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Benjamin Bloom created this taxonomy for categorizing level of abstraction of questions that commonly occur in educational settings. The taxonomy provides a useful structure in which to categorize test questions, since professors will characteristically ask questions within particular levels, and if you can determine the levels of questions that will appear on your exams, you will be able to study using appropriate strategies. Competence
observation and recall of information knowledge of dates, events, places knowledge of major ideas mastery of subject matter Question Cues: list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, etc.
understanding information grasp meaning translate knowledge into new context interpret facts, compare, contrast order, group, infer causes predict consequences Question Cues: summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend
use information use methods, concepts, theories in new situations solve problems using required skills or knowledge Questions Cues: apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment, discover
create. presentations make choices based on reasoned argument verify value of evidence recognize subjectivity Question Cues assess. explain. infer Synthesis use old ideas to create new ones generalize from given facts relate knowledge from several areas predict. recommend. discriminate. separate. 2 . formulate. compare. classify. integrate. generalize. order. design. judge. measure. support. prepare. explain. convince. explain. compose.organization of parts recognition of hidden meanings identification of components Question Cues: analyze. compare. draw conclusions Question Cues: combine. conclude. arrange. rank. rewrite Evaluation compare and discriminate between ideas assess value of theories. grade. New York . test. rearrange. Green.) (1956) Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals: Handbook I. modify. cognitive domain. plan. select. substitute. divide. what if?. (Ed.S. connect. decide. Toronto: Longmans. summarize * Adapted from: Bloom. B. select. invent.
.. but using them all the time is..? Why is. Try to utilize higher order level of questions. what. translating from one medium to another. 3 . how .........? How is.. rules and principles How is. KNOWLEDGE o o o o o remembering. when... describing in one's own words. finding the underlying structure of a communication.....related to.according to.... organization and selection of facts and ideas Retell.? Describe COMPREHENSION o o o o interpreting..As teachers we tend to ask questions in the "knowledge" catagory 80% to 90% of the time. recalling identification and recall of information Who.? Classify. identifying motives. separation of a whole into component parts What are the parts or features of. recognizing. Below are the six question categories as defined by Bloom.an example of. These questions are not bad. Outline/diagram. use of facts. These questions require much more "brain power" and a more extensive and elaborate answer. where. APPLICATION o o o problem solving.significant? ANALYSIS o o o o subdividing something to show how it is put together. applying information to produce some result. memorizing.
...? What is the most important....? What ideas can you add to..? EVALUATION o o o making value decisions about issues.compare/contrast with..? How would you create/design a new....? What criteria would you use to assess.? 4 ..? What evidence can you list for..? What might happen if you combined.... How would you decide about...? Place the following in order of priority.. resolving controversies or differences of opinion. development of opinions... judgements or decisions Do you agree... original product that may be in verbal form or may be a physical object..? SYNTHESIS o o creating a unique.How does.? What solutions would you suggest for...? What do you think about.. combination of ideas to form a new whole What would you predict/infer from..
interpreting and extrapolating) state in your own words what does this mean give an example condense this paragraph state in one word what part doesn't fit what expectations are there what are they saying what seems to be what seems likely which statements support what restrictions would you add classify judge infer show indicate tell translate select match explain represent which are facts is this the same as select the best definition what would happen if explain what is happening explain what is meant read the graph. KNOWLEDGE (drawing out factual answers. ANALYSIS (breaking down into parts.Bloom's Taxonomy's Model Questions and Key Words Based on Bloom's Taxonomy. why explain identify the results of select tell what would happen tell how much change there would be IV. unfamiliar or have a new slant for students) predict what would happen if choose the best statements that apply judge the effects what would result tell how. where. table this represents is it valid that show in a graph. testing recall and recognition) who what why when where how match select describe define choose omit which one what is the best one how much what does it mean II. forms) distinguish identify what assumptions what is the function of what's fact. Developed and Expanded by John Maynard I. COMPREHENSION (translating. table demonstrate III. APPLICATION (to situations that are new. opinion what statement is relevant 5 . when.
not applicable what does author believe. better. inconsistencies appear which is more important. fallacies what persuasive technique V. SYNTHESIS (combining elements into a pattern not clearly there before) create tell make do choose develop how would you test propose an alternative solve the following plan design make up compose formulate how else would you state a rule VI. assume state the point of view of state the point of view of what ideas justify conclusion the least essential statements are what inconsistencies. EVALUATION (according to some set of criteria. consistencies. theme what literary form is used implicit in the statement is related to. appropriate find the errors compare 6 . and state why) appraise judge criticize defend what fallacies. moral. logical. extraneous to.what motive is there what conclusions make a distinction what is the premise what ideas apply what's the relationship between what's the main idea. valid.
. Illustrate what you think the main idea was. Make a facts chart... Make an acrostic....Knowledge Useful Verbs tell list describe relate locate write find state name Sample Question Stems What happened after.. Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence of events. Prepare a flow chart to illustrate the sequence of events.? Who was it that.? What differences exist between. Write a summary report of an event. Write and perform a play based on the story. Retell the story in your words.? Who spoke to....? What do you think could of happened next...? How many... Application Useful Verbs Sample Question Stems Potential activities and products 7 .. Paint a picture of some aspect you like......? Find the meaning of..? Potential activities and products Make a list of the main events..... Write a list of any pieces of information you can remember....? Can you provide a definition for. Comprehension Useful Verbs explain interpret outline discuss distinguish predict restate translate compare describe Sample Question Stems Can you write in your own words..? Which is true or false.. Make a timeline of events.? Who was the key character..? Who do you think.? Potential activities and products Cut out or draw pictures to show a particular event.? Describe what happened at.? What was the main idea..? Can you name the.. Make a colouring book. List all the ......? What is..? Can you tell why. Recite a poem.? Can you distinguish between...? Can you write a brief outline.? Can you provide an example of what you mean.... Make a chart showing.. in the story..
. Write a biography of the study person.. Paint a mural using the same materials.? From the information given.? I . Make up a puzzle game suing the ideas from the study area... for others. can you develop a set of instructions about.. changes occur? Can you compare your . Analysis Useful Verbs analyse distinguish examine compare contrast investigate categorise identify explain separate advertise Sample Question Stems Which events could have happened....? What are some of the problems of..? What was the turning point in the game? What was the problem Potential activities and products Design a questionnaire to gather information.? Can you apply the method used to some experience of your own.. Make all the arrangements and record the steps needed...solve show use illustrate construct complete examine classify Do you know another instance where.. with that presented in. Write a textbook about.? Can you explain what must have happened when.. Make a paper-mache map to include relevant information about an event... Make a scrapbook about the areas of study... happened........ Make a family tree showing relationships.? How is . similar to . Dress a doll in national costume....? What was the underlying theme of.? Construct a model to demonstrate how it will work... colour and 8 . Put on a play about the study area.? Would this information be useful if you had a .? Can you group by characteristics such as..? Can you distinguish between.? Could this have happened in.. what might the ending have been? How was this similar to.. Conduct an investigation to produce information to support a view.. Take a collection of photographs to demonstrate a particular point.... Construct a graph to illustrate selected information..? What do you see as other possible outcomes? Why did .. Review a work of art in terms of form. Make a clay model of an item in the material..? What were some of the motives behind. Prepare a report about the area of study.? What factors would you change if.? What questions would you ask of. Make a diorama to illustrate an important event. Make a flow chart to show the critical stages. Make a jigsaw puzzle... Arrange a party. Write a commercial to sell a new product... Design a market strategy for your product using a known strategy as a model.
.. puppet show. Potential activities and products Prepare a list of criteria to judge a . or magazine cover for. role play..? Make up a new language code and write material suing it..? texture.. Convince others.. advising on changes needed at. Judge the value of..? If you had access to all resources how would you deal with. to . Indicate priority and ratings... song or pantomime about... Conduct a debate about an issue of special interest.. 9 ..? Can you write a new recipe for a tasty dish? can you develop a proposal which would. eg "Learning at School. play.with...... Design a building to house your study...... Potential activities and products Invent a machine to do a specific task. Sell an idea. Compose a rhythm or put new words to a known melody.? Why not compose a song about.....? How many ways can you.. Evaluation Useful Verbs judge select choose decide justify debate verify argue recommend assess discuss rate prioritise Sample Question Stems Is there a better solution to.? Why don't you devise your own way to deal with.... Write a half yearly report.. Create a new product.. Write about your feelings in relation to.. Synthesis Useful Verbs create invent compose predict plan construct design imagine propose devise formulate Sample Question Stems Can you design a ." Write a letter to ..? What changes to .? Can you create new and unusual uses for... Can you defend your position about.. show.? Can you see a possible solution to. Give it a name and plan a marketing campaign..? Do you think .... is a good or a bad thing? How would you have handled. Devise a way to. Write a TV show.. Form a panel to discuss views.? Design a record....? What would happen if. Make a booklet about 5 rules you see as important.. book..
? What do you think about..... Do you believe? Are you a .? How effective are..determine would you Prepare a case to present your recommend? view about.. person? How would you feel if....? 10 ..
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