ e;I&l-o{)oa;m..;6;6clo~,-yg e!Jo~~t5~ ~;6~ @J~i!S6ofl";;5 ~oe:ooi5. ~~f:bd'h c:,5~<6.& SltbJoSol5 ~~i'J2-6t;i:~i'JJ.. ~{)oiSt:?~S 'c::ooq)@' @~ oJOo ~6B"1:b. @"tSsa~ tsJ6"1f!.. l:J"~ 'tfftJ' (~§."6"&60) @~t5:i. ;;}>~~~ "",riB~~e.u l:J"~ '~~~eJ' €9~o:D.

9.tbJc5otD ®O$g~i5-~ @~~oSoe1's 6..:XlJ@<SJ. rJ;illsolJ;6 ~~~ge.;& ~ ~e;l0ll~~~ ;;5y>;:5G)iSe~td' g).~Q Ciful1"tt tl30a:nol);6 §"~ R"~ @8i:S;6e.;;$:l aJe~[Jo:B @iJS"'~o i>JP@ ~IDf\oel. ~g)6"~ ;;§;;SO~ :;)60~6 ®~;6t.l l;5@o$)ri" 6E?d~~;fu. c5Ji'J~~ ~g)8":O§. ;6o~6J~ ~1J :J6SfJ, ~;;l"~ ;:S<S.:c~~otfusbc56oC !'.,,$ @;fu:>tJJ,e;I~ e08. :i:l6S @oeJ i'J~~ ~~~e:l<fu ~Glot:5f$o ~t5:iJgGoS~oas~e:o, @O~1l" 1!;1;0©-d'ilf'i'it:S60 s<'i'J @ri'"~c:56'>eS~ ,a~J. i1'Q056iSJ~c5cSo ~W". .@j l05n"~c:5~~o tf;'SJr!3 ~gdS:l.se;l~~ g.)~S"'~ c5J;:SSJ @o6ai~oO. @~e5sW'd c5JJ~Sono g)~ ~60 :iJ.oD ~O":;),§ @05~o~ c:5orJ6p~l~0J<'~!'&. SDro~ i:Ss&e ~~iSSiJ,¥ ~Ei>JP ~o;:J&1~!'& ~w~ ~Gillfl~, ~®l'IefuVJ.. .gG~ot:SiJvIb 6:0e:oolj. ~rl"B..S c:5ol6k)e9 e5Jc;;}>o66o oo6:J~~;§t:Y' ..s(j')e:l;,S,~efu~ @lj ~;&6!fu <6B05~;:S ~o6J~oe, ®olilSJ so6c;oe3g)),e5' i§e.u<6:J~05v~;:5 i?JDQs~~C" :JO"S ~~lE\a. o5Jo;6oS i&B~& 6~Jltl;;:36;:J.w. e~Jiod' V~oi:Sro~ ;Jot~6-6UJ§D~ fli~Q.X). a~ a5f1 @b:Jc50~ ;;So~~e.D ~a~05;6d..1&>fu ;.,fu ;§t$). ;;:y>e;);fuoll Gil~~ S"~6:>WfJ'>~§ 6§.&~@o ';)eN" iillotJ"? .,)S~~ c:5o~~ro~a~~ 6:0&, @s&6~ g)~ ;,S,;:5S"!:l 6.J!i..)ZY>~D,J a§g)~o 6;:5;fu6"oJJ c:5~~c;5t)..:XlsSKe;l6~ ~~~InJ.'S[')f\~ eo~ .. 4 16~ OS:l~~s&C; l~60IDC'b01'

17

<fu16:l~eJ§ ~~~ ~~o~tJ6";& 8e..u~g;~l.$~e;o~ ;:36 •. Y:$0 :l~ 'S"6S@~~€; >!:i!:l2,.~ L.i}c60~~i6:l~0tJ'b16:l. ®oej, D5:Jos,;;S"eJ§ pp;,:n~5'i 6oS.:l~ etJdSJt:3;6J1&o, a"~ 6~ ~6~0"e:)~ ~~OOf1'> @;S,;:5oeo-tS Inc:. f!;j~ff' 8IDdSJ~dS:>C;;fu;6d oS.,""h @OXJi!1, ::J6~~ ~~eJJ" 'B"i1".s~ ;::SB"'Se:)o~ ~tJJ f!;j01&t>~ ;S;&~ a:D<S S"()o& atJJoSoe3 6~~y~o @061i" @S6~~Q':5.)o sao:::J ~W" ;vos:> ee..u;;S.,. eo 6"00& ;6tfu;:S ~;So @c6o~gcfu~. we ';)OSJ~§ :0606co 6:JoS'?06:l~~ ~otJJ06~~ LOS;a.,!:l2,. ~<So @lcfuo ~0;:S6e)3~ ~O"Jca"~ @r5J;()130~ ~~W";:)~ 8.)~ ffiotJJolS~ &J"g)ot58.)~efu;S...le. S:OSe;o OSO"el ~O" Q3"§.QJDIDJ_ @i!i.;s~oaQJD~8, ~OSJ oS.:l~~O"JE"a"eJ ~S"'60 LOS;6oW"~ ~~S~0W"eJ<6J!:D;;3QJD~8, ~ l¢c:Do~ ~~O"e..u i5~0J'0~8 lOedo7l" rStfuJoifSSo S";606 @ar;;S0. i!i~ ~~~c6~i6:l ;613.i}ctJ~;6d.Q3"ifJ ;;3~~§.!3o ~O" s,oOJ!:D ;:S08.)OeO~ §"~ ezo~~e..u B~e>i6:lruoemiVdi6:l·

s~Ddil~ 61s;;3~ f\(By>QJD~8.)S~ ~g; (1668-1744) c6iJ0rSoS iS5~i6:l. ofuloOJ!:i:l<S(1 ~ ~~ i1"~e>r5Jo~. ~;S~ r;yorl13!:l~16:l ~oJ>e~;6 c6JJ0~ .s~[)d. ~6Jalb ~.iJoCJ. @6~ ~fuo~<S c6JJ0~ ~~e>;l (1)@6J%-0& <Sc:DJ!30 (2! ~~OJ. S<S1&o ~o61&o (3) oS:lc~oll;S OJ'013 s~hoooe,)i6:l ;6.;Sy>e ~c6Joe,);S;~056o_ ~ ~~ oif§Jex> .;Sy>;SQ)"t>§ ~~

~

;:So~VJ ~~eoW"OXJ_ @6Jf3.o& fSc:DJ!3O oS.:l~:::JJ_ 6J.>~oeoi5l1" ~~~ S~ ~oi5r1eJ;ill;:5 epoOS;;S ~UlO~~§ C"5h~oe. <fu6&0~;S0J"* stiroO"eJifu

....,

~ciJ ~~1&oS.:l~ ~;:6;S ;6~e ;OO"J&'iV"eJ~ d'o:'Jooose,oe_ @cj'[)OOI1" cSJo<SOJ"t>§ eJf;lo~;6 ;fu:yo6:J il ~ eo ( 1) @;;);fua;:S0 (2) !il~oJ>e>o (3) OS:ot'3oilOSe;:"v;S- (!9~ ~S!3~. 5

oS:l;S ~1&~eJet ~~~;SJ_ @~~~;;S :l;6.d5J'>Ul ;:)a?>::J§ ~OS060e @l3 ci1"o& .;)~ ~eJ~Ul ~~ os~;S !3e:J~ ;;')[)El"Ul. .;)~ 600el) ~tfu ~~DY>eJO&, :oe_soo<fu lY~& ~eo~;;S .tle:Jd5Y'aJ_ cfu;;So ~~ ~~~SJ 0J'06;:S~.50l"i" @Oe~i;;l"J.0' o:J"rn <1S ;j"c;:S~;Rt ~noccSorro ~.s!313~6~, @5f\ cfu~ ®0i!1 g)i.s~~o5Jo7l" ~ iiY'6;:SEl".;s~ 6~ ~~eJ!fl

18

l!9o~~6tJ OS:lcSo t'6G1,))Jeili>JdO. ~rSo O'S:l~~eJO_ so;o lfucSotS60 cll~Je.lI" ;:'J~~;6~ <tl"~ej :oaaJ~V~O" tfu;;So ®~6~~p ~G:l~~o. ~ g);6.o5J1':O.l olJ~o f))~ @~~0e3 ~;;S a§~~:oSO!:§ @go a"'tlJSJefuoG)- ~f36fS e3"efu~~, ~g6-;;S dfurroeJj~ ;:S\?ifu :i!lle ~oS1t>0606 ltXenX:J8"o.

e:l~~ ;fu~ OO"Je» c;)e~~~cS 0";fui1".;s60 ~OS <iJ'>'8"OS~r:r>o& c:J"' 1!!IQ"'~8JS~ j~:Ooe. OS:l~t5::J;$Joe ;;ScSJooreo ~el)~el), t.5E1,) ,XotJe», ~OJ"e.JdSJ fJof\6o ~eJr1eJ~;;S tfuc$c Q.,);$JeJ ~~S ;;3;6:.~a7l"~. es O.s:06' lijdSY' O;Oa"'V ~exl~el) a.,S~:O&' a..!3S !3D~~cmcSOSJ£~ OJ"e3 ~e5 g)il~~e)os, t::wl¥0 tOSn"~gS!:boW"~ ~o-ag), ~G1,))~0., ei3"al~, tJe, ;;)~elJ", S"~5t5~, ~!3 @~...leJJ". ;;S~ro~eJJ". d'iJ<>l~~eJJ", eJ6J~e.u ~1J0Y'~, 1'!!l066ia a.,s5S"!31$) @r5J;:SoQ";S~;S a..s 8~~ ~~ ~~ ~5ri"os,.

ij"gjot3 a,J"c6;;S ~~o o:ill!llS ~lejo. oilcSo tfu;6 0J'08"OSC!;'Ol ~~rleiJ~ ;;)e.uKJes6£. <>illoe:$)~ ~rbEl"o. O'S:lcS Q)"[9"c66eao6' :::J a..s&lJ C"lO!3B ~~rT" ~;6reov6.). ®l5"S oc6~d'!3 @~~.so ~::JcS.soe ~GJ'> e..S a;6;l!:fc3t'&)~S":OcS.;so~, e...S c;)£_so:::J~o~, aO" a,!3 oil:O~ S";OOSsoc:.. ~ e..,~(iJ g)~oS~ @~~o~ <fu;;SWleJO:J_ @)Q3e...Sl- ®!i6.s0 ;.'3;fus a.,S OSc~go eoe. ~~Q <;1"oseS ;~rtJog):uboe3 o.'5J;;So 5"SoJlO~Ul &§&;;SOS.J~~, SOs -c::i"6.:1Ul OS~;:SOS.J~e.o~ ea zy>.>J"Ul ~ef a.,!36- c6s§_ ~6oilo;6,)oe ee1.,)rSJ_~;;Sg) 5"'OS~, @~ <O~* i1"~eJB ;6g))J_eJeS ;;,)[)6cfulO. ;oreoll" ~®zy';:6o~~;;S ~~e:lr;yo~~s g)red5D-.&e~ S"b, @e o:J-VOO~ri" ~QSetJaJ§5 @o6gJ~c6Joe ·~e~~e aoo tl1&et i3J6J~eJOrI :ibe~SJ6cfueS"tS:l.

b~ 66alE. i5~ c6e1JcS ~~6l-t~ ~v~O(1" <fuo~ ~ ~edd5:lo fu~~oo. ~ :fueJ~c6 c6~-;;3 <5:J!6 ~g)6"';o§ ®ga 3SJctbefu<6J_6rJ ;fu;;S~ ~;6o B~sScSW";:)§ .;)~ SOCE"a"WN"J_Clll. ~;6.:l ~;6;)1l" e~~oD, ;;5;5"'S ~ol. <fu<.~6J~~;60l3, ~~ S":OJ. ~e:ooSVJ_ ~g):)~N'd?50l3, ®rSe:o ~~6~ B;).,)riex>ro6:lN'd_cSoD, l:3;)':pg;riUlXJefu~;Sol3, ~S"!3 'CJ'>~oil ®gSn--~N", ~O~~S ~oJ>roso c6c6:lSJcO"ctiloiD @e>SbJ. ;fu~g, :013~O"cfu ::5e'}eai\l"6J~ 5"'6~Se.Yl~O ~[)aoe..u OS:r>l6~- ~o~(j ~;g;6. ~~e,J"OSoehEcS

.,

19

<6s~en ~;;.':o ;6~S~~ O'Sc@'JO"rSo ~~~o<6~ olJo~~ ~ 5"re> cO~C5iild. f!!iI&{)o6r1enrU~~;fu. ~O" r:'i~KenrU~~;6:J.

,:;ro!:3J f)J ~ 0 ~ ~, ;6 6"6- 0'" ~ el Lb ""hl ~ ;:) ,:;ro g) es o.'SJ" eJ ~d_ ;;§;fu ;;j6JJ~.;S~ol:J'SU" ;;;y> ~o~o r:'i(~~o:5J. ~6S~;:;r~. ;;;y>~ @o6.iaJ"~& erS.l @I g)~ci1>;}5~i6;& aS~OD ~o~ g)?;;J071" ;&§g);) ;;j6JpK)6iioa~&J.. @~[)<Sotl. ";;3;;S,J ~~~i6orl":j e30v g)lY'0®&:j Kc,lbrS ;6Gfu~~ ~"'d. ~;O& ~~I'l" ;o~KJ.2!rS c:JOSJciSJ'oet olJo~;& ~O~~ol'l" ~g)otJ;ti @);;S,J~®g) ~o(5)~oeJ<>;fu. ;;;y> @~~~ g);)aw;:) oiD<:JS~~o& ~;;S,J~~ e,J"I'\071" GNd.<6~ ~rr>Q ;6..k)~;fu <6;0 <0"~ ;)l5)s~o,~ ~ob:loe. @oti r::l"rSgo ;;;y> oSc':)@o ;ib)go <0" o:);o~~J oiD<35 S"'c5~i\1"?

N" ~c':)6oe .;)~ <SJen~en~cm . .ea oiDen~en ~~ 66ma 1Jef\;6 t;i~~ L.t!~!J iGoB0J5!Jd.? iGote,J"g)d_ r;Sy>w~t5N'd.Ol). ~r5JoJ~ ~~ @~J.~'If~ iGS"J,O"';og ~.:ilg;ej6:J. ;va -fuSc5o @;o.l;ijt\O" ~<:9dSJoet o:56~<6fOot:Sa6.l. ~5.~6.g)-3, &!,If\J... g)a:l~-2020, ~1P"6f5 @EaJ ;}6g_~g;oJoIDJ <OoJ<>J'6" a~~~ <66~';soe.) -5~O"l[?en ;6;;S,J.l r6:J~lb~t3 a~Q$y>e:, ;oa:l:fuoo;;) OJOe.) ;;::!;fus <fu56;furS ®<P:~c:J;6 ~g)~o eoe. re0:06JGJ

• oiD"- eJ

~~ O"eeoe. wrSJ.DrS.l ;6~rSSeJ~ SJuwo, ~~ 5?6~~ al!:!rS

66:l.il"'6S"';o, ~QS0S"';O ~e;;J:>&O"eniV"d.OJ:). @;;)J..e3Sr:Y>J_ g);)oD .;)~ ®0:5?;;J~e.DN"J.0J.). @O®<6JOrT" o:55,;J,06-0'''el) ~~ow;6"'iYCJ e...s G'S~ ~g)~o& @o e36JKJ~;)rSJ.c5~e @~ o t1rSJgS<6~o. ®?JoCSso. ~;6) ~d5:lK[)FlotS~ N" e.i'JoQ"e5o::meJ~ amea<6a eo6e_,;&. ;va~g)~oOS N"g;&g,:n ';)6:J.£rSQ)Je.)~ ~;fu ®~o~eJOrl" ;oeJal~KeJKf.Jt':O§ ®c6c56~fS 20"S~ W"<3 N"!&:> ~e~~6J.

2005 ~~o8.)fu& ~;fu ~§2P& ~oi3 <SJ6 ~O"~ c:JoCSB-Jot:l";fu. es 6bJ0J"6 ~or;~s& c:J5B"'~ rSo~6 ~:OcISJo ~~ocSe .i'Jo~-l3"e;l g)O"s6JeJ& ;;J~;;3if<SJ~rSJ. ~~ ;fu~4J;S®as g)6S KiBoD §'>o6~~ i:S6J a:o";6:J. (!!);;,).?t:?cJ:'beS <0"~ ~eJO<SJ;:6y>~ g)~~ot::J"6

20

~;D tJS:J ;;S~~ ;;S~:J§ CJ"ch.:f;r"~ .:;iw9;",~ &~~.:5.J. tJ!f; ;;Soa~EXI !§e;rll1o ;;S.;i,)oea;j~... iJ~& B~;jC"~ID~ ~~d) /fwoOJID iJ6ID... ;:Sol;S~d5.Jo ~£JJoa:1C'" ®;J ;;Woc;5.)IDEJDSJ... i5w1'08 .;S"o~w i5£b,§ oilJoO>SJEJDSJ ... tJ?i5;ScStJi§o §"oce;!boi:) 6Jt:b§05q,y r:5C}/§JOJ";.)uo GSot3a. .. (!fJ(j ;(,)&60 ~~~~o8... ;BKofT" (i5cfuo.t3~otJ... ~;SlP (i5~ e...~CJ<'<9J. ~;illSJs3Be1Joa. .. @GJ LOS;5£JuoiS!iJol:7 €!Joe! e..SJ, ;Jo1:u.il.oS"tJ, !1.r:aosotJ, ;;506~0S''.6 (fjoc6J... @(j ;;SC" L~;S£:ro~j i:$ot.notl, ,;ivo6:J!fJ s3B~;;J i:$ocWoB ... S08.)~ PJr:JOoelolbo (!Sr;;o6;;Sc!fJ, ®;:{;)~;5ofbo SI76iiJCJ. 7

(f)

2006 ~~Oe:ltSJ& ;3;fu 508r16e ~i?JJ ~{i"'<B"V~ ~~r5J. @S&c i'J"§"S;).J~ ~®S'5"~O d~o5i6 ooSooc ~65 ooe?t.fJ D~6:J2;;) !:iVo6"<fu. @crlJrS 1950et ~6J.::50"Q)~ ~o:J.)oeJ et;:;J~ S'§"'~e;d ;va~ iJos<'t!)) ~~6J. o<6ooc .©u60 a~JrS ~eJe;o ;;J"§~.)~§ ru~~Ol). @dSJeS i\J'l~"':~oD&JS~o~6ooS~ ;fuJS&~ ..:Sc5J~ \3;;5.)60 .;S~ O'S:J;fu~fh &.a'tltSKeJ<fu'~ a?rt,..6;). <furSo ~b60 c5J6\eJOrl" ~f.Jt'o, oSJeS!&:> aleJO

i.J Q "".J eo> W CJ

S"'iil"V. ;fu<60 ~~rS;;5.?6 :OO"Q"60[1" ~~o, oSJrS~ ;:;J;JSc:mo S"OJ"V.

c6JeSo ~~i6;;,).J6 tni6 e= iJDe..."" iJoQ"6~o. ;furS!&:> g)-;3i5i6 soOJ"V, ~~so S"OJOID. <SJi60 ~ful'U~o~§"~ ~t.SS ~ @oS;:;JO"e;~~~ @6J~ OS~otl.

LA!§.j ~.0"~r1"~~ olJoeS;:r>io~oSo &oSs-tJ~e; ~~fS6Jsa!)od ~o6J.~ ~MJ~oEl. @1!,))';sot,lS e<6~~~t!),) ~6JN'dQj,). @~ @~rJj)c (rS!)60, rSoA~o), ~ej~ (~-iS6ea, ;:;J066~o), ~~ (rSJe)®)' i:SSdr(J ceg)6"~oSstJo;o~, ~zy>~~ t,d~~ @oeottJe<O§ .sa E.'loSS~a suCeaGSJ;o lb~e;o g).t!.:srvowotSJ.

a. e<6~-13~!

j'0"e»" so6woe.JJ<' eDc6Ji:Sc,}>cm

- .....

~ a.t5e:; iJ~cS" E?{iJo{Joc?,. ;)~6 a~£loDo~

21.

etw5J· @en? ;;y.£);.Ci @oK~~ (1058-1111) ;;Sy:;Si6~g)~ g)el)~~ ~;:ScS ~di:J~d;& ~o;B~.oes~ 0"'5"~.

;te>:J ~tj) osoe:of1" :JE4f<Soi:S;:5r:5tJ (1) ~~81'F' !J~ [jeil!b:J ~X~ f.lv.,se:o ;::J~i6aae.>""e;l8atbe;l,)j'i':' ~of\~~ 8<'~eD (2) .ott? ~~8f1" .;16)S}.16Obe5§ ~.:5o aJ"~el:l ;jg):,eS"{J rodUiba:lcf.l B"~W (3) oilr6o al"~w e§~N"SJoe;;" .6~ a:lC:J i6~~.;:u,w. We.1"rl ,;i);5J~llJ /J;;or;p ~~ 6sowrT'" .>5~58o.:f,;j~V. (1) e'§;S.:;oriitlJ fpjJ ~eJJ;:S.;!f.;,.o f!!Jd 0 a:6J!3JzW"~. (2) o"Jo5& e..-!§6J B~e.'f~, ~r:v8~ ;~ @)goj;:;ng6.oOJ"~ (8) ~:;~OTi";.5;o@e.u;:;n~a.oo:r-~ . .!l

S"6J~ ~e~, ~fSi61&~~ ~[)~1&tpl'1" .s~~ ~~6<S:l :otSOD~

eJ eJ ~~'

@Ql)~ @"),§45 .,)~6-e<S:loE) ~~~o&, ~fSi6S~~~d!~aa~Ba ;fu_,-"'vtDti'

fQ~~~ tS:l;S~ @o~;;5~:O tS;;y.iJoJ;e.una~ eoE;Kfod5JoOD. g)g)Q ;6o~Je)efue.u ~oe:s"s, tjoSJfugSt)::5 g)oSo~;fu i8"c::ID i3;;Sjls,~Q)).

ox,y,6~c& ~or.J6ila!:3 ~;StSJ~QS<6 sotSs~~o& ;fu;Joe:3~5"'" rJ~&l(\j'>€§JS~ @;;3 ~Oo ~rS;;"5 ;:po;;"5 ~~o~~ DJ"§~~o~~ ~Doa ;;Sc5ol1" OJ"~eJeoo. ~~~ 6iSOD6 eJ~iJoa lD~dil~ (1601- W58) [e)~d®;;S5~~~~o WooOfb;fu st1 @~6 lS;;S qfi8"~~§ oSaJfb;;SJef1s j(;e1aao;:l"~Js~ @~ IP"<S;S~ ~;;J&~[);S6 @;;;3 cpooSrS ~eoiSe:l&o5. ~;:)~tS:l e1<S .;fus-S~Le"§o~ e&BJoiSK!Df\ a,J"'6J"e)~, {)leoiSKlrn L;;Jl~h:iSJ<5J"o ~~"i3"[);'s6i1", ;:0e)rer;y>~Js~rl" zyg)oi:S6o aa5f\oEJ. 19:>5 -i3U"'e:Jo~ ~~eJo

_ (;l

st1 ~Le55., ~e.1&l~BJs6rl" ru~oiSGJe.oe. a1& 200:, <tI6"~~6 oSt1Jtb@Jt!5&i

5(OSJe5tJ'>S" 1&tf~ ~l¥;& fJoe:Jo/iJol);;S ;:po;;"5<S~ g)~(;SiI"~eJS:J ~C" @<SJOS~o;;J.ijc:tiJ60 ;:;je')aa~6JS:~ri" Ej,l"""g)oi:$eoeoEJ.

oJooK6& GS~&,o{);:S @ej~ ~~:O~~ ~g5 ~5 (1905-1983) ;:).;)rei'J"6~Eiorr' eoa ;s't))oJ.'ll!f ~ru tSS"e.JJoeJv6~ru. a.s~ SriPS"tDru, ;'bEY'SOl zm~ ~G$<SeJ g)6J..;,'j_s.,c". ~.;)elc;J'l6.J_S~ l;;)@ciil~ .-6a ~~ vFe)Y' @c6@t5;&;:S:O @~G"®;:S. ~6.;)<Ef~o6;:S @~ vcSrS;fu gs~o @~~~C:l. rY'~ @dilrS '~~~c&0l:~'®"'d.~' es ,~;;s<s L;;JS"'iSo ;;Sy>,t6~e ;fu<S;::))&cl;lo~ Bo~ ~-a~<3 @O'6"'eJ!3J;:S08)O~O~cS ~16;'se.JJ a.st:Y"iJ$'st:i ;;S6ilJ6o fj)o8oiS:l~ ;:J;s'dilod &Jo~EJ~~ cfu~~05i5 ;:J.;)f:Oi;:;yo~JSf). 10

t.le,)re;:;yo8.J_Se);5J g);,Se~ Oi8"<go §oalCJ 6J>~o~S:J;:SJ. ~:o~a ;,S~~1J- ~reN"'ei~1&~;to ci3E9"Jc5;:S @J@dl.lrl" ::>oSeoi:)oEl. tJ'>iJ ~S"l:5o toiS;&~~ ~O"aW"e.l;:5J s<fuf)"cSt:;t':o§ ~oa CSJOS& §"iJJ. ox,..rS~ra iSo:d.3t;SOSeD ~~El'is'S:lOe.y.OD. a.!3 ss ;:Jo~6;'se,);fu aJ"oJoe5@J;;Jot:SoC .g6eo~ ~;fuo& zy-i1011", @o~tJ'>S'" @~6.soa;o<ilreN"6J!& ,~,;:l"e.l~, §"~ iJO"J,~eJSJ ;furSo &!~5~~o.

<6oSJSC{);6so~CJO ctrorloY ;:;je1elW"6~s6 @oe;:l;;sa;;')a j;;s~~ c:!io'a @S@dil. @EJ as&tro S~G$oY, aS6-0i:SCSod' i6J;:So ~;&~ ~~o3 ®i[)<Se'J~iJ ~D~oO. ~zy6~ot? W"eJ"'V ;:J~aaN"6JS ;;J~6:lel) v£:'Jie;~, ;:J:»)<6seJ~ ~~ ~oGJoQ"o;fu ;;J5~5~o:D. :J2~ .e.J§;;')oSJr{ji:b ;;S50)0&tSo &u9-§ f'J<EfC @S~6 ;;J5~@ @;;.)o~go1l"~, @j(;onl00[jD~ 6:.o~:>5i;):)Jli"S. S"~ @EJ @~s OSeo)o2,.O"~;fu ~OSa.S ;;J~e& @~~~ SlSeiloB. @l ~oSJoY r6e)el<J"®J!:l ;;;Seiito6-C"~;fu .s;fuf)"otbJot::l. t*~et> BJ"rl" OJ"~S& tl:l~ @t:lJOSoiB ;;J(£eild' 'ifu@')fu6;;):);:Sg) o.W>~;;'1'>\Q)). @g) -;&...,.,<SJtt5i6o

Q r<'1 . Q ~ ~- d.: - . ......' -0< Ii

rS~OBtS @&is;;:5. @~.s;;J.Ea"~JS ;;Se~&tS.»)J"io. C:SJe:l<J"8JS~ QSyJBJS, :tJriJ.:,~ ~~oo.i~ :»)i6S' a3"(lJ6~~eiJoo @:O ;:S;fuJ. ~re>e,)<S:loe :»);::)0 ~o~~~i'JJ, @I:! 8)e101S~o:D& ;;sa;;so @o:D6J.~ talocco<S~ ~~;;5a fl90~<6Ji'§ ;;):)ot:3J16 seJK~o ;;5eE'?o5Jc~}s;;bS"&l. g);5,;:y>~J!i5o "'_,....,

$ '" e OJ~l .. r.

5,000 r6o<S~JO"eJ ;;S5E'S"~ ~E'<lO~ g)~iil"~J~;;$@o~::oa? lQS~~ d5JJ~~ ~§&;:S ctro!1"OSN'd_&ltSJi5'fu @e;/j® e.l:aE'il~g)Je? £]rSrfu~otJo<fu, s @fJ,sfjdSJ e;:at'Glo g)~;;$g)~..)CJ~rS:O. ea~;:S ~rS16

23

r5~<w~ ~~;:S ®~e§.s r5.s6Y>~el~~1'? t9<6:JSJ~r\elJK:l~~ ®ei£o~ ~!~o~;;S ~~ :0'1;<6;&. ;;§~ Cl,oeJoi3e5 ;6~e:lo f)"o)..} @~5"'6"V~ @oCS~~o~. 'f!:9 @oSSO'6"et: §,,~~6oJS e~Q @~S"'8"elJN'd_a:n, ~50fS ,e5JtSDf\o:B e.&~r\ e!)oSS"'8"rni>J'd..a:n, g)~grSg5r5o, -5!f:a sSr50 §"ES &c:J~6(;g"rn el~~~~~~Q)). IDo6~oSO) <fueo~ <6:Je>~~6o S";fu~a: 'a,o~"QD.S" 1l!)~Q"rS01'? @t:'l6-~ ~~~dSJID~ c6:>~~~ ~oB"~ Cl.~~ @,)yorS @oSolge ~elJ~r\DI'\;;S @OSS""8"en :illfuX>;i)~OXl. Cl.clO6'" lOe:lo~ g;)~c;y>6~~o. S"lO ~ g)c:JoSo @Sr5:J~o ~o l3;fuoot)?

.,....,. _.....a ~

1P"6e5B~ t:Sa~& ~~~6e,~er1" ;;§~ N"wrlJ ~lJ"e)~ BoElrS ~;6.,)~Ul . ~i}~ O)lO~~c\ld:6.J. Lc:Ja a..s& ~6o 6rSi))50b. e1§&<s 60"e>i"Geob ~e.n;fu§'ioSe>~ tlloEl. O"~oS~ oSd1J"~g)OS<fu($t) IDv&.<S611" S"1S, a:lelori" ~ew,n,ot:S r\e).)I\)~ot). ~6e"ri" ~~ ;;jD ~6o&tJ ~t:lex)~)c$6"~. ~ 660 ~60~::J§ ;;Sxioc5J a3~J.0{;)oEl. ~ifu cofJ,} ~"8"o6e560 @;) g,t!JJ~(fu. ~ D<S,}aJ.J~ ~~ BlOrlJ50D l:l~..)N" @I @O<5"el~J. @o6~~6~;& Lc:J~floD ose§oD ~O"eot:SroC ®O"B"e3

a,) 1 L4. toG:.

®0lJe.6ag). cS-8"i?be> 66a:>e ~a.t-~d:$,:)QL6f:a c6SoS~e>SJ e?EOd

~::')~~<So6JOS~ 3J~ ®o§61P"c:5o, ;nID~~, g)~diJ~, 1S~ose ~;ni3dS,)~o GSa&' g)e.:ooS~ ;;SoilJwo;n§ ~e>C;Y>eJJ ;;)~o. ;&0 6t32,.il 60"el~N'J. oSJt.fuJrn <fue .3go011" ~N'd.dS:l~. ;;soe,& ~ c:J6~oS.zy.<J<'el) ~o~ eN'd_dIJt>;6£) 1P'"g)~ eoeJ"o. @oilJcelS~rS ~rS;6o;;)cl~ ~KJt3c:'J)SSoSC;~ S"~ ;&0 ;ill<> 6())OJ"ei 60"e:J~e§ @o6~dS,)CJ"~§ B;;).JsSCS~ @ifu~Q;jQ~ g);;jS"~ !howo <5im~~oti>§"N'd.o . .fufu a..s~#' 119 ~i6"06 60"e>~5§ ~ot)rSCJ":a tllotJ S"~66056 ~o~3~ ~~~e.JJ'>, @5Cfu<>f1'l~J~ IP'"OS;6el) g:nc5J~~ ~ oSJ~& @~~OXle ~e>o)~;ns ;6~~5o-c':SXe>oS;'J ~~-E" ~e~~g K:l.§:o{;)~o ~fu.

~t;i"6!:aol1" iJo~ 660 oS.:Iil:>O:O~r1" oSJo())..}~ ;.=moen". ~gOTi" ~0"~50t:S~o ~~dSJoe. ®COJi§ !n !:'l~6Jb ;:JO$g)~;:JJ.. 0SJ06:J.,)~ i6".a~~a&, €S"B"'6DS~;:)B& ~ @;6)~0J0!Jd: .D;JS"::JJ_fl.;;;;.Jdb"f'loi:}

24

g)iiDo[J~ciOl.~. a..~~fi !n ;zy,os~~~~£"d"Se>;;5~ !b~o6 ;:J<fu~~o seS6s~;jj. ,;}>o"§~S ~0J,~e.;& &7>of\S1>~ dSDOStl60 ifuoe., !n <5~t:S6 (f,e!~(IJ'?;;. .;)o~~ a~~oc,. OJ"6&SDfu ;;5/S<5..}/S0 e...S5S"~()) c~o~~j g)Oon" ~~~cjS)~o ~6m~~08. tos:! iiJ"!f. ~os®~~q]~e.D ®OSr560. @e7? Ol"e§ ~ .D-s<ti @r5.:>21QY'w a.fl~ :OilXe>f)co, ~DJQCJ"o) iS~k2J6iSJg"rrcK~o. ~to;:J~e:.Il ;;.J5~eoi:D§' r\e>r\~o oSoe5~ ®oS;66o.

~6 a~oe erSdeJ:>~ot) S"6JS-iS_§& CJ"O"~ oS:lJoasQ)o~ ~~o~ ijJ066c3"il'o6' e:lg)JoDrSOY'~. ;;3ifu DJ"tlO e36t?Jc;y>c:$)e,)~ ~Ul~ifu. ~ OY'1f, eJ"QStlen g)6,S~o..:sCo& ~;6S"e&~Oj'>~. oSSOS~& ~6 60"(D ::li3,);:)fD6J11" 'E!3 B())~g) ~.J~ S"s ~O"(D @6J~~~ c:Jg)~~;:)J..DJ"~. l§afi~ GY'~ §"~66o ;6)oD S"~g)oJ.ctiPe;JJ ;;jfu.JS:!oeJJ~6l. 6<fu ~!§,~ 6~ ;;.JlO~, ~~ r5.soi§ a§g)B"';;)i <fuQs <50SJ0;;S071" ~O<5:JsSoSIDO S"~ at:\" 60,)) ~eJJ02J"e>;;)~ L~g i5J0~oiS~ol1"~ CJ"6J ~6 ~11" ~g)oi$c;oa6,). 211" ®&lJQ)Ot') cS~iti ~:6J;;.J~, a~6:le:JQ)~ i:5Jv~o..:sr\el 3J"r:;lsa~, ~&r\)oSo~~;s t5~~§ ~~orl" ~~oiSe:l6.?oEl. Q;jQ6~~ Q)dilr5:lJ& tl<SJ_bJC2;:J e~si'\lUl OJ"6 ac}~rtt. I&;;S~I!)J", @()~o;&t5§ Q)~BdS.JXDR @osS"-3'>VJ" S}>06J~OCIDO iSJo~ 6"tmliFwo @eJ:lQ)oe5 6e1~"}qJ'>;;§J. ®e:JiJfu,)SJoeJJrJ'dfu. Q;jQ/SoEJ~rSJ. g)-5~~c:S ~oSe.>S:> @S®~e>011" OY'5§ e:J~oi:5OSe:J~;:J /'U~o~g;;:Jo, [f'6oSo~0 ~()) @6{) ®6:lrD~i::ld.fu.

!b5"~#' ~CS6,JOJOCS ~O":o§ BoE.);:JOJ",2 tl50e3 .fusOS" .;)~ ~$! oiFeJJ t56"..)t'iSOrl" ~os ~dSJr\[)R @Q)5"~O e.otS::,) rb60i:5oc,. tofu !:o

. ......

ose1gdi @1ti~11"~ ;ne:J~e,y.lO§ tosos~6@<S -8~E"dg;<5o. ~~~og;~o,

~<661e:J~O !:b sel~!:bt5J S";s;zy"F'l~ eo~ot., toeo~oS6~ ®ot)ot.);:J 1v~(>J~ ~952.)ef1" fu:e_bJoJ t:Stf,6~ @oS5"-8"e:JsS';6o a16~C"w §";6~f\oi:lo~. a..S~~ £bt5J @S$:l~OS"6 ~N"et s=~, ~goS:l"OS"6 ~fJ"e;S"~ ~~~OJ:)a fu d5xloS ;6~&$Ne);iJoe ~.a'.s;:S~d5:l~ftJ iS~~so~ r;o6Q;jQ~ &JcOt:lWOlO§ ~dil~d.0iSoe.. @oOJ!§:J fu IDe106o& tv"dS:lt5~~ ~S~<fu x,~ot) ~ot) ~~oi5c;;& i:5~&~ ;ill<>~o.

25

1960et: ;:-So<\5g)o':!);:S ;:,j<>aeig)~,;So eidJo:J<'l!:!i E::3:JJ,o:;);:S o:i"'dJ ~~~ ee}sK~t6~ .ao-i.s~01i" e.o~co @~~O$:):J iJOeJ"'&'oCSlSno 10~oOi\i ~6~1:So. S"ID~ <3"5 c5~!&jllSo ~iI"o~ ~0"e);;:r>5~, @3c5~;y>6 '~0"'e;l~6~ g){)i,!&orro (!l):J~~OQ. ::r$dba", §'it~t. ;;J:J~d5:l~o .i,o~KJ~KES?eJ.!:btS ~5f\;:S .iJo~~O"eJ OJ"5s ,ea §"g~tio 6:lo6J~~1i" @g)~di:DUiI'l" !;i;:SroC'l€J"OJ. eiOSJ a:l"O~6elJ ~ti.s€Jt>oiS6oaS~ .~;::J~ a:JeJ"Bi'l" !:i;::)ro68'l1$J. ;;3;::SJ. DJC>'i,~ ~oc5JSJ &~~~c& ~tiOfi'O @~';s~~;6). K~ C'ii!Dif5oesS * ;fu"oc::b~ &<S1fu~c& ~IS;& fD.eB. ~~OJ"~ fJo>~o{)oe. ~~~ 6";,Jx, ~eni2.;:S ,~6~fJ, ,~t6J ~,;sexl @~Jio@ ;:6e'le:lN"@~5"e)fJ Ol"tiil .tJ6.Y>fuoi5:JSSKID11"LD. eiifu ~,;so~ D:l"6:i ;J;;5J~ ;to50® ~6J1b 0SJ50~ <lilfSoi'l", ;;);)506 -Sl9)JOl'1", ~Bo6 N"~~011" Bd5:JK[lR @,;SS"'6"~;:fu e§s&;::)D:l"5s ~:bOiJ"6.:l. es ®;:S5"oD"o.i,~ S"1S&t~~ .:J~ ~el) ;:6o~g)Oi:FQl). OJ"e:J eis&;6 e§0"e) OJO~OB" ~.'S!350iSW"~s fu~aJ~o:n.

;;:mo&.~&,~!3.)SJS&b fi§6o e§g)@oe? .;}<>6cStl.J~fi§rSJ ~t£Jb,;S g;6>~otnoo. b;::).)~ocm~ <2§'l:Js ~~~l1" &.&sriJelJ ;J~B~ ®O"'e)~e ;:)~ ;:So~et: ;;j~ e..~ e;)l6~oT1"S"!3, OJ"~OSol1"~eo6o~ @oCSJ~ S"!S~d 4 §"~~tio bfJJ~tS~;6 e..!lt. ~le§;&. !b8g)t;)o11" ~o~1fu ~!fu[)6cfu eiO"':Js i5oo;:S 05~ @Ql)~ol3 £bdJ· &ot5tl&~ a~@ ;J6s~e.!3 aJ"O$~e)~, N"tril!3@.s ,8J"OS6e)~ ~ti.sfuooB ~N"et:s B6KID'R ~®& -6~~ii" rU_9oiSoe.. iD.:l:l~e<6d c:J"~ ei~ ~05o<fu ;:);DOol1" ~6.s~oiJ"o:O !bti:> S£6J~o~ GN'df1i @.;JOO11" c:;o6J @ tJ05v;:S, ~6s~o~e;~ ~Ct:l~ ~ aJ"Oe'ji§ ll!>~e:rooEl. S"ro~ ~ISJ £b§ol3 e&sKJeJ!;I) @t6;:J6~;6 rJc;SoS"oo~ -5~:;) 'ii:9oElO:jE~#~~eJ;;5J. tJ6J::I1'oe, @i550iSoEi, OJ"t)~c5 ~txl rJo.i}>eoiSot..

l'.) ~

a.,gj,g ,'06.s;;Ju~c:5oKoQ <6:J3c:iSJ60 !JJ eJ~o S"S~o:D;S~.,)e5§ .to ~~ e§g)eio ~6:JriJEJO :bo5Jao;:SJ g)UJ~<6 ~~11" tlJci>Jooao~ e~cfu ~)y .. a&e5 ~;;Jl~o<fu ~1SJJSS05e.Jo~s £l,~ @~so6c:5;&fu e06;:S!:56-ISe361. g)eJ:l~oS ~?S~;6;l @oeoiSQo ~O" £:b eoSoE)<6 ~g)@o&g)JoSJJIDJ. ~6J ~6Jo:ilo~g;oa. @oOJS:l L;;J~~e.)o1i"' .;)~ §"'~g)~~or::o~6JJ~;e @~S"~eJ;:i) @o6JsGot.. ..JaJje:.so)jllil S"~ S"~8J"c;5Si§UJ Q6~tlJCO,'O§

26

!:;b1il ;:So~~eDl"i" &"ofJJN'd6:O fu ~ @es<>5 l(ifuoo:BO" t:'iJ'>;6.)sS08. g"'otSt» ~t96ISo s;.eS"tlJe.D fu~ @c5c:S;;j) 8J"~6 a;S.s~;fuoe3 tows so;:5c:j, -s~ ::Jt:Jot:S~;fu<6:O SloJJi!,)g ;;Sc5:0~~ cl:ocOSiS;.} .;)o6.:lSo.B OJ"t 660ef QJ"'~ e!l~n ~g)oW"tS:l. S";';) @t:S<6~ 2JOOS~ @oe;) toes, 6"~ IDt,1c1S:Pe.n ~6JJ~ey,'O~, g)J~J[)d.. IDJCiJ ,'O~~o.:l:lsSK~Kt:1>iO§ ~s ®<sS"-i!<fu~ ..,.,0, N~oiSe36J.

as ~l) S05J!:i-i_§& <J>UJrf~rlo OJ"!f. 6,J!:i..)~e!, ~1P6&'ftro6ei6o' ®tJ 3;;Jj~O~ tlsocmoo. ~lSo~ C"t;J<'<;JJ11" @6~0J<'c5ei60 cibJ!3& g,~ru. ~$! c5J~e .;Jc5S g);::;d5J~~<6o. ~o~@!3 ~~~$e.u .:Jc6c56J~~;fu @o~oeoi!i ~O~<SY>ru. ~[)6 ~[)0s<fu~5 fJo>o~!3 diJtp"go. ~~t2!3 ~QS6 W"SiJ.>6 :J~;to. GF'If;l,rt,rorDejtio .:JoOJeo~ o:rot,tfl e)~o~ egQSS"-6"e.u §"g)J. rod5JSl;;Sc;SoiSo ;;5Joe @o6:>dJ~O)). ~1P~on" @~5S".;:5)ot.. ~~;Syo~d:5,y>;fuoe @o6:l00N'd,_OD. gag, ;:JOJ"~J' gog @Q'JS"'ii"elJ" I c§~odi. ;;);)i6ifu,,)8'cjs§,oiSKo oJ)e;l~o~eJ& I KrU~e:oeJ& ~ ~~~6ota~&eeJ§6-tl~~rSJ..tj. ~66a~ ;:;)5~e~ @6S~~ e~c5s -BE:l:~.- ;S S"eo!S.aI§i'i" 6JaSJoot:Sr;eJ~oei66 ~t6J6~ot6eJ n'm6®6o ;;j6

rf.I....._ 6.....,:, o ~,...., ......,

@otS5r:l~';)~&,;S ~il.'9~Ul SJoocDefu~t)). "S"iD~ ~<5~ ~tl.s~W'~S"6lrn

rtfJo~60 ~;m~IDJ_ @go t:i;:J;~;';) ~dJ ~oSJ '3"dD-i~eT' !3e)~ -a~ ::141011" OJ"5g) @6e§.J~oW"ID.

£hIS:> rtIDo60"~1! £)00<6 ~CQl)<6~OXl~ ~ oS~!l~g)@o8' tb!fu 8~eJJtSJ ~oElo.:lKe) .a~~eJs6;:Jo, ~~c5~tnvsS;:So @;;j.s~o.jo~. CJ"!5 @<&l<li~o g)J~J.~!:n t6e)~~.i)eio& [)E::3cfuaSq50e? i6e~~OO. .;)e:o;SO e5 lfS~e.u @8f\;§ GF 5."fuo 8 [)'!D~;6 ;;) ;Syo€J06 0 0"e:l~,;S ~ 6W«):)sGo&, £h6J ;5e&GFeJ;:i)~~ 0"5.&i £he~ ;fu"oc3 ;6a.a;J"~ ~o l'5~W'd..~ ILfuno g)~C'lo @eJ<;jt>e:o ~t:J:lsGoe. ~6J ;:) ~DSJO"tOfb6 <6e:o

n _ ~

<'Jt;QO~vcfu!;bocmNd,as ss ;Jo~OJlO) §[)f\;S OJ"'t.~ .t::,~~ adS:loE.. ~ ;2g)@'>~ ~<P".i)60 adiJl'IeJ ii1<>S"eJE?cGo ::il56fuoiSoE.. @g) £::D~ eJ~oiSl'i"~ ,;:y.,J6dS:J:<.tOs ~~g>d~. !o05ol'J D:l"~~ ~g_~ 6lDJ<6o~~, ~~6l$J§~so acfuK[)f'l;606J~ to KJ6:J~Ul 1ti.soSaeJ" BoiJoEi.

27

2105 .a'6"~oJl S"eiS<:SoKo£Do ~ a,~6- ~O"~§ ~~~OS6so~~. @ a.S& ~tSo @;:)::JO"C, @S"o,if5'> ~@;fu ~c:S~a ose~a i'56 ~6~ @~ ~O"e:lOJD~ 16~oW"V. l2lu a,~~ 1~c:SO c6~g)e;$J~ tjlS~ @~05~~s"ii:l"[). ~og~~ ~~~eJj ~oSJcotlQ~sSOJ"[). g)~i5 ~~@'bg;s g";;jiJofloiJ"{). ~@ a,~;}1'f'i¥' ri&3tJd5:l~;;S Q,}:'JB'B"~~:i:Jo~ WG3"'ID. :b0il~~.ib~ a.~ ;S~~o@ @~S~71" c6eK~o~sS.OJ"tl. ~ a§g)~~§.oS~§, ~ !3:le.D02Jt':Jg, .fu i0a:fu.>f2~ ~[;JD<J"v§ !ba aJ"c;lJSe.?~ ~_got;J"[J. !ofu B"1Ss!LaPW~~ @o6:J~ ~rituli" .fu ~;;)e.?~ roBoD .fu!&J L;;)e3q)e:l".!h<:s,;mg)®011'"

o eJ ......tIl ''''b!..

@ofJoiSl'ivrJ'>tl.

~e a.~&e§ s.c5 @Q"6~g)J~. g)C"Sl;l;;$Jt>ES~o:n ~6~l'iof"iD ~6JNtfu;;j~tJ.<6Ja~;6 ~o'§~S ~~Ei"SUl", GJ"e5:O g)g)O 6071''e)c§:J @;6)oS.§.oOS~~ !!!l;;SS"-E"~ .a~®.§~of1" 05eJ~ ijo6~~cm. i3"SflG, ;;3l'ion" @;6e~;6d. ;S~iJD150 a~o&, ~aJoiSodi&1"®s, ~~~!3 ;seo.)o~~ i5e:i:J;;§~~B. ~c6J ~~6> ~;:)o6~g eJ~;6, eJ;:)d.~ a;$oti ;fu~1h ~iJ"6o ~6 @ocDroobJd§ ~~. ~8.)~~0s.5 §'>~ g);0~v~ 6e.u;:;2)eD i1ltD~;;jda. s,e:ooSol) ;:JoSS iJoO;;J~a~ §.~o& @~ i6~p @o!5:JeQ~ @o)S"<i!o I!)~ot;j'>{).

£Jti1sO) iiJDrS& ~r;So ~@~cru IPv§{j ~O)e1J6,ej6 r't5J~ ~~S&I?&''oa ~qJ) iV":t1lJg"L6:J t:D~ ~v f:JO!rt? g)gnpex; .;:be.ug6~~Ql)

..vcl'}~, floeJtJ eJDi)oB 36S$:l

C]

..vo @,t$O§at:!o. 12

c

;6~S"bi6 ~66 eOSalS" a.S OS6~;;S d5»o.'S<S"®. B":J laJQ,}oiSo~

~ Q ~

c6J5it S"e)Oli" ;6~05 ~Ke~6r'i" oS~~e§J~d vt1&c\.'5.l)I!)$) ;6J;6ooS;:)d1

.g62l'dil~;;S <6JoJ<.tJdSJ iSele:( eOe. ON" 6..:sOJJ~ ID:JcfuJM'<'on (1895-1976) O"i§,"'dru:

e;J"66G§'8"!OfJ i;ioai6 !f~e)lP, ~!O e§i)6;{;i\JOv!f.J QOa;;s ·ro..u.:q"o~. r:JD:J ;5e;i3J iSoan5 g)~o.::Df)~ .;)a~d5Jo @~6;ro.:;S

28

@;;)S"ifo. §"~ ;5od~~05R:;ef;5olT", §"!OJ rSo6o::;et (!9;»od5J!.fon",. ~8§,,~ ;;:5od~<t L;jrF~ @odt)b~U!J;SolP, S"tJ .J~jtfe;r<' .tl(S"Ql)iloS, ~6e1diJ ~~escfuO ;;:515~&"8"&OO i!Poijofj. @! ~~e,):ill @45jdi>;So ;3dfJeto L05l9 e.,.~{jtJ ~sg;;:5B~ @.i5s=ilo. @I~uJg ;;5~e;gO;Jo, tAg)B"{.JS"s @Jgo i:so, VO@dlJ ;;)0""4)@ .7f1ow';:) @~~~ .;Jot? La5~s~oa S=8)~ O"i6&o~ ~r;So i.?o6OSoJ!Joa ~l7' .:JogE tiloa. J3

1947'tc;o8 g}"'6esc3-io a,~ (!ll!j'iJ~!3 es:oe9rl" ~~;6:l~;6) ~5ptS:lsS::6Co ~1.5E0t5~ t3OSJcio oSJrS O"~§dil i\l"oJJ~~~d. <Go~~~OSlSiS~o ~c5o ~~J ~ ~~~. ~ ~fJoc6;;S~ ~o;6~@~ (!llQ"SaJ,~ g)rnoSe.?~rS ®;io a.a'~ ~i\l"6Je)) :OV~e~~ (!!I ~e)"e);5) @jSE:tot5 S"'6ijL!3O'llo dS,)~~!3 EP"1Sbeiiu~ eJ;;l.Jl1' &6f.)J@~6J. @ll;J~cIDS:> ~o:JSB"Jli"Oe (1869-1948)i6~0:5 @l®~. ;:JoS~o~ <P"6~a'3"~ o»§~~ ;;S8~ 2J"~S~ ::6:lJo6;J~ ®<fu!i>rSd. O"ed~d$) ;:J<>cfu!i>eJJ es @S~d5J&oB @J¢'g)o!l;;SQJ"~.

~~olY"'£;;So66 't'J~o& 60~;g: l:;J~;;So ~6:J~ej ~ciJ EP"6~<S"® cWCJ"e eJo..,tJ ~I!)IDet5;;SdtJ. ~6:e55. lli"~·~~e) s::J O"'ID~ L~~ (1874-1968) ;):J..tJC ~,iJ~wot3 oD;;S~06J ooti)[:i"6Je::o~Q)).

M 0,.; ._0[

(1)~o6[;JDS'" ;;S6~ ~~J;;S [:i"e~ ~ocs,!:D ~<SeJo (2) ..:s"$&~ .oo~~ 6Jc&J<>oeoiSJSS.05tJo. @ot3 ;;5J;S g)Q"fJ"DJ_ ~;;S;;SJ!b~oiSJt;U~ .ir>e g)t;l"tSoifuoE.. @~~ciSJ .;:)Q"'~::J§ .o5Jn1Sc;o, e300 !!lle.J" o:5.Y>6lObotic ~~ tJl'eti @oen.)~1&J~ tioe:) @ocs,& ~oDeo~ l&~ooe.?l'i:leo6, rS~orbBotJ ~&i:}o.:5JsSoStJo.

;;)~0"6 1&~6 ~4l<J"o zy,oti®§ ~~~<t ;;)oa5~oD;6 ,si&J @)(l;;S~~ ohi5o ;;)1O~~;;JO~OS, .sg)o~ ~66.:1.& flD~~;;S o:5.Y>6J,~

"t' Q f"'!"'?I ~,......, c....-. c.J

6ffu~;:)~otl. ~. aSY>b.JJe:lJ G5JJ~J)OI1" OS~ra l;iJ.>oB"et ~e eJ!:b6,o)

;;SoE;'f:JOiJ'OOOJ. ;5~iJ'D6 iJoo~.gs ~~S"~e) g)~e!i6,;:roS~gS;i}o~ ;;5o~l'ieo1l", DJ"mees;)6oiV', ~O~~Ol1", iS~OS6of1" !:0>cro .;)~ §"~QPrue.lJ ~6J~Q)J. -;3tSJ ei!&J60:5 OtiS:> I!)&lo~ <:S~t:l'"6o> "j~i:J"6 ~osn~ ~~~~ @ooe§ ~6s&§ ~hJl'JQl).io;;36 EP"c:Se§(j~~§. ~;6

29,

~o~~. ~r6OS <>SrS6:le3 @esSo~ g:)el)~;6 C!!l~. ~ osrS6:lDJ. @l~~~ ;j~sSOJ"eJo8 @o6S? §t)§~5'"el) g:)~rS~, ~reN"~JS6"~. 14 @lcm~ ;:Ji1"g)§ ~i1" ~6esc3-e'o l!1"Lfu"oet g)OS~~eoe.. I!!!S?/-, t)~Orl"~1l.. lSI.iJr,tS ~OSJo2BS, ~rS';s osrSc,e.l;l esf\rS EP"l9~, ~~:O~ ®;:iJ;:JoQ"rSo8g) 5"6~O11" es§~ IfJ;:;)O~g)§ 6T>60rl" t30Q~~~Q)J. es OSrS6m~ ~§6-rS ~c;)O~g)§ tiDQS i:l~6.:OI!!!;:iJ;:JOr;r>rSo ~6JW"eJrSJ.e. C\j". !;;'Ie,).

o))rS g)Q"N"Dd_ <6!b!oi:Dlil:O cl:;g~ g)Q"N"eJ;5) .JO~S a~s6os~o SC:SeJO @~S S"tSslEi;6.)o so6. 15®o6~ ~Q"6tcl ~CW~SO:OS ;:JOe;lOG)owrS <6~~ ~g)~ 6onoeJ C!!l5"O~eJ~ ~r1~~0J"[). ~6~cj-o"~ ®~oS~~ adSJC;~o~ ®~oSe1~ ao5rS Q-B"eJ;5) e9~Seo.::sc.fro:., OJ"<fl:;) ~.s6eis6rT" @o6)gS.;SC"':os C!!l0!.9e1e)l1" o:rooc56i1J ;,=§dilcJ:~S"6). <6.;)y>e:3"t):Ocleg BoerS ®oc5e o))tS;,~e,)~ $,j.:W~l1" os~oj ~6.sL~s @oS~~s~e~ ~t;J.o&S£KVr; g:)~OI'1" 9,~t5JeJ ®;:iJ~.:iJ"eJ.tJol), @SoS.JB'deJ!boo, .Jo&f?:'oes LK~ow o:mo6:llil&JSOSeJ;& ~m~rS ;:;):0 1!!!:O~oiSJliloeJ:Joe. -;5V'e ;:SoOSilS.;)ooeJ <=J"r1BSso, ~<6ooJrSd. iJoo<66e)~s OJD6<6~~~ ~[)f\rS ~60!.9Q.to ti6.> es;:S) ~oct' Q-ooeY'r) S"OJ"eJ:O t6e6~o.::sOSeJ~rS ®OS<66o acil. ~66a-i3o 2(}20N"t3§ ®~ose')lcl aoarS c3-e'o S"0:5~OSJ;;§5 O"g)sa ~6;;5.)~(fuorerSo soCS:l.21OS ~6"~~ rt,eJo !li9o& 2"JD6bdil C!!l6a ;:Jo~gOl1" g)§~oi:lt:>"~§ ®;fu~i6 ;:;)e~~e.;JJ ~eJf?:'e,)JC;o ~~;& $ eJ~o e~-e'so.

oS:JrS~ @Q);:J6~rSO":O~ ;;i)rSSJ 6OSs50j O"g)g ;fu~S ojt>~el) :;)60»03e. 0J1>~0'5;&. "§osvo 2"JDOJOeJ&> 0):;) ~6K6J. ~~e,)~ es~95ri<'

~

~oi5:lSJi'S oiroq;>OJ ~W" ~6JW"V. ~s~ ~(J"e.Il soC;oSi5:lJl1"~. sv:O

~g) ~ow$' ~g) BC,~ .JoSe§ ~[)ci:SJCS:l. ®eJ"'R ;fu~~ :OadOl1"

, w 0)

®~el)adilK[)f\rS QJ"t3s~ ~lil&0'5 ~&.::s<se.) fJ~ ;fu,il~ eoc,oSiS.u. ~ L!:iOS:lo&' ,Jose S'"~ ~r&'i5<SeJJ ®(fuexl ~cfuW"g)g ~c:;SsoS"oS~ ~.'D~iV"d.~ ';)oS5 e3S'Oo~eJ<SQjJ~ ;;36~6Jt:>":O§ ~~ 0/1" e3o.S:l~ ~0eJ:J~~ QY'6ocsefJ D.'D~ rSJot:l oSJrSo 6Yo6o B~~oe.:otvd_o. f};fu~ iS~OS~ 't:JJo6&fJ @e[l(ti:J~j (121-180) o<'~Nd.6J.

30

t:5Q'Joi5od .@~ :J~~eu ;:Slfj]_gy,e§OfTD @%?ro~QX). <iY'e.'9 o:b~ ($~£ ~Le}O :Jot? 05:1L60. W"lJo:J a.SJ_e5 ~6"!§r:;ro:Ds 1!P:58tJe§o sod:J. <iJ<'1:b~~.6 <iY'eJ W"eJ ~N"et !Ji)£;dJo;,i :J¢o~ ea :J~o ;;.nc::SJ.;S§Jef~tJj08. lfa Lcj;;)oiS ~oe§ese;f;:l;Ju @~tJ ;?;S&D ~<so. e..!f&_e3 45'X.i5o~t'i1. e.,~8 cjr:;ro~o. e..~e3 ~cruo. eJ)~;S~o06B!J ~~tJtJ e.,~13 ;ill<>Le§o. a,s~ ;:S~o. (§5;;)oi5oU @~ g;~Q'j)1>o;W SD~ ffa @oe§~~~ ;;Sa ;;sa qcJ/JoiSJ. j;S.) :J(jJfSJJ 07'.!J~, &5:J oJD~~S",:;i). j,:;i) :J.v:s;;y>g,:J. 16

.eitiSo6:laJ"eJJ& ei6cl ;;Jo;;5.)lE\eO ~.'D4l01'1" t6g)i5cfuKeJ6c6clD"~eJ~ oil~eJeJ":J§ ;:J6Jv~tGl. 6(:s eao@ a:3;:iJe)) ;;)c6seJc, e.oCrl" ~ @S2e"~.s;;5.)S~ !!)e)O <6~~~o.:;U§'ie;~. @~esN'd .;)~6-CSr1" @Se:3".zy,.)G'l:ro~;oS ~c5S @oS~6o. .n.'D~ N"rlB!:i6exl ®:g,~V'o<flg:). e...sO":O~Se5;:;5oeJ04loej~ iJuJ6§~~el) so;;:)g). 0'5~K6 ~lSa5i6Jow .'DSi"vo5 ;6e')a3;Se).'D.

.'DO"JioSSDS~& 5ad~~~ KJeo.[), ~o~S"~s ;:;)e~~eJ!JJ6 C!!lQ"60)~ e.~t;)~f)JrS @05S"~vr;,eob i:J'DeJ" ;;5.)05 dfuOSSJexl N"g; ~OSJ ~6 ~t~<6:JS:l~6:>· ®0lJ~ a,s <60S,y0a)ono oSJrSo tiDrS ~Ke§ e§~, eJ~a3rS ~~Kl§ oSJc;SS a~ i1J~oiSrieJl'i"D,

;5t} ~6~cfu dfuoS6 @lQ'>i6ol1" ood:> ;6OSJ<SJie.;JJ .0li!5"'6-0tDi6d_t:l. a.!!le, @~@rS .'D6S V~t:lC$ci3:>eY'@i:5d.a. oo~CSCJ, ..:sc5J~~~0J"~ ®6~Q!fuel) g)e:~b&Sfuel)l'i" f?:'<S~lU6:ro 6oCt:lOSJ;55. @~S<Sd.6 g)CSSi6J :!!loe.o~ ~OadfJeori. ~oS' ~;:iJJ !:3Y"-5"'vet ~O"'eJ;;3 ~e~ ~6.:J @~S~!!l-5"60 ~oa6~e.>& S:Oc;5~i6.}e.. 9,eJ)Q)oe3 <6o~et: t3tic!.J":O§ ·~~;6)!OSe ~eJ§"g) eoeJ:J05. ;j)rSsc;5c, ;:J~~t);fuob ;6~eaoeJrS.:Job

a. '

0'5~~d. .'DO"~~eJ~ ~ ~e ~95s60'5W":O§' W"V~oa -i3_§, e3s!iJ6O'Sbo&

~;6)~ ®~a..i>o adO:JlUetJ~CS:O 0Jl!iJ66:l~6:>. S"eJ1j tlli6d~.'D~'§o~t)& ~~L.i)o{SQ)e.s £b6 tl~rS~§"s ~~ @6DJ"V. ~~ @o.::seJ~ot§ ~e:J1>~~aJa& ~6JS:J~ t6KJ. S"f.) i:ls&~ c;5~s ~~e) ~rl~OSJi)o&

6~ ~&'Jot:S0'5~. +

31

~<5J rt,fJr!!i ~ol"'i" ~;505 OSCS6:le:> tJ;S;iJ ~eJ.o~ 05S05~X:JfiorJ oSJc~lil~~. 21cS ifG"~od g)~;5o ~o6~a ~;:Jo, g)~<6 ..... o O)O~O WcSo, g:)ar;,<6o ;6e)iloiS~o gb;6o, g)ec.cSo @o5oiS"~ogS.vo &~ii g)CJ"S.so~~t6 g)~6 dfuOS66o ~6~o<5"g)g t!!J05cSOo. o~o~, IDdiJey..~W" ~~ @OS;:J~eJ~6e1~ ~~10 ~~tw~J ;:Ja:ngos~cS 05..,cSbdS.)JOSsJeJ~ ~e;s eJe1oCJ"eJ;;}J o;piJroot:Jo..-sC:SofJ;;iS ~~s g)O"SeJdSYoe.u 6~~~~~)'

;:J.;'5:)S"b<s L<6O)oiS ~tr'o~~ iS~II"i" ~otSW":O~ '.;'5:)~-f'lOe3' EJSllS aJ"l1" e<6se~oe,. s.S?rd '<6:l~' t!!J~J)cSt6 @OSS"<5"eJ OSO"SOStSE'a"::Jd cS.JoncSJ..o~(1" 'f\o~' OSJci5OS OSS§e? ouf\~t6d. !!!Jo~~~ iJvO'h~;Ocl cS.JoD~~e.. e..S ~a LOSa~t6J 05J<So @lg)aS.&eOiSXeJf1'>~oej .. LOS a l?!g)6t'ioKo6' ~Q"6m, @~6m !!!JQ>a"eJo5:l~ ~~~~~ .voe:)oQ"~ @j.s~OiJ"[). @~5dSJt>& re:OJoD<6 ~on 6t:Scm6 @lq)g S"ofuJo (1913-1960) @oi!JJ~C:l: t6J~.s N"~o6J ;S~OSSJ, ;3;:S:J :;)<SJ.l @t6J;:55oW"e);6.)sOOSC:So acS.:>. r:JT> ~c:S.:lS i5d 05 s." ;3;6:, ~!3J ~e ..:il'>floiJ"eJt6JsSOS~o a~. t!!JOcSJ~ID~e.u N'"l!~e;x; ~[)fut6~, i\l'> ;llil?:>a.rl" <66'. 17

o

32

2

. g)6"~ e..s diJ"a~rl" ~fucS?J>6 @:Ie. c§ ;;:S6Jtu,;)oao S"cS:O !!!J~cfu~6.loE!. ~~c ~8 tW6~, t;Jl9 05J~ll ~rSt:o ...: .,.s::'~aJ6:>~~ ~o~oe.. cfurSo d5J0~

N06"_ -"

;;J,)JG5e.Al~~t6OSJe5c:S.:locS j1J LOS~e.,S~ $\cSJ~Q ~6JrulSeJ ~otl.:ooEl. ~&X~ eot,))oe.. t!!J0"~ lP~ @c;.,iUd~ ft}t; ooeo;,oE:l. tWeJ" o5:lcS~ B"6<6OSa iJ6tf,tJD/.S:JU) 6saS-Oe:l ~l!IKt!f:,eJ i6.JoA, <6o6~e)t:ooA

o

1iY'~ ~C" 6<6J ®»l6 ~lSe.:o ~~

~otiJD6J. osotJ,et, §"o~~oE!g L~6o~ oS6~~eJj 05JCSSiVd_ ;)!3:J?:rOS @l~~e.>OIi"

(j)

~o ee 0 eJl>OJJ. ~,fu QJJ<5 os..) e5 g 0SJ;6

LOSoSJOt'aOS4fo ;;5.y>L~o ®~~~eJOI'l";$ &OIDlOI5. @)a'~ ~®~e:lW !iJ6I!.),)J!ilKl :O;;S),J. ;5)~ 6!3.W6 ~[6)sOc6~l',) amo.\;>w ~cS!il :ropj"~ ~ ~~;p;1 ti3N"J.6J. i16e.>JC 0, ~9Jg6osco g)rn~;:S c6J.><5c6 ~~~Jij., @)a::o<6<6.;)~§ "§05e:>o &¥IDJi:SJo;:J.:>~OSeJo::J§ ~~ ®eJ~ ¢.)g~6 W"e.Y' cS~<6JieJj ~~<m. ~e§6:leJW ~J!il:O ;5)~ &),,1l" tl3~c6~ !!9~~oe3 K~o 6a~!ltlol5. !!!JeJ"

~ao ilJ"a,f!)OiP

~

Jr'Gb""'~ sa!i6oCD ~ gt>~~o,;t ~f..if.5,

J?~""'E~oii~f..iP~ :J ~fJ J?~~fJ:'o~~Q,. ;;S,~ ;;"o~D~ ~~~C)<SJo~, ~~LiJ":JJ$i t;:5/ft);6.,or! ~~~ ::;~;.SeJ.) ~~.s;,o~ fJo~e3~ iLdo IDdtJiJ~~h ~.;:i)~eJ.) a,~a~fJ~ ;Se!;S ;$OID~OtP t3C&;SdbJ (j"-st'~ ;§.;:i) ~C)lfo~~;s'. 18

33

5.. S !5\~ 6J e>S r;JOd._ a sJ?:x~ r;r> tllr;JOd.~g;) a.r" ~ OiJ"Cil"" ~ es ~J,R" d' ~o ~ori~C:l~ot). ;:fu~.s ~e"'" @e>s~!:b~d.~ti:l dSJ~;'s::OQeJDl'I" ~~ !J~, ~Go :a~~~[). ~ (!9;,S~~o ~~~o ~K"v!&J.>c&c5J. 19 ~;;SO @J®a.,~~o a.~eeY' ~5"~Co tlloeo, O'llt'So ';)<:S6§~6J ~'@sSo. ~se'la ~~d ~Sa.S~ tPCfu<>~;;ScSof3;fu. @lSJ® 6;;S c:le1~ea..sO":o§ ~~S~~ ~QS oJtlJ.c:5ol!3 ~ifuJ6'i?e.lJ" i5Ju~oi.SO:l. O'lY>;5cS @):6J<I5cS~~!3J ~~o!j~ ~oD o1ileJ;;3zyocSi6e>fu ~~Ol1" ®goBtSJ..

@;fuseoi.ScSo;o 33"r5:Je.D ~;6~ ~i$~eoW"fu. cSJrS g)~St:i)::6J.J~I:S;:5

Q !!l' i.J es

~~~ ~6 059eiJUliVdOXl. (1) @cSt!?s;;S (2) @;:fu~cSo (3) (!9rS:J~d~.

S~Jllhd5:l~ (@.~. 551-479) ~ ~eoe& @)~~s<S~ @f3soe tlli6~~;S ;:.)tS8i1'"~. @c6J~;;:Y>~ s§<S~~~~;5, ;:')tS®I'1".(5jo, @.;w!:i6f:a:<6:l

b{ a...,_ Q . ''bl, :eJQ._, Q

~e>~~~~;:l 05g®l1"~1JqiVd6.!5\P.:9~Ul ~~eS;5:J~ zy>~o~[:Y>~f! fJ eJS:Se.J;:fu ~g~oiSJ~!:b. 0"6J~e.t .,)Q»~;';) (1803-1882) (!9~1il: t.;:5l9i :l~ .D~~;Jo&.:s"., e.,gffw .;5~oa. @ &a1-' @ ;;S~!l <!:9.ti70·cru ®ec;;S.;;ilfJ, ®rSJ!§6w @~~~;;5~t~!J@g;ill~eiJoa. ;;))ot:!)§no£J, ae,,~fT"!J @,;jc, e§;;S6o~~& lJ"'~ ~Le§~ £,};tJBowoo/O (!J&:Y>~6. ,ll1J tr§t) rfuoD& £)l:b ~~ ee.n~ot). tJ ~t:S~~§ ;;J~~@Ol1" tlsOe:D(;),il g):;5.dSY>e.J;:fu r5:J~ ;illu~e.n g)z6.d5.J"e.u1'l" ~f,);iJoc,ciil~. ~ ~g)O"~g ::J;fu,il c6J~ @oe~~S;>;6J.06 11"~Orl" <iY'e.')§~C" @oe!)~~~, ~ a§g)e:¥'rJ! ~eil~rS ®o;~ i3~OJg) @)gj ~l!1~.

05t:n oe>::6:Jr. , os e'S;;505 e.:o g) C:;cS s~ ;)e.J'lfl., <6"1 ~exl ~o&- Ff~'rP

e:J r.J IC O!.. '.!.....J:I DJ

1§l~@OiYcm. ~;::o -l§a @'S05oiSo& ~~;:l ;;J~SO iJoe.J" ~e.J6~o1i'"

tlloe.noe. ;;J~ruOSoao ~OSeJo ~l'iOrl" ;;J6)i1!! ~'&J <fut>t?~5"ci1. dS:n~o -gOSe:lo<Oe.JOSo6@i6;;:y>IIfJ~ ~~~S"tSJ..~~Q "§OSoo ~m~(;$ iiJOt!.'SJ ~~m oOJ, ;;J0050exl :JQj)tmvs;> ,c.s,..~;& i5~tle.Jo ejtSJ. iJ"$;~SSO t;;:[)"i6GJ"IIfJ~ ~l!1~ @6~t<l e.>.2;'JotStio e3tSJ.. 51'e.JO, @oJ~o ~~ a.~~g ®oc»coob;lC tl)iVdQ)).~;6o .il~d5:Jo~o @SdSJo~oj ,:illr>~od ofui6~ eaBotl ~d'~;;)ei5 @c:5S"~as'i GliVdOXl. ~ e5~6 ~Ef a.~e'3 'i9,~vn ®tJ5"~0S:n;6d_o6S"e.Jo ~ LOSd5)B'de.n (6)~.s tJ6[)~fe3S:J. tJ @)06B:J ;S)~

34

;;J~~c!.;O ~05J g:jaJ01l" {;) Lr.Sa))~g)~ OS:nfWJ!iJ6;;SeJ~o~ eJOJ, ;;:SQ @'SGje..s~a!J rJ~~~01l" !3V't ;;J.rolP.:9o ~dil6d_o ~~;&.

~C':~prile.JJ ~~<6o g6~SJoe!J"tSJ. ;;5~~ lr.ScSPpuIDd_ .;)tSJEf?:xcSe.>~ ;;S;:J:>o6~ ~65J05C:;S)I. ~[)o;5)g,) lc6~O"eJSJ ;.J6JBodo~O" ~~;& .£~~I'i" l'Jorf,t;JJJt'[:.Z' ;;s:'i6o ee.n;(oSJoeJt>o. ;Wa5?:x!iJ,55 (1~35-1910) O""5"GJ: '~QJc;.s::oo~ ~dDoe3~:i'foOSco S"c5J. ~@~d ~S&5otSc!.;o, ~~g)d aJOllo.::5.1o' @)~. f!!)~eS"s;> tsot);6 ~;illucS~ S"OsOJ"El ~o eJJ"geJJO~ (19'03-1987) '~QSt>'j;)o a..!:i g)t5Jt'S, 6§l,;:S @)~ ;;)e»05~ Cl"~boa ~s6Jru6"O:O' ®Nd_1il. iilDc5e3 ~~~ ~e.>eJ®fu[)d)y> .;)o_;,eS (1897-1937) liJo.~NO ~o~::J ~~aotSeJt'g)§ ::@g)ao sGt5JSJ~ ;;ID:>e.JS~J' ®ot),

N"ff' ~.a$O rD~~;:Sd5. 2006 ;ea=5 8<6 ;;j~ ~;:;§;;J:nc6o& ~oJ"'1'I"~ ::>~<V"l.-Ecfuo;fuo8 t:SJ!tcfu - 30 oJ.ill,s. eo om~ g);illu;:So oJs<'6-r5:J. gjon ~oS.Y>oco@)aecfuO"¢o !t~f)e.11l" S''g~eJf:06 ~;illum 40 ::J~;;re.u X8.iJ.>cfu. ;;:bo §ocl§ 5l'l1l";;3 ;;ytJFS @)e.rI"o" 'fum iJ"eJ" ~6~;So~~;6 ;))~~eJ" ~iJd.6J. 75 ~otJi9.,)O"o oSdSJOfu,_Jdi !:o§ 05~ i3d$:itl1"~ ~dSJ~o;5)aoP? @)~. ;$;5N'd_;:fu, ';;3c6J .;)~6;6~.)e;:fuo';:) t)"rS~S" &)o5Jt;iV'~ e6J~Bt ~;;s&;;j ~oe~~rSJ, ~crDo)i';$eJ"g)t;1o~ @o)S"~o a~cmoo·:J. ~~<SO'SJoe3 ~~ ~t:bi6;i)g) B~o~eJ;& ®c6J ;;iJc,!:os<>OJ. rJa3~~ ::Jc5J) ~cj d'fiJ-qgofJ.

®~~~ a'ill:PJio. 05;)~o 05;);' SeJ~ oSOu~tB~titSJ.. SeJe.n 8!:iJoW" e!:Jo6~o~ (!!l~e.u cSou@fi ~g)oi5~;&. fl:9~ as~OSt;Joilo~ Z§g)uog)§

~

lfSCfu.>~~o dS~;;Se.Jo. ri~so BsKJ6;;SeJo, QJ)d5:lo a~!OS05(1.)o. eoaa3.

~~S-a.ID.J, <>:l"S;;S6tSOJJ~, ~BJe) a:I;;J.o.)OSJa lrlb>~ :e3"~ eJ0",}2~ (lS56-19.50)~'6"~ S!J": '.fudJ t;5{1 a.$J0"~ ~~6J. iSJolb '.,)o~.s,' ®t) ®6/"U8"OJ.. ~~ !3otj§; S{J!JoiSO iiJOt};) 'i5~~;d). @V' Se.le.DXoL1D'> '.50, aJol$~ SO~dCll' 1l!l::J ®cilXJU"';;5J' ®::J. s:lO"o1:SJ~tsot);:S ::OO"!::i :1ro6 ~~@ .tri~f3 ~lld5Jo<o~o ~~ (~8.65-1939) ~VelJ !t;()($o ;ruoa aID4JJd.;:56i!bo .B.DOv~el'i;loa,21 ,-®~ O"il"c.:,.. ~e)w

35

@J&i:S;6el)ri" ~d:JS"cISJ~, @J&i:S<6el) ;::'S"6-O"SeDri" ~~Eit8!§;loeJo~tJ ~<6:J ;;S~J,~~t:5J.

g)oSi3- loS~~;;Soe'il~;6 OSJ)~e.> t!g)~oQ ~5 &'ID ~~;:)o~~ c6J9;'oSso CJ"9' ;J"5 c:S.n~l'ioSJ<6o ~.n00Ti" ~l'i:J~cl!o~oEjli <55.tiVoi:St;lo cfu;:6so~ ~e.n t1~~~o6:) ~;6i6J!:Do~ao6Jt>t:5J. ~® a§.niSo ~® e...~6-5~ e!loSe~~ t9;:)SO"6"'e.l)6":06~o6iO <J" ;6os.,J.~o. @QDg ..Jc6e~il"6:l ~oSJ ~O'D ~g)eFe);fu ..J65"'&~ l¢oSJod'~ ~(;;" ~o6:O ®~!§;loeJoi6J. g)~~e) ~g)~ri"~0l i:S6oS~o N"SO~ ~@<6 0.):0. @lilloSotfi ~~ aJ§G g)e:ld:Dri"~ 1\Y>~ §D~ iJt>e"l!Xl j~,)ei:Jo&. ~ ~~~o ;;m6c!3 @)CiJ"SdOOoOl ®oSS"<6"e:lsS;::,o, oS;:S6:Jv~cVO ~Lo:J"~®~ ~~ ~eJ§,,:Oeoc ;:v..o~~ f!!I~!;i ~B'"oS6~ ~g)O~o fu50D iS5JoiJV;;i). ~~ 41 f!.9QDSdilo& a!!i.'DeJ"el) 6Jv~e~~~ \§ios.,o 1'Yl50D iSttpi:Se~~;fu.

iOe;, .... :O§ oSJ<6§ e,)~oi5 ~l:)<J"~ sl:);6 -3!fE:S", l'i~ 0.)6,!1!JJ" ci7>~-c"e:Jq!

S"~ ~~"6"'e);fuoiJ rocfuc!3§ OS~<6 ;!i~o:J'>~ oSJ;6S:l ;;m6e:J;:)~~0Ji). os.,;:6o g)CJ"S~el)ri" e<6.lQ.)jlCJ 0S;.;6§ GSnocs, ~Ol i:3~[§'>d:J. ~6:Jiil"6 oS6&w ~t$6'>6J. 5":0 ~g)~o @)(ry'S"6J. ~6-~ ~o6J Q.)e~Ul. €:!I ~;y>:ej .iJoC3"~. g)~eie.> a§g)o-ov;fu @QSdSJ<6o adSJc!.JoO".:)O" CSJ;6o ~;S Q.)6oQ.)tYK6~;6 ;:v..o5Y>E!3S iOciSJo~E<iI;;i)o~ ..J~ a:>ctnt:loScKe:J~ ;;5J;S ;:JoQ"t5~ E;6ot);6 ~g)6·K~<J"~ QEiOt:DSJ:O CSJ;6 ~g)B'"~OSe~go~ oJ6Jt> a!§g)oiSXv~ @ru;fu~o6Jt>o.

,...,

~ oS~@QD"'" 6<6 e,)~Se.>SJ ®(fuf'\)!:OOri<' ~;6 ~g)6":Od. a;)dD~ ~~e.>;:)~ S"s,o(;;" 6i'S~~<fu1i" beJe~g;ciJ"e.>:O i';J"~~ ;::,e~~olZ"? §D~§o6c!.J ~;6;i a.S Ko~l!fu;;:bd6 eC"c;Se6E<i1 .1'Yl50n tSEiG:l"<5J. ~;:5 ~6S~?§.S"et ~&' ~;6~s.J KD50iJ g);;SeoD;6 ~l6"e,) LQ.)S"oO ~1b;6~OJJ~ Ko~e'il~J6 .;)K6~o @);:v..QS~;3 i:!oS,J05e.>:'J60eJJoEi. ..Jo6Jsoej ·(:j'>iO OS!f.) §"f.)61'1"tl, ®g} ~so6g .:J~~~ §'>9.f~rlf.)G'S;6'p nrotl aSg\~ ~£:?" ..Jl'i6~iO§ ®~.:s6~;6 i:le.>;6~';))~0 tJ"iO§ e,)~~ ®05S"~o . at$~ cfu;:So B~~o. S"::J <6"~;:5geu 6;6!iJ .;)fiB ~~~o ~6otm"'d.6:) ~:m@:o KO~~J6 ~~o .;)K6~:O§ l§ScISJ@~Oi!J,

36

,(~ ..s B SY>C" ~::So ;$1J as2,.ru iiJ"rJ05oc:mo6:J £)f'l~CS~o

.;)K6r\ex>lue-o· . ~

e, oSJi6o @~6<6e O"~o~c,.

il:J<>.v

rlo~efl~J6 iSv1\Y>~ @)~iS~g;05(;;":O§<J"~ 6"06 ;::';is,,;Xno S"~d~J

oS~ ol!J- Ko~~;fud6ru .:JK6e3;;S:O :aCS,JCJ":O§ .;i);60 j~;6cl as2,.U>

;.ifKcfufO":og ~oIDo~oD;S ;::'6'11 a()dSJ ~~e)~ e:9Q"t1~~g). ®::l :S&f) &af'l~eY't:l;fu ~Q"6£.<1 oJ~~tt as2,.eu X~ ~g,~~o:u. 5":0 $06Jes& OJ"dlu ~;,jS:O§ ;::'OIDOeon::s @O.:oo:>Ol ~K£.<I;6d'§ U"oSt:loe;6J.

itl;o,~6 oS2,.e» ®~~e;~;6d.~~ ~1S.Ja OY'dS.n~~oJ<>o tJ":O oS2,.e:J ~ g)~~ @oS~i\l"~ sl)f'l~;6.l6:O cfu;6o fu~o-6C:;oe3O:>. .;i);S ;:v..Q"6~ ::>E#(;l::S~.s fuo~o;fu~;So ~50ti ;:U6JrlJoS~t:D§"iO, ~506 ri"~~;6 g);f:il ~C:S~K[)ft;SoS"y~ ~~ e'iJ;;:DJc5 eJrit5 XeuX,I!fu;6.la& rJ ~I!fuSOri" ~;;S50i5i'iena<'0.

o

&"siJ :O{jd5)071" aOS,J05-t:DJ. ~;6~~ ~Oon;6 ®@ ~g g)aecfuo ~<S ~g)8"~ e§<6~6"t6J ImJElt8g;~c!.J~. &~ ~(6)~e.n ei~ ~g)6"v;6) 6";meJ"t3.5-Je~s,;;Jl>d.& 8u>~W;6e.:1O& ..Jo&> l§S03Jt>e:ltSo 6>00 . .Jo~soe5 ~;:SO Q.'));6 e§g)eF~ iiJ"o, j:'J;6o~ fi"o.).,) OS<S:>ru ~clSJKf.?N", i3ane:J~cm1\Y>, OJ"5 @;::O~iiJ"e.J;6J ;;5);6 e§g)6"e:J~ ~.~ ®~cmOt:D§":O ~rJJS£tii:Stl.

&"s g)~;6o 2.,,$ &s2,.rr' ~e.>s~;6o~ ;::'oJoa301'l" ~;:S~~~ eol'i i1!~oS:>~eu ..JeJ" .ns~~dli'" 41 @r?SdSJo& oJe.s[)ol:5di~N'd.i6J. @Q'CSt:i~,1&e§~ ~<fu.J~ oS:>¢S OS616,J6 ;::'oo:J"6~~cfJ ~6.sos"'d.. ~~ ewDJ~~<.OOo. ~<SoS;:S~e:lo& OS&~S"60, ;:;)~(fu~@, c5diJ'o~ ~6o:DE'!i &"c!3 ~;6Jo':Qe;> <6~ ~~e,S"oSW":O§ ~d:J e6sa~ei:J~O:D. 22

,~ 3xl!!o g)-6~O& ~ ~Cfuos;6o aSJOt:;" ~~. @~e3.soS:>O~ ~~. 23 Q.')y>;6;;St=Sg)6":O§ ~~e:l;60 ~ol¢o. ~i02J. @)~U'S:)§ @<moS;:SO ~;:)e;>O ~;6C:;o, ao[?>c\S:) .:JJ!pO S"~S"6J. Q.)~~~K ~e, a~OJ"~~, C'11"~ ;:S:.l~o ~~1Qji3JOJ"~~ tSl:SsoFlJ_ ~;;JJtSiO oSg)l? tPJO"'~ ~tSJe~

eoe.24 \0

37

~g)80~§ @~;&~tJ~ ~;6~;;;Yo,~·Sc5;:).)o ~;fu;6, @~~:::...... ~~ ....

~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~

@~ilor? ~<6~t&oe3 ::Jc'r.be5 ®;;$d_ !!90iOOe;.;u'O, ;;fua<6;t,~o ru6of)fS

0J~..)~e;EiV" @tjl"15oS&'eo5. ~<S;t, ~.TI6";:)13 .fu<6o o:m1i"eJij:6ll.)~ ~;6.J!;po~ <S~;5d. @o;!O§ .e..~ §,,;6iJnf',O~ thoEl. @iag:))d 6f?d!~~ .t.J;5s6osoOJ.

[j)

iiJVFJSoDdbse ~~Q'));;So el~ O~S:Jot:lJo4~0, ~ i:ie:D~~ 12~0. ac5:l6:Jo5J6JCJI'l)' 40cS e9::l6 tJo'iSJt:l;5eJ iilt:lJ'o80 elejSe.D @l.Ul~~

e,:) ~

~ D'SJ;6~§?a~oc5:l~o&? 9.0@ g)~6orr> ~o6JSJoa? !OES"~§ ~o~

~Ol) ~ tJa, cniO;:) oJB~~~6S;fu;:) <fuo~ w;5e)o. ~tSY>BJ R'~~~ ~.TIEiiS5l~eJ~ s,oW" @;5.,)OJJ~oa. ~e ~g)e§iS518el) iiJ"~Ql'>'"

. ~~. ~

@l9[loootSco!3N'd..~{;>" o.'S:J;5 ;ta..;5~§ @;S;;SO"eJ:fu ~~;;J6iStio:Ot:S

~ru6-~6J~. ;6r:i8b0l1. .,J;;S2~ ~~@o& g).o~ OS~~e.>.:l1i" tirc>SJ>o~6oe3 ~ FY'<6J6<6;;'j) D~w ;;J)~~;;'-n<\.)t'i"~ ;6e~~oD;51!.D <JOfJeJ &,ID~~·"'.

c..:r='eJ C if"Y"I ~ vw

aJd!beJ;;S~~~ tllN'd_cmiO ;fu;;5o <6~JB:.O~o. @I:i <ro1fs1&:JSP!J. ~tJ~S"~,

.,J8;;:S~ ro5~5. O"SJa1fu835 aC" ~o .. .JE. ;6:;JaliJv~ ;';S.2~ sorJ ..,.,Bii3"f) @l9<1'S ~e <J~6;;So <fuoa @se,~D'SJ~6Y> e;5d.6~ ;5dilJtI.Jb!O!\ ;fu~-g jo§"i:5~od6J ..

e~~6ro~, 6'J5~5 B~;Sl)J;5 6<5 oJ'~6;;S~ ~OS~!3t) tfuo~08. 6·;5 W"e.>.:lTIc5,( ~cfu~,J& wdbiJnJ,06 5~{!)iS'!3~~ iSY>w;5~6J 6"'~ .,)t.:o::5oe5 @'d;51)6";fu~B~ d;6d1JoSfff f05~5 B~ t3otl.Jbdil. es.,.,J::l ~~~ .,JtlJ®~<;j'O ~& a.!3 @6~~S ~~ ~;5§6-&~;5d~rr' ®5f'1§511 @ <S:o~ ~~60 5!fu2,.'§ ®&r<ueflo~~o es ~~..,.,~ ijJfi'>~Or'i" @J~g)@o ~~oe. 0))050 iSJ"~;6d. QS~~tU a3<6J:~; ,:)p~<6d_ ;:5o'iSJtJ;6e:la3~~ ~ocJ ~~g)~01Jo &6Jf1O Q"f'I~otS£i ~W"'~ @ 1:i~,J{J ~~W"'8§ ~Vf'lo:Jol:i, O:S~OJ"(';$Jf'i" ~J'OC3" SJ.5~.5 8<S~8"';;S.,(lO @e?{)oiSr<iIDf'i"t:!J. 15160

oIl

38

e"S ~!};l,.iY'~J iSJ'O£lo:Q lr'{l (2SGa,ro ~~~e:l;;S., a:l~ 1516CJ ~e3r;J"6Jsofl'" ~ol!.DN'lG" e30" @~ ~go:PoiS~o ®iJnOJjo. §"oo6J ~~ED :;;~ e;..!3 6oKo& w~Q"6rooj"j"O @S"'e:lt&G~ w~[Jd ~~oiSco 3P6o:l~cl8"6J. ;:So~e:l~J, ~e:l" Do5.l ;;5o$:);;s:':'J'§ f\"':6..) f1Dci):)~(lO ru.!3,o~~oeofl. e...!3 fu~iijOerr' c:t!otJj<>oCn<>~ ;;SO&lSeJoJ~C"~<fue3:5 ii¥~oO;6 ~~~o @065~ eVlbod. (;Jo6fi ~~;oS~ge'D OJb~iijO~ ~~eJt!, S"~d. 66KeiJU) i:56<SQSeJ!b;5 !!9;;S~OO ~~Ot;;D~ ~6r'i" .~ ~~d\ ")MeJ"§'o5 ;:Jo~t,);;)en 0S:l05!:b ikotfu. CiJD~ el)~-S6so r::J>1i, ~~Kh f!)Rm6OS6{!);;'5 ~e., 0Jt'~;;S~. @O ;;S~ctbo& iooo65" g)~6:Je.>.:l

Q~ ~ -~Q

61fu &{l6.e'~ goo:ro ..:5Ju~o[);S @iJoQ"'OE'iJ@§~ S1'eJO rltiJ~;6.l~~

~~ 6J6a'leJ;fu~6Jo w;5p~ @;;5~~~ s,ot;;D ~KtUJ!3Jot;;D @~J~S~ fOSQ»;;) tl!t:l"~6roED ~C" ~S"~U}. ;poc6 t,;J~6so @Sa tJo;;5~J60 ~~;ot'vet. ~<5JJ tlJ"aoe)~qJ oseg_e.u iOoS~~oe. @ o:seg_e.t e.§~;;'5KJ"5& §"~;to05 ~~~ 05"~~gen ~r;el)x,eflr:J'd..6J,

fu~e.>.:l @~6@eS @5Gc!,5 ~~oiS;;5~Jn"~. S1'~ tJ'>~ @~o KJ"tlJ jo"".,. §"~ :o,~ct5'J'e:li6J S;fu!?2,.I"leJ6:O S"cJJ. §"~ g),.;$.ooJ"VJ !3~S\Ke:l~;;SJo~ ;furs OS~~et. ~C:J.) C"W"D.. @o6J!fu ~o6J ;toeS ~&i:'ifJ'> Q)~efu~ ~6JJO"CiJDD. s.o6:l~n";:fu ~6t:5~~n<' ;torso ~6, ;6~eDe:lf:oO", ';"6 663 @&is;6e:l!:b~ ~.9. oJ~ 5o~ot:l"[). a6~~~) @o'~oO"~oC>"~ c(oID{)eJ~J, 6;5 S"'e:lON"'t),§ rS~~el)n=6;Sd. R"'~..) f'i"~S:le:l~ l:5;5y>~of'i" l:5of\6~O~ i5~o5. solO @o6~(!:9oil6 e:9~ @Ja:!eJ:l ~ofl~o .n~ oS~~;:) ~6JX[)f'lo6~ ~;).J~o. @eJt' ~6Ji"ie)Kt;t'1O§ t:l::ooril ~illi6;6 n";S ;6~®1O i:Joif'~6JJg&;;SeJ~;;s~Joe.C!"O"~ e...!;l: t5~~S"~O&7>tJ) $~ ;:JoAEf>~ §"g l:56fN:f 11";Soi3~ B~~41;5 66J0J"6 .fu1>~ ~~ ~~ ~ag'>60~~ !3~ee.xl i5d5"rlDf'loe.

·2003 ~lJo<oO&;;5;fu O"aisS~i5~;5~6 @!3g.C ~1:1JE;2"~g.ru~ ;B~;fu. ~.Jl~ tJ'>~ ~;;JS8"JfibO~el;;Scl6 ~~~e:l@;:) ~rn~W'd6:l. es

~?£'O"e;& OS:loJS~11"o~ i56J~Slf\Jd.6:l. @S&C @ld5>;6 ~<6 iiJ"S~e;& ~~ ~dil<6 t:S6J~~<6d. fh.f?tt, @610~5"6J ~W" ~c5~<6SJ ~~6:l. @ @6105 5"~o6 ~~~6~ ,m~~~b.J ~<6p.")ceJ6J, ~~o t:l~e.>o~ ~6~a~ iJD5l~S rlOS:l{\j'>~.l ~5J~~<6 ea ~;:S~~ 6<6 80'5 66rl~& iS5@& ~~§ sctSvo 38 i:SJo6:l&f!.D ~~;& oiSJJ~N'd~.

~~~o& ';)tl:lctSoe5 g)-8~~[fuo ~~o.:sas~OJJ;:S @;5o~~s i:SJo;:S~e:lSrJ'd. ~~.JCi?~11" ~6:l 6iSJJ~c6J. ~;:S~e; ~~C:So, OJ"5 tJ~{\j'>i!) g)red$y>~ ~ctSJ.>~o ~c6d.0 5"oSO~ ®g"fu~e!)? OS:l<6SJ cf:h~:;rY' sto~~;:SJ. O"~ ~50iSJ~oSeJa~§ ctS:;<6 ctS:;<6rfuJ aJ~ tJlej~c6 SQf!.D @~!3:>o~oEl. @~o)ot5 !:i?jSe;:; @~gSoSco :B~S ~~i5~;6cl .a'!§eJ:ne3? ;;.))tS ~~6"e;~ ;;.))50~ @~~~dilOno, ;;.))50~ @~CSwf\)on" ~;(:ogSoS~og&;:so 0S:l<6 K6"~§ 0i>t:50 6oK:ie;EleocaCJ"?

Q

~;fu .iJo~'U"e;f)!3 ;;j~c6~~ ~~e;:; (\j'> -W;:SJ..{\j'>€) ~re~e;ru50D 66i:5J.o 1!!J6ro~ eotJ'>6:l, ~~o B.iJuJe;oe3 {\j'> -W<6.l{\j'>e3 ~g)ejo& BO'S"y~.CS~ g):B~~~e3CS:;, 0";&~~60 6'(;)06 ~51'1<S ej§6<6 8:>~e;oCS5 aJ"e;soeJ"~ {\j'> e:l"~cfuJo KeDoO. soto, liJ~e.u c6;fuJ. ~~<si6~J>1il (\j'> O'S~ej<So roBo-D ;;;cf sQ B~e;oeJt>6:l. ;:s~~ oS@S50iS~oc:;o Ci?~ $;J~;joeJD~ e§~~66c:;oto§ jc6J OJ"~~ B;;')JKe; e..~ a"s so ~eN" eoCSo~ I!!JEl ~ roCS05~cfu ~~tSJ ~05;:fuIg!GY>~Ea~ l!!Jo$)~B K:lBo-D i:l;;.)JrlllRct @cfutS <6;fucl rJO'S.Dl6 Booto§ @rJ:;~SJ6OJJ 0'S~f)J oJeJ" .;)r\:l6:l6"c::i3Jn 3;;)J~0 .:;S~j ~~ ~e;s{\j'>£Se) a,oedJ50n;&, N" "95511"

.;)oi:5J~~rSto @ocse§ a~oeJt>~. .

;O~SQ 0;;,)..)60& e~.a'Jio @ Dtocl rJoo,):JtJ;:S;fu <fuEl ~~5t3~ B~e;:09'>6. ~:e<J" a"S sqS OSBO'SB B~i6clQ)"y6, <fu<6 Ke§oe ~o~,(;)oD<6 ~~ ®o'O"v;fu a~e OS:l<6o eS'(J8">:og ®~Ol)oD @ rJoq'DeJ;;Se.u <fu~ eS0)6o& oJo~ QSn~~l? SJ$~OiJDc11:ro 5~JC:;;& r:J":O e~~so. ®e;~ B~Jt!JQ)J>~ @l t:lzy> rJoa'ff"toEl. g)6:l~Ol1" 1!!J:O..)o~ @o-B"f);fu oil~SJ:

Blld:USlOC;;V;O ;;5:;<60 6"e;f'lo{)~~o. <furSo B~JQ to~fl0l1" @~§;;S~n" f3m::;"€;):O Q'));:S& <fui6~ ~llcti:lS:JoW'>~ a...§ g;es eotJ.:>oQ. @e:1"

40

®8grS~l1" t:J~;O @ ~Q We1VJ_ .;)li>&o)T1" sS~05. ;e;fu N" ~g)60ej aaBf\;:S sa rJo~eJ;;S;fu ~Bf\ 8B1'I t3~;6clOS'y~~, ss g)tJ"S~:O ~;;Dli>:O ~ ~~6J a...~ ~o$)ol?o rJo5:o~ bO":oEl. ~~co <fuB06<fu506 €3S~,E.idS:J071" ,(;)rS~rJ.:lOaQ. e);;J<>J'O" OJIO"~n"'l$en ~c;" ~ ~6~~

~ ~ 0

6JoS}oo6:l6"di:lrfuS:lo~;fu.0J";:6;;y>~ @s6.~aD O'S,oei:ld' 13;;S~~tosO'S'\l~

.....Q 1."Cl.. p..Ij. Q""'" OJ Q,,[

e"S §O ~~0l1" eotl:l05. ~~s6 .. Ea ~9;oejoSiVd. ~eJ5 ~S<6 ~~ s~6~0~ 05~ ~Q", ®our. @l66-~&~ ~o 6"~&o{) eo 'dfu-OS'" ®otlJo @6:l~ £)4SJ~ c:56JnS;6 so @l~ot:loej ®~ ~0'S.q!~ ~W"6;&. e30~0):;:5" @,>0§5 (1706-1790) a...~ 11"l)Q5eJo O""O"to€ €J"~enr\)~ ~t)

~ ~ D

oo~;fue ~rid~C:;g) @Q).,Yii> ~a,~& GOa g)OJlJe O":O§ e§F\l)o6~

£'31,..) s4S~W" atJ.:l<So~Q. Q'))5"S aJ"f1" ~~~@<6 r3¢" ~.i5JJc:l"e5 (I736-1819) e'S"<6 ll<6J:e1'i6o& ~o;v~£:o6 1J~;;S F\~cl& ~'lf,g .:::o6:lK:.e1Jo~T1" 9 !!.'j:)B!3 f\~J.£):;O oSlY>e1 ~§ oJrotiJe}Jocoo iSJt>~ @lg)ed5:l0\9"~ S~~~~6to 13~..) S~.

Fi"~J ~~tP i.iJo~oti ~~0Jb~ R";;S..)oSJ..;6~en" ~~06Ke;Jt>" ®~5 ®tSJ05V"rSaJ;;S~ ;$ rSoeJ');;Sd_<iS.,YdJ iJO ~JOeJVJ O"~ctSJoEJ:O :06:l~oJoO'StiJ~d5:lto (\lOS:; 6rn~. e3l:SJo, ~ ~tJ3 ctS:;f}eJD a~f)O~ ctS>;:S§ aJ"rl" aID:O;;S ~;;)JQJD~ 6£0 lli6.lQ)"y~ ~t;;o 1!!JV'r. eoaOJ<'~ ®~ t;5~0~..::s,..'§ QY't& e'j<fu 66<6o®6 ee'(Je1oe ®~Q"6Ea <Ss~enl'i" 6Jo~oCSc:;o:og OJbfJ ~fue§;;Soe ;;; ;;)oql:itJ<6en ®oeDS:; dioJ<>o;;Sc:;oo$)to

~ ~

®Cri~i:5J,)

.n-8~<SS~v 2J"e.1so<6:Jo{;) ~i6tb 6ll:O;:SC":OJ.a:J~ ~"§ ®ocse ~.nB"q!~ :OeJ~CT1", :O~~ol1" 6>Oa ZY;6~l!!Jo~ ~6 ~rSIDt5eJOa6:;. ;;S ~~OJ rl" e ;;SJ.;;S.,Y I:iJ 6!) i5 ~ Z aJ"e.>~Q'" g) S";$ 5" t$.). (s,O t::l0" 11"0e (1917 -1984) @)6so~ ~~<fuoei:lO"E;;S &J06e§ ~~~n" 6Jo~oCSc;":O§ §"~oSe:Pe:>c;).):;o6:l ~6~ $:r<oC:;O p.")e;b>;;S £orS~6-O"ex>f1"~ s<6a:ll&J~ aoCe;y>&l .. ~6.§.:l0~ ~&;i}~o$) (1876-1938), 0S:l~e) ~C" ~1-:JJ:;;; (~.1915), (!!I;;5:;.9,s~:;;; (~.1933) o)~CU"~n"~;;S.l;;JJ>1:&.:I 6"ctS.D !1,5g)~~d g)-5f3, 1;l~zy>ctSo~en S"Kv6~ futiJa!l OJ"tiJ ej<fu 'fuClCU"ifS:l i.5Y>~oB;;Stl:l

.....D C ,...... eJ

OSJ~o g)~ac5J. 006.:> ;Jc5Je.J aScilirfu ;ooc~or;;"~ 6g).ao~o Ceil. 1920) !!!l~Q06Ea tJoAes ~¢" ~~ro6iSno, @)~~ 6~0'5J0::5 (ea. 1966) 9,~~~ oSdil~ O"e!)~ ~6J~~i$ ~;&~ gJ~~oiSOo ful6e))~~6.:l. 5"eJ~ gJ~~ aSS~e)) ~~ o::ro!f. tlOl1"e.J& tSJa~oDti ®~Q"6E'; @':l~~ roBoD DJD!f. 8"[)~g)e$o ;fu~SJ ~:} ac5J6J;fu6:>6J ;;JOr;~eJ g)J~<:JS @':lgs~ono ~!J,

is.J<>~a6:>.

;m..;5~6.:l ~~ e$6;60~6 ~g)60e ~eotl g)eilc:iS:lne,J!iJ s6Q ~93sg>;3 ;&Q"g:} seaSeJfu;6 ®<6;;Joo a6tO ~;5otm;6J.~c., ;fuB @ g)e:lc:iS:lne.J~ tOesOri" 5"6~~.DJe5? ;a;6~~o~~, iJ"eJ" ;606~~ 6~6o~ar.>, l?qS!Ds~1S;ZY>f) 63~Q"Sdfu~ fu,~DJDed' &Oa @tJ~~ ~~~oD ®68§"~ X~~ iSY>~~eoo>otO. OJOI:ni @'>qS.DJS ~g:})!3 ~6..J6D;5 66Jo::ro6 ss ~~o::ro~ e§g)60&g ru6J~ ~~.~~eiJ. ®~..)t)r:JDS" e$[)c501Par.>, iF"qSg)jS ~1S-t!"e,JG~Q"So,)))~ fu,~DJD8OS QiO,l ~oD ~~~6J? ~ ;;Joc56qjolY" N" ®~<!$OJ'>V;} !::n;/' ;;JoiSJ§'l~<6soe.

~O'5Jo,Mol1" ~;$J13roC ~e.noeJ"e,Je, at:!" ID6SJo,oaJOe.'JC ~1!);6

c e,)

~~e,Js e$~6o~f) @G~c60o ~no~ono eoC~e,J~~ e,goS;;J6o tJ30E'l.

iSS&eJ iJ.>16-t!"e,Je,ug. 6l9_oiI e,~Q"i)dSJJro> ®oc5JaJ"~& cll:oe;StO !!9 fu,Qe.D ~g)~o& ~rg!:ilO'><>1'e.'Joe3 ~c50~e,J ~t!JJo. O'5Jo~{O~.a~eto 6;J.,)!fuo~ tilOt:i"V. i\}" D;5.l;;)y6:l ~~~ iSc5J~~ot»N'd..Z;. N" ~~ tJ;fu~ ';)eJD g)tOCO,y>F\ot$)S:Joe.u~~ ~ N"~J..ri"6J .;);;).,)e5S;;).,:yi:&J i5J0rJJS:JoCJv ·eocDJD6:J. N" E'J~iS6S;$J ~;fu iSs~a6ggSW"{O§., "'" !!9~J.g)~{O~ ~ eo© weeJ"oS6~ S"6~o. N" 9,O~.~;$J ~oE'J;5 @~JR"6<6o, ~oiI~~~ N" ~c5~o~6 ~g)60& ;6;fuJ.. 6~~ono ~e,JZJ~Q)). @ci:b5si5 e,.iJoQ'SctiDli:l @\g:I~o i?~DJD ~;eJe) (1907-1972) iS13p O"-t!"CJ. '@6if6aSo l§l~.s.!iE';oSQ e)~o~ ;;J~.;l[)60. 6;6 ~BSe);$J 8";fu iOO"seo&s"x[)~ ~OSJ~o&iJoej e:36JoSJO"SCSSJ<oW" r:)eJ~ ~o6J.~ ;;)~oo.

;§Dg;)6e.Je,) o~~ i5J"~;5~OJJ6 ;;J" 6~G$a\9JU) ,Je.u.;Soe5~~ g)0'S50":;Co N"~ LJ'OeJO 6J~OS~;S ;):0. set.! OJ"'$.et. "",9,) aJ"'l1" !S~~~ R"~J tUcao ~6so. ::J~~ DJDt& D1Jv!il a~ ;:)tN15ot:5e36:>. D1Jv ao~

42

~e,JeJo05& ~;:S:, iS6J~i:b6 .;)mJo.) l.a6 tSJa~oD;5oa,o.)v N" ~[)Oo~eJ

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

ii1'~J~~ ~B iSJt.6Fi"Nd._;fu. ~~o::ro6 e:!!~DJD.e5 D1Jv @~6- ar'c600" C"C"~no

f!lr:l:lJ,eJ"X c:J"!tl 6;5 rJaJSdS:l;;J.;S<>S"C"e.D ~oao~oEJ. ;;j<6J ~;SJ..6:)6SSJ ;,?~aSeJ~ OSt:l,};S~CJ ~:ill 6;S ;5Xe.D @g:})J as-JB N" ~a3"e.D a~owoe.

N" ~~~d'ill~ 6:l:2~OS~~ e8c5~ eQ»Q"e)ctiDi:&J, e§:.l60& g)gJi:;S ;;JoFf1"O'SS~~ ~~~~ID.l.;)o6:l~r:)v~ .;S~;S~Jl~ ®t.!oSJc\S)onT> &aF\tJeJ'>cl ~~gy,13 d'illoS ~6<fu>e,J!&J @61!"~ ;fut.~6~. 66Ki§K6:>et :il~ ;Jo~ "fu~~e6 ilJ"~r:)6mo& eoi:S~iO§ ~dS:>;5 @JdS)i§J.o'BiiJ"~. eJ"n" i3<:SJKVF\;S ~oJoQ"'Sd'illt:.~oD a,s ~06§,>~ gJCOS~ ;;J6:l.)§'iKVF\;5 O"t.!S~, e...S~tfwae.D ffi~~d'ill8;6:)oD i§[)~;S :.lC"S~ ;;§~~K[)F\oE'l iJ"eJ" .;)SJ&O'S:O a~o-aDJD~ @cfu;5. 66X~ K®& tJe~ !Y&oiSe3S~~;5cl g)~s6Je)s";So @cfu;5 ;fu~ ~aSSOrl", t!.;060n" ~ii'S.:5 t:r~J0J06. ,J05£~ i!J§?lJ os,..~o ,;)oi!JJgSK[)R~ 60SJ e§g)6o,g ;;So~:.lo~ ;;Joqiltl;5e)~~ ;;J2;S ~~ ~~0i:SKe.l:)ro~6;:) ~;$J @d));5 ;5y>~66.J~~~o ~ 6eJJ"<6:l9,)~;$J. ~c.tiJ;6 ~6iS.J<> C!!)obJoeOaOl"cSJ. 'fu& ~g:)6o& ~1?SJO"DJDVO~ g}eild5:roUl ~~OiJOVO~ ciS:lJo6 oil0:56.a~~ ~~;5o ~;6JSSOJ"[), a;3Q))OiJ<'V. (!!)gJ - g;eseJJ, ;SoilJ,S"eJJ, ~S"o~e.l", @(O. 6J;e~&;ibn~ 66:l0J"® r:fa3"tt. oO'S"BOQ ~65 @dS.Jos6J.

~~e) ~gJ.e5o& 6~6o~~. §"[)rucD~~ ~fu,oi5 @':l~oSo& C!!)e;fu,)~~;6 @o.ao ~~v ileY'~ ~BJe~c;&. 8)~i60 6~6o~e.D a;fu ~~e,J!il &~oiSKe) @~Fi"Q)J gJUl;;) iOeocm@' aSJ.ol6~.

S6$._l9oQ 6~60l~1e) ~;;J"~ ru6J~ ~~tl~CJ, t=J"~ @~r:)oe5 rD~~no @:l~~S'>~ (1912-1984) e.'J~oiSCo;;J" @6J~o. OJotilcSJS:lrl". ;;oS5~ 5§6-~cili~or;>" <6iO~<JJ~ot!JJo~c& N" oJ~~~ @cfu;5 ;Jo~ 6dS:l&> ;6Be~cSJ. t3;6;$J~oeJD;$J. eJ"OS6 13IDF\~ ro6J~e::o -g;:)e,Jo go~ :OW'OXl@noeoCtlo& ~~ aoo~oCO". ~.;S) ~OCS~rn" aO" oS~Se.D ~t:>" ~~OXl@no eoCeJ<':O§ tSJa~6l. 9,~6-C ;3(6) '~e3"Q))lr e,g~ Olt:!"tOd._ ");tSMiiJ"tSJ ~r:))~g);J~iSY>fu,o~ t19og6ftJ"r:)o @;3 @go& OJ"ClJ~~;6:). <fu~o ;&,;5 ~:o;;)~ @0§~!P"0J"~ .tSJa~oiSfJ;fu~?~

43

@o6)~ ~o6) ~;fud_ ~~ g)os':'~o6:JgSKe.:>71"ID. ~ ~oSi:S;6~ g)6:l~OI'T" W~;6d. ~~e.,~6P"~ ;;JeK~;6&§ &;(PWOJ"V. tJ ~ a,S6, D;6J. !Do6~f.xl;fu ~t:>" t:!"i5lsG~~o,. ~~o tJ ~~ CJ"ac~6~Q.)jo6"' ~

....

6~~;6 ~5~ ~o{J ~~OW"[). ~6:lG:l"e5 e56:lG:l"~ ;fu~S e.,l& ~wKi6"e)g6 e3C" a.S ~o~gG @t;l;;Jes ®OJJ;S e56JG:l"e5 tJ goo ~~i;3~;6d_ ~~ot'Jd ~<9"Ql)b~6Je.l) ~'tJ2;j e.~f1 OJ''6065§ ;:s;;]>~eoi:StJo~13 ~~uJ.0W"ID. c6~S eig)6o& ~gO"iiJ"e);6J~ OJ"~S~;Y~05$;l, ®o§6zyo'tJo ~[)Bi6 CJ"~ ~ ~dS:J6d.ex> @'tJ;:S6o. a..s [\J'>cfu~e.§ ~o6~~ f)"05..) eJ'>OeS6 O:X)a!b GoiUSJ. G9.& @6e @~soe5 o'J3"IDS eJ'>~6. [\J'>;;;'~&a:,& ~eJJ;;So~ e.:>~~exJ ~o~ot)o~~N'cl.;6oe3 @o6:J~ t7'gO {fD~J~~~~ z:xm."dt6e eotJo<fu.

.iD;J @:ldUeJdtll ,J~,§o~ 0:1"8 @~~6'fl;il .;BVR~QD ci:"8~ .>fl;So ;;5O:S.=tJ.~;SO""h @oi506Xf;).)/UeJ"o J8;c;J:5)e$o5Jc! !r'i5f11' a,~S.De..u

I.!: Q a>

,<:fc;.IDo~~ &;S~?3J

3oe1~~o:I"e5~ ;j~"?sa5i~ ;S.iDJ?3J. 25

a"~e ~~[\J'> (l!)o6JC ;;So;) e;JO aOGS~lUj:O .>:ocSe? .;)'tJdJ §'ia:,~OtJo6J? 0S,:,i66' @Su e.,~6-6.Y> g)asdXlo 19t:ll~;;S~J R"6CJ"~ i:SS6,l1" oS:J ~9.i3 ~;S.>VC,) SID?' e6e1~.\) @;;S;)e,1g)OiJ"eJ~ ~d"~;bOeJ1>6J. g)asdS:l;;So6~;6 ~g)e5~ ~[\J'>5 6!Q6o~W',~~Q"SdSJJUl", ru6J~e.n @;tj ~6 @o;ooe)!D6 ~Q"6Gle aOeJJo6:O ;tj;fu X~l1" ;S~J~r.:J'd.;:fu. ;fu~.:s ~ 6~6o~bJ.. ~oJoQ"Scrm~ ri:l6:l~tJJ. R"6~oi:Sas~~ ~ ~g)e6otfuO{) :6J~.s ~O ~oGSKexlKJ6"~? @O))g, ;;§;6J (f'6OSo @oe.:o;6d_oJJl6 ISlE> s;;Se.>O @oO[)~oil6S"6J. ~Si:S,y1". :Oe3"'cm&r? @!6'{)oi:SeJb:J§ ;BO @!6'i5;6 e.OcSSJo~6:J. ISIQXI-g ~ @j&i5;Se;J~, QJ'05 @!&-c:S;Se;J~ OSJ(.SS ~6JQSO ec6J.o6;;S:,uLa";6 @o !J& @[)QdSJl>jtJ, s}>K6:Jgs8~e[\J'>~ ~oi5~1::t$:,.

44

0SJ<>;6~6 ~[)eO& ~e>oi5;;Se.:I~;6 K~so& @e~ ~iI~o .~C" e.,S zyoK;&;6g) ;tj;5, ;6OSJJJ~~;6J. [\J'>W[)~iI'tJ ;Gk)~e)~ ~;5, @~6 t?O'ID~Seg)~;;fu. ~;:fu ~;6~6- ,aOf\ iSJ.>~;6d_oJjl~ r;J"eJ'>eJS ~J,J~~ EO'> e6;6oe5"6 ~g)6"f&l~OJDeJ ~rnl\)es6 S"'66oX:l& s~~tfuu eoeJoOX!.

~ ....

Ke$o~~ ~Jl6 .JS,6-OS~o~OiOl1" , .J!fu(jS 6"~~1'T" ~[)~;6d_ ;fu~~§'

rI@ot);6 CSSa:t"e?! :Oa1l0l1" e;6J.C"~l3~ .;)~6-OS ~eD~6,) 606~~71" @~~~Oe. e§[)6oC tel1"~Eo:o;6D:l"e§ @ese. ~[)6o& Keso ;fueo~ l.S;lda1e)orl" S~~~Oo. iJ'beJ'>OSJoEl @~ QJ"~~;6 ei:SJDJ"i§ ~t;lo{J;6 [)~c:35:loe.:>OS ~ eje1~ e.:I~o{);6GlJle:n OJD6:I 60S,:, !iI;;Soru50a iJ'beJ"D'SJoD ~tJ& ':;s5<fuo ~otJotXt. @OJJ~ CJ"5 [)e:!;dSJ"~§ OJ"5 :ail;;So ~6~Q5:r>,

P"t ta-..:t ~

a~ G:l"5 !-i:i';;So ~~ eJ"IT' !&;:SoJceJo~s (jJ06:J ~~on;6 g)asdS:;oen S"6~os.,.,

@;6d_El i3~t:Jo s~o.

a.s~~ ~~(jJOe§ aJOe.:>so& ~6-aaO", ~~08Jo5:Jy> ~t:;" 6f\r6 e~re<'~ G9.OS.)a~OSOl);6c6.J~g ~ :tl~0J0~S"OSJoo6i1 C"~ dS:l;;S~~od @ ~KJ ~~;;§t1@6lD ~r6~~ ;&6'6-e).;)tJ1>:O~, OS~oi:S~;o~,i:Ss§J os.,.,~~ ~~~:o§ a..~ ru6J~ 6~s @;;§-s~~. 6;6 lSgo-aae> CSSre>o;, ii]>~e.u a~.J<S(jJ05& sg'Jr6o a,s6- r;:,6:J~~[\J'> S~e~6& r6~50i5~ ~~~ @o~ t\J"soeooso .JOS6Jo 6"d~o;Soa6J. ~cmoeS at"~~ S'1i"'-3"e.>e? [\J'> 6~Q"S®:le.u ;vo~ 6;fu ~~S"e.u @6:J~t:z}6:l. [\J'>~ ~~SSOrF ~e')0i~ a~6J. (V" f;Joos,q;)C9l ;:)5t)~tJo;os Lo;S~s~orl" Gle~e.u ~~a:,. @~;;So~ 66;fu e~~dfugr. ~ CSJotJe :OedOrF ;;SBoiSKex>8"o?

~ ~~ -~ ~ m n

ro"6od' K:J6J~ e3g)~o~od ;oUl~~. @!311;S KJ6:J~ ~;5, g)l':l"':B§

o ~ 6 ~~~

::5l!3;;Dol1" if'4l~;5,' @<Sd_ ~{ji5r6eJfi' ~6e.u ~~[J. ';5;s., S"0SS"'OE'a"'e;J .

~;fut>~ ~;;seo~D' cw;6d_ zy>05~~ e~OiJ"[). 'i5ifu 6c:il:F~ ~e:J6c:lSJo~ cdi~oiJ"ID; @;S:,§'iQj<'[). ';5;fu e @s @S03Jt>as~l:& @-80{) if' eoi:Ss.-,.,l:$tS:>' @)~sSo.:J"ll. 'g)~~ ;6;fuJ.no£J, ~66:le);fu1'FtJ -<:))e;J!Sr6 ~~ os.,.,~6~~tS:>' E!!l~ r6oSeJJo& dl;'lo~[). 26

45

@~~"!:i~ ~o1:lJ ~~W'E£ e!~0J"6fl'> @Ot'\13eO..:'lc30c50J0Q"Sdfuc'!, @J¢cfu13_gGSS~:O ~~.ill se5Kaail ®~6. ~GS~ cfu~~5 afuj~ ~ ~e_,v;6) edS;.<S 61:l~ :a~oeJ1>6. ~;;S" to!:h 6;:S :b~~ <66soFlJ_;6)o{;) 6!owov:o 8"~l6dS;.tJa 6oLc'!,e;<>oe;) OJ"~. ~) 6~ CSo~e,)~OJ" 6cfu ~~IDJ. ~ s:l~13 c!§g)~f\cl;6)oD 6~otSeJ;& @~cfl13~ o5Xl~e)~<6 aJ"OS~5"~()'. 27

~oJo~dll:l6 6;:S g,~iil"e OS~ tiJc~oj aJ"Q~~& ;6e)~601i", ao~~[)!50il'" ;:S~..) g)2:ldSJoex>, @oe3 ose~~ cfuoD qSl>8"rn C"~~o D10e,g) ~~S"!3, c!§g)6o& U"LfIoiSC":O~ 1!9;:S<6~~ ;oo~c56 g)enD1rn @v;:S1:lJ~O ~C" 2..13 !pD~. ®ot$)13~ ~.ill ®e5rleilb g)6~ '@~~iI'" B1J L~o5J.>f:Clo' @~6.

&;.iJuQ"Sdfu8 cfuO"13 0Sn~$@<6 aJ"O~6 6;6) B~~ CO~ g)C"Jig ~;:5~:s ~Q)):§, !!D6a. @D1<6O"V!:ll<> 6Ktxlf"i" 630~tJe.» ~~sbc5i&o.

- Q - (') eJ e.l

~<6 e.iJu4l"Sdfuvo6e~ [;J" g);:SJ_OSgn(3 - .~ ;;S.:n~S 13~OJ"S~ g)~JeotS13oa.

g)O'S~rn @;;S,t>dS;.!&:l,E;:S Di6d.:b~w. iiJ<'~E3 6(6) @oS1i"~N"iJ;CID:O g);)oD~ b!5& ~6~eJ"~ ;,)B~l9:O :SD.F\oi5!:ioe.

,.,., Q

~6l)oSoe3 aJ"c;5e~6 ~6~~voej e~r;l"~d'5JJ8§ 6~ g)~~v/'Ueo{:)

..

aJ"1i" den~oC"l>. OJfJff,o:J>t, ~®_§13 ~;fu;:)Sv/'Ueoi:) @)oSn"~~ eoW"l>.

@)~.J6 o:lY>@;& 60s g)~~ex> @ ;6~;:)sv;fu @l:>K8J:loBeJ" f!!l66 DjOti,'$) g;e::\J~r;el')rU8"6.

-6a 8J"~6vS:J @;fu;6Bo:[)oc3 ;:;05"$ rooe;5sf!:§s,..O" esofj. 6~6oL6w. fu~w 6(6) e.iJu~dS»E,OS~ ;:;OiScli6 ~"t g)OOl?, @68 ;:;O~6<fuo, @~5"0"~ nu6g)oB g)QOI1'" e.iJuQ"Sctm6 ejO<S ~OS~D. ~Q"6~of'l" ~~o ~EJ tJe~.:~ CO~8)~ 5"$ o.JeJ" gs6e~~~dCY'~ ~~ <fuoL6:& cfu;:S g)~'i5~ ~i6o LOScp'>g)60 BdilKe.uK.:J8:JNd.cfu:O ;t_})i60 K.:J~ @tts s"0J"~). ®oe:SB$~ tS6:J;;J)d;:;J;fu13a)~ @ ~oSe g)ccS8 ~W" ~~o f!!l8"R @S-tdv$;J eil.;yccro tJoS.,)K~YA ~~§ thsJ§";;)O"S'" ;fu~.o 8.,~$.!? :oe!OiJ"1D.g;,~OJ"~ ~iiJ"cme;o aoS,i3S .lli e!&:lJ. t:SJD~~J_~.J~ to6=> 'tJarJ

46

;:J~Q"i6o [;J"~ !&J-aC"" OOdSJ6l, ~:O660 !:i1D\t) ~Y.h.coo. 1!9:O @~K[)ii

o ~ol: c;)

g);:SdSY>:OJ. iSJI>fuoiSoe. c5Jo6§"'e !)tJ'>S2E3 toBoSsK[)ii @S~~;t_})5. ~<S

iScD~8 ~ i:)~ @o~otb~N" @ ~~~ oS~ ;:SoiJcEJoD~~~ !:b5~Kv l¥>~o;:J @t). ~i6o 6~l:50L6Jvo, tl!~Q':ISdfuvo, ~~ ~~w~rS [?SaIDoaJ"v~~;;:l)$:J~ @CbeJO S"'~? 5l~O @e)rlaaV CS..}~& @og6zy-c6o 13m~ eiJcQ"Sdfu6 6<'<SJ ~[)~ 5l66=>vS:l ;o~KJ ,jp:o~o3 8OSo2..g c6oe)iiJ<'~. 2E1~. ;:J~~~ O"Q"~~~ (1888-1975) e~ctm~ ~~lS~!&:le~ ~~~. ~®<S ;fuoeJttt. aoJ:)votU, '~<S c!§~e)o& e~6-e£iS~~6. oS:J~ rl~O @~o~ orlo6o& @e:SJ~seoJScm.soS.J~ e.iJoQ"Sdfu-a c5JrS!:h coB i5JefuoB t:n5"J.:O.'

2006 & 6iJt.~dS;. El:SS~Jc6o~6 e~c5J t5~Q"e5dfuv!&:l e3"ao:n ;:J6<'JP"e:l @Sco~~J;:So& iiJ"5e£ ose ;:Jjo~o @SBea BcmoiJ"cfu. es @SBea

31' 31'

5leJ" i66~oe. (1) ~<SJ a~ose eje~;fu. ~eotSc3o N" @e)~, ej?1>rS

NO ~[l6 oS6cfu!>go. (2) e~Q"S<fu:lel1'" Q):OBctU~o r:J<'S0" e3"~ @~OS..}~~ @~Ji06 OSlJ~S@rS @Jco[;J"~ @oEl~~~:O KJ.9.~N'd.Oil. (3) g)tJ"S~0 @~;6r.:l"~ 6JD~5~Q 5"13 ~ ~.hJdco, ~r\~oe, ~[l)~r.:l" @6e50~ -t!OSJo~@;5 D1~1:D @:o ;;3~6* ci:lJ~ ~e:sd$,oe:l;fu ed.s[)oOS B~~. (4) N" 6~6 iS6J~~oU!~ :;)O"Ji~et ~~e.u g)~~ ~W" @~~~ ;;):0 &6J ~Q)K1Df\.s~cb, DjO~~ i5~&fj ;'):oi96=> tSJt>g,otSa:o g)~~ ~obJo ,;)c.)6JD o~oJScm~~6 .>1Jo~j, ~;fu :Oreol1" Fr'OS.,) eiJt.~~~:o 8}"[l~<SJ. (5) N" [lr;:!"~6;3e:l 6eJ~& N" ~g)~3J e.,s rJoai!Ofl" !f:O&O~b~f1<' r:J" a2[l6"':Ocl .sCJ~~Joero<SJ. (6) r:J" [lO"S6~OJ ~-OJ~o~e;!'>, ;:)~Q':IN"eD @~~oBeJ" @li~J~~cfu. 6~C" OJfJ'lfJ& a:l~r:J ~6JK.:J~oEJ. iiJ"~J [ls\t)~~l:De;o~ ~~06:r6"l:$:). (7) £;Oil OJ" g)~~vrSoCSB~ ;:)~~o~ ~~;:fu. OJD5C ';)D1eos~ c5J~o, &loa, ;po~ c5oe3 @0'80e:l~~ :)OSl! ~~oi5cfu. (8) N" 'lPO[;J" ~c5Jqt)~ :O60~<:50 ~6:JKJ.iS6JiSJS:Jo~ eo~;:5). ~:OOS~ NT> g)O"e5~eJ~ L~~g)6Ji

47

®o8ot5XwruS";$:,. (9) tv" ~6d51>~d ;:.)C" ~3oil f.;?0J0e:;& ~o~ ~oeJ<>;6). tv" ~~~e:.u eC"g,~cS e&t5cS ~~e.,~rI" eO"~ ~e:.u ~oJQe.J~l1" @56J~~;fu. (In) i'Oi5oJ..)lOJo NO ~ocsciJeJ ::la:ld:S:roe:;;fu ~e:.ul'Ue§ elr~eJ" iJ"t) ~o)jl~oeJ<>;S:,.

;fucS g)OOS;Sij.;S~C ~~Qi.cfu:l~o)~ ~o6~~ ~S"o~ ecSdaSJl6 g)O"S~aS~ oiloo6 (!9S"o~ ~o~ciloC".V? @~es~ omolSJ g)~~ D1~~~, ~2d"cmh~, ~ns~m~~~ g)eS~6e:;~ ~o~oeoi$:)g;G)"D. at;)).;Soe ~c\'S:)~ aSlS~~ ~os,.o @oXa:ll) 't!9o~0"6J<fu t!9e:;oseo~ ~;)e.Jo'r? t!9~OS~oiJ"6 ;:l)o66~~ t!9060"8J~' :'Jo~e:; ~6c;:fuo&, ~co~ ;:6oSo::Je:;~ ;6:,;60 t56:>~;fu t6!b&lot:J"V.

e~~o5lleO"R g)OCS~s,.,~ ;:6C" ~cSleillel1" ~ot;"{)_ ~tJ"S~elJ KtSsol1" ~X15J~~r? 6l;6d.0~S"e:;0, como& <6J;:JucSoeiS"e:;o CJ"~!b g);6e56:l, i'OOJJgliejru. @~.;Soe3 ~~ID& tlJ~Q"'SdllJe. ~~6o.JS~.so ~rJ" ~edOIT> e~eo.:5ao,. t3~sF i5e.CJ"~;

S"o6~~z;;<> e:(J~t::)~~Xo ;:S6tSe;ofl" ';s'c5o~~ ctU;:S.s~~ ",;So e5"oXa~oc5.

@~;:6;6o a:ldSJ@J6o S"CJ"e:;o~ es ooJc;:Jso g);6I.§S:l~ cfuol~:&. C":o @Oo !b6:J fb e;iJt>~cdS.:lJe:;~ ®F;;f\;fuL§f\ eOC"eJg)soc:il. tn l2"eSo

~ . ~ ~

~olfr>oe.oiXJ~c5~~§ t!9C;rI;So~;6 @$d_el) ~C" @)crla;6o~ 6:>6.;)00Ti"

~o~d) 5"6:>. tnru @~elJ @Crl"o~, ~6r1tirl6Jet t'.))rur;; ~~N"e:;~, ~c::roe.D <fu:lOclJfu cSO:;S1:l"~§ !b oSo~ 8605 !b6J ~.ir>e)~ !b e~Q"'£d:SJ.Je:.u @-5~~ eob'c". ei6r1B Ke& ei;5~lS~ ~~..)o~~oD cS~C:l a~ ~0{5D1O eE.R oJ.>fu& ~e9 g)~~~ ~oe.. g)~~ ;:Jo~e)C".sO". g)~ <S~~ii3"V~U" S'{;">V'o ~~oJ.>F;;r!J <P"~~;S:ue:.u 5";)e.Jo ::J~~e:; ;;Jt>SJ& 6"~ ~c"J~.;Se)'ki;6.&j :ogcmo.:5do& g)~15Jf.)~ t!905"IScSJ.)oe. (!!l @;;$S""8":'Jd_ .0;66:10 g:jO"seo.:586J. t!9a ;:J;fudS:loC e;iJt>Q"ijd.furn S:rc>t:;"

48

aeS ei~60~f.);;Sot!j CJ"dcSf), ~;6 ~60~ ~~aS~ e~ctme:tlr? .~oil~ @615~ol.Sf> LK~o~ OJ"'e oilOiicSifuo, @)OS"O"~ n"6g)oiSc:&0 :)O"S~eJ aJ"~$~.

;;Jt>al6e 9,CJ"~6iP"528 8~d. ~O" ::J05150iJ"1SJ.

;b!J~ 6<6 ;;S~~~ e§;6!fJ ~CSjjo adU!DoS" w;So .;S,~~5'a ~6e$o actll~.

Sl' .....,

S"~tS6.aC g)cosciJelJ, oilJ~Oi1" L;lD~OSo~eJJ, §'>~ ~Ss tJoi>r5Srn ';)I:SJQD&o~1SJ. ;S:uqlSono oilo{)t.~ tJDoSc:&oili'Oe S"~ISc5~& ~~6Jf.)~ x,eIDOc:&r? ~Kl~~ot:Doe.. ~~ 6U~tS ;:JJa;N"~~S c6S~elJ .;)066:10 $:Fe" OJ"'5 S"~66~C ~6Ti" rueo~~oetSOJ"'6:l S"~S"6:l.

c .....,

;:;o'd,& !S"o6oiloe CV".S:J ~~Joagne.Joe3, ~~ 60il ~CCS~6~~ OJ"'~

~;s:, 1.:Jd.bo~e.)~ W"f.) ~enoe ~6oSe_)~ c6n.Jo6t3. OJ"'1i.06"'g)~~ c5~& eJ".-im ~l&&~ ~~~ci5J~~e:g7i" ~g)o::leSOJ"'d. ®oe3, 6~~{j0J"''i,& se:;;;S~orJ" aJ~e:> eoE.i¥OSe.)~ ;6nJ;6CJ"~11"~> a~ ~;fu g)J~C!)as e!le.J ~ bets O~.fjSe3l& 8JScm;:SOJ"~IT";S> ~oil g)O"ij~ CS i1 K ~ DocS:O t:l"eJ"oiloe aosJr? g)~. ;;r ;SoSJ.> ~cSJ .~C" t!9~Q";:SOTi" o)s6-~ ~~d5JaJ~CJ"~. ~eSdesoSgo<fuoe ~66sa~ ruet!9cmrS~. N" ;iJt>~i6"e:; 1.:,d.~PXlf.)~O~ OSs2~SJ e5fu'jdSJID~OJ"~. ;;r ~CJ"e:;OS~, t!9~lP'~tl;S~ ~16:J (l;Posos,.,;;yog;)§, Sy>r;;o X:l5S";6e:;fu;S-Djoe. @cm6 ®~oSo~ r:soc5~et 6J.>to ~e.Je.u ;:S<fud._ a.COdJg).

e..!f b::o iJc&~iSJ ~Ql)§ ;3CJDv!J .JXeJ'>~e3JoiJ ao!J (il

@:ldil~e;,:d) ;;:J80J0FJotJSJ., ,;$c;, ~~ iJooc5rS n5o.;:5t), ~~~Jo,

S".teJJo, ~6e:t §05vo tl}a0:J601JoLeio S"0"?29

~~;So<fuoe. ,;S;,~~11" 6Jo~oo LS;s:'oC ~~ ®o6:~~e.uN'd.0J). §"~ ;:Jo6~~ os~CJ"~r6Joe ~~CJ"~OSJc&scoS" toeS @j;:J~tll ~6JTi" ~~~o ~6JcJ a~oW"i3 §"cS~l'\)~ t;0~11". oile§"~ r:so6~et

49

@g) Dl~oli" t:)~J,.GS:o~~c;,~oeJ'>Ol:l. laSea.~l- ;;J~ai!N"iiJ~ .sg)iio~ 2J"eJJp<S:loE. GS~o;~oC"S" r:Sg)~o :::)15GSO~ ~~£l~eJrS l~@di>r1" ~~~~ @~C:l QJ)~~GS))Oa ~~t,~g)t9o& te5@1a.~&e omoc3 :ogOJ:lo62:l~e.gr1" @K)~~o6. ~eSOoc5B ~g)ao~ OJ"B eic5rSo~6 ~g)i§o ';;ef $6~;s"S"rS, ;;yf,Zre<S:loei' oJo!;,},,~r1" ~o~g)oDrS ~ e_g)S ~eJrSGS\2.~ e .. }SZriJo8fl" ~8~cm srSe;,c,eboo.

;§g)8"eJrSJ ;6~a:lN"~J!!lo a1Jc36? zy>66c3~0& ~g)i§o g)eGS~~ 6Jo~ocg!&Jot))oc5:O rS~tJ'>:O~ ;furSo @eJ~tJ.JaS~o. S":O g).s~GSS~e.:l ~g)B"eJ;6:, 6SB,sll"§ t:urS~ e9OSfu~~rS ~O?J";6S~exl nsiSe~OJ). ~a:lOI1" ~g)D\s~ K~ooS\2. ;fuo~~ ;oc;e~t:uo3JStJ~Q))~ oilrSs:> laS~a.S&&~ ~J~ecS ~g)6~i\l6lexl, ~g)~r\t:uN"W ~tSeot:) (gO"O. S"!0 t!!)~;6o~ e§;6cS .r;f6sww ~rSsS6-~ S~~otS~oeJtn. oil<S:loS;leJ<S:l d5J~c::JJ.J~~11" rS~~~rSd. ~~ @~6 ~.tlOSt:uJoo. ro~-E" t:u;6:,~eJ ~g)6"e.n OJ"t, @rS.:J D'S 0 -3 S e.J! W'e.JoS \2. so!:l, e§ 0'" (;JOt. EJOe.:lSS" eJ rSoq)J e" rSeJ;;S ~ so£l ~;;J)o~g6;seJo i36lO lV"~ t!!)lO~~cSd.0' @o6)Sl ro6)exlfl" SOIDr\t:urSOQ t:uJotn~ &;SebrSd.;;)'y~, rodi>tl <60ql:le;,rSe.n 0Jb~;fu t:uJoa~a,rSd..;;)'yliY>, ~ot:)~~~, ~~<il"~fJ seJc6 ;se.JfuoS~rSd.;6.Jl&Jo, .fuoD£'>, ~~!> ®ifu~;;JOe.u ~tS:l6~~rSd..;6'y~ CiJ"fu ~t:u a~~ @oooS~rSd. ~g)~o& ao~c} a..S g)OOI1" ~rSrua>~oSe:l~ ;s~~o. ~g)~ ~Oql:l{\JrSexl OY'~;fu 6Jo~6gc;;o:O~ e:JOJen 0iJ"~ e§g)~ rSOql:leJrSe.:lrSJ ~t:u @S(fut>elN"l!)~ ;;):o~;si3J g)t;lOli" 6Jo~6cg!fuof.l)~6J.

~e1elNVE1dS clg)B"~ ~oSOSa.S6J ;o9;e~rSd.~eJ ;oel~S"g;, tW~ ~e~~o oSJ;o~o ~:5.J S"OJ, ~eJJomoS"6J, .iJ:.6-SOeJS"6J, !!l'11""B"eJ S"cn. S"IDXBff .,')cne6Je))~ ~OSID..)Oi g)elOSJo ~eoD®O"e)rSd. aS~Oe) ~~;& e§g)~~ ~9;~~0J:l. @0J:l~ ~ ~eJfX) ~~~'ydJ ~~ t:u5"S ~~ ~a~~~ ~oe:uof.IJ. ss ~OSe:lJo, @ ;;)950e.J oJ!&Zre;&,o~ QS~~diJ~? @g) ~rS~ee @;6J<:So-!l~OT1" ~g)J~~;6d... ~o~c5i6e)"? as ®~&C 6;;J<>;:JeSon" ~6JSO~&;SOl:lrS &O~g)6";S,:,~~eJ"? 05:1;6 jOJ)

50

oSenSJ:O rSe~rJ:lr6, (!:!J eo}>nu<'dfu~ t:urS s0613 ~~~;:;i)i6'1 @OSdE"d;6J

~ ~~ ~~ ~~

~€.) ~~ g)-t.;s OSJQi}O& lOe)e:Jt\ GS:l;6~ Q"5tiJo;;J)8:J~0J"C:l S"~?

~6Bd5J <SJ ~B~;::So <SJ.O:;..£e.J"6~o& dfu~o @"6o~o S"rSJQtSli" a1:loJS£)6J~ ®~;;$J6 ~rS a:>oOJ;;JJ~ 1<b6:l~lh c0~ ;:;)o,::;""'eoiSdQ$)~ tlY>rS1M eN"~:og &rS~6"6. ~9;~ so~ ~~ :Oe.uoSBo(.) 4se1~ I1fKOJD;s':':O& ~;6 rSoc3.>l6e.n ;B~!!f;:;i)~oeJo6. (!:!J ~E'rr>rS Lo}>6o~rS ~KQS~~. $cg;6J~~ 05:1~~~~ ;;'j6~ [gio5:loC ~oSeJofll~s6EQlo <6.r'L~;&;6~ &t{e1o:geiJ @~~ a.&!..)o-iSc&oe? ~i'\)~oe. @~.;Soe5 r5oG56~o& ~ ~rS~6 ~di>Kl)F'l0E;;Y> ~<6 S~W"S~ ~;fu ~6ci3dJtS;& e)~.) <IlX~e ~o~a>J~ ~~o-iSc&oS"6:l.

g)-t.s~Ori" eoE S'>6~S"6£s ~orooQo <;1"dBdSJ @ti"'S~J~a~ ~e.:lsoC::Sofl" ~oEt @e D'5cJ~~:O .;3JJ~O i\lnOif~o~es&,e§ @;furSoQ";SaS6t::l os.,..rS~6 :J6s~~i6d. ~~ S"c:5~~eJ";;SO ;;S~ @~8 2J'>Q~411;fu @68§ OJ6J~ ;6dJ~ eoe. o5:l;6oB~ t;)ea.~J. ~6~!JJSJ.>, ~e~ OJ~~;O§ ;;)6eSOS~rSo OSJrSo ~ilfl" @;fu~g}oBoesoS6!&Jo a.s a:,tSJ;fuo8 ~5"!3 e:JrS~~ ~;6o ~CI.'SJt.&oiS~~aSJ6.3 Q"oS;S ~ c3~o& 8:le.lOTi" ~oEl. oJrSd_e!)§ r6-BotS;o (!:!Jt§~ e...SG3;;J<>o<i>o8 .fu5"S acJS~§ ~c;}>rS ~~oe:f ~g ~$)6-e§JoO" goeg eXJ~oO" @tit) @El @ aO'JooO'SO" :;,jtJ OS;fue.l;fuG.)e!) D'S.y>~;& ~6<fuc:Yl~~:)Qt). ;,S,;So Q$);:SE9g)aS"O"6' (!:!J

CJ IS M

~~rSl¢o5Jo~d... (!:!J&:ro~i\l"d..~' @;;sa££ro~3N"'d...~ 6e;IJ~g&oiJ"f);o

®r::osG!:lRJ6cm;:S~e!Jg @!JJoSo€l sGes SOf'l;:S;;).Jeil ;s;,..~o c6JiJo Q"~;O ro~o{)l3O"o. (!:!J ~f)!:lJ;;S !fllF'lrSOSjlti:l CJ".~.:il:x>oc5J ~v.;)oDbO"!l. i3"d))-t!§0' l:JD~ ®rSJrSeoW'o.

o

51

3

_G. ~e:9":O~ ~ Oe:loE:> ot:J<S od ;;S6 sJ ~';:So~6,pa, ,zy.~e;I~O e..SO":O S"sf!3 ~O"SQ'}.) ~~~J. @l[%Q'}J"S") ~oeli'S ;fua~ooe,n!:I;6.) ;6;)i'S;G~-oa~o& cs,.;1 ::l~t:tw

e:l e.J' . ~ ~

oS~~~ @61S~ @cwi'S ~xaot; ®"CWQ (1886-1939) OOiB"~, ,~ e§g)f§odi ';;){j e...S08~~i'S§6-beF\ i$y>;fus,o~ @~s,oej ;Goq'i:>6o.:.w~Jsoli'> Xc,DiS S'>e;J;fu @ejs,06 sse GS ~ is S"e;I Q'S,):O t:J S.) ;6J.) B r:S_g, 0 E)' • .gg)iSo& troo6JSl ~Tt>e;lO~ @ r::ro5& oJ6:16~iliJiSd.. @~fh;JfJe;lii ~~eJt>:O§ ri~ @JdS:l6d_;& ~cfuo)eJ~<l;oeJJoc). ~5 ..J~ ~~ 1!§ .;)S6-t$Oe:l"oe)El. a,s C;)~6"I10J0&"a 0)005. @l ~dS:I~d..0 ~ ~~o ;e~~cs,o;s~ @)c.'6J~b.l ~~e~oe,. ~qlO"l!1":O§ ~6:>~ se;;J'>~~§;:S~;6 @f'f'"<J>~ 66:>0:1"6 fJ"S."J sl)'R @~6 @iSoca~§ cfu-ae ~t)ooo,. ..Jg)Ji) E.§:5;()5 (1830-188'6) ~ @~6 ~.DJ.. a,e:l" oSeJJSJoC).

e)

52

~~ .i$,s6~~ ~lSdS;I.s,ot!JlSod QI.sDo;3 I'!9dJLgSS"av~ 3;SD, l!PoifO"Cfl l:!Po~~~. so

.;)~6Jo .vred:Uo 8:?oCSeJ/Oc;;oB§. !)recruo G)}c;iJO"DOilc;iJ60 ®~JB"~ ~~aor:5'"c:;"!J~ 8J"c;J"'ef~ ~dd:Uo ~c;;oi). 81

;5~~oS'y60 ~g)@"~ ~~~~ t5N'd..;fu. O"~ ;;)g)@io'; ..JoiD~~ ~"'d.;6.). ~tl6a-i!o& ~o@5cacws ;6cfu~ Slf.DOeJ"eJ:Od.~e:l";;S N" ~g)6oC ~W" ®ooiS &"(l ~~S g)e;o;)e.:o"', ~~6~iSo ~;)t)O N" ~~60L6e;Jifuo~S"s NO aoet~rSd. ~~o:I"t6*6ifuoi:)SJcC" e;I!JOiJ<>Cl.U. 66:l~6 6ieotJ! o5J'> ;;:Do~tlJ -eOS;ful;:>~~@dDS.5 OJ" r;,1S3~ lP~J@)S'l~ N09" ';6oJ<>S"O"'~ §"i'S~F\OiJ<>6>, QJO'R,Of:JO ..JO~ c5JoDo:l"~. iSc5JJ:~SSo ~;606 cs,O{)o:l"~. ~6>t:l:O ~g)JoiSC":O§, ®goi3;fugS~W":o~ OJ"lS>~ ~!~;))~e;o !!!liJe60. QJO~ Q)B~~ ~~~e;o, ®S~o6 eca6Je;o. ®;6e;o (ijQ~ c£g)O{)rS oS~W~ e..S g)-eJ.!!.m~iS :J-oaSr5o ~~g)-5~B, 0Y"t,& @S6a.S&6Y> 5J"5ei6 oS~~& OJO~OJ"~ e§g)6X~eJ~~ ®~SJ8JSiliJrSd.. 6cs, ~g)6oSQ"~ :O;:;S~o~iSo~ ;6;;IDJ§<'Nd,tXJ. 6";& ~oSoi:So& :O;)fv~~Ef ell g)~;;5J.. OJ"~ @11"~oroo ,:J~~OiJ"tSJ. O":oti ~oSJ e!:J6"eJ£b6 ~1Pl~~ ®atf'loi$)~~6J.

g)~~ :J~S~O';;s~OSJOeJ, ;fu~,!;s @.:loiSe;I ':J-oa,!;;6o& ~g)oi:5e ~~~t:l. r:5J~so~ ey>Q{j ~Oc;:O~~1 fJ i$)~ e~ c;)5~~e;o fJ ao.nO"e~efu~dD:O fJ S06T1" @:O&!oiS~~S' 9"£), ;6o~g)~;6d..~~ ';;ef a.~ 15J(fu<.?diSO §'l;:;S;&, ~O~g)-~~d5J:O t6~~~cfu;:Sd..~t:l, ~606" SPC" ,eg)6 oS6cSJo6oC rScs,lSO ~~~~O":og ;:JOeJOQO{!)rS g)~clilo. 6~

Q e ~

iSo9;@"tl'!rSd_ e4ig)-~iWo66~o oS~ @'lO~~ 6.;5) e!g)6"e;o §"rS~f'l~;6d.

iU"5~o6B~ ~<6:J 'tSJoiB"ifu. g)[)d$}o ss .... ss (1770-1850) 00-3'"('.i).

c:...1 _"

~~.s§odS"'d w;..05b>!J§ rJJod6d6iEoB ~Baat:5J: lfa ~~o d;6r6J r:5'"i)o053cru!:boW",

lfa O"B;6 ;Oo~~dJ~ aJ"~ @~ ;Jod ~f,4{j!82

5S

a.,§"J.!§6-crlJl6 c§o:laoC- 0":ItS:J6a3JS <G;fu~en os,;::)o 1ID~~O))oiSa:nO)I1" !§:O~~Ql). ~rS~fu t5d5Je3S :O<G.J~d5:lon" t1~-a~dS;)C;~ ;&o:Ofu~e. C\l"~6~ rJO tSg)6o& !§Jot:>'> f!9tJ.:>;606 o":I~;:;)~en .;)~ ~~OJJ. ~rS~ e5'~~O))oiSas&¥cW>rS<6J!&lrS.l §"~ <Goq':ctJrSlQ. fu!§;) OSJ;6,'i)il~io.

1972& Q).y>e.J: a..!§&'a3" ~b~Q";6.'5, ~Q'JaJ~S"ai 9.~6Jo rS~ fuIDl:J"/5). 26J.'5 Q";6~ OJO& ~;:fu .t>!§;) iJ"eJ" ~~S~rS e..S ;:;)~S"~ ®;;)Jf'I~iVd.;fu. o":IIG. ~e).0)-3§ ;fu~S ~aeg .e.6S~IT" ;:;):O~o.SJnID. 33 f)~ S"<6o~rS eJ~93 9.~O. C!:!I @"~~ ~a~rff> ~~~~Oe. b!&J S";6o~rS fu>~o ~2.1)Oe @OS'> c;So~;fuoe, ~O~& @:Od_ SO~f!);:fuoa OS~6J. ;:o;::)Q1)08" So~ a.,13 IDJOc:SOn" ~iOt5l:bo. ~;fu 's,ot:'" fJd> 13f!.)~ ;;):oi3~;:fu' @Nd_6J. ;:SO~& ,.)o6~ ~iOdS:Jo ~oe5~en ~OC;IT" rJOl3.:J ~~;& ~dS:J.s ~ eJ"e;iS~ !!!>o'?)f'\~~Oe:s,l3.:J ';:5;fu ~~6J)~~;;)).

~ 8JOlil36 :OtS$oiS6.fu~ @:O ~;fu ;:J~~6t&>~eiJooC;n"~ <Gtg~Q";6:;) N"!t ~f!.)oJS 9.~6J. @9 ~tJf!),') ~~aJ,,)~§ <6.>6OSa;6.). '6Y>6 ~e;1'>O. ~jo~O[) omo6tilru ;i3c:ti:J13&J6~ cfuiO~ ..JO'SJ~§ esrS iU~~~ axiSJe:>S:J 'O"a6. ;6JCS;&6iVd. e..S·f!.)~O ~6s~~rSJ..OS.Jl6 ;:;);fu<6SeD 6D'S.,_)SJoW'" GJ6..)oSJ..O'i>~6"OD. 8":0 rSJ~S ~ <60'i>;:;)~.fu6 D'S~;6o.iJoeOiJ"D, ;;J"l):O ;:;)5~eOiJ"ID, €9030ilOl1" e3OJJoD(sO"ID.·

.';)E'I1 es6JiiJ"~ 1979 C!:!IK<5J-ti d:lOS[6Q'Ja ~Cfut>K~SS:> SOo~£i

M ~

;fu)6oOJJJjoi5. ;&;6)08" ~~BsSt:l& e~o. @5Cfut>Ko '[);6B6i3rff> C!:!Id

~f!.)e5 aJ~8& lD'S~Ko fj{j)jt>f!.)rS:>§"'N'd.o. @)e.JJ;;S0~ ~cfuoKo Bcl.SJOS~:O So~tJ~ O'i>os,JIDJ. ~\:SjeOiJ"Ql). ~;fu e$§J,;::) <B"'~~1eJ<SJ tJolD'Seot;?rSl. ;;Y>~ 'O'i>"do q560J"a6J, ;;))01s<SJSJrS~ S":o~~ @iVd.~. ~;fu so~S~~rSl OSSJ,;::)~~~, l~re~ :06S~cqoe.S"5ri". (;)_5dSJOri" ~S"~c:fu<>jj'>:O~ ~;fuS"~<5:>. ~;:;)l0oY @lc'fut>~~ gJ;;lf!.)~ roOll"g<>!J)"t!)o8" ~[)!>¥cmoe, 20sS~ 6P~o:u(!);fu roonog<>!P"60dl ~oB (4)S"60 ;;y>ss~E,6:O ;:;)l!'!&el) ~~6 gJ6:J~!§;)D'S~o:n.

~ ~tJJOe:lO (fuo{:) N"!§;) ;6o~.lliol);6 ~~UJ!::iIDOO ~~. c;)b~t;:l";.6.'5 a...C"6:JJOSe.:::: ~l6;fu tiN" ~~f!.)h0c:S:lod 195f,oS:J~ ea @5oSoiSod's O"KIDll"tfu. ~5f'1rS 6~tJ;5 iUBoD Q,JDs:POSCoS"'d. :O~~Ol1" ~~~~s S"6S"exl ;;:)~~oiSco~~ ;fuo GSJt> ~~V.l sOLO§50t:J"o. ~c;5oS g)~~~oqXTo:::>g ®~tbl1" 15rSd 0":15). 80. ~&~. !§ ;:;)Oq:oo:O§ S"tSs65.J1l" erSJ. ~. ~OoS5N"d5:lo 125;;S.)of)§ f?l1" 'O"&~~f!);6.ro, ~~of)~ ~~07T'> g)iJ"BoiJ"6:J. O"W"~ 200~l1" <50SJ0iJ"6 ~~e.D O)~~OiJ"&.

DOS6~ ;&0 8:lBfJrS ~~~:O§ sc6E'6l0 ,.)0:05 !:loa.~or; ~oe.JJ(j tl!06~ lKg,.,otSKIDri"o. eoSl[i~~d LoSdl:Ju-t\otS~~g §"~(V> os.uo6J oS;65~OeS :Oo:uo~~ OS~;6~ Q,JDeXJ~et, 6O):Pti ~Boe. r.;ro~~~ Q,JDf!),').,')e.D ;\l5n" D'SiOfjd5:l~l3i1id5.;cQl). ~ ;::)0ql)e.J;::) e$/5)Q,JDt!) ;&0 ~ @~ ~ii;:S~llJ. @~o~ :O-5es~rS ~e" ;;.)8lif!.)W c66~ ~~o. @~.Jc;, ~ ~e"s, Ko ~o"§~~ 9<'oW":Od_ oS~K~~;& 9<'13, ~ -6"~j~o oS:J~~o~o G3a1.i·~;::)~o~ ~<5Jg&K[)1l"o. @ rSoq':ctbrSc:S:lotl. ~~ ~6:JJSl;6d_ oJ..mctn ~so~ a;lf!.)O 9.~cri'lol§ i&c6» ~woe u6~6PC"~ O'i>~ ooC;;6 ~U1Jt>l1"~ ~;:;)~o. -6a~5 ~ ~dboKod ~o ;6~in~e:Jo!})f!.)oS:Jdfla~o.

O'i>6"13 ;:JoS:J<5~ 1989& ;6[)Joe. '®11l ~oS~ l2SCfut>Ko,a4 ~@e..i 20W"~ 8:loK;6e:lltJ ooe. ~<5:0 S"oe3'a"z& !3-14cS 1JSo~ 6K6

n

e~~~ SO~Jitb~ ;6JcfuJ~ '&K'O'i>iO ~tSJ!JOiJ"O:O. ;;:;~&t:!' !~

;:SSb5~& ~& e..~ ;:;)51300 ®~t'1~OrF oJ:oB~rSd.c5:O @.'i) .iSJoS:J&IDd ~tSJeOiJDQ)). @oJ.,183 @)<iboKe$f!.)o ~rS AoS~§ a,oQtS-if!:O ;:;)O'i>s,06:J~;::)J.. ~~~ 6fJ~Q.l) eot). S"iO. §OSE§ ;;:;f!.)IS":OS OS~;6;:;) O":O&~f!.) eifl

...... I.:~ eJ e Q(.

eJ"tJ6f!.)~;;S .sCJ~t505. :i3Jo ~Cfut>nv~ C!:!I~ ~ob~ @ aJ"ro8f!),') BQ"§

~~O.

®51\cSJ~ ~~~~ le5Cfut>X~oo ~g ;& 1;::) e);fu~~~o. S"~ Oil~ ~-lOD5 1J~o6;6~ so~Sb~ '@K'Oil~ ~0~6~il';.)OJJ. :i3Jo @51\

55

~;;5.:)SJ~tJ~..)e'3g '!!9 l~~ iJcri:lOLe)~ oSSQ'S~et a-st5 ;;SLSo:lJOn" <;s~ikfueJoa~. £_ol£ olB~ r:jKo~ (!9<;SoSeJ~ ;5C.)oEl. 0lJ'0 i±>~~ a. s6-~e l1" f!:!)CiI.J"o5:lcS:lo ~!:)§" 0 E1. (OJ. @c:fuaO'SJd5:l0 e:J d5:ltJ cj if 0 & ;s,.,@;&S"~. ~tSO"aJ'>6:l& C\l" aejoib5& ~C" @Cfua;:fudilo ~e:l§"oEl.

!OSI!l ~~~e:l~tS ~~~~~ a~z.,) aro<3tJ5, ol5~e;5<;J" -gO!?!:) i?J<q)oe;So6e~ ;5;6) ~!t\)~ ;;s~~~o)eiJ"rSJ. @J rj~ a ~BJ eY'IDotJB ~Q"'~ C"S60 cS~6 tJ"C"~ 2000 o.'i:Joe§~n" fu<'{)05 Q){:)J :Oe.>aJCb1il· @i50@P ':Jef ~0&a<3l10~eJ" eoEl. (!8rj~ ;5;6) OJ'>fi.~ £3~..)tS cfu<>ibe:lJ

Q

we§tJJe3§ rug. '@f'icle.'!"oe;) @jc.:l::IDQ"~ lil'>~oeoi:5KO~ f!:!)o)5"~O ~

@Scfu>KoB"e:l~~ iJ"e.i" @dJ6Jno e.>4)~oe. @~osoo a.s Fi"<6J @Q)S"~0 <futS~ e:l()oCoEl. ;:JQ]o~o""iO Fi"~J ®Q'S5"'B"'e.>&~~, ~;fu;;SiiJ"~~ ;i3~oeQ'S~OJ.). C".sgo ;:fu;;S0 :O;;SJ~d5JOli" tj~a!!dS.:Jae:l1O 5"6:1, ;&<60 ;;S;&;;SS t3~C e...ei¥~6e:i>. 05;JtSo ~o.'i:J;;SsrS:J a:lOJJoW"[l. ooB"lO§ 05;J;;So @oe,5~i~ieJfu05 ::la:ld'XJo 6~ o))'Be so6J. t:N .75 D5:ltSo sS1ilsSQ)e:lfuoEl g)~o:Uo1OJ_ ;Sy.~~' f!:!)~rS:J. @o~sos, ~~t:le.lJ ~cr'> t:3iJt>..);6). 'tSrS:Jcl ;6c:':PJoe: ~ ~e.i"!!p1ils~ f!:!)f\d_ ~~:O g)a:ld'XJ05060l1" @cfu>l1oci"I"ro ~o ~;6§6-0"0'. ;;3~ @J ~tJe:lJ @;6do& ~~6g.s~Sel) o@J o))-a~Jj ~0tJ"? ~~ :&0 OJ'>~;6~ t5~S:ltSd_ @so60 @f'lJ. !ol~ :;,)e~ ;& 22;6 asdSJ@SOOl1" :06.s~oiJOo.

am;;:) g)~~e:lS:J iO;6.:) <;Soola ~::rtJ..)ag})ibO~, DJ"~ ~g)~o& ~~ @rS:J~g)0t3 S~~OB"~W<' iiJ"!'t:J::, 'BOSI!3§ g)~~e:l.)7l" fieJe~e"osS;;s-;&. o:y..1SJ ~C'&J os~~;6cl ;00;6 -a;;)e5o)~ iiJ"5§"S @OSn"~tS S[)f\~oe .. ';J~ios2,.d ~~rj DJ"'5§ d[)cfure~oe. o.J6~;6J.~ L~~a:l;6Q)~c:ld .;"u;6~;;:)~ ~cm <;S~~IO fi~SJ~tB~6:;) OS:Jc5o ;:So5JJi'iIDf'I~ E!§g)~o ;&:6Sl ;5:J50~ ;()~oi:5oKlJl1" ~1O\;(Poa.

() QJ-"

~~~~el) @)~ ~o)tS;6) @S0"60a~;6 g)[)c\S)o ~~o ea g)~g)§ o))c5<fu (4)~e'l~o)ea @lwo{,ls 60tSOeJ<>~, ;5:Jc5C"5d' g)g)e;5 @~S"-tFe)J ~f)~o5JcfuS g)oo~ @e ~;:Sso& r:j~W"~~ f!:!)oe~oc5o~~. S"'e.l~

56

eilO)j'~ ~.§iE9~ oiltSo ~cfuo)e:l:btS 0'5:;) ~e 60r:{> C"~ ~6j6J~0&~ ID2:l~ 608. ~ tjdS:JoSe.>fu;:S 0):0 ~et rJU!l\ '8"<JS:)~$)Q>1Jo?-'o:pii' acl5:Jt:l;fu

~ .~ ~

;;S:JoDlJ. a.!:i'~5 @I o)c5o~ ~.9.t3-8D~ a~O":og <6oIDo~On;:s ~

,;.'i)oSJS"O"e.l~ @oe~qs~~oW", ;6);6~o6.:J g).i}u..)6J~t;5J. ~~tS i!!l~S"'8"e.n ;fu;:S;6.:) 05J506 g)~:Oo;;Si3~d5JtSJ. ;:So5JJso&, i;,'ll)06.:J~ ~"~DJO[). e~o a~O":o @S~60 0"5ff 05J;6;;m~~'!f OOo[l' ~06;J~ ~efi6~e:l~ ~~ @e~~ o5JoDc§. ';';o6.:J~oej, cro~cS~ 05JtS:oo~ ~i:SJJsG~v~;:S ~e:lJ ~~ .fuf'la ~d:SJ~ ;iDeJ~Q'S ~e))r\)e:Doe S"a:l~. 36

t;J~ dIDQ'S~60 S'b"'-5"e.l @oOXIliO ;6)oe ~~ ~e:le:le?, S"~ O'§.he.l?j @S<6oiSo& @~K:J ~ef§"~. ;0;6) ';;tsOwee!3so 'a.o~~5or\)& <;S~lP'l¢J~ S"~i5, i\l"'~ e...S se.> eoca. am~g)oSJowee:lJ ;:se-~e.l~a 1;!3 Se.>. ~~~tlc5~od' e&sKo~r5o ~d$)~doW"rSJ 5"fJ, iJ'>slJ e.>~ot:$ac5J. @I ~re'e.>of)eJ'> ;$;6) @l?lP6, li1g)~~ os~ @fJ~d))o ®;s..,<\5g)oO"<fu. -6a ~<6ot:So& we~tS~~& N"S:l ®go S"~6:J.5"~ @tll)oSot3 bL;;:) ~rJJl~S[)f'lr6 ;()Q'S.)~~ we @06t)Qo60"~ ~c} ~~ ~§;) ~o6.s;6 ;:5oa~ocje. ~ l!!Io6t50t'is @~dSJce:JdSJo K:JBoC ;:;yo ~e:s~E:)§;) &'06 g)oSBoiJ"[).

rJ" 05JtS~& g)~e) (!80~6oFl~ 05J~~C"tS;;m~e) eo~;:SJ.~no i'J'>S~~ @;6)~iiJ"fJ§ oS~ 65oeJJoe. ;5;s.., 66i5Jt. '@I ~0~60F\~ ~~o& g)~5~ tlJo~rS:J. (;J"~g)60 ..JO" eoe§ aJ'>rPoeJJoc} tl!a~o-6J§;)oe..U" !l!oeJar:D. ;;jrSJ ..:s.,o~e:l<fu~;6J. ~eJ"e:J~ @~6.d O~~~OeJl>;:n. ;5;6) .;)e)'> (S:;..b>OI:l"e.>Kn!fl~3i, I!!I 6Ja~~J. ~§."~6.eoo.J l3;fuS:Joexr. 6otJoifu. su~!:U~ ;;sOSJ~o ;;jifu .7Qoi:5XwXJefu;6J.~flI' ClBoi:S:J!flo&.1J1> tl:!otJof:S::l. N" el'>~<2g)e)o& ;;y>~ ®6so~ C:S~b<>~oT1"etSd. OJ"~;;:)o!3Nd. s,.:.~ ~ !!,9oe:!j!:Sof\~ @)oJoi:So N"~ 05;J50~ DJ"~;;:)0. 9.e N" ®0e$60KoesO lO§oJ~

iii. . -" w,:_j, ~

cs~ (S~(;JJi 6~d.~ -to oSol!58J. i\}":G"';)r::lo5:roiJ§ ®~e'i0~ ~~8@ldSJo"..,

~~ 11", ~~ <Gv~§:J~ ~l?O Q'Soe)5. rJD flI'Q"al1"~ tJ.s~~ l!!IS"'oabJ.

. ~'LCS011" ;::)l:St:SJ§";5 ~e>o~oe5e. g)lJdSJo ~o\~O (1770-1850) ~

~~. . ~ ~-

<\) ~od' ®ot:)Ol1" i)r®OiJ"~

~.

;s,-<;sQA.1~ G"1$~o;o

:..Jfi Q

57

d6i:S:r> ;;~o60&, a.oe.:>5 ;,16;500 i\? il'd:DJ~ jJ;j;J~ dl;SS..J~ €9e150& tlo5J;:)o&'~ 6r:So~!§ej

87

i\? ~o';;6orlof3. :iD5IQiPe:6oeJ.

~a 18lq})6.r>~ 6~d.sG.ao~ l:5<S:>f)"<66~~? 8'/J B"§oi3~, :JS?,.r1iJoE.l? @ 6"~O 5"5§Ei~<fu S~d. Se.lU) @t>S0150 BfJJsG~:J§,. W'l\)~.ao<S 03"~Kl ~~o,::)tO"~§ ~e)~®J0C"? ;}>~~~pd:stao aI~oSJ& lr'!J.>€JO. ~~~ !&~o:o@ ,~~;J" ;$0t1~(,. (a3,.1923) aeJO 0"~;6d.5:

~iO .~q;' ';;0';; tiJ-;5J6oiS z:J"fl cll;5J6ot:lJt> @8eJQJ.:18

----------

58

@OSS"<i3"W~~ 18l~l:So. ~ !~o& ~g;)~ .t$)i:SJ'h t5otlJ~W W"~e:J~ C!!JiStfu ~vQ'"~6-g6~W"~g CJ051r@ ~~e:o ~W"[)~~011"" e~o:o. e...S ;.5:J'/J~ S~l1" ,;)tSl1"V~~oe.3 @;6J;:6ooiSOSvfu:6 ~go. a..S ~~)~ ®tw~~!3 i6"~~~i1" ~nSri"e);;5:)~;;Sl.&o s~tI;::5d.0' ®eJ'i1l a.!3 ~e1l&K' '/J~saJt1 ~e1g~<&lo~N"d a..~ Qj"S~6rSo~SJ~~S S"~;S g:)605;;:?~QS"eii" ~~oa~<fuo ~eo~ ~~o, @l <fut>~~19,. e..;~ OS~L~o&SJcW" &'13 ~6J~~ ;;Se1g,;;Jtl~;;5 .J6:lKJc5v§,,@a a..s I!a ;;S~OSI:S~;:S .J6:lruc5v~ :fu:OS .Jod' :;§W" eotlJoa. ;()o~@:JO"v ~6roe" t5"il"~e) eitSrot. @l ~~~ ~[)6"e)®6roe, C!!J~!S:Jo6lY>~& 7;;::5~~dSJ~ ®;;S1"l"'~<6 t:5«ugliCSl.&o @~t)S~ OS:D~o.

'!le~ ~~j,@ af:>. $.,W"so (1877-1958) aoN"~\ a..s ~;::5:fu~l1"

~ .~_.,..., ~Cl "Ill

@(l;;S~o~~. @Q1)::6~lil '~~~;;h)tSet @~rSog ~[)iSo @"6o()~~.

@i!i6 (!5)S~;6,:)oa GIDotSlfuKJ ~c'liJovoe.3 .Jo&§"o~~o ~oc505€)~ eo~oCJ. a..s "if~6:lSag @lg)e dS:lol§1o 1'\)500 6~d:DiiS~fu;::5I!lOS;:S6o ~o.'lJo~o e3~S"~" e:J~@"03"~ @l;;,)1:S~O'~CSJa~o l&~ejOJ'iD 6[)dSJ;;Se;l~ eotmotl. saroe5 (!5)e3"~~~tl C'>~05e:J~ @5 @66~6;fu~ iJ;;J," ;;S·til\'.

~, 5t ~ ~ ~

@er,;rSo @1ilOJDe) ~;::5:O @;;S50j& l;:SOa~O. ;:SoB~;;Do~ ~;S ~~;;5e'i~'/J ~tta..!li[)OOl1" '/JO"seo~l&o5:l~;fuo>eJ.[J"~;fut>W';::5 O"~§D~ ~§eSsoat5JsafJ, ~a:Jo a~€)O~. 05oaoJot.JJo.o ;::5QSlJSo e:i~~;;SeJo. ~o'&Jpo;fuoa g)a.;;S~t>":;)!3 ;;$);60 ;;j1J ;;h)t$e!) @~fui$ @);::5);Syo;:So @;S~J'

~o~;;Jo~oe @l'JJe:o ~<6JJ.So as~.:;sl.&o. S"~, @~;fuo<Sod ~6 ;6J~of'l'> ~~0)~t3~Q')JW'. @~e'i0ei ID~b>:60n<'~<V" ~asa..s :o"tlcfuoi@.~ :fu)rgt5:Ta'i, \!S~~o~ Ci:>6.Je:lrSo;;Sl:SrS a..stDoe.

®;s,~N":06 :O~e19.11" ~;::5o ~~t::l":OJ. lSSsi!3o~ ~~o& C"~

~~" ,,', .

a..!& @~@UdlJ~<6o& ~se5~o. ~ ®~@'>d:bo ~W'" @$s

~O'll"OSe)~et a..s ;6oV~®1i" .@CJSJcc;o ®~ ~e:.b~e)s, 6'roa ~i5~. ®Q))a ~eN<' a..~ g)~~~ a.s<6o~cSs @)~~d'SJOf'l'>S"fJ e3t::l" &'s

~------------

59 .

~~~ @~~dboli"9"~ @5se.on<s;;sJ>~ @e ;6i6JJSoli" ~($)e1:>oEl. ®o~~L[¥';;S ;;Si6J~9"~ oS:l;;So ~;;Son" S»CiID1:&~06;J.

~;;So @o~ge:JiltocS @~Ci;;S~ ~-SJ~~l~dbo, S"Ii", c6i6J~So C!9t6J~a!n6 @~6~o :J&..B"'~~dbo, a3"c60 6Jo~oo ~i6Jo& @oclJ~

a. 'U I5t

&oJo6~a @<>eOSEl!§~~~ ~OSJ ;6o))JSo C"~!§a etc60 S"6:J. @S".:to

~e;oli"~oe @~ c6i6JJ_1:&OSJol!3 '@S"~o f;)e;ol"'i" eoimoty 1!:!l~ ~®~6c6 :Oe:l;5:J~ ;6,oS:lJt:So. ~o~ ell~c6o:J"~ !S:JoW" ~~6~01i" ;5~9"e;tocS~ @Q"c;;S8 OSY>tJ'>~e1:>oeJo6>. ;;)oQ"Ctdono oS:lc6o ~seoi3 ~ o:J"~S~[\J" at;6i6J~e:DoC"c6;illJ.s;m~e:DOC"@l~e @ ~SeJ;6& oJEl IDe:JOI'1'" eocSti C"~.n,6 @~6~aeoimoEl. 39

OS:'J§ ~OIDO~Oi:);:6 g)e.:o;6DJ_ ;ill;6o oot1> Osoe.:oli" a5~S Boi:SOSt:l:J,} ~cS~ g)e..uQ.'le.:o ~ol;;SC"OJJS ~~®§ ~oe;:6g).. @~&1:& 0SJi6:l~e:J o.'Se)~ ~eiKe O'S:;t>~e;o r:SJ~OIl" eo~oo:l, <6,,;:50 3dS.:>OSe;PJo6q: ~;5 @lo.'S:6OV~ID~ @ Q5y>~et ~o6;JS:.l~a5eJ;&, ooCQ.'l e:§c~ OSiOg)e.:oQ.'le;o ~e:l<6.§?'2;6 a5~~e:xl ;;soosa 11ic5:l C"tUIDJ. B"'D.'ID ~c615ti.s~o til~OtllJo, l:SJ.>&iaoElotilS:.loeJ.Jo ;;Sxio6JSJ~cfu ~~e..u.

;m;:5C iJ"eJ"c5:loEl ~e.,S i00r:S& &/))o.'S~OJJ er:j~Ii"& ~~-SoD

(j) e eJ....,

.;)~ ~%.~t:.D i6Jc6s~Jf\ow;:6 8J"4SS~e.n :015S~~ 6J<6cl~~OXl ;3fuSJ~S

~ :60~c6J g)eD~~e1:>o~o. e..s S"5J~lil iJ.>Q"6t'd 5"eJ.SJ~71" 05~ ~e}e..u ~e ';;;>,&5oS:l151i" @ r:So;:Si6:l t61:S[)~~GSi5:.l,. e.,S e;,,~om6 W"C"~

e,)'IJ- (j) e,) 'W -e- eJ

30~~~bJ 8f~0i:) i:)056~ e..s ~:'JJ~e) S"GSi5J,} <'.JS ~g)S:.l6 iJo~ObJ

S"c:6iS:JJ, e...S om05 ~Cl5Jo:J"El ~E.[\J"a.S r6o~~ ~K~gn1i" ~6ri;;Si5:lJ~a'oe');n .0~ C"dJUl. ~s&1:& ~ ~~ri® :OcXOcSJoell .;)Q.'le§ 11i~951l" ;:;Y>f)§ @oCileJ"tue;& eoeJ"OJJ. c5:l;6o OJ"t)§ ~rieJ.)1l" c5:lc6 ;;)-.® a!g)B"'C

o eJ v.=a ....-:t

SJCil6:>!§,)oe.Joo. ~c6J 6!E:a ose.t'oc6 ®~OSJ~ rJo~d' ~:Odbo ~o~~g

@~13oroJl1" ~j.goEl c6e;~ :6oOS~.JO"e:l 06>o:J"~ @I :60~ @~~®1i" c6LSf) g)C~e:a a~~. O":o§ ~oCil 20~~ ~eJ.) 'Olf:fod' ~~ S"o~ oS~8)~o KEiiJolfu. ®B ~;6oKu. ~~~i3o~t6J [\J"~oCil :O~~on" ec6,l ~§; ~~Ku ~O":Q\ 8)QCl5Jon" ®~r:S50iJ"c6.J ®oit.i.

00..

60

5":0 ';s~~~e:6J~ OS~~e; ;Soria rQeJ"eoOOJ. OJ"'tf~ i$o.'Sv ~g)ei<fuo[¥'~t::" 8"05.:0 :adilOSe:l~;6 ;;5:0:0 ';);;SJeS;;JJl6 63e1:>!§')&0~~ eotJ'>6:>. ~eJJoSotJ OS~~eD IDJoLSoi1D ~6J~;;J'y~ <6iSJ.>a:lo& r:S~s;;J06JS i1'~,o..~O"Jirn g)!!i:lo~~:O~ OJ"''i'f~ §,,~0"'6Je}J ~c6JgJ&of.J'>6J. @ocmQ!§,)~o6:> ~ ~O:lS~ ~W" ~c6~s :J;§;~~ :'J~E:a:lCJ S"Xe)'R ®o.'S~.ao&s:" @)eY'~, .2e51tJ666:>e:l~~ ~o6:J JOS6Jo ~f5'l[\J"~S6 a.oel~5 ~Kvn @losS".:tdlCil. ~a.;6:5~~ 05.:006 Je:J®~cX05 @l~ Q')C$j" e3cn. e:lO~~~ e.JoeJc (1839-1904) s~ ;;Sxioeil tl3SJ6.~Q5)o5aa,. :J~oS:l ~IP"QJ;) (1919-1971) s<U',1 ~0cS:> ®o~5~ ;;SB~Qc6 @lc6J. ~be36J. a~ 605:1 ~o6 ~~elSJ rodile., C"EIlionc6 ~tU '6"~~.sDJ. ~c6J aJ"l1" o16:>ri:JcS:>c6.J. ~tU OS~fjSJ5dil:;:; eel,1921). (lSdilc6 ~,,)6~n" ;fuS":Ose) 9.oa:l~5. S"~ &J'>66o<so& oei:le:lif Se:l~ ;;sg)l:§~ <6~so15§6 8)c6o:J":O~

~ ~ ~

i\i"oEl ;;J[lsolil. i6J~1:S:J ~IifK :O~EIDlil tJ.!J&o5:lO"reo (s.1946). @dDc6

15&le"Ol 'tF~j.slP& Se:lltl ~ess;:6e ~0e5i6:l tSJoiJrooElOiJ"OJ. ·63 oSs~e:n §"g, "5fJ&Jo c6~e:D~ §"g S"6~~a'~e:l~ sc6:JR"c61:&~sos si6:lR"c6d_ 601i"e:ld> DJ"~:O ;,;mcSbl1" @6eoDc6o:J"~ ~t::" 6'='~ ®Q5)osdJ. OJ"6:> @~s~o{!);:5 §"~ a~~ §"g e~QJ~ 6J&~n"bJ. ;;Jo~&otilsSoS~:O!! o5:1ootS5sS wo6:> ~B ~:'OiJ"6:>,

§"s O"OJen &5"&e:l;ill!§,)tii>J"'~ 6i6J e.J"eJ"en 8)stboi:SW":Os @lt6.J~c6 S"6~~~ 6Jo~0G'l0t:l:Jg6o.'Se)~ eoroJoEl. o106)130~ i0i6JS"bc6 ;:So;6~® @~6oil<>otSS:JotZ" §"1 ~&iS<Sw SVS"e:lO oS:lc62il"e:l~. lil5cXO:5 6c6 !l!Ie?...s<Se;;;s:' £~el~ c6oiS.:JSJ:O o:J"5:O a...~Jo6oSe:l~OS.;:)JoEl. @lV"'R ~oSJO"re> B"'c6J @c6o~~;6d 05:0& jOOJ Se:lcJCJ":Os a,osfJ~;fu !l!Ise~oi:S;Se;~OS~o&. oS~& ~t1Kg))oiJ"e:lo{j @oc:il!&J ~~ so6&!~rn ~~:O;;Je. @o6C"5" iO~~ S"6s.§_Ll1ioa:o §"g os~~sO":Od Q'moi:S:J!&J ~;fu!§,)O"OJ"e:lo{j ®06)s, e5~~i1D e...SS"6~~~ ~W" S;fuR"c6OSe:J~ ttloe.r,05.~1 §'Og Sb6s!~ru si6:lm c5:l;5)~rn B1J ~:o l!!)c5,

;fue 6~OJJ~e;Jb. ;GoA~S"dJ<ill",~~S"dJeJJ" OJ"B ~ag:))t!)? ~ @j~oi:So& @l[\J"5soe,)0(fuo{!) o.'S~~ S"'~ ~bf:SosJ~ru. S"G.)~ @as06

61

~e:3N"ej~~.se:n~;;S ~g) ~c{1)e)~ §"~r'i" ::'Jl:Ssgy,oi5t::"~!!ioeJJ'> a..-S eJ"Qse§iD S;S;f'i"~l:!:::'J o~..)c.'$o @~;;S:,Oal~;& @~ehoe:., 5"~. &eiJlJ" ~&{:)~ ~e::l"~g ~ <fuot;) ~t;;" cn,~g~ . .:;)o6.J.so~ ~ ~;:;)oi:So£bcS 6<5cSoe;u.. e...s ;;S;:ut?S(S) Q.')6[l~~f)c6:I!:b;;3 @Ju s!l, ;-60t\e55"6)~, ~'!;"Oso6)~ e5<S s~ ;;S;:uoOJQJ"j!,<S,sri:r> i5d$::'Jg)4$0n> §"gn" O"~~eJ~eo~oe:.. §Os !!iJe5JVJ. SJo~SJ~~~ e.OIDJOQ. §"~ El~a~N" @~~Vd. ~iS:lf'i";;SoS~~ eo~ol:i. ~~S"6Je) ~~ ®N"B @a:n;;S~Jt;,~T OJ"O"oJo~c6:I ~g)QOf'i" ::'Jo.sgy,~IS;;sd.Q'>lOd o'SJo~o §"s.6N"lO~ :O~oo;;:yo11" @c6so-l!o eol:i. g)~;;s~~lSoXod, s'!;"OlSoKoQ N"~ 8"eS;:)~~ 006 etJ"~ISE'ee)J aS6-~ t;)~g)~iS:l. oSeil ~oOxa:o ~~e§~son" o,oKr->oBoiSJsSoS6;;:DeY'rf @g) i:Ssp g);;S5~cm.

;;:5c6:1 ~;:;)f.'a)VJ. 6JD~oBotle.:J~.JtS:J DJ'>6SOS~6~;6 ~~S;;Si:jQeJ~ 6JDiJooeoiS~lO§ @e5sooi§ CSe10 ~g)JJ,l.a;;S:, ;:;)W"o;vaG GSlOtl~;;SJ..;:;)J>~ ll .. ~5. @J~Q @J~ .t~~~ ;;Sc6:IJ.. s~~~. @dSJCS ~cfuJseJS:J ~oa1o&'JoD;S ~CSlSdJ. ~{)w~e;6 oS~ ~~e:n ~~6SoSoe30n" CSdoSt;;"ltls !lUln"ffioa GSesO"e:XJ 6JD~oeoiSG$o& N" ;:JoJoso60 ~~. ooccS etJ";JoISe:g ~CSo· "'q)[l§J. ~d'l:J;;S -g6~& §"~c.\:S:)o .sq::& iSoX<St:l@& ~;6~~ g)SeY'orlJo!'hJo ;fu)6~ ~16~vrSJ l?6o(}oi:J"'OJ. g)seY'oK eJ"eJaFDsro 6;;S:,~svso£bcS;:;)~~oiSJsS;6CDlOg @Jd'l:J;5 ®s6-C §"~ e56;JS ~lf.E'iF oSCS6Je:XJ 6Jo~oeo~6v. @b;)oSoe5 .s~.W' ;;So6.)vW;::so ec6.J;:S

Q ~ Q

;6Je3S{!~E'a£:bcS ~Q"6D.'5~15:I.

.fl:JlO~ Q.'),j6~;Soe560 g),:,r.ae:. @JaCJ e5;:S e$g)e}S"'ood i3~~ sJ~.fu;>~. O"oSJ~~ GS6oS.:l~o~, 6~CSol:S ;:Jot:J.sfj; @cg)06 qU5.v fU50D ~N"~ 60"w @J oSJ~~ctmw ;}>fuoDCS ;iJa~~oq ~{$)~gS.oSl:io

Ci) ....

OOSO" ~e»;:fu~oe:uNd6)· ~6E;ao ei~..)~ C::C;5;,S0t5 cfuu<6~e_)SJ @ciI~6sc

~eo~ool3 <!!l06J!:b x~ .';}S~ @oSso~o ;.););:s;,.=m~ g)il~!3"\~ i3~I5~

Q ~ e:l eI e:l

~~oiSo ~ ~;:S 0"mt?S oSCSf!)~;fu.

®o.'l/0et ~oS;5 ~60c6:1o{:) elO"lO§ @;fuoSo,Mon" S";5~KJe:,.. ~~:6d. {¥'oe'9 . .:;)o/1:ofi> eDcto6J5P~ ~6t<iof11' ::, ~;:S~~~t:7-' iD6E.§oiJOeJ:J ~6Jg;~. @O).)~ cfu;;So C::C6~o{);:S~!)§ cSJ;So ~~~<6 !:Ie):" 6'?"t:Jod'

62

,:6.);60 'Q'>-l!.sei011" ~~r\;)8"~"£i ~;,S;::S c6J<Slfu G5:J6E'eo& ;::S~t;;r'<6D.'5a is~;:fu08 .

.-D .J>

;}>Q"OE;aOll" @SQSo-t:SoC oS.:l6~;S066 ~g)6o oo6:J 6S'>e.lJi1" 5";S;}>X:liiiloe:5~ ~;6<S ~05. a..se.'j, ~uS071"<6:J<S~oeJ 6JaGSoQ

,..., ,

oo~oSB c5.Y><S~son" 070<6 6iSrSeJ 6Y>D.'50&. Uo5::J5e.u e...!3 ~&1"~6"~ ~~~Q:?6J - '~~SDe» aO" fu~w' ®75B @ ;:fu&1"~i§o. @ tD::l"'~ijo& t!9oei~Xe~6011" e..!:1 ;:J,o~<6eo5. ®acilo~, ;W~.s ~~f!)3i, ~~5"v~ 'jefe...S&O"~c5.Y>Le3;& ~06KvOj). Boeoe5~ rocoCS~o CSl~QSoSJ"£iB ®o6:;Q rJoB-l!o. ~;;go:O§ iJ"eY' ~o;::S) "leiJe LKol;SISi:S<6 ~GSe3;S OJ"~SJ

()e) N') eJ M

W"e::l"oSJo5§ ~~ a:6J!:b:O ~~o;w 1&;;3 @JoSso.ao eoaeS"e::n. &D ~~oS

~c'$J~e,)JO. e.'je;jt;lO eJ"tiJeOJ", a1"~ ;:J;;J'>~;:lJUJO., ~~eJJ!> f!!)oc';S)SJ tllt?~IS~. ro~~ ;;3;:5:> ~W" N"~ a[lcfu!:Doc:;';~ ~ ;::So@JO"~~ 1W;fu;:)eoi:Y'<6;W~otJo;:5:>.

®iDlSes.s0 bJooO"eJ<6J§,,;;3 ~oS,oC Q$JE5"S a:leJ~<6 sSe!:! N"ctosei.so oSgy,oi:J"'v;;3 sEes. O1J:O~§ ~ ~!bJtS 6§J.;S @oEIDv!b6 ~eD.'56~o iSeJocmoi:)"~;;3 §'ies t;l)o5. .ea f!)~~O aGe <6:J<6J~VJ.. <6e.~oi:S~Ol1", iiJD5 .;')e5<:l~€)c6:I ~~oi:S~on" 6Jn~B6JS;)oe. ®e:u<:loe ~~e3.s S"o~ oo~ §'>;:Sw G;~O).). 8.,!:! §OJ;:S @5 @eiJD.'5eiJo€)rS, ~E5"S ~;6 "fu:l~o LDSOSoiS oS5.i)uv;5. ~ ooCJ §"rSf!)es"Q"'~ 6~ei~ ~~0eJ"e.>~, lS~e3"e.><fuo, O"~eJ;fu.>, OS"eiJ~;fu ;:;)e.i)u[)~;5J. N"Q.i)~a06o£ oSJrSS:J ~;Sro?$8"6:l. iiJ"5fi 6~6ro> @~l::b:O, §:'~ jo6~<t iiJ'>e!3~ oS.:l6oei :l~~ QSe~&, oSJ€!i N"cfilS:JUl", S"6e):O~oJt>~Q5"6JelJ'l, e~e<'l;JsoOJelJ<'. ~;§e:!~. e:lJotS N"d5J~elJ", oXSs~~elJ<', ~~iS.)o6 N"dDs;)elJ<' ~CSID~~ :oQotS:l. ruodD~v c6~6.s0 fu506, ;:yo5 ;::)~Jo:5o~ ~~ rlJaotl. @Je " ~ @)~&e.> rueo~ D5JrS~~ ~ g)otl:>~~~§ 05JQ"q;:a§ N"o:D~a NO~&..)~ D5J.:Jo{$)~ .9r:5.:J~~c6eJ:>:O§ ..Jo6OS oSJ6iiilO"6,,5"IS~~6w

c:j '& Q C"""'I' e) .....:>

ON~Orl" eotJo6::'J oSJ;So ;;D6c6~G${$). N"dSJ~e.s @'>~~e3<6J ~e:7"

t1~oi:Sc:;..:ag 9"6~0 N"d.XlSJe & .;JoeJJ ®;fuiS6J~ ~W" t!;o e.J<>G;;3 ~~~ rU~B~~c6t;o ~~;&.

-----------------

63

N"dS:>~~~o, t6~cS~ ®~g) ;;S~;;S~;fu ~Oql)&)~oJ6i:lcod oolil ;;5~6:l ~O"rn. ;;S~cS.zy, ~6~~~ ~~~~.) isc60e:lO aScS6JC LoSesLh

o f)(jI.,) 9 Q .... d.

;()OqDe~OSB~ CJOcfu~lil l;;.)GSe.J @;;5-ooe.J;fu £,,~O~ iiJ1>e 0"~~e.J;fu

~QCV"e,))f'!" 6;aSc:fugf\Ot:SJSJo~r!&J. ~e3e,).) ~~ a.~~5"60 ~oSe~ ®(6);se~oG ~G'l N"cfuSJC:>. !l9a e.,S O'SsoS~ ~6~o:Jof:'Ol ~~f:OO~ ®c5:J<:5eoiSC:;.o& ,<6Jo~o@tlJoSoe5 a~a~e:>~i!'§"~oCSCS:l. @~CJ a~.J~O"~ 6gG<6OJ"OJ @6so6 g)Qo:»o.n'" ®tSeotSoSe.J~ ti3o~oe. @eJ:)cSo~ oSscS~ ~6s(i.';t>~~e ~;6 @~;;S~S ~;:J<>~ ~;6 cSJ§ t::lltirltsesS ?7r)od' ;SQ)))~~oi5:lS"~eoe.J'ia~aSJ ~;6 <V"~seiS e;l~Cd"e.Jt6~go6:J. e..s ;:J<>dS:>!:3JM <6SoS~~~(i.';t>~ ~t::ll~e.u ~s~;;)iS:l.)I1"S. s<>~, t!!)~e 6Jo66e'}~

~e3~ e..SlP ~~oe).

NDdSJSJexl ~c;ro6rooli" @~so6 as e-Se:> N"a:5 &>rnflO , c&l~-Be1 ;So~c.SCJO.gel)I:S:lf'!" t30t?tD. o:f'11,§ ~oSJ aJJ0O"e.JaS~ ®oSl1"~;6 eobJoe. 6oSJ§ 60:0 e:lJOtJD~§ cSJt:;lS o:f'6:l ;;')otJJo g)~<6o ~oiJaoeoiS:lSJoe..Jotil. ~~ g)e:l!if:'Ol~OcS~ N"d'Ds,e.u ~J~PTi" 60'S:l g)~~6 wobJsOKe.urD8"'tD. 1'i6"'~K~son" ;6~t5 ;;)~~e);;.)~ o:f'~§ U'OO ®<fu<6.Jv;6o. rU~n" ;60'S:lJ.r;.;v~ OJ"~oei~l?o e..aSjl~tD. o:f't,g ~GSO ~[l~l9lJ"O. ~af'~ e:l~ iiJ1>~ ~6ci5Joe.u b~~oeJ'>6J .•

E1l

-ea(;J"~ ®c:;),)~s !l9~SO~ K~.se.J OJ"6";;)6S"et, ~6JF'e:l;;iJ

eOSs1'i~~ os~~e)fuo ;6e.B ~O~e.:l:l ~tuJ5n" s<fuO'S:l&lK~~~Q)J. ®oCS:l~ s<>Of:'OlO ei,:)6e)~6n" ~6:leil;6J. Q')e~~e:l!:b ®(furUIiOlOn" ~tur:i:l ffOQ))) iS~6-ec:g~~ ~O'S:l~o o:f'eg §"ooSC:hil>. ®OJJ.~ .;:,~ ~OJrJs ~~6 <Jo~e.u", S"::&_ la:5c?,il~~ ~~~ N"d'DS~.5 e)!~e)<fu @S~Jh'ot5 W"~g ~6 ;:mo~§""'<s~cm. ®bJO'So&> e:l!~e.:l:l ;;;:fJad' e~Ci'b" GJOB~ r'o~on OJ"e§ e~® aSl:S~(!.l) ®oe~~Q)). .eo @o"O"~ oSJBo6 tS~r g)o5BoiJ"e:>o~ ;:DtSo ID~~ g)aoCl.SJl1I'O~ e..s~e ~CScS<5:J.} e9BIi> ~t?~~. ~o~:J:O 2105 ~B"~ ~O~f)" 6Jo~oeOij';J"~ • .;);;.)J~s~J~ 6;6 S"e.Jos~ 20~~ c;IDoO,S, is:ro~ @6~ C"~ <6CJ~~ 05~~~' .';) oSDo6:JiSJ<>E.<V'" g)~o:s:,o ~~oO"e.Jo~ C"~ ~{Y,fuoe&~ ~o~§";j"~:l.

64

~bN" 44 llIDd'D~ dfu. ~~. W"e:l~ @JO"dSY>~ <:5e'}~Oi:l"v;ti ll~e5..J o~od';5~ 102 o;aoe! 76,OOO~oe e,SSt<ue.u .i1>e.u~S,06Xl~6:l. ~o~ ~OS~~o5?

rSo5Jgo5o~E;6 <V"o:s:,~~ ,~;6 rJo~<6J<.,~oo;sO" ;;m!!o <J~~ @(l;;S~~ aSea lSO'SJo& ~Kon" ,6;6 ®CSJiS605q;'iYd, e..s~ 6"6tbtSSJ ~~~;;S~~. iSSJ,c!5 N"o:s:,!§e)~o (25GS~!:D ctJe3~tS .De.ucSe:>nl:J @oeoiSoSe:>::':' cl;of..lJOe. :Oe:1~c6 O)woSe.n ®oO"voetj :Oe3"'Ql)beowotJ, rSoS:l~so eoc>[). gaSe:>o oS~OSoJSooe.n ..:'5SbeJ6Ji.$)~;5 (\)"cl:h!§~c50 ~~ ;;)SoS~<fu ;:J~e.JOl1" aSBoS1c6 ~d'D1'i[)R (\)"cfu!§~.)o ~~l1" (l;6d._o.

®e:ooSot) <V"cfuS~ (25@cr5J<SJ 05aoiS~~§ <Jof..~ s~e& aJ'oO

~ ~

N"~a KJSll~<SJ h;:'J)s,lJ"oSt::D.} ~~oPfl~ ;:J<>cr5J!:il~ i:jDe:J" g):::'.ctiJ<>&

~ ~ - -

;::5ol\~ !:l~e oJo6 CJOd'DSJ~ ff:fo[)eo~1:ii. ®c!..J.:loSo!) ~~e a:J~otSod

~o& .f)~i'Sd.e:~;p, ~g)OSo !;l[)f)c6 ~QSEP"oSo~e;oo~6J. C"tJD.c:J,fl'" OJ"'IfOel" IDO~t5 o5~~e.noa OJ"'~ S"~, OJ"'!i,OB" eO'S:lJ.~ v~og;;;5o Q.)~5~6J. a,~ ~o61~& ei'SJ. @6so6 laS QSe,J''o506J~ t5 rff'ffJ i6of..f.§so6Je.J ;:J~e3N"~J.s~;S;J e aJ~o6 N"cfu~6 ~g)OOl1", ~~6S:J rJo5Jt6,sd5:l a:56ti>g& XrnN6"6<Sd_0":\hrot) @ si35 g)e:1d5:Jo eQ"6Q.)C:;~ e.,s N"-~-,",_IJ.

f.l C e.J:' UJ.J~W

g)~ctiJoSJ"W" @Q"6OS6~oe:005. 6c6 aJ~o60 ~~o ;;S~~6J @o6e5tJ

'6"~o61'i[)n ~o5Jgs~ e..S N"c.'6:Js:)(~, ;:Jotuq;s~1l"~ aC" e.,S e:'l0d& ~~!£a iJoo5Jo;s~1l"~ ~gQl)O~~oe,. Q

iO"'~d5.J N"cfuS~ ::':'q;0e) 0 40 CJOd5.JSe.t~ ~9Se:l'::'l1" @CJ §e)S ~~~~ CJOdSJS~ ~~K~w1l" N"e.:l:lrU ?Jo~o;l;l:& l'\)~o{)oe. N"~S®.) i>l~a:J~§ @;;)<J6~;6 @CJ §e)S ~~~e.lJ 1) oSDo6:liSY>~ (2) g)e.lJ;;)e.:l:l (3) ~j1:3o (4) ~~~o (5) ;6OS'W:lo (6) @)4'JoS~so~. -6a ~tu~e.JSJ =~na <:.,1;3 05JN~~ <V"dS:>~e.7I" o.'5Jt>6JW"NS ®OS~6~;6 ;:J<>e.lJrU o5JJIPS <ll~Kwe:o 'i9,g). (IJ N"dS:>S:J~ ~;$ @ZY>OJ"'~ ~Q.)K[lF\;$ s= (2) @)e)o

~:s~o @~r06@;6 r0otSttJo (3) ~<S N"cr5Js~ @eaS~~ ~~rlVR .,J g) (4) es i>.J"d5.J~e i>.J"dS:J1:3~~ ~.)seoiSKllr; loJGSW.

~ ~~~.eei ~o:S r:5o~lO ~~~JS ~¢io& o.'mo6JS:I bt6:J~!1¥ ~e.urUP3"~ @I ~~lil~ @)6~O):)S:lCoeJo6:l. ~.e;S ~5~rn ~6..J~6, ~F'lt::J ~®S~ e)~~e;o ~~e)OTl" ei6d_ ~®S:l~ e){lot:)t::J~.YC:l @) ~®!&.1~ ~eiSJS~so cfl~~;Sd. ~o~;fuo~~ so!§, ~go j:J<:lY>ea~ cgI~e.;)e) e)i!) ~o6JeiJoe,.

,..., I;)

l~~e..S& ~ci1>6 lO6S~&"a r:5o~~ ~o:S V'!?[)j_ as{,.r\9;5s6ost$o c6Je)~0:5 Q)~S"fJ. ;6<:lY>e3"lO~ ~e,ot:Srle) g);6 ~6 ~~ee(;JDe);6.) .;)D'S6J

._ (j) '4!J

asg.K~Ke.x>rUP3"6J? ~d" (@.~. 457-347) 6l)ol);S<fu@Sfu~ 6-60:5

'1J.& r:5o~;;5_t;aU)' iSc5.J~6:Jo~{lQ e..s e,J"cfl;S o:S<fuJ. @lSEip{!)oCJ. tl;9~aD'S:l~6ot.3, D'S:l;So ~~ ~6J6i5:l~OSeJo& l;;JQ"i6 tls~.o'~o .';) e..SJ_ @6K~!t ~~US;;;J"es~ {loSJ.O(1" e:!Io:SoO"~ ;G<fu~6J6osot.fu. OOe3S l.;;JCfuc.eeoSo ~1o ;6;fuoeaodmSJ. e!l6SeS ;6oo!Y05.o' ®N'd.C3:"dSJ;S. Q'>O"~ @O S"eJ"lO§ 'Bo5o:S ~gn~!§~ ~6J';)ts".JOSo SJo~ e..!§ <:lY>eJ t!:5lN'd_C:l. tl":O @~gneJol3, 'e..!& ~~lO 0J061>oE'loi§ t§J~o:S @o-s"e.n IDc).): ~~~lO r:5~e3o: ;60;00. @~Ses e6"JOs~, ;6;6.)0:5Sd'iJ <60J0~';)o:So,~e!)~~;S ~~~.' ~;S roolSJe)ooe§ o:;e r:5o&05.o !.?fi;;So ~ ®O-B"e.>~o~~ <6~o:S ;;:l"eJo @lsooo @g)Qono @o6~dSJXe)~ ~&[)owoV. @~'ya ~ (25;;;0;50 -s"o~dSJJ6o S"Ke.x>r\)eiJoe. @Q))~ Oi>~~e)~ gJeeono rJo&'caa~;3JaE'l?

2003<5' e..sEfre> @O:Jw<>iSe>(25c3-6"& ~~ ~OJ"or; .w9;0"<:lY>~ rJo6C?J0W"~' es e= ~~e)d5:J~c.s~ ~~~et: ;;;0&. ;;;~d 005. .a6"S"e)~ ..::sID ';)OS:Dse).) §'>O:J~~GoEl. @Ql)~ ~~ @S2re lri"~ @le3e)06" ;6o&~~eeDexJno t5~~n" ~!&g)fuoDoE'l. ~ e:ro;oo;;:nod g)g)Q 05c)5);6)e>~ aoe<6 ~~~e)09" 5o.)S LoJo6"o~&e;S.:l~ ~SJ ~m~oDoe. Q5.:,;S~ oDfu;S i\:l"r\5S ~o.);S ~Q'"o:Sod !!!le»OSot3 l2l~oag) ~o:So S<fuFY';6ao. ~ 60J"ofi(!i'>o:no~. 0":0 ~e<6tS Ln"~et ~ g)~@o-6o ~ L~230;fu .:ooo®·o:ndiJono ttl.oiSKllf'loO" @::J ea&D~ e~<fu. !!l! Q).)O"'G)~a ~& @Nd_OJ!!iO" '~~~ @)~oiSo&' ;;:n;So eoJrSc6JJ§oa'

66

a.J"O~6eD~0. !!!l~rSoiJJ~o 05J~~et ;;SQ50reo11" dloe r:5o~.i!F~ ~o<6o a~~oE'l. @06J';s~ OS:lo:S& gy,o~~JS t:h5~e:IJ ~6.:lri:ltSJu GoeJoQl). e.,!36-~t<l0 ;fu~.s f:J ~o:S;::D&oD ~;Sjo, iiJ"e' !!!l;;j ~clJ"e)~§"e)F'lo{:)~C:l. ~SJ ~ d'e ;fu<fu~e);0~ eoc ,-%G:tO'DOB" &e)FI~e})o5. &.i!F:og 6":J~~ ~6dSJo& ~o~e'S~s ~clJ"e.n l§S~.soi5e3~. GSJ<6 ~6d5Jo~~oe .boo;;S &e)F'lWSOll<S~e.i> -6"ofS @;;S65i§oO. ®05e'S50t:l6~5"0:l, @5 D'S:l<S a~o& SC<l§E9"N" ~~~0E'l. ~<S!:D i5~2r:O !!l!0611"S~~oE'l. Q5.:,;5 ~~~:O ~~<Sso.)o~o ~~e. ®~C:l rSc..'lJoe3o& <O"o~. caoo~ c..'lJo~ ~Sfu;;Doo.'

~

lOS!3Ju& ~g)i§<Scl 6§6-<SclJ"6V'~ ~lO~. ~t3" ~o:S &~Q>, a:;ctDeJo c6O'D<SoSd5:Jo& ~g)o~o;;.'DQ>~ ;;3~J!:D:O ~O"[I. S"e>rlO'DrSo& g)g)Q ~<S

(j)

OS~iiJ"e.n, ~o~~J!3 ;;J~a,e1) .;)oe} :o~cfuoZdS"& i:JI>[);Soe'S ~~:.b~

dI~Ql). 5"aJ~ ~Qi5o:S~~, ~6~~ ~O' ~o<6 lOcSg!3o. ~;:SOJ'>tl oS.:loil ~dSJS::lIDJ. iSJo~oE'l, a~~dSJ~bJ. iSy>~ot). 8:l0J0.)<O" O'ly.;:SclJ"tl OS5£?Q).)o aoa l~;fuo& II:!! OO~.:l OS"e;l N"'cm~e)J" ~oJ'lOr:S e

;,.,J

@;5,)!fuoeJl>~. N'" @~@odiJo& @;:6e1) iiJ"d5:J!fue)o65~ ~g ::Jg~!3~.so

I>IOS_sKe;l iiJ"S"Se.u ;ih)6t5 ~b~ @a)J'> rose; (632-634) @Sr:SoXo& g)~OSi5:lJ.

n;o!f.; fb @o6a -i5.;:5,j50"~ tSlf&i5ff @)~S"6o e;!Jot:]oa soiJ CJD;J @~o t» @olSa~~ i5rSJ fiD~.>Y'g;J 5"6". ,1,;5, aJ'>/J" ~a»Ifl)f1Dn;o n;og, ;;5,;jv~aotSod. j;$ ii~Q) a/3'<>n;o, .\5~ ;jBagoCJ.. ;;5~o,j~ a1J~.\5 ii1o.jt!.)j;, tJQOSJiS. ;j~%1 &oiJ;66t$e.J~ LtJO;;Jr>o. !:bi!? t1Joa IDf!JiJorSJe;/§) 4ft;S6 ;OJ. E.>Y',;5,Lx.;,y,oa5~ .>Y'd .;JvS:Jd-Q) c:;oB§ i}>~oiStfl)f\'d 3l~ iJ" @a5;;560 ti1ocliJ. @V'rf!:De:? Cloci aleJ05od;lw tbtPr!3.>Y'B .&>~6ll2 '&>B~;SJoJS"f!JO .;;p>6.J .iJ" ~~& ;ne;br:S.Je!. erl]D;::OLt'l.&>o.i5~ QJO(j;J j;::o (!!Jm;::;~dfJtJwl'0qo;{u. j<iSJ oJoefS"e;?EiJ ;;5a..)iJj~e.;Jt,2:; fgciSJ~ L05.>5~;;5q: :;f!ciSJii

67

i:lJoqJj8..;J6. ~oe§c6d~ !be)) $;owo .v<'~~ v(jaSJe§ ~o:Soe. lP'Xo5o~~, (.0:505.5:0 j;j) ®~;;SBot1.-sq2)6 .\5';s'J !be)) !bc:;" @;S;;;S806co ~j'aSJo~. 41

'<P'tl05oeln~. L<i505_§tJ jiS:> @is:>;;SBor'$;SoJ)GJ ;S~ !:b6J SJoW" @~;;SBoi$6o o:5Jo;5dl)oCl' @~ @<660~U" @!ro"a:lSO ;6~ ;:6of\~iiJl

6"6~Q))rl" g)~~~~~.

68

o

4

-./. i!'Jo Lf\~ ~1s~~ 1?,&

@J (@~~.427-347) ;<6~O'Se r;Jo;;Se:9,JU"et '~@$~~C::SeJ~ O'S:>o6f\~oej @Q'O~@J.!3 jLei0e.1i g)!3~~olY @)~ COr:SJ!&:l"'de&J.&.!3 L~;:S.s6e'J%3056JCJ .~;:) rSO'S:>soV<6 CSiSOJJe§o ~~S"W"', DJ'>~ ~l!'~ru ~Le§~ iS6J~OOooeJ'>~ S"'fl, s'ifO"'I!)<6J ~;toJ6l&J @:;) 1rJ$~~ &.13

""'0!J eJ

~~;fu~fu. r{,eO~ ~~ eocOJ"C:> .. ~ ;fug)~

SJ..-t:;D ei;S ;:S ~S" V;S @) iJ6 ~O S'Jt> • (j6f:01)o!§Jo ~~rl" 6"0f\SJS~6C::S~ @dil;:S ~tJ~ t:$S~' @b:J;S0e5 oSJ:O!l. .~;:s r:5~S"b;:s r:5o~D® 6e.1~~ O"ilf> atSJ.;:SOXI~ i:SJ'Il4'e)O~, g)i\l"OO~ ;JOO?

fl!)~es~ 6iSOJJL@ ;Jc!8DJ'>o$

eo>

(1862-1937) LoJsu60 05J~~ ~6JJ~

I!!l ~6JC:)(1" tl1<6J.~ OX! ~ • & Il" e:l SJo , tSJ8rp<'os,o, OJ"g~:o§ <!!)t9~~7i" oSJeo~ C::S~~CJ.r1'" eodKe)d~ @;:i:,sS;;:r:>[), e':9tS:J .s~6"l!)ifu ;;)0& @5~fJdilo7V' ~eJ5cg~ KIDf\<S aSJ~~Je.u O:Oe.1eiJ£:Ql 6~6~

;;3~~~ ;;3i:S»ce;ofJ" ~~jdSJveJ~~~ i!!'B!).f1<>s, e;! ~oCSO$eJ~;S ~~ eJ~we.x> ts'd;S, !!e!f. ;;$t;JJl.SeJ, l!t::».s!tm.. 42

e.;l I: .....

69

QSjJtl~Je3~ @o.06.1o e..sJ.eY>;;5 c6:l6~o~~o. c6:lrSsaOJSJ ~~J6so ~~~rSJ.e?43 6cfu ~g)6' iS~cfu6~e>ifu SJ-o~ GJ"'ao6:J~ ~~eaN"'6~!3ol1" '§6JJE>tt5~~tD? ifu~.!) .;)6KrS;;),JciJ. I ;)s~oiSf.S~..?~ ~~'SJ ~~J. ~~.!)~eaon" 2J"t:)@93SJob)~~. ~aS:J;6.) oJa..:.sc::o, lFo:5:lto ~a..:.si:Sa 8:'JsG;-:5;&.· aa6:JSJ ;fue~o, as:J60 QO~ ~g)eJ"eJ~~ocrS as:Joi) eQO~~E<le.n a~.

;&5~5 (1867-1984) o¥[)~ @a~ ~~s '5"~;;3~. 6~d'5JrS ~~~_g,. t!3~ aacfuD QDoJS ~@JDeJru t:3atlrS ;;S5.tt:)rSeJSJ @6:J~O'"w. @a~S"s, {f/2'Jo aJ~o)y>;:Sa oo~~ tSoaCrS "O"~~ &O~ ~~~. 9,0.5" 5~JeJae3 a~e3O"S" 00.6 ;;3<3s6J ~~~S "O"~ ~~~ oa~~~ ;sBroo 8J~c:ffiN"'e.tl Kr>aEJrS ~~!3 "1l"l£;;3g !:Uo~ ($;fu~. 1903& -aa~ Q"5Js6ifu !§<6Jf)"oSJ_o6J~l1"rS:l &f'~s"1l"~a& @~ :Y-e')o e:>~cSJcrSo ti1>o.Qol:. .. ~ aJoJuJoSJt>N"'~ @~ 60S ~~ ~o:5:J5~5 (1859-1906)&, l!8o&!J ~lP 8.1S~e) (1852-1908)eJeC seJfu ~"s!:i5o.CoEJ. @5f'\ o:5:l0eJD 19116>' o~d'5J;6 ~~o& 3'ro6 IDo:N<fu@ S?OQOQ. ea~e @I~ ae.ctn~, SJc~:'JdiJ~e.Jto s;6.)R"~o6J~, -aeo:5:J~ ru50C;6 <!9~ctoN":'J§ es ro~C::O~ &)ca5o.5. @~ ru~g 8.0~ ~Oci:SJe5 SJee55 6rS e1~ oJo.g5~;6rSJ §,,;S~f\oC S"~ s;6.)f)"rSJ. aeCili'> t?OJS c:IDoeJS"eJ<6J 0.))50.6 ~~~01i" @QSdilCSo t5~OQ. @otDrul1";fu t!3~ru 6.?dSJcS ~~o& 1935& S'?3f!j aJ~tD@ o4)oDoQ.

~6e:) [?S~oiSdS.D6 ~cfudilo& d:5JJofi~& 1914, 1918 ~Os

I;)

s~eJo& ~cs ~:'J!& ;::So;;»6~ ;:5o~~OnOQ. e9oJ,8 ;&e~",..e ;,=m6~

Q ..... ~ OJ ...... -i1

;::SaiJ"~ .;)s,sa c).))olP3"~ 6JoKr>aQorJ O":'JJ. ,§~~~ d5:0~0& l1"diJoJ~

~:'JSJe,)ru ol5~D§e1.J i3cfue.;,o~o omgtloKod c()oiSBoDoQ. ~::s <!9~ei: ~oJ~.a~~, .;'Je.!)O"~ a)5t'~;S~ ~~ llo~SS;:5d.Q. OJ:;) ;)~c:!iJo:og D5aJe.;,;;JJe3~~~ru ;o~~O"e.JJ~Doi3g) S"~. DtSM @~ oL\d3y>Q"5aS fl:i:'j&~e.JW> ;oaa.::s oJ8&N"tlseJ;fu e1;S R"<6J$8J.}& ~tt5S:J~5RCS:;) ~t?

70

@OtJ"6:l. OJ"t5:'J ~::S~e5"8J~ ~6:lr\Jet ~~::S;:6..?~ t:l";:)<>S~ -ae;~Q"5~!&6 rocfue.>SJ ~g 0":::l5"~ 19~0ll" r'\)oS";;-Je.;,;fu t':li.'S6~ 118~ cfu6t"d":O§ SY>W" 0"519~Q.

@t:lJi.'S0i5 ;:5a§oJo, ;;JoO~ cfuCSoQo~ (1910-1997)8 ~C" O'SJ::SSJ S::SID~6"CUJ. ~~J>CoJ.Jcj s~ ~oJ.Je1.:JoSd. ~~:os~~ ~O'S;:Soifu f1Jo§Jf,d' f3~~:'J ~u06co ~O'" ~a~o .;))tl~-&. .:fu6~<S<SJdECS <J"(<SJ 6~tl§ .§r::o~:'J ~6oi:i3oiJo O'IDoDoEl. §)~~Ko (!!JObJo:rosl;) 5"6;:) ~.;fu Se.lS~;:s, e...~ai:SK~F\oEl. ~~Qj"~C eJ"5;:SoJ~0J"6J ~~ sctf.~6 &>o:m :::le.JaJa~4Sofi" e!)tJ'>K13& OJ"o§"s suo!J :'J0J0t:5r;~f\aEl. @I~ ~g)eiiSo~ ~~;S ::S£)5D"~ 118;ih C()~efueJKJ50w g)cS6~ a, ®oCS~;:S c()k)~:::l ~eJiSJ~0e_y,6 ~acfuo~, ru~~l;) eJ"6;6oJ~ .a..s cfug)~ q3a~ ~e& srSJJ.~~ <!9~ce:> ~~ N'" a!g)6cfuoeJ'" flOJet ~e eao6J~O" ro~S"e5J. S":'J 9,;;S.JeD o05e1e:JD c6:ld~~N'd..;:5I~. g)SeY'oru~rI"~, l?~ae1s ~~eJeC;S> ea:'JJoeJ<6 ~~~VJ. @:i'b DgSJoBe);6.)otJ ~!ot:J ~ot") &JS~ot")o5. ~ ~;fu~ @le1sae1 ~~ciJu~~w>6J.

~e,)s~& e..~ i6JJe~DJ'>C~ 1948& e..s i1o~~o~ l?60~Oi:Sclo ~O" (ll).:fu e1cS S~~ ~6w~~oe. <!9oSaS"eJoe~ @i~ 'l~oDoS 'gnD\::s6~ @~ woeS [?SoJoi5o:5:loe1e:P> g)!§5o-DoQ. l.)~6-e:l:::l0J"6§ ~~eJSJo t!!l ;;)O~ ®6~06 :::l~ 'FJ;;Se:,)oeoDoe. t;)~~e_y, 118 ;;6o~ @Jo5o;3 1JcS~ i6JJ!p~erSg): ro6J ~o~et O"O"~ (DGlJ. o~e,)c::iJo5 ~!sVR"rSJ. .s~~~~ @;;JStlo, O"tJ'O~ oo~::Sd..6 o~e>o5Jo.El fifue,)SJ ~6~0, 20,000 ;;.))05 ~a§DJ'>60 lb~e,)SJ i:SCSJ~. cSJcrS~s ~SeJDor;,vSJo, ~~o&iUoSJ-o, .,)cm~ aJ"5::S~~GJ"'e§, c::i.J6~O)O;:S cSS~cSo&, ~l)JeJl ~OoJcl:le1JjJ.QJ'>o§ (!,!il-e'~e.tl e~a:o. ~~e30 60S K.;$)<6o& oJ~S:I ~~~rv;s ~~KJsos%Ja @~ a)g @~6rS!3.l ~[l!:3e:'kS). 1979& ;sB~!.DoB"o~ aJcJtocfu~ s;furfu ;550D05.

41 OSJ~~d5J OJ"6.;)6".s:::ld_ GilloOJSJ 8,;)JSJ~r'Hri\acS.s6J? ~;;S;fu~oe.y:.~, ~~~-'6"~0 ~GSJ~S .~ ;;)~ ;;mCSelJ~~ tl!01Z"eJ~.

71

g)~<6i8"~0 a~rSd. ,d'r:;oJtJJ~ ~e..1"eoS:loe oS:li6:l~eJ,) ~oS:li6:lG"oS:lJ ;6~;:S<fuo;5 ~rSd.aos:D!3 ai:S~~s,~6:l. 0.'»;60 i:5!3r @li:550i'J is.Jo~X~f\~ ~~:;"SJ"S6, ;fu6oQa~ a~;S ~e1~!3~ g)etrSi8"~ S~~ ~g)c:;S0n"~ ~!3J&05 S"'6. ~;fuJ :De30Ti" cSJt>;60Y'(;l!3 ®till{l~oiS<D~ 0560. lP;:;)oi:l"~ ~e,~;:;)~;6 gJv~Co~o ~<6J.) :$:lj~ 0ir>;6;6 ~;6a3"'e.)Qtfo ~l)S ~5;6§5

~~QSo 31!.)0e.

-;5rSJ 196301' 9.0a.l~50n!3J eJ6rn ~r:S§.);fu ~oi5:l!fu;6d.~jl~ ~l2s.J @l;l~c:l:SJrSo r\5soi:50~ @o.r:01i"t:30e. ~f1'e3" ;6.;Syoaloe ~a?;:D~gi8"~~SV ~cm ~f\~cmo60~ ®oc,~S"I:S~o aOa.l~5oX:l ~""'i8"V~ i'J~ ty>gJ g)~6J~ ~~ ~;fu.J ~~~o6eJo. ~ ¢6& <P"6~a.to& g)~;S'6"~ l.;so5Jo~v;fu Ked~®ol1" ~1J;::SJ,;6d.e. evS".;s.J~,) ss fu. g). O"os,~ (1888-1970) ~oS5~ e§vo5oiS!306:D !P"6boS:l ctIDo5~O"gJ!3t'JJ;6 ~~o~ ;:6oc3ifo o1xl;fu;;)c5s~ '~~ oS:l504lS ~~6-;61i" @o;60f\S01i"00e.

~iV" ..JOJd;J t:'l~ dfu.;5~ dfu.;5S,e>&J ..J~ ~8~~~;iro @~, 2~!Jl g66Jo)~~ i:l~e>;i>S-0e.n~;ti). .5,ao~s,~ v~~g 26.$ ;a...;jr>;a..vt? @o!3e§o S"'.;5~o.;5Q oiJoLe§~ .;?<l;1@0

;;)O~~~.;Jltiboa. 1P"6~ctU e.u~ ~-seto :J cillJeJt>;JS, ,s&~§, @0t!--5"-?)$ E-s~t:)~ ~f0i)Sc5;) 3~Jlfe.kW. i\}O ~e"e.J~ f.96JrGe3t:S; . .;o.jq)-5" :fJJ;{;f!} §"6a5t1)e1:;J;{;Ja§rJOt:'lot3 @8 ~P5e;0 iJc.;jt>;So ~Le§;3,. .;5);{;:J ~oOJ.!0~ &6S.ffj ~oe..vo e.,st!3 a!f iJO.;5e,,;& P5J,;;J ;S.;:brSJ. 8).;:jq:) "'" 0»;;) 0 ~J.:s 8"<j}"OJ1':JJ ~oS?08or:u~~o @r5J~otbJN"'J;w, @tlJ.).;5qeJ ~aoffjd P5Jr:lE2~~ ;;5~e;o(jO ef,6,;5x)~o,;5e.,~ ~eJ tp"6e§i;J"",:J{J &~~!§Nd ~~ &.;5;;560. i56 .»);;)0 e,.,s g)rectU ~P5;;)eP 6filJf;6QJDlJ. @v.;5r:l i!5a @S"'.Jo s06 ~;;J ;;5;troDe§ ~;s~as @~eg o),P5~ ~d?~otJ. @ vP5;S~~ P5J0L~ X8::pi56rf ~s rJ'>KB$e§~ .;iJ;;Jo ;:rr>6;SJe;,;,i):J N_§oi5XwNeJI'oSlJ. @ru;;;Soe5 <JOtJ8Su> 0:r06;:S;;eJ.)l1" ~t;b>~'ffo~;S .»)n).ill.:lS rS.;5:ntJd .v;,v<>:J§ €!)~o.;:5,:);o ;;Jo:5J~Kwx;,@'o. @e.n<:60~

72

@~r;?c!1e§ ?l".;5;Sa rf;S!§ ~;sf!} e§a.§!;;J~(llia. @6~e.u. §"oC'ev, ..J~6Je..1" ~r:l§11 @dO§?,44

c;;

oSJoE) tJc:;S;6 tuoE) O)5~~~;6r.; ~l';S~O)6~oe. $~QOSciSJJVJ ol5.tO~rSJ @~o~X~M~~, O)5.gOo;6& @;fu!t5;6o ;6tm.iJo~ot'J~~ ;;J 0;;) I!),J g) s!b zy, em. ~ g) .t~ g) ~~v c:i$:};3:) N" ej;6,) .tj ~ ej 05 5.g!> Q ;6 e.l

(,j) ~ oJ e) a_ 0

~;;) ~a~eJe5" iJ<oem:D e)e5 ,;SJ''l6;;i, KJ5aiSeJ6~ot). 05d.g6C;;;Se;li6:J

.J.e} el <il el..... '

i)SeSJ.~oi:56a05~ ~f.lo~ q];5g;;J;6g ;:Jo~;:;)6eflae wae3 ;:;)5~O<:J'>;:5,)OoSo

Den ~oE) ff:h~tJC o56sOS!b~oe. t>'5Jotlti'o't:,(j ;ill.s£.6~'t:, dSxl~4lS6o aM o.'»~ oSJatl o)e.gSQrS<S:J ~o~oe~oe.

N"§~6 75 ~~. <:J'> ~~~6;;e.lJD, N" ~.;) ;:6~iS6;;W" ~J'6 i3~~d. s~~~ O)5.sl)~~.J6 [;jf>!3J N"rnl'U 6sce:J ~6:ljUl s;SaJ~&> e;~OD. ea cfuo6.:lJex! N"wKJ 6on"e.le ;6oa5g)~~Q)J. evstJ, ;furSJil,)1;) lj1"@.s ~Oill:::JOi:&, @e:3V;6 i:l<>~0"& .;1;fu;S, O'lJ'o6J\VJ, @e.lOY'eJO OSdl;K4lS

-~....., - is!'" Q"""".....a Ol OJ C"""1o f""") f.}:Q

e)twoet ;6~~ ~6Jjrn,6~ OS5.tO""'tL~Os-S 6tiJSJ rle) ;6aa1oQ"~

~~<6d. <fuo6J.,Jex!, ~;fu ose.wc:;S;;;ro 6ol1"'eJ~ ~;fu!fu Ke; ;6oeJoQ"et ;6~<Sd. ifubCSaJw. ~ .:fut>6JjVJ. ~6J@g)OOfT" oJc:$.:i,s56-KO)r\J~"'d..O" ®:D ~d'i:)~N'd.<6:l. i:l<>Q'>6rooTi'" oSdD;:5J8~e.n tiJ;:5,)~e; ~®S. ~;6@s ~CSJ~VJ !~~ eol&bo ;;);;.joal-~. S"~, ®el'l !~oiS~ tiJ';>6J.,)B~iV'> ~N'd..~?

0SJ;6~ i8"&ci3~rn, ;6:mp~o1!" OSJ~~®~~~§ ;6oeJol;JoDrS -B"~~SeJ,) ;;:s,..;;SRl!3 ~6~,SeJV~e;rSJ 4.5 006 66KefJe.>Jf1" oS~~eo~6J. ~t:5i5 ~6l'i~~ ;J"6J lfSi:S6:r>05 i2S~l1" ~VJ~OJ'd6J. ~ lfS~~;;S ~~.§:l a;o~;;;ro r&6.56~ ;:6jo5otSKID" ~Oil~o eobJ05. @O ~otS6l1", ~~~Ol1" a~botSl'ie.>JrbefJoe. ty>~ @5@~\o6<Srn ;:'5)6Jf)" eoeJ"OD. ~

a ~ 0

l;l~16l §Ov;6eJ"~§ ~~ 6S"e.l ~5.!!w ~Cfuof\~6J. @lo~eS oS6J;6no

®oSe.n[iO~ @&O"Ul1i"~ rU~ 6~JWo.'»~Co ~O~'%~e1fuet r;J"f\e<6d_ ~~~ tSSCeJ @0.'»5~e;;fu l'U!loi:5;6J;6co, eJ"56~01i" a~ cSe1:t,s056on" e<6d. ~O<OOQOv<6:loe, ::J6cfb>v;fuct'eJbo5J<61:&a oSo6[l eoeJ"OD. ~ I:SS~;6

~ ~ ~

l~~ ~~OSJ:O~&<fuo ;;);;:'""a.lOrT" ttlo~a;S~ 8,5 ;;§6JJ~oS~o;6~, e:l:JD

73

74

<66i!Jo;;J60"~ 2J~zy'~ ii3~. e!3d5JrS e~, 0:00"8., ~o8, ~eJJru, 'aob~f..Jff' ;:J;jS ;sa"b~ <;J"oJ.w ~~6Kf..Jo:,. (!9 &l"'oJ.f..J:6J ~6e1~oJ.eJ"X Q"O"ti"Ol1" ~~6Kf..J6J. SO~('l'>S, ~ciS.lrS ~otJ, ~.):O~ fu)O~rS ro&~ctlJ ElJ"'oJ.e.:o ~r:;o ;;3o:,JSJ~tSJ. ;:S6~o~~ 1991& ~Q"<Sc6JOll9, @~6:>. ®oJJ>~ 0-t30e i:l"eJ<' K~ @I~S ~cg6 ~f..J§":O eoa. GJ"l:S~a-to @lSS ;setiS~rS~ &;:SQXl$ 6<6..) (!9 ~l9;6)otJ eJdS)tJ;;56ac:s:o ~Q"~Oilol@' ;S6~o;;J6O"~ rS<fu<>Jfu. ®oe::n~('l'>;$;) ~~g (!9~S ~~~s cfu~~:5~ori<6" ~~SOilol!f'1T" aJ"os,6w ~05~ f:So~6-6E'df..J~ ~S"/So tSJ~OSf..J~oart" @I~:OOi:l"6:l.

@I ~~ ;6o;;,\~.6E'df..J<6" 0S:006:l1f> ~;(})!§J:i3~O":O§ ®;;S;:J/S~c6 O"ea~dS:l ;:SoSe.~~ cfu~~~ D'.~oFi!§J rS6lt:lo;;JSoc~ L;SQ"rScfuo@n-> ®o6~<6"ti:l. 1991<fuotJ 2000 O:OQ.~ ~/Sa @BS ~;;S~ c6KtDrS ~C"a§ 6<6"60

2)'"' Q -e) (jl

tS""'~rS ~6JriJOf.) ~:botJoEi. @C;§ ;6cfudilod [EJoJoiS :OC"cl5lle~/Sm

~;fu-o~.ao& ElJ"'/S6 @S~~o 6/Sc;trS lP>l9:00So ;;S~oi:S~f..Jlt:loel1" !!JIdS:li'S ~®c:)~ @It.J6lJ"tJS5 iiJ"el i1an::J .;)o!Jst3i!"Iil. c'Jo4l"6~ol1" Q"~.tfod S";:)O'St3J ~<l5e:l;6~f..J O"el§dSJt>f..JSJ g)6:>gOI1"t;§~!:lo:a tS6S 9,15. es 1~6J~€9 @')QOrScfuoL@l1" @t;)o &);;J6B ~ ~cm 6;5 ~6~ @QJ6~o lP>604)o{);6 ei"bdSJ @I~i:& 05B;;S_g,rS."6J, g)~6E:'1lrSJ §'"rS~t1o~6J. ed5.:1<S oJoe1 ~~g;;So6ofl" :ogoSJnf..J.) ~~g;Kf..J& 1998 ~~oe eaBt1rS ®E:'1l.J05B~ ;'JQ66~ol1". @~7\ 1999 ;& e:"'@ cfuOS 'gOf.)o-tJ e:leMi5"'~6cfuJ~ ;:SQ66~od ~rS:l 6~611" ~6";:5). iJoQ"6r:s earS~cSoa @lOtS cfu~6f..J~ .w..:D~~ qn;S~ e!3dJJ;6e.. @t!.»o:Jo~ cfu~;S .=JoQ"tlE9 C"e3§dil N"d))~f..J~ ~(lo~Ei 5"l:XJ_ g)g)O 65"f..J ..:?cce;c!i' ~(fu @b6 ID;;J6B .iJ"a:i~cmnoB& ~~ OS~t3~<6". ~ ~oS elBt1<6 iS6Jet ®~c<G.J>~ Sg)ej~p ~ .=Jot1<6 i!l~J~ ~ti" e~d:D .

.:Jt.Q"6E"iOoli" ~rSJOlJ.exl 60'5:> ;fr)l)cS.t ctiK'l6oQ §"~J. OSrSJexl ~tSso1&~ oSJ506 ~Korl"'. gSj50€9 61&3.7i" ::J6.s~o6Kexll'U6"6J- ao/:S)~ ~~~lStJ o:r>tSJ .;Jc~otJ;S @<fu<l5o:Jo, @.>Sno;jo;6 @o~SJ ~tSUOlO. tiSdSJ~-tJ

75

~e:50Y'~!SJ ~Oil Q):::J~1:S:l Q)~ rtjoEhit:Je5rg~:me. S"tl, OY''If. -5"6;:S~r;;o

Cl ,..,

tWB ~i!¥'6,)& 6f?!J£Ol':ItiloeJ)oe.

~~rI~OIi" <J" g)~dSJ:o:::J~, ~C.so!§~ s,o).Je:, ~~ ;;:J" @;;S~ ;;;)oJca3"a"'voSJ ;;yt»&~rS;:m~~~;fu. t'!l0'~ ~~o e~o~ ~o<!1i" s,~1::D e3~.I00'J0J"8" ~ ~;6tq6.5Oilo~ 5lQ)Jelj ;vo s~a"'~~~e @~!l:o£J~;6J..ea.

~;;:5 ~~;5Liio& :D;:5~a. 6t)J~~.ilY>

r5~.s6j) @8 ~;;:5·li as_,..~ll<3?;;:5Ja

D0:56S, :rbflaa. ~(!§ e.,~tiJ!

iES~e)OC"K.lSO .t:J"0'" g)c:s.~e.D dQ~<Sd.E.l. 6";6:0 .;)t$Jr\.;e:b;:)d_ §"'~ Gil~~Ui [j";S:o 1i6oe ~i'J;66(jJ.Jo;fuob,s}>6~~;fuob ~6JJsS~tlO ~tSeD~Ci1J"~. a~ ~tl:lJ!3J~ ~e.:a iJ"0' 'r'Soe:5~v& 6;tieJooli" eo~o:o. r;;& a,si) i5fu ~tJ'>v;6d~~~:'J:!! @~S~ri" 6"tm ~ti~e.:o i5c\S.Jd'~~B~<SrScl epc;;S;6 @tg;;S~lboe. tlsG:fSn"e);fuot:) ;;SCS.t ~6~t:a t3~.;6 <fu<6:J~eJ ~~d5:Jo& ae iJ"V" 1J~ ;::SGilc:SS' r£:l6~ ~ID ~oase§,J&eJ& ;6);fuQ'Xle.:a iJoQ"'6~oli" ~@ f!!l@. ~~ ~6~~S"~C"~ ~atl"~ ~~~eocco. @cmi!§ ;fuo~<6J rtj~K.loBiiJ'>6o~ ~o~, ~ee ~;fuSJcW" a,!3~. ~;6;S ;;S$~~O"tt iOa:Jol1'" ;cP~.s~@;66o~ ~a;;:J" eoC"? ~;6o 0il;6 W'"BS~~~o5J~~ 0:0;6 l{l;;JbE:<l ~~~bJ. ~O' g;~asiSJ,} @0"r1, ~;6 @05"0"[>c:1 05J;;S~oSJ"ii3S &tl"& ;;5$J

<i:l6J~ ~8~v;fu~W" ~f(~sSas6:>,}

;;)Cfiy> Q)e~,~~ :;3;6:) @9~;S~c5e'JS..)4So8 iSJc~e,y.:::JE\ @eJOY'~ ;;Jt;;"ifu. ~llPsoli";6;fud_ e~el<i:leil @;fuq! ;6;fud_~;fu :::J~Kd.0 B;J,~o~ eowi:560 @ocl:l§"sso6E'01o. O"~;;)f9~as~d' e.,s ::e;5~~OS e~;6aS~~ O'J'" .fr> 0 e 0 is" GS' a e? ;3 ~ s,) 6- oS ;::S ;t).) dl.J 0 ;:s wJ a i:J" !6J. <8'" ~ c:rl'v 0 ("i'" 6J.>~O~OiSIDC ~[lS"oS<J"':'J.l ~ow&J6~ot:StSod SJot:;'" ;;:J" 9"00 ~6J.J ~eJ>c6:l. ~s eJ~o ®oc:il!il<Sd._ ejO"Se) o:ofS>~ f)~O <S~d_;;3jlW ~~~<!S''!Q'\~;:::a..o~oe. ®8 ';)Q:lcSoi!56orl e."S ;;S6~B"ES'io:Y>S:l6J ;;J6se§

Q)~.::-y ~ . . . ./. ~ ~

~~O"~. 3cs.,~~!:l I!!! ®~ej cle'J-o"S:::Jd_ t:iY>~ e9;::So~~ ~<Sd.D.).J

76

;)S&j ~;:Sd._ ~5"s ;:6Q.Sll;5J.6 <B·~1:'io @)ej&! &aeotl<S9511" ~otb:lo&. e)~o ;5<6:ls eJ~!O§ L;:;Sd:.UoeolO§'>i'S~ro&o~ eoeJJoe.

i\l" oSe1§. ES:J~od' i\l" ;::SJe:lN"ejJ~~S:l ;::Sgj"~ . .;);;Sye:&Jo IDd.'nIb~oa t1~0J:l. 6£"BbeJ 61:'iIDQ;)O& @l;:6~s6~;5, ;:;0& 0'il:l~~~;6 :J;;J.d5J"e3~ ";;)Je~;:;Sjl~ 6e3~iiJu, N"~ocl:l rtj~~)i~~~~, <J"'s~ ~r:l~s6~;:S ®~S"'5"e)~ ~<S:Jl6~~ <:i~0l). ~<fu ;J;;J,:l~soSj>6 r;; ;;);0 ~@~<J" j @ c;SiO ~i\l" @~o6 o.'5.n~~;6 ;;J:'J11" ~eJiSJ~oS~;o§ @Jd)).BJ.0W>;6,). @tD& @0J'>(j (re.1955) i\l"&> ':JoI1J rtj~ ~o' O"ODoiSeJ'o!O§. ~O"~ ~~goJneJJ ~oeJ;;J~6:l. .;)Ocl:l!:lo~, ,;);;SjlCJ ~o O"o:l:leJ'=>!O§ ~1:'iJJ~ @o6s~ oSD~S@~o.J;fue:J~ @"B;;)e aSJ.>. lJ"6(jJGJ o:ss(,.c6'gJ~;;SeJ~ <stiJtJ. 9 61;5)<>:)".:) ;5<6:l ~t)6 @5<'iDB'S:::J§ ~Q";5 ~~:os t6eJ~O"I:S:ln" 2J"0S.:§V) ti;:;s~s ~r5J ~ <610 B~,~~ ~:'Jg ®6~o6 ~~;6S6:::Ji:5:lJ~OtbJo ~ ;;):',) ilas:,~:'J§ ;6~ j~ ~(jfi"e>JJgBOSdo fuJtSeJJ@~ifu. <aoedS.Y> :le:l£)-2020' @f}~& ~~eC$.)!;§)<s,a. @;:;S'V1:&J~!fu ~a3"1O!:l :l~c.l5JO&

- l'¥'I- Q Cal.: o..r a..... 61"- .. 1""""1

~.dh~.0"a:l5 (as .. 1943) S"1:'iScl'i1n" ;;J:'J ~~occo ~O' @oCS:l§"~

S"~£;;iO.

;.1;6.:) 70;;5 ~tJ L;;:)j-aot:lrS liw;;5 l;;:)Q";:S<.))oLu @tle) l).;JS5 ,;jOe:li:.o::o:'J sVlb L;;Sa;l',j6~ ;;Sa.s;;x,;fuoEl ;;Sc)~ g)1:'icfueol ildXltJt>iOg @;fuOSJe:9o..-:5;5e)~·ot')ri'" sS~i&l.. @l<J'd :)~~~t:l"'Se)c;OO<>:::J§ .~~ @lS2-rt3.. g)~~GJ"B"';;)6£'a,o& i\Y" .e;J_~~~o f{(1; .iJoe1;6J_ @S"o~iO ~dS:l;6§J aIDcilJ~.:Jo;fu. ;;§;fu ~t:Jo{);:S W~ g)a:JctiJ.>oo~ tleio& e;.!:i~ai:S:JS"~, t96)~ .K~o{)rosOl)c6~;6fJ, s:roe5;:) iSSl/i'" ~6;S6JK[)FI;606J~ ~;6.:) :;:5o&'~~;6d.;;S.Jej§. 90S Cl!lCloB'" ri6~;6:;) :'JtQ))oiS:JS:lN'd;;))' ~o:lJ K~S"eJ ~d';6ob:,c3 .;)OS2;;:J" ~oejS"oo ~g)~lil? ~~;;§;fu :lQoiSJSJ<:k 2J"45e§n" o:bJ~&J"'1:'i~c:ISJ~d~v;6,) 6F\Ooti t.~-iso& ;;So5JderY' oJn~"8"eJeJ!3J ri}i~o, <iJoi:S"8"eJ :Jl':l"l'~eJ& 'r'So<P"~c:5JocfJo~c3e.J:)~O';;5). rtj o)~.to~

-e) (j) ~ e.;;

~ i\J1> ~~v~ So©~BoO"o;fu!3J~~ ..

';)C} a..s ~.JS&, t;ifp.~& !§Jcl:lI;5)!;§):::J ~6JrY' ;;s:',)t'5~oa 6<6;;5)0':; ;;§~ i\Y' ct~~ jC; @o'6"v!b6!3:l ;;))io~iS:l. o:ID!pSDnn dSllcS660, gj"tJ

77

.. ~~1SoKo~ ~S, @;:Jel) 03b5 ';ill,JSO ~~6~vo& iJoo~oiS)eJ ®O<15"ej!fu ;:6;jro~eo~~oo~ ~~o i§dilKeJ;;jI> egg) !!!Iet:JOiJ"';:$J. ~1ilJg;;;StJ~~Cl e..~ ~,o6S'"e)~.9;;S~OfDKl l{i:"oiSco ~cSel)~~;:$J. ~c5J ~6JJS£<>5v~OI5 ~~ 0"eY'~c13oCSg)6e.urS:l~~.

Cg)~ e36J5 0'S:l<S~~...:. 'O"~~ .Jes oJes~ (1902-1994) ~S"60 e.,s ~:O~ 6;6 as:)6soeJoe7 .0:O~~ ~<S:i:l~ cS~eJKJoC" L;;)c:rlJ.>~~6. @'le cS~&~ e..!'3 ~;;S~s - ~~e9S fJO~:;:5o eotlJoC'J.40 ;fu)cSe3 CS~ &~ ~~;)O& ;:So:;:5,o:§.Oe. @5 ~~;:s ::Jt1"Ele1~ ;;SO~::Joi3 ;:Sot~O. @S(,.~ i6<fu<.JS ;s~so:oA, 19oJ;6.toJ_S'".:oA <fu0s. 6;6 6~6;6 S~lWeJ<SJoe.; ;iS~&!:D 6~.JS£oS~~ ffJoe?~rJ'" Clb>6on" ,@!c~~Clgy.6on" @~~oiSr:"':O§ -5~~ i.3<fuJ,ElrF @eJiiJ"t!,))oJ~6"cl:l. .;)oi:fuso~, @;;).,)6S"';ib <>J~ ®6(!;§ 5"06 g)tlo6 ~6.J66:Joe. @e:l"'~IDQ5)e ~::J6o& e9~ ;;Soi:5eot:Sr:"'~ !;b;>C" @6l$J·c!!ia~oiSKe.uK:li3"C::l. -S~~ OSJ;;Si6Je? ;;S0$:lJ!'30 IDeJO~ :J6.J6~o~. @;S;6~#o ~6J66:JotJ'C @;3E,) @6;tJ& ~~~~!SJcj @ 6~A 0S:le;5~ aoe ;;JOIDOO h~6<SJro~ aotJJoe.

;§.:a~6:ad' (1-3 ;:So<>5~JoveJ<fu4lS) :JOJE ~oSJoe9§ - ~;6l?J§ ;:Jot<l5o ~dilo@Ja~~. ~rR ;:;Soc5~v;fuOs ;:;So!\5.i)~oe. 6a 6$& @I ~~OJ"CJ 6i6§:) ~66:>e) ;:S;;JSd$)o @';;s;;S6~. 8"0" @:O l;S-B.loi$)s:.otJ'>6.

~~~ ~e5"69eJJ~ ~ §"~ ~.s60L6~o ~~6~6oLd.JDJ .0V" L~®,;S.J0El~d:5d. ~:Oeo~ g;,rgoii"d oS~!~ L~¢'oSJ 6""~"5~OJ ~;;:D.:JtJo5J~ g»cm.

a.eijy,< 6~6ol¢:>eJ ~@;;J.J06;:S :06J~;;J.oslSo11D eoti ~~03b6 6;6 ;:SQJoa3~~ ~;6.9;:S!i5:l §~~iSJj§'l05tlo ~CSexl@66"~. a.s ~;6:)<>J;n;!);:5:)o~ ~Iil~ L;;S~;SJo6~e.uj L~.;;Sgi5o:l @<6Je;f05oel1;QD;66o& ::Soc3aJco ;;m6eJ~~oB. ej;6 iSJ~clloa ~65l"(fv oi:oolr'~e;F, .ii3;6go~V'"

e.J CJ"""

leSoS~o66ot:SJg:i:l ~eJ5l"C:I :o;!\;;:n6~un6. ~ <005JauoesO ,~eJ;J"'8&

~ ['I"') W--ftJ; Ii"o"j,

,6a~ ;:Joc5;;J6~ei~6o~e:ll L~~oS. ~o6~~ .rS~Q"r5oSlSi:5s~~ @e

~~5l"e,& <'t5os,..oWt1;:s~, ;fuo;:S~!& ~oB~ C"ae~oe. S"~;:So6~~ ea' ~dSJoeD ~~6S"e)o :fr.>6Jruun ;;S:O~~~ ~otJ'>QJJ.

'is

S"IDzy'eJS'8"e,)o& (3-5 rSo;5~.JO"<ill~) t5"ISQS~, @;;SO"~ zy'GJ":Jf. to~s ~ot!\5o ~a~6JoB. 6rS§ ~6e,)~:O~. ~~;;J" oS<ille.u i5dS:ltJ<>g)§ 6f\~ ~~~o e...;6~a.o6~ <w~ot:J<6 BJ"e.uciJ, ~o't:;& !eJoS~oi:ld6"6. S"~~a rSo5Jcmo& ei;:S S"~ tSv;6 ~;6c;Jie)oScg. ~;6l?Js ~;;S.;o;Jie);;S~ ~e1OJ"CJ §,ow6' @Q)oo" qJ"iil"~~C" "@oiil!ilo~ciJ.· ,@ ;:S;6c6:lo6'

,."

'i5~~ISS:l ~a~o6orF clJ~~' ®:5cl ~~ ~6,:ySp~~oe.

5-11 ~~ o.SJc;i~S"e)o& (~:6J j~;6cl 05:0& j~o6056~ rSq$eJ~~6.J~;6,)' ®<SJ l;;)~ 6a~fijoe. ~~;:r>6iiJo(5iO"eJQ ,;)V'" ttlotD~6;6J.e @6:::J @~;6~~:O ~i&6l&:l iI"~~oe? ~Q"lSl;ij)oi1" @G'J @es:a~;6~~QS;S~, §~;;St:. ;;S'K'l~diJ~g)~, ;6)o~ ~a~ ;:So~IS<4~' ~ 1:$ 6F:d 0 r? ~ go eJ a &;;3 £l rg O!" a @ §) L~d5':?eJO::H)vG'J K cg ~ 0

:ibJ6v~ Pilo &.

S"~ISCS~ &i~e;o U";;m a~6:>eJ~ ~:JOOi1" si6a:J~~N'd.OS:l~ C"::.:J§ leJr;l";:SOrF ;;JOIDO~Ow eoe.:noe. r16o&. 6:5 ;6~oe B;:S~ 6J<>'~ @~~ QSt:)J;6QS~ :fu:l~§, a66JeJ~ 6"~,oOoli" msl,'l;;S~6J~~ .~ ~&~6~ ;:ID~!fuo 05J41~ rSerouei1::6d.oJJ1~ ~~iil"8& ~6.Jo ::J~@v:og ®68 !l!'lQ)t>oS"6;6.n~ rb~li"G!ob:JOe. 11-18 ~~ 05J~FJeJotJ eia~ ~['~o ~Q9;;SOi1" Bi6 <>5~§.ss ;:m~~ §";6,) :06.s~otS~eJ~<S ~o~S W'Q$tj~ ~4 6a~ eoQ)oEl.

;fu:O~ cS03Joe3;:$Ji:i>~~SJ>ocj &~6~C (18-,34 ~o~6,:)O"el)) d'e QS.,;fu~eJ& ~ISJ6.:DWK[lt1 ;;)0;:6..)6 ~oa:JoQ"eD 6:5 aJ"'eJ~S"e.J~ c6~~;:s ~;;S~~:O§ @fi~o11D ro~<»l&OJ'Q.}). cliloS.s:5oC ,@OJi'U ~~eiJ~ ~~,Sl"CJ @o60"S" ~;:S<fu @oeo ~~~:J cl3::6cl ;:S~~~ rooOJ~v;fuoe g)e~a. aB1ileJOS .eg)D"~ ;-;Soi$)~oS~g)~ ~dS:lud~6 @QJJ~ ®Q);6oe) ;;56IbBC ~~o& ~oa:Jot;l"e:ll 13J6.:lIilS"<Sei ®6~ to6e::l" e.,o~Bi};:So&13

Cil

~5i)6C& L<»;;S,r>6oS:ro{;i" c:306. @c!.DoSoe5 t;S;.Syo60 ~~aJ"e .e.eY':O§

i'SOIDOOOi:.l bLoS rS~<6se,)!§J 0"6(91" ®;J8"·$o &o6.c3;;J6:oA., ;fu;:Si'SJ§ ~~ 6e5~ ;:So~qp ~ 6~ 6"0'}'>S;, .:6:u~S eJa&lo. 16<>5 .a'6"~ @t5a5. ~g) 2:3"5 6!5' (1572-1631) @~~.

79

~~Q:lO~~ 60S:> ~;Qb6J ,;)tJ @o&1itJ ~t'UejJot). S"~, OJOtf &6D'S~D

Q M l""J 0 ,......

@a ~6"CS:l& 6f\fi'}o::o 6.rOe.!lotl.

o

05~K6on" i\? g)05.dSY>;o§"~ ~d~p~Nd ~OSjJ~ i5~ iV" (!!)GS~ ~~~e);;:D .0!il.},.D'S tJ~~<fu. ®eJ"~ ~~o t!l~o6 ;;moen" ~~ a;;:D. ~QN'i3" £a cfutJ~D'S.:Jo6" ElQ)J~ iV" ~g)6"~GS~& ~aIDoID<S;6d.e.

~n5 o1J~jLeio& ci1J~j,a 6~~"?ol~

;;)i!s~ f!!J8 05;~~ 05Jv~~r§~a

;:)~6~ t:bl1va d5JPLei e...!f&l3!

iig)60C";o~a W"e)" g)~e:o ~~~~.lEt ao~ .06:>ruejJ~d. §"~ cfuoSJ~e,)J 6"oS.:n K~o& ~~~ 6OSjJe)iSJo£l, ~tS.iJo~;6)otJ;;§1)jJ~Q')IDO :fu)~eri~l::\6"6J. ~eJ" ~IilJSJ~ ~e:o iJ"eJ" ~oci~e)C CS:l6a)e)0fl'> eoeJ<>cm. i;:)cj a.,~e ~@ bO"e)t>.,)_ ~~0J6;o§ (!!)4?s~rl" 6"oS.:n ~tS~e.n acfur.f.?~~a~t>;sd. ~D'S~ (!!)~OS6efuoe. e&~ri"e)oSJoD DJci!:l g)~f."il ~~tJ ~~~e) g)Oid5Jod" ~E'l iJ"U" @~ c6GS:lc6S' e§g)ei~ GS:lV ~oD'S6J~e)& cfuiSJ~e..u ~Q"6£<1Q(1'> B~ ®a ~~ ~6.iJoe.n §"gtJb~ teJaW"~ a.s~~eorSco. @cma ~IilJ<fu e9~Klo:aOJOtSo~ 630t), OJ"5~ ~iSJ~O' a.,~~. ~~D'S D'S~GS0J6O"'et r,)~Orl" "O"-e'.s6@;SClO~ ~.e(\jD clloC"? cfut>o oS:>rS ~a~ ~~~o;;~ ~rS t6cjof."il ~GSJ~~ ~c;<' g>~D'S~J' @eJ"R, D'S.:JrS @~S"0"bJ, D'S.:J;6 ~~eS~ ;PC"~ Q')~J ,;)6J;;J) ~a<&e);;:D~W" ~fi"~g;05i5JJ-

.;Scil.Y> ~e~~~ i5~ @"O"Q')~~e')~..)~o~ t'5Y>~t!.J'>:O§ ®e)0J"~ gS~<fu. cS:n!llSOf1'> ~<5JJ.. e,~~DS5a ;;');;:D~ ~~.l ~oSJ ~D'S.:JKJ..0 a~i&:lo~ eocco e!loCS:l§"~ S"tS~o. 0"~,;)~~055& B...S e§05:e.g)Q~ e5~;6D'S(\jD~ 6JCiJcoEJoiS ~od' ~;s ~\~.D'S c6 ;fr:,o:).:lO ;;.'3 ElJOiJ";6J. -3"~d5"ol'l" 6.:P~oeot:5ID~ ;;m..VS"05N">~.l ~o{) ~~oi:Sco~ ~W'l NO SOe)O ~()),S@~;S,,- a.,S e)~o (!!)06:l~~ ei0",56 D'S.:J5"~ I!)~O t6;;3d.OSJl~ C'l;~t(y>~e~oe.noe. @lE'l ..Je.nD'Soe60~ e...1& Q)tl.s6"oO~§Jc$ OS6.s~ <e~0"~ BIil!3.:>~~ .~ @~~ 6eJ~~ i:SJt>~ ~<SoE:l~eCS.lol.J~ ~

76

tJS&~ erSd_ GS:l~~ ~D'S.n<6d~ .e!poo @6~ ~eoD;695l'l" eotx>oEl. e)~,o ~;::OS e)~g,)§ @SCIS:l<>~o §";6~t'U~~ <'lloe.noB.

N" oS~ eS~6Q& iV" ~e')~iV"P)JSI!5!3J ;()0Jb~ oJoljJCJo IDcfue;:;<fuoa. oS~Q:l). 6'8"~ 662:lE. oJod'@~~!&6@~, ;;JaW cfu:l~S~~ g)~CIS:l<>o~ .;};SJ~SgSJllfrJ ~a~eiJ... iV"D'S.no~ @g)~6~~~t iV"S~ ~~~s6~rS ~iS~'i3"f);5J @;5Jt6~~, 05~OJJ. ~oSJ c0DSJ6solJ6 ~ ,;)~ a~~N", ~ oJ~ .~N" @6so6 ~~S~i6 DS~l'l" oS:>e)i:D~0'5eJ<>~~ ~d.'SJed0iJ";;5;J. @C):)ffi aOY'e (re.1955) (\jDfi' 'g)ol}J e9~ ~o' O"OJJoiSt!.J'>Kl§ C"O"'~ i;:)a~.iJotx> ~otl;;)O'lfrJ. ..Jo6:lSo~, .0OSjJlfrJ ;&0 O"dSJeY>g)~ !3JaC):).YJd. ®op)s~

~ -

~~S@rS ol<fue3~@~;;)E. cSJo ~6gS:OO)S.},.~ ~eg05e)~ D'SBJEi. @ 61il0J<'6

~~ ~tlei teJ~6':;P§ teJ4l"rS ~~KlS ~f)0J6C"6Jl'l" aJDQSf§e,)J BDStgs ~<S:l ~ DS~ ii~Nd..sS 1JbKl~ @l6s06 @'>4l";6S6Kli$)Ji&:loIDJc C!!I ~:tl tSdSJe.:roKl§ ;:Sifud~;6:) ~5Fi"rn..)gSGSl&o ~:x)('Srn@~ifu. '~oeas;,.. :led~-2020' @ '&?iJ"6!_ 6J.I~Ei6JSJ;:S.la. ®fl.Jc$ to"!3J ~~g)!3 g)oS_oiJ.>q! ~.®~.O"re;'5 (re.1943) so6S6f?dn<> gSg) B<9loCCo ~C" ®06:l§"~ 8"6£<10.

;;3<6J 700'5 ~fJ 1§S~.soDrS oOe:l"rS L;;JQ"i605JoLe@f:)e) &)~e OJ"ediJOO):o Sl)f;) lole;l'Jei.s ~e..sifu;fuo{:) OS6!:l g)6iSJ~ iidSJ<!J'>Kl§ (!!)<6Jio~ot:5;;5EO~oEJ11'> g50"~. @~ g).e.sg)1Jb~I!)dS,y>:O~ ~~ @lS?/;' g)C"~<iY'6"0'56~0& OJ" ~~~g)6 a 11l& .i{oe>;6d._ ~S"o~;o @ci5JrSsJ ~md5J~~ifu. ~ifu ~~o{)rS §"~ gja'J.d5.Joe)o~ rl6od' aS~a6:l5"~, ®Qj~J.. K~oD~OlJ;6;B;:S~, Q:lOe3:O i:SS6-rI" iJ6~6JKVF\;6oCSJ~ ~;6,J ;:,)O&~~i6J_;;)..)e~ ~S @608" 716;&rS:O Kl~cmo.:n!il~. ~oSJ K6S"v ~a5;60!:b~ cJoS2.~ oJ06sovo e§g)~6:l? iV"1!;e<6J g)4>o.:5J~;:Sd 8J"OJ)6n<> cl:1D;;5~6®d1i ~cid5:1ce)i6:l 6f'1VoB e~.:iso~ ~OSJ~en" ~til"O"e>e)!3J SJSD'SeJo ~6~e) g)~6Je>~ ~o~~o~tJo ~tSe:o~t!.J'>~. e9 ol:ot:b6~

, -e> Ci> - e..l

as (\jD ~!§P~d ~0©S50W"e);;:DSJ~;fu.

i;:){j a,s Q')e')s6', e~~& ~t:Uci:l!3J:O ~1ill1" gSmj~oc ~-t<6Jo! ~;fu r;y> c5eJ~;o io ®o'8"v!:b6!3J OS:l~oiJ";fu. ~~S01i" dSJJitJ~6o, OJ"5

77

~lSJ~o~~ ~!;S~;0at!l sP6£J ®oib"~. .,ea ?Jo;;s:,~ell o."D~~e3g}~od &'DCi-lfet_ 6,s6no~ ~~~,O)J. S"iJ S"eJO rie:,i3§"~ ~oSJJl::)r,., !~~cm. 70 ~~ rJ"'e5;;S e)/:S).W"~ ~ !_F:ilil ~e t;);fu~e"o~ S;:)~~oe.

..,

oo~OS ®ooJS Q)jo~~S ~~~~ qD<6/5:F<.J @l~i'i" ~e»~~6:i. {§a ~~ ;.s;jt>~'Ib~ ~;6)~e)~O S"S, ~tS:lJsSOS~o!orJ" • .o!&'iI.DJC" @t;!"Ot:J~ ~2:3. ~~a:lD ~tici'lY>v!&:J O"/'l.vrll$o, g):J~ 5S"v ~Orltilv;fu4; ?Jo6e1~l&

6;'- Q Ell if. !:b

~el)J!?rle;lrido, 6""6J,.S oS~B~ :J~{'Jo6rivriQO oJoe5g} ~ \&:l~'

c:50e:lO~ow<6 i:)o~~e.u. a.eJi;l;;Joeo ~cfu~el) ~~o GJB~.JoOot5C;oS~ ~.;5JJt.Jl1" @e[)oD ~se3oi5Co.ta6 1;:n~J6-oJ @Q"6Q.)6~OJ:J. {§a ~D'5:l9;)f).) OSa1>;;s.,&~~,S"e)o Ke,i3§"~. oID!P~Orl" 60 ~~ ;;Sa1><fu OSBJC"S", Gl~~ 3olS:J~~ cJjo~OX!.i5;:S<6.:l~ot!.Jo;6:), a.~c6oeJ c6.T0i6lbs ~oSJ~o ro;;J>;>J.p'" oil;:)~ @;6 gr>:JJt:f O.a5"~g t:;§6:l§J~C"S"~C" ~60rr>~ eo~o6:O. ;oi)~ ~Q"<6;6Jo~e.:o ~.g).;66~o<JSU"~ (1921 - 2004), @tJ~ ID;;JSB OJ'IaJ iJcm (es, 192 4)eJ& seJlb <6~i3Ib;;S;;S.J6:J W"e§tJ.>c6oeJ c6Ja;;S~s ~oSJ~o ~~f)O~&~~ i5to KD'5:lrJoQ";6:).

19'9 8d<Jor;a.;;S;6d_"1"~ ~l?~ g}~g:)t:l"Sv~~13 ~~t;J";;S..Jd)1"I" ~ci$.)g)JoiJ"'6u. ~;;So:J.J~ g). alJ~. ®6JtWi5eJo~ SID~ ~Q";;SoS.;ot? S"OCSe.K:l5",:O§:ij.~;6:).®($)~i5eJo t:J"'l3~ oIDOtSJ ~QD16D'5:lol!213~~:O:!:i <JeJQJsO"tiJno ;;J:;)i3'6"t'iJ. @d5:l<6& ·s~ ~;6:) ~Q";:S;;Dol!" 6~6;fu0e. ~e;.£6,e;p ~lillsSeJorJ~ ~~~.®~Soe§ tD~i!~· @l~~otOOE;;S @ le'Q"~~0~ trJo ~~a~ iSJv~ ;:3;;:0 6~1i<il6orio~ tJe.we;1<JD 1~~ .;)o6.:lC:S~ ;66~}@~C:Sv~ :;){'j.)o6~cf'i"C:l.@o6.:l~f'i"<6.:l .J~ ~6ca"el);SJ:.;;)Ji!5g i3rS:l OJDe5 ~ C"D@e5 ~ 6 2 ~ 'If ;6d'5.:l;::.oiS,) oSJ<>@~ @o6.:l!&J 6"6 Ii<il a rI"

<!) ,....,

is.Y>:';oW''~. ~N"c6JaeJ ~oi!OJ;:SJ.oS.J1il ~Q";:S;fuoL~ e§:6 c6d5:l~ 8 0 ~~~

t3~ ~ oSd'iJ1J,fu .;.now~e§og:) ~~.) :6;6Jd. ~o6[)o[)~oe§ ;;5;:) ~.s<'6J. @O"ii~!31 u5f\ e~&~el) a3Joa056SJo ~:fu 1S~E"a ;;5e,gliQ::S @~oSe19' ;6o~ @'lzy:6 ~tSs~~!&:Jefl"§,,;:S~fI b6;6e)~<6cj;:Sg;) &_e..utb6 U"~~t$. a.S~~6eJu~§ ;;5)<3to e!isg)6Q))oo. ~<fu 70 ~t CSo5Jtfu ;;J:QJo6oS6~

es 4&Srlo~ ~;S~no;SJ.

74

;:St:5~o0J6TI"~ .IDo.YJzyoii:to ~~, @o),;6 tl!~, oS:lO"~, ~o6,f§e.:or'U, 'ao~v& ;:S~ o:Jo ~c, ~G:t1;Xl ~~cKf!.)I:SJ. @ r.:l"G:te:>:fu ~eie12,.'Y'G:teJ<'K Q"'O"'lfono ;5yo~cKeJl5J,. @O~rl"~. @ci5J;:S @oO, ~.,)~ffi:. ~6~;:S g)ot~dSJ iP"G:te.u !:boW" ~t:5JJ!&J~6:l .. 16t:5~o;:;j6C"~ 19916' ~Q";:S;;5)olfJ @,..."i'!""tD. @oS'nlil a~oej iJ"0' ri6:J ~5S o&IDei ;;:Sv,§";o eoO. a;Foeio;a'o

.~~ ~ G Q ~o

@j~S <65OS~<6S:l &<6OJJd e§oJ.,) @ ~st'SJol) IDo),eJo:JCB6rJ .~Q";:S;fuo~

;S6fuo<JSU"~ ;:S~,tiJ. @otSJ~ri":fu ~~6 @5. S ~~iSei. ;;5)~);y.~~oFi<fu

IS -O'il ~.-" e.

tI!!l~S;fuo@~ aJ"Q~@e;o aoS~ ;:JO;:J6-6E;Clf!.)~ ~~6o iSJtgOSf!.)fuoO~

@l~~O tJ"t:5J.

@eS;6o:6&OE;Clt.l~ o"mo6:l~ b;:5)l:i:J:;)~r..?:'J§ @oS;:S6e;:S C"al§o:b ..sOS~"'J~ ;;))ge1l~ W"'.fuon!:b ;:S6fuo~<Q) ~Q"<SoS.:Jo@rI" ®o6~'5"6J. 1991;:iloO 2000 QJ:,e;1~6' 2,.'Y'oei @~s 0Ss;6~ :6Kbl;:S ~W"'EJ§ 6-'S"~0 t5":0.:?<S "@l:SJriJ6eJ ~~oDoEJ. @a ;6;;))~od @loJoiS :OO"~~!S6£<ll jO'S:l"ts~o& zy"6® @J~~.:p e§6~<S iP'BtolSso ,;6~oiSoJeJ~oon" @d5:J<S [2S@;;J@~, @eJ.e5 [j;:jSe GJ"a3 ~Clll::l .;)o~~i8"tD. ~6F:ilo11" ;:;l"6t!i6~od ~16c6i3J ~~a3<6.§f!.) C"a3g<1iJ>:>v~ =s= ~~~oi§;;)6S 5\0. ss ,)jt:5JDJ"e) ~Q";6~o@rl" @eJo [);;565 DJDe:l~OJJ eiCS Q);o6,s ~~@!P ~604)owCS aro.f9dS.J(!;ge~ 056;;56;6.;6.),. ~<:5 6wifu ~;6~f1oW"6J. @di1;:S .;)oE$

q) -.J) ~

::l<:5uooJoeiOrl" :ooct).jt>w a~g;Kvc1 19~98 ::'@o6' eil51\16 @E'OO;;JBS

~ ~ . -

;:Jot56a'l0~' @eJ"'A. 1999 fu aa=,E QJ:,~s S"eJo& 2:3ef1;66"~eJo:m~

<Jot5~o& ;;3iiSJ 6~6n" is.:!"i8"iiSJ.. @ooQ"OSil 2:3;:S1£S050& ~t56 ~~1:SeJ~ ~i5:J!fu~ q5:J<S6; @Q'S)<St'l. 1!9tn;;JofJ 6CSJ.CS ~Q"6t<l ~e:9§Q'S) iO"d5:J~e)!fu v~oi55 S"tSJ. ~g)1;S oS'V-;?C"eyf} ;;316:> @eJ.eJ ID~e C3"re"tcmrl"tJ&" !&D~ ;;s:Ja~16J, ~~Q~ aot3F\16 t:S6J~ @:0.J6;;S.J6.'l !3g)~o ~ ~f\;:S t:S6JI;Xl ~W'" cJjN'd,c:lll.

~Q""6t'Gori" ;;$;J;6.)~exJ ,)jOSJ ~ID6-t cll~~o& §"~d.. OS;;:Oe)J ~~os~ oiJeo@ iSXol1", ;;))50~ t:5l3J_oP ~::lI:5~~ot:Srie;oro6"6;,.51o~!il ~~.Th6~ OJT>OJ ~~oD16 @<6.:lo:l;6o, @oJr!";Jt>;:S @06Jl§J S"'6wo. OSd5i,::lJd'

76,

~tSQJt>'!i!&:l ej;fu oSiODt5:l ;;)e., @oEfff;6 ejru~ot). so~, OJ"~ 5"tloS~W"

Q ~ ~ 0

@c:3 ;fut>aoCu& 6f\!iJ&cw eotxloe.

o

o)~K~ono i\l" g);;)_d5JciO~ oJJotl.so~Nd a;;).J~ ~t5:l tv" <!9O)~ ~oJ<.!SD6"e_)<6J .J§:JJ.;;) ;6oSxlJ.~~' @e1'i1 ~~oec6d..oa ~oe,T1" s.~jllfu ej;6,. eJ;;Jtl.l'5" ~ Oll;;S~S,s;fuOB" a~..)~ tv" ~g)6"41~& ~®IDoay<sc6d.t).

.;il;5 <SJ~Leio& .;1,~jJ8 6~~iVd.ib'>

r:5e!56.;:b ~a .;il;6e6 ~~e~~a

t'JaS6s; :J:;flaa @t>Le) e..~D!

eSg)~o 0"::.11:1(3 W"O" [J<6,d5JceD ~l;l~;;SJ.I:l. 0";l:D .;)~I'U~;;sd. so~ Oll<6J~eD ae~ KaoQ "Sfu;;S 6<6j>v<6Job, ~tl.i}>~(6job ~t5:lJg;oSeJo ~6e.li~.)e&aot5:l. ae1' ~6JJ!iJ~ ;Jae<'eD W"eJ<' ;(Jo6~e_)& ~c5aJe_)or1" eoeJ'>OXl. ';;)cj a,~~ i,j~ bo<'e_)~ eB'>J;;JEi:O!5 ®~!3~T1" aeom S1>tl;Joe.:o aoile@.;~o;fut>;6~ zyoS;;S @~<6~eiDot). eCS11"e.);fuof) ;;)l:5~ g)tl;fu~ a~;;s cfu:6:l~e_) g)~cOOo~ at) ljt'eJ<' '@~ rSoSJ;(JS' ~g)6~ OS;,[) <00oS~JO"e_)& ~;fu~eD .=Jozy6£'ao11" a@ ®u ~~ S1>6~tl:l S"~t:l"~ leJU01'~ a.s~~eo~t&o. ®0Xl~ ~6:J..);fu @~::.1oaQJt>60~ eo~, iiJ"e& c$;fu~C" a,~~. ~;SoS oSS"tJ"tfoooet, ::.1es011" '6".tS.sa~;stSow ';;)E~ 600"? ~<6o (fu;6 &Y®~~!.=Jo;fu~~ ~;6 lr'\oJ<.e;a .=Jo~~~ .~~ SS~oS..:s,J' @&R, (fu;6 ®QS"O"~ ~;;s .;p;:.)]oga~ ~r::J"~ oSaJ

oS6J~ leJ~~v;fu~C" SJliR"e:gSS;;SiS:>,}

oSc:l.bv oSe£'<l'>~~ ~io @'6"oS~tSe'l~..)G5og; iSJ"6e.:p:o§ @e_)0J"~ =e= G5:l;)~S011" ;;S:fud. e~esoSea ;;)t5:let, ;SioJ. ~c6:> :O~r\d.0 ~c::l:J~0~ eo66o @oOJS"!S S"CEQ1o. o<'~;;)e3<p;;S5& a,~ <:S;;S~g)OS e~;So)i\j'>~ 6J"~oElo,:)c;o~ ;3;JSJ&il ;:5;;5,)<:\5':>0 ~f)J0ij')<6J. ii"~d5"orr' 5.JoS1>oElotSeJ6 t:ooo[)5"o)tv"~ ~of) !D6~o..:5600 $.J"W'" i\j'> S"e)0 i?p6JJ ~~c6:>, ~1:1 e)~o !!!lo6:1~;SJ. elO",SE:§ <fl:,Qb!& v~o ;6~J.oSj>cJ> e~ffJ"~5~otxloQ. ®I:l .;)txl;;S06e:so~ a,~ oS6,;"eJ"Ef~!:ilciJ ~6S6 .s~0"~ ai!SJ~iVd.~ es i1;9~~ ~'8"S~ ~~ e;6ot>~ ~<6d.;:SJCJ. ~

76

;;5~6-~ t3i\Sd. OllQb~ ~oSXl<;Sd.e) ~~60 @6i 6\3eo{);s~r!" ~o€x>oEl. v~o ;;3c6:>~ v.§."SlO! @Sd5:lo~o §"i6i30KJ~~ eo€x>oEl.

N" ilei! eSg)~o~ ;:;ro <0J<l3N"ejJ~ej!:il ~QJt>~ .,)OS.J~ aJdUt:J<5:l0cZ cS~OXI. 6'8"Bbe_) ~tla:Ja .Jo~' C!3~~1Se;s • .;)oti' OSJJ~s~i\S g)~~a~ ,;);;5.J~S;;)j>cil eja~b. ;:;ro~oO:l C!3g)~i§;fu~ei:Ju t;:l"S~ ~;;S~~6~;S (',Qo)SO'6"v;6:J ®c6:>I{i~~ oS~Q.l). ~c6:> .;)oS..)e5S;;).JCJ !J ~:o ~;;)~NC', @ ",:0 ~tv" @ej~o~ oSJJ~~;S ;;)iO!1" <fl:,e;liS:lSSoSeJ'>~§ l;;5oil8.l0W"~' @6J£ a~5 (es, 1955) CJDW 'g)onJ. l!!I~ ~o' O"OXloi5tJt>lO§ (;j"'r::J"~ ~~~~txl ;;30I!..iO)~6 . .;)oO:J~o~, ");;).J6 5;0 tJ'>oileJ"lO!5 SJ<.6JJ"'d.. @oej~~ 1fuJ~S~t> ~;fua~ ®~<6e ~ ou~~lO ;;)S6-<6 ~~oSv~ oSBJEl. ~ 66JQJt>e) ~;fu e,J"66 te'@~lO§ ~Q";6 ~'tlO~ ;(Jv~~6Jn" r004SSe)eJJ i§05~!& ;5<6J ;;; tllO a~~~ r::J"iOs e!li§S,06 ®"Q"<;SS6:O~J!:iloeJ.:l'> ea ;6:0 &:lSJt?iOg .;S;S.,.1 ~;S., ~5fibe>J..)~oSlio :imdexl~~.;SJ. '9.od~ ~esZ-2020' @j, e}wt!..llY>~acg!fu~d.a. @;;).J6 NC'SJ ,~~gJS [J;;)_d'SJ<>~ ~:~@.O"re5 (es.1943) soc5S6l}Jrv> ~lO O~oC6Q ~W'" ®oc).)§<'S so6E'01o.

~;S., 700) ~t:> lOS~~o.[);;S &e>;6 lOSQ";;S;;'nole3 ®e.Jv [)~e OJ"e3iJcmlO SID~ LOS$'.:>6~ ;seS~;;Svof) ~6f) g)6~EliI tid5veJ'olO§ @;fu<6.Je3oi5o)vliJoenc gOO"<&, , <!!l~ g).aSg)c:l"Se;lCiSJ":Os ;s~ @!f,l:re ~O"SQJ1>U"'oS6Eli1o~ .r;}D ~;;S,a§[Je)'0 K~~v;Sd. @S""o(i'J @d5vrS~ e[)dil~~c6:>. ~c6:> .;pQoDrS §"~J. g)8:jd)y:>e;lotlY> K~o& a~~e36:lso~, @;;S£)J. Kao{)iJScm;S~~~, QJ1>OlO ;:Ssp ~6~6JK~f\<606JSJ ~c6.:> ~O&fu.~.;S~..)te§ as ®t>oao r\'6.&<6:O lO~Q.l)oi:SJ!&:l~. a;:fu K6sno ~<l5oSototS ");;S_2CJD .;)068"vO ~g)~i!SJ? i\J",ec$;:fu g)OoiS:>S,;SJ_ eJ"OSe311" OfuoS&J"66d5:l aJ,;y~d5Jce);fu tlf\l)oB e~.aso~ ~toaElfi" ~1:S'6"ve_)!il &JS;;Se.,o, ~1:S~v g)~t5:le.>& ;;;'ozy>~o6e.,0 ;fu:J6eD~tJo;:fu. @ OS:otoa

-d~ ~ 0

!;.~ OJ" .a~e)~ so©SBotJ"e_);fu~N'd..1S:l.

';jc} e..~ ~~~d, e~~e ~6:lISJ$J~ ;;§6Jno ;;)~~~o-a 6~;fuoa ~;fu i\J" 6e'l~ ~o ®O'6"VtotSs, ;;S.)~0W";:fu. ~~SCr!" clSJJ;566o, OJ"B

77

o)"Cl'~6orioQ;5 S"~, @<0e:n o;J"'El ~30 ~g)~oo& ~~ot:$Xo @)O"6"o~ ~oJo13EloaO)oono ~~o ~cIilrio;::)" @lO e!!&eJoW"<SJ. ~~J~lfleJ~~e e...13 ~O)~S"eJ13gIflSQS:):O 10gy.oiS~o ;ihl6e.u ~~<6J. ~~ ~6:l.)gSlfle)~oe ·~co woeJ"~ aotSlO 6e.u;fu~~;fu.

a:o~ ea6d/5 DSJrS~ ~~~g ';)Els ,J5§~£i (1902-1994) t;J9"tSo e...13 cfu:O~ ~;S e§g)®S"ooQ ,Jr,)g):)e ;SJc;S~!:5 O~e)(oowv ~~~~i:i>. leJ~ 1:S~&~ e..s ;:5JorS~s - ~<fuo<:Sl3 ~o~<po eotmo8. ·1S ;;moe oif §I'D ~~o5o& ~oa1O)~oe. @8 ~eB;S ~W"'ed~ ;::J.o~O)oa ~ot~o.

~ _. e;l

@)S6-~ ~~tJs rSo5:lJS"lO§. @;;);605.JJ,5":O~ ox,0s· 6;6 ~~ ~i6 13~6,)tl<SJoe.

;;)s&SJ 6;;)JlsSoltJ"~ ~ocj~c:JD tS~60~, @;3~tS~~on'" @~Eloi:S"C"r,)§ -t!~~~D.'S:l~el"'i" <!9Viil"fuJ;;)~6"6:l. oJoo>so[i, <!9;;)Je:)so;fu cJ~ <!96e.§ §"olli :O~ot) g:,6..)1:il~oEl. @O'"R aJ(5)e:) ~O)eio& I!!I~ rsoi:SEloi5co~ SJ.>wu ®66:l ttsa~oi:SKe.urb8"6:l. -B~~ c:l:l;s;:s;'6" ;S;fuJ'So 2:)e)0l1" g:,tSJ6:l~oC". @c5cSD.'S:lJ,130 g:,6J~00" f!9~e @6~6' es -5~~~, @ 6~~ ;fuOS. eoa ;602)00 b\&6<SJ 2)~ $OfJJOe.

~~ostS-i& (1-3 ~olfleiJO"e);fuOS) ~6J~ ~;:5Jo~S - ~;6~s ;60&:<\50 ;6.scmo~a;;)s. t:l~. ;::J.OQ;;JSOol:lO~ ;;So<\5O)~oe. ·ea 6ifd @ ~~0J"6 ei;S~ aei6Jo rsc5f>dS.:lo @1fl~6;:5Jo, 5"0' (!!liQ ~t.0ti>SJoey>~. ~~et. ;&a'6-0Q;lrSd_ ~ S"~ ~.s~Ol~So 059, ei~(SOlGJVJ .Je,1" Ij5msJoe~es;sd._ CJ":OaJ~ ~~J>~ OSS~~ lo5~o5J 6J"0il'B~e)J

@~tl;fu~6"~. •

e...'S;3~ 6~6ol¢lt') ~~~Jo6rS g)6J6",J;;Y13tSOl1" eoe.3 tl~GY"6 eirS ~~aiI~~ ~;5.9rS;fu 'S~J~i:S:lJ~o5tlo ~6e.u ~i:16"1:il. ~ D.'S:l;:S,,~vrS:loe. 0)6.:>~ 1fl~~JOtS;SUl, ~cS~;SUl (!!lrSJ~aSo~§; IY';:)co& rSoa~o ;fu)tSo.D5:l~oe. 6rS iSJ~eoa ~~OJ"~ fuloQ"se)", ;;3~g"!S0" ~;:).Q.oi5C;o i5Y'~ ~~GY'~ N~~C:~6"6. es rJol:lcl$)o6' ~~OJ"~~ ,ej;e3g ~o-acj6!-r-. ~V6oI6e.u ~6. d', <60013Ea& ;;S~Q"';S;;)6iS~~g @05

~' '~ ~ ~ Q ~

1b~~E.~ tdSY>ot1ificS~. cfuacS~~ \Fo~~ O"eb~ol5. §"~ "tJo6O':;Jo:.

eo <\5dSJoe.u ~g)eiS"t')o rou6rUa" ;;.')N~~~ eotJ"cm.

78

§"IDaJ"oS 5"e;lod (3- 5 <6o<.S~JO"Q:DQS) B'o<.SSJ.>, @·;;)O"O ~GY'.o§ D.'S:lQs <0olt<:So 6a~~oe. 6;S§ ~6oeJ'>g)!, ~~N" ;;.')ifuw aQ1)~.o§ .;)f1;6 ~G))~o e...~SJ..a06N zyO)oD<S aJ"el)6 B'6tfJ& ~cS~oi5~~~. 5"N ®cj ~ol:l(l5)oe 6~ §"~ iSo~ ~~~o<6~, ;:5Jo<6~s ~~~e;l;;,)e.t.:: ~~oro~§oD® @o5O"Q &1"oro~ SJ..O" ~oi5:l~otJo6. e!! ;:5D.'S:ldSJo& ';5~~61il £:>BcSJo6ol1" ~N'd_rSJ' @i6d._ ~~ eei.)i6~~eiJo6.

5-11 g:,~ aSJ4S'~gooo& ~<S.> j~;6d a)g)e? ~~o~<.S6~ ;:6q5vG))~~~rSJ' 1!!lrSJ. @'5~ 6e3~e§JoCJ.. ~~0J"6 ~e:5-6"o& .;JeJ" eOeJ:J~c;rSde @£ig) @~cS~~g) ~~t>!3:> '6"~~oe? ~~6~o~ e!lE> @~~rSJo~rS6"~aS<6~, si!<6l!, ;;):ot'3d5Jwg)§ ~~~ 6a~ r50<;S.:>604f.<l. iJa4S'6£:aont' ~ S"'e:Jo6'ti ~OG:l"e @EOL~e6J"e.>J s6J~XeJrio

~ ~

;fu,)6e,)~~oe.

S"~06~ ~~e.u U"'OS::O a6.6:lo!3:J ~O)OO71"' s;:Sro~6JN'd.O'S.:I;Sd. 0"'.06 ~Q"rSOI1" ;::Joroo~oeJ eoe.noe. Keio& 6cS cSJ)~~..)o& ei;S~ 6J.>¢ (!!l~~ ;5f.b<6 bSS&6..) oS:o~~,. a66.:lv~ U"~~OO71" tf'o~~~~ I§ cS~ ~~SJ.> ioQs i0El~~;Sd.cJjl6~~0J"E.& ~t>Ja g)~~:013 @i)o (!!lQJc05"O .tml¢ r\)~71" eoe.noe. 11-18 ~~ io~t')o& ~ l&It<iSo @JQ'rSOI1"i)rS OS~13 .. 6..) ~19s,c, B"irl :ot>.;)~oiSQ.')ofu;S iJao~s eJ'IO~6SJo oS:lOS 6e3§.e_ eoe.noCJ.

~iO&t. cScw>eacfu611'" ~~oa &'[)c5~& (18-34 <JocS6,J0"e.u) g:>e3 OSJ;fu~o& ~6J6i5:l§'ir;vR ;;,')0;:6..)6 rSorooQ"el) 6;5 eJ"~S"o~ ~0"~;6 ~rS~~N§ 1!5>i36ol1'" IDV<6C:6"OJJ. diJo5.,)cSoQ t!9~Xii)~ei:l~ ~~ciJ"6 (!!loeiC"S" eii6;:$J @oe:)~93~.o ecSd ;::J~~ei aJo~i!l'St)rSJ08 g:)8cSE. ~~6Jo&' ~g)U"~ o5o~gS;:SeJ'>r,)§ ~cfuad.~6. @CIDg· t!9fJJOSoe3 ;;)e~~& a.~6Jog;';:6orooQ"e.u S:J~fu§";;S~ (!!leiC:l ~6eJD e..otle~;;So&!3 @5&JScTh ~~6o~c::;o:> 6oEl. ®e.nc'iSo~ L<6liSJccSo ~~GY"e. .aeJD~§ rS02JOeOw i3~ ~~;()St')fu ~el91v ®o5s'>.ao ~oe. a;ifo.o§, ~rS;6;!§ CfuOS ~d~ ;::JoqD6 .... ~ ea C:S~ g'Qe;;lJ"S:l ~~ v.5i~o. 1605 ~B".~ @e5~ ~~ a;o5 C;)5 (1572-1631) @~6.

79

t; Qi,~:WJ gJt:J§ @)~~:D~ @)i;JS"O";o§ 8?;o;6 f.., ;o~0j5d$ cSJo~~r;;o!

SS !YcJ;jooei g)~o, @)o;j'tb ~~8n" ;oeJg'"ol!JJ~ ~¢)41

i600J0e3~611" ;futSs6~ (85-60 r:So.eJ) (j ~~6Se)SJo, §'ai~!&Jto <fuC;S~ 05.Y>~~S <Jot~o ~e3~6JoEi. S.~b6, ~~..)6!:i~ ~o~ 6tSJOJO~ P3!J'>e)tS:l ~eJ83t1£do> ;;:r>M O"e&;;St.$o ;;Sol) ~d5:>~eJ~ ;;S~Q)). sc6vo ~gIDJ. SN"eJ~~c66,~, 50" ~~eJ;fu ~cma L~e3";;.)P3s0 ~~a,oiS:>gG~. tl!e§,3 t3dSJt.lQ).)o~ iJo~~s07i" g)e.lJ~~ s,~ a<6tJco. S"e;lt) ~

OJ_.D Q;_, eJ ~ eJ:

e§g)e'S6~O SP3JpP3 c6lJ~@~ s~c6~o r:Je:le3N"P3Json'" eoCtlo.

:600J0e3;fu6r1" <fum;:) ~d' ( 6 0<60 .. eJ is:loa <fuOe<lO CJ'>5") oSJt;rSfus <0oc;):l6.,p ~Sc'& r:S;ful6~~, ~;:S.,});1o~ cS:lOS 6a~e:\Jo~. aS6:~ fuSd.SJoG;ful{\P3 @ot3 eS!)P3o& e...S @~~ e...S c6~cS~~ ~t;>oiS:>gS KeJ ~·rS ~c6J~e)~~ 6Jofi'?oecS rSiD-iSo. ~~;;y., 6rS ;fuJ~S~oJ~ 6rSliJ SID(' ~dJo. 6rS cSSc6aJSO"eJJ 8";6,) iSs(i~6Js£BS -a6OJeJ ~ ~Q"6;:;Scc6eJ~ c6~o(j~rS~cl @oEf'lfrS. 6(5 ;:So'Joi$6:leJSY>, r:S~efue;s:> 6Jo605"oSe)~ c6~tSrSd. g);ilo60. ~c6.J pj~60~eJJ OS:Ie:lefu~~;fu is:Jo~ ~Q5);;)~ ;:S;fu(!'l6<S:J J.~oiS"gSKl)t\rS~OOJ~ OY'U, ~~rnsJO~ 05JJeJs~s.)~d5J;:;SdlO @&KscSo~~ eoe.J'>6lO ~56cS5 ~oeJot:i:>. 6a 6.t& ~~S S_9,oSso (!!lS"JoSosrSo. ~ 6~;ful1"~ iSs?"Tr' ~6~gSKllF\rS~Q))~ ®B 83g)B"~sas <6o~~pjrSJo, iJo~s6;6Jo j~6J~oEJ. pjrS~, s66Je;&- ~S~lOJ. fuElo;;)i3~oEJ. arSoEJrS ;;§!)e5oQ ~pjL;;)e36 .;Jao.~;fu~~oEJ. Q).),6JS

o -" 0.... <:l a: e1 eI

o5:lllPoO 83g)60;;)~ lOr:S.)oK6_so. ~;:j r:SoSJdxJoC @o."S.Y>--Bv ;:;S5B"'oJO

g)s~~cro. ~ 6~& ;fu;So ;furS ex>EJ;::3-S~~ cS\B t3~gSOJ"[). ;furS

-lJ 0..... - el'<:.l e1C;;

~3~oSJq;)~ S"~ ~~ESS .;Jo~ ;J~tJo~e, §"g S"6s~c6J'>e) ~rt~£'fl6'

c6~cfu d':I6iJ"ll. <fueJ~SQ] ;;.)~ I'...S 6e:l!5JW"~ ~6JtSb5JsSOJ"ll. @t)~ sg) 0"2)2 0~ (1927-1940) !J'>i5"6:J:

80

~~$~ .::sti)~ d6J;;;od soS OSJ'e.'6:~O"S~Od .,;x,;:)o !:le;v

et e;J ,...,

r:5oe?.;:l @5.;:5oiJ<'~ ~~, q,?e;,:i, ~~. t>V>S"-.3".'DJ i:Uo~,

~oXtf ;;;o~eu gJoeJ? ~;S~ 4f6ei)e;~ iJof'JiJ6CJDO, ;:Joa;5vo Bt;5).. Qi,;So Qi,6&o6.::5v1Q;;5 a& e9a. 48

8~~ ~;6) @.lgo 3;:;J)S:>rSd._a::ntloe3, ~8g,SOe:logJ..~ ~g)o{). <6J;;,')~ .>SJ;So g)~oiSJS:>~!3~~e:J:l @O~, ~gsc6~~~ 6JL!fr>oEJoi;S) SSD'StJo, cS~~~On-o, <60~~~s6ol1" @oa 'tclcjt>;6oeJoQ"l?l ~ow>oEJOt;D S£D'StJo, fu~~ srSc0tJ'SO" OJ'>e.§ ~i6 Qj"tS;:J~~ ~06a!lo5:>tlo, CiJDB~ ~oD ~~Bcfut.$O ~O" ~;S g)el);S~ OJ"5§ ~oElo6t::lo .;Soec6~ ;00P3~~!&6071'' ~6~eJrSa0'S6 !3JoW", soS" ~6~ D~0c65 s~c6Ji~ot.:J..,-" .[bf\[)~oej, O"~!3Jo~ ~_ga~i6~Q)J~;.:3 ;fuiS:l~eJJl1" c:iJ;So oJe~tSOl1" :J~:OoDrS~~. so(;$jSoJl1";:fu ~;S KS"hd_, ~~~~hd. @.l<5J~omQ";:;) ~eiiSJSJO~ aSg)6 ;;)ecSos,..~ 5008 r:)oSJ"Q";s~e c6:lrS ~.;)6"'g)§"S 1!!l0"~

;()<ill~6JJg;05v~ ~oenoa. III

~rSo66a10fi" ooc;) ~Q";s @Oi5"vrSJ oS,,;So oSe.s[)ot;Sc6e;~ eocmoEJ. ~6~ @.lo-lfo oS~r;6 @.l0i5"~§ rSocoot;>oDrSEJ. ~e6e!&OXlN" ;:sa ~g)60 I'...S so<fu!3. ~f'l~erCe"o rJogOi$o_)ce"o, @s:'vJs <1:S'~eJ.;J-" ~~ oiJ;J~ ';)6Jru6vh oJ:0b6:l~ ~l;'jrStl @~F\oiS!&Jtod6J. @8~ 6~;;js ffi~oCE 6~Je) (1872-1970) 0"i5"6.:>: '83,;)6015" :0tJeJ :O~~eJ~ @£Mol1" ~';)o..::)C:;fueJD~ j6_sCo. @c3 cScSJdxJoe ~ci5Jt.oe~rSeJS:> 1'i:J5S"~0t:>" ·~ocXe:lKC:o. iQ'£l :Oe3011" @JQ"rS~rS g);;),~eJJ' @~.

aoC:05@o~o, ~;;Sy.e:iS ~g)B":og ;:SoeJoi;)oDoe. l;5~ ~g)6oSJ<>~ ®r5o~s cSJt>;S05 cSorooQ"eJoO, 05S05;j6O"eJ& @~~!iVSQ))rS e:;,;),)V;.:36. ~S";o.§ ~ ~~ c6Jr6 ~oejs ~:O~Od~:o~~d. ;:).)ao~ g)~6ol? ®~s,~Q))<'l3o~oE.). fue.nOIDO. ~d..~6JeJ.J". ;6~66JeJ.J", ~~aao ~eJ" .;)~ f?rJ"exJ. ea ~.1o ~~!;le ~S&c: ~ <605:l~ 6a~;;J" @B ~.1o ~;6ti rJorooQ"e) £'F$6s:> O"eis.<fuoEJ. ~ot$)S~ ;6~e:l06' <6oeiJe.lei ;;:);:o:.)~o ~6soei ®oS<0tSo. ;()~~cfu ~~~ cS~~c6r6;& g)~~~~ qtil<J)S"OJOll. S'~~0d§ iJ.c (1856-1950) 0"'5"6.

81

(j ;:::;orfBSGiiJD !66ofT'> i5occeJoD @Cl ei;6 ;:Jo.i56;{xJ (j:Jt;50fT'>

"- tl1

.i5oiirfwX,e:boB, ef;6 Lifc:iJ :J~re;6~ (j:Jt;5onc ;6wtUaJ

r06rfeJJlU~oB, 6;S g,e;eJ~ (jg)t;5orro et;Jot5rfwx,ibo8 @;S,

Q'_' 01.

g);$soiba @r;,roo056.Je'bot3. oiJ;So .;iJ.;S :;eJe; ~& ISlIDCF'W

,..., ,..., Q

!§:J/J);;lSJ6;:> CiY§~ ~~6diJo slJfloi:J"e;:JtS:FtJ CiYffo6(j!:J

& ~ ~ M

ils~t!loe?o. ,.9

«.L _"

~~ell§ E!;!);:J~;S~e;J l'U500 ZY>0J"e>~ @~g SJ~~ o.):J5oei &~~

iS5JoO ~O" ®~~.

.;5el~W oJ6XfJdSJf§Joc:;o @ro{;)j~ ~~roe0"8 .;SJ.;S~ @)1~Oe§ ~~~;6 cnOOWOOO. d3 6:J0"J'6o OS~ ~;5 ~~O g)~~ci:S~ ;Sei.;iJiio5J~b t!loa. ~;60 .;»;6 b:J~et £J5e3 ~6E§ ®~ ~~~Q1)~ .;:llvB£)5~~o. ibf!,?w ei.1b 1P':J4) ,Jg)iio :JBd0tiJ gEOSc'ogE;So ;5yJL6~ t56:J~,:5) ;:rociJSJOeJy>, ecN".YJ. ~r;;o i60;56eJ'>fF' &JOf03'(:5:J!iJj &'6C§~ e;5;6~ei>Nd.6J. SO/.) a.S 4L~ ;6;;60 g)CJDr;;5oe§)~ 3;:iJiV'")~Oif CJD;SOO @eiC'. @oei6ii

eJ £i) _"o(. (j) ()

~o5J~e;..\l) -g;0t) ~oiJootJoiSco;;i:'t>L6~ S"lfJol16:J. p,i,;6

r0~S"!J;6 n5~ew& ~~W u->Qfu ;ao~~~ :Jmd5;oe; aJ~, ei.;iJ!§.J ~btU&J~ ~a5J~Oo:J4:: XB.sot5~~s aJ6:JWfF' iiiSJ fPt) a5J.:5JetPe; aJ~ ;)0&5"06 art;5e5ef X,_§o-BtJiffl" oJ6X;;5eJ~ c30f.DOa. M

~~§, ;:J~Z3<'~§ ;:Joa)o~oD ~ 6e:Jis& g)6~ oodJ §,e;J§l,S~ ~6~oiSO'Sei~ 60e.:uoe. :ihl6~B. c:5S§;';) e..ss ;:J~ejOLej ;;S,orS~e.n" ~e..)e~c;o. @o~, ;:J~~ ;)c:5MOJ"<:lJ ~c6Jo~8"tmli" ~-g;Boi:S:lSJ~o6J~ @oS;:J6~;S g)o.):Jt?J~eiJ!5 g)~iSrS;Sy>, e!l<>Sli"gJurS~ OJ"ed' ~o~oElot:il5o. '001'.&0'515, .;S~~ ;:J~aloo£ <,~r'i01i" g)O''~;606.:>~ i3cfue.lO. oSJrSo {j ;:;)~alo&; ~ OJ"B"O'56~odi ~e5 ~6,)rD~~, ~ ;6~2i3"~g, e8 iiJ"[§"O'56~~§ @5F'l .;)o&&'o~ @o~ot:$O'5e;J~;S aJ"Q~ej oS'J;S& ~i9 e..SJ.B! eoe.

82

es 05Pt)~ ~i9 a..~& ~;oL. omo6:J ~o5co ~6,)J~W"#l ss ~<:lJOJ"g ~;;)')s&05~0. at> &Q~C;t)o ~~;O ;;3;5) &1"(S~ 06"12~ 61s-3"~~ iS6~eJo ~6el)5J9;;5). om~SOIi" 31;;.'5Jle:i> 1)";;.'5.,) ~1s~ge);5) iS6J;;J) ~~. ~;;So ~ ~r;Offo!bCS l;;.'5!3ell9~ 0050;60 Q~~o. ea 0..)0;6 6iSrS e!l~iiO~ g)~~6~6~ S"~o!;" ~~~"§ 1!!l~0~ ~.~CS~6~;;)) ;6~:Od. 0S;>;50 ::Q~Je~iV" l'U.§oW"V. Ol

,

:JLg"e5 2007e j;:S" SSOcit)~& ~o~o&!'J ~ ~6r101i" <fut:1"~ ;606~iJ''rSJ. !!9Q)jlc;:, Q)6~~~e.JJ ~ -SoS~;fuoo ~f:b<#'~e ~~cfDo: jlil~ re~f))&oe. ~fJJ~ 6;5 <2g)~5"e;JoiJt>b:J ;:JcS.Y>8:l""';';).§ ®oe~ Q)~;;S i:JcSv l'Ueo~ 6vi:SJg6li"j rJ" c6J;:S~J& '@Soo;5o' til50t':) a..; !;l8)B" 6601'10 e&"::)Ol1oe.

Sl~COo:s~;:j Q1,;5o .§<ill~ottu~o Sla5.s~O ~OO.0 <iJ;,.=so o:JOt:llSJoe.:v"'do ~ot:Dsi.;Stbo~$ .;iJ,:Ss;, ;;:5olf~,;fuoa I..tJ~lP ~l);:S ae1JeFoa

...,

;;5oer'ojo .f)sftJ;;5uot3

-"

t; CSX6 .F'r6'.>iuo~ AJo&g5

() e" '

.;5nS6Je.uNd.djJo. .;jo~ ~cbJ

e;

&oo;vot:)§ ~,j)g£:o ~~%l

(§5oo;So~ .vo,i).il~.

~;:so @SSSe1l9~oEl5"O" Q)e~Oilo ~050e? 05:J'ii:': @S~J(S£Dcs~ 5"0" ;;s"i\i)K~s-S;6o @C7ISOS~6JrSd..a? s.!36-t&~;5) ~~~6J;6d.a ~~'I10 ~a~6-~o l'UBoD ~O" OJ"6"oSoroo& ~~~ ~6:l.JvKJeo{!) ~L~;& ~c:5.:J. @r0e.JJ OilrSo (Sot).)~ ~o~, c6J;:5o !,e;o~~ rr>l:J, 0$);:50 B"I'U~~ tl6Jo @J@ a,~6-~' @)!3J~;5)ocj e,)O~~®;';) ro~~~i\S:l. @JosJ~s GJcaoDS6~0 ;:S,o~ ~rSoS<2"(S ~5GS"c6Jo iJo~Q)aoe. ~cb Z3<'~eJJ c6JrSJ,»6, §";:5~f\~~d5:lo~ l®oc5J~ S"o~o OJ"t'J& IDe;J~;:Sg) e:we:hc:5~eJ.). :oen~~e.JJ, Et~e,)O'So~~ ;:JOJOtrSJ ";t:\50tJ 1Oe;J0'Sl')f.)r\c\"oOSQ ~~

Ocl~cm08. 6!!36-c\" c6J;:So ro~oiS ose,)~oao:beJo~. Oil;:s oSam"'~~§

83

!3Yo~ oJa~6:le:o~o:o. ;fu;6 .:))9; tl3;6d. l?'!&~®!& iiJDB"~t$CiilO ;fu;6rS.:l ~~d,lfj~ ;fu;60 0));6 .:))~t!3;6d. CU"e9"c66w~ ~;&6~ ~Oty'le):5Y> iSJ'o:6J.sSGl"[). ;furS OJ"6"c66E9"~ c;iJ;6o ~~oi:3~;:Soo,c6q;, <!9<J0'J0&l e§~6 oJg6>~ S"rScOr>l1~;6d.ocnc6~ ®<J0~!&~;6 ~4l:>a~ 9Q)..)l)~ c6:J;6~i:5.:>tlJcSD~m>. anrSo~~oi5:;) Gl"e9"o16ro <fu..6J,e:o (fu;6bJes

e:l e.:J OJ

aoJ.Jcfl~ ~bSJo(') ~~iiJ"e:o iSJ'oZJoi:SCo :iilltSe)m>sot>. c6J0rS~~ ~~~3

a..E;Uo~ ze'>e~c6c:io ..JcJ.JC:l ~6(')ODS00" @:;) cn:IDoiS~oCl." eo~~~ liJb6JN'd.rS.:l. ~~~u§ c6Y>;6~E;§ ;ful;:i~ aY'6Je9"~ ~11~OXlrS ~ ;6y.6rS rerSJ,S"'oc ..JQ)jllil ililCSe)m>Soe?

2006 ~~0<P6:J& ~;fu ~o~& 'O"obl15 @dID~6 ~~ !&'G"-o"e) ;:606e.pw>rS.:l. @S?rC ~6Sg}O~d' ;;y>e.uric6 ;:60c66,i:5oe'1i erSd. g}0"S~ ns~e)~e1~.!5 rSrS.:ld. a..~ ~~ @B11"C:l. ~;;y>CJ a:lrSeJ"~ij'J)o ~~~S ~6EOOe);S;J @;S;J~e~(\')d.0~c6~ OS6ooSC"K6ol1" c6~<5J ~~::SS ~o~tJ'OdSJ.>et, ~e.uc6~ !Ciile3 ~o~ i\)Q 6e1~g c6~;:SJ.0" @:;) @6~ ~exJ;5vgS~C"l&J. ~rSt1§:;)g~ a3Q3"[)i:J"J~' '~'O"JdS LOSoSoi5o iiJoO~o.:o§~t5Ciil~ n~o. ~6~~o ~~ <.Se~;fu~ ~~c6e1~ tj~gSiiJ"[) .. ;Sy>6JgSe:, ifuo& ~&lf!)S:l i5oJ'Os6oK a§OS;S~cfu<>Cilo @OaOi:Jo:>f!)O~ @oOJ!&:I

~ ~ 0

@c6C:S6~;:S r6oQ)osQ)e)o c6~05;:,odSJooS~ ~l~ a..rSKY>oOJ. ~;o, @a

~ctOo& ;fu;60 ~~~ ~;JoO'~@;:))!&aoi5~c:,cn @;:))!3Jo.8 @0tS:l~ cfrlrSo os,6~:r~J~OSf!)~Oe .~!&~ O'S.:l:lo6J ~~, ®~ @N"I7'lS6~rS @tii5N" g)1:;l"i\)Q~ e:!J0Xl~ 6~d. ::;}220il" ~~oi3aOS6J?

;furS g)~e)(5SJ"et LOS~iiJ"6o ~~;:So Koe.:i~~i\)Q ~.u.s g}f!).)oSeJJ". ;::S;fu[l ~g)60 rU50~ 6:i~~ eiT->Q"JjcfuJf!)@i ~onoe.l:l a~..)oW"{). ~;:)) e'MSJiS:lO"cJ~& ~m>oe5 za6r6~ s'G"'O"e.>U iS6J~~;6d.~~ g);6~::J~ ~iSJ!3l;6d. ®tl:JoSot) @'5;:Jon"e.xJ N"§cJ.)t'J~ KJ~. ~ erJ.?e.) ~o~!3l @~S;6,i~ @t;J;i}@ ®0l);6 a~ao~ ~~o a~5 ~e)S6 ~eJJQ)oe, ~;:J0('l"e.xJ Cli3plSJ. K6o{j<6P, @l~es~ ~~ow;6, ~g)~;6d an;;.Y£)diJ ~;6~e)rueow @dD;6 ~u ~0lJ0)06o ~~ocO)06l. (fu::J~;;) t2O"g ~;6~e11" tSY>~oElo~ KJroriw£?l ~~et.J!!oaCJ06:l. @ 66ri~~ @dSJt> a:u~~t ~~~~cXlJ@t

84

~m>oe5 ®K~m>.!5, IP[)~ eano, (fu;J66'>J11"Oe, SJ:S~.!5, @Le:J~o IDo~:Se>es oY>eJ:> §"o66:l g)~rS -Q"~;;jge.>KJ50w SJ<>Cl." a~OdiiJ"6:l. c'6J~ ;;y>K6~ OJ"6;;S~:og ;;SoeJo~ow;6 £)®~liSm !3Yot;;" a~OdliJ"6J. ~<6 ~~'5"(,)~, an(\') 6~e ~6.zy>e.>~ CWOO":og a,~6-~;::? ?,6~dSJ N"ri6!& OJ"6r66_,)0 l"IJ60b, c6:;;6o ~o&1>o5ot:5.>S:J;6d. .rJel?~e.> X:JBob @e.JJos,ol!) ~;::SOrT"eJ:) ~oo..)tl:l ;:)dSJtJo iJ"eJ" @~;;S6o.

OSJrSJ;;'i"lm ~o5J 0SJ{)6~ ~g)~o& a..!§6-~B ;il;6~6- 36friSJD;::))S:lg;) ~~ K~~g)~o KJBo~ o.)~~~;os ~;6~m>~ 0":0 @go anrSo (fuj <>F6~$g)6o& ;:S6o.nrS ~e.l:l .Joi5:lgSa6:O. ss f1e¥ DJ"c, ~;6~6- 36f\ ~""r6J~;O @03J0~! c6:;rS~ oil5"~ @OS~~o f!)~i. ..JodaY'rb& @;'J

e) _., ~

@rSJg6~o~eod6:l. &,Vc5.g& i66OJJ;;) iSOJ~ v!&~c6~o OJ"B

<5~~o}o::Jg, 6JgW'::;}§sn6roo. ~6~ ~g)~o ~g}ow;66:lOJJ~:5 iJo6!§

-w ~ ~ ~

;g~.&~~o ~r;;" ~e;5S;;J6~OEl. dDrpoo;::J§ cS:lrS ~g)~:) -6lS0& .c6:;rSo

e!)::J;;:ro6J)on" ~6.)6i5:lgSc6(')~;6 r6cS:ll(l ~c6rS 0e1~")rpo;od. 05J;6~ iiJ"~~~;& ~~e~oa. @tuOSoe;) ~!3Jcp"~ ;5rS.:l .r;J" ~OLQd iSJD'6"rSJ. @cfurS 103 ;::SoOSej,,)O"e.l:l e§g}0W"~. ~j eS~e3~e.>o ~6rb;;y> @:dSJ;6 Jod' @~~f!)~0l1". 5"::;} @O~ ;;);::J.,)oK6.')ot? eSciloiJ"~. ;;3:Oo6OS6Sl N" ~g)do& tS.J'>~;6 @d~o~ .t~~oe1J2.;:S, @~~o~ ~;6;::Soa5;fuJ.~rS c6:;rS.:l~e)o65&<6Jo s,.,~ §dD:5 ~..)eg @6~o6 g);;:§!&;Soe:b6no ;so i6~a& g;)l)wffi~6.

o

85

5

-.:S ;fu ES~~ ty,;()6 ~~ (~.1959) c\) ~~ ®s&6~j.e" ~§QD i:Sro;oo~. @5 OJ"!:§,g)~~dU:!S6- K~.fle;J ~S6"~:::l~ ;:SoZ,)o~o{)~ ~~:::lS ~eSrT" KJ~o~ ~o50e. 52 ~;()t5 ;jc~ ~;:SoS ~zy>Qj"~!3

e.:J 0.;

r0oz')ot:>oD OOCJ C:W!\)S ;S;fu;:SSe:>J

KJ.9,oW"liJ. @dJJt6 t3i.J..)Cl'>:::l L~e;o60 r6.Jai6<:l~~ ;S;fuiJ oSJ;6~~o& ~6J~ :iJScwoEI. 006055, 62~ 6"eD"1ZJ oSeJ6' D~6!3J~OJJoEl. ~Q"'6E<l0fl'" o:J"~e3S @J;;So~;o§ '305<6 ~~~e;J.) <frJoB;}$ ~~lh e:l~ ~;o ~~06e.,0 @go £l~g&oSiSJJ' solO ~~J6SS6011"', ~;6;:Soe:JoQ~;:S oSt:1~et t.':;;5d..o:Y'~ Sloe" d$)Q"e$~ OJOt?~, ~(!S~~ ~6')~OibJ""'J..6). l§a ~6~ SoS~ §"~ ~2:::-;;:J'>~ ~0.ti;l0t:S60, ~g)o':g.50t:Se.,0 ~c.:, g)0"~~~e;J~, ~~;os~~v$Jo s;g;fu~ &oe.

;;,o~oS ~o)oi.So&1O ::J ~eJ";.)O-?3"fOJ.. ~L~~ oSl;fu~1Ul LK~o.:sKlUlrP6"6J. @eJ" ~~oorsO"c'Od. ;;;S.y>;5;;:5;fu45 ~oS5oi$ tJ1>1O§ aJlc;fu~ocmoe. eC";jctJ.E<l§, OJO~oS @c00i:S06' ~so~o ~von" Cl066:J. !!8 ~e;Jo "§;;)VO ;;50";;:56;50 oS.....,lej~. ;fu;5§ @e

oJ>

86

!rfJ:5Jot;; ~~

'"

~;$~e;J is)~iP;5

:5G&f::botiSlSo r:SOLdd ;;S,~O ~lS.;S~. 5J

~e;JOfT" sc'Ofuoi:$colO§ sot5~o S"oe1 ~1:S0ri"e;J~ c6oIDo~owi6 IO~~ ~coK ~~ <fuol?~. (!OO"ri oSJ;;So .i)g)Q oS~~VJ_ !ile.g)e, oS~~e.l)ri", t!9O;OOeJJri" .:S:r>fJ2:!' eoer-o. solO oSJ<6 ~~g)ji5N", ~a~'6"~ ~~eJ" ~ g)-'6;._,oli @~ cS~~elj'l ~~~Ql)& ~C~60 @;fu;SoO"i6oSJQl) eoeJt>@~ i5~ t.':;oe.Joml. eO"c.1oCE<l§, .zsoLci:J{i) ~g}) t5J~ a6:lXJ~ eoe3, ~cD:l ~6:>s;o iSJ~ a~ru&oEl.

e.,s g)c0_dS:lo ;6i§S~ t!9;S6~;fuo @:::l oSJ;S:baJ g)<:ltlra f1!){;) ;;$~Kej ;6~lOg ~ ~tl~ ;SorooG)o{;) eoeJ:J06;5J..C"~ ro~ c'Oq;e~ ~~fuoO:O Ifr'b;5 I[\!S:> ~s.s~3e.u qJ"g)o~OJ"6:l. ;6oSJl(\ 05SoS~& g)g)t;i 05~~o;6) e30" g)g)ljS GJ"rl"o;:D t:)~~Ofi" @oSJ6J !)DIl~ ;:)~~r0S6y>~o t:)o~gOrl" eO;;)iiJeiJoooiO OJ"6J Ca:1>JC:l. 9.b:lOSo~ ~;;)rSe;JOS~ ;;5~~0 .i)g)'IS ~~~~~@dS:le;J :;,~ :05J6~ eoe:oot')g) @~~d5J;;S~e"o 3;l5f\0B. IS lfl@d))e.u W"El~ejJ~o socS6JJ, c'O~~ ;6o;66e)®~ t:JoorS.i) S"oSi:Y>J. @<>~~ l?roeJ~o ~o @oe$geiOrl" §D;5~XJ~ fi;oa <50~~f$et: es @@d$)e.l) 6JO~EJ6g sJO b'>OJJ. f!!)OJJej rS B"SIOd_ oSJrSo rS LS os.:,Ori" @ ~ 0 ~~gSG:l"e_)<S:ls.:,ot3 @06J6' ~g)~~!:b ;:)oroot;Jo{;);;S @o;ooeJ~ ~W" :;fIDJ a06~ei;;S..)t.Sc'O s";ve>" GJ"eot:S~O ~5Ilo5. 53

<5~so oSJ;5 .;)ci:Je" ~.sr'ei&50{;);;J" O"~ oSJ;5o i:lJoce5~;o dSlJri"e:l)7T" ~Ov;S~..)6J~w ~i6~ a~ oSiJDJOJ . .,Jocs.,soD, ~;;S~ ;;5~so n£>i:5eowi6~6 ®e ,;))<60 ~6J~~~n" aD" ~;50 ~~c;)~~11", 0»;60 ~~0-1:)i6~n" eoC6JS"aJ~. ;Q3;l0 a~..)e;Joej ~i6~;6o ~~So ;:)~Ori" &o~~~OScoS"t$.), cfui6;& ;6eiS0sO<5o rJ~o S";;$e"oe5ci:J. ;::5cfuS"D;6 ;;)e~c0_& t3~e;Jot3, C"1Od_ .;)ot:5JsB;;)c;fuoe,y.~. C'$loe3, ~i6~ ii:1Dd$):oe ~oili ;;)g)l?oS"~, rJ~SoS"~ Q"O~ OS6[1~~ ;;$,)C:S~ eJ"rl" ~[I~i6O'>fOJ.. ~~;& cfurSo .,)oi5JsBoSCcfu;5,l~eo. 006 fi"~ N"KMeie.u, ftJ"6~d5J l:ii\i" OJ"K5SeJe.l) ,~;fu cJ"~S~;._,u.tdS:lO<:lW, oJc:?,l c5 -n<''9;v.iJ<>txl ~Cll<6"'>g},§S6~s._,." ,?o"§~S ;;S5'1;N"g)~ ;:SoIDoOo~;5 rSey>~e.>;fu ~Se06e3s~®Pcm. @cm€i 3l.06J~ O"a:l~d$) ~6£)60 e3~~;;S6o ~W"

Iil -"

e..~ S"6ti1o. ®Q.)J~ K~ Dose ooc.:, 6-8"~o:ln" 006 eao6Jexl" Sloe>"

<i}.~~ ~~e;J& c60c06<S:l c6Jep~ ;fuo~e;J~ ~SEloi$6oe 6~ <lS~U1

87!

:OCi\J'>O'OU. ~~ 1!;!ltJoS~~ Glf,P"eJ<6J ~;S::O~{;)oiSJ!5"~OU. ~~a§ t':Sai\l<'c!)§ a..s g)~;S ;:S<6J<.reo11" ~6~a~ ~ail~o, e.s ~el.:B"g))~ ;S<6Joa:lOTl" ~N" ~;fu~o ;SJ~011" ~~C~Q)j.

!ll"6ec.§~o& C"O"~ cSJo1SJgs~~ ~ID~ ;,:roSO C$i\J'>WO& t:1i'tf'>'6"'V ~Q)j g)r:l"l'CJexJ 50 eJSeJ~oEl cl;;~tSJ. @;;3)BS" ~;6:p>e;oeJ@JS"60 ~t>

(jl -E)1jl w.. '-01.. ~

;fu~ S'b""'O"e)~ 120 eJ~P) at:r' wO~S:Jg):)ot)~ :OCOS~a> dloE; ,eo~{).

~J;S s''&""-3''eJe? .;S~P;1'tlSJ~~ g)CJ"Ji6~eJJ g)a~eJe? Zl.;SJlgSc5~ KJ~o~S'JooC"1SJ. OJOiJo oSoe) Fi";;SJ ;:6o~~. ~~iJo~ oSoe') sa~tI~ o)::lB~~ g)a-eo5:nq! ~6bdSxJeJEl iJ"~ g);:6..)~~<6 ~~. ®mlii ~<S S'b""'3"eJeJ ~:6JSt @~oS~~~ ~~f!>'::J g)~6~;S c:)e1~ ~g)) so5. ~6.Jd @oS;6O":O§ ~~ .;)!h&;iirl" lrl"ilJo~ §,,;S~Ku~ ea;S.l~ g)O"S;;SS"i8"e;.~ ::i'&;fi>:o flQ;6otjJ"SS:J~;S (p"h,~ g)C"S~a> ~~6J. GJ"tSJ ;;§c;6, 5!iJS ;S1"i~eJSJ <S~~6JS"~, ;6o~g c6J0><6~e.Dn" g)~rVO~S~eil~l:b. f>tJQ [¢s&o (1'909-2005) K;fu:Ooi::l;SC":'J @)S"6o lD"£.b~ l;JoQS"e) ®I$tl e3~;fu ;SKO"eJe13 ~.sseoi:5co& GJ"B:O ;:J"ri5S ~g)~o& 2,J"I"iOl1" ;6:p>~s:"oSeJo& ~6~a.rjo @)~~iY~ :OO~~o{)oEl. :Oesu:og, ~Ma~o l[1"£bro e3i\J"~ ;)IDSo e3;:J"&J"& 90 'O"~o cl;;oE c5~cS:l06 54 '5"6"':D~ 05505.9;:) BoEloEl. 54

~ §":Od_ ~®~~~s g)C"S;6O~e) ~O\~~ OSs(,.c6 ~t.d oS)c6 g)~;()o~eJ @~~, ~t""S~ L05;6:p>~eJ) ;furSSJ :0<2011" C!!3oef'ffrS S~Flo~ @O'O"eD. @e.l"n ~0s0e.l",11'" ~U;2:r' l§JawooSOeb~;:J :O~~lh ~~oS-B"ij 055,gbo;6 @lS5<4.0i:5e§SSJS~ 605. g)~rS'O"®;et ;6)rS~ DoS5 sBWJdJ eJ~~li o".i~oEl 19836' <6Jo~;&. ~rja!;' a;;S .. i~J;;S.£i e3S'de.l<2 ~,~~&I 07otSe"OSS;;Jo, ~;;J"60rio& @~~~d5J~c6 t::.Efs11"V ~;;Jo ciiDoJ~ .;)1"i2:J6e1lrSJ.5. S"~ ~reo11" 05J~ cfuloS~ @~otS ;;311"::lJ. @ocDsSoSey~~ @~95IT" ~~d5J~~eor:J"? 21CS .t~;g~ rt.,?:JeJ @~s oSSOS~O 05~5d5JeJ"~§ <w>5 ~Ql)& ;6o~tS;fueor:J"? @;()eJ) ~;:S ~O"~<6~oS;6

~ ~ o~ ~~ ~

;()~o5Jo11" &300"?

~6~~ :OO''e505~OS,¥ iJo~~s C!!3oS"o§.~ ~6~6.)a~~eil~d.tS~, @;6ru ~g)oiS~o CihlS(,. o.'ri·"()S ;;J;6);;Jse;;(u ';)cDCf(,.~g)Qon" ~eaeJ;(u

88

beJa~aS'~~~d.tS~bloSol1" g)~6J~ KJ5 1!;!l~o£oa. ~o;;S~J. ~tDoaJ"e;S:J.., ~S6e5oSo~~;:J SJtlJoaJ"eJS:J.. BoElrS ~~e;u <fu<>l?~ ;6)ot':) ~t:So5"eJvSJ ~rienruru~6J. @~6-~ D:l€;~6 .a~eJ) O"res;&exl~i>Jd..o.x>. e..~ ;6XtlJ 1W6~Qi, :oO"S~§ @ocDaJ"trlO tl3~ g)6s ~ l;S~l?'(!) ~S"60 iSJc>~~ e.~ o~o @~Q'Se1~ BotSW":os ;S5~c& .ntSs .;)Oe§o:l.i·"@O 5"~S"6:l.

GlO"~~6oK~d 55 ~6bdil c.1S:oOS~<6J ®~~ @~;;.).Je:l)"; n~~rSd.El. @(jeJ, EP"6~d'S:J d1noS~ dfuoS$JeJ) ij6 1!;!lar;~<s0"~ @l1i:56~~t:r'~ ~~SJ(,.oe.:o~6:O @~ !!!)go. ~I:» ~6 ~~oS ;6;;St>~~ @~ ~;;5£ 1.?J~~o~~ b6o~;5 :Ova:)l1tl3~OJ. ~o& 26Jio~, :JoSd5Jo& OY'OJ 6~ is:>~ ~6Jfu~oSd_ ;;Soq:.,e"oSe;cSJo Gl5w;6)"v;(u ~5§~, o:,e!~ @go a~sGoSeJ":Os ~dS:>ad..~N'd6:J. ;56 &J"6~d'S:J dS:oQ'S~ ~/:S)Cf&ot:lJ<6d. ;:6oEl[1QQ'S;:6;(u ;6oSJ..zy>rS 056W"eJoej, ;fu;5!i:l g)tS~ 5'>iiJ"ll. @o66,~ S'>DJ"'ll.

Q I;J e> ceJeJ

~n"~ g)~~~ ~Q"6~ erSoB<6 ai:J~oW ~<6~iils.sXeJ ;56J,J S'>iiJ"ll.

@BSO~ ~§~'JP;o<'eJ;fu @c05ows ®O'3"eJ& ~'Eig)oiS:JsSXeJ11"[). g)tSSoSJo, ;;)5(:tf;6)oSJo ;6~~dil O5o~sGKeJ11"ID. lt1o;OB"~ @iS6~~ @;(u;:)oQ";:Jo ar:'l:l!f GJ"ID.

zy>6~aqfo Fi"oSJ eS~;,1~e;~, K:l6J~e;~ e3<6J::li::l.)o5. ;;j;fu 1S£)o~;:J"Q ~r;,.,o (1861-1.941), ~g)) g)~S"rSotS (1863-1902), ~ @6g)o/:S)e;u (1872-1950), a:l~ !&e1~~~ (1895-1986)eJ 66rSeD i:SBQ:l'>:6J. ;:)6 ;:)dSJs5 @'J.Jo ~!5 (1817-1898), ;;JOeg ;futS£i:fu.>oJo5 ~voSS (1861-1946) 6i:5;6eJ ~~ g)~eSOr1" i:5BJoi:}'>;fu. ~ a~6J ~~~cilJJe.l) ~b;;)Jo~, iiJ"owfue? oo~ fi"~J g)~.sg)CJ"SeJc:rlJ"w ~~oi'J~iiJ"~. 6a ~~~ooS ~ifu t:5f{)~;6d_ ®~@"dSJou!fu ~oaJoeoi::l t5£)o[?S;:J"fi) uoK:lt>O. <2~ ~~~~ ~DJ"'e.D Cl06 ~rSd. {9:lOJ1'eJ~ i305rSg)no ~~~~ml. CiSY'<6<$)6 ~11", 60S .t~~oSJ~e)S:J ®~~~i§J CiSY'QsoSJ011" ~o",()~a:o 6Y>~eJt':og i:5£)OLe:5N"9 tJ"r\J'>o @JdS:l®J.0iJ"~. S"fi'>, oSJtr;5~6 §"~ O"tlJeD ~(,. ~o5:Jod ;60;:S~e9 @~e 0"5§ @~o§ !!!)~ S~<ii;;.uy.§ ~g)OiJ'>1il. ~ Clo1il g)6J~ L{j$:lOY'eJoSJQS oS:l;6soCS&' ~&i:5;:J";;;51SJeJ <'.l"i6a3"~eD B"6;:so:,t:$i!J"Q)J.

89

S~~~.9, c§g)6o 11968 ~~S~ 6.te?~ B~S<1:;5;Sc6Y>~o&i ~ese)coosoEt 6;5 ~66:l~ oS:l6&oi$~oW 1925& ~J~G'illt>~ &t;1"J)~J~ ea"'ll' p6o~oS:lOXlOe,.

e..,s ~eise; X{;o{JitJ6ano8, $e;;S) bOV!£J;) da~e'6;;5J ~~jeJ'>fT" §"1 "'.s.iSJo l.iSif~~c30a. e..S ;;5.;5J6~;;5o e1a~e1Jve1)o8. <i1J,:j6~e1;;5J.;:wse.'3 ~~dle1;l~tJ ... ;B(5;5ctY'ot::! :J!J:;;o{J;5 §Og eJe;~st!3 6'!£iV"!?"e;U IU;"!§:Ja~eiJ;5Ja. /l/)otJ;0 jcS;6;:s'o(J ;:5;J<'d;;5 ~,:5)qJ"~. ~D5fT"oPiJ'> j)w.§"ObJiVdaJJ. Slddlw ®.;1)4f..o~~ 8J'>~ ei'l;e)t;, e..,s;Btj' DJO~ 8J'>~;jcrlJo ei~;;51:?Q)J8 .iJ"~ ss 8J'>~ <i1JBoe1 .;:5vo1:J"m, <i1J8oei tiJaodorr> 6~gSXl)rflb~ eo~e;tJ1 1:J",::i:noGl ~6lT"

~ ~ ~ ~ Q

IT''alJ;jCS:lOI:::''~ OJ"dl a'lctDe..;,a:5~eJ~ ::;& eJO;;)).:5 g6M &.i5eJ

0-

j~~iUt>c30a. jrSJ ,f)e;:;0 cror:n. tOre;&, sc;:) 31d6Jw

g)e;EJotJDv;) 05.:PLeio sPdlsO;;5coBc.b.56

g)~6~.:6 ~el'#~§ 6iS;;:)e;~ ;;:;0& ~~~cm e88t$;6!fu i3oC'J;;S ~;:;:)'>e.u. 5":0 ~V' ;()o~~fP";;::Y:>ex>. ;;:;!36-.W" ~~ f!3dSJ;;S a~gGS:i;o ~8 ;:6J~on";o6.s~oi.:S6. ®o61~ roOJenn" t);;:) 6iS<6e.l ~~ru~ &dSJ;;S ~t;;oiS:l~<6d. ®Q5n"~;;S @olt9~;50rl" lSD~&JSOXl t.Jo~o5. o.')y>;;S~IDJ g)~Q ~~e.rJ lS()F'lcS ~e)~wn" ~~~.9 iSJ<>kJOCJ. ;fu<6Jc;':oe.l~ =s ~~-8"exro, ~;(j~exI". ~80"e.u'" Q506 ~.DQ iJa~w e;6J..~ii" ~dSJ;;S ~~OtJDe:i:J. ~ ~fjJ"e.l& ~ a..s& .;IDlrPo SJooo ~ &.!36-. ~;AtJ ;6.!)6o@o~ ;o6sIDoi:Sa6~, g)~eoiSe36~ @d));5 ®~CJ. ~ omqJ<'e.l~ &.'§ @~o6 @~Oj) g).DO ~Uln" @db;;S epo.DoW"CJ. 0il~;;S,.;e.l13: ~o aoE.l, ~Od))O eoE! S"~, 119.D OOtlJo SJoC3" OJ"~~o ru50~rS ZYO~a3"'vod' ~JiQ5;,'J<>50iSrlv'S 60s.} ~6:lrr' D.1"~~ ose10~ot5a~. ~lJ'l~6E9§ 0))160 ®~~l9:O g)~~~;5J.~~. d))~c;:O§ tn;So g);:5Jl?d~rSd..E! !!;;)~~~ @~ ~~OS<6J o):lti@~. S"~, @c5 @g)~{3 ~tl dSJQ"go g)~ciSJ.>~~ ~~;5OSjl6) ~;So tnrS @ld3Ja2:lN"v;fu ~6;;kbJsS~eJt>:O§; ®.D~@ ~go NOe:?' ~rSiJDKI!J'l:O§ ~~o ~oa~ot5o.

90

:ill6~ ~rS i\i"&~~~~ am~6- ~~go~o. (95 Q5.)rS @J~;S~e;i;So. soro~ ®t) ~rS 3.0L5diY>v~, ;()J.e){3[), '&~ro~e$fJ. ~u~ .n~i\i"~ rJ;fu~dS:Jo tJ~ eo~ID. ~a ;();fuclSJo& ~;S <fu;:5;fu ;furS -ae6o&:o ®~U~O"5"e.l!::il @S~g)~. ®El ~;6 ®o6g~~§, @n£iS6 i;)o;3r.S;SvSJo ~;5J~~g, ~n"~ l~ff~' ~6JGJ:>a;e.lSJo i;)Oa:lOeo.g)olJ. Q))rS g)15s dbQ"ge.l~So ~~ @a. ~2:l~. ~i6s ~;6 ruoGl, DS.;;5 S"~C±Uo 6lS6-n" oSg:)j;:~eo~~o oJoe$ @~;()60D0, iS~G-n" osm:J~eoa ~O~ ~ol&oo SloW' @o~ @)GS~6o. @o.u~ <6J;6 ;()~Jt6~;6&, oil;5 ~u!§.em.~~:a@; @JQ"i6 @lQ"60 0il<6 OilrS<:S:l oSJol~. cfurS<:S:l@; ~15~~ ~~ eoa ~ l19;()cin rJoeJoe;io& ~esCJ is!§6-.~ t5rSd..o6~~rS es aSJg)~ .;:DrS;fu SJoW" tS!§6-n" eociKeJl:S~ o:ssfu ~W" ~£be3I;i). aJ~'8", & ~;O~ ;fues~ aJo5'"S"oe$ @l <fu;:Sc;;o;5) ~;;S ~d5J.DOs.fr>v~oll IDdS:JQOSci~dilKe.la~! @o.ug @eY' tjcl.ileJ":a§ ;fu:O~ ~66~ ~ .t!i;)c.ilSJo~rl()l\ ~O;:So .DOS .;)y>~;&. .D6~ eJ~o ~iV"~ ~IUOS6J~sS~~o 5"OJ, .;:D3i~D~~ @S~\irS t3d1JtJo c6.J0~;&. i6J;Sg~~O ;:6o~gon" .n!§fuoi$ey.(O§; &~a~6cb~ .DOS ;act~oiSaSeJfu;;S S~<6e50r'jD ~J~o5.ut>~ ~g)ot:J"CJ. 57

iJuQ"6t:loon" c6.J0<6~e, ~a~ ®!'Po~ ;:S~~ @~d5J;:S.sv !p"n"el)n" .;)i15c!loC, OY'~:O ose.sVoiSl&o lJ'lSoo ~l6;& os;ai3dilKeJru6.JoE!. @V' ID~~o..:5~v~;:S @~;;)60 e3rS'-;)_yd.> &!I [)~e:l;S lX)~d5Jifu 6~~i3J ~f!}~~~eJ"~ ~o:o ;fu66 ;;§m~.;Se)ilJ eoEl. ~6~, ;furS~ oo~ ~~~;;S ifu<fu~el) ~ g)~.s~~6o& [)[)~ ~o.u~ ~~S"vod' ~.noiSK[)R ~G5Jo;s~ ~o&:poE!oiSJsSGSe)R-J t50~Oe,. ;a~~ @O-5"e.:l~o~ ~6S@~ rJaoSeJO"S" g)g)~ ~cmet OJ"fu ~-6.s6GY>~~ @~K~o ~;:S"sSGSe.lfu tl300:l0e. rl:;~~6~s &.S oJJ~ KJ50w;6 ;:;:)'>~~o @C) rueJ"~~~. DS:lQ~iiY'S ®;;5 ;O~~'®o~o£Da @lQDz:lOS~ rl!oe".;oE!. ~oS" a..S ~66K~rS ®~.~OJ'leeY'~ ~~t:;'Ivoej. @6so6 ~~~;:5(j& @EJ ~~;& @6so6 ~~.t>~~ ~ @~~.;SeJ:'veoe".;o5. ~~.') ~Q'i~;a§v~ rueJO~ ~~.s& meJl>£) ~KoQo ~~;& @ KJV'£) OJ"~OJ"~ :Oo~o~ @o~;;i):O Oil<6o

Q.... §ii CJ

~ Q)e.l~eo~o5. ~<6~e.l~ ;oe~ @O'i3"e.l~ ~Ie§;& @o6@~g;KeJ

Q~ ~ ~

91

c;)B;;:b@a£ ~em OSe:::beilf)i6;) ~SO~~ ~6~f) @OSB:::be§ 6~;:So SY>C" ;Oo¢SifurS~ s~~~~ g)c6B~(.ij.

S~~;;S:ot>§ ~~;fu c6:rj~..)tl §"rS~R ~~dSJll" ~~~. 56 (1) g)~ ~;:S;;J)e ~4Sg))s @oS_9rS;fu c;)~oii>s"GSe&O~ :ih:l6f)~~oEl (2) $ ~<6Jo&;5 ;6)~b. ~C"~;::SO@JG$~8"'~ (3) 6t:J"~p" (,fu~b.«).;S,;t>aloc&>, ~;:S~fi&, Lc;)S~®& ~'><;oll" g)'C"S0'5o~e&~6"G$.). ~6S ~~.~. ei;:) .,§g)~o& iJtS~6J0'5v~;:S ~&a...S ';)B~~ ~~~ ;;)y>l?~ r6m.Jo~o;;)oe so tn. @El @~e,§ c;)~ ~6..)W"~s", aC" @'1ia &r:j~K @~GSe'l~§ '?e&..)i~O ~l?:fuo sotSJ. @El o$:J~b. eirS ~~o @~~g)d_ @S03J<>eli6oSoe)Or1" ~~oEloi±l~ ro"4iSe~ ;:JoaJo/;lo{JoO.

:;J6S 6"e)J"!:b v~1!Xl ~~ao6OSiS.lJ? ;iJ.>1:$ "O"ve:cr" , S~"B"V~ @~S<6;:S "§ol~O)1"i" tJ!jotJOe>~El g)<MJd.i>;fu. @~SCS;:So ®o[l sOSvo ~&3"'~.s;;),t'OIfbtS ~Q"tS;;J~ e§oS;:S g)Q".;;SoS"cl:l. ®eJ"R r6.sL;;SCfuoel"",vi&J iJ~i:S:lJ§O~ 5"0S@o$:J~ 5"6:>. @~SCS;:So ®oej ~;:S S~<>.1"S~ CS~~01"l" ~O.s~o.;5)~OSc:&~~3i eJrncfusE'oS6o. OSY>;;SOSCSorooQ"et ee1Jfl, ~o6~~ @~o ~;S:,g;oStlo. (00Jv~;:S ~g)6"~ ~g)o15~o&:O osg)~e§i6"

@i6J¢)0'5o&§ @ii>Js";::Stlc:,

a'$.).);;S~ d5VJOSS"e.xl etrSo rSo.iJoeo.ilsE'QJDv~, ~ ~wsv~ @v0'56JJg;iii"V~ ~;;So a~ l;;SdSJ6d_f)& I!9(OQJDOS0ll" «)o~g)o~ §O~ 6J615\~!§6;furS ;;SBs;"ifu<>e.;o a~o~ @tS0'5o~rS e£l~0'5e'ltelS"~, dilrp" .. ~~

~~ ~ . . ~

<p"®§ OSBOS_grS go£) ~QS09"~6~. c6ifu<>elo :::JgoSo{';);:S g)f;J :::J OJ.Q"e;)~

f!!)0~i7;Je;;:;§O~;..fJ, ~g}~ ~~~~i'J":::J§ @;S:,~11" ~~l:2s ~5"0~e,')~ ~6-£O"J~fJ ~;;So dilJOSe~ d'~~;:S.l<6J>t:i:> ;;,)0& §Oopj @OJOo~f)dJ) q)D~e:D ~.~ Cij"e~ @c6S1-'~0 e§oJ..):::J;SB, g)~6~rS «);;)y>i:Y>6oW ~~a f'?oeil ~§& @~~ c;)6~q! ~§~~ t:3®Se;,~~1:l @6s06 @glSgy:.~;6 g)C"Sg)Q"~o. !l~QJD6 8"'~e soc!' @ e.aT1" @pj~ tSeg)oO"eJ(O ~~t!Jo

~6o.

'~~~9 etSiSJa :5"§& ;3~..J o))O"§ e.J"c6~ ~~o@So, ~~O~~oC ~g))8? g)tlS d'iXJS3. @JCfu0e3~o ~(,fu~, ~pjo~~ ~;6).~O"OStJ~.

92

o'Po~ti;;So g)~l!.:>oiStl<fu~, ;6;:ly>e3":::Jd_ Q')5<wgo(1'> ;:ly>5J;3cfi)e.:>~tl Se1~~.9, e166Ja B~eot.Y>r;i,. 59 ~ ~~OlPSO !Oe3":OS U"~~d.i> P<;seso~o SOQ). ~e(!!JO~tSof\§ ~pjOL~SO. :J6S 06...,.,~OS @o~60~:O:§;, ~;:SOJ"~J ijln<>c:;i ~~O~:OS rJOaJOeo{D;:) @O~O. c6.J0;:S~E. @~JS g)oSxl~ g}O"S~e;5;:SQ').)Ja, eJ!f.SQ').)Ja ~W". .'OO";}oe;5o ~oiJo5>~d_ Sb ~~Ol?"S.'O§ ~~a6J.

;S:,~S~ ~~OJ"~ ~ S~:OS;S,;/'UWOl1" iSs&e9;eJ;S:,~O~;;Sd.OS.:?(.ij @) ~~OJ"e ;SoJa~ OO"J~ ;S:,~S @wD~c:.fufJOaO"? ~~;;:)"'8Q:O e!l0e§~e§ iJo~~o g)6S ~OO g)S~Oi:Y>e,,:O os,;:sO s66:J~oem;:S~Cll:l~ ;oC"S~;S~ fi'fJ ta.~V<6JO& ~Q" ~~O~SO 6OS..).'O;SB1l" eoa ~oo,[). e3~60l¢l~" e~Q"SdSDe.u" !&Y>Q" ~~OJ"~ rJo.1o~Orl" .;)0" :lS@~~tt <6~oi:SJ~a:J"a ~c;)'t eo(fu) ~VOJ"ca .;)e;a ~i]>oe~ @:OscOJ. rJo;:}rS, ~fJJO~e>§

OJ C""""IC'a .....& or...

i50erS W"eJ"iooe ~~e.u ~c:SJ &oOS52l), .;)~:J~o~fJ @[)~;:) ID~~vg;

C;Cll:loi$)~oem~6~ 6[l::";:S~e&J <J" ~6C1ilo :O~O711" ;:'k):l~eoe.

g)CSS.zy,o;66-e)~S, ~~Z:'3S iS~v<6Joe ~OSJ~Boe oS5OSg,;:S aoo~c;).J~ ;6~alo ~W" oSBOS_g;:S 300KwlU@JoCJ. 05J;s';0l;le.u (O~OT1" B"~e} @g)QOi"l" ~liJt>oal§c:SJoQ DJ'05§ g)6S ;;)QJoSooiSOSv@ eotIDOe. ~ ~cSd.)d. g);:)e.Jt>g)i:l, 9;O~rl" t5oc1 @6~wn"soS. g)~"§o\9"et: @i:SIS~SJ 3ii±l~ .'OdDQ'D .'Orool;J;;Srnrl" ifu<>t50'5eJ::" eoemoEl.

g)~~;:J ~aJj ~~~ g)c:ro~ ~o ;:Jo~;:)~~ e~dfu~ g)~~W" SY>WO ;;)<6?;;S ~g)) ~ .'OVIDE. e..se&';;.'5:)O"!§6:J ~6au;:JoiiY'eso :a~~Ke.ulU6"i:S:l. @OSj'CJ OJ"BoS.:Jl;JS ~e.:r>;;So8 @~oJ6S OY';S;:SW" t50~~. :l~~:o ~pjol~S l5.afl" ~w§"e.;o~~;;Sd_;;'JQ'DdUO& eiJoQ"'Sdfu~ ~c:;o ~;;S g)w0'5~ ~6:JJ~ L<6c:.fue§d_o i§~6. e1;;Ser'.'O '"5t6Y>', '"",El', 'rJ.!b' @~ zy'o);:SIDJ_ g)eDoiS:lsSc6~~§ i1J~;;S~ga6 ebl0'5ol) OSoc(i.,)O :'~~;So eiJoQ"sdSDE;§. g)~~~;;.'5:)~ ;:S£)<6 ;SOIDOQ":O§ 66f9~oe. so

S"a:J~ e...!& g)O"~;;,1~SJO~OSv~;;S e:>tE<1"e>g)d_e5Si'J".l oll:J~Se:>g_t'OI ~~QO~. @C) @e§a ;S@..)OS_g;:s ®~ ~;;S..)c6e>~ eoe.DOe. pj;;S 6~6 ~6.si6J ll!J~~~~~;:sd.. g)Cl"S~ 0'5~~ ;:J0S:ll{l6~. ~~pjOL8"'S;o~ @o~M~;S

93

g)O"e5tfQ~~ ~eo11"~ i6tl.)e»e. t30~[l. @:!)J_c)S"e,) J-~13 @o~ g)~~e,)~ ~3~~1i" cSJC6r\em"V.

cSJ~o .;)~e~[:jI> ';6;l~~jc,?' @:O ~~ ~;6;l '~ge.I' '~oedJed '0J"I':+6-='i~;6;l' joO" ~nO" &~elloS~oE:l. cSJ~o ('!..,~ cSJ::J~ '~g)OO1i-'

e)oJu oJ _.a G- c:.... _.a

e~6J' @:!) ee.n~~Ffe~ ®~til '~o ~~N'd6J @~d ~~~o ~~~cP·

~ ~;;)6eJ"StJ§, ~ ®cfugQ):.cW>:O~ 5"t)s;&~e? g)O"S~e)!:b t:h:S~ 3~~~~d.;;)":p6J !$ dO;6 ~~ !$ g)0"$~U! ~g)O\)~ff .0~oSo8 oS~ ~~0"e,);6) ;)oiSJ§,,;6deSJ~6J @<SJ.O":oeG ~g:)Jso B!ilocro @;:Je,);)

e)

@~tfJ!3~ ~o6J Ig tiO;6 ~ g)~~v~ ®iP ~eoo 6€)crD~d'DeJO~~

.;)!il&oS tS~~ @~cSe):t:l eoe.xJo1:l. @oe3 g)OOS~v ~tSrJ5Jattt.'{J d~rS ;.6o;,jtS;;Se)2[:j1>, Kr>!3J;;.)y>O"~e.l~N"; OJ"O cSJoD6;6o~;;J"; eIDg)ge,e,)~N" OJ"51S ~c6:> lUBoll, If}oSoiSo r\JBob 6e3~~tld... &~;6 ~~e,)~~ e~~c:i'ill6 tS~~ ~50iSoSv~ ~of.x)o5. g)~oS6on" O"doiSGSo~tJ, ~0;.6~i3§On" ~eoiSr\v ~cSJo;se))1i"b rJl~t)oS~;;SSJ ~~O"r;~)flg:) S"~ g)tJ"c5 ~~§ ~g)C"!'r.. ~g)oiSeJ":!)1S ~;6fu§on" (6ofu6::Jd~eiJo @ol:SJ~

eJQ .... 'a 9

@oS;;56~;6 ~c6:>o;s'{JJ. ;5c6JSJ"6'l)~oStI.:loo:mo~ ol:iO~cfu~W

~mJdezt>v6J. ~ g)~~s @o~oSJOi'i" QS:,oS!fu 6VdiloS~~;6d... ;.6eiS~!36-~' @c3cSJoe3 g)0"$~ ei;6 onwg rJS6JooS;&c} eeu<6JSJ~g:ll;)On" ei;6 -i:S6:l;¢) §,,;S~Ti"e§®oSJ ~oS e~~amC:J 6Y>S1>oEJot;l;6 t:DJt>;;5{}sS ,6~oe1gli

8:'l"eIDSoSe..Jo5"Cu.

oSJo;6~& 't:D~o:JOS~60 e51;6o®o. @el :oe~O"o:oo, l0s®o~o. 'a~~ g)@_dDO o5:l;6 c6:JoS;:» rUsr\~e)SJ ;.6Qroo~owot). oD;6~'{J ;fu;6o :OoS~~ g)ii~ @~[)Oa:lOr'i" @~oS~oiSoSiSJJ' 5"&)~ O"'{Js ~co @t6eCS oSsoS~. @.iJ.>6 ~§ @rJ",}00)' a,t"6r,<tO ;:JoL~t::)D<tOo <SJ;6;$.J~ i:)ouS".aon"

~5"&oe.JJ;El. wO"S"'-l3cSJoe3 ~eicSs~5~ ~eJcS,,~ @~o. S"'n"D ~~o:$)~ ;;'btSeil l!::l~N"~§ !3e:n2.J"g,);:S OSo~EJ. t:r":O ;:;see cSB~e)o, ;:So~t:l6o.

51' eJ e) n"

~<tJ"~e~ @B ~o~ao. ;;:)y>;6~~ ;futS6 ~W" @~o~on", @;:;S5g),) 0

6J<>Si>oO"eJoe3 @e eiCSrSJ S~~c~;6d.. iS~eJrSJo~ ~~oScKe)n"[t. ®~t$> oSJt>~to ;;S"t:S<6J§, ~66§ c6:>c;)s ~~a3;6 Oql ~5F1~~oB. S"e:>~ ~~~

---------

94

o::ll:lS @oB oSJo;6!'Js ~6aJoo c6Jow g)Q5:0~ (1;!)N'd_1iI. ~ oSJo~~$ to6a)ooo oSJot6C3"f) ~c;.~oS613Jt. ;:So~EJoiSJSJ<S& ~;6o 6Ja;:;Soef~. ~ ~;5o c rJo@JO"'dSJo ~oSod~ o:o:O~:O ;:SO" ~a-8~ ~otJoCXJ. @~B$Z

Q ~

6iSOJJ~ O"~ GJ"a! ";oSJ6J5 (1803-1882) ~I!.J~ 1:I~e)o[l,

e{so.jG;i, e;a,giSiJ'> S"of(,~ ,06~~, ciJ"ej ;:5aW~e;! 7'.s"Jv~qJ; iJofli:J6: s,:;i,iVoqJ, .ili6oB" ;).!j;vow 36e:J~il.Jc:;be'fJ~OXJ. o.;J, ~~ ~s8oiS"Uab ,;50e" ,;58CSle9' Qol)c;5 &~e; ;:5.;1r>.;:J66.ib. 6J

9,0" ®<5bo& g)~<P"S;6o& ~r;F6£<l ~soiS dle;SrJ".i5~~e) g)-8~~rSJS'"iJ, ~g)~oe CJOe~;6d.. ~i=J":OJ.n"fJ ei~oiStJo 5"6:>. 2X$3-ci Dil~o ~~& a~<S&t'l~ l?Q";6~~e) KJElon ~L~;&. g)~;6;,i)~e 2:\olEldSJt>e)O".sO" !iJSXJa:;:i,!3:l~5. ~~ ~~;;§~ ~~ (17 L2-1 778), ~.s5 g)C!"S~~ ~;g&;:!l (I746-1827), eoJ.,!5" g)O"Ji~~ L~2j6 (1782-1892). s.ty>Dd5Jc'5"~cSJSO"eJJ, e~Q"SOXl:O ~oe5RJ6Je (1870-1952) - @o66J<> @Ji:l"6oB~r:5 ~;;S;S e...!:5&~j_ @aoSJoe3, Dil~~§ ;fu6~!3~ c:6:Po6:J s,oL5dSJt>e;!3 t:S6J~ ~~Je):O. S,eJ" 9,O@CtiJ.>Vi6J f.l)-O~oB~e;~ ~ol;SooOJJ$ g);,j!;io ~~ 0:0;6 ~~e;let ;:SoSd..f\e,!lIlfu;6d._1:l.

~s~&g'l:O§ :6J~~~e? ~(fud. ;6.)~.s @~o ~~§:JoeJ:JoG<;6o&j ~®o~so 'tiloe. ~~6"':Od. @6o;5;6:)sScSf.)~oe::l c::oi6rr- C::O;:So @6o

~ ~d ~

i5rJ:J~oSe,;&. ~l3 ~:O~CfuJ~6- ;.6~~oSo, @~e ;G~zyoSod:o T1"~ ifJoo":'£t..).J"

~~eS";;se:,o~~e:n. ~~ <fu:!)~~ eoc@e~lj® e9g)ej Q~d'D;&& ~t;" ~gcS"';;S~~ eo~o5. ~® ~:Oh ~5 acrDe.J'>;:.)g 8.~;JCJe§Joe:ro&. ~5 i:3os.",e;I~ oJeej~~ eotJoW @o.lli& r\J~o~ ~~ @o~ ~~ot:S;;Se)~ aoe.noel. ~~'!!)c6J a..~~;::jd @5J5~bo OJ"!f.~ c6:><So 13Df\oiSr\e:l @e ~~ ;6~o @:O r<O~OiJ"[). DilB ~ql~on" ~~~eJ, cS,,8"e), ~;fuo.:a§ ;:So~eJ ;;)o!3:l~@ If}db<>eN''v~o ~ge)rSJ ;;.m.;.6& ~ot;l &JS~~;S~O»d O":!);;Sg ~~ ~~6Xe) ;6~:!)§ @oeio~6:l.

a.e5oSe.J S"e;loO' ~o~O"OȤ g)6~ <6:fuJorJ"a> ~'t:D0J)e:l ;oC"JS'Q)o5J~ ZY>OSr:5 c:snJ$505. ~c::o~to6~oJt>&"doSJje @g,)J. @O<6""eJi6) ~;6&

95

~r5,).J.g.61D ;6~~ ~oSi6. @o6:Jef g)~N"~§ T:f~oe.J)oEl. @o~o;s.eJ~, ~~~SeJSJt>, oSS~e) Lo5OS.9.i6~ ~ID~ S"~~~oSJ..lDi6J ~o5erl @oSso-i!o 63oe.J)oB. @oCS:l~ :06~~£:a ~oSeJo oSS~!iJP& t':9f\~6J. t!!lB;6o~ri~ ~O"J~eJ oS~l96:>~, @ooSJc~~ Lo5@~1D ;;J;'ji51'SJ;fuo SY>t:O" @JW"g)eio

a~ot:'l.

~

'~o5T>el.S ~""ri~trJsofJ, ~~e')0rY> ~eJ W"K~;:):)so& ~i6OS

c6~1'SJeJ ®~oSJ~' oS~oS~ :otl.50J0t9 ;,6~OOeJ;6:) 8)&~60 ~~eJo. ei~'O'l ~ o~Kei ~~K&, @odJSJ. ;:S~{)ej~<6 g)Q"i6, -5";:6;6 ;,6~ ~eJ

<il

~i6JSJaI!)8eJsG ~OS~ ~O"aS<) sviSSLS;OOo' {1'" ~oSJ~ !OO"J~:Od.

ro SJ)O"fBJ)::J:DS. @l~<SJtB 5"tSs~;OOo (c.\:S)J . .;)i5. C;;. ~) :06.s{)owoB. 9.Ef~ :060ei6 86sol)~ ~@cfu. @oCDtf> SoSeJO g)~S~e.l:l ~~~S"!&, t:l":O

,.D

~CfuofBN"eJ ;;.')~ @3;:6_§, s{)f\i60J"6otS6Jo ®otG, ~aL-5"!)Js 60Ko,

o:J"~e3S6orio, ~~reo. @JafJ6~o @~ ;;y,enoSoiS:lliloe.:PQl).

g)O"s~en a"~~ @3~S"~oSJ~g ~6Jag)Qori'> g)§l'Jo.::le:Jt>:'J§ W"M 0"5 ~~o~ g)t:l"SoSSoS~ @~!)!§~ e~~ @cS<660. ~;6o g)t:l"S~~ ~aS:l~ :06,S~t9 ID<S"e.l:I ;;Y>eJrleJ;fut>? ®&fS;6;6 @Sll'kfi) ~e&vi\Jo~ ~6060''ctDofi'' S"~ e§en~en 81'SJ6JSJotlY'-;j eoeJt>cm. tSa ;68"S~ e!!))~~oS~:O§. !le»rY>, ®q6Jl&J e§~93fi" ~;6 g}~l:5JeJ<6J a5Je~~~ ~~ofi". c6:li6 g}oasOSscS~& @JesS ~Q))~eJ;fu SJa06:J;;')6.:SoSlD\!J eoe.J:loB. @ ~~q;)eJ.) ;;.')5.g00;6, ;.6e-SeJ;s, ;:;)~B3N"6Js~, ~d3J<>r\;;)6ej.so, @eSJSi6J.~ ~osas g)~iV"~ ~:OcfuoF\o&SSoS~o, ~~S ~a!§ iV"cfuSe§~oS:w~.

~ee"i6 :06s~f:Cl ~ eAt,. oS~ ~oS:l~:O~ c0egne~i6e S"6J. -;jd:> oS:li6 ~~€J" ~ri:lo56 ::Jc:lY>iJ"6o @i6JaoY>s0' @iJo-60. 5"~ g)~~~

~ ~ a

!&;5)R";6J.0J"~ o5e.gOQ;6e;1s,.., s tl5.tQ;6I!)QS~ t':9 ;6e.tQ~e.l~ a..<6K:l<'

eJ"W"eJ!3Jo 6g_t'2I ~~::J6o. @G3 ;;JoS:lcti.:lo& @3 ;6e,gSQrJ" ~[)~en @~~s r6o~~e,)~. ee<6 eJ"QJtu~~~ @o6:>a1"eJ)C~ O"DS60 ~ @o~ @;5~O. O"~oSl!) ~e, i)l5:>rUeiloEl. flfolJ 05;,a o5e..gSQ@"'~IDeJI>E!)J @~&DS ~e,)!:p @o6:>~eJJ&g oS~cm . .;)~&oS;fuoB 5";5)nsE!)J B~i6d.o6JoS~ ~e:g;Q<5d' QS.i506;;§.rlO ~;X:J~0G:l. @oaoSJOil" ~ ooe;t!3oSJQ"S oS:li6;3l:>~ ;;JQ))6JoS"~;::JC" ~G'Jot:))sbcSeJl'J ffiot!:>oEl.

-~------

96

@l06:>,;;5~ g)~;S :06;;;CiJoc; 05~ ;;;)5l;l C"e; e..!&e§"!§6:J '@cful()oQ";6~i6 e:lJ0t:l"1!) ;;J5e&§ fB6r105I!)~ <l>oe!.:lJoE'l. ~~<Jt>~ ;605:l~ ~6~~o6J gil 056~eJ":;SS g)OOS~E!)J ;;3fuJS£ oSeJ~ eot!:>08.::J;;s,oiJ'>60 IDJ0tJ"e.lr:r::s,O" ~esoSo& @0J:);6~6J sa ;6;;s,o~6 ~OSJ~~, @5<fut>ee;6;;S;uo ~e)S"~ ~e)o 52 i5~.);6~rY> a~o~rY> 9.;fuOSJe.~ KJ£6"'Q)). :Oe)~6n> eoe1iJSO));6 ;6~wuO":O€; g)~::Jo ~6J. ii~~ rotlovOSJa l6~e ~~&') ~f.\e§ (e3.1943)

e,.:.""'"

B~J;6~n", '6~6!& 60rio&, g}e-;;<Sc>oXo& fu~eo5eii)O ~§e§SJt>,

@;6oS:lge§~ rJ"e~d5J~~ S"~or;? @ScDPri ;66~:o.J. ~r;? !~oo5a~oe. N"enfu iSW'eJ 5"9, ®~;6~i\J"e.> ~N" ';)oSe_EN" ~t;oe3' a'[).);6~Ql)~, f!:)8 tl)O"CiJo6~!&:>, 7J~~l&J ;fu)~o @d~EeJ o55li!cS:l ~-;5 ru~e05eso !&~ro~GOrl" ;;;)ef»:DoD ~o~8. @;;;).J6 ~;,S:,t><Ss&6Jeg !:5Jcr;? i\J"E!)JrU i:S(?eJ S"fu<5:J @o6JBJD~&g ~XVf\i6 ~@~o @<fut>n"e.>!3l @055"~

c

eoeffioaElS"OJ. ,63 ~i\JDe5 <6£);6 ezSeJeJ @~s 05$05~& o5eeil05

~o~!fu;6d ~oSJoiJ"60 L;;JCfu<>X -ee,)6'S~ @O{) ~~OWI ~oosO" e:><>3cti.:l ;:60050 oS~~ i5ol.Sr:;;o:O§ &60tSo a~oB.

0));6 !&'8"'8"eJ& ~LJDr6wo6" ea;;yot) (!!)6"~I;D:O!& ~o~B!& ;65e:><>N"!O\

,.., ._ el III el Il!' "'"

~ifu ®~~;;J;6 l8J~ctiJ~ffi;;;)!§50i3 ~QortO iiJ"6S£05roo -;56JJS£OJllID. e~eJr!)

:06~0"::Jse§ ~;sOJ'>~s (!!)@J®fs. g)-i!~g)rJ"Sl!)dSJaexl eiFi<6oei ~o~SeJO ~oS:ll0~, e)ro&:>El ~o5JlE\£), aoe:iod_e.) ~6:>;i}oo5.J.>lD;:Sy> ;6~~6JJl&JQ ~~~eJ (!!)~~~;6 ~eil~:-Jg @;fuS,y..1D OJ'>8"056~~ ~O:Jro;,a~{).

~0,§t;t3 ~O~eJ O)~05o ~~~dS.Da ~19r:D 6!fu.&~ a~~d.O"? t5a).~ctmQ ~~ ,;)o)J~g ei!fu&oS S";;3lStS:o ~;6;6)!&:1oeJt>cfu. @ i6J<.eJ~ MoE1'§~ SY>t:O" ~l:U ~~So.:m6 ;:):)eo@ l?t;Y'0Ssf§ (;)0e§50t',S)!:b~6~ ~So g)~@5oJoi5;& e~Q"~dSJJe ;6~S"0"~ oS:l506 SS1'SJ!&:1o~otS~ a~Q'Sbfb ~ot!:>de. ~d:l ~c0oi5oeji ®eile5,So)) ~.;?Q"Scfu:le.u oJS6-~ ffi~ ~o~~s .;:)e~;6o r;rc~r:p OJ"e ~4ii6e.u LOS';:)o-tS~ ;SeJJo5.uoeJlDS:! ~~oiSrll}" @cS5"~O ~6JeoEl. ~ @0-5"~ '§o vo~~Z, ~eJI>~ ~J:)~5. a.. ~~ ct'wo~.;:)e.Je!) tS5..)oR O)~~ O)~ctDo& ao5.)e5s 6Jes>cfu t3~OJJ.

97

~o~~tJ~ ~~d5Jo& ~tiJJ§'ioSe.:JO&~t:o d5Jy>~<S6Ja ~o:o~oB ~0"S~et: ~~§ ;J'>d5J§~o~ ®&:l1i>n @OKJoOeoW"[].~rS g)OCS~eD ~~6 @'lW85<;:l"U) ~~oiStJo~o @{)~WiJ"'fJ'>fJ'9 rS~e)~ ~'BeJ"i'i ~elJ~ooo[). ®O:O~ es e:N;irS~~~ ~c;a ~®§O11" ::J~;fu gj"F!}~~ ~Q)~ El~~ .~,11"[). ~eJ"~ g)C"S~f)J B"t:m ~~;:SJ.. <6:fueD ;:J(!3c.ilonc a~ c.il;:S~® ~o~oEloiS:lg.;<iJD[]. E.Jg;);S~ 66,)c:J5 ~~60& @;;fu~iij"~ .;)6JE1'6,rlVr\ <J.><6:rq;;~ iij"l5J ~<fu:>iJo~oi$:)~oeJ!>to.

~~'9 ;;J"di>S~od' colil eo<5"u)~COJ. ;;mc:see ~rSJ,~ru ~;6<iJ"Y ~g)6'>~ :a.<6Jl~rSp~'9~ cS.1506, ;fu1i>rUc:J6t:i~ogS~o IDeJ~;:S SeJ<!l:J S;:Si'iV"R- -'Bl d.kiS.J~;:S @5"o§._e..u @SElBcfDKlrn .t~. a~ oo~oS ~6J)o& ~.l9'9 N"cfu'9ei~OS:loB ::Jl'SoSJ@<S ;;');:5.)e,u ~~~ BdiroeJ;;fu!i:l~ ;S,J;:Sg<6o§eJJo. B"<5n ~~£oS"!3 6cfu i:S:l~ e:6J.. .;i)<S:l~e.u §Jc~ <6~oSJ~rS ;0rS:Jru ~~g)OOTi'" OJ"eta6 @J~;So i$:r<i~o-t:ico.

OS.JeS g)0"~6~t)0c:se& oSJeSfu KlOJ .:JoGSJq;sDd_ ~o~oEJoiS i'i[]t\;;S~Ollg ;fu<So ~ilJoo;;J<!oTi"'tZl~oSJ ~~~~ tiJo&1>oE'loi:5r<irulU8"O. @O'SJl6 OJ<'~ 6oSJo6t:l 6'>~ ~tiJJ~£.W"6)f"'i"', 6o:Di3,:)13"cS.J E'l~~~~O :;j~!fu~DJ"6J11", 6to<fu6"0Sn ;:6e.E'l~~gj"t:Di'i", a3g)6soe:J&'Jj @~;()!fue.unc 1:S,y>~06:>iJ"'tS:l.®~6 ;J"e§. ,;]>~~!3 e!g)6od .D~Q 6SOb @l;t;;J~ID;fu ;:J;;:mw6e®d n"6g)oiSKD-r; ~oSJSs0' @;;S;:J6~"§ @J~oi:5K[]'R i1>...:o~~ sJ"CO" a.;:SKJ".~J€J"o\)J. .~ ;6JiSJi3"tfuJ;:S_sd:5,:,o ;;S~GS~ ~ e:Je'l06 Oil" ~S1>oeoiS:J~~ ~ g)~~e.u 6:l cS~a.f"~ ~~~ ;:S~850ir> ~6Jr)v N"d5J:iJe:>Jr1" tS.:r>~ocSJ@6J.. @0~5"~ ifu;:6 Cl~;OJ.. 2020;;r'>e3~ ®!l;;)~~i3oE'l~ Cl~ol'i" ~roc-ot'loi:SJ~DJ"o;;ilSJ~ iiS".®ct:b 1QStiilo& .;)tSi6c&S r;)CJ1>!tio ;:;tSi&?:,KIV iP...:oo;;o~ -.:5<fu!&JuO.JjSSKwl'\)8"'til.

~ ~r:l"S~.e.:o ;;J%5~~Q;.S ~6Jo:y>6 ~e& ;:5oo5.Y>~ 1 0 '5"~O ~oCJ c6e.tl;SrS 6oXo~~ ffico ';)ej a.~ ~~S§ ~fPd @l11"~ @OSd5JrSo ~~ S"~~ru8"'til. ~!:!i 1D1"l[);;) 90 ~60...:ooE.J tl;&Si'1"vsG~o .,)tSi5J6:l'o~6:>·

98

s:'D es ee:}~noe:rJ ..J!&&C:l~COJ? ';;&0 ~~o.::lXenfc,e]"o' @~ ~${/> ;tp;;S dS.:oGS8 ro~o)80 ~;;St)~ ~oex.oEJ. cifuGSei ~ ~c:})q;s;od. i)o~oiSJ~ E'l~~ GJ'e;o ...:0;5 ~rJ"S ;;Ss,:;S~e~ea<66iS;;Se;.~ t'50tJJot'), ~ gJ00i1" as,..;:6~~Oi'1" r:Jo:b6J~~;;SJe&J ;;S<g~!£$:l~<6 o:5.:n<6b 0iuD.'S~ eJCSoSJeJ) ~oE'loil ...:oCiJ~& weSJ_w;SJ.. ~~C"e.u ;:;mCaI ~isr;e.:oKJ8"tb. efcsp:/:p" a&SIT"e:JJ ;iMJS"6-~<J"~11i" S"~oW", ;Se).)K:J.5§~&Sr1"e..u ~VJoi5xe;. ~6';J~~ rv"crD!i:le.ur'i" ;;S9~6"6:J·

,ea ~!§.S"':JJ.. iSi:£.;;J,)~;;)J.. cl:.fu;') ~~!i:lq! 'W"eJ"~OO (1!);;SO~S~ ;fu<>,;;5~e:J ~;:S~?9,~o&~, ~BoolV&~ ~6Jd:J~;S.l t6G5.Jl6 OS~;;S~& ;;Jg)i3dS:J~e§:l~()). dailo~ !3o~~ (ea. 1.948) ;;3~o& @§ooe:J;6) lUeO~

a:I ~ ~

(a.. it. (h'lo) ~~o& @lr'L~~ ~~~~. oo~~. ~ro~ ~l;SS ;:J;;5.)eS!)d5Jo

a·;6J~O";6eJo&. SO~SeJ$2. r;sr>~0'J' Q5:);.S <6Jvt!.JDJ._ KJ§.ot1 ~o,§E9S ~5~;'so&, .,)O~~S §Q6J ~esO"et @o).);:6 fi";;SJ ;-6e,gSo;s;3;o»CJ. ~d5JrS !So~S~Q,~ 'S"~II" 8e3~J.e1J;6J.. @Q"~E9J~ ciSJOL8"elJ'rI" @~D.'SgOiJ"d:J. 64 OS6~~ ci3eS ~;6 cpoD.'S @5~tS ~t;J"<:l"C;:) ~""". OSJeS aSos;s 2[J~N" @~6 [;J~~~ iSJc@as6&eSd_Gl. iJ"V" SO~SID~. OJ<'e5 @;fue:Joc;i OSMO"w, @S w;.Sd_ ;;3e~mo& ;6,,;60 .;)~6£;:JD ~eoj ~~on" eoeS;gOSeS;;fu S"s, ifJOOSO" Oi>rSo a.S5& ;;5.)5"S60 ®rle.» eS:lotJ"~ ilJ"05~i}otSo 3<6Js'ir;[)7\ @tSS";o»~ §[)JoiSEf?&iVd_O:O. D.'Smrie5 so~e.?~ ~1:5~@;6 i;l6vSJ v()~~OXl. ~ c5~K6 §o~eJE;;;Y> ~6 ~6:Jgs~~ ;;:)~;;5@;6 o~(pifuo~J~e:n Ef:o..l?o~ ~cfui'i[)TI ~~~o~ ;;'):o:a~J..E!. ~~~ C~15o~ ~ ~OSJg;o ~&'aS"vodl Va s£~$) ;:J~eS@;;s o!36-e);fu B~1'i[)'R ~Ollg atS;fui6J..8. 20.20 ~e5§ a.!3 ~6&'i> ;;S~Kej sO~eJ6J K~i6 ~<6J~o ~;S05, ~r;roi}o...:oq;~ ~ow~<S:l;6d_EJ. ~ ~D.'SJ~o 2'030 ~e§ ~QX)SO~~ ~n" e~!30 S"i6J<6-\t:>. :a.t:oD.'Sot) ;;SBfu~& 6a ~rf'~o il

0[ $ - g_,__

~:o~ ~;:S@jQS"~~ .;;;'~Q011" :::Jvill9;s ~E!5"&~~?

~ ~~6 ell3,s.;;) ~~Q 6S'>e:J ~OS 6,,»;PeJ~e<S:loa G5Jg;)::'_~ &5/SJ Q~~ ~.;i)~o @5~;60r'i" a.!36,D. eOO'DoD, ;;5.);6 D.'SJ~ri~'9:l ,JcntS~&rSJ.

99

~;;Y>~Ji6:J r;,~.o;:) <SJ~ ~g)~~;6J <S:l~ i'3~~ .;5)~o~ ~~~ ~&Jooeo~ s"rlO)ro~~O. aot$)~no;6J .;5);;So $g)~~&€ iSJo~ ~eoi:S~e.l!b Gob,)ot). ~oSo ;fu~ .eg)~ SOe)~5~g) eJ"a OJcC"&tS;s adD~e>~ 6.ot.l)ot). ~$.)~:5d. ~ 6c5~rJ'O ~~ ~~ ~P$e1 ~B<';fu~ P$oceJ ~®~e.J qs~e"e.J;fu Slcfu:;Sg)~ eotmoE.':!. O":5go, eJ"g)§ ~~ i:96;;So6do O"d"~~ i:9O"~s-S<6o Z:OGo6 ;ib6:l.Q~ cj5g)O\)~ifu <6~~oiS~eJ~;S aJ"l;i~6 eo6~ ~tO". ;fu;6o ss aJ"QS6 ~6~6:l~~?

~66a~o S'>~, ~~J,.e.x>, £~ g)~N"exI OSoe5 6c::r:.S3" ®OS<6O",oifu @6:lJ~~ fJ$:b.1o L6~ ~t¢~dDO aOQi\J<'i'Jd_ rodDtJ;&,o8 S"'~ft6el) a~rs,)_tJ. ~;;So a.ao& g)i'Jd)JcF\~~ tSGilJ6:>& ~~6:l 70 ~60 aK,~~ ~D"~ e)<:SsrfuOJ>~<6d.5. ~;5 a;t ;;Y>~s tJrUrfu3 ~6:lJet tScfu:J6:l tJi'U~eS.l6 !!!l~~~ &:l6:lJ11" eOtm~OXl. @o6Jo)~ $o6~adSJoTi" O'mE.tS.;iDOJ t;}6et a.66J1iJ!3Je.u ;6o~g)~~oJ"y~~ ;5);6 e3"@dSJ @~~ OSStl~ s;yoc;o @ a...dlSvG'os)e) L.-;Szy>.iJ":og C~so~.5DS..)g) ~a& $:J"6J~ij6oJ:loe. @06~iild5J tS~6J Q6eJ e...o6:>~~eJ~~ oSJ(6 @Cl!5OScos';6 CJ"0>~ii" @~66.s~ @")o6Je.:>SJ i'36J!:b;S, ;6o~e.J;Se.x> K6 50

co~(j) ~ Ol

~~~ ~fJ;5o Z 0 @")CXD[\j"C' eoer-o», ;5);50 ;5)~ fh6J~~ oJro~3 ~d.))tJo

r:rsQ9 @~o~~otm~ V"~e.:><5J0{) ~£);::Jo 40 -0060 OS613J Qfu.;S a,s(';\)) g)i'JdiJoKoSSi6o i:ScfuJ~ 5foo5:J@ ~~g&OS1:$o~~ 1P6J,) B~~o. ~tu"es 5 -6""60 5"tl..::p;S ~~o 605..)SJowo ~5~ iS~6:l 06o.'S~ oSJ;6 ~v re"~Cfuo6J!! -a~ ~C>"5g o. 25 il"~0 eSgSJScSc!J;& so~ tP.:1S~~E30 -ae.n ~C"es O. 6 -ooP$o ~eR ~,;Sy>1:S~6 ;;)e~~ ;;3f)§"'~:ieoEl.

@o6O;(s(i)) .;)~~ ;:;;'o~ (I'D. ea. oJ) @oiSrJ'Oe.:> ~5"60 ~6P$ ao~i5 ~KlCi3J'>ll i)t>oloa @~o.'S~~ :005<5 c3-OOe) ~i'Jd1Y>K ~01fi6~~ sKl;:JO oS:lJo/;$.) o~ ~E;'l~o. 6JeN" :o~~. ;;)e~EClOe e~.i~ a;;)~W"~s @4)~9 woE.':!;6 B..o"e.:ler @~~CloS"XeJ aoc;5;6 g)~6lJ<>Xo !3~ @B ::l~~ Q)5~EllOC' e6..)Q i5QS~W":og e,J"66Q-o"o6' ;:;;'o<l5g)o~ 9,00;6 cDg)OiFr'io ~6 o~ .;:)§:J&~ ®r;) 0";6 go.

100

.1?,J"66a-to& a.sc::fuOl1" iSo5.n6:l @l~;:;;'6o 6Jwo5s ro6J -8"60 5"""<>D>~ ~6Jf0e1y>~ ~ ;;:S6~E9 ae.i"'~ §,,~~f\~ O"~cfu i\Y'el)r\) 6il"aJ"e.:>t.Y'cfis

Q

tp;5o i:S0irl6:l ~e.s cSJD~>O"P$o 5rU~e ~O";$ b1oo6o)d~) eotmoQ.

$l~OO1l" i?,J"6~a-o"oiSG'ixl6J "d';6o <w~".. eK,;6)@ £b6~ !',!)~c5~ ;:sa~@ @'6J6~0E.':!. @leJ" ..:s,ol!J;6~cm~ ~;S ~~~E 60"'qSJ ~~o @06~cli>rosefl;6.1 ~~~cS~~~ ~ ~6SJ ~1fi0l1" c2oC~~;5.le?

W'~d5J O"~eJol:l~~ t:5~6:l ~eJ.se.:>sG;::Jo ;t~6'S~ ~6:Ji"Ueb~ 1P~6 ~;;)oi:So& ~ ®O~o;@dlJ ~oe;S~ ~Ge~6~a-o"o ~W" ~~~0bJt> a...~ ~ND~ @~~~o~~oSeJfu eotnoe. @S~60 §'>;6;»i'U ru~~no 05to5Y>~ab> ~-ooen a)g)~~& ~wo ;SoSJ~6~ o.mei5~~ ;:66~C"0"6ex171" S"';,:J~K:J~~ ®;S.1E) 12l~~0ri" GlJu6<6J~a. @oc»oS~ a5"~~~& ~66a;t0 tS£_wcfuei:l.J" ~O8":O§ i:lot)oS a66 B-OOeJifuo8, ~~~ ~fuoSJt. i6:J06, 6~, C!!I~, eJ"c55 <!9:illBsue.:>;fu08 i:S;fu)1:SJ S"<5JOSe)J ~~sS~e.:>fu eotmo6. at:, @<5JSJ~o~ i6:>eJ~o so6Jl1"£l, 8).~il" o:oE'5"!:3 tl"e~c$).

1!!)eJ"?; oSJ;:So ~W" cfu;6 ;6osOil"e.u, <6oaoJiiw o)6D~~ GSJotl ~~e>SJ 305<6 i:S...m6:l !L8"e>~N". g)dD6do. @gBdSJo, !3=~~~, ao~~1Q~. ll£:ldSJo, fuB~ ~otS a-3"'esl':o :;:l.oQ;5 ;;)q;S"e>~ND

M ._

"[)~e;J6e:o ~~o)e.l~ eoc!JJo5. ~.eBQS,o,W"Ei, @of1ieJ", qDND, S";fu6:J'to15,

soons, ~8)5eJ& tScfuJdJ :Oe.:>.se.x> e~OJ). zy66a~o OJDe5§Oi6o :i16~;;)G!& ~~e5J.

i:l~6 ;;m6~;fuot g)g)4') a-ooe.;GD~ t:Soq'iJ~~eJ13J a...~ ~O~CIDS SOI5~011" 'lJ"g)otS8)~~ eotJ. §"~ tS~tb ;:.)e.:>;p~3i, g_@"e.:>~.?

@II;>..... '

<>:l~~O e.:>~~ot.S;5d. @:6&, 6eJ"~oo B'>cfu:l ;;):);60,;)<6.10 s-oXvoSJtS.1

~SOo&f? ~Bc;Jt>tgeJ~;6o a-ooe:o ~11"~ ;;)~~;3 ~Wd.0J). @Q)J~ 21o.'S ~6»~~ L;;:).;)oiScQ) ®o6q:®CiS.:l ;65~OJe:o W"eJ">OSo§J ;;JJ~Ofi<' l:)15.snOi:S8)~a::o. iS~tb ~l?"'Ul fu~Oi:le,)~CXD, tS~6 ~e.l.se.l) tlE<506 ~~~01'i" as&~d5J8:l9;cm S"a)~ a.~6 G5Jtt;5~~ ·2:le.loS;:S6Je.:> K:J50B

101

iY.C~oSCe.JO ;;m6~~~o5. a"3"e.JaS.Jo~ ~o<;):l1.£'Ol~ @Q"c6 S"tSCilOfi!> -6~1:SJ ~c6o& c30J) £1~ oS~J ;5tSl6J~o».

O"O"oJ)n" e!l~6S"eJ ~~®~ ·~eJC:Sc66.:JW' !iJ.>tJ" ®o!:3J®~ ese is!:3o ~O"j ®eflaefl ."Jo6~c6d.t~y!5~ @g) oJo8~~c:.o, e:i0" ~~n" ;:Jo1:S~o @~ @O~OJ eee ~c6I:SJ§, 2:3eJ~c66:J§ ;fu1;5~ Q)y>6:Jilil~o». !S"~ <2~ oSc66JOJ 1000W"."J13 &ed"OJ ;::)e~~, ~~ edeJ o5c66Jw ."Jo6tJ":O~ ;fu;:Sso~U"OJ oS66:J~au. c6eneJ ~D":tctilcfJS""§, as.Jc6o ;;5& ale.J"f!)ifu~ OJ"CJ~o~c6d.. ~® e.,S~ tle [)oen~®eF\ ;:se,'O a6~lOs ;60";::)5 18 Ef~('J) oSc,~oe. @cj oil~ede.,"'~d5:r->exl, ~K~ eleJeSc6rueJ i!OD":t~~ ~eJ ;6oo5~.Jooe; S"eJO ®o.'Sr:S60 ®~a:,c6d..e. ~Q"6wol1'" :';) a~O~i\l'> e5e.J e.,9&o~§ 17 OOeJ ~[)~ futI:J~eJ~~ e5~6.o.'S £16:> eJ!l%;fu~@J~cmg @ d-'BO ~e~;6o e..gl! oSti:l6:Jc6d.6tJ, e.,~&)t? ss e.J~S~ 6JO»S ~[)§ to~~e.J~N'd. ~~(,@c6~Q))~ (!!l a-'BO ~l) .)~e.:o ,)6:l5"6-oe.XJ~c5f;} ll!J~e.

§r5 ~.o'~i!O~eJd:iJ.troo, j[Jofi ~§e a5~~e5 I!!i~ ~lF'eJ.s @)OJoiS a~e.J ede.J 006lc5S ~DS;fu ~S?oeoW"o». DY'6:> tSJ<>~oEloars oS~!:3 ~S"60 2:3e.JoSc66:>eJ e gas @J;;)oiSo& 147 d"3"W il6 a"3"~11" rueO..:seJ~Oll. @o~&.~6e5B~:oe 100;;$ iJoc6o. ~ auc17tfo ~;S

~. c ~ ~

tSO"t:S6 ~o5EZ_"e.J;fuogo e.,!:3W"IO§"$e ~100Y'6son" €9c6:lc6oQ"c6~ eoe.

~ 10 0;6 OJ" r:S OJ"lOj I K~oiS K e.Jn" em B ~ ei 0 0SJ0c6 oS i!Oar> <J":Os

c-e;, ~ """'" "! .....a &"-

c6oIDoeo~rS ®~ oS"q:leJc6:l ;6;fuc6.scfu ;;)6i:i:J~ i!O~on" ;6~l0 &g,~l)~

®~oJ.ca ;;j;;J~o5e.J~ ~oe.no5. ~§ iSJo~ ~c6:l.J e5Ss'B"~o~iV'd: iS5~~~ r;J"$j.))~~OS~ ~o6~'B"~o !:3~ W"OO ~c6d0ll" !;ig)fu~o5 S"~ ~es":J§ l'!!)o5~ e.,~ ~~rS ;6g~o~o&~ ~~~zy'l1"e.JJ 0SJt>~. S"~ ~66a-il' aleJ~Q'))~S;6 ~oc:5&eOi3"e.JotJ o.SJo;So.'S ~~N"~~ ;60IDOCoDc6 @:)J_ i!Ol?n"w ;:S~;:S~d5J~6.:)Son" !3e:J~ i3cfu;Se;~eot:005.

@"~~§S ;;S;:S6.:le.J ;;SSo.'S~e.JS:l @)~X)!;~on<' .;:}jc6o c66Ji5J!t OJ''e:lot3 @ocS;!~ @JBSS ei6~ ~oJJ~rn. ~~;S~, cSJ;Sg~~ (l!lo.'S;66cSJ~!f'().))· ~ lP>S~~!:3 o.'Sel;;S~exl ~~pj~;S!Jt c6o~~~;StJ. ~1S;:S.,)tSo wc6:l;()oQ"iS

102

@c6!:l;fu. OJ">es~ ~pjg):)~Ofl" ~6.s~oiScoS"~, :Jci:SJoL®oi$Cofl"~ ;}>OScS:lcfuS<iS~S"6J· S"aJ~ QJUl)~ 100.s~oi:505eJ~;:S i!O~dSJot& ;io;S~ eJ~So~ eoa @~~e5 ~o~§~ ~~['J"~§ &ebl1" ~;S£:ldD ~o6rS~, ci)ji:5;:S~ ~r;;o ;6Q.'bo7i" ere.o-6;;Se.J~ eo~o6.

e:5. ;;:5. ;S6~O;;Jo~65 i:l~J;S 0":0 l;;:)S"6o <;J"'6~aoifo @5~eio ~fS"~g)JS ~~a:,e.Jc6:J oJo~~;SJ. "fJo&'4o& ~cS:lK~ ~;Sd. ~~ cS.:J;S ~~~oc5 ~e.J;fu cSJ;:So ~eJ~fui\J"d_o. o.'SJo;:So5 g)e;.)o5eJJ ;;o~ ~O"~~;S~;S;;)Je)§ ®g) ®~O"'~. ;fu;So cS.:J;S a'8"~§"S ®~6.s @~S ~~nos~ ~t:>oi:i:J~ ~Q.)Jod' ~s~~:o ~~So~~ .,)eno5o~ i!OQ"tv"exl 6J<o~o50iilSJ~ tS9;Ula~iV" @5 (!9OJD!§,gJS~ @~dJoEl. cSJl-S g)Q"N"e,);5~ ~.fus ;6oe:JoQoi:5Ke) ~;6,:) @J;fut>tJ"~d. ci);SJ50{) ~tie.Jo o.'S~6JS OCSOO, OJ"~alSO ~oo ~~nos!OJ. iOoQoiSJ~KeJcSJ~ ~~ cSJ;So 4l"i!OotSco r:Sc6;»i:le5;fu;:J<> @~ <P"6~c.ao 1;l!I6J;66~ ~;:&JS£o51:So Q.)Jo~E'l.'

leJ~J~l6 rS& o5~oS~;6,:)oe. <6&edOOe.J:l 2050& 6!,ca ~SOl~a.g ~~II" ;;Jo~<J",. ;;JOa3"e), ooe3~5 ~~no L<iSoS~~~ 6~<O'"S~ ~<5:I Se.JKoeJ.)N"d.c6:l. ro(jo.:)-5" (!!l <65 ele:1"W 6~Ei &.s;;J~eJJo~~11" ~~ l2S<5b>~~~. @l 005& as.J;jS;5E'l~, nOCS'>"eS5fJ, s~~~&£l. ~~ S'"~8 c6C5:JeJ<6::> l:lex>~!:D~ @lo5~oi:505~~. ~~o;6,:)oe. ~.a c6e ~6e)a~o& l?S;B.g~;Sd{jt:l, ~roe.)c6:Joe LoSoS~~ l?J~i.~)~ ~6eia.ao& @J~-B~;Sd. d'b eJD~e.J l5"o~6e.u ~e~oi5<o& eoe.J<>OJJ. ~ tlJ"~e.J ,ES"o66exl ;;s6O!:l~;s;, g)~O ~Q)J~ :OeJ.st'5~~~ eiO",SO" ei'Uo5 ~~~ ;566e.J oS~ c6ofl5g)o;3 g);,)~c6:l C!!lo,~ 3~Ot:l"0ll. 0566 ;Bn"~ ei~~O~OXl. ~®O"~o&~ C!!lcooi!OOJSel ~OLO"exJO. @oei'5i "§.o(fJ'>eJJO ~ e;§"e,),JeJe eoeraOl). ®:Ocle:5§g)JO~ 2.050 i\J'>e5s !?6ei e~lI.loCo c:5oq)J6ol"f.? 6:"'~orl" Q5~~Ke)6:O i5~ ~eJrlo~~.

o

103

6

~ o)OIDtD 2005& ~:::o ~~Jo ;il'6"";6). C\J ~1f.&c. KBro <6aJo;E (6-;; ~~~~ ) ..... 6~

cS~ ~~~ ~a;o ;;mcm~~5 t)~ (@~ @<SJLKoJao (!!ldSJ;6~ eOC:>I1"!3) ~ ~~oiJ";fu. ~<S" 1190& @oeJ 6;6 52<6 ~tJ ®~J.od'S7 @C:lr\) ~~6J. @!l®<6 j~~;6 e'lcSSL;j~lSo Zl.~oi55le1&~ @e.!)~dSJ~;6&. e1;6 97<6 ~t!J lIBd5JrS ~~~a~~ O"DoiJ"OJ. g)~SoSJo;:S<6 ~Q», -8'>ou ~Oa'i3'>e>;6) IIBdSJ;S ·ea &~o&g i9~~<6i:J"J6J. a.eilSJe)~ eJe)<6o~ j1SiS~or;:r> ptj~oi3 ~~.~ ~;6 ptjg)6Q»ogc lIB 0$J;6 @;6,)(6eOi:l"'ClJ. @e'l &<6S !p:l0"5 IPOSno;::l<;:) dSJ~gi'6oa'6":og @<SJru~@-;; ;Sy>~o. &cS~10o~o 9,0" ®OCl: '~6o& roeJ"€J'>J,.'O"~13 6"~6SJor;:r> ~6o~. t.:hAo ;6~&;6 ;()ei~o W"eJ" g)i'6..)~OI1" ~t:$e~ t3oe.uOQ. .;)<6.2~ tt'~~ ®~J,.5ot) ~q::;fu g)~S~~~ wet$) @6so~ g).a'S;()~o5J @;;t,)dSJ oJo~~ l!:!loi:S:l~;6~. @!l acm @e1Q;;J;6,ll)§ cSOe;t$). @eY';6~;6~ gJoe.noeJ'>~.

,..., --"

l04

a,.g ~<0.s ~tSotJ .Joei eco6oiJO if;$ ~~<0b, ~lfo~~ ~o(J~($Jei:lo&.

@{;; e90~l}~ r?6iJG~ot::;.

j;6 ;a..C"'oa"~ ~ijt(}eT :;cS~;;mJii;o~.

;5~ ;;';0 ~eSOli";S

- ..J>

S;SOli" ;5~O"c:;gii;oA

~~.se,]"lF eo(;$eJDtJ~· l.o:Sd:i';)a"lo;;)otJ.

..J~ :J-Bfj .1lc?~rtl;;;S.){j~, :;~LefoiJ"c6~~g6.o ~~.seJOli"!66

;6~e1;6 ilJ6 j5~<l.iJe:t;;3 a.~£l,05J zSg)e1 O)Q'><J";:)g K5ro rSCiJ1>aa rJo§'>~ 1IB~®J1f. weJ)W'SN"~ @o6~;;JotD. ~KQ)o<l.iJE; ~d_~~~ ~g&rS @>~ot:$o;j~ ~6:>See:Y'11" @'SQ)90iJ"e);:) @c6:lrS @;;3OJ"CJ. ~6.JSi&J e6Q;l)on;6~~ lIB ;(:cro~~6cfu @Jso~o ~ e.,1?&e~S"1?. ~oSJ~ @J<6o~:O~ i3oOJ:ei:lotl. @. ~lSSS"o®, ~lSS€J'>~o ~<6Jo5,)e.Jocse~~ ;6ilJorr> @l;65~cm. @eJ" ~;:6eot:$c.o& @El @ 0SJ<6J~e.D ;;m~oeJ", ~~eJ". e5!:i ~ol$)~eJ" @:J 6"6~c:Dso ~;6i:S:l. ~o~e§ ~d_~~~ S"ff'CigJ"es ~~~$:J~o~ (l;b>~o, rSBl:fu4106 eJoa6so eoe e.ot:"ID. OSJj 0";j6~ 36JJgSQ)eJ'>~§. oSJrSioo6" ;6e~eJ"e>~ 66D~oeJ;oo. @eJ" ~e:Y'e>J ~~5~jJgJJlCJ ~ rSe, ~rSo ~onOJ"~;Sy>. \'j~OJ"i1J~ aD" Q));So ;S~~6Jv~, ®<6en~eJ~ ®jd_ ~60 iSJo~oiS6J.

¢5KQ)o~B ~J.056~ @oOotjOJ"CJ ~g)J~<SJoe1 0"e1~~ rYl~~ !::lDF'l tl5oW"V. ilJ;6ilJoa" ~;,Sy.6 e.,e~ ~~~5I1"o. :~cTh .,JrSd_l)~ 05);6 S",gso6 ~e)n" 1O[)~ eoeJJoEl. @lQ'cluJ1?6 ilE:JDS~.!);;5,!De> ~aaOSJ® .e~ &Q"lSon" 6Jt>~oaoi:SJ§D~ @.:slS~6JS ~Q);;S g)Q";6c\ ~oSJ~!f.~. @ ~t!J§,,~, ®e'l ~ Q»60~iiF, @e9JS;;Sd_6 iJ;0ll ~60s';"~s no6;6. @Q ~ tSJooJo&!iJor;:r> g)~Q"~ ~OqD~~!:J @oA~eot:$6J. @e5J ~r;:6(,.60 ~~ e.JlPoj ~o&;;5,;& ~ oSJ€J'>:O~i\jQ @oe)g~1So. C";:)J. oSJrSo <fueg, e!Q"st9JS @t:$6E'd"';6oeilSo ~L6;& &T>o6Ke;o.. IIBQ"S®J_1? l\)6J~e>J e..S~6ot!JJo ~;6)l6~~ o>oBrS 6t5J;yoe1 e1~ e1~ ;to6"eJ aJD~tSJo~~ Ol!§l.!b ;;J~~1S,). SOID~ ~t,6~o ~Q";6 ~~~So ~o&;:) IIB~®JS ~~o ~rS ;ile.x><l.iJ6:J ~ileo;;St=5Q."i)l&o, e)~C"' @Cl ~o g)~;;:De)<SJ ~6CJK~rS @CiJ1>~g)~ al"oJoS ~ei ~o~eJ"e;l <6JOQ IDo5Jt!J;6c~o5Jc.ol1" &ot.:lJo OSi:b0e. 69

;::'nt>~e.)J ~,'O~& @o6'O"~~~ @~aJs ~.a)~11" @1PQ)~oO"I)).

Cl<>~ @6IDs&' '®~eS' @e5 GS.Y>£l' 1!:!li\J"J.6J. e.,s -8~~ ~~;i)oe ~;otfli:);6~li" @o60":q6~o ~6dS;,o i6JoB e;l;:)J.~ot). ~Q"6roor'l" ~ ~~~i'JD rodS;,e loJ<6o.::l~ OSSO);;:S£O"eJ ~r:5e;u ~~SJor;:r> ;:)<6&e)J.~Ol1" ao~~. @eJ"~ ~ @oeS6oM -5~~ SY>W" ;:)~vJ~d11", ~@S @<:0oiS~

105

~~e.lJ KF!3tilOW" taoeJ'>6. ~!36-~ -S~GS~ ;;ly.b :OQJe;~:O§ @Jbs. ~ .s~~ cfuqy>O cS.:ro;:S~6. i!,5rlc6o~C:I ~ 6Jc~oe ~Ejt ~~oW"& ~

III

d'btjP6 ~~:o§. ss ~.iiJ~ l§}~S.

Q

~!bdD <0ef?~& ~cSdDO ~t6:Oe;dSJo. ~601J Q6J_o <6~~o.

@loD tSO" oS"o~Ori" t5oC;~o. ;:JOdD~;:SO& ~o~tJo. eodlltJ (jJD~S~~ :O~~pjOri", ®S)6;;Joe.n aSJOW", tSJ~OI1" g);B[)oi:5.Jg6~~oe~ ~e::s05J G)5~g~~o Fi"iSEl~ot:J. ~~O'SoeJ ~e~g ~6~:O~ .;)~:eN" e.,S 6<0jl~:O i5~<S~ S:O~:j§, @J a~oe ~t6 ~~o6 ~:O~ 5";6i:5.JJrl"S Ej~ 6~ ~o<'J06SJ~5";6i:5.JJ1"'iDS, ~:o ~ ~;;).J~:O 60'S..?~:Jn"~ !§:O~~oe. @ex,GSo~ tS0S:l6~it &~oElr6 ~oOO"re' Q~~O"~~ c:'XlQ)&~66od ~~ (!!.loO ~c5dSJo:O§ ~®SI1" s:O~~CJ.

woi§.o:l":OJ. ~~o.,;:5rle;rlC(fu~O Fi"~J KJl:'Olo. a~~o:5J OS5ql"~~ ~KOS~O'So ~t:l:JtJ (ibose~co ~c:id'5:J~-i3"eY'S~ ~i:)oa @o.ao. ~e;Il t:)~;6~ 6~6:l&§ ~KO'Sopj)6 ~~ ~~!1<6J ~o~;6;;Sj>6. §"el:l~d ®~r\) ~6~[3 ~~ sS6:l!§lcSJ_ sEes. 'Ejo© (VO O"C'mA t'l6li$)sS:o~S ®~. 70

fb'Bc5~ R";;),,) SOOcao~~, e)1:J" @fJoQ"6saS"6S~c:'Xl;;3:,c5~ i5~~~osi~~ e~.sei:l~cS;;).JC:l to @Jet:S<5e)J !b tSoS~t1r6:l eo13~~. :n ~cSdSJo ;;)eg)J~~ Qoo~ruo~oe. ~ ~6t6so g)~e~oe. fu5"~ ;fu;jS~6 loJ;;)oi:5oQ @j-eo[);6~11" ~g)~6:l.

2006 ~(flQSeQ ~t6:l a30K:J~6J& ret.Y>6-0 ~;fuo:OS :!~o& tJ"0"~ a6~ e;~p O'SJoe ed;:S ~;;.'illo~~ ~~llow \.el~oF\OiJ"<SJ. 0J06oa<' 0"tY'~ 1 0 Otil ~e;:)~ aoS"e;;;l)08 c6~':pDJ"6:l. g)·g)O <fuaoe;!!:5Jo, ~o~6e)~e;l~ t'3oer6W"6:l. '@JO f!!l~ IDg)on' 6aa&6jOS :£36seJru @;I~:OoiSEO~OJ"&. '@JO @J~ IDg)on~ t.';tS~;S;,o~ ~~ 6g)~~o (es. 1956) ~~OiJ"6:J. ~

~ . J.~

ffi6~cSJo qo:;P'" @dS.:l~ lo.loSotSQJ"S~OflO Doli.;) gS~!3.J 1?rr" @l

~CSQ)y>vr6:l <6.:~rSoiSK[)f1'06:l. ~~ 6~iio~o l§}~~ ~oaolfo ~~~~ ~;;;Jg)d'D ~~~ .;)§t:5JooJ~o. @ct016 o'tJOO:::l ~S"60 ~c'O~, tsJtJ(.l)

------------.-----

106

~OS ~~ ~~ r6J0~;;)owoQOri" a5:Ji3~oe. <!8dSJr6 B;;)~ ;;)~e§)v OOSO" ;;il;6 ~~ <fu16 oilrSo:il~ e~~05tb~oe. @oS:Jc6 ~6~t6L§®' ;;J~ 8'6iJ>o:o8', oill4-;::"o:oef', e;qm~Q)}& ~~oi:56b~C'" oS:o~oe ..

<;I ql)(iJ ~ (iJ (j) -0,) -0,)....0

6~0" @o O'SJ16 ~eO"'~ .t.¥o~o aa))~:O~, oilt6 ~f:}atfoeJ <P"o:JD~'B"v

;;)~ed e)(fuv~ ;6(fu16~d:ii056iSeJv;o~ ~~8d.~oe. 0:0;6 oilr;s6a.>Jo e,J"OJD~'8"et ~f)§";;5 @~L~a§S"l:S~;&g))t5?

e..~ oS:l:O~ eo~g)J S"OJ"r6:l!:lJotllN'd.e£ O"~ ;w>{!)o-t:SW";o~ OJ"a ~cS;& <fu!J~. O'SJ~~ am!:iJ, .tD~o':t, @~~ ~05o-t:So ~g)OOT~ iSJo~v:O @J.s~ooC @1SJ<.05O'S:l:O ~~OS-t::)),} @a Q5);6 cfuqJD~ ~.s6Jo~:O§, O'S:l;So ::§g)~r6J_ W"@"oJ6~~§ ~Os& 0'SJ160 ~l:S.J6a OSJ.>rS~~ tSOOcS;5 oJoe3e. &1"®~ LaS050 i:lo& O'SJ;6:O O'SJr6o iSJv~o tilsS OStJo:O§ e~(jjy>F\ol:S;;§"~ oS~zyl:S~ O'oea * ~r6~s @~tS16 SJoW". ~ 1'1i50El oil;513 i>S~ono iU)fu;S1:J"~ ,~. (!!.loeJt>o. <6J.16 li:lEloD <6J.oSo ~oS~ono ,::Ut.6e3SiiJ£6Jr6d. C"~J_, eexlrSJgSe§~iJ6~Jr6d.qt>:OJ_ ~~~ 0:016~~j1 sooeY ~on (1875 -1961) 'i;j"o5:J' @;o g,[lwo6. oil;5 OS~ OSJ.><6<6o;;l)oe ;)eOS8 ;:J~60l60f1D ~;6 c6~K6 (l!lt6JF;)OJ"~s ®oc::SSJoW'" fJoi'. 0SJ0;6~~ S"?<t-!:i&aSOI1" eaoilc6 yean;6_; @(l~eOiJ"~. s,tJ)i»oe Q1'dil 'lli;5 ~e.n~tD

-e) Eli "-

@;:JBo<0e3fu 1:J"~ ;,.'l)t6 G'j~<fuo;5;::So~ ~~F;6o i3dSJe:>~ g)~ ~(fu1>aa;5o

S"DJ"~).

~ Q1'a:D .,)~ ~a)g)~ocj eUl~!1';660 WOeJ" !!5J~tS60. o5:Ir6o ~~16oJ..ycSJ @tpo6ono;;3 tl3:OJ~o. 0:0160 0:06~onr5~~v ~C>" ®l!j)o6ol1"~ ~6~oi::i"eJc'O gS6,:,s.,OLi·"'O. 5"~ .;)'2,lpf> 0:0;6 ~g)~~ ~~N"'IliJ& oilr6o ~r6 cS~:,:)§ SO~c;) ®~~ ~~~ c~ ~i:) tSJ<>fu c50tJoO. 3\13 @J e,Ciilot6.:1oE oilcS iSJ~e<Sd.OS!Jd. (fuowt'lf'i", D~;)n" ~eliJ&oS~o ;;mcSv~~oe. oS:l;6o <fu;5 t;:l"dSJo:Oool''d [;5@d5J ~tSw ~tSaoo. <6J.;6:O O'S:l<So g)~<"!loiSJS:JoeJ<>o. ~ fJoO(\)~®s~@dil8' 05:1160 ~KG'j~g@;S rUI:'OlX~[l.J. c6~~eo,:;x,SSos~o ~c5f).)~daoo. (!!.loCSJdi ~as:,.,~:o§ @oA5"6diJor)s@16~£) ;;)~§S ~~diJi»~~16;;3.tJ @:::l g)oK8ot:U

107

~il6o L;iJt.6o&)~o. :;,008" iJ"VO (!!)~t:9~<5tJ, @lcS~IS~<SO. rJea;fu. oiloD!, B~~ oSJOS ~ilol) g)~~<S ~s:>o~ ~~il~.<S ~OsoS"~S"lSJ. e;gQ)J~ @vo :J~~oiS:Js:>:"J ;fu~o ;;)!&6<5 ~~~<5 @I u6;()&e)e), til;6~~ X:ltilr\E?eXl .;)9&Q§ ~"if);. ®g) ~<S ~6~p{} tl9~ SOf.?et§ e35f1 r\JoCJ !&e»S:>oeJoruJ. ~e;::J @~ 6~S"l!)o;iJt.tJJ C"O~ot:ll1", ~;fuJel1" ®:J

~ . ,

~ t2:J~~ B"~ ~g)oiS6o Cfu:lOeXl~66"cm. es e§g)60 t7~g)60Tl"

~;;';l)e~9Jot:noEt 6~.l ~bJ Jo~ is!&611'' il~oO"'~;

$ @)O~~;-5;6J N" ~~!&o ',QQon KJ66.J d' @J~g)oiJ";fu. @Q is&.il O"O"~':)Q& ~16s:>eXl @5u~JoeOiJ"1:5J. @o6J9:O $ @O~~ ~~ as&6 :JcSeotJ"l!)~otl:>~;fu. 6'{J ~<Ss a..!& !&1j5 cl3oo. 6J..~§ Boet;) ®tno 6Y>tJ:,~ 9,eJ" @~~. '@~~;:J:Je.u g)~I!);:S;, @lO"OoD G}''l)i>S:006:1 ~F)I!);;)e.il~o~~. e05JC:> i).)<So~~ (!;!la OSrJ ~~~o. ;fu<so ~oFfe.uf:) gS;:So ;50 &'Ob)<S.lo'lj>CJ, OJ"~;;).).:)o6.:J '{J1!)E:le ~~o~ o'l6efu<Scl;;)j>C,) ~c6o ~~;;Sd.e g)16oJSO"zy'<S 9"0<>? e;gQ)JN" ~~ :fu<S~ ;fu<So ;fu:)~tml!);fu~ ~g)oiilS:iob:l~o. :furS oJ<oe')ooi>o& !&:loW'" :fuo~ g)l6;;J6~ ;::31!)§"eD.)~rJ"d.0' 6:m"~, ~;;:JvQ> :fu6o, 05.J06J6~o iloe3 g)~;J&I!)~ :fu<:So @~so~ g)Qc:i:Uono e§g)~W"'J..o. ®g)~;furn .;)0' E::ltbS:iei:lN'd_ef, eo'lvo E::ldileJ" ;tc<So SJo~ ®O'~ a::le§:JS:>e))~o S"fJ ~;;).:?§'tleJo'{J§ ~~o ~~CSJ:)I!)~ t:l;;)j>~o~~o (!!)'{J.

@oc))S:> 61>£n 9,0" ~CJ"€)~6:>. es&6 §"~li" ~~ ~05. 6a I;;). ~lScS ~~~~;;S,~ S"ro~ ae o'Se~50iSile;l~oO~ !D~ @:o~~oe

~ ~ , e.:J ' eJ

So<>. ~ ~c5dS:li5~Q ao~S~ ;:6~~6~cSC"~a~ ~dX[)f1ot)

S"ro~ ~ ~¢5_gc6 !D1§.:I 6J~~cmb0li" S'{J~r3<SdO' :fu~6 ~O"eJ<i>

108

i:Sg)~fu<S ~cS~~§ ~~ e05J~6) ~o'SJT1" e~o~ 6IDd))il~oe. G}"Ss~ il~t9&~<S g)~~I!)<SJ i5Jv~fSOS.;p6 ;S.y.@~ ~;).~e.u il:>50~ ;G'~orr> Ff'65fjcOJ)' ®:O.

OJt,) -"

t"$a ~beJ,) iJ~ 6Y>!D ~ !&~6 g):O~OiJ"6. ea:sg)~e ~d,) 6S"1!) ~~e.uNd.a:o. ;fuJol} ~6~ ~w Qill:SJt>~w. ®g) O';r'~ ~~uJ.s ~t:9cSSoas s",6S:i:O eoeJt>Oll. (!5O'>O~, ~~. tPXil6"<JJ,6f:d OJ"e.1 rS,sep".;5o, @oJD6o. ~ ®cSJ.iJt.oo ~~ ®~ e2g)~Q)). f:Jtf!. i305~rl" OJI'lJ ~eJ'!.)w, ~eJK~eXl s,.,C" e3eJ"e}. oill:SJt>iiru @~~o~ :00J,I!) .!~e,». S":fuN"6b>~oT1". SS5se;lSJ&rocruo~ @~ ~ O"&J"'eJ;5J (!5-8~N".lcm? SSase);fuoe g)o5:n~OT1" e~oo,il~ OJ<>a§ g;el:ie;l~ ;()o~~~a6.>. ®g) e;5iSJS:> @;6JKJ~Qrl" fS6t;S,S:ioe.JJiVd..d':Dot\3 C"~ c.ilfSo ~Qcru~11" OSeKdoi:Sao. cwO' <sciS:JsO.;5t$o OJ"i!:l <6.s~ilo. @~ @eJ" SUS ~f1>& eo6a~. ~~ oo1:$oS a6~ L~ru oJ~~eJ,). @g) 055~~ ao~d':D ;(u~eJ§ ~b~el). @I ao(f?JaiJ ;fu~~ @OJ<0f3dile.y.'{J!1; QJ"~§ ")tDiloe;) (!!)Q"SBJ~ g);5s~ a6:J. 9"8)~ OJ<>eJs ~~ .;)tl:>OSoeJ :06eJ0Qo5.JJc ~cS~. D;;:i5s .;,:or,Vo6q;: @~cms ~fS~cD. 05.Y>cS.:iJJcD &Q"Su~~ g);5so, 9,O©dS:J ;(u~o ~I!)Ke,)~cS ;:6g)JJ.l~ ;;)r:r>go. c.il<So ;660 QOS6Y>6eJo, ;Grio il:>Jrr>e>o. ;::SXorJo:JeJo, rSKo Oil~eJo. ;fu£6&:O Oil~~o ~'£6~;fu e;~~~~r1" b;(u!fu~~~oo. S"~ ~£6d'tJ cG1SJo c.ili6e;l;fu IDO'I!)~~r1" b;fu!:§J~i.S::Jo~oe. @ ooE;ol!) ~4l"S a,~ :06o~6 ~~o& ;fu;So fuo6J~ &1So:J.y>o. ~cS (!!)~@J~ g)js-o ilJcS 9,oLQo:)J ;;SJ~e)eJ"05..£6,r'1"~ Z::lOJJoCoO", il,,£60 ~OS67>~eJs~ ecSd.~I!)Q. @O" so~ ~;S ~o©ciS:> ~W'~eJ"~:fucS @~@jl g);.:jS":o.J. r5"oK8<6:>S:ioC". o.'DcSo G'DJnoeJs~ g,.;ful!)o. 72

@oBo5:Jorl" Dil<S!:b e;lO~~ cGOQ~g)Je5? a,oLOd)) ;fu~o gI';Go ~oo'S~e.:>~'fJJ_ £JiS~~d':Dorl" <P"~oiSX[)"R g)~rJ6;iJt.~ ~Kiloei:l6 ;;'));6 @~aet L05U~Oiy6. es G§'ie1B~oc56J;oW s;&v~ ea: :;'OLocl.1J @0506o g)~e16ofi" !&'{J~;fuoa. S"~ 681<:S OJ<>'ih ~ ~6oileJ SoOB!3.Y>W"

~ f:i,..,. n"""'"

i:SIDo6~o~ ~O'DJ;Sd. ~u~ a'>~og; ;6oW;;S.ofl'" '@Oa'" i:S~6-rr> GOO'

®<:SJ~ot:lJ" xe~~~~SJ. ~jso SS1:5Js,oty>~ es f:J ~od':D:o;5t5i\J"'~.

109

@.t)g~ ~K<6o~~ <SJ.~' SS6)~;:)d6~ b~oo~~oeJnru. 05&?U) 6~ ;6-0&' ;;')~50i:)<6~n" ;;,)~;6.:JU) 6~ @5"o!f.~g& :l;6<>5~

eotJ"6l.

~;6o ~dSJ @obJrS,P <6:>;:) e~<6~.oQ ~.§11" ao~~oW" ID~eJ eOe~<m;:) bcs. @E':! tn'<S!l\l~~c?poG>~;63;O& @rJ~~o~~~, e,,!& ~o. tn<6 @;:;.)oOSbO"~~ .;}O~ ~! ~tnq;)e:o~Ci3J'> 66& .6a .t;l"dSJ» ~1S:l!i':i;le~ .s,oW'" tJ"tJ"~11" @o~ ~~ ~oD~e»OeJl'OJ;I. (1:9 ijY'~~1S:lo5,1a§ ;6:1;6 @.;JooS"60!3~ g);)oO;:S .a!~<fu~rn e...<6rloJOerS~o:o~ (IDQ ,e..,~&~;;S..?~ !3~eD eo6J~;6J_ @ltrl;:;.)o011"~, aC" ;;,)iS~ro" 6~~0n" eS:lrSa ~~ r;;cj c,.,$ ~n"~ IDd1:>€.J~CJ6.>OEi. e30u ~:;'S ~<S~!3, a'"~VSori"'n"£), ejO" r;;e/' ~~c5an"'l1"~ @O :;S5~~~aB, 8;1~~@l O"CaJeJ'"S~§' l,9Jo:l1>tJ"iO§ ~O' O"~~atJ.rc> ~6~6)Jg;KeJ If)alJore<So &Oe.:DOQ.73

;,i){\) @6:I;-;';))~2J.,)<S ~<S ~c.tiJ" o'.!l6J;;i:llSJ ;fu<S ~;6~!& rt;;Jcad <iSoiS5a:3 tn~~~e. ilo€i;;Y>cD. 0))<60 ;:S<PSrJo:l1>~ ID<>6JexH"I" c6.Y>cj @'J~cfu ~<6DJ"Y ~~oO;6 ~iil~rSJ_~ ;;,)rec.'6:lo. 0;))<6 @c5~e.lJ i5cS:i3tDJ SS<S!l.)o& :;:,. eJ~EQOe» tnc:5SJ @S<fu'ooS6on" ;:;55E1lg)JoiSKI!.)~ QJ"£3:O ~5~c.'6:l~o&tj, tn~ N"KBSU"°lfJ:@dil ~.Tho~05. ~ ~@o))§ rtJ~B"'tJ ~ ~<s~a<V" ~@le;fu' <6JD<6~el1"~ g)Jf'I()~eJ<'C:.l. @®&.§ "",Ke,~

- ._

;:S,~reod {je,naeSJ. tn~o ~eJ60 @lPoc501""i"~ <0~~'\c5~, tn;;::'~orJ)'~

t:l c<.i (;e)

O));6;:S.s~;;'5o& §"o~ ~~d. ~~;& iSY>~oiS;;'5v~o5n", aBg)oiS

~0~o5Ti'" ~cS:JSJoe,notl. ;;5J;6 ~~ 030"0;6,)0.,;:) ;;5J;6o l.'!loe~.:::nJ!:h~ DJ06'iS8,sO& o3'§(,.rS ®oi6"ocfu @Jof\seot:S~:o§ 'tJ~SB~oo. ;fu~ ;:S,o;:S,l.,J~e:o tn<6ih '::Jd' :O~is.;,'S~ad" t;);;)§.oiJ~oe.xr> SS6J~oe.:D;6d.06J ~~ tS:l~o ~~IDd, ~~Ol"'i", Q"o:5Ju;fuol?on'" g);?,1,goiSJ~oe:uN'd.0' ~;i) 06~~®:Ul i5@.J<S~~ EO~~ .aac'~ t5P"S~<6~odi ~<SO')~ ~e:l"~ 6J.rJiSJ<.~rS ~<6.;;J)e. OJ"o<6ei.si&~9.6o~. 74

im.9,o ;:S.;fuo~o ;§[loi3 ~~jj ;:S,o;::Jt,.;)a !!&Oe.:D~6J.®o~d @Jt.h 6S"eJ ;;;SJU"ScSUl". ,<S~t;r"6we.'iJ". e;r"~,<fuei"o, SOJsoo~, L;;S<:)~W"

110

~~~;:StJ, !)~~ <6s~~eJJ" ~lD i:§6epcm. cSo::J6,;)U OSJ;6&:O ;:S,1S~ ~;60')~~d. &il~e3e§. O"~ ~;:So&. tS:l;6SJ ~oo~ ;:So~<s e3"'sS -d'!;Jn~9;)~ @oEl~o5. ~r.:;~ 9.t:n;:Soe3 '~Qaa<s-tio lfS@~~ tnel &ot51:S1l" KJ.BB~rb>~e:sfJ, ®eJ" j!!J;6w,<mEi OJ"M OJ"8 ID"e;l"SlOJ. ;;5,;;S0 &6otj!O<S~~efuocSfJ iJ"eJ" ~'~Ori" OJ"5otJ:.iJ"~N'd.~. OJ"~ eo ~o;:SJz)aS" @~.,y>B"lOS l:lLC$o ~~oW" e'StDS":O lOeJ'ID~r-IIDri -5'6

t:l _.

~~oiS:J~~oe'S, ;:Sc~ ~~~ ~a5 e~;;S;:S;;So~ §,,<;S~ri:O~~N

S?~ QJ"BoBOJ"6:iCJ'd.6:>. @Q))~ ~ ~;;))~o~g)O tlS"eJ ;:SJi~eJS:l ~g)O tlS"eJ ~. dDr:oJet ;::So~~~o5.~o)yo<so~s(,. ;:S,o))~ ~~.s ~c5as 8J~Ul

e'! 0 '"

,;);;J.;pc:&J ®eJCJ"tD ';s~Ke:I&> 6rn~g6,<sty>:Os ~od' renK:6Jt>se1'

®;:S;:s'60S:l~e'SooEl. 76

;:5)<S~S~8 ~;:)o-6;;s,o~ ,:jJ~;:S~ g)g)l,'S;:Jo;:J~e§Je:o ;fuorS~ac @~oS"1S ~S§~lO§, 'zy'dS.P ~~~.:o~ O)b);:Soe) eJ$EQOel:l @&Joa~

...... _.

t5~(fu:> ;;se.a{):& @~~~60li" tJ30e,n0~. ::Jo;:J&Jrue:o ~;;S::fu6aB[l~o ~tS

@l~50i5&)8.;6 Se")@;;i) lOO"'J,s;"Ul.5"fJ, IW NC"JEQOe;lJ ~;;:SJlOcSa @):C SJ.o~ OSJrS~ ti'Q ;;s~~oe. a.sa-ti'o& tS:lrSo &6J!;i) fua.~~lF ~;:Sdb

Gi a.....

eo~ ;;S.J5"soia& ~rSo Ii~~ ,~:n~;n~iiJln" SJSQ:)e)~ ~oe.:uo5.

~~6Ji ~;;So~oQ 0);;)2"'" ~1SJ~6J e...S ~§'l ~~;;st.j~e:o ;;§~g) ,t)t$6' ;:S~i5)~oe;o.. s:J6~~g)s @~oe160 d.lo~~so~, @)Qa.$ ~tb~&as :!lv~ ~~tJ":Os ;;iJuL~O @iP~o~1So~o~oe. @O ~6®a-o'08 @Q)Ja &.1& ~6)~~. e'S;;S ~ISJ~ @d~i9Je~ ~a»aQ)j Sllfu Sl&<6iSJjTi"':O, ~&' ~. <tie.:r>lOg !J~c5J. QS~O))a~ ~.g)~ ~eJ"& ;fu~cSqJr6~s ;:JO"eY ewtl:l

(iJ f"'I"} ~f) leU ~ tvl M

1;l6ot:) :OO&)~~o O'SO" 6;)) 7f6<;Jb~ m)OSJ~~, ~1S:l..) a~et ~oetsog'J,

r\J~S"~ t3QSyw 1$8oiS~o ®e$~o~ t?;gO:OC"e5c5S6~;6 iS6tSn" ~g)oi5 ~e&J~OEl. ;n~ @l~¢Y'& c0;:;),e"'" ~,e:lOJ'>rSoe16o ~::tJ~ ®tl ;::Jor!¥~ NJoiS!&o. S"£:J ""'~~sa~et C"~~ ~6 ll9eJW"e:JJrI" ~g)~1S:l.

~O" <6:lO"~c5e:1~, @);,i)0"S6eJ~ OSJo~ eo g)~e:l.;:S ~§.n" (S)cSO&)oo. ~~ ;(:)~e3"et: ;;i)~~ iitS ~e10l? ~~eJ<;:5,) g)eJeJe.nSSOSClo ;;;s, i>J0iJ&6on" W'g)~, §"~ O"i3"!!f @)o6~"'d.. aJ.><6o ~~;~ eofjt!fQJ~

..

111

;to4:, f!!!frJ~& ~;y.oS"tilS~6on"fl;O~~O ~oJ ~rPf:.>o. ffOSJ !l~S"~e. g)~S~elJS"fJ. e3t:l" fi"OSJ sg) -8~eDn"fJ. ~~ ,\'j~ODC5 fj~:O§'l. e30" cofu?S ~:l~SS ~.c:b ~6:l!:&:J rociJe.xl ~~ rP6:l~ we:}) ~~it~~o ~zy6wo ®s&c,. ~O ~~J~~ jojJ;JfJ{} @O).)~ ~®a.~&~ ej~ ~6JSJ !l~;6oej l?iS.;6~)O aj:)~O"<SM":O§ i$y>~15J. @01:::l~ @');6oiSo& ~Q') @':l~6 ~O;;y>ruej~e8KfjrS g)~e~ ~;6e):5J &!3e~~5J_ i:§!SJ~!i'> fi<SJ!heS~~d.. ,as S"e)o{} OS6jJtS g)6:l~ ~g)ei. Oe)!3JqJ"e)<6.:>OS ;Go~i!S.fi eje3e§oo:O;g);)oDrS ~o5.Jt>6o;to5"!3e)eaoce~. e...!3 jC)j&J&(fu)~k Q"OS:! QS);~ ~j~~13 j<5JjS<fu S"~6t::lJ ;6e~a ~6JCJeDo&. 76

o5Jo<6~~&~ i;1"cS:W;6~~.so& e.,S"&s&~e e5lO:cei~;6 e)~(g'!elJ~~ &:lc6:ltl;0~~o6eJ.o ~;6q;tN~6oJ6J~ &o~O&. ;Jo~6~oli" ~;;S~Ul o:?S<6o:1S5!3. L~GSO{:)§ O~~OJ Sl)f\~od"eJ;;1J6"s§(2S;.)y>~Of1D .e?g)Ot:).rot:Jp»>eOe. e:os;;:r>J_ ej~&<>Sf1'l 6cSJ_O~;;y>;:6d, 3 ~cS~t), i7c.t).joeS~e~p&g i3e:i¥'eS!!Jfu 60e.tlO&. @O j.oi>o:S:lOe.? ~Q'>t)~ @S~&:»e.;S~t:ll<6J_~~rS e.;~W'e.D ~t3" zy>dSJo<s~o& ~eSJ60000e.Joa:c! <6Jo;S~v ~~f)~e~ iS6:li6)t5~ ~ojk)@S cto;;JS~~ctD& {j~ E5'"6~fJ S"6w~oS~ ~;6 ~~od';&m:n eJOn"tSonc C>;;JJ6~ S"~ ~~oi> e!t~1m ~W" <5J;:J Q"d.'5Jc<S~6.so&g ~~ro6ejJOC,eJO @6Jl:DS"CD.

:!!l;~yJSOSVf\O~ g)~clD;&~t:lOgj. <5J;6)~eD 6;fubst:> §'i~e);5) O"iS.:lSSeSeJofJ§ tjiJ If:lc6:l6J.0s~ 6;6) ~d5Jo;;S~6.so& 6eJtJ"t:$)~i& eO"'~ rutS"t)~ cS.J1;$.)r\:l ;;S6iSeJ"Kls o6:l5oej. ~d.'S:.l®J.~oe.J"60. ~oj (!,9o~oK ;6y>~r1e~ sOS"~e);:il ro®eJ~ ~;;SeJo ~<6~ ::JJe;:J~5"~, ~;:S t;Y'~:f.o~~.;{,.o&:o e:lonotSJ rusoVcl e:KfiltJS:l iil<>~oW"f)O~ t:1Jo. l!So

~~.;) . . . .. ;fug6;6t:o

~oi1' ~cfu~CB"o. ;5,)~.soCDSJo S"6i"'i".~aJ'O~~ ~~ rSelJr\:Jfuo @) .~

S~~ <>Ss§~o8 ali;3'#O"g f)~~eD ~~cfu:O rSrul'\:J6y> @~,:o .

®& :O~.l0et se);;stSoJ6J~oE!. :02:3-;&, ~& ~ ooc::.r Svrl(l N~~ =6<. ~ BoCU !!!lOoE"'t);6J ~sS"<!)oe roo5JeJiiJ"~ rD .. ~.~ .. @. B :O~Je ol.. o·.v,· .. . <i1'o::51'vt>'

Q ~cileDo& ;;5J-::;f!i ;&m:b e:JOr'i"6JrI.J.~elJ ;;SJ;6 ihrSJ_iS ss

=:Ot:>~w~g). ~;:S e§~~o& S":OJ 6~~ ~ e)&~e_);.$:) @oflseo~~o

• . ~ :o~o

!§;;);fu:O~;fuoe.. !!!l0J.)~ ;;SJ;:S @oeilSoKo&:O bs~ ~eJ

e.l' -"' _______

112

3o:De"O .,)o~ (;J~1:Ss~ ~;:sd O"'Ae<6d_ @eiJe)r5d.~ r\:J~K~v<6:l :o~ ~dSJeJo @6~ t;S~ti!::i6o. !3"'oGSfu ~'tJJ& rl!:~c6J r\:JwriES1"~ ~g)ootl" e)ciX>t!J~ ~s!seoi:Jl>& ,6e..u<fusSX[l'RC;J) QYJocj ®li5~;:S ~<5i',)s ®N'"06~:o§ d'r5~co~C'" a::mr\:J~o~oe.17

@~crly> lilot:io<6:loa ~6e5@<>en" ;1>a,g ro~~rJ"~ ~o6:J!fur5J_ 6!lolflrJ"ql eJ<>fVo5 (1861-1941) GS~~C c6J;:S t:D~ a<6J. ~~$S ;;Y>B"~6~;& jo;:66J~'@& ~·;:SGS i6orooQ"'v @o6~<6 ®~S. 't:iJ'tJ&:o £oO~ rUE?l&e:lctOeJ!fu fi;fu§)Q')5J @COrSo. C:SO;:6k)~ ~<6 i;Y'~~~~~ ;.3Vf\ol) O"'~ :fuo66 .s~ 6JaiJoeJJ1'l" ie:JeiS;J!;:l!il ,fi;fu!iJeS~oe. 6::S ~eJJorood':o @l~~, ilg)~~~~ ~OfJk)®~ rJo;;S~ei~ 6~o~~ 6;6 ;;)~6;:So<6Joa .ei::S&s ~osoi:D~r\l)rI"l5l. ®<S~OI1"~ @o»;:$oJJti§, 6;S~;;J~l9&, 1131&~o~ t::l:cogsriVl'l"~. iO"'N.iS~ (!l~jo~CJ~6~~~, g)~<SOeDCJo ~r1D!i"'l5l.. aef\ s r5~i\j"5 ~oO:o~~5e: ~;;:):~~o~ t:;'>::J§ @d5:l~.,lo~~. ~;;:) Kl~~ ~o;::S6:.;)~S v!fl<':l'>v<6:l Kle;o~~o~~, ~~~ ~o;::S~~e.:J ';fu;So~~ ~e.:J:6:l K,.9.oi:S~Kls ~<6J~v1&J ;:6~eo:a ~l;S;6011D 6!>olfSJe:P g)6~~ lYl.9,Ot3"e:P. e:9d'XJ<5 ~eJ"@~6:

$a La:5r:Joi$i$e;iS r5Jt0!...eJiDV t'iJBotJiS f!!Je5"tJo iSJotJ ~iS.sJ

~

.v.;n,~ 13lJjoi$($o, .;5);5 ili~B" ,ffioB ~iS05 LOS;;Joi:5oeP

05J';s .<w.;5 LoJ~!Y'~J !Y't1B.s~d£r>do acIDeJO, .a1B .v~eS 036;6y>do '18

¢J •

6!>o~8 6~~e g)6~ ~ ~:::l~~ @)~8 <6~~eS tiS5rJO"q! ~~ ~~1boi§c S"l3. @J If}@d'S:l& ~ot1:l!:b~F\. ~'8"!!J ijJ~O~gJ§ UO~;;S l5ol56e)eDV& @:6:lr:SOQ";;:)O ·aoti05v~oe ~C"'. @El ~;:Jo6Ft5eolj011" ~Flot:5~v~rS @~S;:SrSO. ~ 1l~~S'" .a~~ .ti~~Ng 6~e:g1'i" ~i:\1.)l!lcg§"~ @iliY'S<60.

~.:6J ~6 ~O"'o;:fue ~~e;J51o, g)c::;o;::lJe;~ ;;JP i}li5ifJPO~ @,t;:S~OtJ iJ" :'~V'? tiJoe:;:;(;f;S+f)~Oaf? @)~@03OJD~. @e.u.;)oe5 o),,jo,ooil:;leJeF rjoljJD~oDi5o(i))05~ ;;5:)iSo66 ,;),~

.j.

113

~~a ~~d~ ~l!P"i{)e{s.;:V00 .;ilv 8J~exJ rSJe;tfforra 61!tJ.;D~ I1VROJ1>O> . .;)o6)Sol5. .;1)~~~ .;i,~~~ ~~ @f1"Q"Ce.u :;~a{j .;i,~.iile; ;JoSJtJe§ l!!)cJ>oS"O"e;J~~. C?~~f)~;.;? ~L~. 78

b'Nodl ~~ ~~~~ se~VO @lSe')~ is;)~ ;6e§;6;6oaJoctSotr @~S:I!!)6OJDV~ @){JOW"ei>. ®o6:l~;6o ~I:SK~O) @1:»8Jct»tJ a~§Oo <6eiJOJDlil. ~:OcSV fuvw 1;;J!:hi9& S~S£QO 05J.>o e:JJJeiJ ;606o<?"

M ...... ~'e) 'W,.u...J,.

~o6~~ o.J~e5S;;J"y6J iSJo~ @)<6oeoiSr'i[)~OJD1il. 'SgJ ~~~6J~

~6~~; @;a QJDSC:Sod @ct»<S on~~§ 6<6 iSJ~ aocj ~;;Jo6o~ ~1:S..)l&OSe;)~;S @};:SJ;6oQ"<6o X:Jeo~ :5"§& ~aJ>b ~O" @)~tS:l:

.j,.:So 6a @5<60iSo&§ ~.sotJoa~;Se;o Q"ti.2 8e.u;::D!?.;:5~.v~ ~Le§j:, sodJ. O"~ @)oli~8oiSfJ"'~§ !3:;or::;o. .i5;I;:)o ~~o ~.:So05~ -o'j~oe1Je)o S"c>1~, 5'".0 oiIiS ;,5;.J6~~B~~ o:5Jole§Jb 058~cgoo SOXe:oNePo. o:5J;S!t:; rs~iJ"O".oJ $lOaot:fO"~ 0ir<ti5j:, fi"~~4s' @;6e50. iJa .i5;I;6 r:§~eJD~ ;,5~~ iSO"i:56 LOSOSotJoe?;»u ;S~Q".=s05cIfVn ~t;fofF 6POj)t:Jgrle>& @tJ ~L~ tr'~.f)~. 79

gJO"S6oKo& e.y>~6J a~;s s~~ g)'MDJI'eiJSO' g)O"scSs~~;s) oSJ;.~!ld5Jo~~f)~ ,OJDeo{:)~ zy>6~d'5J g)r:J"S~~~ @)d'5J~ ~oc)) :OVIDl&6"CJ. t;$)~ eocZ I,ElOSoiSo& ;6g)d..~6 ;6Jt5.J SIDf\eode;,oco;sO" ~~W"e OS~~~ ;66.s~~!pOT1" g)S~oOS~~v:O s6~~osr!,ooosO" ®ei6J g)~~OS~<SJ ~OS£)cliJo ~dSJuv~ ~~6J. cj.i:}~;;S.~ ~C"£ &o~l:iJ, roonoD zy>;;S.d' ~6S~~5"V 6Jt>;;JSf)J;S~. -B"oi9:Os65 ~~6-;6 ao5"~§eO"cjol:S£Qrl" ~vaJeoe. ®o~S"S c:tl"t56cj.i:}o6' ~~6:l~D~e§ Sll~ :Jr;r:5oaoiS6o ;;m6!!l)~~;S 6"{)~1!loS"V& 05"o®~"§65 ~t!"

""'® eJ ,..,

a...se.

gJ~dQ;6;:SJ 6!Jo~6 ~g)11" ;6£b~o~6. :J~rUeot);6 I!Jjdi5i;~ 6!lo~e, @)6't:l<6~ e)§~~gJDe 6e1S..){jl"VS~ ~;6d..0rl" :nv~~<6 fUl1i?tt, ~t5"!:l:€). S:JU'>e1,iS 6~'ff>'6FAlo{}oD g)CSS<fu ;;Je.f!DoiS6oOS~~ @d.S)!6 @~J3

114

eved' ~~Ul g)tJ<>J)~;::S;6 ~dSJKDr1 iSS6-~ ;;S~r;}'> 6Jo~oaoiSKDl1"CJ. 6<fu ~Wnot)oD;6g)6il ®~~fJ 6;66' :aOSx>{~DstKIDRen" ~dSJX[)l1"tiJ. g)-o'.s~ ~o;:;56e){gS @tJ<>;S~tJ<>r;}'>e;t~ ®;ill~;6 C';!)~i6;;S OJt>B"0S6mo~ g)tJ"S~O) i1§oSJ<SJeJO~ ;6~~c;y>i1§Jt&orro ;;S~O:S6~S£K{)~ ®Q)5"~~d. ~6JeiJ"c:il.

6£.lo~6 6;6 g)~~§l~ iJo'tY'O"8":Jd_ 6:5 e...S !§g)ei& iSsJf'ltI

.;)~o i1i8"~ : .

.;)t"d¢ oitiSn:b :Jq)diJoflDctlofWO&, .;)~J¢ O$~.;:pw e§ae§J!iJ .;)oi:58~~

~ ,_ ,

,,}SJl:S ~;6o ~dOL~,

.,}SJl:S l§5oSor::Jo fQ6J~;j ff6o.;:D~ -t!3VOw~ 6{)i)6~&, .;)Sj6 ~e_:,e::o rJe{)ql) e?e1)e>nlJO~ ;;Jw,j'c:iJ8"cfuo

';)!3J6 @~Li(jOod ®.ifs~£O) 05a~de{sof}~ jdJe>,) iJ'>~e1J0&; .;)!fJ.6 ~~e> ~:Ji:5iJD ;jVvow i6~SiJ"O"e> oit~~.;fue?

L;;);6br>ot:; fQO~~~ ~

.,}!iJ'1 OiJrSiiD ;jCJD ecrSoej~, §~e?~ .;::l~a~oe.uo&, @eJ);6odS ~doLe1lU" ~oer~, i\J'O dOL!.,

i'U" a-6"~ j,~e.u~. 80

115

g)~~;6 ~ol9"eD tSoc:JJ60 ®<fuc:JoQ"rSoilcfuJj OY'6"cSO~o :JOJr::.?'~£'~ ~:O cSxl!PS!'l;~~So.

s.Cl @oOSO~OY'~oe3 g)P"S~cS~ ~6.?J<fu ~~50£l~il" tliioC"(). g).g)O. ;;§o)Q'"Jje;l~ £:loa;;:) g)C"Sb&e;l ®cSrJO"e;J<fu ,@<Sr\~o i1*,,~E:!11", ~ w<6;6O"e)t:il ®KtI.:OlI" ®~~6"~ .;)o),t:\)!3o)'U6 ;65t:l6:J~e.lI" aoco®.

n ~ ~ ~ 0

~@3 a~<6oe5t:l 830 ri"e)oi3 , g)C"~O'SJicS~d' ~K~.,)~exlfl" a~

,j;j!>.6oc:S6Jt> @oe5 ~[)6o\PexP",g)C"SdO~, ;6~830. tlii~Q"SclSxJe:D"t

.~ M ~

~e)iV";;3gwo, g)Q";;:) :Og~SJeD fao66Y> S:P>r::.?' ~g)Q"S~ ;6~oiSI1IDI1

OY'~T'i", C"i5J_S ;:J;fu<6ST'i" so~, ;:JOY'eDT'i" ~.s~50£l0J;>~lI" aot;"ID. ri'fiJ @~n"~ f!£Jo6&~~6S"e;l <!':ll~e:lJ'" eot;"D tfu5!.

us

o

7

r, e. s.f"?JN" CJ"~ ijf~es ~cSSf5oil~,t:l 0./' e?oadSJ ;:Jo;:s~a& dierol1" ~ero~~Ol);:5 <6o~6-0o .. ~Q:J ~iV"SrJJeJ sEt60 CY'rJ<'e.u tj~;5d..;SJI~ @l Q"rJ"e.u t';l6J0glii6o~~c6Jg)n:" e,l"g)o..:sco ee t1oi!~e;l~ ,i6~am. l!!le.ncSof5 Q"'Ba!& S"OS~Q'oJ..eJcS~ ~~ eJq)~o6~ ;;SoilJS"~ t'!lt:.JcSoe') O";;S~O"J~~ ~6~11" fl5oeJJrJdOl)· <0~~ ;6D.'illoJ..~oiSeJt>:O~, OSs~O& ~<:So ;6o~e.ot:5eJt><og" oo~:Od. ~D e..~ ~gOl1" @o6~ ~6Jo rJJe'leDeD ~~-BoW"Ol). ~.fuo:D ;SO~OOo:DOe~C" t9i\i"tPe:>;;;j~ @l66~ i:iJt>;;S~o,~~c5oL6eJ ~~e) ~FFKJe.n ~~g6cSe.:>o8'~tbJ, ~~ (~~6S~on" £3~ C"i\l"e;o), reSe

(~QSJN;:;S5i1" ~~ CJ"N"e.n) ~L>'"

~8.sQt:5ID~Q)J. oSJtl:l~eJ:) r:5(J'"

~11;56!:ie1cS~ @ul~eJ~~ ~~ocncS~ ®all Dl:liiJ'!: ~o{)oS;fue;J ~O", C"i5c:;lO"Je.:l ~O" ~1'l;Sa&:l~ @g)oiSJ~o~ eO~eJo ri~:::>;:so. ~~6- c3DJ"mriJ"E<6 rlJ6.?O",SO"tt. t5oese5.J~voc55~, fE;6J.~;6o (eJo()o) alt$.}1'Ow.. tioOe.DoEi. ~o:s ~~;sodiSY>t;"

~-------------

3)~;:S ;'J'!5~"" .;)~ QSe~ &;JOtS ;56;$.)~c

&i~;$c~;S~~J ~c~~ dJ_iR),!J; ::J~eQ~I). 81

117

O"rSe;;~vrb50t)~ iStSJ eoC). @s&c O"~OO"Jrn ~rlO~~§. ;fum~! ;fu0s eoa ~;fu ;60a)0t;l"~ ;6.ylt)~OeJ"OD. &f!:J ;fu;:fu~e>oJ~ ~~ ~Xi)ooi))eoJ~ lPo5:lnc~ OSeXd:oiSeJdJhoC). !lfrl<5o~as ;;JO~~

t:a

;6;futS.y="& ;;:"'t». ~e§ ~~~~ ~~0~g6<560& &1'rlOli" 6rS ~d'Dod

:o~~ -B"ao~ d~E,§ ;6o'xlejoiS60 ~os o'xlElSo& s;60'5~J tJo@lO"d.$Jo.

<;l"6ElSo.ao& ;;J.siSJoOfJ0'5 !O~il ~oS:ro~~-Q"eJs ~O:S4Sso ;fuoa @l~g)o~oC). 190'5 ~eJ"~<iill ~o& d.tO& LIDc5~ Ole~e,)~w ~tj ~oS:roa!3S ;:;SotJ6-tSe<> tllc5s0SJ0e:o s,oc;o ~a~Q).j. 18;;5 ~~~~ t)OSo @0!S0W"6s iJo~6S ~iiJ"W, ~os ~;;5~w d'6"m§ ;;.)ei5cti.J;:fu~Q)), 1813 W"tJ·~ ~5®a~o& ~ ~~ ;6o«'lY>6ErS ®~tSS"v ~o~e.Jffu &'e>f\ow~~oe. O"!O05~ <;l"ISElSd~O& iS5Jexl". ~oS ;:;S0~elJ'> ~O"Jt.D S"OStrc>~§, 2)e,)oJ6eJ<>N§ ~~o t5.>KtSJo5:lOl)s05.

2004 ~~Oa:lo& ~rS.J oS:oa>t&-.ec ~cmoe3' soo s'S"·'6"V 150~

eJ ~.J es

iiJ"ct.~esJ05o& .iJou);;)o&S"rJd_;fu, ElS~6-~ oJ~E:9orS.Joe. ~1S0ri" ~o6~l:S

;'0& 'ctSJonc NVe)ae~ @ .iJo?:S~vrS.J 1853& ~e:so e!l8, s~:5 (gSClSJoJ @~ &:le~ 0Sl6 ttr>e;;!3JexJ ~~0W"~. 1}>~~ @~ 6 f!b6~ ~~ 7vOXlOe) ~~s' ss iJ..1tiB"'vrS.J ;;:;0& @J~o;:;S~cti.JOr1" @owID5~owoEt. ~~~&6 l?>60 C"g)):'Js 2:l-"sSa)';6) ';fuN~:'J !O~.sg1J05~ ~c3~oiJa ~6? rSE.~rS.J. @<6,jl~ oSJoo'xlOs a3Bf\;6 iS1;SJrS.J2J~ i'\l"ro @g;;SJCmsoao5:lo~, oS:>rS ~~6"et oil~;;ms 6i\~ ~~SJ~oJ"y~ <5.,);:5 ~Q"tSta etiSft ~g)eJ"e,);6 g)Jow~ aJC4lSeiw ~.sS50iSeJ'>N§ ;6o:tl~o5:l~~o5:l~. rSg)e§oe ~~ 05~J;6 ;;Y:>~ ;;:;o&'Q.'l:,oCJ e"'o5JJ ~~~S"e.Jo~b:l ~6:>o:Dri" O''iSJSJ::6d_606'' 5~owo5:l8 Q"eaS;6o~w ~O'JeJ:ltl'6"6J. iiJ"5~ ~ o~~ @66Jgy.~~aEl?

&13. <5~ c:n;Sig)S"'~o& ;605.y>a3o., i>S.:D~so~ SJb:108.)O, ~~:Yo~ ~~~ ~&~o<iJSJ i3oe;6 ~[\)~~;,j~ 5"i\j<'~ ag)G e>dS~o~ (1927 -1989) c'5"§& i3.iJojlil. @dilrS Q~[\)O"!O @)S"co ~;5,)~e.:o

118

poV'iJo~ ~~6~ i3g)8"~ ®;o..~~;6 o.JrSlen ~Cci§~.;SeJfu~ j:JotS~etg ~~eJlileiJooeJ"~, @;;)jJlil OJ"~ ei;fu @S"o~eJs,o. ~e~6J6;fu;6 6~

oJ Q"-

~oJo.;slSJeJ !9S"O~eJ~, o5oOs tJoqs,~w;;3eJS"~6oes .,)~ ~q)sSa:o

~~M t:i~~OeJ"6J. 82 es ~e& B"~ 6';;,)) ;6~iS'~elJ'> iQl6:J~w i.E,E..1&oSeJ~;:5 ;;)a~a ~lSjcP~o5. O":O05~ QJD~ ts@S:O(:J.})~S:J &<5~6"6J. @e.J"S"s @ 05~~en ~;fu iSJ~ e~ ;fuoSJO'S.i~ ~~,g)6'oB~ ei~ iSJ~ (5i61 $;6o~!3 ag)aoe>:O ~I{)KDI1;6~lil iQlo6J~ g)~~~rS ~V~~ r:so!lfg)~Q).). * lS!3ol1" ®<6J~a:so ~o'SJJ~~o~<Sd.oJjJlil QJDt» ElSoS:> c;:!5Jo~ omf'1oiSJ~:O lj511 1)~~§ aI:DSJ~ ~lt9!D~7"i'> ~oQ>lSJ. QJD~ ~IS.sOS"'d tneo~ g);5~0'5o~all1", .;S:,eo~ ;60i>6;;5o~e.:l)n<' l:lY>~o~

~

tl3otl"6:J. ~eo~ ill6:J.Q~, ~eo~ @l~~;6 :;Sg)er>lh tJJ~o6Kall'U~lSJ.

Q"tS6di\o& ~~:'J~ ;6o~w §"gl1" ~e.JS"oe.:u~~~ oJS6~ ~fui'\l" f)"l~J ~~~o ;;)6c5~ S"!;i)J_h s;6~ae. @~et ::6£)<5 OSl;Sncome:l:l S"~~o5, ~fueil~of\o 2,J"~ (l909-19H6). g)~<5.,) ~0'><;l"Q).), ~$'&oau ~oa:lil;;5~ (.,).fu . .,)~) ~g),~q55 (es, 1925), a"vofuoR (E,.;'~) §"a<>e (1906-1993) oSo~OJ"~ a~o& S"e1 ~e:i"N!3 ;6o;;JeJS,

- V- ~~~ ~

CSJ.>OJ~e.JJ~ MoSd',,);6 eJ"~6 gD?3';6~~N'd.6:l. iiJ"6:J i60S[)jo~~ ;6o~

il~ ~605eJ~oa7l'", ~OS6e>J ~Ctl6J;;5eJ~oan<', .,)06c1' CifuoSS:JeJ!fl ~~ @o50CJ. O"WO"~~ (1925-2004). tJ®.~Q"oS~ (1920-.2002), &~o ;61S~o;jt> (es, 1933), ~ . .,)5. esc5. O"~ (es, 1934) oSO~iiJ"1SJ t;5oSoiSo& O)S~~ C"~owc:lio~o;y>c3 s<'~,iiJ"6:J ~6lild1J tJo<6&j o)~ao:5JeJ":og ~059;6). @~So~ LoJljzy>~o~~, :'J8)~~ ~lli'l~~~ ~t6 -EW ~~£;.sU) g)~.sg)O"elvoS.Y>~, ~e~gn~ 6oKo& eoa ;'06& ~ES~~oe1ve.J;6J. 1$~~o,:sK[)~6J. @bJ<5oe5 .,)o6~ jeJ"e~o5 ~~ G5

aJ ~ o~e>J ~o5:l~g)eoeJ<SJ .J~ ~~66.~e:Jg6;::s0 ®o§~o 3~~.

~. a5:l~B"&O"~e:o. ~!3~&§ a../S ~oJl0;j5:'Jd. LOS£;~o.)~~o soOSiSJJ (lOlf.'a.)g)96 6Jo&Jt>oCJoiS~o S"oS~J, £.oJ~ oSs05~ 15J..SJoo05o~cio S"OS~!

'119

oJoe~g)~;y>~ l?6o~oilC:;o 5"~tilJ e)QQ @l~,~g>ood <J"~ ~S'd.e':l\:§~ ~o{;liJS~o6~,o S"tiiS;l,} ifuooCSQ'i l;;Ja~<6o&w ~oN"'oJ6@;;S aJ"e;5S~o~ ~~~5oiJ"tS:J. g)g)1:;i rJo%e)~ ;:;Se)~l:J'>6:le:u7i" 6Jc~oO"6:l. tSJ5S"o~6:l ®Q"~;;,)s oJ~Q ~.sS501:l''6J.6oS.J a§g)6"~J. e:loN~t)l6Q ;jfS:lsS.;Se:l~;;S@oS~60 ;fu~~o~. 6cfu 6:>~tl!.Oa ~6"~6~o ~~ !!iO)ru~oel. ~~Qa ~Q{'J~tSJ ~ eJ"QS6fJ!fu oJ;;5d._ i5~Oj @~'SP-ao~t5J PJ'>OS~eo ~~ ,))~flj~OJ.). !T';;).) G)"as iF~~~, tjS~ iF{j;;3!! ®o:nii g).c'6J~.®1SJCd"iSIDO (~, 1935), Oa~e:lcB~ 'SP!:li~ r&l~o<'~ (ed. 1925) 1'i"Q:).) ;;J5~e);:JO~~exl~~. o;yolSJ .;)~ g)~<S @O~ID~ ejoS:l o;yo~ ~rJJ~07i" g)Kl~oiSI"lIDfI"t5J. (0"0 s<6Js ~~~S~OJ,) tl3o~ ~' ®O~exl <7>QD6e:a 'G).)SfS>@e$ ;fu;;S~~[9<6~ oS:llSJ~CS ;;,)a~OJ) eo-ag).

!q<CDJO ;;0& SJo6o ~oa C?fJ ;;Jo;5~o vo8rS lP~8

Q,m~ .;»a6JJruo~oa, a~soOJefloa E£:Je§oCw-X.i.1J02leDOeJ

®~~ i'JD :J.~o;§od!3 ~rSg@53-5~to 8fJ!3 @oe$o B6J, :J.tiJoD @;0oe;oS"i3JoiJ till 4D';;~ @~Jb e§lS;. 113

a.~ 23"'U.7i" ;fuCSo @~<6e1~ ~o6looCSd.. 1S"[9, ;fu;;S c5.aod eOa ~6:l~t:ls, ~ID~ ;fu;;S ~a3"~5":J§, <fu50ei ~1SJ!2;;S ~g)f.j ;:)e~ru!>J.

r"<':) ICI;..... c

~~06r:;o ~rJO ;fut:So @lc'6:l~e:lJ S"t:S~f\~~O. ~Oes;,§";:JO ~;:5J.J'

=:""O'§a~ 023"'050 ~fS>K~;:Jio~ ~0eJ'>Q)J. ~o'§a!:li ~S'"r:l"l!J§., :::50;:)6

N . 'or"'" ~

<6~~oiSe"l!J§ ;fue;5S ~ait ?6oIDoQc:l:006Kl @l068§ ~U}}',)oa. ~<6JJ

~t:S~§ ®ot;lof);;S ;fu~~6 ~1:J'><JDe)~.§"~~~;;S<6:l;;Jlig);;)~V~ ~~ @~~S @lo';.oiSo ?Jo~1"I" ~e.>e:laoE:l. 6~~ ~;5s~ @g~~~oE:l?

120

~~J @~E:l ;)Sa.e~, ,));;J,:pEf\lP a.!;iej<>J", OS O"~&~~ oS:lOt~J~~, ~~~ @~ rliW'd.~?

N"~eD~ <fuo{)]?_~. ~~~~ @ow @5 a~, ~<6J.) :Df2ono~ ~6.sL@~0, ~6.saJ~~o. tll.CJ'>~6E'<ls oSJ,t:So @~g)~N"~cl 06JS6 rlie:.)gsS~ol .>J"~§6Q5i5lJ. de<' @~cfu:,Qo 6Jt>~oE:lot:lQ":Dg ~Q" DJ"{f.:littJ6:>,. a~~o DJDCJS:JotJ:>OSJ~fJ .il"6~(O"tf .;)o~s!b6 @tjl"tS;;Je&

~ M ~

g)~c.i:S:Jo. C".~ :6@t5:JOrl" OJ"6§6OJ"eJoe:5, t::'l":D~;fu~ rJ@<fu07i" ~dOol5

:::5.s~05o eoC"'D.. ~t.xl;Soei) ISlQi505 N"~ ~.)5oi.$l1";;5 ti~ oS:lCloe: @Sjdit:l~& ;;J~~.

~<fuJ e:CSoe:~6<6:lrl" 6~~o. QcaJe;5ryJ~ at:Sotb6 ~;fun" tlll8 ~em;;J56. :DIDroe&~. @eJ"ft05B,gllOW" q5DS"exl SJbC"' r:5.s~;S~~Orl" ejtl~e:lJ. ~ q:)IDS"eJ<fu @ti' wS @J00J0e3r.J"~§ QJ'>e::;,!fuobJi6.doJ,:p6 ~l,;;.& CJ"eiJS"S @9;~ ~i]>elo6~iJJ~ @J~@d.~oty>o. @o6Js~ o.1:lc'Oh, ~~ ~e:lJ;(DS:Jti ~@:sSty>~Sf)g)iiJ"t'J"e,)$J<; ~;;So @tSJ6~ot). S"ID~ ~;;):)J ~O'> .fu;;So sifuF('obJ;;Sd. gog ~~IDioOl"e3oJ~ ~a~Kl)~ ~@S OSEl~~vg6, ~~~ ?6~~ID& ~o';...)eS;;JJl6 ;:Je~;fu!fuo~ eoC"D ..

~ ;6oGS6~o~ .;;5;fu fJD~ rDS"J..IDcBo.:i$J. 6a~KeJ ~o5Jt>ES~ ;;)e~~eJ;S" tl;;0"~6E97i" i:lJa·~e:l;:fus,oe.::oW'd.<fu. 2004& ;::'l&J~ 29~ O"~oJa QoS:Q& ~;;s"s ~~~-lfo @C':JbJ~~~. O".g),§ ;fu~l:5J o.:i06oS:loe ~~~~;:Sy>, .:oo~cl5J6oKo& oJEli]>IDrJ"~~eJ;:Sy> @~:OoW"c6J. i&Ci'5:lo66o e..S Ei'a:106" ifiElJoW"o. @J~f.j N"~ l)5d_ID:;S r:5..)~o;.O;;J~,Q.tIoSse& tilE! ~rS..)b>oi.$dc& ~IY <6~ ,))oW;fuot) @oas~;;s srSa:>5wulSJ. ;;J"~ eJ5d_mlS ~~ .,jt::o'Q'5oe!) ;;:)Ek~"~IW?6o~.tIoi5Ke:l3i e,OS" ~.)~OI1" :?i56oi.$e&oaes;,. C"'c'O;S);;!6e:lgKID iJc~eSs ~®~~;fu:::5~eJ<fu;;)5Ke:a;;S&§. b~~otl:r>, W"~riJ5d.VE5 6oKoCS O:SEl.g!ie;iW", @~D.'Se.1~ @l~cl:DeJ;fu §";;S;}>f\oifif:&~eJ".;j :QOSD &O;;J~<6ID~ eoa,

12;1

(JD~ ~e:lz3 ~o~ ~19!:i c6C'"~~ @)tm~OJJ& ~~!:a)~0l)& OJ"&g£i;;Sco., @I ~®db&' @J;:5o~!:i~;6 ~~~!:!i. s.oe!~eon .o~-"T1"e).&i aJO~ :l.oO 6S"'e:l g)~~ eOSs6!:?e:J~ Qj~~db~e:lltlffiotxloB. ~8J~ ~ ~@ctO& ;)0& e3"Ki!S,y>S~ 6;;.)J~;;J5. (JD GS~r\~ @~~d5.:lo ~S"'60 s.;6'l.')Ol~~ ri3Sd_~~, e)0J.y>ri3~d.e:l~, ;::;o;S> DS'".l0~e:l~*,g)o~oS~ ~<SJoago~l1" o)~t3dSJKVri @[)~;6 ~~~00l f1'thSe:tJ ~~~~<m. 6a @I&~;6 6a ~~S"~ ~~;;sd~<il:. ;)oor} dS,n;;S~~ ~g)a r\i:oN"~§ ;:508Jo~oD;:SB 5"e)eJ g,))eo6 g)c6eoi:'5:Oc5.so~.

ea

OJO~ s~ct ao~ 6S"eJ:)~QX). (1) NO~ ;:Sg))~l:S6 :;JC"~IU),

N"~ ~eJeS ec65aeJDexl, N"~ g)~l1"e:J~t'5~ (.;)e:lt:b:JS, (l!l~Se.1, ;u;:S .. JE>.J ;;S_Q0"el:l) ':Jef e..!:ltJD:O§ a:>o~o~ro~ (JD$> SWexll1" i3o)J~i5;J.j. (2) ~.s6ol!1 rJT>~ S~Oj. ~ ;:5.s6o~ rJT>~SE9"u) g)g)Q ~e:lS"e:l ejtJD 'i66'd, ;:Jolf! :;J[J'>0"e:l ;::;o~ ~Ql) g)P,J"li"'!!XIn" i3:;J..)~i5;J,} a.S"6-S6-<>l"y~ :O~f3. cfu.y>e:lSO

(l) (l)

Cfu>!:l& N':'~S!.'iF~§ oSJ5"S ;;JC"go& ~a~cti:Jc6iSJ,} @Jo)yi:&B ~~~;.S

N"~Sedort" tiC'" @oeS~ea1ei ;::;o$>l:ledort" ~e:loSEO&~Oe.

;;JO~ tjS'd.e.Jz3~ e<>lCOJ"1'\oD 6V~;:S ;5~~o<S:J I:SJ<>1WOCloi5<Si:'5.'jras(}! .. 6V~;6 o'S~oSo~ (JDi1' .toeJo~Ql)C 6Jt>1WoCloD, :O~fj. ~0'3Jt>n"~ ;;36;;36JeJ'>:Os 6Ja~oeoi5EO~ c6~~ @:O @go. ~oS~~e.>.) g)g)Q ~~EID~o!fu eS~e.-g1i"', g)g)c;S 6soeJ)n" ~@;:5.)oeo~g)oo.rt" 6Y>SJuofuo~ oSiS:lJ. s.e.x,c5oe5 ~g,))~oij~ s.~jl~ o:Y'cil~~ oSJoOJo ~;:So& 8[)~;6 ~oOJlh. 6JoU>050iSO'Si:$).j. es aID~;6 cfuo~eJ:) :O~fj. ~b1J.~~~ OS~K~ OJ"efJ:O @5St:lW":O§ eOSc:fut1KOSCB"Cill.

Q

<fu;:S ~e6oC <J"'ii' §!:?eJ) I2Sj-5oiSW":Os .,J~ ~o;eXlNdP);)'

OJ"t'5:O 05:J;:So Le:l.)oSt:n,} ~or\;5t:nJ ejtJD g)g)O D§~ oJ~~o ~oJob~, at:l" ~!3&e).') oS6[)~~CO ;6~li"'~ ®.n ~;6 ~OJo& ao§rosaS~·

122

e...!3~6oe.:tl'> @g) cfu<6, ;t56o& l:;J~.soi:l"!3 @g) e9~o6 ~e:l;:s-ae:l!30l1" ffioeJ"Q.).)_ oSJ<6 d~O~O"e:JO~ ea N"i!' SF:a"'e.Il ~g)Oon" ~;;S~~03:;0 ~e.Y' oe:tJr:lJg8KoO":b<Sd_a ®a ~~ ;:5cfu~~.

~;6,)J ·ejcro @ ~eJ~'§ ~o'§~S g)~;:So ~oeS;56!&Jt> ~~o, aOD ~o~;;S6~ ~D'5.T>6!36o? tJ":Oo,Sg e:l~oi3 ~03:;0a3N"'e.Il: crog);;S~ §vri ;6~oS~ ~~6-;;3;;JO? a.s <5"~no ~;6o ~~S, ~o,§19S LoS~l'I:i:>6~~ g6cbSlotU:l~~, e9~§"Ot:l:l~D'5.T>? ®B @6~.J~oiSt5~;::;o? tJD~o5,);$o ~dSJo@oi$Ko;5;,o? ;5;,o;6<V"tJ:o e...S~~ 6£.~~ ~5"S~~ ~~J;6;>o~ 0"a,)~c5e:lR:l;:S ffi~eSi.t;Q» ~g)~6ese:l;fu O"e:lcgKogSy.?

~ ~5 a3"S,Y58'l ®;:Sd~ ~;fuJ oS"c6 c5:006JS:l b~c6~J g)~cW>ext Sg ~o~ eJDot'ig)_ f!£)o6Jd' @<S:J!§.y>v~;6 f!£)O~extotJDQ.).» loS19~v.@i'5 ®O-5'>exlOeJ?on. r\JF;WeSJ!3 @o~ruoe.y.QX), ®6~o~ E0:0E9"6J_!3 @O~eJ:) ~CZ" ~otJoox>' ~~:OS ;Se~6.O"eXl ll!Jg)d.~'lfao ~;:S ~oS;:S g)qo;6 ~e~)~o& iSboStJDeXl;;3rSJ§":O ~ej~. a~oSoe5 ~oc5D'>'1& <SJc6§"§

a eJ eJ -aJ<"'>

~i6":0216o i3®rleJ aJ"c:iS~a ~~:OS ~i§;;3So, aOa3£)~ ;:5OSJn<5":oe 5"0"?

~ t>oc56~o& i\J"So& ~®~@@;6 ®Erog)~;6o rueolJ, t'!lEro ~o"§®S ~e~r5o rueoo §'"~ ~eJe.Il aoJJ~oS.50e.

@o5J C"C"~rI" iS~6.J g)V,Se.Il a:o a~o. t'!lS&d ~o6JaJ"~& ei'5d._oSq;: §"~~t'i erg K<S:Jexl, ~~~OJ"~ :O!~eJ:) ~~~. S"~ 6;:S a-adSJ ®O'S~O"e:l~~O g)~afllB:Jc5;S i3os~t:7>~§ ~6 tSoB"9;'v §oCSeJ ea (joO'o <5"bd.':D ®f;a)g)~e g)Q"N"':Od ~&1>Oeo..:s:,!fuoEl. ~ fiw 50§ ~11'" @o5 @~g)6Je5.a sotpce.n e3D®c.fu g)6Jsi$~e tJ"tJDtJl 8 0 ~6o ~6~ @oo~~Q.).): ~OBS"S 6cfu l5~6 :lJrlJeJ) g)OJSi5~:O ~§6-;6 s:>&'~ a~oS:. @~J.co~O" ~IDN" ~~ IDVdSJ5 W"o~ @[J'>dSJ<>~ 1!!l~~0Xl. ~.,)eCJtlS" @O~& e...!:l6- @f;a)g)6JeS6 loJ~lSo!3Jot:7> ~o~g)oiSa60. ~fi'"'

123

6<5 @Ero~~ QS~eJ~ @l(j~O ;,)of/' ;:6)6A6ono QjJ<S5S~63Jgr\ QS~~~. ~~ @~y;;.ol':i;So 5"e.:o;5s ;;SQ"~eJ;6)no,[)&§ OSCSeJi;:S)s.:.ID~, ~;;SoiSo~ @eSoa a~6-<>J 1&t5e;);S .tI~<U"dS:c~eJ;fu OS6JVJ~i6.l ailor'i" @"'~.J rlJ~o<iJJS»of:Joe. !!!l~.g)i;:S)~@ e~6;S~<fu;So ~~ C"C"~ @"@.)!b ;6;;S,5"[)~ono~ ~d5:JoCilO @o~(loW"05"~, ~ C"50 <fu<So ;;S,;S ~o§e~ ~~;;J"~d. @6:Jo'.ztti~ c:JiSi ,~e)j;JDcs.tSe:>;:5J cotJOSeJfJ QSt:}JoEl. !!!lODij, @tm;;)o\!3 ;:;)oeJN"~6@;S @og_eJ<fu CS-li"~vi!otm c:Jee.ot:) '~eJ;;)r\[JF\;S <to;6 ~~~oo")e);6 ~efat' !!!l~eS" ;::Joo5JJ~ U"~e.u tx;;6f/'iS6J~~ :;Jo~~aSJ~~. ~~U" @o~o c6J<S ®W)~6Jse es.~6cS ~olP"eJl'i:I @Eroaol':iN"~ :;J~~t5JG"~§ ~eJ5~e.u 6e€:JoEl.

::Qoe;S::S t2~e5;6&iFeJJ @EIDsoO<S ~~6;se ~,~Oi1" t)~J j;JoJo esll:9j!i ~<fulE1~ g).tIe;S 6sov §"'eJ~,;;S ;;)e~C"f)J. @EOOQ"'5~~ ~~exI, @~6~ctO<S g)~~S"e.u, ~CSS c.)e~C"f)J • .a~~§~.:J ;;Si5So<'exl ;;6otfJOJ"!J ti7>Q)~eJj;6oG. ~;;)Cfu'of'lot5c5iS,J,} ~e;,Cfu<> SlK')liee£~e:><fu ~aeo:S.Y>, ~d1J, Q'Soe5 ,g)g)e;S ~OJv l'\:I~KE:a"e)<fu K:J~o6co&;6.yo, @olSso~ ~@S~;:5 no~e:><SJ ;;5:J'i~J ~~o& tS6J.~ ~6e:>!fu {;)~6J i5~ .tIQ"N"~, ,.a60"~§ !!!looc5vfJ;6 :iJS05.s =s= @oe5~i¥OSco&-g) 5"15E9"exl rbgoiS~odi OjOc<SiilJ. tJ"oo~l1" Z?tS6a.ao&~ ,flj~~ ~C'clt:ld5.JolD~e&~ ®wu ~&~5 t,;)"SS!§6or\ono rlJ_go~!?J>oaof:J.

@EIDt7'e~s -oSe5;;SO")c;J. §:'g olS6~ <Sor\~e);fu 6JtoS»oEldD ~~O" oSSc5~dS:l e~O!3~;;i) ~;6o KCil~dSJono~ot:loS..fuJ' :a"6J ~;;:mco~ 6Kt:m11' ~6riKe:> S"'~ ~6~ OSoKq"v;6J, ;;ms&e:>;6J e;,..SJoo50iSW"g)~

n e.J ,.....,D

@f:iP)t;e5~!!);:5J g)~cfual'\oiSCo ~;S ~6 ;S5.t~SJe:o ~J~;5~~I5J. ~r;ti)

Q

a3e:lty>~~ ro~o{;) ~K~e3O"e:l ~0s~s;<SJ ~5JlUOSc5,-iScoe:f;6.yo, o;y;e:o

~r\6~o&~ ~g)Q tSS"~ ;fut>ID~e:l:fuoe. ~~ £jcri:l~o&~ lPKJ6d~ ~iP"e:l~~g)~Ci'do~~~6J. '<9.tm~Oe . .;)~ o)~e)o~p" ~;6.fu !~o& ~dS:J6d.e:>o:o~ ~6e)J ~~or'i"~ <0oSr\g)JoiS<6e:l~oEl .;)0& tl!oEl.

124

g)~;6!~ @g)aS,s.6Cil~~, ,zy,o§®~ @J~r'i"e:J~~, GSJcS ~[}~ J;ii~;§~~, ~~~I:i @las 601l''e:>~~ c:Jt:l:l<>'5ot) J;;Swo.>$O;;JCr)!!)ti' ~ _

l,! CJ a......" Q a..... \:;

oSat" @lOoa§ eJ"t'I" ~e.u:;:fu. B5 @lO~~ aoe<6 a'6"V~ .s,..0" ~;6.JJ&

~o~i9S g)et;;So&" IDe;lOn"&~J..O).)' @o6J~ ~ a.s&a-a'o ~r:>" g)J;6~o:oo~ 5"1:SJ. @)O:O~ c5J;:5a.e'o&~;:5)"y~t, ~o-g@~ g)OJ)& ~o a36:lri:l&oB? <fu<6 a~o& s.oa:dJ50ne1, iP"@t'i i6"~, noSe§. !:lo~e.JO <5"~et ~lrt"l:iJe)abe)e:> ;::So~J) iiJ"<J"ej§ ;:S~F\~&oEl. ~@~OSo6:lE;;S dSJJ';:)~6o !!!lO~ e&~K.rl;;Sdd' b¥63~~;;SJ.. Sl_ e5. ~&~Ii"e)~C(Jo ri:l:JJr\y>6~~&. Ga &a!J:6Jon ~<S~~ ax1ue,;;;'Crloo?

K6o& ~<6o ~;S!&';:)~~<6 ~;6)J~' ::QOal~aonj ~O~@!3 ~~VJ_ [}a<B"v;6)oD Brb~3.9i5~~iiY'~o.. @~.;:)e')~ wol:SJe1:J<5d_ a<B"e)~ ~;;S~ i5~0l). @l0J.)~, ~<5o @l~.>SJ~ woEl<6 a.aono OSe0'5~;6 aoa @o:oo& ~<5JJ&. 6j~!!)~e1' ;:S,sa-e (2JCfuoK.seJ~~ ,zy,,~~~~o~oBoiilg;!3 ~;;)Jf;S). ~<5 o~o ~;6JoaoJoofl" l!:!JiFtS~;6 L;;Si9Q tl3oEl. 8"tJ, r;j'>~, 'ao~t:J"S" ;:sa~;:s 0"6:l~§ a'JJrSo ;;S,~o6:lg6e:i!3KJS~o. o:m!PJ)Ol1" ~vfJ, ~;;5Jca:l!&Or'i" @@JQ"fJ!3lSe<l~ rb6~~ 0'5~ <60;0SJ woEl;:S omgS60"'~ ~<5JJ ~~ri", K~~>tr'&o~~li" ~;:500JoS" @I!3~ptj<6e.l~ 605. t',1"66cj~o Q:D~~& €1;SSOS;66~rS S.OalfJaon 9"ea!3.e'~~ 6:roS»oao~ sS0'5eJt>K:l§ $ ;6'lbel? @~e:>J) @l;65"'iB"~l!:!Joo~~o:o.

8~ ~QOiJ"e)o~ ~;S;&o t'SdS:rc& iSJcoo, o. ;;:.G3t!5"e.lo&@o!1

-a c ....,

2015 <J"el3 @lOCO lri"~~cfuej t:ltl:l~e.:ot50';s&c& am<666o Q"0"~i'1"

~l£cfuo~ S"<fu~6:l. OY'ffef O"O"~ 50 e:>~e.;;illoe g)1':'i"!:'tDe.D Ga ;6O"!!)SJ

~~ d..: t"'r"'J. rYI I..oo.l.. -- e} <p 0

a o5;;5~OJ.\l"'J..~' .eo ~;Sr:S~oJco E ;;SJJ~, K~~fJJ.. i5c5QJ"e.liO ~tiJ!3.JOt:lJoco? e B~n> iiY''ff. er:'S!iO 15f\[)oD ~on~~otj Ke:lBt:J?

OY'~ @;fu,&- ;6.x,oOOed ~~t:lt:lJ.r'i", OJ"ff~OSJ;:So .rloo_x;;S6ori"

......, r::L..... N ~ P'"I .eJo

125

(!!l5..O~. ~.;5~~ ;:Jo~66 ~MD\~C" &!lo6:Jru o5.xlo6:J§:'~riI!."J ;;y.O;S

"'" Q '-cI.:

<6o;;Sg OJ"5ruotmoO"? @~S~6 eC"dil;;)~e;Jru i:3oe;S rue.nOaJDe,)~

80 ;go8"~§ ~~ ~~e.Xl ~go;ooe;J iS6:J~ iS6:l~dJo!1, @~O"dil ;;S~e;JS:I Qot);S rut.\:loaJ"I!."Jru~oe;s OJCed' 10 ;0060 ~~ ~!fu6-;;SoS:loe ~~I!.D ~~~ ~'I;"il"e,) tSc5J~e,)SJ :i3tiJe1J"'d._6J. ~ ;;S5~l9~ c'iS.:J;:So o1eJ" iSt3&ElC;§rie)o?

~ cfulOSei60 ~~fl1~6Si5:J ~($.)ruo~, e!Joc5J~ ~;:S~sorro ;:Jofu~E tJ'>~ ~;Jaf\oiS~lOs ~~~ori" a:l&!l~Qc'iS.:Jcm;:S;;S.J~ O'SY>~~ cfu;So ~5J6orio& iSJt>~;:Sd.. @)l9r,JC Ol~~~ ~~rie:ori:J6"o. ae a:lef\~O"ID. ae es5i\tm ~~tJ~ c'iS.:J;Sc6XJo6:J;S\ @~~CS rJOJ"exl. zy'66~~

~ a 0

~8f;IO~-o<>~ !!;5[)~~ .a~~o~o S"OY'I!."JoD, cfu;scfu L;;SbQ> OSSfJ"S~lOJ.

~~~ ~tSJOSQfu eoe:ooEl. ae iS~QoeJ oSJ<So cS~o& ~So ~®a5~ ~exl~o) e'i6OSOSQ~ eo~oe:.. 5"fJ, ~ ooedl oS:l;:S;fu~ ~~~e;lt3J e..6jOSf!)i'v eof.JJOe. ®OOJt3:J ~;:;J"t&J oSJ;:So @<fu;:Je~;:sd.. ~~~~§ g)ors~Q";:;J"e.:l~~ ~~zy> O'SB&I!."J£b6 ~Q06;;S8 ~IOOSeJ~et ~~~o sV.:piS6osN'd_ ~o6J$)~tm iSJn~OSI!."Jfu~oe:ooEl. ;fu;S rJoD~e;luS .oD;SO t3dS:>OSI!."Jfu;S ~!J"~ ;fu;SSti"-5"Q ~~~~60 ORO ;;mcse» ~~e)o.

@oaS"s, ~OS~.i}o~ W;6o, iSeg)oi:S~oSJ~e e...S I!."J~OS"li"l ;:;:y>dil~~.;)o ~;:JO g)O"SOSO~~ i5Q.'S)~o OSJIJDt3· e;I~J)O. ~dil~fj.;) e~f1" ;fu;Sc'iS.:JoEloi3 g)tS~ g)~5:O s;;Se;lO ~tJ'>0~I!."J& .;S,o~;fuso~, eg<So,s&

eJ rll Q

ID&"tili8'r. ~c:l:loe. ®0~5"~ ~g)6o& ~O"06"IO§, e3"N":O& ~"":"';S,)oG1

~ cl. -" Q ~ "'®

ctD4Y'g ;:JOIDOOOO'S~ OJ"5s @osrJ"oJ<>;S SIDf\~oEl. ~Q"O~Oli" 0))160

~~Ss 60naet @OSdil;$o ~;s.zy,f\~ ~6J~§,,~ ®QsctU<S t~ a6:>s~~~c30!J"OJJ. 6lOs g)6Jri:J6l1" c'iS.:J<So g)~6 @o~O'Se~i6 g)g)Q -5"l~QW ;:JoS:l~c.fu ~OsSOri" <6~~c;55~&6 ~~I!.D ~;;S~OSe)~ eoex>oe.

126

~e;l ~n5 ~ -Se; SJc1:Jf>

~

ocr:5e!o, oct) sn5~w

@~ ocll)e.lJ1' £ltl£}6Ql)~&tb @;;)1Ul 1'6~e5"'~ej ~/1;IIUl6"Q.l) i\JD ~i'b.JSo i\Jf' QJD6;;)~o!:bcf. 6§JfS60eF aafliJ6a1c186

eaoore> ie~:OSi)O&j~e.u a...S5&e...!:i6J ;;s"506~ ;:Sozy>~oil:l g6OSe>~;:S ~OS;:S6Q NDN"c5§ ~6Jt'U~rSde. ®~cru;:s ;:Jo~~~ ~6Jt'U~tSJ.e, 5"e:>~ ~~~~I!.D ~t>" &;m ~x)o ®O-B"e.:lE'? i5;;Sl.&.:>~~ s~~ lU50D a..$a.~s6J g)~eoiSJg;u5~fu tlio8. ID~O~e»fl'> o:s:o~as.,~e;lfue308, a..se,!Y'~a.:o @go~;:s,;,~OSC?IO~, g)~eoi:5C"':O§,e...fuJotSC":o§. ZO§J_ OS5"J_~oiSC"':O§ &!lOS(;s60 ~6J6~~El, 6lN"l.&.:> ~:e:~ e...S Q5e~oD& @J;5~oD;:S ~ ~OS~~~SQl)N" 6;:5 c::5riISJoa ~o~{9~ g)2:;F;$o rUeo~

(') ~

6;5 g):O<ilJoritJ'>6Je;l~, ~;:J;:S s~~, cDQt';S :o8~S;I!."J~. Ci5O"eSOS6~

~3f!)~, i\Y'ctiJ..l;'l;;S~I!."J~, ~ct:D QY>~~~,;:J~iJ06l?S~6 ~OND()~ g)OS5otSC"':og o1~J_;;S ;:5~ct:Do ~tUJ ~G:Ja,~~, ~~:Os, cOoos13t3 S"O$SQ>Q5o Ci5~ i1"6;;So ~os)ooBoi::S.co:o§, ~~;;S~ ~reo& a;:Scl ~O;;)~l3S ll1d5Jt.o&~<6e.:o ~6lf1'f!)r;;t'1O~ @)oc::55s~ OS:ooO;i g)2:;F;:S~;:5 jge;l~ o1~bOS Ii!9OS~Ss6 ~6Je&J~tSJ.e. 6c'iSJ S"6~SQ>Ojo am~6- iJc~; QJ~OS~N"e;li5:J ~go i3;fug£OStJo~ @oA~e06r;;t'~ '8"~tjSel) -;5tUJgCQJO£), !!!lO~S"S ~os~so:sa.e3"N"~~6o~c:l:l~r;e,) g)CJ"'rOSoeiJe;lJ -c., ,.;.,., ....

9t 'Ol 0 .e> . o.uJ!PJ) O.n)

~eS"6 iJ;~et t20~tJo ~C'" ;:S~a=":og !§JeW" ®;;S;:5o~.

~~tjse:neJO;m ;;se~g ~ND~ ~oO"cfu:Or1"fJ, l>1noc5riID7l"oi>:O n<>b, o1otr~ i:3otrsSo,. e...S ~~~ ri~6i3"~ :06:J..;;St'aleJDr1".S, a.S :i3~:O~ ~o60 SUs ~~o s;:Sa)e;:S~l&~ ~;:S<fu&~ ~;:se.;)~~o6J §6;~:o§ ~O~~Ori"i5 eot:l)oEl. @o~C"'S" i$~cfu~ ®~~;:Sd.. ®6Jio~ OS3"[lS

o;08"fD ~r;;t' fl1cfu& roa(;sK:O §"s ;;S5.§e,)c6fD';)6:J6:>S"ri"~ OJ"e5omotS:;; £IF\~~oe.JoQl). ~ LO:S@~ ;;)c'iS.:JgOSo6ona re6[l"e.lotj, ,O:S5-?¢;:S~

127

jOe:lOG)Ot);;S LaSts e..~(. o:ro:!lJ~g);a~;fu.jo !irati" aSEl<6:>o5§ @JoC))eJ"e.:o&§ 0"ciY'[). @D.l.Jtb ~l~;& @! ~ll6"v;6.) ;:S(ja-6"~~gel:) :'J.o~ aSelt~ x,eijd5:lr'lel)t'06"OJ. ~eOJl'e D.l5.tJ~N"e;lcl:SJ<>et .;)05513 CJOIilli" aSoosa ~ OSB.tO;6e)(fu ;;set~ K:lej~1S:>. :Oe3~rS '8"!&d5:lg)~N":'J§ s.t!.JJo5oe iJo60~!3a§"o~K:I~.

~6eia.to& g)~jo 0"00 05g)~~0t!J. snro~ ~;5)J~ ®~o~~rS g)~dS:;o>w e~d5:l:'J o:?eoiSco (§a a~o& 1!!J;:S~e30 so6:>. @t;)~Bra @0'8"'e;l ~rS iS6JS:l 6cfuJ:'J '8"'~~~e)~ ;6iiJ"~ ';)lSJ6~h tllOeJ<>OXl. <6:>;;So X:Jeot:SoSe>~rSa,llitloi3, ~;:)).J <6:>16 ~~rSJlo~rS s.oledS.> ;;So£iorSe;l (fj;0Y'~ "&efle:J~Oli" g)~~oB ~@cJS) ~~. <:'D;;S ~B& erSd. ~~oB~ ;;se~O"va:sO" cfu;6o rP~ot:S~;o g_~e>rPeo-O ~~:'J!3 oJ~ruel) @o;6011" BcS.y'I(lRafu f3ot:$lSJ ..

S.S6-~ 2il"LK~~ ;6oe:JoOo{);;S a..S <&r>(?O tlioe. ®:'JJ_ ~~:O!3 1i:lCOO6"~ ;fu;6o 6.Y>i:T>oeoD;6;S. @oCSJ& i:i:lrSo 1JSeow;6 .o;05~e;lo~e,~ 2il"l6~l1" g)~~ow;6 ~6:lciY'~ 0SJ0~;fu 05,);60 wo!!Jet, @~~o~ g)~.)j~dilon;c eoa a. ~o;oU"~ .;)oiSJ~oeJ'>o. a.,!3"2,.!3&oJ.,JOJ ~~J ~Oo cfu;6o s;fu~ <6~w cfu;;S~ j;;J""e3011" ;(x),;Jf~oB ;6~e;l~~ ;Jo& ~;6d011" eoeJoOXl. eO"~6ro§ 05,)16 O;)~& l!I"~eS 0"0Xl ®;6li"~ WDeJD s~;6~, e:l6J~;6, a:o"&660fo ~oSod' eOG qDrS;;Jo<>go <6JJe~oe. S"~, O":'JruBow <fu;6 @EOOg)~;6o ;furS$.) eiEl.)Iil~ ~N"~ @oe~o5. @i) 0"00) d$J~~;o§ @;6o!\J~SS ;:JJ"§."J.EIDS~e.> <S;fu.>;JS6';);)~, ss ~2:Jtm~e;l~ ~ OO"Jel) ~ wS"6-S ~~ eocGS~, @oS!Jel iO~~ ~vo& C!!Jei~o~ jr\05o~orT" tS(l~ eobt>ctlJtJ ;5:,;6 C!!Jm1g)~;6o o)j;6s" ~:md5:l£3~oe. es 0"0Xl 2.)6J~ I!!l ful10 aSe~w<fuo~e58'~ ~ ~1Drf' (fun~~ ;;Je;lg":'J eot!.JJoO:'J SJ.>~ o)j;6!i) e [)d5:lGSi~~,O E:l. .ea l,!SoSoiSo oJeJD ;6ru~;6cl6~o<>:o!b6 ~;6o ~6.)6..:ilS,;;Scl .;)~ ~o6~ @~~d.'lJl>OJ §"g ~~iOS ~g)o5.&6roe)D.'i~ LaS~oo& ~e~d$J"Q.l). cl3O"o.J:<>6~ru ~o~.ill ciDS".iOsJ <furS iSJ9;B" e;6d_ ~05oi:loK:leoD ~c6~;6d. @otP.lli!& @D.'iflO~rS~, ~~~OflO sn6sso6E'& <60E'JO~0K:leow ~c60 ~6J6iSJs;<i:l 053"vs ~05;6~ <6cS.:>.Jae.>071" @J~~;6de.

128

g)~;6oB"~;o§ @;:S6'~ o~o @)otlJ« ~6~ eoO"? <6oSJ<>aa":O~, GS~g ·sot:m ~g)~nSJ. OJ"§,QSoX:J50D 1;SCW<>e3rSGSo~~;6 0e1~.)Q"e.l) ~6.)6tS~ ~~.J @06~;;S eJ~o. @lCiJJ.>e3<So @;o ;5;;S;:))~0~~. ~<fu.J ~~n" :'J6,y>;;J~e;l£x,a @QD605l&J~:<lJ.c5:O i3;;J.)co~ ;:S~Oe3;:So s>c,. ~GSe;lO O)jo;6GS s.oL5dil ;:So;;3c5;6o!b6~ ~9;osoeJ.) :'J5~0t:SC;;o 0"0"~11" @.:JoOso. 0:.:.;6 3l,0©d5:l (60~6;:So ~c6:J~e;l~ b~ ~Bg})~eJ.)iVd.Q.X). r'l~ePe;l&, SJ&D~ .;,)y>;6~e;l g);o§e -M~ iYO" oS5.D.?60. ~~e;l@i ~[)~ ~;6~el:) iSJ .... I&r'lVf\OQ iJ"~ ~SJ6-GS, 5"'~, <fu5"~~ owrS~c;, e"i6J ~~r\DF\oo<>~ e:l~, g)rSr\Df\oC"~ ro~ D.'iJB l?~~Nd_~0" .ib£6cll1" g)g)Q 6soeJ 6;!QJOIT'i'iJ"'eJ.) 6,y>liJooeoi5:l~1'i~6.

08"~tl~w @~joe3 .;)~ 6;!0S'671"<J"Vd. g)~~oD ~9;06"t:Xl 6J.>V>oa~1S:>. ;::SciSJ.>e3oS"~, GS~!§el)S"~ @ ~~8"IDd_ a;;JCiJJ.>f\oiS:lS":'J e>!lliJoo6J8"1S:>. eO"(ja6t9§, ~;6o g)g)O $"BS GS~~e)iD~ ~6.)~Ke)

o

jOeJoQDe);6) l3iI~ot:S~:J!3 ~tI:;S <?",BS'8"'~ rS:Pl¥"w @GSso-Mg);)~Ql) .

GJ"e3 ~Q"6 On" !I [)d'5.:l2 2.)~ ~ rS a. ti e:J ots ;;iJ 5"s roo"';o S 60s ~ ~ ;;:mowSO;Q @o~ei ;;J"se:J, @)oeiB1!, OJ"~S"e;l tliO"'~goB"e;lO"S" .;)~ K~N"~ <furSo Qa5Jcoi5riDnoo. .;0. ~~ ~o;oeio,:;)~ S'~ soo(9 ;:SoD.'ietJ"O"eJ 6Y>"6oiJ !i:JoO" L?S~O"~~.cS ;:SJD~ ru6J~~~eJV"~ <furSo a!3&~cfur\vo. @ag)Qo~ @~~ ~5~6Jet. §"Oe} aS5.lli60fi";a @Q:).);;SOSJe5~, .:Joo~S'B"L~W I!!l~~ cSB£'CP;;S,:,oe;lfo5o-.':) tro06~ ~ibB~e);6) ;fu;6!&;) @lOtl~r\el) K:l~;;J"J.Q)).

~;6o ~~ LaS~o~e5~ ;6;fuoQ";6o oaS.)e:;o ~;6),.J e;l~O so6:J. 5"iO ~Q"6~ eai\Y'&lL~dilo 9,eJ" zy>[)oi:lc5J. ~alO i3.i1oJvot3 ~;fu.J 8";:)) ~;&6!i) OY'~aJ"~ l6g:,ooi:lr'lwru~o& @J "fu6!i)~@;& ;60.)j0Q"N'"eJJ BO{)eJo:O!3 a;w;:))~oe.n05. "£:!<fuJ S~e;l ;:S~~ ~~e:J!&:l @b~ ;66"$~ @5~eot:SeJo:'J§ ~;fug;6,). @o6J!&:l roOJWrl" (§a @loSoO":'J!3 ;;SoeJoQo{O;:S ';,Jr.:} a.~ @O"5"~ b;ill~1!J O"~ oSB£.ot:! O":'JJ_ .i)GSeoi:ltJ'>~g oSJrS§"!5 <61J..efu~ ~O"Oe:J"~\ @oE:l;illo5.

o 0:. -"'

g):JQ 6soe> 6~dS:liO~ ~~ LaSl9<6.)o6rSe.1;fu ~~ot:SX[)~ ~;S ~;fu0'>~~ 6~cfu~<8"',;S~ e§05-5"<6~ ~e>~ r\~fodilol'i" ;fuo5.J~il"CXJ.).

qj)'CJ.. 'dI' IdI

129

t3~J. ~ g).tf.)g)~e.>c;l5)o& ;fuo§4F:a)'D"~~~n" OS~}a~~d llSW"Os (Uoei!:i CN')J'ia~g ~~£'a:) e§0'5-6"~0& ~ti:J 6-8"'~e) E!!l<fu~0'50 ~0l:J. @"e1 @0§"~;!5.J;fu !&ifu~t>d. <Oe')060& ~dSJ~ ~t:>" ~~~6. ~ @g)O%tStalfu noifu ~ <Oe')oCJ":::J§ 1989& r1'ro~ <O~;;S,:,@ O'5t:}JoEl, ~;J~ll~-~ ~~S:l i3ol:J;5 ~6~d:S:l ~~:&'iS-J @ld:S:l;5 ~cSe')~eno &:.~ori ~S.s:::J.JoR ~dSJKID(1"c:". ®O~5"~O~ t!!lID.?~o,j~ LGS;;5oiS~S~ '!ltJotlS' ~o<iJoElo~6. ~S'»CID e<6Jo!b6 ~QOtSOSa $ O'5"oo,rn sue3diloe?,

~,., co

~LiS~ol;l"et, ~~58~et, lbOa& ~LBJ"'~~.'O E!!l6J~~oS"ao&

;;5~~~cm. ~.:S~QS~!:i g)~;5o& tS3"ID~ .OS5.g6~~ ~ciSJr.5o&,;:5o ?cSO"aJ"'6J& L05cfu>Ii-SOeJefu ~6J6i:5r.5o& @i:?6S lboiSs ;JogS 0'5~dS:>OS5W"'6.

a§0'5 ~os~!:i =e= 9,05" ~~6.r;~eo~n" fS§l,.<6 ~oS8!&g)al;;;6 tlor'i"'rn ;Jo& ;fu~8;g.6@<J"cm. E!!l~ ;Joei ro"Tl" .'OeJ&!3J&S:l~dl:loe3, ~llOJCI!) 601'1''~ ~~o~;6 R"oSJ ~~.'Os g)~c6J..eJ;6.) o.U;::)o @'~e5!:iOTl" K:l6J~t.xJg;05t;;0 0'5,,6~!iJ6~o.eO"~6s;l€; 5@a:IdtJO:O hc6JsSo8.

-" Q

eJD~S6ta6 ~o6JeiJ~;;JJ16 l¢0'5 o.)Q'>o;~ .a~.'O ~b>~ctl:i~ ~lejo!b6

(!!lO @Q"tlOS8 OS:oj~oE.l, 6~d. i<J~s~~~o~on" ~5"J.o~6J, i<J.§, rl3<it.'Og ;Soroo~o~;6 ;;Sjo~o 1876& ~c5e5~5rl" e.~oo;3 o)So)~6o& aoSCB.:FKoe?s elfuSJO"aJ.80o. @N"e5c6:1o~ ~e50"5" ~es"'~",~OS56.!oi:S~o& 5@:l~-a~o Kta~dl:l~c6 ;Jnl? S)S~~oo. 1880et fulcS~~5Tl" t;JUaso&s 05~c6 :iIDcS~ ~&.iluEe) li3"'@!&'B"®;.'O~. 9,oe:l~50Fi§ c:Jorootilow<S .;)~J. @lg)~6E01e)efu ~OSCQ.yoF'lo~~oo. o5.:lilP~ono ~t..~~ ~Jo6-eJc6J g)-5~;,()~ciSJOI1" OJ"C$:JgC6IDF\0l:i. @vo'fl ~eJtb~s..J 6oXoQ, X~~-B"'~oQ ~~S"eJoQ ~~owc6 R"~.J g)~d.5Joc;:;lifu ~Q"6o i3~§";tJ sO~e5eJ~ ejeJ~OJ).

e~6 c=Jco'§as ~5~<60& ~5.glie$;6 ~;jStY';OJ. ~eJ05~c6J~;6 Q)cl~e;fut. '~oJSC"~§ 6J~!:iV\otj OS6eiJ6"<SJo S"6co6Jrn 660oB.

Q t"I"l , oJ 9""'" .....;QI

~el:8"::b!& 6~alJ~-5"~oQ o.)e~O~eJc6~ ';)~65"e.> ~~!3,)eJJ, ~o¢t)§

~~LF'I 6J<.&Y 0 OVCUl. ~C$:J '<=l,~~, ~Bl..o'~et @g) ~v>l:i Os»el)/'V'

130

dJO:Sc:fu»KOS~~N'dOJj, ~o4St:l§ ~~lt\~ ;6o~~ 6y~~~ oSJt>6Jco t:JJeJQo. S"e::J~ ci}"e!)~ g)g)l;5 6sveJ d5:lo~eJJ, .;)eJIZSe5, eesO;fu'c~5 g)zy>1i"e)), ~~.'O5" ~e~~~ 0:;51&0"0) '@eJo~6£a ~O'5"lB, ;;S~~eJ~ ;oe,)~al.J ~~eJJ eJ"oe5 ;J~ 65"V ~cfulf\;o 6c:i:S'vt>6Jad:5J.~o& OJC6!3,)ofJJ~o,

~ g)ald.'iPeJ& .i7ot.xJ O'5Jt>;6;;Se§g)~.'OJ. 6£.o6Ke> ~oS8~ o:se~N"~ SJoO" ~<SJJ ~;605;noCSJS:l h<6J!::D05~Jot). e.,sOS.J~ O'S:>::5o ~~@oO"e)!:i,) c:JorooOotJrS ~O;le.l g)o':J,o:noe ~tb Oo:ne3O))<SJ!:i:J~o. 5".'0 ;;3tiJ cir<uO) eJl9§ <odSJeJ.;Sl;l"g)~ tJe.l)11" ~o:5J.>e)~~ aDo@J"e.JJ 6y>.IDool:JoiSrot:>"OJJ

C co •

OJ'>~e:J"o ~~eJ<fuo~ ~OOS6~~ ~!i> ~5F'l ;fu~ t5Jc,_§;s ~g)6"~

e§g)o-tSb>.'Os £)el)/"j'O SJL~~ ~en.)~ .;).'Oj~~Q.).), ~;;S6~d5Jct1~ ose.g&4S;;s05~ ;J~ 6S"eJ cfuaot!)rocfut>l5SJ,j, OJ'>ib;;j~rS:lJ LOSW"'Clods c6~Ql). (!!lg) ~;:SlO co6J£a~;:S (!!lO~&n"eJoSJo8 S"~~ei:J~Ql). .;)~ 6sut!l ~&'i ;6cfu~eJ;fuo~ c:D;6~ 6!ot'SfJalOs .;)~ 65"eJ .;5Joc5.:Je.u ci)~~o/"j'O OJ"~sQ§ c6o:Jcm. !leJ.'Ocle5 ~~~o/"j'O ~ ~"",r;Sffo!.:JJ6 .Jo~.;5JoE) 05;n;fUOSl!)SiVd_ c:Deo~ e~S"eJo e§g)oi:S K~X:Jei:J~6J. Ke$o& cSg)oO;;Sco~sN'd.. ;;j~ .;5Jeoej @at'~;So6~;:S cSg)6"eJoSJ e§g)~~6J.

~'t.'Os @g)~6£aexJ .;)yo;605~ci)6"~ e:ooW'6JsonoSJe~ \eS&J"g)60 adS:lxe.>~. ;;:J<.5L-B"g):,S, OJCeSc6iJadSJs 601i"eJe? OJ'>~~<Sd. 6~ctU;6 OSW"q;:en QJ"~;::S6~~ sO)~e'§o a~~Q).). 6.:;:y>ro" ~(';SiV"eJ;fuod £Dcfu~SJ 0560)~;6J. @505Ju6!36~;6 ~KeJ0'5~ ;;SKO"~ nov SeJJ~6 os,~8ol:i. £"11. ~~IDo:no, c:Jo5t're DJ"dfu~e)) DSoe!) oSeJ"al ~~<i1>eJ~

w,

os,;;So g)g)Q (!!lo)~O"v~c:Jo O'5"o8~<SJ.~~ I$g) S<'6e')Z:E~~c& o}>e;o

~~6 5"lill~ O:S~a;eJ;fu OJ<'8"DS6roo&§ OS6JUl~~Q)), ;S~ .;5J<So lBi!5~ DJ"dS;o~e.lo~"'d.om .. ~ t;JUam~e;o ~So DJD6'"DS6E9 c:Jst:b>~~ .trroBJ~iI"Q).). ~.'OOS~~Ff~ eOS56vo ;;!jas,&ruo 0"~a3.? ~eJo& GJ1>6";;S6£aoO [,@S@~ 0SJ0~e.u ~oiP'iDoiSlfi"'6:>~cm.

131

s.~&cj la3"~dSJ iSe)N":'J§ rJoe;)ot;)o{'J;;S &<>o;)S"e)0S"60 N"~ ~, .. )'5~0l:J. ;;)l:J ~t:J& iiY'S~0 ~DF\;;S e..,§ ~~ ex>Or);:il &a~0i:50e.. aJ"ri'" e::I;6~c$)~o §[)F\OS \?,o~oe ~ au1:SKifu ~xalb;:S~ri'" zyog)oi:5oe.. -$a aucK ~06 ~660t3 t1ge ss ee;:S~~o5ao&\J"eJ"oS:loE')"~<S ~XJ~6:Ja

Q

6l0txlol:J. s06.;5)c:SJ.. ~rJOzyo r:J"~ i5Y>~ ;:JcQ";)e, ~~e..,~&~~ P"'~ ~~6s

~t:l;;S930J"6J. ~~6~t.~ t19;;)jl6, ~f.xl~t.~ @)b> 7366l0!Jt>6;fuS£08. t19~.:?~ fl:!I a:i)cK ';)tlJ !:'icS.:lrne1J06"je ;::S..)~Ol1" ~od6J, @8~~i;Jt' !:'i6eJ~iiJJ' @~~~e.:>;fuob ~f.xlo;)c,~ ®e.n ~~~oc60o£ {'JOS6s I!! a:ocK ';)tbJ'> ~6e.:>~0~eo8,KJ&~ol:l. @eJ"S"s ss e.DcK~ ~c6:J~!!l) ~ef> e., ~oSJdS:lo& ~l~;& ;;j~6;:fu§:'00"0. eoooJ"<>6f.'t)§ 20~oe ~;fuQ.\)rn ~e~~§.:J ;5~e'i:>~6;fu~00"0. 21~oe ,;)c~~~~ ~~t5JN"J.6;fuSJoc:.::5"0. @OC»& ~®e..,!3&6J.. rS;;S,:,,>;6~;:S aJO";§J. ec:5d3JoF\~iV'd_6t6J~0C"0. es r:S~d5:l0& !3Jt.e.~;fu.ob. ~c;;s:,~~t6Job 0"~~6 LOScfucf\o{'J;SaJeY'~ ~~ e06Co& ,r:J":'Jfu6 .;)6~~~!fu loS03JoF\o~;6 eroo ..)S-:J&oJ S"OSdo05}2" @I:I ~<fuJE>('Y" ~C~il:!.~s.:. el6JtU~oe. sog:j ~ @~;;s:,e"'e.:>so ®~~~eJ" eoCtf,o~ @ e.D6ri ~El e....§ :0505 e~('Y" S"S .;)b:>aS8~ ®t:>J sOJw6.,'"" ~oe.noEl. 'doer'

Qe1

§~eXltiY> ~~ aDcK;:fu ~;6o ~ifuoD ~ ~ @Q;1ea,e.::.y.. ~~l1" a6:;r'.l~i'6J.

;5~~eJ"n'" §;:Se;)~eiJoe.

ac:5"yCJ o5:l;;So fJ'!,et. t';9eJJc3l.~ ®6:liU~;:SJ. a..s (gr'~cili oJO"K§&so 6KtS§ ;;Sooo. a..iS b(j ~.§"~fID~ lJ"C"~ a..s N"~toe.Jo ~oe.noB. a.S

n 0 -.;.

oSooK Sf.'t)O 00r:J"~l1" a.S ~t?tot)o ~~o §[)f\ eoe.noe. ®o~ ®e

a..S be3 ~~fIDcQ)S~;i5OXl~O~ ~~5l1"eoe.noe, ®olJ @I ~ooK!3mo I1:9rSoW'S!:l fJl> ;:SJ'>1!"J~J~e);;S~ c:5c3.;Sc3 ~~aJCJ~;6d. iJ"eJ'" ~~ ex>6KeJ~o~tSil:JsS;;S~J. ~~e:::.o i:5e)CV":'Jg; ;6oGJol;.oD;;') @"~dSJ ~c;o~o 1;;S~e:5o a..i' ItS;;S~O"'tlOe @I LC505<6C"c ;6JoSO)&SJcQ)elJ @I §Eao!;:,6

~ , ~ (j) Q ....... 190

i5Y>~~~ e;)e)ooSg. @I St'ao ~O"" is[)~~oe.noGl. !l£)e.:>"R e..s e3"l9 @~

lm6K .~~ jeJ"Gl =s= es ~o~et~ <6~~0), ~~ ®&3l.d' ~t;x)e.FJj

132

~~~;;SJ..0tS:l1S~ ;()C" ;Got5[)~ffiot))oe. torSo ~6~e3"@ c:5::J®&l1" 3;).,Y§JoeJJotS06" :'Je3":'Jg e.:>l!o>e t:5oiO;Kei @SdSJ~e.:>oS~ ~o~::J~i'6"l ;Goi:5€);6o o5JoL~;&.

S"gA~?J.:5 ::J.6.!)g)C"~vdSJo& ~o~~t:Jo ~'t ~5d5.nO"deJ§J fl:!IiJ06:JSCJfi" oS:JB~;6J. C"'e30~ (es. 193 7)~ @ef\~ '~6Q}oXJ ::J~;;S'D"~cfuot:JJc ~fua6J.dlc~6~ ~~ejs g)~rS<B"~o& c:5:'J~~;6J. ~6l9d» >t!"~~~0) o:iJnLei~' ®ob'OJ. O"oo~ (VCr} tof50so:iJneJ ~~OJ. ;ill;S {_[1V!o~ a:moS€$6o..Jo€$ @lG.9~;506JO)$D'b. ~o~ &rSd.~ <OSY>JJ s[)F\ eocf) OJDg:, ~"""~d5:l~cm ifoSoSesd' ~Kco !&~o_ ~oG5J!&oe5

,..., (j} ......... 0 eJ

!l£)eJJ,;'io€> s:foe ose~p~ 'OI,0b.~ zyoiJ.a o)6~;S, oSe~Ei oS6~;;S, g)~D.\£?

;;)6erS ~~~woC"ID. 11:9e.n<6oeJ ~~~e)<6:J iiJ"~sOS6Y> e~ot56J. @otOsSlGo ~d'5JrS @lo~@lC..e& 2105 .[j'~[) r'.l6JSJeY'e.:>il:J ~~ot:SCa£btS

Q (j)

tSe)~1J~6J. iIT"~Ei pO~!3J ~oM te5~~oSo6l,@;:S oJ~tP~e)~ gJCiJD;G

g)~!:i~e.:>t6J @oEloti !iJ6~~9;cfueS 8), eJ. @~6furi'" @Gl c:5~a~e. @cm~ §"~e)~eJ~oe ~8".J~~0) troo6J~ ~~i:So6c5Jt>l?"rS ea ~66a.[j"~j @~~tS aDoK o5.l:JotS:l!'iJ s6J!!l)~06;fusSao. oJ06~0e:3,

Q

IlilGl t:J"eJO ~~ CQ.)cK. r;::r>gJ"l ~o6J~ s~e.;oe3 l[!".fuEi o5:laJS~6~cj-i:fo

-;&t!..U§"~f90"[). ,eeilWl1" ~~Mo §"rS~F\ot5cos~ o5:l50~ ~g~s~;;s ~g)~~ ejefu sS~o ~~~~rS"ltS::J ~fuE9 a:mo5fjco ,XJ~of.)l9O"ID.

o

133

8

1;::- ~ ;;So~~J60 ~~0e:>6,) 5~

@e,J"6e1a.aO e1 ~ e.iJo Q"~di>J[)d_ ;;Sii(,.e~ eoeDoEl. zy'6iia~~g 00605 Q1>~a5~rl" a5~~~;6 ~~QOe5d1J - e§~;;js ;;S"BSa5w, ~Q"!&~~.!5 (1888-1975) ~~~Ii~;fu t;l~ c;)oOSejJ60 ~iJoQ"'~cli> e~iiJ;f)orl" edtlJoJl§JOeDN"d_fu. to~o& 6:l~~dSDO ®~S;6lei oJ1o~CSd.SXJel) S"c;JDl) @rSJ.fl ~®;5 ~C!). ~ ~oCS6~0n" a-o'o ;5e,).)~e)e,) <fuoe. g)-5ti e.iJvQ"'So:J.x.e.D rfu<>S4\~ OS~ rJ~J,60 ~S~e~ eoe.JDtSJ. ;$~ W06e§ 0"~l4n'" a5~~~;S S"eJo& @tl:lOSoe;) ~~&O"e.u <V"5~oeo~ @oSS"~o ~l)f)oe. @tl:loSot) ~ ~o~odc:5:rci ;;3.;6) woii €f> ~ ~ W" I!J ~, ;;sot! @~ <if OJ"elJ

..., "" ,...,

g)N"I!J!) tli;~Js~ iSJ"~o~ 1iJ"e&' ~

~oCS~Orl" ~or} g);5dS:l011"~, S"~ ~od' ~ 5"J.~ oSJo~Orl" ,,)~ g) as. ci5J.. en cndilt:l@eJotSJ. ~e;) ~66o;to& ~oc5CJ

c.J

g)~~~el) oJoii OSS~ ®~~g)~Nd_~ ~:fu

OJ"5~'G" ee.urJJ~~;6).

134

tjSD £)!o~~~ if"l$;6orro rJ:;o~ ~~t eotJ. :J.s~ds6;;so ~eJoJZ§

e

~~J eo~. !J{)rF,

~@ofJ" ei:;oi$~::Js ~o($O~ ISIOSsP~~ C$'o~2.J"@Q! .000GJ"erS.JgO OSt;l;i.

L"'~~.;S,Jo.

;fu0jS0"~06 a5::JQ~~ a..Stll"?lci ~lE>oC"l!J e~Q"sdiD~ ii;5~ ~§&~ ~a50t:JD~~ OSJ~S t:JOIDOOOej!&SJSOStlo Kl50t.) .))OS50i:JO~. ~i6 . c;)oJoi.S6 eefSrYJeJW', g)0'e5~e;W', t.)oS6~ ciOSJ ~e')6d.S,)o~ s,.,r::;r> iiOSJ~ c;SoeJoQo af1KlO(ll);S 0Ss41 ®e.

~G:l iJ<>1:i-n"eJv c;SorJ'}"eJ®' OJ"t> a55~o, 6~6oL~e) ~Ci.Si6VJ" ~o611" 05.Y>a8;EdSy>dSJot3, C9 e~~dIDciJ t3~.);5C"~ a:l~. ;$068§ @OS~ OSO"(ll)n" !&:O~~~(ll). .eac:?e> oSJodJa.e.u ~OotS~o fuC", '@Sa~6J$' S~<D"vet La5;;3~o c;SooJt>5oi.SC:;0 !be" oSJo~~ @S~ a..!&p 0J~1JC:>6.Ji\J"d6,). t5a '~~o..::se&o' K:l50D 1JC:>6.J<6d_ a..~e. ~05 .;:P>J6ci5J..~;fu .;)oEi~ ~osrSo j;::5JS"ocro;5d.0oe3 ~,;J-o<6o, Se1pj~pj e.Y'o~g)en;6v~ ';$6;, d'tl:le3!iloW" ~eh;S'lfl. t:JOSJ~ ;::)aJ6~. ~-n"iil"oY>

0<. e) Q

6~!&.)~o oSoe3g) ;$CJ G'ni6 g)~~o~et Eiru~SJ6eh;5clg). OSJtS S!OXno<3

~ga56eiso ~~-n"e.1~g s>t:s.nS";:);6t.)J 8ti;;3fuoe.g)6s §"oejifJ:Jo5 1J~ID8C"rue)!il e.Y'zy'v;fu C9~O~;:sru!ilrl" §;5IDCtJOd' W"~ 0"':5J..!& OS5@OSJrl" ~5J~oC"tn. ~olS:l!il 0S:J;S0 t9l,2S ~;fuo~!& ~eJS0 ~iSS,oW" ei~.)o...:s,sSoo.

2003 fEl1td)"& ~68& jg)6<>:l"e";::)§ 005;6 10;6 ~t:JD."\""en

I\) r;:J -e)

~i:JD6S <fu~@~ (es, 1920) ~6s~oD<5 -5ID6o& ~~~;fu. @!&6-C:;

1505:106 @Qila~$ ;$6e);fu Senifu~~;fu. OJ"tD ~06;60, ID"~0, ~OSo, ~~o, ~~J. 0SJ~0 o.So~ OSJ6"v!i> L?ui04Sso c6~~""d.tD. £o.>l:J06" §e;fu ';fuu66' e:<lt;f>S®J$ ~Se.:,;5';fu g)6J6eJ~'6"0. 88 ;6.);6 o~oe .J~ ~~'8"e.)eS!, <fu:l~S0IT' t.)i6d.{!)~d. ;;jtg~eS!, g)6S DN'd_5 ~,;y;s~~ S'"ooa~tS ~t6rSv&;S.y> ~gg)~~v8;S.y> ;::)B~6so ~~;5d_CS;::) gy>lS,) l!ll;B6rS ;6~0 3'5)'&. @fl g)CJ'DS~e.loSJ rS~eioLei" :n;;3t.:i,-;:)"'Q56JelJf1" ~~o6ot:St&o fics!), OJ"5:O ~G)S"5§o adSJtJoocsfJ @oEf>ti'iS c6~0 B'O"tD. g)~t1Je.l ~g)6"et~~J.g)S"~;:)§ ~rSoa!fuoW" ~t6vo ;;S5§." q)ID@v~ os,.,@;& ~g~e.:, ~dilttJo e3C:lKl~~e. atl:lc6oe;, e:<lo-n"l!J!il 1'\)~1l" g)QdS:Jej iSJoibo.:5t&o :fu08 g)O"'S~v ~QilaJ~iiiS:l 6!oBe~1l"

135

~6e leJst\.);:5 @dSJo~ptJ061O Q"1Y~;6iilJ' ~6~-i0 @~6 ~0~6i~~ ~g)OsoKel 0.:30. ~eJ:l;S0!3 a~od' g)C"S~f.) !!l&,:S;:5v~, :6o.'SJJS"v::SO. ~0:59)6r5J @!)oiSN" ci3clS.JeJ'>Kl§, i::loO§"KlJ o.'SJ8 OO"~eJ~ L~oQ)QS1'i" OJ"~gSiit\.)o<5o»of:3;:Jo S"~S"ru. ~6QO"J.V.) Klg.lJotJ<5 iS~::J~~ I'\:JEaOf1'" ~O"~~iO 6.Jo~o~oiJ"'f.).Klt:i~ l05dSv6"cle>:l tllif 19.)s60l1" o.)BEag).j~OJ:). :tla3~;;S !!8Q"S@I~~6 ~~~teg)6"105 &'i:le:;o, ~o~, ;:S;:SS" Klf.)a:lE. ~;6)16 6~N"~ ~eJa1O~ ~dSJO.l0;::r>D. e8 ~tJ~ ~ g)~~@tI ;s:'6o)B?tJ"~ C~oi:5!flo~ <::0050 @I~aJEi6<fu @o~o6riv~?

@~~Ei~rtmo6:l t6J~';j6~:6 @)4"SeJ~~' c.il61'a~ @j~~J§~~ ;S:,e;SS ~~ ee.n~SS;St;)o woO" @;:J;:S60. :6I,t'3;;'je)S"vo& <fu6;;J6~rS @)Q"S0J.~6~ ~~ @o;e.n 't-iJ;;P(~ ~~OJ:). (!!l0e3 @I Ql)6g)~~<fu6-?l"@!e.> ~zy;:JOS~ fj;:S ii~r\~ g)~.;Jaf.)ii~~ ;)1§o",OS ;;)O'ilJS"::& SVF\taotJ:l~dl. ~~ zy'OY'v!i;r>, (!!l;:JOa;l"~S leJzy'c;;:!Ov!i;r> 6<6;fu~~p"'e:xJ66{Jt306~o. ~~66g)e. ~15;;S~ 0'il6g)~~e)s~~ ;)SJ3,;:J g)-tr'e.> 6~sJ~~ i$.yo;;J~o .sa !!l~~J,se:9!fu {J~e.rJ1'i" rP~ooJl SO~N'd.Ol).(!!lO~S"Ei, @I g)~'i:3 i:J ~6":tls T3oQ;;SOJ"~, ss <fu6;:S<ltsvs06B§ @I 0'il6 e;:J08eoc3 ~Q"6E01 g)'6'S;:SO~~~W ss KJ~fv§, @68 ~OY'Kl! tDQs tllo~ ;:J~1'l6 ;=:JO[)oQ"~ ~OSet'¢ @Q<>e50~s6 (!!l~ 0600 ;:Sy>O~rul6d~' 89

;;3;fu @~aJs6rSJ DJ"~oS zy'05:6~~ ~~~~.<ful61§o ;:J~~6Clf'iO e:6d_ LaS6S~ lo6aSoi&o05~ 6~~~~CO CS"~ur> ~lej;& ~;6o O"~ SrSJFi";Sr\e)O. @Q)J~ f!8 ~cfuod' :Oa3~;S ~~U'6~O SS;;:sO' ~D ello~tiQ ~~J:O;:SB. ~ ~e:gcJ/SO 0SJc6~ ;:Joe;lg)O~ @;:JS"oifo W"eJ":£)'QeP @{Del6oJJt)~ Q))c6 cS~6o& Q))c6~ ~O~g)oi:5rie;l @cSS"'iI".q! (!!l(5 e9aR";;;JJ @c.SS"~O.rJ1>:O X,Boi'J svrG3 ~'<6:lgs;& e9~a~s~. ~;S!fu intliil~ ec6cliiJOB& ;:S<6:l;6~os,~6sS ;:JOa:lOQ"~ ~t5JIil~~, ~O ;:S;fudnoC, .fu.;:SS;fu160~. 8,,1& ~S'>O~o&§ @ctir<>!!Jo6KDH ®;;S5"~~ SYot:>" &JvOOaa

._

~c;r:s@,~~ @:O ;;3.;60 ®;::5.J!ilOQ:JN'"J..<60. ;fu;S~oci:l ·ea @~6~O

136

(§g)~~o.'SJcfuS S"6e1&i~0~ ~;S:O~tz'> e;l"'r\~;fu,e;lrSJ ~al:lr"lD'Ra N" Oe)~~ :,)a3~l6 ~4l"S@J,130e')~ @I~pJSe) ,~tl~, ;futJS~~:o~ ~OS;:fuoa . ;;:SOeJOQ":O§ ;::JoIDoQoDoe. G),rS a.;J:cO, ;ful6r:.D, ~6c:SSJo ~t:1Jo ~vlb 05:OBuboSvlbrS e:i~;;S01'i"rJ1>~ a:DrSo ®~oS~oiS;;Siil.} IIDe.:n;:JOe::l t56Jl6o S[)l1;:S~dJ i6J:6o ~ OJ:OB:':JN'' O":o§ ~MScS~;:J"eDO~-"ci:D;j iiS"ri6Jt>sej rJi6Je)~11" filo~oE'l. so

IPK;:J6~~W <J~;H5~Q))5"~, ~i6JJ,Elnc ;J:O~~dSJ;;3 rSO'DJ.SO ~DF\ t3ot.'itJ;& @lQ"S@JS6. ;:S;;:)-"~OnP~ dS.DOS g)~~1!).)6i6J r\~:Ocl e.s6no a6,,~iiJ"V~ ~e)e)ej~cl:lo~6:J. ffO;fu, @iI-8oDrS o~~ 3d l!3~0~ OS:lQ~~ 6~eJ:fu 6~J0tJ ~o~!fu&JSo:J"v;:5)!fuoe;pt5J. 6QSJ§ ®;;;JBi:l601'i'' ~;sJ~' §"~~ @OJJl6 cro5& loS~~o~;;Se;I~ ;:J~~o~~ ;)0& ®;;:SoJac6o~ aotJ'>l5:l. @OJJd @Ke :Ooil<fu>ov @S"6o;fu;;S0 ~ftc::l"B& §Co6 @~6~.so 6c;5Jt5:tl KJ.§o60'5:liO OY'B:O s:bI5:lSJoUJ~;fu.

~oSg)~~WI 60'5:l ~~w ~!~ ;;5B;Ji&.so Qo6ey:O~, .J6KAJI'Kl§ !WiiS"-5'g)J;;S.s~o ~6JJffD:l"D. ;)tDc;)o~&'ot56~~~,!iJoW" ~ c6.s~e);::)) 6J"'~o6:O;S.soa. OJ"esfur:s a.,@,8 ~dSJ~o8. bJ ;;SejJos~JvSJ ~ricS6i6:Jl[l<iJ"ifrly>, ~5~~elJ" ~E fu Sve;.) 6~JS ~~1561'0J:) ..

N'" eEg)60Q i'S.rS:l ~&oea. ;);S£~ ;;!jv~6 fl"'e.ne.>~ (!!l15J~ri<' 6~ @6i:l"'~w~s ;;J~~~OS, [;J"'5S cfu~~riOD0f2. ~d5Jo&?eiSJSro~ @rSJ~;s t:l~e.l) eJ'~?3J6"0)). e...13 oS:l:O~ .@;:S cli::l~o& .;)06 cl3rJ1>~on"

_..

;;So~IDJ~&, lfS;;S~~W @o6~;:fue06no @~~l6d6, ;;:))~l6cl6 @<i3d1Jov ~~n" @ej~ @~!!J~~. ~oso6<fu>o~0 6;$ !fuc!JJOID ;:SKJ6o, ~l6 (;3.0'0, 6~ j~o5d. 'if:,;futt, eJD~;S~~oe5 @O'6"ei~ €966 'if:,B:b60 &~t&:>. 2~ ~Bo~ g)~6 ;;S0~e.J:l ;;So~~ot:J'>vKl f!8oPtJo6c·B"6. SO~ ~oe':§'e>:l o§"S""6-v~, 6"':1 tl;O~~e).) e§~,"§6clgii.iJ"ei!J,. §"~ r:Jgc~e).) !:3~fj"N"V~, §CS, €!Ic5~e)rSJ ~o{) ffofu.otJ"v~~~ eQ);s~I56"~ .

13'7

d))~~@;:5 @4l"Sa~s~ ~r:S~ <SeSso .;)6JeJ :Oe;le3~~oB - @ ;:JeSso ..;)t»tSo~e"'" S"'fJ. f!!)t) o.'nCS:O ..;)t!.xl~~<J" br:SJS:J~!l~s- €9~~oe5 @QiPJseS ~c6o ")tlJ l&o5J"fio~Q @Q.ao~6J. @otlJSJCJtS:Je»n" <fuc6o :Ore"onb& ~ caec6 c6e.wN" ®tD;:5oe!3 l&@a..~6- 0<>5 (6Jr:S:O ~;:SK~:O~ 3ru~ocS:O ;:S~J~oE'l. ®eJ:lc60~ @~SaJ:s~ ~~ Q'S.};:S0 ~~eSo& ~~~ ;()OqD~W~ ~aoi:iKe.urueoo.;:Joa~e:J~;:S~o6 Ke.uru~o. ~6;JQ"Se:J~ oJu.;,6d5Jo:O~ .;Jo~g;Kel)lU6"O. ::s.e.nc6o~ @;;SfiD;jeCSoeno ;o..OSOS;:S;;JcJ~, @~aJseS KoSJoSe:J<6.Jo. e;~v<SJa ,fujOQ :og.ao{)~~6~, @o6J~ CJ~Ul &1;loiS~oe, j6JJs"~~o& soE ;:fu;:SooS;:Scl6e.:l~ ,;)5.el)~oO~, ")6J~OS6)~o6tl &ooS~~oE'l. ~;:S oJ1>J6dSJo>et, c6JCS;::))~ c6t{) Bc3 g)~c;J;oeei !p"OS<Se;l;fu @~~;:S a~ L<6L§<i5JTl" ;fu;:S~ @Q"SaJ~es e!lgc6JiQ)eiJoE'l.91

~g)eS ~CID>~;:SO 'oi>r:SO oJ~ o16:l!3oS~ei)~~ @eP oD;:S~ oJ6J~<66&s";;Se.JO,92 @.'O o,.!b g);:5eo~~. 5".'0 jeE'l oJoeS;;Sy.l.?O ;fue:Jt',5~e,SS9S"OJ. g)tJ"SoSS;;S~~ oJ6:>s<66iSl§",~ @@o5JGa<J"6 sc6e)o ~d5.:>0e?~ S"S, ®~LcSB'" ZY>OSCSe?S,Y>(;;Q j!lfvJ 6ifud..~oEl. ®El e~~cfule)~. iij"6J &O~~ g)~d5Joe:J~, OJ"e g)t:J<S~e)~ cfuOs :;JOCJOQ"e)~ ao~ ~~<SJ.E'l. 6§&r:S ~~~ oSe~~ e!l6J~& ~~~ g!ie~s"'d. g)JoD;:S a",6®C"e:J~~fiO ~~ ';:"'eoiSc6c~CS @c6:;:S60 e.oeJ. oSJ<S ~.!l oSr:SI:SJe:J.i:b6 ~~<So ;()o~E'loiSJ gS;;S~o ~NO f!9g~{§,o iS6CJ"e:J.'O @;S.:>g!i;;Se.Jo tJ".'O!fc;3 a..$ KoSJso. oS3"ID~ g)~i6'8"@':.'OJ. ®~c6§6 6ono~ g).'Ocfu>F\oi5:J§'c6e.Jo oJO"~ @~ctUi6o ~~t:lo ~M ~re~.'OJ. ;o..t:x>t3 ~~o ~L6;&. Sbf:J, ~tDc6o~ ~i\:l"e:J!3~ &:l;:S~CS c6JO"!3et;So oi><S<fu ~en~;6J_E'l. @e ;:S~;S.:>~~&, rJ;oSJ& LoS~g)oi5 ~<So. ~6S60Ko, cse'ofi ~oe c6\~e.J.:) s.bJc6oi!5 W'~o~ c6,/;) ;SoOJ8"Q)).

i\I leJ_..,c Sf eJQ

~<fu&o~ ~~~oa e3"';:io ~;6i5:Je.:.rro8" eoa ~"'oi:lotno~ g)&c6~

Ill' Q ~

OlJ:O~§ i3eFl es ~"'oiSo.w a..!& t>~~~ ~eJ~oe. ~;;JIltn~~&oD

138

~~ e= ;;se~<lil~ S"~~~g;QSe.Jo, 6.s~ e!Jtn~fiO OlJeJiSJsSc6e.Jo£b6;;3 sv§ @rJe)J l§SD5oW":O~ ~;;s@l rJ;;S.:r:>c;r";:Sc5l&~m~s' ~6JJ~o/;). ;:S;;5£tn~@o5~ @e6~;5 ~);S;(U ~~e>.jl 6e~;s oJuJ0aDOeJD11" ei'e ~;6)~I!)~;;J, ~eSJel) i:l"~oEl. 9.!&&~ ~;6~~~, [!J;fu0SJt>~~ a..!&~~ ®~i3"Q)). @e.J.:);::))§',;'lt:lO'SJot:i @:>.root:5t:>OS:I~6Joa. ®e.J'> een<6JgSoStlo& ~;5;;).)0 e:JV a, -:§;:5 ~e3 cSJ£). e..;§ 05;:5" 'l g S.)b) 0 e:l ~ ;ifJ$I!)Q).:J!J i'U.§ot:SKe.uruaoo. @ 6S0fiD ~;6oo60 (6JCS& teS~ a.~6-5 ~~;:;)o,g;o)ol!);fu @ooe <6J~;:Sos'~l!)es !&[)~ @~~~ c6Jvgo 6en;::))SJOfJoo. @;;J'ya '~X§:.c6Jo 05;;JSc6.:>Ji~o' ®~ ~e.J ~~c:$.)~oe. 93

~6J~e)~ :;JomoOog);S o:DO"S @;;J~S6~~ lP"c6<S~r:;v e05. 94 i1'ae e:J~~~ tr~i6. CC;Y>J,56.~ ~oE'l;:5 e;r'®S<B"'~j1 De5.)d'B (1885-1962) ®~lil !&~, 'a.s ;:Si6S~.!3~o citu.!36- 05Sl9'B!& OJ'"'SSo ®;:S6SW"~Soi?~&JoEJ. svb, a..!3 @Sfl"~ ;5ovS.'O§ 05S~BS ~;Sodi eo~e~c;<' oSJlJ<'!3 teSI1"'O:;Jet~ ®c:$.)eSJoo':o. ~~enll" a.s~e.J C:)KEg, O".'n§ g)tS:J~ ~050& C"~ 5"O)"ll. a,!&e! ;:So&~o .!3e.ur;,es.,o~, O":n~ o5S@'BS iJ.;SoU ~O"se§~6;5 Se.ulUeDod)OQ1>[). 5"£l S"~ ..,e~w&

$ , ''&.cp ....,

;:S6Scfuo~ oo&oe5& ~Ef e...!&e .;)oi5:1g6c6~oS"s, ooCl,oetJ ~s~eoiSe.Jo

f!!liQ)~oa. S"~S".'Od. rJoo~et;:J~S;;$)0t3 ~§ g)6Jgono S.'O~~~ o:roe;.'n @loifl6s~6011" ;;J~;6.sQ.l)oi5)g;c6e.Jo ~Q1>.;6~so 6el);::))g;CiJ"e:J;fu~0~ 4t ~6J~e:J<6J a..s~fl" ~~t:l;.3:)~~ oi>r:So ~6JJ&'gy>[). <?,,6~ciSJ ;:S~280{j.'O a"M ;:S0~6-60 ~ ci)~:O~ ;:S~;;SB"~&~0.

05~.'O @i6d i:b~ G<Scl cSg)6 ~~050~ ;;-me ~~~;& 0:0;6 th~""I!)~O S"OJ"[). @o6.:JSl c6~& @~~J!3 05~~~ ;;3,~e)..)05e)~ tliotlJoE'l. ~06J~ .' ~~ 65"e:J e~aJ,s @iS6~e.u @oS;;56oi>t\j)uoo:tl. (1) c:5g)~ lr10qJ"e:J @t;iSaDr5o. (2) ~gcs, ~<So (3) ~eS,JoKo. eJ"go& E>;3J_ 1£.M6~e:>6J"<6o& ';:'o~e:J"Tl" ;5~I:SJ. 'a:ngo ~6wo K~g)J', '~1jJo ~6E'CJoK~', ';:Joq))o ~6mo KOOg),,>. @O~ '<m~~ ~t§on~Nd.;fu', '4S0"~~ @L-i3CUl~~;fu', ';:Soq5Jo~ ~L~on~~;fu: @.'O ®gO.95

139

;;JO~O ~~O ~IDOQ"V ~;;Jot)~c6, 16o~~;6 @l~~. ~ @~~e, es tSOIDOt;l"ei, ~;:SO <fu<>~~;;Sv~ ~Ot$CO&~b:l, g);,:)Q')vfu tlIoe.»oE:l SYocr<>. Sle$1:SJv;6:)oD @.floiSgSv~ aOCJoa, 'Cl,61:SJvtil ESOY'a:QOVe11" tlIOe:::;;Se)~ eOCJOe SJoe". tJ8"Sg)~ ;:JOIDO~Oi:l @CJ;;SOe"J tJOq)y>[l.l i:SJ..~oeoiS~~ g)O"Jl;E~Ul11" Qi)c6 e)~o. @GSd,JoS"OJ"D. dS:lQ"~oS g)6~;6:) @S6Jg,r.oa ~~~o ~Df\;:S @eJ);;SoeJ iSotlDo ~;:S eoY>Q"Sdfuv irloE. pja~[l.

2006 ~~OEJD& ~~ pjOe3"iW'i1J& .tJ.eciD;;So~dS:J<oo :iD~Ba:l:lel

eJ

(§,~~o !3Y;""i5'>e:J tJo6C}Jo~;S;.. eJ"Tl" ~;6;)srog @ooo!iod [l".fueil esr;JO;;Stl§.

g)~~e.n @o1:lo~ejij ;;SoseJ~)Oili ~eo::n;;soc~Ei .as !:§,'G"·il"eJ~ 50~t §ocStl ~~OiJ"6J. ~~ i$y>tlll"~ Q')jo{)g}C"'~@ooKwg)s ~CJ

. q,

!!)~~exJOt;"VN ~Jeo{Joa. @ g:)~"6"V pje.l);;J)Ul 6di!)eo~V, O"N~

;:J5oJac:geD eOl:?il C"'g)& <fu~~;;S 0J06";;S6e<lo S1>of\ ~6w~oC"'[l.

e:l,~J,.e$ i9e.D~e.D ~d{Jtli.oiS~<fuo~, ~~ os,.~tiJ~;:S'p ~;;SeJo rocrDf5 pje.D~en XJ5o-w t5J0@;&5"6J. ~tJ"~~~ 6;:S W'X~;S:oO~ ~·eJfv @g)d_69"eJ' @;;S5PQ"b.1 e9tlOSOID.l .§"eJFio&g;;;S!!)~· ~OfJJOe. f!9g:} @lg6~pj@;:S ~e.,U) 5"g)~o~, <fu.>~w ec6oEl<S e3g:)9"~ ~tt:lc';50l1" ~;:S~f\OiJ"V~ a..9_8 5"iO<S:p8,;;S:,<s ~;6'ifu~ @~O;;Ja <?,;;:JQe.l) 5"~;;SSOa ~tJJ;;So~ iJ~~C"'oD~N";;S:,;SO &"vFioi$:)sb0'5vfu 1l!;o~oe:,. g)~~o~ ~c:svo tlen~U) ooD tlIo{)~ ~6J. O"g) ~g;)~, ~.ij3DeJ"Sg;)§ ~~ tJeGJt>~eD ~t:lP 6oGi"V. ~~-5~&'Ile:l!fuocro, ~~~ "'~~e.u a!&:loO" ~~JsG;;SfJO ia.~!3&~~ ~c5N''~e6011'' aot::;;;S~. @oeS:J~ c6:J~~~ OJOe"<66E30 @eiSoJtS60. S1!&.?,.¢ ;:DcJ~i0';l~;;S;,oeJ, e.,SeZ's6J ;:D~~"j2rej~ t=j66<6J~;seJo. @a' t566c6:JSS;;Stlo& ;;S;,;:S ;Et!i;S~ GS:lc:S 5"~ ~iiJDbJ. ~~ ~od' ~C"6~o&. lj3~& a6e,<fusSKeJXbo. @o6J~~ ;;fuol! ~6K®K5~ tJtlS;& "§o~IDo6J~ so~eJ~ c:!otJJo5,. <6eiso ~ol9~c:SOeJ' eo~ ei6K3K5& ~aa.~J. e9KoeiSJ~~, ~B e.,~6- @;;.)aDe§ r6oV~E'a~ ~~ pj"e.D~~ -eeD;;J)oeJoan.

140

;fu;:S @~r:s<Stfuo5ool!!)J <SJ;;:D~~ ~e3"'ana~ <6J.>~e$;Se;~o511'> @6eJ.J~Ot:l"V. @!§J,t::; 05J~~1!!)J illfo ~&iS;:S~ @~~eiJf& r:s..)~oT1" teJ!:i&-6Ke;l1i"V.ao6~ eifll;S @~r:s<s OJ"6";S6sga~ ;));;Jo :Jed0tiJ!t';soo (5ot!.xloE). @;;JJl"C! @SJ,6 oSJ1S:l;;s,)w ~~~SSKeJ:lK:le¥6:l. B:lJ0C"eJJl1" ~6Ja pjgSJ. ~~ O;:Se;~, @S""o(eJ~ .iiS~.;-s e5 ~ X 9"K.)6"6,). @$S;.S;:5<fuoE:lO"eJ:l <SJ;fu~v @r5J$0J"'e.:J;fu R"6[)oLSXvT1"V. ~Q"6&'<l Ei:505;:5 ~~6"':O~ tSOa:lO~o{);S ·S~ ~~g;B;;5e.Jag)9 @~6-C {j~ Q"6S"V. ~. sti5Gl [)~ei&J'>~ ~t5o~ @<fur:soQ":Ooi5;)SSQJD[) !fr.t;? 05J;:5 <6~tl @~tPOJOe.n 'Cl,ei~e.:J@<fu~;yvW ~g)Q01l" ~;.Sri:la"dlJ" ;;JB-BID o~g; ;y[). ~~6 0 .rlJ50D, ~;S,;y>.c:5JIl1<6o f)Joo.[J, <6Ja;od_ ~QJS~o r:J"'vW, @oS1i"~;Sv&i f!!)g) ~g)e;S01i" S[l~~KvKm"d3Ja t;5y>t::;Ke.:J1l"D .

iSSa.e5 dll;S;Sg <6J.><S';s ~Je:scfu~ <6<S6J. @e.ntSoS GJt>J6~:OJ_ §5~d_oiS!;bo~, ~oD ~~Ot:DSS!:bOt:lP <SJ;;So ~6S;5) ;;'o;6J,.aoi:$e5o. i:5s(,i"'i" i1~oi$6;fu~5 ~c:)e;Jo .~~~o5"~, i!Js?/5 d't;;J<S e~sc6:uE, ~~:;:m1fS rSJoe., (§e§l ;6;;S:,10tl;S;.oB ~~5"~ot'J.tJ"fSgo eoJt>Q",SamvSJ i1:9"£og:oesO eito!:b 8eJ,)r:s~. @oejS!"s ;;:y>tQ eiofu z§g)6":Od. cfuw-a_§, i~::lOiJ"eJ:O sS6J~oe.D~6~, tlO",SO" iiJ06J 6~d'. 6~ g)~~v&i, 0<6:> g)<.\~eJW ;;):Od.~6011'>(5oe.D~d~, 6~~0" eiDJ.) g)~~~~ ;:5~lX ;j~~so g}~fvoi3IDOol1" ~dSJBd.~~d~;s.,;:so lKb>oi5X~KJiiJ"O. 96

~g6-;S ®~ <6J.>;:S;;S S"6~~a'~~~ ffh~~ ~W" GSJg;)~ &~vifuoc 6a~ S"6~!:i0"~-;&. ~<6J &O<fu;;J1>"l~oe3 ~ ~6oQ ;;:yo g}tJ"~6Jf!lOJ~,

.....J:I eJ -,!-'-Q.: 0 E) Ci) <t....

j;fu &'~ ~;:Sd_ g) oS.diJ 0 1? (;J", N" <s~e§.;Sos o~ ~ (;J" (!9~J. yodSJ;fu

:J~..);;S6J~~;S~dg)y>b. ~~c:)& ~;;S;, 6w;fusSe§!:i~ tV" ::lC"'e5tJao;;Sef !DoW" ~ifu 8e.n~~e;irS.:J. l!loS'ZlC:l~;6:J CJ"IS"~ N" ®ea<>;6~ ;;Se)~6.O"eJ~O"

OJ ,..., a" ,....., -y] 0 '~ oJ

;fucl6~ ~t:j)e.l)r\)go;fu. <'J" @~6~6 ~g)ei~ ~t::;et OJD'!. fJ6~

~~oeJoc:5J. iiJOtf..~ r:SJt)011" ~6a~Kfo~<J'd.;S:, S"S)~ iiJO'1.~ <6.J~Ofi" d'¢Qi:l~;:jJ .~W". ;j~<sas ~~ 6u)~sS~~Kfo~ i3ifu dlO~.~,~oS.cfu;&~ ~~ i3.<6J 6w~g;a;fu. @O~ ~ e~~~ IDoldS:l;;J> 6i&oSV K»6et @

.~

g)~dSJo r;Y'~p" N"!&:l eJ~~;;Sd. z§g:)i!J'l~;&& ~.;fu LK~ot:Sa!:iros~N'd.

141

;:Si6J_o5JoeJ. @e.:uOSot) ~e~~~ ~ g);;l.dSJo~ ~~ 6:Ja!So~o{:) ~e)O~ ~~;& ~e),)Jg;KVlrP8"~. N" ~oei6oFt~ ~r§~o;6:)oe ~;6J 6:JatS@<S~, @ g);;l.dS:r>~ ~C" ~o)oi5o~o~ ~6@i6 S"~ ~0J"e) ~e,)l'IJotSXo()l"P ~Ie§;& i\)15J()e"Xe),)KJ6"~. c::o;6~~es6 ifu;6~ d~oJ~;6oei S"e:JO c6.J;:jo

I;: ~ e:;

;JffJe€i' oJgJj~~ OJOegJfiO~ (fu;6o ~g)olciSJ"v;6.) e~~~~

OJ"S~fiO~ .;)rS,la§ ~el:lcJ:lg£aO. 97

;fu;6r!1 iJ"O"(fuot.'lg):) C'ON"6oi"\od @~r\:J @~~~§, ~;6§, ;J~f} e..~ XJ6J~ 6"6rSoJ~~;;:bt>, aOO ;;C? e.,~ @Qi)@rS !Le§O c:';.);6[).l ~~eoi5~~ S"tSro:i5.:Jtl1JOe:ooEl. ~r:j a.~ e3";S0"~ c::orS ;S~ei~P~N",

~ ~ ~

;illrS .:s,~erSd.. ~05oi5o ~N" ~enrulSJ te5S".sooJa~;6ofS)ffJ$?, ;furS~

6oKo;,)~ ;fnS:J6-;;' @oiSlS"gJesOe.F'o. a..~ -tJJutJrfi> ~~Je,)O~ ;furS dON" g);;l.o:S.Y>::& O'S:lrSo .;)o\S)!il(O eo~t!.:l~S"cP - @ ifoN" .D;;l.®o!iY>c:;o c::o<S~ .;)o..:u!:b:O t2oi!.Do8. S"ro~C"gJ ~~N":o§, 0":0 ~dS:)Q~O":O~ c6.J;60 ;:Jo~~el:l1"l" eO~eJo, @O ;:Jc6.J®orfi> ei13~ g)~~e) xol.)tS rS~O"~ ~~ g);6Ke.uiU6:lo~e"o iJ"eJ" @<6rStSo. gjoo~~1e:JJri" c6.J;6 cll~~O 'i5~eiJSS:Jot>" eot;"e)oB ~8 ~O" ~e)l;3o.

.w~oi5~o a..~ 05~S"'9'. @C5"~ ~exJ~. <6:lrSo .;)t!JJ<606 05S~Uln" 6:rofr'oC"e ~ Cl<i'no <fu;Sg):)oS" ~e~gon" 6Jo~o6<6e)~ eotS:o .::u;6§ .D:o~~;6d.. ~fj~ ~tSJe~. ;;5,);60 ~oei~~ ~;6J_ono, a.oe§~N'd. :iil1SJ1h' a.OS"' B~Je)om c6.J;6g):)oS" j6a:o @ e!rSJ_6Sf::J:6rfi> @~f.loW"'e)-S SSM @o. -t5~Q"ScS.)) ~g)6o @e} e..!36 ~t;JoiSeJ":013 ~oJ~ seo S"cP. 1¥J5 cfurSo @ot:5JgS;;')v~;S e.,l;3 ~C"i6o, roGN~;:So. .::urSo ~;iJ~oSe.:lfu.;6 ea G:l"S;;)!30 'e:>ctiJeJ OJ~&e£' a6:l. @e ;fu;:S doJe:J;6:)oo .n;Srotfuru;:SJ_ ~eJ:) il. <6:>;6;&& S";;'eJt>gJ§ ~eJ<'~ ss g)Oono 6:ro1i1'otS(fug) ~fjo~ !bUl~ @Cl. N" e3;6;:S~t1 ¢5K~:r).)t$.) N"~ ~ $[)!:3 oS~~~ ~~ElOiJ"&, ~ @l6a~ ®~L0:booW"'t1' C"~ qJe:J~60 ~c6:lgSOJDe)~ g):O~oil 6~;:s @t;J. ift;JoiSifuot:lY> ifu;:S§ g)rS~6ti:l~ @l' ~el)tJJ '<6:>~ UoJe);6.)oe, g):O~~;SJ. r\:l1SJ~ ~e)J~ •• <0'0 ~til~rS @eiJ_ ~EIY'OJO~ lU~oD R"6g)oiS~:O g):o~oi5 ~e.:l:l~. 98

142

N" .lli~t:',) ~. ~OSl?'OSJ~ ~oJ..) e.~~d5:06. s~;6 6;6 ~~!3o '6llri @O~ ~6'& ~ . .D."O"'~5 Kueo~ a..!3 1:34$ ~~~. 0";;D5lW6~66d. ~6"&60 ~oe;;S ;_;m6t)~O":o~ BoE)il c6.J~bo:m6. @oJ.Yts'!3~e !p"t5a O"~~u 0"'~olfi@~5 O"oiJ:;);6J "O"'~;;)lJ~;;S~lf ~rS @~CPn" eoOoSJlO @'t:fos:OoiJ'>6. S":o "O"'~5 @ @~N"'~ 05J~oiSe3!3~~~. B":5"~ ~ ~i5. 8 g)~~~ O)Y>~6tS.JSti~p ;;6:bo~"'d.;:S~, ®ei6 <6.;S,~otS;;6o~;;S ~o;oei G:l"S~:O§ K6J~ 6~6 c6806~, ss g)O"S~ @ ~o;o6 ~~:::lJ. e"otStSl1" ::mF\oW"e,)c::5J~o(l.).:)~a~ @ot:5JOS~ ac::5J @ .DC"S~ 6~ ~o~~o~;5 @;;'<6tSo.'IDo6g) O"o:u~ 0"~~8§ 0"-5"6 @l0" ~ g)~~§ rS~!:leoD sa ~9;oei ~~~ O"OlJoi:) g)~g)C"so~:O§ <6ZS:1eJOiJO~. a:ao& @r).)SrScl6 ~N"~ @t;Jtl0wrS ~~<5:lo8 o~oD;6 @~;:So,r.J"g) ~~ ~:poSo ~ 6;5 g)~!3 t5~Tl" eo6eJ~ e§;:S ~§)sono lW~oiJ"6 0";;5:,5.

~ ~!:nJ6 lP"~SS8§ ~e:J ;Jo~ @l;;6~6~, ::Jc6Jof51>g)§ e~dSDUl Srowo ®O~ ®;;')tStSo. ~oO"~ e..i')cQ"'S~e.:o !§JeW" oiJ<fu~ 60"Vl, c6J0;:SOS ~;:S:OO"Jt?e.:o ~~son" 1Oe;>e;)CeJt>:O§ @'tjJ"6@agnno ~e:JJ<3~6J. ~ g:)QOri"@OJJg ~e:J g)~N"e:J~ @~dlJg):jDJ. iiJ"t3 ;;j~ ill:Jos!!~:og @Q"1:Sgn~. @g) "O:Iel\ ~~~ ;iill!3~e.:o71" :Ooc5"~&~:O q')[)oD ~efl ;;l)~ be3OJ"S~~O" ~~g_iSl5"~ S";;S~l\oiSc;)'>:Os &~6gn~;:Sd.a, @eJ"'f. e~GJ"Sd.S:lJe.:l:l~C;;;<> ~"'d.B ~6dSJDe:J<fu @oD ~~oD Ejefl es .D~~e.:l:l ;;Se1~~. t;5Xl!t:.> ~<';loa i1'6t3 ~~WfiO 6:ro~o6t.J'>:O§ &ae§g))~~~. ;;30 ~g:)Je' g)g)C,) 6S"e:J ofuJce)S"tL)rSJ g)g)Q 65"0 @<ill~B"et O"weoD ;;m~6-e:J!i:J ~ols .De.:ocSe.:or1" @oeoD ~6XeJo:Os ~e;SSQ)6r).)oe. @O"'R e~~oilJe.:l:l ~~ <6o~O"dSJu:OJ. ~L0oJ6D o)e6~~6J. oiJ6E§o~;:S a§;;S cJtl"O;~ -8CPe:Jo adS.:JeJo&, ~ef\ G:l"6"OS6wo& !3[)!,diJe"orfi> ~e.:l ~4l"~ aJcl?· ~~~oe,. ®eJO adSJe"oe .;)~ 65"e:J .D~ oJO"O"oc::5J

0.

OSS:06~ao ao.i>tl~S"s, ·~efl 03"e5~ &?S~~ c6~rnno ~5Jj~oe

~C'>. @a~oo~ <iloJoQ"Sd.S:lJe.:l:l ~t;" ~~et 6a~Ke:J oJ~@UdiJ~ j6

143

L~~~OJ_ t~~~, diDOS@'odSJo&:O Ol~@)OS~~lQ.I~~W OiliiJS t3~&. g)g)l;j 6~e.> ~e.>S~~Ul S6J:5, ~L¢al5. 'tJe.>,:l) a.'lo~g). a.'lJ:>~soro> ~~~tSl§3o ~Ff>f1 OJ"8"oS6~o& teS~1P ~~ oSg:,..~OJ:). ~.bJ~l.S ~e>e.>~ !&eJ~~95[]'> ~ ~eJsi:S~vc6J ~ol?oi:S606' ~IPS~L~ ~b~~. ®eJ1>~ ffi.iJo~d5JJe.n 5bvr3" iJoo'tJ6e)~~i5l?~ ';)OlJe~;}jl~ 'tJo~6-B~ ;;)e.>ID~~&O~6:J, ~g)QOl1" @Q))ej 05y.><6OJ"tl& ~tfo g)g)Q 6St'eJ 1.iJo!§sS e3 a§g)oi5r;;o;;)§ ®cfu:i5.;S (l9;;.1&60l0"0"e.>c6J~6o:B1J g)otnroe.>~

~ ~ ~ 0 ~

~e) iOe.>2:l~~ooS @eJ1>"A ~ 'tJ~2:3":OSi':l" c()Q'5.)tlOSo~a;s. eO"~;S,

._ (jJ ,._

c()0~6-6OSoeiJE.;6 eiiJcr;J'>Sdil:le:n c:5Jt.L~;& bJS~~UlI'1" iOe.u~6:J. 99

~~J&t, OJ"~OJ"~ g)OS50iSbo g&jo ~e.>& S:)S1l~ 1.9i&l~O"OSe:;O ea8F\0E'l. ~S6-~ c::i"~a.'lo @i3 c:5Jt.t:>:o @~o~ g)~iS @gO& GJ"d:lel:l~<fu, s.o6JoS a.'l:J;So X:>~oiSrlVF\oe, @05l1"~;6 a~g&KDf\o5 -5"~d5.> g)~~~6', e30" ~~'6"&0 @~tlo e3Q'> oilB g)~~!:<1 ~~® ~S"6@N" ~a.s6:l<S0[],> &005~D"iO& c()~ t l&®a..Si) OSDJ :a6:l~oe, ~S6-t, ~;fu QJO§a.'l~;o. a~;sJ_ 05t5oQ 'e<6J5'. 'a:05' 006> oSrtJ:B66"Q)). a..t!i ;o~~ ;00q:ot:>;S a.'l~ eJ&loO~ @<fuo!$oSO rOBoO t505jl~~ a..S ~~N"~ ~~~ aD" oinrotiJ QS);fu;;.'i:lUl @oAse1J @ :6oq:ut:><6 roBoO, @ @;fu1!j5~0

o - - ~

roBoD a..S ~S"&l~cfuo 6Jo~E'l~sS-a.'l60 ill:l6e.>~ei:Joa. §"'~ofuoEl :6S~eJ§. aO" a.s ~g ~~~;o§. ~eJ1> ;jS"~l?dilorl" t1i:S50023 .a,.~ ;o~ti ~aT"tJso g)~cl:D<>;o§ oSBJt:>05Je3~ <6e§sOl1" c6soS~eoi5eJ~'€i:Jo&. (!!I g)4')0l1" ti."'O~~~OJ.)~ a..S ;O~tll25aT"tJso §"~ 6S"e.> (spo.As~~ <J~~ SDF\eol3, iill5"s iOg~ <6~~o Q'5.)e§"~ ;:::)~eJ g)~o& @oF\S"O":O§ ~e ~ocmoe.

£!)dSJt:> @'J05oiSo i"beo~;6 QJO~oSo i"boob, r6~so rD60D IDg)Q 6S"e.> ;:J~e3"e:lJ, ;;S.yo<6CS ;:J~cJGe.n .;)od> ~::lOS;;S06~CS, ~~;6~;;S ~SJ~U) ~[lf'le~o:D. O:SU;fu~ r;.~aT"(!)') ~CSe.>02J~<Sd. 6~t5S"e.> Q,):)~e.w, ;6.>'UlJ~<6d. ti~tlS"e.> g)~~or' ~e.:o;;Soe) ~!)Q"S:O§6s&e) etJ'>~6fi1. !3CSOJJ@ ~ot~ OJO~O.) ~b-" @ot:>:J~J.e:

144

f)s, ijllfJotJ tJ.t))~ so!)

;.Jos& e.,stn ~~cl ;;:S6~q;e>~~~;$' aoeJOQ:l. tiP;:bot!Jse§' @;;3 (!9olld.:iJoa tJf§J @.fup~§ ;:S6!§:Je> fE"lJEJD fbc:5o t5~o~6;,.

if> ~

@~ l§Jo~cjse'ielJ" tJOSBg"S

-Be>1T" s6ciJXe,9&J5a5Y>cm.

CJ

:JtlJotSftJ <6J0:J6@:ldo:v;;:wse,9

~;j @;:Se.l)~;:5e.u 1SOrJ"!). iVt! {:)'~13?Joa .

a- '0<, CJ

.rbtl[Jo6~ da O"~ fJl1e.u Q:)y>Le§~.

OJ"~.;5o §oSe>o moS.tDn5..?J.

@;t5De>rT" 6J.>i:?eJJ ;:bo6l)~Xe"c.'SJ. lJ"~ iJ6e§iJ% @.;5o~ ~~1 sot{] @~~ Si;;;_S.&e1)~ es Ji.~o~j

@a fJ ;je1)tJ: .;5»s~iJDeDOa. J 00

OSJoCSa.'l ;:::)~e3"e.n g)~~dDO'';606nc iJe)W ~e05cU>l1"i5 ea ~Ff>1jj

Ce.:I

i:l''B(?s<6005t5 5bvCZ" ;::;e>e~ O"f\(ljoEi. ~ ;:Jo056 e3g)6"~ :Oe.>ro6ru~~

:6o;:J6e)efJe.lcfu ~r3" ~oD~~@,;6Jt.). ;6:I;S!S:l ~;S~O";6o a~~J. ea K:!6:>;Q)e>c6J oS.:JCSo 05e6!o~ ~QJOD. ;6:1;5,0 ;fu.>;SCS "Si,?"e.>& ~~ .~ r;.o05t5;fu 'fulE;:6!Sru' @;o. ®oe.:n~o S"tJ, ~.§?J(;IDiJ;Q'l)& iSro~<6~OJJ~ ~B ~e), e!lEaJSEOO, f,B"g6~De.l:l$. Be.:g, !:J~ rtilsb aiills aEaJ~, ~;6~6:l LaS®e..S6-,l:SJ<> ~O" ~~S ;:SJ~& :060660 ;:So;5e~~J_ ~§."Jt'ID~e.>J tfu.>~;fu. ~CSo6l5o ;fs;;${:} g)eeP3e:o, ;:Je:le:dCS.tlUl6:>, (lKJD~U), -l!~OS:Jo~e» ~® e..!36,tlo Q'5.);$ ~ i"'\)ti:l~e)OS~~oD~~o6£!)6~;SJ.QJOf1~;&. ~;:so (l!l iU6:l~e.>~~. iill;6 t?O;S~~ ~ef\ @J~~o. !!;Sg)~ ~O"e)~ ~ort ros~0i3 ';)6:>~l1" ~1:SD"o. ~ :60S,y0e:Jo 6;6 ro6:>~~ R"tig)oiStr>, (!!I ~~e:Jo ~;&~ ;S~oi5$605Jt5.:I.

145

~cS ~L<l ;,,16ii3"vet ~~~@.oa ;fuOs~1SXB e~~dSJ:leJ ~{f5~~ @/So tl~~;St:roK)§ ~;;:» c;3~o& g)g:)~ @'oo~eJ~ ~o5rS eoJo~dSJ:lv~

~

~a~. OY>5d' 't:;;o~a<s C"~8.)~ N"eJ.1~ ;60:0<{)eJ.1 omoCS:>~~Q».

®g): ~SJ6:6 ~~~~e.u, ~~SOr1" IDr:SJi:SJt.~, ~Q'D;fu 6Y>6on" ~~ ,~;fu aJ"O<5:l ;;;)~~sS:o @;:6~g dSJae3~~eJ.1, ~t:.Ja~s ~~!:3 ;6;fut6seJ~ ;(}~;fu~~~~~~rn, 6~ ~Qv tSO:l~eJC:S~ ~~l)" ~~o O'$~OQ ~~6ol¢le:lJ";fu. w<SJ.w;Sd. rSrlO"vdi 'Clf.:l)oSo~ ~oJo~dfuv ;6.fu;6ije» w~5s ~~~~~e.u !~ot5cSOr1", rOooSJo~~ ~~~~n". g;,~v ~~~ r'\:J500:5 ~oe1'ffc6n". c5Jow o»16ii3"vt! @~~o~o Qa:qJ t;l"6d'cfucona I ~~VJ. ~ 66X~et§ ~~e) ~dSJ6o~;6o .JSJ6-oS ~6:J6-v§*l;6o a..§& t3dSJ6on" OlCs05\?J~ e~Ol).

.s~K.fu;;SoW ~ocSJ~ rOoK:l~;:JJ. ~<6o.:so&~N"~ g)~~el) ;QoSfu~{;J'Od..th. ..ea ~C:SoiSo ;o5~oo;:non" o)5oS~rS l:3oCSJeiJrSJ.t\ [;)"i\:i"~§ ~o;6~a!:3O~ OSJ506 ~g)~~ ;6o~50iilSJof.:l);Sp. 6~ ~o-§~s ~~eJ) :6.DoO:>!iJ &~~Ol). ;6~a:.~6 @rOotS ~ON"rn <I.'?Jn~rr> @J~g)JO~'6"'OD,. 9,e.D~ot5 o)5'~~t! 2 OoS ,t~'t5~ 66~ '6"'~d5,~6~~ro ~tS eQ"6C:S~ ~e <s~N" g)~~50w ;fu;;sg);)oS" ~~ ~d'e)o. 210'$ -t~~ ;;S~<S ;606~o& Ci'ni6o '~6s', '~Iti'6"e:l', 'S5~vo', '~~', 'e~~~' O'$ocfl ~e:>Clr:'n ~;s5J.tS.sno~S£;:6eJ~ eoeJJoG'l. g,~eJSJ :Oreoi"l1' g)e3ciSJ.>~ ;6D.'IDoJoeoID~~ g)tS~rS:l 6J<o~o500 @oeoi:SO'$e:l~ eoeJJoEl. o'Ut5Jeij,

III eJ eJ

~~~&SrJ'd.. ~;,'i)~6*' ;oe)roe. l;):6woa g)0s1SJ ro6Je:on". -5~sac:ss6-~

~vroa @6&~OJJ o)9Sru:n ;:S.sdS:lOr1" omo6J~ i6.!~otl g)6s~;;j6J;fu<6.o ~B~otS:6e.:>fu eotDo5.

~<SoS tS5leioO 305 ;S)cJ& rSoJv@"~o Lc:);E-Sow<S ~ eiei:lsao a.!:irlOon" <5<6 ;is;606 6/SJroo 05oeEl. ~r;y>6 Ci'n.tJ;fu~ &6:leJ)§'i~6C:S..)g) C:)5~l:l ~d,.)eoe. S"~, ..ea 0l5~@&;;j ~<So.J~' iDS'd_e:l<9§ K60G

146

.J;:SJ.~a~ Fi"<6J @oSS'>~o ~~ ;6o~goil" GoEl. ~;fu.J<6e..::;:, ~6<S ~g)~6!:01elJl'. ~o~~~ ~Cfu<.il"e:l05~ ~~;& .fu;fu~voCS5.§ :;:noSo @l;SJ. OS~exl, ~~diJo. g)tS~, ~O"Se)@i ruoe<6 L;§~e§g)60~J. @o50iS KUlr\)~O.

~~eJ.1 6~e.JiiJr\)rn j~rSd. fi>as-I/f, aJ"t, 05CSW"e) ~rS ~SJDth;S~SeJ) ~<SOS~Q,)J. ~ @c6.Jtocfu~oi1" g)S~~N'd..thS"8.)~ OJ'Ot,S" DdJ;6~rn. @c5 aJ"~ ~;fu ~~oso O"e 6"~do&§ f!5l6Jl'ii~)ii>~oGSn"~ (!!3 n6:J;6~e.D ;;.l~erl" \,:)5f\~0l) ~oef'ifN" W~el) ~c~c:)co &cSe:l~~oe. oiJ"~ ,j6:J~eJ.1 ~~ j~tlC:SJe§ 'iSCSJ~ ~~cfu>$!:!l :;:'0 ad5.Ja~? rl3ef'SKo Q"thS:lel:loCt'?' e.J"otfl 'OJ~ @~eJ.1 OY>%, ~<5~;fu @~g))oa~Ol). ~05rJ lSg}eS"e)o @~oDrScSo~ 6~ ~~e.l Ll6:l~!ncS~l\l6.iJ ~f5 eOeJ'odJ ~ro~ ei~60lG.iJeJg @a !l!lo06'1f<S, iJto6 '6"e;Jt:JsS r S'6"''6''e.le)sS ;;:J~ ,j6J~S£K~<S ~""S:o§ s&~S,;6J. oiJ"~0'S.:r1.6;& Gef'Sn"l!)XJ50w @oe;}ffi6 ~o6Je$J~d<6J§*lao. c3.o'o& @~ <6~eJSJ iJoE);6 cfulOS19 o:m;)!3:J~~ @Bg)4\on" tJ6:l;;S~e.:lJ adf\@£~~Q,)J. rJs~e.D ~55~eil~o:o, "St.ff!.. S"o~e.:lJ ;6~~~~Q,)J. ~.[f<6o;fuoc cfiJ05~;;So&§. o~ ~~eaoQ :'Qv n6:lrS~.sf)J oof\~s,oW" 5"oJo~s5ii:l"voB, ~~0)~<5 e~e~!!)J;s a.S6-~ c:seoJ:.?:rco. (p"66c3-i3o& 5~~ dfuos19 amOS~e.l @S"o~v~, C!:lo&i1;;sv~ @fS'S?:rf!! ;6;fuoQ"';6o.

<P"c6c3-i3o 6<S ~~(M ~505_g[;)" ~@diJ:O jrlOSoeio £l;6.}~D. ~;6 o).e);;JD t;J~~ex. ;,'i)dJr\J~ru~s5OJ"ID. ei<S £r>6;6o~e) Olg)~~;fu 0')5bAo~§"·G:l"'l). ej~~~ <!$dSY>o&i!i16e;o <P"66a-i3 @(lOS~~~ @~f\oiSco ~<6o.o<05;&~S"cl:l. Q5);6o Q5);6 ~OS;6tJ @N' ~Q,)JtJ~ ~a3":O~ .furS~ful9

Co' ~e)(j) C:l.(j) M "-1Ol" (j)

~oli1oo&ot5Js"OSe.l~eoe.Do5. 6\~oSOa ~;6:~a ~6JctJo;o§ ~;6

i;}<fu..~~ ~S g)el)05eJ tbc:s @Q"'6~ 5"~~eJ";;)o, :;:'~dDo, @o~~ @5dr:;yoel) &;;,y,0;6cJ60Ol). @.El 6~ Q5)<6~ ~. rlei$.o~60 e36J. ~;;SO

147

tjdSJQSeJ~oEJ 0"eJ"~o5. $00,,13') cfucSo ad~,oSO::::';S ;5£:i1o~~ a~6-~fuso6J.

-----------____,_ ..

148

D

~. ~O'o O"~cS ~ 1:Si:ScS~ 0.)r06:l~e.Jo<'dDtJo @~@r:ib n"'1:SOSo.

IIDe.JJ;;:)OeJ ,g,MQ5. ;fuc;S~8 @di:S;se.>S:! N";fu<>t,);6.) eeeiOS6i:Sf."lo @1:$.)0;6

Q ._

;:50"6-60. @r:ibcS LOSc;)oi:So~ @®~~ ~~~;fucS~§ 11;;$ oo~®no

~a"t$6£:i1S:! iJo~:ecS ~~. ~~~g, g)t:F~orfu~. @tl:lOSoeJ oS~ .;)0& ~~~;:s eM.:h::itJ&, ;;)afi' ;fu:Jon,6Y>~& ~NcS 1:SiScS ~o6J N"~be:tJ LJ"eJ" -;5e.>eJ<>lilno @~~oa @l~6o~~ a~o¥a6J.

@r:ibcS (§u ~~1SOd' fg~~;:SJ_ 5\®OSJ~o ~g)Q~~~OSot3e1 §"~d. eQ'"sdSJoeJ~ @d5J;6 ~~cS -t~ iSJt>'§ 6eJ,)~Oa. '~~f.:l> F'loeefJ eJ"l)oiSt.:>o', ';:S'\6;:SoA6~ €9"6~Ql)', le3"~cID iSo;6o& S"~ ~.s1Sen'

wO ~ '~

oSo~ .§~!&en 5\oOJ!f> ~0"~6E:S. g)~, '<fff$5, @~;So OSoe!) w~o<6:l

6;;5 @&~;6of§" q6J~JI1"'" ar::5JSJ~ @o:>,,;6 ;;S,y>;6oS ctjgJi§'iSlSo,

!iJe.J)08.J"oO'5:l~S <0oaloQ"rn, OSK:l @oom&.lSei, N"o:l.J1S~ o&E?rn. ~ril.J ;:5~~~oSo, @~®J136, ~®!&a oS06 @0-3"ol1J5o-B O"<0J§"t:J"JOJ. (§u 'i9.~oS~~o;6.) g)~~oi:S~od ~r:ib;6 ~tl;6, ~Q:JK:ls e,J"6@dD ~~aso&K:l <5JrSoOS;6J_ 6i:ScSo&~l~~ S"~@:OJ.. lOS<6o..:5;:So;::J?:e)eiJe.)~ ;;3oe;:5 ~~~ge.>, tSi:5Ql)~eJ& ~WD e)r::5~Ke.> oJ5i:5c:lSJ.>~~ @~~j~~ oiJeSiiJ 1SJ[J iSJt.~OiY6J.

e...!&6!&o~ Ci,& ~eJ"o ~dS:li:S5~ ~WD. 'd,06Jd @cfu.eS 6;6 ;fuc;:S~~, ~u!:§, ~u~ wso;::Jo¢Y' O"€loS{U:S ~~beJ;:s" gJDS5~ oS~6J. ;J"e3:O ~C»~6,)<SJoJJ>GiJ ~i& $:)w e'§ oS.?6oS:J ~g)€9"~ €9"tm g)§fv 0 is tJ"K:l§ CSS~lSOS"': OS~SJoK:l50iJ;6, ;6o;:JeJ .r\)50DcS e3"OSS"o&s ~~OC?

C eJ..... (jl I!\

aQ~~6J. ~ ofu;613o iS~~e).);:5\oS"OGiJ j;6,) SJoWD N" ed". OSS"&s

~ . ~~ ~ M

~as,.,&t;y><6.:J. ;fun <!!l~J W"SJ ~g)~o iS6';) gJ:D~on~ ~OSsoOJ", ~~6~

149

tlB%eiJe);fuoc5 ~dSJo~e'l~& ~§ Q,'){)J<S ;fuo ~e.i O"fu;S~~~o i<'u50{)~ e3";;)S"e.lJV ;S;fu\ @~~~0iJ. oS:F 6"e.i a.s~~ .;)s.,)eS oil"tpd' tlg)~~

~ ~ ~

.fu5"¢~~ ~6-~o6!&J ~05t:S ~ 6iSo:Da Q"cfu~ soge5 (1795-1881)

i<'uBoD e..~ ~~~o 0"'5"6 .. r::;od' ri~~~o ;;)~ @F;)&El ~[)1\0i:l"'W"a5:1~.

oo~oS @~dSJo r;JO;u l~~ !!!l;6.)tl[pg) X:l~6tiJ05. O"~ @/SoS .;)~.;£ @S@~ (1537-1553) eJo~~ tM60dl a.~ ®N"4l ~/Sei"e.lcfuofl" ~60tloi:l"'6.:>. ~~e!; !3JoW" @El ID6~~e.l§ i:S6J~ :;3;;)JeJoD~ e.l~~ rS;.:ogOSoe.ion" ~6-S6)~~oQ.~tfu.a!!~SJo, t,.siSJA .fuOS ell .iJv~"O'>e.l is'S&'D rJcfu8"~~ ~~oDoe. N" ei&o:l"ei cfe?Pf!, ~ ~~J&. r\~eiod' ~ iStU~exJ t5o,~~o~~ .fu5"~S6- ~6 ~Q.s &:F~e.D ~&.Jg&r)[)fI";fu. {)Leia~~~ l@~db:6o l,j'5":6J.~~eiOfl" tDo~t)~;::So ~'5";fu.

~~o;# ~~~t)6n:6 ~ <&>rJotlCSJ. c'iS.J-"4SSg)J~ ~6Sd- ~D~ $s.Jq)~ ~~~~e.lo:Do &6et: iJ"eJ'" g)6:J~;:;Jeei!:6!§OT'i" s:O~o{)oEl so~. i'3OS:lJOT'll' -6"~Se.i ;()0t)6e.l~ ~~eo{)oo. O)"C":o§"~ ~rJo oodbeJo @~ @~c;Jo (>')e) N"~ ®;:Jw O"'d5J~o;;S~ ~~e.iS"e.l @~6{) ~6Je.oe. o)El(?01"l", * 0)~S~)"t:J~6dSi~ N" ei6:6oei6 ~~~o& N"~ 6Jo60)6s:6J l:bcwv ~e~~o ~@oEt 'D~o is.iJv..)e.loe" @s.;)q)§ ~-lf,;)O)O"Se.ldSJo o!i'OCJ"%e)o S"Cll. (>£)l\S"S;:J<S§o~o. @eJ"r)'D 1!9Q<>s;;)SJe.D ~EFW ~;;)J6g;)S"6:J, ij~l:S.lsof;). fi9SJ/;; ~(9'So:l"6"cS6~o& @C5"S rr~~~~o 0SJ.>l?~. @'S?/;; lrioQ"e.ldSJo. 0)"60o:l"60 O"~ ~~exJ. ~~~OS:ne.loElo~ ~~SS .ata~, b~~oo~ 1flQ":6 @~rJ;6o ~~e~!&:l~5. g 6son" iiro:B @s.J~ ;5(6) iS~~~;:$J.. i:Stil~ iSs&€J 6J..60)6S ®:O ~;;SJa.)d~) 6100>0(;).

~ ~§.so& aaS~g:6 oJ~ ®O'8"o) ~<6~ ~ooe) @ei:l;'s~ rb5~~Q.)). 0S:l;:$ @i56F:J'>ejJ~ ~g)8"~§ ~oa:>ol;1on<s .,J~ ;()~;fu ~rS ~o6:JoiSJ6"Q.)). .;)~ ~n"O~;.S L;;)~~ c;Joeoi5~o0",5O" g»~S:lt so~ il"~~ ~l?@ ~B R"exJJer>a:u. ea 6iS~ e~e:go~ ~~o.'iE"a<fuoD, rSo;ao.'iE"a :e~r1" ~f\~e0 eoeJJo~. ~~S"eJo& ;6;fu~£>, ~~ 6J~d @~~~ @e5'it:S<6 ~F\~ eobJoa. @~e5SN"J. ~~eS0[)'> g)6SSJ

150

;6oelo~oDc5 c:iJagg;rg~~S"S~§ oSJ..aSEl~~~ so~on" ~r5JSJ~ omoo,@ ~d::>~oa. ~"3":.)eie') g)~c6o~r:J"ctDo ;;5:)015 c5{lJeS ;y>-Q(50)"E,§ l:9,b)oSoe!) 6iSt:S'D e!6o ~<&>sSoS~o ®O~ r5Je.l1l50 s<>li>. S"~ @El SVl\ot3 (!!IrJ§

~ ~

~~ e.is,J.~:OS"~.

oS:F;'sos ~cfuo~~e>~o ~(6).;)£>, ~osuS ~~n"~ ;6~~on" g)~Cfuof1o..:)) ~OJ"v~ @leiS;.S ea ~E§.so E1>6fuN" ~~ ~~~;6 e.J"aScS. ~ ~6"~O ;6Xo Ke~~t:>Je!)§ ~;;)oi:l e3N"~ 1:9,t:>.,Y6;.Sp:og o~o:iJJ svCe.iJ;:$,El S"<P6 ~;6iil"~§ ~e»~ctDeJ'>~§ ~tx>,§, ~osas ~B~<;J"~§

01.: eJ .... ;.J "i5t

@~1Ss @la.)SOii'o e)~oD06~ 6i5cmei a.))~§ X:l~ ~~CJ. 0)<r;:6'6"'~

@lg)~~e.u<>, ~osBS @l<fu<>nve.u<> ~~~e.lo6BA @)<SJ.a.)~. @~c:11Jo, 0)6S' ~~e.l& SJoE;;6 L;d~ ~g)6"~ ®o50i:5Xwl'06"oiJ:O zy>g)~~ .. gcISJ;:$ 1:S.eJ" @)oe.x,~/:i):

2020 N"e5§fjJD6aa>ifoU iNiiFe;rw SDOrf;ex "see; .;),~ soS>oc;r>, iJr>66c'{]soexJO, ,sOSS6J ;;)'iJ-B"~c6 tr'6e;~t;feS ~l:D~oeJ>d:b.o ~~ !§e; tfocillNd~' f!5)g) dSJoOS5LOSOSot$oU.o ;6';)'~ ec.c6;SoOSCSl?~ ,*.i1a~dfu~ g)~l$'~ ;Sg:l,offi"'~ C!9;;i>;Soc;l";S;;Sru~ aoeJOOD. c$iJr>Q"eSdfu~ n3~WC'0"~ ;;SoiD~~~6JS"'~oc;o. @I~n5c6.iSJj n5o,/ieJ tfaB.o .o6"s£Juo~DJ"c:bflO c50t!.?c::;:,. c$""'~dfuw a;ill ,vCJ"J1?e.u ;S.ii:rotJ"O"~ g)eg;c6ofT" ~6:lJs:,jtb~fT", g)ec.~~ ::y;jSorro 6J.>i?o(JoiSJ s:,~tb~f1i' ;;S.ot1~6:J. DJ"~OS La:5;;Sot$o~ 6r:5:J .Jg)8Di9J.. .J:JoiSCSrftJrro a;ills&';:;co 1!9~ oJCDJaOSq;vS:J.> QoBc6 La:5eae;oeJO @IP"J;;JS)elJi'T" o,..CJooc:D8"OJ.

~6ei~-lf ~~~ iil"~aSo r;,;o. SeJ"o~;6.l ~~.l0f1O 6JogJooCS6meJ"? ;:S~ r:iJ:xJ~?fo(.,& C;)'Di§~.;.Sd.;;Jjl~. ~~60 'sa.fu5~g g~ e:lBJ.on·& ;l~B~;6cl;;S.J~ ~W" i??6a<3-i!o& ~6S N"soaG l!!!c6!O"dSJ~oll" cllocmc5J.El. 6;6 @la:3e.l ~~e.l:6J ~~6o :;'=:;0ilQ>~.§ @cSc:56@;:$ ~!!.) ~~O"e.l;fuea c3ii'o iJ"eJ"a.)6~ ~o~6;;S6~~ rl!.06gJ ~;:S<fu~otl;)~;fu.

Gl Q. -~o(

lin

~~ g)redSJ'>eJ~~. !!1~ ~a5Jtt;)f).f)~ zyOl;ame:n ~eo~@6~[)~~~ ~o~otloiS:lsS<>l"'eJ:Or.:>"> ~lD"o ~~ o~'iSeJSJ [)~g)~soC<;eJoc6:J;6o tiJ.>~~o. ~6ea-rS ::lCjl"'N"exl"', ~C"'a!S"eJJ" ~e.J";:6I5~ ~ l5iS~6l [)c:55ot:l3lC60JJ. ';;;I~.J(;$:) o~o ~oO:l el3oJJ_ ;6~~see ~ :OO"~~ID~ e0:5{fuaflow a6JuQ"Sc:fuJ~ ::loos~~~o~~"MS ~e~C\1'~ t3OJc:5n" l;;:,x,~O",c:5~o. 6~0" eo ~~!So& iJ5'"l-:5J_ ~~<Sj_9j. eQN"!1,1S:6;:S ~6~~ ;0<130 t3~t:;":O§ @SdSJ8J_oiSCo. ~ ;:SoOOq)on" ~1fu ~t;i,~~' eoJLI'1~ c:5S;:6~, 6~0" !P"15i!fc3~oe ;:,e~'B"eJ ~o:od'<fuv [)~[)~IDdS:l if:Joo:oe OJ.>6::lG$S ~ot3~~;:S ,g)g)i;5 6soeJ ~O:J~~ ~~::l~~;:5.). :c6[\;;Jt. @~e~ 6Jt;o[)tSS;fu &'e:oe 6:F>;;S!3eJ..);:J B~;:JQj"~et t;;", !3e:l"Q ~lZ"' a,§~. * ~~!30e g)C"S~eJ~o6,) @g)~50~;S ~;6o~;:SJ_ ®~;6;:S '®c:55"'C"ID~ rosl)~ ~15[)~ t!!l~& a.~ ~~cSt:5on" g):O~ot). so:;) 6lDS.xl~S"~~rosOJ);:S '(1;8 ;;)e;5o d~eJ g)~OJ"~ls wo:§0'5o C"fI~o&. §O"o ~ OQJ,;:SJ_ S IDID;;),) iJoo~6l-eo.;S t§ CS.:>gSc:5 tJ":O~ @~;;S 6 ;'j~;:S .0.5".1 [)~;60;6(,.6~eJ~ @& Q)"jo-§o 5"1'11';)1:$),

~66a.;j' [)Q";;J'>e:n .;)~ cstJ;:s ;60~~ ;:S[J;:S, ~o~as o)5~c;J"t& <Jeli3-oifuSSXlln"OJJ. t!!le:."" ~6..)~ ~6~S [).;j'~g)~eJo:5JoelJ", ~6.sL3!:l ;:,e1:S'6"e:JelJ" (;!D. sO"osS(:$j~ob;:SJ. tSe1Sj4i [)~iiY'::JJ_ <JJ~t:iso BdiJrieJ~. ~Q)j'6 5»;;S1D~06~ 6Jt;00e1itS[)f\;:S o):J;6J~W". @oi,S)~ 6~ @b~~o ~@;& . .ea 6iS;:5t!!leJ.:);;Soe @:&~O'JSf::ld.! 6Jo60eJ~ ~Osoi3~ofJ.

~15[)eSS 6§aS ~oE1®o!3;;S5<t.~e.l~ S[)~ @;;S~IS~;:s ~c:5~ ;;S5St:?[)J_ ~~ot)oiSt5o CY>£O'" 616 [)~OJ":Od. ~?JoQSb ~~oB. ~oeor;;fuol! ~::5C"so ~g)4l 6sce.l ~<S.:r>iJ"O @li:J"'6 ~Q~e,J ~;;lSdSJo&@~ ei~6-c:5 ~15?.J§ s~soe) ~~s~;:) t!!l1lS~~<6 ~o);)ln:O 6Jt>~oeoiSaSi$J' 8:o;)iJ, '~Os :n506 <I3<62J"o:N~:og @o6:la.J"eJJd'~ il~o~. ;;.').;eoi§ B"STT" @oO:le.:J"'tDcO§ ;;)~oe. ~~s ~~[)C"SlDo:5.Y>e:o i!l:,;ijoQ"iF:6;iJe;~" g)~c:iS:l :O~c;DeloE ro~Or::l"'e,J~ ~O".Je:o~fu ®eJ.:)oSoe w<SSs~;:s ~tol!':;:J 6Y>S»oe~rnJ. t!!l~jl6 d~. ~.t~ oSot)[)~el) c:5~ ~:o~ ~c6:J~fu.;;' ~~~o;l). eo);) al)a~ ~~Q'"Sd.S:ne.u ~~6:JBfu;6 ~q;<6tS

152

~<fuiE!rJ ~~&;:5 ;6~e.u ,:Uo~ ~~~o~ 6f\rS ;;:u.,iSrSal ~~C) 5"B:l~ ~ ~~l!' c6:J5oe)c::J<'easoTT" aJdSJe~ oS~oe... s.e.n~o~ Oe)S.,141 ~g)Q~o oS~ g)oocC)e:n <fueo~ O'¢}:0e e$;ill ;:S~oe rJlSdS.:l'>e:J!3:J a<>oSD ~1:'D~rieJJl"b8"6).

--~~ ~ ro

~ ~~sod" ~oii' 3leJOT1" :;5~B:l~ @~;J~rJg iSS&e;) fl1J~~d.S:nc±J, ~o5J[\ g)rzosg~ollS @~rS;:s ~o5Jlt\ ei~J~or.:>" @oSrSoo. ~ ~O~5"e,)o& ~6[)6S ~.(Z" §"gC"6J~ &gJ,.o&, eirS<fu 6":6.:1 ~6JrDiG6i:S:l§,oEt cS~o<6o~rS 6Jo6g)po.\' aS~<6<6& e;a..~~5 ~cs [)O"~a& CJ"'t:J'>~ s[)~

Ii)"'_ - ~ eJ Q'" t.l t.lQ

;:seiJ<606;;J~ a~~. .ealSiS;:se? ~66 ®~cfuo 0;66& ~ foJ"OJ"~

~IDo~oQ ~OO1i" @il~. S"~ Ot'~cs a..S ~:Od{Z'" Se.J"o tM.:log~~. (l8 OJ"SSo ~O" t!!loeJ)OGl.. '<SJ~.s N" omo(5) <6~05SJ, @~1&:J ;;§;fu ::J<SJJ_ @<fu~50iS;:6S&6ad;;. ;:6.)~,s t;j" ~;6s ;$6oS~. @~t0 ~;fu ~§, t:J'>O iSJcQ);:)c:5<66dJlSJ. ;:6.)~.s ;J'O&fjjoeJJ s@)~ <6CJ, ;;yo ~~eT1" ;:56.'

®::JJ. ;;5ciSJ~e,J~ :aoe<6 a5J;::D;;J;JeJOB'> <600 ;;§~J§,OeJJD tEo{Z"e;;6J_e ~ ~~a5J08" S<6oS;jJ A"oS..) @S"o~ ~176eao1i" ;fu;6.);J.ie:o aSdlJure;::DE. ;;)O~~ ~~oD;:S @C:»0J'>6 <6B'>S~ eio5Jo~8"£o 6e:o;s:'sIirieJtl::J S"otS6J iiY'&~OeJl6:J. so:O ~1S~o~od'~, ~;;)otSc:5Jo@eJ1> !3T>wo ~6&~M g,)-1!'.sg)~eJdiJceJ t!!l;6J~;;S0 ;fuffrp eoa. iSS&e5 eJJDSeJ~~. @~<6<6 ~c:5Jlf!!l 6;)6.J66K[JfI<S~cmli, ss ~Sb~ ~c:5J ~~t?i1D ~~ rr'6c:5ogS, c:5-JOOSrfJ& ~[lFl;;5~cmg. 6Jo6~tSS oSCfun.~yise,J~ ~W" @!rfJ~ @¢fJ)~;6 iiY'B";;S6E<J1>~ ;:6;fu~ttrieJtS:o ~ti:J tl:ml"oSrnJe30e. ~~ ~i5 i;j"~d)fi'O Q):oi,j~i6 S<'eJoC 05otSei"5c6:Jo5 Q~6Je.n K~rfJ <6,s60& ei;fu 6a5J ~Jib5 g)J@Je:l:l ~~~g)4l0l1" ~;;Joseo{J06. ~1 ;()~e,JJ S<fuF'f;:5CoC ei;;5:.ld' ~@J[)~~~~ @"ea\'008 ;;J"~ a~oaO)"6:J .. .sQ~ 05JrJruo!f.tt. :aDSIf>;;5 ®1"\r-o:n;;5ooSeJ ~~~ o:l"clJ 6"om '[).l§~oiSQ'O:oS ~e.Jo.~~' :OalOl1"

~ ~ ~ ID

<S;;$)t'irJfr';ill::J ~~6J.

.,J~.rocs;s ~J!;~"SdiJoC r.:>".!;\Q'o ~o@SO"o»s g)O"SoSsi6~eJ i'i:leow ~~66J<.@s&e;:; 2...!;\5ii' ~Efse~ ;:6ocooQ"O)@FlfDSOXl;:S l:S:J6~6~t5;:5 KJooD g);;saowo6J. @t:>J;;So~ ~oloSO"Q)JS ,;;SsoS~e.t rJ"N"~~

153

OSJe')Ks@~eS:l;6d... ®~SC:S;6o, ;fuo;6oS ~S";6o ;;Sot) @6~e.>;fu, eaN"i::b 2ddXllc66011'' c:5CJ~;6J.? ~6Sla~ g).a'~g)O"'se)(fiJ"e)) oSJ<>L®3J ae" oSJc~6Ke»KJeS:l~Q);). ~ ;606~o11'' N"S:J eY'2 ¢t;S5 oSY>e:r:,t,.s ~~O) ru~~~m:J. 1969& tSo~e.fD6 ®6;)ru~~c:5 ~~OSJrI"~el) ®el\ ~~:O j6J~c:5d. §'>~ ~6:J0J"e), @e~ ~6£las ~~Sg)O"Se.>dS:l l?6o¢®J;;S ;6e,5&, @cx5J;S ijlD~e.>Orl" "&7->tr:,r±J&o '0\0" @N'd.~'

'0));6 g)~Sg)OOSe)cfuO @"6o~;S ~ OJ"6o&rl<6.Y'rS~r±J a,e.l:l;;So~ fi";;)J c6~ a,s!f> ~6e» ~~60 .;)o~ @0ei'M0' ~;6o .t~otSl'ie;ll'J'>~~~ c6B~~el) ~~S"G$:). cs"..;6oS @;:SrI"~;6 c6Bg)JoliJe» s,..r;;a ;:6.,;60

ao~CJ"S" ;6~J~ oS~ O"'~S~ (!9.i»60, g)~ijo. fiG')) QSo5Jo:Od. oSB~~ ~lfufu~ eJ'>~g)'5',;~p60"~orS:loc:. aBI\ oS~J;6 iPcjS;606o~~ 2..SQD~ ;;Sg~ cfu~Sg) gj)~5 cr>fu;6 Q'Sy>tJe» iV"~ KJ~<sN'd.o:l:l. ®S~ ~~~~Q ll1GJ6v~ osoeOJOtJ ~N"~ ~vC'Je. e06no Fl"oSJ &a"Bf\O~ ~OJ) :6ei;SS~ .~$~bOfi" fi;6 R10;;SS;6N"~ @~~~r±J. @;;)..Jei1l{'1oJSV~ 11"(50 5~0):). ';6$16'S~ ~O"e» e6050&. ~ ~.o'.s~ ;6~oS ~O"eD @6{;)1J~oe,. ;6~i1S9. ~;6 ~~~6 S"l$SSeY'oSo ;tml'loiSJSO~ i5~ 89BflOSiJJC:>. @~ao @dilrS ;0~~ e..,S ~o~ @;;SOi:Y'~ OJ"60 f1~t!, zy~j~rS ql:JrSS"~o @h~.' •.

40 r;1"OJ"il'5"~ W". seY'o @0f\se~6;fuS:Jo~~.

;:S$ ~:5 a:;;rJS,ef ~iP5~g @~ e35d.0fl' ®O~lfrJ

------------------

154

~~~o 1

1, 2006 <fu<oIJ.) 13rS Kfo~ f)Jl'0lJ'>~p6 e.~ <fu<oIJ~ :>~~caseJdSJ :>cas~e)1SJ ee-5oD~~rS @~oKo. ~BtJ.@ ~oO""O'S:l~~;;)j::1l6aJ> ~lil@t:J~rI" @l9lso hO"'::J§ ~C:loS& t:o;;$d_ a.~ eg). ;;m!:56 ept'6GdW~ as&~ 18358' e!Je"rI:l@~l&:I. ZOoS ~~;go @o6o~o iV"~g ;ill~6J .2 eJ~~rSJo~ :3 eJ~e) .Cl1'~ ifl"6®dlm!Xl 'aSrF ::JiiiJ"j(,am~CJ, 1901l5~ 1P"6@a~Qt i6;)ot 1:S~@S'>!aJ ;;Jfflh ~cjS6"J.1""O~ <fu<oBtJ._5& oo~ ~e>oJ.>ex> EO~ Bi6"OJ. @J<3~a ~a~~& ept'tShdil r:)o~@ e3N"C?" 8 v~eJifuo~ 9 v~e)C"S'> eo6:l~~.

2. 1905& @e)rog Sl5~.'5 (#"tJd» tSv;So tU50b, £fjo& .,)e;~s ,;)~! rI:l50b, @dS~ ~~~ ~o;oeio r'\)Bob a.~ ~G!:$i6"~ OS-I!'!3;& §"~ ~..:s<5eu @J~5oiJ"~. o;;S iO'>w .;)e)~s ~OQo@o& Sl,!5~5 saoG OJ5~wo K:J50© S"oei ~e) ~0566'<l ~~~. @d5JrS~ 1921& ;062;16 <oO'JuJ~l3 aOj<5<iS.Jl~ ,/& ?J~o@o N50B @~.;:loi5EOeoEl, ~~t) 't~~ sooG ;;)ea5Jo~e>1SJ- ~.Jl~ ~e.Jo~'SlOeJJN'd.6J. eo~~~ lOS Go7>EloorS ~Q"'6 C9 ,zy,iJ~e" fj Q'>oe1 0 aGS e5~

'" .... '" -s Q!J

OJOY'tJ"iVJW071"wtl!oEl.

3, ~K~~g ;ool!i<5 e!J@So@ 8J"~;5tSEa Bo~ s:,.6'V~ ~a§"~ eoe. eoG$)& ~rl6.;J t:o~~.se)Qj ci~e;:s e~B~O"'~d_ 'O~~Jdilo' ~o~OJ'd.6J. '~tf~Jd'5JO' §OQrI" ClOS" ~~~ erSd_ ~K~~ 6l~;S'~~V::6.)O !!!lOlb:J""d.6~, ~ @lC56!la eJ"rl" j~€&rS fJ'5&'iJ lPc.)OJO"goO"'71"eobJoEl. ~ ~oS~;;') ~tJ'>go E_rS 'V~?JJ~o' dlldJJ<>~h eOID:Jatt ~ 'VtpEe"{JdSlo @~olfu71"eo~aC1' ;fu)~ fui~6-U)7i" ;;')f\lleoll. bJ"e~ '~~~s ~~~ l!!ioe.:;..1lJ. iiiJ"~& c6e

155

eJ"n<' ~~ ~1"l1{) q)e,)S"UJ, es§~~ O"e:l" [)rSd_ [)~ <\SeJS"UJ. Sa q)vS"eJ~J.. e..!:lt:l":O&';5"~!) o::.6;~yS ~oeJooo&l ;Joi5V~ elIo~Ol).

4. O"~~s ~;J~:5t f.,OJ)otl pij) oPef, l:3"g ;S"g ;;))~fu!5, C"g ;6J"@ ;;))8136 ~~, ~;;Sg) 2006. '~~eso :06o~6 e!l~~rS ~§dS:». o;Qol5l~ oSe~6ori" ;;.)o~cS;;}:) eoc:&~o ®obJ'> .;:lOS.,YCJu tlol&6J. ;S,:,;S

f:li> o~

~\'6-5"eJet ll!loEl~rSd. t.oS~pj g)cS~ oSeDF~O S"!S&J60:.0rSOS..)e3§

~g)~;;5;:Jty>eJ:I "")l5lOS6-oSc;o:O§ oS:JrS§ ®o6:>i:J"tlI~ ~~0J"l)~ @a ~@;St).'

5. ~tJo ~c!,)J!5, E08057>~ : .J £Jr>ga (95,w £5 e.n fiJecm15. ~:05.'J 2005. a..!3;;JS6i 2000 ~~ §o06:l tb~~ .. ~IS~Oollod, ~~ SOo66J ;;So~dilOJ"6:>eJ:IoaOJ"6:J. ~rSoS @B-6'tJ @J;:6o~~ ;;S~cfuol1" ®got1;;.):JsSXf!)O:O QjO~ rS;S,:,J~~' ~rS;;5 @&iS~ :OO"JE:01"exJ S"eJ"~ IDe a5Ju1il~ t50~d5D-;5El oS:J'tJo ae,oS"B 6eJ:1;ill~ob:J~ g)~dito ..

eJ

g)~, ~g5, ~r\cD, ;,Sy;o0l.J ~~ ~s£ O'Sot5 ~~~~eJ ~!:'ilS~

®:O ;fu<><S05 ~0J'>e;)!3J s,ol:3" iSeL~ c5oe..no6:O ~l&.:l ;6);60 16~oi5 KeJ:IrUefu~o, es ~~o~ ~c, ;fu;:S @&is<J'>[)~<5od ®o~~riOl1" a5Ju~SJ&o:.ooE.>.

6. eY' Se1",jO s~ 05<u~, BoSS !p)0"@ 40: 3, '.;:loS1il .;Joilo~~.ro~~5", .::JoSISJ oS~~~:OJ. ~.oAse~~tS, 1el®;S -S~oiSl&o& SFW" E;SS"~Cl.;S6.!)OJ"Stb; ed5:1;S 605..) D5.l5"!3 o~c, e3C,. 1!'ld5:1£. ;furSo6B ;;)6~K~o.'

7. soe;o;:Dr:5:Jrtd, (f!.!)oib!!6i'J[?d5Jo, ~6e ;;So~l!,jo). ~ ~~od il"~oS:JlD)6:J6 Soll~1l6 L11O~o rUo~ ;i3~~~o5.Jt:.:J ®!36-~ eoil.Dc6J. S"eY>~aJQ I!9dil~ .;:l6:lc3f\ 6oS:J&eo~<5:l:O gS6:J~oeJ'>6J. . .;:loeSff' iJt.l;'O~e.lJ", ;J~~e.u 6;6) \[i"a5:lol'UoO" ;i3~~;:SJ..o5.J6 OJ"e~ 6"3l~ @J~e.u @c:i:l/'U6:JoeJ<-~~, OJ"l:D 6;fu ;Socj~~ g).se~ 6§&;S QjD6t::l g)<SJ~~ eOeJl>6:O 15~ OJ"6:J ;&;;:n.se if'Oe.u ,i7>l!Jonv(l?' @~ ®~r\:J6'>6.:l. O"~§ ;S~Q";6on<' 8D~~ {Jtb..)~ alOJ"a @ ~~o. a1"~ g:,~.!)i!:Joe)l1' ®o6"" aSei5~o a;OaJ"'B:§ e ;:iJol~o e..S aSeiS~~~oe.

156

8. 05~e ~tS fi'o5J!5 !3.D. :l!idSJtS lffi~iiJu6.so ~~e -tl~d' ~~r6 eJ"t5!5 ~B0:5S;Jo':J:{)a5.Jol!' ;fuo.w. Sa OJ"S"se» 6cfu~2)C"Q.l). ~ al9o:l6;Jod ~~di.Je~ @;$ £)6~6J~~ 1100 .;5~O.;:)eJ8o~. ~~l.iJ &.i"66d5:J ::5\eJ;;j&;J~ruOS,,1E<S C"o5.:oG5:J oSoe~cil. ~:OdSJol!5 se.Jv Btl t1iQ'D~f.)!:b ~e.l~tO~e&OJ>6"tiJ.

9. a~ @O l"lalfJ 6iSrS ci eJJS &~ ~o§. @~6§'C:J ;sll ®£:b:5 ~ei5, sOC" ~~@ - ~ - eKld5:J@, 2005. ~g,n§ ~~'8";:;S i5e~c @1l1~d .~:I!:J'SO~e.lff @6K~b a..!:\'1SJ. ed5:J<S ~ 105 .fS1!J"lJ& O"~<S 'e1.!s,;j~e1 ®;:J;:DI_lfe1' ®;$ ~~!3o ~£:bclil a50r6 ~;,3.:s~&

_,p. l"'!'1 'Cr

R"o5J ;6)eJ:I~. @dilrS a~a,!3 oSJol!,j '®~ S"~S"61."il ;JOqDtlrSW',

056;;.),J6 iS6Se.JjQ, ~@S ;:;SOqDe,,;seJ j()(l1!J"eJ:I S"~. @.» ~1"l0506:le LOS~~ ~~~ ;:;So~e.>.) elgjG"e» ~~~.

10. sr>15 @6®~ @e&.~ 6605 l!!If1o g6~e10 ")/5 :VctU5~$1956. ~ OJ".~So ..:iJ.>co~ 'OJ"OFf ~@otJtS 1!!!iS"~o~~ ID:5~ g)oSBotJo5 l!'lS".o'o oY'~OJ"~"§£b ~fu&.oS ;:;S~~6oS"6:J. ~~ @5oS~~~ ;:;Se'§so 8J"S r:50~60&~ ;:;Se'§tSoS'~ bo6~cOO ~~6'so&:o ;:;S6soS'N"d_ @O~r6a!o S"6:l. e ;JQA~ory;$, ss ~~eseSoejo;a @lB ~[;O'> a.~ ~e:li\l"6J!& S"6$!3o<>o5o oSJol6ili. aJ"~@SaSQi5~ ®OS~oS;:;s.fuo 616

e! i!.l (OJ

!3!?"6~ ~05ro ;SoA~go15Jr:}. t'!)~S"6J&l @8'~Oi:lo5~, '8"&$~~C"

6rS @.o~61."ile)r5.l aJ .... ~@.sJi.OS~.lli6 @5"fu~~. @g)Oono @oGfuot)tS cSJi..s~e.u ·8J"~0J"~.o!&6~ aSs.roefJeJ:I g)~~Ql). @ OJ"!§OJ"~ iSJ<>~~ ~~ 6eJ~E'iO"~ eJ~ ®g) @Q"6;:6~B"QD. ~O<>.Qi!i oi.?J"oej tl@ot'!)rS ;:51)._tJ~o s~ .::JC.s§;,3,,;&5 tl[!jo[);S <6~aL60 <D~OTi" eoc~6~as. ®eJ"~ @ 6Jg56~Q~r;;:o ClS:oKo ;6)o~ d5lJ11"~§ ~6J~ GoC!:i 6OS,Jeil'.

11. ~.m~ ruOJ"g. 5"N"~ ~ ~o~. ~z .;:l,fuflJ'§ tliS<6 @o3J£.:Je3 @o5 e ~ol! " c;;:SJoSBon ci e§;;;ctU~ .:Jl3l5, ~tSlfu 1995. 2)O'JoJtf @S~¢5e) (O::O~~J a.oeJVe3~5) ~o;o60 i6.:l;S LoS®~eJ~ ~o:Ng ~O".JSe;o<V'd.o:}):O a~oe. oiltS L;;)l!~e)rSJ !§~;So B 6~e;oli" oS~seo.;:)cS~. @[) <5"B6!3, @o~6oM. ~6;:;SJM, ~~ g)OS.d5:Itl, K~~ 6"'§S~, t\l"r::J'>6J~. laS~Jl! rl<Joe.!, ~f.)T ;JoeJoo ~S~c:xJ. ~;:5&

157

Li6@e..Sa.5§ ~ @S@~eJ~ e.OeJt>OD saf;),;;y>(j;{j ~.:s,J~t/?e.DOeJ1'OD. ~ @S~~~ e...~o"g)& e...Se O):O~~OD ~05.), ot,gJeno" 05g);3dS:l~.

12. iJaLti5s S"cS<sn (1904-1967) SJB:l so. ea ~g)8" 050'B0) C!!ldSJi6 ~~ !;ig)6 <t:$ fJll ®o~ ($ ~OJ)& (}.g). ~ Sg)~ ~o~. ('}eJg~ l.¥ciliS,J &~ ~L~s SO.;S;s1), ;:;j~1:l~til ·1l;90~:OdSJe5 g~:.5, ~0F\.s5 eJ.so(jdS:lo1>otSa~rvsJ' ~oF'lS5 aDs.:), 1996.

13. {)$dfub'>on. ($ ::Jef(j[i) ~:J 5iO~c::IDu ~S£ :il~or; ~, 2005. ~. W"p;tI(>O) i5J"C'iot,. 'e...S ~tJdS:l :::'w-.od$;)o ~e3":OS ~63:O ~OlS:JcS"'l

-l) lL.,. ...... eJ a..... ~ Cj.) ~

@(lo.tl~ ~(fug6ejd (!;!lgo~~g6cS~o (fueJ~. ..Jot:i:>~·oe3 ~~:O~ i6t:lae c6J<So g,):S~~~l!&Oi'i" eo6cSeJl!JO"c5e.;,~ 5"~, C!!l ;66@~

o M & Q

oS,,<So /'l"e.tS 00135 jdS"O'SeJ:O tlio~oa S":o. bN" ~o®o ~tb~e.:l"

;fueiJ @O~~~:O <So.i>JJelJoEl. <:).);:5 6'"5?:,-1:3 g)jtS16cS:J 0.'>.:1<>;6<6 ~OiDOQ'e.>~ ~~1'1oiSJ!;"otJJ<o ~6, ®EJ ®~eS" g)-B.sg)~e.>dSJveJ& S /0:' 0 j cSoAl" ~ ~ So iT" os e t:a g)v <S~ a e. ~ t'J OS,),H!J SJ cSJ>;S oS ~oiDoQ"e.>.fb6;§ LOlQ"<S @l;S!. (§a(j~ @lri.:fu;S oS~a&' ;305~~<S.l oS8.g6~e.D @'>~~ e§!3~ (fu cThoD~lli~cm. N"!:iJ aV:O ~ bN"<>:l"~ ~t;:;i> etmcSo<o~~di <:Se.asts;;r> :ill8"Ul O"o:b~. e...s;;3t? (!;!l~i'i"e:o

o ....

&l~@~fuo ®exli;oe5 oSe.gSQN'> tJ~o C"'dSJc5:lN'd..6;s"~ol:.,

e~~~6..Joif aot.~ oJ8-BeJ<S i5<JJ~~cm oO'Se§ '(p%~~e:r 6<Sd_ iSS&~8"~~ @JQ"';Sl;S6Jo SJf:J@~~ B~6;So :3~tbl:5~·' ®:O 0"l!JN" 0'SJ<S0 @l"{)6~E)&oS~~6J. e3t:J" 'F\;;3d_O:> !&6ri6oe1'/O ;;JOo:>Kl 1>J~ero~saeJo. tSe.><So, a.!§ 1>Je,seJlS' ®j ty'Q')J (!!IOSdS:l;6o ~10 ooS~ 'f\;;:'d_O:> s1::iK1::io §'i",o O'5oKoo, aoS1&o aJ"rl" @)e:>~i!;) seJ.)ri~~O;P'

(!!I/O ~G" O"c.fuO'5i'5J~' •

14. ~v.sdS.):5 nt1 oSJe~ eJt>.fu~l:l t5tS<S t.S ;nO'iJOXJon e,p ~Q1~, @j6~$oS.,!5 ~5 ';}S<6fus g6QS-a;6_,!5 @o~ 1::iO'SeJ~;;.'boe5, 2001,

n"-

'@ou~O'S~~, a§~ <So~~ ~O'SJ~s <JO'SJl{)~ 0'S0~ g)~~ lU!$"~S

q'SV8"eJto ~Oo;;;1::iod oiJo<5;;.'i i}>~s iJ\!JJiDM ®~6 ~oSD~6

~ ~

60e.' .

15. ~~eJ~ g)es5 2020, eJ~e.l<! a<5,;ja~oS.lS. ~o S"~or; & @~~;;;b06 8":OJ6, ~¢~, 1996. 2020 N"e'!ls zy>6~a-n"':og ;:Jo::oot:>oD16 ~~eJa! t.:i~;:J'>~ 6P>~oeo~ aJ"OJ)~ eJ~eJa! S":tne5 ®~£Doe.

158

er::ryp ~;fuJ ci3Sd_~ 60~~& i'5oJ~CSeJlO<5 e3"®dS,) S"6s~~eJ&> ~g61:JJS"e.u 6J<.~oa~~C!l. ~~. eJS'leJ<9 6ono"~ i:lcgoSeJfulS ~~iDtilf.)~ oJocooOot:) ~~ S"s, e..s c6~16 ~~ ci35d_eJa! g)!;Fc::J"~ l:SJ.>s»oEJo&;"l:)g !;bu~ a..s C!!lQ"6~.tbsto c6~~<6d..8. ®o6J~r1";fu ®EJ 5 geJs 6ofi"~to i'U~ot:)oe. @g): ~OS~ctn 6e.)~e.>~ g)eJ.)O'Sa~aJ @S@d5Je.D, g)t$S. ~t$J;o, l!!l'<SJ;:SoQ"<So, ~oSilei~~ ;;]aL¥<.SJ~;fu. G".sa>o tJe5§ f!1l6<S0l'l"' ll'l",tb~ ~OB"& Q)~E'a iJ;cm l&'Stry;eJ.) ~VJo':;l.'lO'SJj lfjO£bt<J"IPOS~~ LQS~%l!&;fu ~; ese<:S6i:J"tU.

16. .:i106JZ (!!)6l)~Z, .;:vc!l.B~~. ~5dSJo ~O'So ;;]~~;;J.~, 1997. @<fu ~6.s0 161lSJoe e<S (!!lO'SJ6S'>;6oeo 0SJ06,s,ii.J ®5VdS.)ii.J &O'SJ~ :~O'5~'" e~~. @~ ~ti.so 180 ;fuol:. 96t:Y>S" t?O'SJ:5 ~~~ Q)5iJaVoO;;S lOt5JrUl5:l o5:Jot:) '::;~OS~& e9Cl$);S O;;S5~e$. ®o~S"St ~cms ei~;,1.1Et @)t6r"i!IDS~n<' ;;]eK~oQ'>I'J~~i'Jd.til. @dSJlS @~ ~6.s0 180iiSJoe 170 O'SJo~S"eJod C"~<S 'S:)(~'~;;],~.J' 9,i6.)e~ tJo::r>l§Jof};;]C!ls<S ;;Se,j ~~ OO"J:O§ ~goS" ~~~.s D~o11" :OeJcoe 608. C":O&I:) eO"~ e,J"o::r>o~, @)~6~<S ;fu~eii!J':S~g ~e5'§ ~~0;:SeJ.) ~olil~ob>~ eoB.

17. C!!l~a1~ ~0'SJ:la, t:$ e-« @)~Oy~~~ ~~~2' '»0l1!E, 6 ~ .,Je~~. 1989. 1957& ~b»6"il/O§Ii";S;, c3'al6 ro~(6)@ ®o1:5:J!D~t!.J~J!)§ @l co~~@ ~o6:l!DlSJ.iiJ"~~ til~ ~on ~6:>iiJ"e S"'~~ ~lSJ.DScfu<5J6-G:l. ~.iJ"~!SJv 05J~~~~ oS.:l¢J) .,Jo~~ !~~oSeJ~ oSDJ<SoS.J6 suO:iJJ<. ~;fu;;s;,e.>~ ~oi:Ufu~~. '~;fu;;s;,eJ Q)iSJg)JGS 05J>~~~<Sd_0J"~~ OJ"t\JCJS"'®e3cSoG, geJJ<5"oSJJBG5& K:J~0:5~C"/Og O'SJ<S~ :OesOf1D <5~seoj ~@~ '»eJ.)cS ~~<5o

~;& .... ' ~.

~~~Q .2

18. 2002 ;:SOSorotU 26<6 ~6C"aJ"6;)d' :Ore<>lilJ "=l~~~e5 (!!l~ me,!:i6 ~~f:J ~~~~Jc5 @S;:;joKo. ,'O~ e...!§ ~~el g).a'.s';C"ileJdilo. !!!lEJ 14 Lii)~J)~ g)zy>l1"~ ~~~~~alJe5 §'>iSJJO:> :06.s:"'otSt&~~!§, @S~ ~0?tU o'ir'oeJ~ e...S -ynJ)~ t3"a5.JG5 ~0XlJi oJl&SeJ @~;;]@/O :o~~~ t<loEl. @o6:>~ 1500'SJoe :O~~eJJ o:5l:)i.'i~t::ld.6J.

159

®~cfu l:lC"~B~~ <J"11.~ @<S:l~g)oiS~:O§ ~ t;)OSoiSo;5Jol.9;& g))f\)rn6:Jo5. ®!§,bG OJ"~ cJ~~~K S:J ~G§) :Jo;i!!.'9S0fl" 6~oiSa:JG6"~'.

25. cg)t) b>02.)g 6t::lo£)i5 '~ ;fuoeJo' @~ ~g)e5dot::lb;fug6roeoe. 1!!j~;S @l~BS"S, i505rS :000::5' e:x>~~ oJi::JGfua5.;,a5.~ Bo5<6W"6 ;o~Jal5 il"~o 13~ .t6"@§ ~o5<6 11S00bd5:J ~(jS)~ :00015 dQ~ @lQ"'t>OT1" ~t>J~ e3"~~e5 iJ"~. l:li:Jal5 if'~rn ~~ ~~Od))O ~ LO)OSoiSo&tl fJoQclO)~~OGSgj,. ®5 ~W" ~O~a. EBg)6S"e.loB'i3 ~~O)~~oGSfJ <5.i'mJso&>.

26. ®oru~6:OS"d5:Jo V.159, tt!tSQ))~e5. ';Qo6JB' ID:lCgC> oo&~a~eJ 6:1~ v~~v;{:p g)c55oi:J"C>. '06~ ~<so& eQoi5ID~~vfuoe ;:3;&iS a.~&1"®~ ~~;;,o::&. e-!ow ~~o1\o6~o B6:J'.

27. ~c5Jvo @6 K<!:3[) 6i:Si5 6 e:u§ e~ N"B~, @~cil"tS~6:J rSID ®tbl5 ~B@, s.t5C" ~~d:D'§ oJ ~:OdS:l,§, 2005. '~;So ;sail o.:c,.,O":o§

o

e== ;5Jo~;& 0"5 ~~~~. OJ"ti,) ~I_!j;& @J~Sl cil"t);:De.lJ.

sob, .~ S"votf} !!!le:»~oe3o:!"ti,) @ti,)e "§~vo ~O)~ ~ifue.lJ ~@;fu :b1\()~dS.Y>ISJ. 41 SoSeJ~<S:lv;lO)~ciJo6JQ ~eJ":5 ~c:,J"iiJ'>M &rS~6J. 6~!.'9o a,rSruvc3 eJ"~v~o bio6 @~e.lJ ~<§~t)ot3 O~M g)5.§ Dilow ~C>~~, :a~ t:uown"~ ~;s~~;scP. r::soo& t:u6 06JiJ"~ @tSeJ~e!iJ6Ql) dilQ"g p:ocs~e~~ ~O)oiSt:uo6~ S"eK~iJ66JiV"d.OOJ. <fuo5 S"~~~~oSJl~PJ"t. g)0J"~c!');;S.) iSS&5~e.Jl>;o§ ~dlJa~oS~elJ ~jJ 1!!j0iJ"~n" @J~ej.s e.!lQoi3"'e.lJ 60s.,) c5:JfY'S ~;s~o~ ~8 a6;:) ~tQ tn<SeJifu i5::nJ<§Nd..~. !)!1, GSJi5-& ~i6o ®(je5 g:)e50CliiY>GSo ~~. 05J<>oS:lJoelJ 05;)ifuDS,J~!l!IS~!?GSr::;o:o§ .;:5)6 @iJ'>6!:i:JUl OJ"c! OJ"n"coa:J60 05J<>~. 9.0 £)~ j<§rSJ. 05:0. 9.0' rS.lliJ,oiSco, g)6ocQJ"oo, 0J0~~o2)6oe505.) ~ @JOSo6oB' ® N"sd5J 0 fT" li !roa') <60 ciJoEl oLS c;>":J~ b 5~ oSJ O"~ 0SJ06 ~'hfu

o

W0!:5~oa6.·

28. oJooe:!oE ~cfuo ~~ (1882-1927)~tS~a.q!oQ e:!:JJo~ti,). ff~ ~~~~. t::l~ ~~ ~o~tJPclS.Y>!O§ i:loEli6 &;.»;;::iJP @IOJ" ~;Groe rfuo~. C!!I~l9a;1 flt!.'9 ~oQ'01SJ.. e§;s ,I'\lti,)~ ilS;S~ ~~e5s a'fJ'>V!:5:l

161

ii:f>em ~M fOOOo~ ~~ iJo~~eJi5J ~ :3dS>~ @a~~. C"oW 9N"d5J® 191 od @~aso ~~6:J. @~ cS:l~e» e..~lj f;9~ ~~ t!!ld$)<5 e~ ~!3& t:l~cm . .;)~ ~~~ cS:l~ ~@O"~e:o !l!I?~ ~~o (o5ot:)<5 ~N"~ tOSfi"~§JN'd.d$):O gdSJ<6 ~<6 ~r501i"tt lYloefff"tJ ~o :a~o~cil. c61o<6GJ'>~ ifu50~ ~;5J.~ 66 ~6iV"S~ ~o~oao~gS;;SeJ":O§ Q"S<60 l?~;:5 e9;;S-1!'~scS:l:O e9eiS:J<6 5"§4

iJ.~oeJ'>6:l.

29. 6Jo~: e:t>S~o:J e9~ Bifuoeia:5.J, -g~O. s~o ~6~!5~b @~~ ims,j. 1996. 4 G:l"~e» 05:>r5d_g) 3G5 @~dSJo 1445-1449 iSJot, ls~sOeJG"O)). 'tDo ifu15caoD"(J 6tSJiil"~ ~ r5o)y>~!!t'NO 6a ~b>iS

c

~~S"~~. <fuo5:>&!D&> iiY>~oSeJ~oa cfu.;fu~ iY;;tfJdcr-et, c61o~;fu.'

':fu.5 .;)~l,.Q'Sn" lO5J,0>5~. 0":::> G)~ t::JG)15~ fu~ -8iP0"e» 6;;)~ a~Stie.n S~~ri" !o6:J oociloSo6v a~ S~6(fug;oe. ~oil g));;))1h a,!:ii ~r\eJ"r'i ~0"~dJ:>0 i3dSJr'ieJr:o. !D6l S1'~ cS6.5~ -a!p60eJ01"I" ~6on'" ~~6;fuglioa. ~<6:> ~o).)~~ e..SC"'®i6DS&eJ"n"~al"'i"[ld

~§acSr\eJi5J. '

305 tS~ClS:lo

30. 2006 a~oe:l6v 9<5 e.~0""!Po,58 "{:?BO".5o~ 0$ ;60t:S;,!!'i'}

~-1!'~gJC"SeJdS::lo 2;;S·~6g;6.JQ'Sod i3~<6 ~r5or\o.

31. (5 ~o~er .esa5.l~ g~ d)g))D .es5rS.5; .;)~b &g~;:J5, as a am!!;) 1976. ,;)~tl MZr55 (!!l~0~ gJil~O"E<6 @~5S" s;;SOJJl@· ~~ !!!l06tSJJIIDC"~ oSxJ~~g;)6o ~[)o:OoEL !!!1m sgJ~ell eJDelf\a"e.n. ~tp ~6~oD;6~eil a.seaK ;;)1'1660 gJ:O~oDo&/(!!l;;'iJl6 r\ed' ;;'i66J~ :O~~o~<ful(fS~ Efu~i5JeJ ilC&<6oC /ri"t!, ~;;SBot::J<6 b~~oO'eoa.'

32. tS G5o~ !l!I~ [l[)dSlo ;;S~ ;;s§, ~D<:mo oS§"J cS'§, S1'oDobj6e. bj~~ofi ~o~~, e. ~ ';)e.::6.5, 1998. ea ~o~exJ @cm<6 180200 O"~ e,giJo5 ti3~ ::o;:;g5 L£J@ ~~ ~gJe:9 ~ot::J b;:SJg&ID~gJ. oS~Q'l.9 ;fu..:50J'><6J~GJ'>~~, @"!3e1@~ ~o.)oO"::J§ oSJ4) ;::Joe:JoQ"~ ,;)~~~zi),

33. .;)~';)oID-3 e..~ tl;~\l'IoJa l~dl.J>or\~~ ~1il. (!!l6 iV"1!,))r\J t)4( !~Cili<'f\0t:S8J-a il"s. qn<6 9.06<60& ;;):oil~o6. :';:liP -g~s~ t$SJ~

0:: -".,_ ~

~065 ~<SJ~o& 47°eJ GS"ell& 600 §. fub~ .;J~~ ~!&~

-----------------

162

6K:1cSn" ~(fuT>f\ot:S8Ja ~~. ;;mcs~~CBJ<>Kod .i)<;)eJ~<S 66JCJ'>e:9 1980,81,83~ ;;S6J~n" ,fujoeili1o~ <fuy>~ ~~~ e;;)~c;JIieJi5J ®o ~¥ IF~~~&. ~6lGS"~ rfe!;'ttt, .;)~.J,5 ~ 0"0':> ~g,.~6' ~v>ot:lot:S~~~ .;)5016ID-8 ~<J"61"1" ~Q)(fu>~oa.

34. ®fI.,l (~oiS~~~ a.~~) !lJ"66c3-1!'0 ~SJDOeot::J<S ofuOSej6~ c6l:JcS !;;)~. '" ;i)Q))S -ge~ r6o@O"dSl~ ~&c~ii"~, (300 ~~cful~~ ii"~ @Cfu»flot5 ND<fu~o ~ob:lo5 r;rog)§. ~So&tJ ~6gJ6~Q'S)~0 sDFlo5 e..~6- tS1:fm @cfuofloi:Se:Je,g, tJJ~~ 66<J& ~<SJ_~0 ~[)f\<Sg) 006 tS~~ @Jill.J.>Flo>5e:J~a"OJ:). @lID esG~£b6, ;£e» ~t:J£ntS SJt>r;;<> <6~G)KeJ~. GJ'>e§ q:D<6;;)0"9;l!.U, 19c5 OSC"9;eJJ ~~ i1-c5soe»no ao~KeJ~. ~1i>.iJ"~ £.:fe!;'¢ Q'S.,506 gJ~~~~cti:l ::JdOiS6set zy>Kol1" 2000 <6JoE. 2500 ~d.futJ~ L'.SJ<!60ff ~~f'lo>58J~r\eJ @f\.,l-2 SJt>C" ~~060t:Sroe.06. (!!It))_-3<6J ~r;;<> ~SJuooo-El 2006 B:l""O 9<6 cSe.£_oi:StJo ~5f105 S"'~, OS51li gJqSeJ~05. ._

35.~Z.J ®o~ ~Scfu:;;; LeJr;>~qSaJ~ : ;:5t!:le5 .;)<S~5. 9;ot3<6.P"ID~ (!!lOC S"~~'l5. gJ[)c\'S)o .;) ~o, !lgJdS;l/5 ;;)~!tong;, 1'997. [)~d:l:JO ~Qo ~~~2 g)~Sg)~eJ~o&~~5a:b6 ~5.J !!!lOC 9;o~~ed'i gJ<tJ<>Xo& !l!IO"lilscilfl" cSlOt5~<J'd.~. e..~ oDl!J~ atJt>oQ ®~eJ~~a:b 0SJ06J.)el> ®rfuSoO"G)eJogb;;)o <fulO!t 6cS r6oSeJ.) e:leJ"~ ;'[lQon" (llOSill.J.>f\OiScSt:S:JJ;6cSd_{;}"l!Jtocs IDOdiJo ~~o §"o6 eaG'Jllr1":5o t5~~. I!!lc!.:l:lCS08 Q5y>6J.JeAl :Oeaoi'1"~ <6J.OCSCS ~6rSJ;o~ Kt:Ol~~ gJS"i7~ ~~o>5Xe»lUa"cm.

36. ®oc&o ~o5 c5 ~ ~e'Q, ~dSJ,5 ffiQc, 1P'~2 ::;)~~ofi fff', .2005. 'O"eJ'>tJJoo 05J;SJo.:pell ;S[)6;:5ota5oQ (;}"5~ d~i5JB"~ ~~Q)) 6"tnd' O"f\c:lfucSd_ <So;;;)tS(fu r\:l~ot:loo& gJq5eJo5J~B"&>. tSJ66J~o @ 5!5:Jlr<6Joif', ~ 6Sol.<5Jotf ~~oCSi5Js"G)do &:lo6~~. ®e 05:><6 05JrScJJ&o~ ~~~oe.'

37. 6 i>Sol,) @~ gJDdilo G5ffi tJ.§, [)[)Cl5;>0 OS§J ~.§. S"oDo~6e cS~~ofi so~~; e ~S .;)E,Q),~ 1998. ~ ;;)O~e» I!!IdS:I<6 ~~O s[)6 '8:) iiJ"od6C;' &~ ®<>.E ~ ~,5' e~ .~g)~ d'~gJ. es !jg)I!iQ200 ~-d §o.::leJ ;;mtS~~en" @iSJeoi$e:lI~oo. I!!I Sg)6G)~ alP"~o ~iit:J~

@J;;)oiS Lbjfu~<fu~OJ:). • :

'_

163

38.. ~~mJ =s (lIloC; sa~c: 1957-1997, ~<9;:OJDe;:o~ ~og£g 1998. ~ <6o~el) '5d5l"IDe5 e;~OQ.J' @;$ 0I'V~ s~~d cp"n"e.lJ.

39. 'WrJo ~B!iJ~, ~~OJD~ ®O~ctiJ;;So ~~ ~~'8"$ ~a,J"n"~ ~rS'8"~O @lOeJ"6J. @lEJ ~;Sorl"®E;r; ~.~e:o ; '~;So.'b~ ;;'::bIfJ?',. '~;:S~e:ro o:tl~oEJ?' 'i:lJ;;SJo.\le.lJ ~;S0a:s0" oen<JJ!&J;;Sag:olfl?' <:500~. c5~<;Y' i:lJ;$0 W;$Oli'" ;j5ri~oiJ"oo~ '(lIl,5 :Oei~tl1o~[). S"2J@ ~;SOSJoB

. . "is.'

~;;5J5o,j6ri <S1fu..l!§o. ~.;S~~z:;u ~cfa.;~ iOl2<fu:O <sgr,~;S0~~~;S

!il (1 "" .,.1;

Z;3";:)o il'oClv6J. a:J/"'iJeo~ ~ ~;SQ 0"6S"ooeJ C"~c::u;S0

• 2iI;"'

:oti:lv~oiSKorl"[).

40. ~ ;;S.;S5 @I~ e.J"el5J : ~:SFeJ.Or; ~e5.J.' ~~eB @laC ~ocfl~s ;;Jo~a, g)eJo:bo eo eJ'>6r0g, ~e!;;S~;;J_:JJ 1991.

41. @~ ::oS;!) l!9~ ~~s . ~ $~ SID&) @~fSI~5J, @~o ::ofug @OS<>1fuJQ, r:lPl:SJ<6.JeY',~ ;;)~SOl:;;.J 2001.

@~~o4

42. 2006 e.~motD 6;$ fJ'o'Sa"'e a,oa®~ :Q:O~t!JJuSe5 .~r> r:fo;;J_5 ;D~o (lIlol:1 IDlS;;\~ ~;;S~o65 ~~g6~J;5o& j~.s L;j;(;'orio.

43. .Jag OJ"'g5 : -;&eJ5J g~ ~OG @laC ~.)5e5, sfir!J §! ~06, so®~ o5lFiOt:S5Je5 jJJ~ 1998.

44, re5J.. fSl15~ ~e5 : .~.~' @OG ~15.J @~ ~ .g) 0"'D'D5, <2 ;;3oEi~cio15, 6 ~E.dil15 @S"tS~ @&; ~~j5, 1989.

45. ~@41" ;;J5&Gl ~~eJr'i" ®~~ @l~es~ i:lJ;S~Ji)~s c1fuoc tll~r!J (1905-1998) ~055oiJ"d:J. E~l§)SJ& jf)@&;P ~~o §:'e.>~N"e.>;fu :OccmoiSC":O§ \ffi056Jo;;S, ~;:ll:llo;;J ~@~e)<5J ~e.>. ~O"q;e.nr'i" r\J~~6J. tltJ:o ;;J6J~f'i" gr go' @~ ;::Jo~Or'i" ~;60:J05~~, It:lGl~;;J riJ;;; ~Q"6&"<l0JT' 05.i<5J~e.Jo~ee;s ®oej:~~Or'i" eoa ;::J6~@GQ, 2>11:1 ~g)~oBo '@tlO1i" Goe:oot:!J, ;(;'o5.i~e)) c;Je~o6JSS;;5t.Jo, etD5so ~t.JJg£iiSG$o. ~~Jg;~~o, g)g)ltj !!5IOSJBSUl r\)~oi:iCo <6o~ ~cio~O) ~ ~GSd'g ;;)~OJ). qD<S~Qj ~~. ';;S6JJ~<6G$o~Q I!,!!l';l"C;;J/! g)~NO~ @@~ .. S"1i". ~;;JtiJa;;:) 1.2S@~ o.'b;:)~. ri~ @;fui!;l'GSoo!? ::l.fuso o~oa" i6:OB~ @@~.

164

46. EDaoifle5 e!)OQ tS ~~ ~§.n, .J5E: ~i5' ~eSrS,"J. cl~cl~ N"!b15 @JoE: ~o ~~, e a.~ .;)e;~,"J, 1994.

47'. W'5cl~ (1572-1631) e@.j\!':iJ @J~~aoE1;6 ~,g). f:!@~ i6tSi:'l~e.J @no6or'i" oo1&l g)6)o zy'.>J"ih e,;§ zycSOrl" rUel"iJB) ~~S"e.Jo5"6o.

~ Q -~ ~

G$5 ~'@;S e@.J!!rooS"O'"et ~1i" @~~~o,5<S @le.>OS"CO '..J j[)t!.d_5:

q5O-i!J~on $f't)_oli' ~~6Q ~~~~oEl. @Oo,& ~d'D;;S ~E.~Q)jOS :Q~~ ~~~~. e~i!)& ;;$)J'E{)& ~e.lJ~.t:.J. as;,.' G~O'Y>eo£:l16 ~o~ e<ilii6 ~:J~' "a$ IJ rJPe5 LlJoc' i6:IoE. Oifug£ID~O:;O •

48. O"ro~ wo:S O"oSl!t~:.J (1895-1985) ,6;;5 ~gJ6~o& ~lK"DJa ~l;S.s0~~1&lr'i" ~~~~. ~eb~~o:;oj ;;ScSJJS"o~ .;)ofJoW"6J. ~d5JrS ~~3".,:P! Z5oroo~0i:'l.so~i66~ L"t16J a.'f.?",e3 :Oae~;6 'a~.;SeJ~o5J~ ~~OiJDCJ. ~i6 s~e§,SOSJoeJ" -t:)16d.D;;5d_ e.>06FteJ"ottl ~~~ ;;J5~~D'DcID>s6, ~ ~5"SfD f!!lctiJiS!&:J,j'e;S ~6 i:3ro' iDoE:. ~<SJ~CJr;"O:;O.

G:;

49. a,C}"£,J lfI..J&;, Fd"g B3tld§;Uo, a"~~ 2004. ro~5;Uolfu ~~B"~:og ;:5oa)o~o[) z.ror!J CJ;;Jl>JGSJ@ (1925), ~T'i"j)cli'l5§:J fl8~2,.o ",;;NS:l@ (1938), oocil CJo:N;):)~OJ<' e:l~oe:J<6 @lQ.DCJv05 0"6<50 1'5~gPQ. ~O~C"OD~ g)tJ"',gg)Q"~~ ~ @l§5011" :JOSJ~oW"l:b. 'e:a6'l~ GSJ;S§. ®otiJe.:;<>t.JJ6'cll;;Sd_ ~e-3'>ell!.lJ ~~""cS66';) S'Poo;;S g)~SOVf)j5"~. f$lJo6{jcll.~Q"~cl5:oe.>lil ~a3"~tso e3tiJ. ~fJ.cSo~ex> ~oi:J ~Q~ e§<6J~ g)~f\otSSJOCl'<', i6;:J~~ruoW" tl1o.:&~ogGrJo !:l~GSa~ a 6 -B"eJen rl" ~~ -o"e.> ~, S"GS ~c<'C:lOJ rr' e .;J<.Q"SdXo0.J"' ~:O§"~~6J.' @~C"ctiJ;Q.

50 ""e).~ 0 ED~fJ~ ($ ;;560 dSJDam fJ 2'lei, ~t.JCe5I~hl 2006,'iJ'o~s

.. "" aJrJ 4!.)' '" ~

~e!:'l @lO~~ L~!JE9e30 ag)OJ"'~ ~.:.5:JrS~l':5o ~ ~1fu @&)@od.'Jpe.l)

i'lotco ~Ofuoaa;:.J;&~? S"~ i:J"eY @6'non;:s!bcSeJ @&~c:DOe:l<6~ <6~ (;JI>~~~~oe.' @~C"<ili.s.

~~~c 5

51. 2006 ~LfD055 2<6 ~0~~5e CV";!5(fuon ~!OlJ..Q>eS!::io ~:O;;)f)Je5& a~;:J ~16orio. ~ cl:iJJa~;;Jf)..)~ ~~ ;aoe:l~50r;e)& ~.o:soiS i;l~~ 001:);6 @o!JmrSo~, ;;)f)~t;l;Se.>~ i:lo~!:U'i~o.

161i

52. ~cID>~ ~~~ .;Jc~:g L~l:iJB!& i6~~S' aoeJod._e.5& ®o6e~ @o~eJ"e.u& eoG! :n~;:s ~0s~f:rJ. ~ns 03"~o::l"l:)§ ;:JoaJot;Jot:ltS @~o6 c:5tiff ~~g)!:i lbt:J,;o3"~ ~~'6"~~.} W'~l:i '6"te~ ~fJ'>g)§ ;;)orooo.';lot:);;S 8"§.)!3 :niJ"~G<l~, 4)"~~ ~C"C;g)§ oJOIDOQOOi5 ~tSol'i g)O"JS"i::ld_ &?otSJ~diJ"~. ElIl06':Htr ~b;S It\SJUl, zy>daClSJJUl 3u6UlS"g) ~OJ:'JS ~~~ ~~'6"~. lP"t9s '6"@!e) W"5" iS~'6"~o, ;;JG"eS;;3,Sc.'S.re., Q"~!& '3"l~~1§J ;;JorooQog);S ;Joil' ;;JoSJoiJ"do aoEl. www.spaceandmotion.com,

53. Bi1§ iFoaf, ;p!Jaf ~G? OJP80 G! i!I"ID~O 2002. ~eSso5:Jo.B f1!);fu;:SoQ"<6o, ~.too~ <6~I6e$, ;:JiS~<fu~ @6tlE:'d"iSJ~ @'J~e:l;;So. ~~So g)~~~ ®oog) @N"El 4ltSJo. @ooR <66e'i0 ~6o»e.:ul1" t;:l~..);6 e~~;:S §y>~.'

54. @oe3" ~o~o, !JbO \fS§&o ~~ ®e[ ~o.u6 (!1!l~e3"~, ~~, FfeJE~~ (!!l0~ e~~:5), ~9;)~ ~~~, @~ID5 12, 2003. ~;S S"5a~~ ~O"~ Lebo ~~6-0 eJ"IT> ~es ®~~~~~. ~ ~;;Scl.S:nl'io& ;;50056 ~K,,;;SCi"eJoD ~~g;d_ fr.>060 j;fu~OJ"'.b. oS~~~UJ 6~6JjdS,)W"g)§ ~fJ, ~6JK>056iSJg6c6W":'Jgri"£) es ~c:J"~ ~o5cErol'\oi:5Jg&OJ"O. c6~ 1JoSVc:l. ;m6)r\)i>l6t:SJgS;;Sbo5:Jo~, e6.JQ ~S~~ <lSGoiSlsSOSe,o, cSJ~ti ~otil~oSeJo, oS~ ~OSUJ o5:'J9"BJ :nc:;sOT"i" ~o~1:&o, ~S"e)od' ®o~o6r1<;;)K~o., ~LfS~ 5"ii}otiJ~Ke)rlco.

55. o56J. ctOo. ~6oKIiJo&i aotU~60!il ijo5;;S oJet'O~aoUl. (!!J;;D 6.:);;5 '§~~on r:5;o>;.ef fJOa~: ~£ .,)~~'$ €8~ aBJ,on Sl5 oS;r>S Slot3cru5 :Ja!S~!E', L;;J..::Dti~ 2003. 9,~3-~ ~g)06ro~ (!!l;fu Ol"~ 1'v~oaJ6) 2003 ~;:)JN"O ~~~& ~til56e;6 e;fu tsiS;S '6 lifer ~o,zdS)$ rPG!;;'iiS' (fuoa atfugsro~O». @.lli~o i:6l®~ 1959d 0"2 l,p"i:6o ;toedSJ:) 6;&~ Q"oJOUl ~;lboW"60. @t:J ""-l;,b ;5)08

III "-19 .....

~iilf)ejC'Do:iJ~ eoo)o~. t;.J® ~e>"D ~e.lJosa (!; o5~~ .,jo& @Ja~aJ.~

6~~El~.

56. ~O))~o.,j g~ ';fuQ"6~, !§.)~~~. s~oKo i:6~fu.of) '?!, 2004.

57. ~6~ ',iJt>~ q?6~. ~~ ~~~§, !'£lo~ ~a ~~~ ~b) .,j~"tJ.'fj. ~O£Ss .,J~'§~ S"i6Jo~ ts'5"'oe'!', si'S~ 1997. fJ:.?/5 ~~

166

!1!l~2 ~~.sg)~vctOo& ~~de) 0>5f),w41i'S i5'i3"GJ. I!llIctOi5 6iS;6 'oPl)~s ,;)~g;;'i$ ctIJ.>$ ,;)tJDlJ'/JfS e!j5 ZI~ IDt3aiJ.>fS (!£lOO ;0.;)0. (J>oa<:S/5 ;;So .,){jJe5~~15ef o~056' 2003.

58. ~~~_g, 195 ;)~d;;'i$, eaVo~~ ~~ 1974.

59. ~~ ~~~~!;l, c:nc .r}~, 1:5 D~~ e&,) W'~. a"~~ (~s) 1999. ~6),5 ~~ rfffu (1917-1992) @~eS"~ i3o~ ~o~~ EP"@~-8"~~~.@~.sClXo~e>~ ~oJ~v.)~ tl:tl @o6:JeT> zy-Kort" 1945& ~tiJ @~o.:mQ"e);6:) e:ld5J@S6ort" @J~f\oDi'S 05:JiiJ"tJ:5

.;:p

;;S4S~o& SJv!;;" I!9dSJrS os~aii"(.$). osro_",OSe1~C~~;S.l§"~ tf.~

~a.zy>e) e~~~s6 o5~, ~ao~S"vlS o5~ ;JSJ&oS 1!9~~~~~~ OS~tiJ. '6 f:;"~oll ~lJ ,;S,r>&5q/ (1979)& li"e2:}'~!5 9,~ 0'>'6'>/&). 'C"dtfu S"e)o& $"a~-'O"i§. @t';SJo::l:lrSo& eSJ se1~ ~~i'S <P"a~ -5"~0 11"£), e3r:J" ®e.noSo~ ~a~'1I"~;& c;5;Ja6Nd.S"~ l.:iJuo5:JJ!'j,)Si$ ;:So~eoiil~ 05&0& OJt."'J o5~:fua'6"e) ;6eJ~rn ~6.s~6oT"i" ;:So5:JrS.s~g)§ O"Ke.>~. 2105 ~6"~o& ~a~-6"&. ~6ri~et ~iiJ"~~ ~~ §"~ 66K~exl -geJ<oO))ot:SeJ8~ etl6seo.§oe.'

60. 1!90l~:qeS',. a~b. ea. @o~~, 'JOeJDeC ~5t))eSD:l"[)e3: 1:5 ~5 e!l&,) ~e?.)Q @oC; L~e05.~ ~:5 S"o~0056e ;J~~'§a:S.;6e) eiJS3-Q,.) ~$ fu..)5~W"Db, s.oe.xhGl;66 e:l~e5 (!!J~ {)~~ ~5~W"[)e, ;;)o~eJo 1, 2 rSoSoe)ti;) 1997, ~~~ 8-1.

61. ao~W"et ;J~6.J~, '.,j~!5J~ ..J~~', oJG6..)5 ~a~cti:le5, 1981.

62. ~t.Jso~ ~l?o a..~ i!.3b§~~s~~ iOeS'OSGl- g)rnOS @ OSSoS~i5J 6)l:)tllJbf'loiS:l!iloe.ui6d 6)~<fu<oK~6)e) ;Go~eSCfro~& <6q;>:0§ ;:SCS:r>;;5oli" eoe.uo1S:O 'n:!.> .;:)ose~oa. "!'5a ~6"~ ~1:5e~5l1" O"IDO ~eJ"ZS. :5

~ ~'~ b ~

~1!Joo&~ (ea. 1946) 6Y>SJaoEloiJD6. ~6e;,l1" 8~ ~ifJo ~e5 gSrJo

6;ros)>oElot);605..)eJ§ 6a ~l60 ~ot.JCld.~, ~6~ ;;)iE osoe g)6)<';S ~e5OSo&e.>' ~<6@~OOe)SJ ;ooaJo~oDrS ~oSl9S :n~"l"e) @J<ll":;j'>eJ:fu g)<6eoiS~:'J§ t'lso5~K;;S~ eoEl.

63. 1895& ~diJu06-!;iJ i30ElrS illJoe5 ~~6-e) ~ctOW"El $"~8J1'~.!5 ~~~ 'Ai06[):5 1:QoQiiJ"e)~ i6~j ®~65"e) t!!i~~e5e)~ 1J5oeJ oYoSJ6-e)(fu SJoOODtiJ. @cm~1'v~Z ~o5~ ~~6-~ ®g6~8"e)g)

167

~~~§ iiJ"eOW"Cl. '@Sl9 e..S& @g)~6e? a..~ DSBW'cfu~6').)o& o5q;Q ®OD~~Jt)~ ~rSal ~!!O oJBW'cfu ~~~~ ~~~ "'&t:lo~ ~~6>ttl ~Oe;;S~ODOEl.' @~C"aDrS. f!;!loJ.,:pCS;:6,Ya oa~~rScl. ~2 :i3Y>tJ06J So ~~ C!9DSJ~s FJt~e C"eJ~ g)e»OS& ;6)~6~~ ~et6o.))& ~t:lG6 ~!&J&eJgS;So ~rT"CJ" osaoe. ::9,O~J!&J @OSrS6~rS ~~sm ~Elot:S~~§, ~~ g)i:l"6~~ @o~ oJ~oo. ~;S ;ib:loffl sifu& @oD 1909& ~2 r...~fjlc:jjJD~. S"~ 0"'~to6 ~~~;Scl ®~J~ 19116' r.DW"~. @~ (ko~ ful~o i'JoB~g)JS 60l1"~§ rJoCJoG'Joi:) :>~~ 056sOS~(;j"e;J!fu lJ"ei9l'voEl. es ~eJo es§~ 2$;S0 6~~& ~6:J~ cfuo>BJ~oQ.

64. oOSJooc lfl~tle5.ti [;)ef eg<p~a~t5.:5e) .ill~~ : ~ So~dJ~ .J~~ ~DSJE $IobcV~~', ~o~~J 2007.

65. e . .;)5. rS6I'voty>~ ®;;x,eS" <6ocfuj~ C"Lq;~ roe"/JQ ~~OSBJt6 1llI~ S"[)esB.ld:lJ!>& @oSe')tss ::JP,1"n"el S'b"''S''e;JQ IT'6OS E!!liJ"6::IS~l1" DS~;5~i\ld.6.:J. (!;!1anrS ~~tloi:)<6 iiJ"SOSe» C$ gy,oOJo ;;')@S 16 ";& 200706 L?tSJ5~rS '@5.fu ctWXlJaoS~ @oc c:tiJ.>.5 OJ§ CiloTl"iJ15' ~rJo rS:Jo~ a;6)g6CJ~cm.

®~~o6

66. 2006 ;SOSOiD~ 22~ @o19~o.g& ~~05~& G~ & rSasiOvOlJ ~~~t.1 (!!l~ rbodJJso eJ0.l0n 2505 ~~g5~JOSo& ;51'v;S l;J;:Sol'io.

67. 5",:)S" ;iIDOJJ(5)~:5 ~~ 1138& 6Y>15J.,) 05~dSJt>& ~~~.15& I::l:OJDt:J'>6.:J. ,a.S t';)0J"J)~i6"~ liJoi!BoD @c.t'D;S os-:.6<J'" DSe:S[)~~ ~..)~i5. ~, eJ"oj#Oe:l !b~rl" ~66~o ;56:J~1O'd1i1. ®oJ.)et 05e")esO"~ 0";;.)65 ~e»ro~e GrScl C"el~~e?Q:O -tD05& :O~;S ~gbQ @~~l'io <:'l6ifuJ Q'lS&;5 GOa a..S Erol105S&;S ~6~a:r><60 ~6..)6:>~!&')~~.

68. 5<6S!j:OO"Z, rJJO" @,g ro!'!ioo 2:256.

69. ~dSJSOl!!)~O l!!)~~ 5~, gy,~ 1llI~ ~~re~ ~Z ao~~, 2.:6 <:'lo~e.Jo, <fuJ!J .. C"S:l ;fu~.:sooeJ"e5. 1992.

7 o. SQ'1S~ ~~[) ;:J@, ooSs rp:lO"Z <JJC" a'" -o:JS, 20: 25.

71. ~~5 wZ ®!Ja3B ®r5:liiJ"l:So ;5R'l<sa~&o,:i~~ el'~ &>fu, fS"!5 ~@, 1961., ~e.J 89-90. @O alB (1905-1969) 1llI6IDsQ, ~1:5Mo&

168

~.:os i6"t2~ "!'a~K~ OJoe~CJ. sClil;S ~eS~d l'i~ ~r:} !l~.s~exXDodi ~rS 6t:lrSeJ g)~I1"'~S @~~®rl" oJ~il"~. 1947 ;5)oa 1969& 6;6 c:s:,6f.'iloO"S"S:o@~ g)~.sg)O"e')e:lo5:lo& eoID§& ;:So IiJ">cfu~ ~.:&fuJ eiJ"6.:Js~rl" oS:o:ai6"~_ EI~ !lDO".!5"!&,) ed5:!<S ~~;S ®<SJ,"",oo ~o6o.S6~J ~ov.!5"~ ~~j;)66JOJ a~;6 @)<5:lCJ"tl"e:J~c!3d~ !!!l6J~;m~;65rl" ~eKdo62:l~60rSd.EI.

72. e~5 S"!5 005835, ox!J e4i ~~~. @sJq)§ o:fua;oo.SB.J~ @~ 1953. s.(JI>~d5J ~6 <ifJ".fu~ ~-WJ~Se>J ~~i5~6.:> O:S5 .. ci:SJ"'. ctml'id5:0rl"e:J iSB@Q oSft.~ g)g)~ 6S"e;J <!!l~ES.s o:m~el) oeOi:J'>1il. @ ~~~§ a:r>o5:lDSS ~e;J @li25e» ~o.S:;'~6J. ~5?:rA, ::9,C"!5§ cS.i~ o:55;;Jcc:gdi =s= :oos.a~6J. d;;~ 6!f.'ilOrl" ID!~5e:n :Oo.Slb~lil. ;moe') I:SI!~ s,C"!5Q aS~o5:l~ ~OS?v~l». @I~.lClil EJ~rl"<6J.;. ~§~Z~ ~6:>® 5~rl"~ rodoeD :Oo.S?v~l». I:S§~ @oS;o~Z& aS~~exl"

CL..., -II ~ ~....;a ,

G~6 @~~~!5& 6C:;t:)s~ ~<6~6J. ea'6"i5s I!!IW~5& e&1seD, e.J56.~.!5el), MalcI.'SJZUl ~R'l~c:iJ. c;)t~ ~66C3.g'0& !!!lOSo"" S"<5<6;5J oJo~e.u oS5ol.dSJo cfuoe !1,l"6 6 ffioS!poW"~§ o5~;:S g5t:).)rS ~~ g)~~e.u.

73. O"rog . .;).e3"i5.)5, e...:Oon ctmoS5 r...5 ~e1'; !!!lOCO' ~eon I:S t3"!J~G ~~ 6 ~§, o:JSo.)o, ~5@o:::J.)tUG& ~rS6Jj.I:S!:'Ol, 1993.

7 4. ~cl.'SJE. ~s. 2:l0S~Z, LiJr>~go @§id5J5 tj)crlJ<.e;:S: .Jr:tJJ!.)on (.$ tlf6 ~.yj @J~ 6 4>QlJe), @7'6 DS~sO'i'~h 2001.

75. w:5 ~J~5, .J~ %Q.l)~oJl ~f{)o : .J N".:i:t6cV~s .J(§.165, ~5S8 ~~05.Oj, 199,6. crc:5 ~~5 @o~.)~ ~o5rS ;Oo<6.J"'!S~ ~~~ '5"~~~. (!!lcI.'SJ;S r5orJ6e)~:::J 'l?'m)4'I~ <:Jo~O;Se;J~ ~QJ~ oSe-SOOt:1 i6"~Orl'" @)~<6~0W"6.

76. C"rog,;) aorS.,)Z, s;5J_f5 <65& d.fu>~ofl ©.~ (:!!)oc ~cfue£; ai&~-,;505.15 c;lo oSt5.)rSe)", ~6 @oc ::9,oe5IB05.5, ;;JS~~d5. 'S"Zl?':O.)~& ;:Syos .;)~~l5 1989. C"CJg il5"rSJZ dil:r>oAos, ~o@S~~~ aoM @J~ Q.'DrS~ i3"~~. I!!IdSJrS ~66a.g'oe ~ ®1S~o{;fue:l ~l:60'J)0,g iS~~ru~~. 'N" 1llI-t~~cl <6e')~e.J.toa ~DS..) t;)0'J)~ rJot:Se:lN"e.JfucS 5"~. oS::irSo e!J~ru:&&~rS.l aSJJKo& <."'rl<60cl K~g6.o;3e e<6s £6tqso e1·oSJ ;mo8S"~' @N'd..to"o5:lrS.

169

77. ;fu~e5' aJ"voeS, .6 t:>"~o ~:! i:l~oeJ®oE 6 a.e5~~, .;)~g)dSJo ;0:~;;3 ~ 2000. ;~OaJ"[)oeS U890-1970) oYo"FiM ~oe;6 jj);~:;A~i:iJ. Cl9~;6 1930~ LID~15s, ~I'.)<:)~~~. ~~a.~, effl~ <fu~ ~oc, ;()OIDOOO& !P"<iJ"~ ®O'8"eJrUElol)~ g5);S ®16n'>oJ.>;6 ~o~oBoi:S~o !t;()o @dil;S S,;)&:l. Bil"tiJ. ecJ;5.)~ 6Jo~oBol);6 ~tS®~ l);SJ. t);;SJ. ID~OO"eJ.) ;)oJJe;)~il.Jt'il e...S:OJ,.~b ~~~ b<fu!fu:O a,,§

Q.<: 65JSl8 ;B"""3!:ieilff ;:S!lcS6on" 65,)ot'SCO tlloe:001:J.@_t'J.;)o6a

~owi\l1'_ - -e) ......

aoJ~. 6:6ff <8§&aS:l», iiJ5,gbO;:)!3JD oo&olfli ~~;6;poe:ooE.).

78. 6!!:@jN"&:i eJ'>~o. 1V~Qj)~ ~~ .,J~e5§~~' t5 ~:6.;)V6a ~~, ~~8-e3"'E, 1929,

79. 6tloliS~&5 eJ'>/'Iroo, ,;J~«J"lle3, e>ocm. ~!1;Jv15 @oE ff', 191'7

il~.116-17.

80. ofloLi:5c::J"ll5 eJ"~o. ~B"'OBd{), ~oa£) eaJs.J, W79. f\aoOegV (~on"tJ~ Aaool!T[») 103 ao6,~~g)e:§eJ <6o~S. ®~~ C"C";;fufID @t::'iJo:l"tJ"e3. e9oOJfft:l"[JD~ ;:Slio ~g)6eD (52) ®o !l~~ 1910d ~o11"tlff l£Si5J5ot1i8J~ !:ig)e&I'.)~ol) ;)o~§ ~l'b~g) ~no 6~J,.~g) ~&5e5 (190 1), ~c:tiJ" (1906) ;:)o~i!J"I'.)~oa o5:l5W:OJ. a.t)o <6o~eJ'>I'.)c:no8 brlJ!t'ro~OJJ. ~t;.~t3& 19136' l£SiSleo.;:Sro~ t);6_J. <6o~e§ ~~. roo cfuiS'J iiJO;)y>~ot5~~;6 o5:l:leOJ~tJ UD'B"(:D. EDesG~ ~o6g;) ~~e:§£j~et ~ID,g ro~~6 S)uoe~ ;ib)l6~

~~6Sj~ tS~ol6JB.

G~dS:lo 7

81. 2 006 ~El,) 2;6 Q:j"6so'@ff eJc::J"6~ ~o~ dt:JJo:otJ5:/Jr!i' j~i>

~~gs~Jtl ~i:loi'lo. es g)~g)~v~~ 1916& ~o&a ~6~ ~.oY>£)<.'We:J!!ctD ~~otJ"6J. eg~tg)O,g& 0Jl'6SO~d ~I'.)§"i'b.). II!! g)~S6.)~Svc:J:'i)o !P"~eSa:6or!i' 1l~ 6.)~.5 g)tJ"Sv~et:a..!:ie3 <5J'>~;& S"!3, 1300v ';)1&0"1'.) (5.5 6.§.fu) ~;;S6C'Q1g; ~~o:'iJ<>~ e!l@ 6.):: ~;7'.oS 6:lo<l'S6.)l':l"Se.lc6J011" /'i;J~o~ iTJoolJoe. :l:6~prJ~e.ldS:>od' ~.::.I

15, 00 ~ "En" :ltJ"S~eDtl;~6J.

.,§"'~ Vo:lY>on I'.)~on, ~ @O~ @69j, ~ofl:iJ5 Ims,:) 1990.

8~ g~ ~ b

~diJ~ @Q";:SOr1" ;fu>;:Sl'b~ \.Foe:§Jv rbElob, o5:lZ;~l1J.6v ruee

1'70

g)~~Ori" 0"il"C:l. ~;;SM rJo~~;o§ d~6Jr5d_ ~;fu~et: !:§1iSOS~ !l~~ l;t)~g,;6, Ej~6~t:lJ. OJ"~ e'S§6-;;SW"~& 6~ 2J"4)l'.)jfu ~;6.JgSt3"';o~ ti1J t2Sci1J6d_Ol1" @go j<SJg6Q:j"l'.)oc!.J'>CJ. rwtl'l.;Soe ij5;69.;:S~ S1'dmo ~<6J aJ"QeJJ ~;:S'yW~eJ'>:;)§Q:j"~g @O')so<l!'o ~!1l~05e.j~. ®::J ~t;;" ~~. ;fu;;D~et (i;~c<'g)s tl"5@.~ S"tSE11"et ;;S.;5yoalO :06,,):r>oj ~~ riJ5o£:>, oml:Psoro' ~e;uOe:lO :06.;)~oj ~le:§ ruee£:> ~~~ :s>§& ;a~~.

83. ·ea ~ 0')j0,.;S. ;;:n;;jce.l5~~ ~,,@~ s:le:§ ;fuol:. @rlJgQEO~~.

- -~-- V6 ~~ c

ea ~!le) www.leamenglish.org.uk <fuel! ®;:;;osCEOE.OI:l.

84. ~,cfu""Z,~,J£i @;fu6so& ~~o&dg;) lP'ill:Jdfie.l O~e.lcruo ~V6J!hs ~~~e5S:i 180') ®~el)n" O':J::J~clEt ~~ ®;fu5S" i:lod5XJ~ C"lit;v ~dSJo oru$e;e;,5 !:§g)J;A~~ 1995-99 c:5:l0£ S"e.lo& ~6J5n" ;6:oi:l~oEl. 19'97 ~d e!Joe:§q:.9o:5J ~cruo aruS&:loe:> .;)~~c&iiS.Z ~tl:Je:o& @~ §I'.)!&~~ ;s~o~oe,

85. @c:D~~Z, ~q: .;fu~ID~, 6~Ve e~ ~~, Cl9sJ~2 ~:O;6BJe @5, 1993.'r&S~ l;'l.;SJotai>S:i;;3 ~;6;;S c:D<5o aoe:§C"S1' <5omJ~ i>Sii)<'6 @C"~e.l:I l;;SdlJDelN"fD .i>S06) ~O"e.l ~<So& .;SJo~;;S !Jsoro ql

~jfu~~ @B~oa. t:Ia ~0')<5 e:§1'.);:J5 @C"diloV"o~ ~o~C"Ql)!3

~DSl')tb6 S"~. ~c:Dgs ~O"JE'dO ;:Soe @o'8"Vfu6 6J~. ~6~oe.'

86. @~e5"aof!' @;fuElsoO ~<5c;S~~d'iJt>& fie:> ~ soejrE <5JoE. ;6i:b0t:l. ~ (;J"S"SeJJ ~~J-~~o ~~~ www.beptune.cam ;fuoa btfugS a:Jt3"'CXlJ ..

c

!l£t~~o8

87. 2003 @ta:Jo 3~ ~l:SO"aJ"OJ& i'l1'). ~;;s.<58 ~S"t;;;g:n e~tJ~8 ~85 @eE 8~~ ~~QSElJ~& B~;:S ~eiW6J;S @<Jo.i'lo.

88.. ~6'§ ~Q"SlM l£S~tJ~ 2003 ®~tDO 15<5 !J~6e:i :t5dX.a:J~oe.

, e ~

e:O§eo ;:Jo6S"e.:lJ i1~;:S;;:)'>1iJ @, eJ"e.llion"~6~ ~f::r,&..t3"'. ~tD

ID Q~, ID<G,~ W". qr>o))~ 6@, d':inQ:j"i:JD6~ o))Q'jSL:605J&, ~e;s @O')lJ!p §;:S.§(!S~, eg~t:5,) @,@; -a;6C"~ a~o~ ,o5J~~tb~. oitiooc ~~~ ~'Od.0Q~, ~f:b ::SBD3''Jr506, oo.<iooC: i:l~5 ~::t>:;PJ,rJJ ;;!l:O>~ @iiI;>6~, o;;Joea ~ca§.6 a~s ~ejso, @I~.). ~~~ ~~~5,

171

tgloJoJ~CilJ<>5 ~cj.g 660', a3~OG ~or; i3A. ;;:J~, O"oYoo cf:;J, <S3"eY'0J" O)~O:l~~ W':s ~~6.:lVJ. ~ l!JSQi6<5l ~<6 ::l~.,)~6a ~~eS, eJi:1j5 QJ05 ;,:J.~eS www.herenowdu.de & 6rol&oSiSJ.}

89. CS"~.;)~ ~D:lJoe5' ooooeS, ~a~JQJ"Oc5 I!f)o/Z oS6eJ otJe!1di:Jr?J : cJ lJo"!JBt35 fS<OLe,,($~$, ~Sli1"-~e)', 1999.

9 o. O'SJog<3eS o:J <m~~, ~er.OJ)o iSl"l"'dD -a3"~~~. ~a~OJGtJ£;[)%)on 1!9055 lJi68~;a~, 4l"~..J:S ~ootj aed_ofi, 2001.

91. 5tS§ o?Sbo, &QotJs ~a~QJ"tJ~, o;fJ[)~ ;,56rff ~Q, 2004. 5tS2 SlSbo .D~e5 ;:S0'SJ0eil"~ QSjD<6oS ;:J~~~J. @~ojj'> 6;roii3"~. eJ"e;J iS6~e;J;fu, <tl'(¢e5 s6J~<6 -O~6JeJ;fu 20 <JooS~JO"vs> f?:n .. l5~6n'" @Qsd5J<6o i3ii3"~.,

92. a3V'6 @6 6'Z 6Y>g:o (;i)..IS.fIso)e9;fuDJ"~~ gli6~:S eJ"56-J. £0 e-s ID)Sj, 1992.

93. ~~~~"'c5Bonb5, /fJtJ ;vai!J~ e.JOc .;vaoc, ~ghqJa ~:O<5B\e5

G) .. ' a; N," N

C'oJ~, 2002, t~ ~CiBont.J~ ~~"C":o @S"60 ~ dDQ"6o ruBon;;)

c ~ ~

~;6~N" ~o!)E.)~oSiSJJ. ~~E.) S"oS~.} ®o6:loS?J. ~N"lq)_ C":osa

oS6oSJ"~oll" er:Jo..:S6o. &!lo6.:l~j ~d5"i6 ~N"':OJ O":os-a @~i6J.e5~iSc5:O P,J"~ot:SSJoC" ~~~on" l6b>ot:SoSv~<6 e!lCS~S~~ ~BoD ilY't'l0W"c,. •

94. a:octiJe)' ~i§3s [)~5, !Jt)on, e'lf't1.on @otJ e;t)on : ag~on ~..w: 515 .Jt:fJr§DS.;:S6 (j?§:5. a"t3~ (dSJJs) 2003.

eJ e'J ........ &!i

95. ~8 .DVctiJefu.J. m@eiJ.ill. a"~~ (ci1JJs) 2005., iBe5~, tSDo!l lJ~M, a"~~ (aIDs) 2003. ~15 ~Vd5:Jefu..J LID~e) ~:OoSBJe,d ~619dSJ ~~li> i&>col;'lo{);S ~0"'6:>c6. rfl'~6od' @J~5 ~ot1c6

eJ Q (;)

~~,,~p;()"C:J, e1"~ ~6"~ ~dS.:Ji6 ~<5"J~S <;i"oS.e?, ;;SoteJ"et

l?~;i1oet ~~g~~;oOi:J"~,

96. .D~e~ F\6, {$ v.;J$ soi7t>otJ.iDo~ fB~ iUt3 £(Jon. S"8S5 t;l~, 2001,

97. ;)e..~f5 @g5 bOaC, 6 ,,}~~o'i;.~ @~ tfJ/Z £t:Joll, t\.~.~5 $O~ sS, 1920.

98. ~e.:;: ~ eJJo6ifu5, 6 tJ.-s5 oes. ~q)8 ;5~fu.on, 2002.

172

99., a.Dc oJooltl~, L§ab~5 LiJo"9JDS.;;5[)(!;Jo : ti &0 @~ e3.j9) 81$ 6 ;;;r>a~ i3'>~(j, a~~ 1998. @"~;So ~!JltIc11J diu~DQ sor;~5J& so@~d e..~;;s.'S ~f1O;ar>eJd ~&rT" !llNd_6J. '~<6o CSJ<6 Q~o& .D~ o'Se~g<6<5lb~~C"oS~o ~~ :Oa:lOrl" i:SJ~:O~cfuo Sl)flei6 e:lo ifuBoe5 s,,&i§ .tl~o~, l~rl"6J,~ r6oi6~B ~.~ ~~E§Oi:S~l1J so~o&. ~eo~ :OC"JW'"~J~ ~K~.s~~<6J @6~.)~oi:Sose)lt:! sol!.»o8.,,'

100. If.ci.fj ~~9J, owj fB~ "tlrill: ~cfu~ @~ 6 ~ae.uJ(jef &~ tPefu ~~, 2000,

o

173

e,1"6eja~o& OSo~c6J6 @'t>G)..goe.mJ ;;me5m§"~ l§5OSoiS i&~~ooe.;5 g)-5.,') g)~e.'ld5Y>e:l t)"SD ~g)~ C!!J~o5:l;5 ~O~e:l~ wu. ~o& !'m~ ;5;:fu:f.-. IOSdlJof:?es& gJ"Ko71" ~ ~;;Jso 6Jo~e,6:J!:boEl.W". ~e..""o

--IJ.'Qt ~,..., -Jl C

e:le:Jo6o& ;6~"~e.:l06e~ D5.lJ~S0l1" @lO. ~~i\j'>4S'.!5', ~S. @..e~5, @lB. s. ~iJ<>Eivs:> i\J'> O:6~OJDQ"e;o @[)dSJ~~~o~~. t:;'>. >5OCOW ~[)R'l t3~;5 (\jQ OS6St!.J;:Sv~t)&cfuc N"s, is§?:r'iJ @l~4Sso e.:l~o{Joe..

ea ~;;J~o ~oe.oi$W":O§ (\J'> ~di:nebeD g)'iJCi3JcF\otSO'g)§ bexJll"

_,o ....J!j -tJ

so c:J6~be5 ~6J,~ ru.~;fuO"reo, sB ~oa~}5 ~6J5~.!3J~00"e3"e.'lf6JoE.

~s:> 'i6ocwg ;:J~S"60, @E'~~o v~OiYCll). N" g)CDS~ oJ~. 8). ;;JOrl'lJ ~ ~~~ o)5~eotS~odi, 6'!J§ ISJo~O~eD e.gr:.od' N"so& g1i~.,)~6J. ~ ~:3so ;;)))q)OSl?~ 6Jt>OS~e.:lJ;;S i3~i6 ;6to~;-SJ ~;6~i6oe.~~;6).

(;lD, 1Jd.~@Jrn, ;;om~Orl". ~ob~<:l.;6e5 s.:o~~e5 @l~ a5~aJoS.5 ~~e.:l<!3 ~60"eJ'>6:J, e6g6:l O"~~ ;;JOrl"e)s" ?c.SO"aJ"o,(j ;&§.Jg)al~ soe @l;:fu<:5@ @l:l<:5~ so~ @SiJ<>6B§§, ~cSO"eJ"6.:l& Soc:J6~JbO!3> 30e.;5 l~o&~ ~OJDeg, ~e5~8J"cSJe1 ~B ~oc~~~ 3oe.;:s oJ~. t!!l. t;S~Q!3:l, @S~60 s6'tfO @a~& t!so~;:Sd. 6 ~oeSJoo OSlf9SS, 305;5 a:OJ.Fj cSJo6&Fj O)y>~~, ~cSO"eJ"'6.:)(5s (i)oe5E:5 C;)~S~.J~ i:loe.!5 oJ~. oJ, ~!:bClS:l~ (;lD !:lcJ6~6Ul @rn~s,ot!.J:l~. OJD60eJ> N"~

i:l"e.J" @'l$.,)r:g6:>. •

(;lD S,bJoB;l ;;J;?;USe,n @orei6, @~5J, @~e5o ;fu~~, ;;J~S"0"e:>!:b ~i6.:l <60" ~6:J!3J~f6J. ID.e5.oseL-5oS:l& rJO ~;6:ro6,)e.:l iSSll) ~l)~~ i:$y;~ ;;3~o&' K6.,')OS66:loeJt>i6.:l. OY'~ N'" f$6'iSi6rn <:)o6:l!3J~~, "'" <,J"OY'os, tlor\)e;lO"6;).

• Q

174

.;). ego. a~J.!5 42

l!!i~o5£o e§"~0J" ~t6 42 &lIEXi" e;I~O 67,68

~ ~~l;l~ 135 l!!l~dD oocpEo 35

~eSe;lg soc5Do 32, 159

~e)e;lg Sl~~~ 15, 82, 156, 165 ®.fuvas,.. .;)B~B 35

"

®c;s,~~~ 41

~oess~ ~tfJ 1il!;lt$eS 70 @1gB ~eJ6 23

®tleS IDj6[:j GJOefSo)CUJ 74, 75, 77

ID .. ';).'iJ.~@OQ6.2

ID. !i')&~OOfZ"61

~5t0~~~ 22

1ilO8:!~.'iJ @oo~ 41

ro(9,;'oE: 6~J6 81

MAe.1J 64

@c:i-J!_;;JS",g 43, 44, 54

~.~.i6G§ 16

~ . .;)~.1!!I5.oo~ 119 ~,g),O"~;':; 72. 143, 164 ~EXi"e~ 35

so66 diuoon 107

.i;l"~ r;oo;fo 16 ~~~:'dD~ 34

~ . .;)~.~ 119 C~~iiJ"il~ 144, 173 a-oc ~~ e~ 167 .;)~,§~!5 69

.;)~~ Vl150

.;)g))tI E.§!5;;s~ 52, 162 ';)58,;:)5s;;S,!5: 78, 80 <\Jot,SO ~[)~ 62

~=Ei: i!ll@t\ 163 @SIDe) 95

!s. ~<ti5 i'J"d.Ua 55 CiS. ~o!§'IP'~~ 143 RVOOiJa 'OVID 16 !SCfua~~8:!e) tp>~ 86

'"

e3"2 ffi~ g)o 35,. 81, 165

F\CfuoOJ"~ ID~~ [)§" 18

c:i-8:!60 E>iN"dDo IW~ 49

c:i-8:!6o ~6" ;m,=~~.!5 l:lif 104, 168 oJ!'b eloJooM ~~ 119

~o I!!ie) I'IelV 22. 46-48

;;.oElOOf'FoO 41

llI.a~ ~Vd$)~-~5 70 ~s ~tll5 16 ~c.fut$)E ~~~ 43

~~iiJ"eS 41

8:!~ ~C!2 .i!.JotJ1> st

el~ ~~~ 10,89, 167 6"5 c~ 79, 165

t!?~~ ~f'\ef 97

OJM

S"l§~ ;::D~O"~ 120 SID510

~~ tJoOi\1"O"o:bca 5

~il e~ 59

[I~ d.fu i!.Joon 28, 15B

~.l!!Io.!b6::l~ 55

175