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460

RADAR ENGINEERING

NOTES

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 1

RADAR ENGINEERING

1. Introduction

- Radar is an electromagnetic system for the detection and location of objects

(RAdio Detection And Ranging)

- radar operates by transmitting a particular type of waveform and detecting the nature of the signals

reﬂected back from objects

- radar can not resolve detail or colour as well as the human eye (an optical frequency passive scatterometer)

- radar can see in conditions which do not permit the eye to see such as darkness, haze, rain, smoke

- radar can also measure the distances to objects

- the elemental radar system consists of a transmitter unit, an antenna for emitting electromagnetic radiation

and receiving the echo, an energy detecting receiver and a processor.

- a portion of the transmitted signal is intercepted by a reﬂecting object (target) and is reradiated in all direc-

tions

- the antenna collects the returned energy in the backscatter direction and delivers it to the receiver

- the distance to the receiver is determined by measuring the time taken for the electromagnetic signal to

travel to the target and back.

- the direction of the target is determined by the angle of arrival (AOA) of the reﬂected signal.

- also if there is relative motion between the radar and the target, there is a shift in frequency of the reﬂected

signal (Doppler effect) which is a measure of the radial component of the relative velocity. This can be used

to distinguish between moving targets and stationary ones.

-Radar was ﬁrst developed to warn of the approach of hostile aircraft and for directing anti aircraft weapons.

- modern radars can provide AOA, Doppler, MTI etc.

- the simplest radar waveformis a train of narrow (0.1µs to 10µs) rectangular pulses modulating a sinusoidal

carrier

- the distance to the target is determined fromthe time T

R

taken by the pulse to travel to the target and return

and from the knowledge that electromagnetic energy travels at the speed of light thus:

or R(km)=0.15T

R

(µs)

or R(nm)=0.081T

R

(µs)

R

cT

R

2

---------- =

97.460 PART II RADAR

2 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

- once the pulse is transmitted by the radar a sufﬁcient length of time must elapse before the next pulse to

allow echoes from targets at the maximum range to be detected.

- thus the maximum rate at which pulses can be transmitted is determined by the maximum range at which

targets are expected. This rate is called the pulse repetition rate (PRF)

- if the PRF is too high echo signals from some targets may arrive after the transmission of the next pulse.

This leads to ambiguous range measurements. Such pulses are called second time around pulses

- the range beyond which second time around pulses occur is called the maximum unambiguous range

where f

P

is the PRF in Hz.

- more advanced signal waveforms then the above are often used

-e.g. the carrier may be frequency modulated (FMor chirp) or phase modulated (pseudorandombiphase) too

permit the echo signals to be compressed in time after reception.

- this achieves high range resolution without the need for short pulses and hence allows the use of the higher

energy of longer pulses

- this technique is called pulse compression

-also CW waveforms can be used by taking advantage of the Doppler shift to separate the received echo

from the transmitted signal. Note: unmodulated CW waveforms do not permit the measurement of range.

The Radar Range Equation

- the radar range equation relates the range of the radar to the characteristics of the transmitter, receiver,

antenna, target and the environment.

- it is used as a tool to help in specifying radar subsystem speciﬁcations in the design phase of a program.

-If the transmitter delivers P

T

Watts into an isotropic antenna, then the power density (W/m

2

) at a distance

R from the radar is

- here the 4πR

2

represents the surface area of the sphere at distance R

- radars employ directional antennas to channel the radiated power P

t

in a particular direction

- the gain G of an antenna is the measure of the increased power radiated in the direction of the target, com-

pared to the power that would have been radiated from an isotropic antenna

R

UNAMBIG

c

2 f

P

---------- =

P

T

4πR

2

-------------

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 3

∴ Power density from a directional antenna =

- the target intercepts a portion of the incident power and redirects it in various directions

- the measure of the amount of incident power by the target and redirected back in the direction of the radar

is called the cross section σ.

Hence the Power density of the echo signal at the radar=

Note: the radar cross-section σ has the units of area. It can be thought of as the size of the target as seen by

the radar.

- the receiving antenna effectively intercepts the power of the echo signal at the radar over a certain area

called the effective area A

e

- Since the power density (Watts/m

2

) is intercepted across an area A

e

, the power delivered to the receiver is

- Now the maximum range R

max

is the distance beyond which the target cannot be detected due to insufﬁ-

cient received power P

r

The minimum power which the receiver can detect is called the minimum detect-

able signal S

min

.

Setting P

r

= S

min

and rearranging the above equation gives

Note here that we have both the antenna gain on transmit and its effective area on receive. These are related

by:

As long as the radar uses the same antenna for transmission and reception we have

or

P

t

G

4πR

2

-------------

P

t

G

4πR

2

-------------

σ

4πR

2

-------------

P

r

P

t

G

4πR

2

-------------

σ

4πR

2

------------- A

e

=

R

max

P

t

GA

e

σ

4π ( )

2

S

min

-------------------------

1

4

---

=

G

4π

------

A

e

λ

2

------ =

R

max

P

t

G

2

λ

2

σ

4π ( )

3

S

min

-------------------------

1

4

---

=

97.460 PART II RADAR

4 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

Example:

Use the radar range equation to determine the required transmit power for the TRACS radar given

P

rmin

=10

-13

Watts

G=2000

λ=0.23m

PRF=524

σ=2.0m

2

Now

From

= 3.1 MW

Note 1: these three forms of the equation for R

max

vary with different powers of λ. This results fromimplicit

assumptions about the independence of G or A

e

from λ.

Note 2: the introduction of additional constraints (such as the requirement to scan a speciﬁc volume of space

in a given time) can yield other λ dependence.

Note 3: The observed maximum range is often much smaller than that predicted from the above equation

due to the exclusion of factors such as rainfall attenuation, clutter, noise ﬁgure etc.

R

max

P

t

A

e

2

σ

4πλ

2

S

min

------------------------

1

4

---

=

R

max

c

PRF

------------ =

P

t

P

r

4π ( )

3

R

4

G

2

λ

2

PRF ( )

4

σ

------------------------------------- =

P

t

10

13 –

( ) 4π ( )

3 3 10

8

( )

2

----------------

. ,

| `

4

2000 ( )

2

0.23

˙˙

( )

2

524 ( )

4

2.0 ( )

------------------------------------------------------------------- =

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 5

a) transmitter may be an oscillator (magnetron) that is pulsed on and off by a modulator to generate the pulse

train.

- the magnetron is the most widely used oscillator

- typical power required to detect a target at 200 NM is MW peak power and several kW average

power

- typical pulse lengths are several µs

- typical PRFs are several hundreds of pulses per second

b) The waveform travels to the antenna where it is radiated

c) The receiver must be protected fromdamage resulting fromthe high power of the transmitter. This is done

by the duplexer.

- duplexer also channels the return echo signals to the receiver and not to the transmitter

- duplexer consists of 2 gas discharge tubes called the TR (transmit/receive) and the and an ATR

(anti transmit/receive) cell

- The TR protects the receiver during transmission and the ATR directs the echo to the receiver dur-

ing reception.

-solid state ferrite circulators and receiver protectors with gas plasma (radioactive keep alive) tubes

are also used in duplexers

c) The receiver is usually a superheterodyne type. The LNA is not always desirable. Although it provides

better sensitivity, it reduces the dynamic range of operation of the mixer. A receiver with just a mixer front

end has greater dynamic range, is less susceptible to overload and is less vulnerable to electronic interfer-

ence

WAVEGUIDE

PRESSURIZER

DUPLEXER

TRANSMITTER

(HPA)

LNA

IF STRIP

2nd

DETECTOR

VIDEO

AMP

DISPLAY

(PROCESSOR)

X

~

BITE

POWER

SUPPLIES

TIMING

ELECTRONICS

RADAR BLOCK DIAGRAM AND OPERATION

(LOW NOISE

AMPLIFIER)

97.460 PART II RADAR

6 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

.

d) The mixer and Local Oscillator (LO) convert the RF frequency to the IF frequency.

- the IF is typically 300MHz, 140Mz, 60 MHz, 30 MHz with bandwidths of 1 MHz to 10 MHz.

- the IF strip should be designed to give a matched ﬁlter output. This requires its H(f) to maximize

the signal to noise power ratio at the output.

- this occurs if the |H(f)| (magnitude of the frequency response of the IF strip is equal to the signal

spectrum of the echo signal |S(f)|, and the ARG(H(f)) (phase of the frequency response) is the neg-

ative of the ARG(S(f)).

X

~

G

EFFECT OF LNA ON DYNAMIC RANGE

X

~

1dB compression

S

i min

DR

S

i max

Noise Floor

LS

i max

LS

i min

DR

1dB compression, mixer

S

i min

S

i max

Noise Floor

GN

i

+N

e

N

i S

i min

G

1dB compression, mixer

S

i max

G

S

i max

GL

Noise Floor

Noise Floor

L(GN

i

+N

e

)

S

i min

GL

DR

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 7

i.e. H(f) and S(f) should be complex conjugates

- for radar with rectangular pulses, a conventional IF ﬁlter characteristic approximates a matched

ﬁlter if its bandwidth B and the pulse width τ satisfy the relationship

e) The pulse modulation is extracted by the second detector and ampliﬁed by video ampliﬁers to levels at

which they can be displayed (or A to D’d to a digital processor)

f) The display is usually a CRT; timing signals are applied to the display to provide zero range information.

Angle information is supplied from the pointing direction of the antenna.

- the most common type of CRT display is the plan position indicator (PPI) which maps the loca-

tion of the target in azimuth and range in polar coordinates

- the PPI is intensity modulated by the amplitude of the receiver output and the CRT electron beam

sweeps outward from the centre corresponding to range.

- Also the beam rotates in angle in synchronization with the antenna pointing angle.

- A B scope display uses rectangular coordinates to display range vs angle i.e. the x axis is angle

and the y axis is range.

- since both the PPI and B scopes use intensity modulation the dynamic range is limited

- An A scope plots target echo amplitude vs range on rectangular coordinates for some ﬁxed direc-

tion. It is used primarily for tracking radar applications than for surveillance radar.

g) The simple diagram has left out many details such as

- AFC to compensate the receiver automatically for changes in the transmitter

- AGC

- Circuits in the receiver to reduce interference from other radars

- rotary joints in the transmission lines to allow for movement of the antenna

- MTI (moving target indicator) circuits to discriminate between moving targets and unwanted sta-

tionary targets

- pulse compression to achieve the resolution beneﬁts of a short pulse but with the energy beneﬁts

of a long pulse.

- monopulse tracking circuits for sensing the angular location of a moving target and allowing the

antenna to lock on and track the target automatically

- monitoring devices to monitor transmitter pulse shape, power load and receiver sensitivity

- built in test equipment (BITE) for locating equipment failures so that faulty circuits can be

replaced quickly

Bτ 1 ≈

97.460 PART II RADAR

8 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

h) Instead of displaying the raw video output directly on the CRT, it might be digitized and processed and

then displayed. This consists of:

- quantizing the echo level at range-azimuth resolution cells

- adding (integrating) the echo level in each cell

- establishing a threshold level that permits only the strong outputs due to target echoes to pass

while rejecting noise

- maintaining the tracks (trajectories) of each target

- displaying the processed information

This process is called automatic tracking and detection (ATD) in a surveillance radar

i) Antennas

- the most common form of radar antenna is a reﬂector with parabolic shape, fed from a point

source (horn) at its focus

- the beam is scanned in space by mechanically pointing the antenna

- phased array antennas are sometimes used. Her the beam is scanned by varying the phase of the

array elements electrically

Radar Frequencies

- most radars operate between 220 MHz and 35 Ghz

- special purpose radars operate out side of this range

Skywave HF-OTH (over the horizon) can operate as low as 4 MHz

Groundwave HF radars operate as low as 2 MHz

millimeter radars operate up to 95 GHz

laser radars (lidars) operate in IR and visible spectrum

The radar frequency letter-band nomenclature is shown in the table. Note that the frequency assign-

ment to the latter band radar (e.g. L band radar) is much smaller than the complete range of fre-

quencies assigned to the letter band

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 9

Applications of Radar

General

- ground-based radar is applied chieﬂy to the detection, location and tracking of aircraft of space targets

- shipborne radar is used as a navigation aid and safety device to locate buoys, shorelines and other ships. it

is also used to observe aircraft

- airborne radar is used to detect other aircraft, ships and land vehicles. It is also used for mapping of terrain

and avoidance of thunderstorms and terrain.

- spaceborne radar is used for the remote sensing of terrain and sea, and for rendezvous/docking.

Major Applications

1. Air Trafﬁc Control

- used to provide air trafﬁc controllers with position and other information on aircraft ﬂying within

their area of responsibility (airways and in the vicinity of airports)

- high resolution radar is used at large airports to monitor aircraft and ground vehicles on the run-

ways, taxiways and ramps.

Table 1:

Band

Designation

Nominal

Frequency Range

Speciﬁc radar bands

based on ITU assignments

for region 2

HF 3-30 MHz

VHF 30-300 MHz 138-144 MHz

216-225 MHz

UHF 300-1000 MHz 420-450 MHz

890-942 MHz

L 1000 - 2000 MHz 1215-1400 MHz

S 2000 - 4000 MHz 2300 - 2500 MHz

2700 - 3700 MHz

K

u

12 - 18 GHz 13.4 - 14.0 GHz

15.7 - 17.7 GHz

K 18 - 27 GHz 24.05 - 24.25 GHz

K

a

40 - 300 GHz 33.4 - 36.0 GHz

mm 40 - 300 GHz

97.460 PART II RADAR

10 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

- GCA (ground controlled approach) or PAR (precision approach radar) provides an operator with

high accuracy aircraft position information in both the vertical and horizontal. The operator uses

this information to guide the aircraft to a landing in bad weather.

- MLS (microwave landing system) and ATC radar beacon systems are based on radar technology

2. Air Navigation

- weather avoidance radar is used on aircraft to detect and display areas of heavy precipitation and

turbulence.

- terrain avoidance and terrain following radar (primarily military)

- radio altimeter (FM/CW or pulse)

- doppler navigator

- ground mapping radar of moderate resolution sometimes used for navigation

3. Ship Safety

- these are one of the least expensive, most reliable and largest applications of radar

- detecting other craft and buoys to avoid collision

- automatic detection and tracking equipment (also called plot extractors) are available with these

radars for collision avoidance

- shore based radars of moderate resolution are used fromharbour surveillance and as an aid to nav-

igation

4. Space

- radars are used for rendezvous and docking and was used for landing on the moon

- large ground based radars are used for detection and tracking of satellites

- satellite-borne radars are used for remote sensing (SAR, synthetic aperture radar)

5. Remote Sensing

- used for sensing geophysical objects (the environment)

- radar astronomy - to probe the moon and planets

- ionospheric sounder (used to determine the best frequency to use for HF communications)

- earth resources monitoring radars measure and map sea conditions, water resources, ice cover,

agricultural land use, forest conditions, geological formations, environmental pollution

(Synthetic Aperture Radar, SAR and Side Looking Airborne Radar SLAR)

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 11

6. Law Enforcement

- automobile speed radars

- intrusion alarm systems

7. Military

- surveillance

- navigation

- ﬁre control and guidance of weapons

2. The Radar Range Equation

From page 3 we have

(2.1)

All of the parameters are controllable by the radar designer except for the target cross section σ.

In practice the simple range equation does not predict range performance accurately. The actual

range may be only half of that predicted.

This due, in part, to the failure to include various losses

It is also due to the statistical nature of several parameters such as S

min

, σ, and propagation losses

Because of the statistical nature of these parameters, the range is described by the probability that

the radar will detect a certain type of target at a certain distance.

2.2 Minimum detectable Signal

The ability of the radar receiver to detect a weak echo is limited by the noise energy that occupies

the same spectrum as the signal

Detection is based on establishing a threshold level at the output of the receiver.

If the receiver output exceeds the threshold, a signal is assumed to be present

R

max

P

t

A

e

2

σ

4πλ

2

S

min

------------------------

1

4

---

=

97.460 PART II RADAR

12 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

A sample detected envelope is show above

- a large signal is detected at A

The threshold must be adjusted so that weak signals are detected, but not so low that noise peaks

cross the threshold and give a false target.

The voltage envelope in the ﬁgure is usually from a matched ﬁlter receiver. A matched ﬁlter maxi-

mizes the output peak signal to average noise power level

A matched ﬁlter has a frequency response which is proportional to the complex conjugate of the

signal spectrum

The output of a matched ﬁlter is the cross correlation between the received waveform and the a rep-

lica of the transmitted waveform.

The shape of the input waveform to the matched ﬁlter is not preserved.

In the ﬁgure, two signals are present at point B and C. The noise voltage at point B is large enough

so that the combined signal and noise cross the threshold. The presence of noise sometimes

enhances the detection of weak signals.

At point C the noise is not large enough and the signal is lost.

The selection of the proper threshold is a compromise which depends on how important it is if a

mistake is made by (1) failing to recognize a signal (probability of a miss) or by (2) falsely indicat-

ing the presence of a signal (probability of a false alarm)

Note: threshold selection can be made by an operator viewing a CRT display. Here the threshold is

difﬁcult to predict and may not remain ﬁxed in time.

The SNR necessary to provide adequate detection must be determined before the minimum detect-

able signal S

min

can be computed.

Although detection decision is done at the video output, it is easier to consider maximizing the

SNR at the output of the IF strip (before detection)

This is because the receiver is linear up to this point

It has been shown that maximizing SNR at the output of the IF is equivalent to maximizing the

video output.

Threshold

RMS value

of noise

A

B C

t

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 13

Receiver Noise

Noise is unwanted EMenergy which interferes with the ability of the receiver to detect wanted sig-

nals.

Noise may be generated in the receiver or may enter the receiver via the antenna

One component of noise which is generated in the receiver is thermal (or Johnson) noise.

Noise power (Watts) = kTB

n

where k = Boltzmann’s constant =1.38 x 10

-23

J/deg

T = degrees Kelvin

B

n

= noise bandwidth

Note: B

n

is not the 3 dB bandwidth but is given by:

here f

0

is the frequency of maximum response

i.e. B

n

is the width of an ideal rectangular ﬁlter whose response has the same area as the

ﬁlter or ampliﬁer in question

Note: for many radars B

n

is approximately equal to the 3 dB bandwidth (which is easier to

determine)

Note: a receiver with a reactive input (e.g. a parametric ampliﬁer) need not have any ohmic loss and

hence all thermal noise is due to the antenna and transmission line preceding the antenna.

The noise power in a practical receiver is often greater than can be accounted for by thermal noise.

This additional noise is created by other mechanisms than thermal agitation.

The total noise can be considered to be equal to thermal noise power from an ideal receiver multi-

plied by a factor called the noise ﬁgure F

n

(sometimes NF)

= Noise out of a practical receiver/Noise out of an ideal receiver at T

0

here G

a

is the gain of the receiver

Note: the receiver bandwidth B

n

is that of the IF ampliﬁer in most receivers

Since and

B

n

H f ( )

2

f d

∞ –

∞

∫

H f

0

( )

2

--------------------------------- =

F

n

N

0

kT

0

B

n

( )G

a

---------------------------- =

G

a

S

o

S

i

----- = N

i

kT

0

B

n

=

97.460 PART II RADAR

14 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

we have

rearranging gives:

Now S

min

is that value of S

i

corresponding to the minimum output SNR: (S

o

/N

o

) necessary for

detection

hence (2.6)

substituting 2.6 into the radar range equation (eqn 2.1) yields

(2.7)

Probability Density Function (PDF)

Consider the variable x as representing a typical measured value of a random process such as a

noise voltage.

divide the continuous range of values of x into small equal segments of length ∆x, and count the

number of times that x falls into each interval

The PDF p(x) is than deﬁned as:

p(x) = lim (No of values in range ∆x at x)

∆x → 0 N

N → ∞

where N is the total number of values

The probability that a particular measured value lies within width dx centred at x is p(x)dx

also the probability that a value lies between x

1

and x

2

is

Note: PDF is always positive by deﬁnition

F

n

S

i

N

i

⁄

S

0

N

0

⁄

----------------- =

S

i

kT

0

B

n

F

n

S

o

N

0

------------------------------ =

S

min

kT

0

B

n

F

n

S

0

N

0

-------

. ,

| `

min

=

R

max

4

P

t

GA

e

σ

4π ( )

2

kT

0

B

n

F

n

S

0

N

0

⁄ ( )

min

-------------------------------------------------------------------- =

P x

1

x x

2

< < ( ) p x ( ) x d

x

1

x

2

∫

=

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 15

also

The average value of a variable function Φ(x) of a random variable x is:

hence the average value, or mean of x is

also the mean square value is

m

1

and m

2

are called the ﬁrst and second moments of the random variable x.

Note: if x represents current, then m

1

is the DC component and m

2

multiplied by the resistance

gives the mean power.

Variance is deﬁned as

=m

2

- m

2

1

Variance is also called the second central moment

if x represents current, µ

2

multiplied by the resistance gives the mean power of the AC component.

standard deviation, σ is deﬁned as the square root of the variance. This is the RMS value of the AC

component.

Uniform Probability Density Function

¹ K, a < x < a + b

p(x)= '

¹ 0 x < a, x > a+b

example of a uniform probability distribution is the phase of a random sine wave relative

to a particular origin of time.

p x ( ) x d

∞ –

∞

∫

1 =

Φ x ( ) 〈 〉

ave

Φ x ( ) p x ( ) x d

∞ –

∞

∫

=

x 〈 〉

ave

xp x ( ) x d

∞ –

∞

∫

m

1

= =

x

2

〈 〉

ave

x

2

p x ( ) x d

∞ –

∞

∫

m

2

= =

µ

2

σ

2

x m

1

– ( )

2

〈 〉

ave

x m

1

– ( )

2

p x ( ) x d

∞ –

∞

∫

= = =

97.460 PART II RADAR

16 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

the constant K is found from the following

hence for the phase of a random sine wave

the average value for a uniform PDF

the mean squared value is

the variance is

the standard deviation is

p x ( ) x d

∞ –

∞

∫

K x d

a

a b + ( )

∫

1 K ⇒

1

b

--- = = =

K

1

2π

------ =

m

1

1

b

---

. ,

| `

x x d

a

a b + ( )

∫

a

b

2

--- + = =

a

a +b

1/b

m

1

x

0

m

2

1

b

---

. ,

| `

x

2

x d

a

a b + ( )

∫

a

2

ab

b

2

3

----- + + = =

m

2

m

1

2

–

b

2

12

------ =

σ

b

2 3

---------- =

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 17

Gaussian (Normal) PDF)

an example of normal PDF is thermal noise

we have for the Normal PDF

m

1

= x

0

m

2

= x

2

0

+ σ

2

σ

2

= m

2

- m

1

2

Central Limit Theorem:

The PDF of the sum of a large number of independent, identically distributed random

quantities approaches the Normal PDF regardless of what the individual distribution might

be, provided that the contribution of any one quantity is not comparable with the resultant

of all the others

For the Normal distribution, no matter how large a value of x we may choose, there is always a

ﬁnite probability of ﬁnding a greater value

Hence if noise at the input to a threshold detector is normally distributed there is always a chance

for a false alarm.

Rayleigh PDF

x ≥ 0

examples of a Rayleigh PDF are the envelope of noise output from a narrowband band pass ﬁlter

(IF ﬁlter in superheterodyne receiver), also the cross section ﬂuctuations of certain types of targets

and also many kinds of clutter and weather echoes.

p x ( )

1

2πσ

2

-----------------

x x

0

– ( )

2

–

2σ

2

-------------------------

¹ ¹

' '

¹ ¹

exp =

x

0

1/√2πσ

x

p(x)

p x ( )

x

x

2

〈 〉

ave

------------------

x

2

2 x

2

〈 〉

ave

---------------------- –

. ,

| `

exp =

97.460 PART II RADAR

18 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

here

if x

2

is replaced by w where w represents power

and <x

2

>

ave

is replaced by w

0

where w

0

represents average power

then w ≥ 0

this is called the exponential PDF or the Rayleigh Power PDF

here σ = w

0

The Probability Distribution Function

in some cases the distribution function is easier to obtain from experiments

SNR

here we will obtain the SNR at the output of the IF ampliﬁer necessary to achieve a speciﬁc proba-

bility of detection without exceeding a speciﬁed probability of false alarm.

the output SNR is then substituted into equation 2.6 to obtain S

min

, the minimum detectable signal

at the receiver input

p(x)

x

σ m

1

4

π

--- 1 – =

p w ( )

1

w

0

------

w

w

0

------ –

. ,

| `

exp =

p(x)

x

p x ( ) p x ( ) x d

∞ –

x

∫

=

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 19

here B

V

> B

IF

/2 in order to pass all video modulation

the envelope detector may be either a square law or linear detector

The noise entering the IF ampliﬁer is Gaussian

here ψ

0

is the variance, the mean value is zero

When this Gaussian noise is passed through the narrow band IF strip, the PDF of the envelope of

the noise is Rayleigh PDF

here R is the amplitude of the envelope of the ﬁlter output

now the probability that the noise voltage envelope will exceed a voltage threshold V

T

(false alarm)

is:

(2.24)

The average time interval between crossings of the threshold by noise alone is the false alarm time

T

fa

here T

k

is the time between crossings of the threshold by noise when the slope of the crossing is

positive

Now the false alarm probability P

fa

is also given by the ratio of the time that the envelope is above

the threshold to the total time

IF

Ampliﬁer

Video

Ampliﬁer

B

IF

B

V

second

detector

p x ( )

1

2πψ

0

------------------

v

2

2ψ

0

----------

¹ ¹

' '

¹ ¹

exp =

p R ( )

R

ψ

0

------

R

2

2ψ

0

---------- – –

. ,

| `

exp =

p V

T

R ∞ < < ( )

R

ψ

0

------

V

T

∞

∫

R

2

2ψ

0

---------- – –

. ,

| `

dR exp

V

T

2

2ψ

0

---------- – –

. ,

| `

exp P

fa

= = =

T

fa

1

N

----

N ∞ →

lim T

k

k 1 =

N

∑

=

97.460 PART II RADAR

20 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

(2.25

Where since the average duration of a noise pulse is approximately the reciprocal of the

bandwidth.

equating 2.24 and 2.25

P

fa

t

k

k 1 =

N

∑

T

k

k 1 =

N

∑

-----------------

t

k

〈 〉

ave

T

k

〈 〉

ave

-------------------

1

T

fa

B

IF

------------------ = = =

V

T

t

k

t

k+1

T

k

T

k+1

t

k

〈 〉

1

B

IF

--------- ≈

T

fa

1

B

IF

---------

V

T

2

2ψ

0

----------

. ,

| `

exp =

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 21

Example:

for B

IF

= 1 MHz and required false alarm rate of 15 minutes, equation 2.25 gives

Note: the false alarm probabilities of practical radars are quite small. This is due to their narrow

bandwidth

Note: False alarm time T

fa

is very sensitive to variations in the threshold level V

T

due to the expo-

nential relationship.

Example: for B

IF

= 1 MHz we have the following:

Note: If the receiver is gated off for part of the time (e.g. during transmission interval) the P

fa

will

be increased by the fraction of the time that the receiver is not on. This assumes that T

fa

remains

constant. The effect is usually negligible.

We now consider a sine wave signal of amplitude A present along with the noise at the input to the

IF strip.

Here the output of the envelope detector has a Rice PDF which is given by:

2.27

where I

0

(Z) is the modiﬁed Bessel function of zero order and argument Z

now

for Z large

Note: when A = 0 equation 2.27 reduces to the PDF from noise alone

The probability of detection P

d

is the probability that the envelope will exceed V

T

V

T

2

/2ψ

0

T

fa

12.95 dB 6 min

14.72 dB 10,000 hours

P

fa

1

15 ( ) 60 ( ) 10

6

⋅ ⋅

--------------------------------------- 1.11x10

9 –

= =

p R ( )

R

ψ

0

------

R

2

A

2

+

2ψ

0

------------------- –

. ,

| `

I

0

RA

ψ

0

-------

. ,

| `

exp =

I

0

Z ( )

e

Z

2πZ

-------------- 1

1

8Z

------- … + +

. ,

| `

≈

P

d

p R ( ) R d

V

T

∞

∫

=

97.460 PART II RADAR

22 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

for the conditions RA/ψ

0

>> 1 and A >> |R-A|

2.29

Note: the area represents the probability of detection

the area represents the probability of false alarm

if P

fa

is decreased by moving V

T

then P

d

is also decreased

In equation 2.29 we can make the following substitutions:

and

(eqn 2.24)

- with these substitutions, Fig 2.7 is plotted

The performance speciﬁcation is P

fa

and P

d

and Fig. 2.7 is used to determine the S/N at the receiver

output and the S

min

at the receiver input

Note: this S/N is for a single radar pulse

P

d

1

2

--- 1 er f

V

T

A –

2ψ

0

----------------- ( ) –

V

T

A – ( )

2

2ψ

0

( ) ⁄

2 2πA ψ

0

( ) ⁄

-------------------------------------------- –

. ,

| `

exp 1

V

T

4A

-------

1 V

T

A – ( )

2

ψ

0

⁄ +

8A

2

( ) ψ

0

⁄

--------------------------------------------- +

. ,

| `

– + =

p(R)

V

T

/√ψ

0

R/√ψ

0

A

ψ

0

-----------

2S

N

------ =

V

T

2

2ψ

0

----------

1

P

fa

--------- ln =

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 23

Note: S/N required is high even for P

d

= 0.5. This is due to the requirement for the P

fa

to be small.

A change in S/N of 3.4 dB can change the P

d

from 0.999 to 0.5. When a target cross section ﬂuctu-

ates, the change in S/N is much greater than this

S/N required for detection is not a sensitive function of false alarm time

2.5 Integration of Radar pulses

Fig. 2.7 applies for a single pulse only

- however many pulses are usually returned from any particular target and can be used to improve

detection

97.460 PART II RADAR

24 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

- the number of pulses n

B

as the antenna scans is

where θ

B

= antenna beam width (deg)

f

P

= PRF (Hz)

= antenna scan rate (deg/sec)

ω

m

= antenna scan rate (rpm)

Example: For a ground based search radar having

θ

B

= 1.5 ˚

f

P

= 300 Hz

= 30˚/s (ω

m

= 5 rpm)

determine the number of hits from a point target in each scan

n

B

= 15

- The process of summing radar echoes to improve detection is called integration

- all integration techniques employ a storage device

- the simplest integration method is the CRT display combined with the integrating proper-

ties of the eye and brain of the operator.

- for electronic integration, the function can be accomplished in the receiver either before

the second detector (in the IF) or after the second detector (in the video)

- integration before detection is called predetection or coherent detection

- integration after detection is called postdetection or noncoherent integration

- predetection integration requires the phase of the echo signal to be preserved

- postdetection integration can not preserve RF phase

- for predetection SNR

integrated

= n SNR

i

where SNR

i

is the SNR for a single pulse

and n is the number of pulses integrated

- for postdetection, the integrated SNR is less than the above since some of the energy is

converted to noise in the nonlinear second detector

- postdetection integration, however, is easier to implement

- integration efﬁciency is deﬁned as

where = value of SNR of a single pulse required to produce a given probability of detec-

tion

n

B

θ

B

f

P

θ

˙

S

-------------

θ

B

f

P

6ω

m

------------- = =

θ

˙

S

θ

˙

S

E

i

n ( )

S N ⁄ ( )

1

n S N ⁄ ( )

n

---------------------- =

S N ⁄ ( )

1

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 25

and is the value of SNR per pulse required to produce the same probability of detection

when n pulses are integrated.

Note: for postdetection integration, the integration improvement factor is I

i

= nE

i

(n)

for ideal postdetection, E

i

(n) = 1 and hence the integration improvement factor is n

Examples of I

i

are given in Fig. 2.8a from data by Marcum

- note that I

i

is not sensitive to either P

d

or P

fa

- we can also develop the integration loss as

this is shown in Fig 2.8b

- the parameter n

f

in Fig 2.8 is called the false alarm number which is deﬁned as the average num-

ber of possible decisions between false alarms

n

f

= [no. of range intervals/pulse][no. of pulse periods/sec][false alarm rate]

= [T

P

/τ][f

P

][T

fa

]

here T

P

= PRI (pulse repetition interval)

f

P

= PRF

Thus n

f

= T

fa

/τ

≈ T

fa

B

≈ 1/P

fa

Note: for a radar with pulse width τ, there are B = 1/τ possible decisions per second on the presence

of a target

- if n pulses are integrated before a target decision is made, then there are B/n possible decisions/

sea.

- hence the false alarm probability is n times as great

Note: this does not mean that there will be more false alarms since it is the rate of detection-deci-

sions is reduced, not the average time between false alarms

- hence T

fa

is more meaningful than P

fa

Note: some authors use a false alarm number n

f

’ = n

f

/n

caution should be used in computations for SNR as a function of P

fa

and P

d

- Fig. 2.8a shows that for a few pulses integrated post detection, there is not much difference froma

perfect predetection integrator.

S N ⁄ ( )

n

L

i

10

1

E

i

n ( )

------------- log =

97.460 PART II RADAR

26 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 27

- when there are many pulses integrated (small S/N per pulse) the difference is pronounced.

- the radar equation with n pulses integrated is

2.23

here (S/N)

n

is the SNR of one of n equal pulses that are integrated to produce the required P

d

for a

speciﬁed P

fa

using equation 2.31 in 2.32

here (S/N)

1

is found from Fig. 2.7 and nE

i

(n) is found from Fig 2.8a.

some postdetection integrators use a weighting of the integrated pulses. These integrators include

the recirculating delay line, the LPF, the storage tube and some algorithms in digital integration.

- if an “exponential” weighting of the integrated pulses is used then the voltage out of the integrator

is

here V

i

is the voltage amplitude of the ith pulse and exp(-γ) is the attenuation per pulse

- for this weighting, an efﬁciency factor ρ can be calculated which is the ratio of the average S/Nfor

the exponential integrator to the average S/N for the uniform integrator:

for a dumped integrator

also

for a continuous integrator

Note: Maximum efﬁciency for a dumped integrator corresponds to γ =0

Maximum efﬁciency for a continuous integrator corresponds to nγ =1.257

2.7 Radar Cross Section of Targets

Cross-section: The ﬁctional area intercepting that amount of power which, when scattered equally

in all directions, produces an echo at the radar that is equal to that actually received.

R

max

4

P

t

GA

e

σ

4π ( )

2

kT

0

B

n

F

n

S N ⁄ ( )

n

---------------------------------------------------------- =

R

max

4

P

t

GA

e

σnE

i

n ( )

4π ( )

2

kT

0

B

n

F

n

S N ⁄ ( )

1

---------------------------------------------------------- =

V V

i

i 1 – ( )γ – [ ] exp

i 1 =

N

∑

=

ρ

nγ

2

------

. ,

| `

tanh

n

γ

2

-- -

. ,

| `

tanh

----------------------- =

ρ

1 nγ – ( ) exp – [ ]

2

n

γ

2

---

. ,

| `

tanh

---------------------------------------- =

97.460 PART II RADAR

28 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

σ = power reﬂected towards the source/unit solid angle

incident power density/4π

=

where R = range

E

r

= reﬂected ﬁeld strength at radar

E

i

= incident ﬁeld strength at target

Note: for most targets such as aircraft. ships and terrain, the σ does not bear a simple relationship to

the physical area

- EM scattered ﬁeld: is the difference between the total ﬁeld in the presence of an object and the

ﬁeld that would exist if the object were absent

- EM diffracted ﬁeld: is the total ﬁeld in the presence of the object

Note: for radar backscatter, the two ﬁelds are the same (since the transmitted ﬁeld has disappeared

by the time the received ﬁeld appears)

- the σ can be calculated using Maxwell’s equations only for simple targets such as the sphere (Fig.

2.9)

-when (the Rayleigh region), the scattering froma sphere can be used for modelling rain-

drops

4πR

2

R ∞ →

lim

E

r

E

i

------

2

2πa

λ

---------- 1 «

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 29

- since σ varies as λ

-4

in the Rayleigh region, rain and clouds are invisible for long wavelength

radars

- the usual radar targets are much larger than raindrops and hence the long λ operation does not

reduce the target σ

-when the σ approaches the optical cross section πa

2

.

Note: in the Mie (resonance region) σ can actually be 5.6 dB greater than the optical value or 5.6

dB smaller.

Note: For a sphere the σ is not aspect sensitive as it is for all other objects, and hence can be used

fro calibrating a radar system.

- backscatter of a long thin rod (missile) is shown. Where the length is 39λ and the diameter λ/4,

the material is silver.

-here θ = 0˚ is the end on view and σ is small since the projected area is small.

- however at near end on (θ ≈ 5˚) waves couple onto the rod, travel the length of the rod and reﬂect

from the discontinuity at the far end ⇒ large σ.

- The Cone Sphere

here the ﬁrst derivatives of the cone and sphere contours are the same at the point of joining

2πa

λ

---------- 1 »

97.460 PART II RADAR

30 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

The nose-on σ is shown in Fig. 2.12

Note: Fig. 2.12. The σ for θ near 0˚ (-45˚ to +45˚) is quite low. This is because scattering occurs

from discontinuities. Here the discontinuities are small: the tip, the join and the base of the sphere

(which allows a creeping wave to travel around the sphere)

- when the cone is viewed at perpendicular incidence (θ · 90 - α, where α is the cone half

angle) a large specular return is contained

-from the rear, the σ is approximately that of a sphere

- the nose on σ for f above the Rayleigh region and for a wide range of α, has a max of

0.4λ

2

and a min of 0.01λ

2

. This gives a very low backscatter

(e.g. at λ · 3 cm, σ = 10

-4

m

2

.

Example: σ at S band for 3 targets having the same projected area:

Corner reﬂector: 1000 m

2

Sphere 1m

2

Cone sphere 10

-3

m

2

- In practice, to achieve a low σ with a cone sphere, the tip must be sharp, the surface smooth and

no holes or protuberances allowed.

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 31

97.460 PART II RADAR

32 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

- a comparison of nose-on σ for several cone shaped objects is given in ﬁgure 2.13

Note: the use of materials such as carbon ﬁbre composites can further reduce σ.

Complex Targets

- the σ of complex targets (ships, aircraft, terrain) are complicated functions of frequency and view-

ing angle

- the σ can be computed using GTD (Geometric Theory of Diffraction), measured experimentally,

or found using scale models

- a complex target can be considered as being composed of a large number of independent objects

which scatter energy in all directions

- the relative phases and amplitudes of the echo signals fromthe individual scatterers determine the

total σ. If the separation between individual scatterers is large compared to λ the phases will vary

with the viewing angle and cause a scintillating echo.

-An example of the variation of σ with aspect angle is shown in Fig. 2.16. The σ can change by

15dB for an angular change of 0.33˚. Broadside gives the max σ since the projected area is bigger

and is relatively ﬂat (The B-26 fuselage had a rectangular cross-section)

- This data was obtained by mounting the actual aircraft on a turntable above ground and observing

its σ with a radar.

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 33

- a more economical method is to construct scale models.

- an example of a model measurements is given in Fig. 2.17 by the dashed lines. The solid lines are

the theoretical (computed using GTD) data

- The computed data is obtained by breaking up the target into simple geometrical shapes. and then

computing the contributions of each (accounting for shadowing)

- the most realistic method for obtaining σ data is to measure the actual target in ﬂight. The US

Naval Research Lab has such a facility with L, S, C, and X band radars. The radar track data estab-

lishes the aspect angle. Data is usually averaged over a 10˚ x 10˚ aspect angle interval.

- a single value cross section is sometimes given for speciﬁc aircraft targets for use in the range

equation. This is sometimes an average value or sometimes a value which is exceeded 99% of the

time

97.460 PART II RADAR

34 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

Examples of radar cross sections for various targets (in m

2

))

Conventional, unmanned winged missile 0.5

Small, single engine aircraft 1

Small ﬁghter, or 4-passenger jet 2

Large ﬁghter 6

Medium bomber or medium jet airliner 20

Large bomber or large jetliner 40

Jumbo jet 100

Small open boat 0.02

Small pleasure boat 2

Cabin cruiser 10

Pickup truck 200

Car 100

Bicycle 2

Man 1

Bird .01

Insect 10

-5

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 35

Note: even though single values are given there can be large variations in actual σ for any target

e.g. the AD 4B, a propeller driven aircraft has a σ of 20 m

2

at L band but its σ at VHF is about 100

m

2

This is because at VHF the dimensions of the scattering objects are comparable to λ and pro-

duce a resonance effect

For large ships, an average cross section taken from port, starboard and quarter aspects yields

here σ is in m

2

f is in MHz

D is ship displacement in kilotons

- this equation applies only to grazing angles i.e. as seen from the same elevation

- small boats 20 ft. to 30 ft. give σ(X band) approx 5 m

2

40 ft. to 50 ft.

“ “ “ “ “ 10 m

2

- automobiles give σ(X band) of approx 10 m

2

to 200 m

2

- human being gives σ as shown:

f (MHz) σ (m

2

)

410 0.033 - 2.33

1120 0.098 - 0.997

2890 0.140 - 1.05

4800 0.368 - 1.88

9375 0.495 - 1.22

2.8 Cross-Section Fluctuations

- the echo from a target in motion is almost never constant

- variations are caused by meteorological conditions, lobe structure of the antenna, equipment

instability and the variation in target cross section

- cross section of complex targets are sensitive to aspect

- one method of dealing with this is to select a lower bound of σ that is exceeded some speciﬁed

fraction of the time (0.95 or 0.99)

- this procedure results in conservative prediction of range

- alternatively, the PDF and the correlation properties with time may be used for a particular target

and type of trajectory

σ

median

52 f D

3 2 ⁄

=

97.460 PART II RADAR

36 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

- the PDF gives the probability of ﬁnding any value of σ between the values of σ and σ + dσ.

- the correlation function gives the degree of correlation of σ with time (i.e. number of pulses)

- the power spectral density of σ is also important in tracking radars.

- it is not usually practical to obtain experimental data for these functions

- it is more economical to assess the effects of ﬂuctuating σ is to postulate a reasonable model for

the ﬂuctuations and to analyze it mathematically

Swerling has done this for the detection probabilities of 5 types of target.

Case 1

echo pulses received from the target on any one scan are of constant envelope throughout

the entire scan, but are independent (uncorrelated) scan to scan

This case ignores the effect of antenna beam shape

the assumed PDF is:

σ ≥ 0

Case 2

echo pulses are independent from pulse to pulse instead of from scan to scan

Case 3

Same as case 1 except that the PDF is

Case 4

Same as case 2 except that the PDF is

Case 5

Nonﬂuctuating cross section

- The PDF assumed in cases 1 and 2 applies to complex targets consisting of many scatterers (in

practice 4 or more)

- The PDF assumed in cases 3 and 4 applies to targets represented by one large reﬂector with other

small reﬂectors

p σ ( )

1

σ

ave

-----------

σ –

σ

ave

-----------

. ,

| `

exp =

p σ ( )

1

σ

ave

-----------

σ –

σ

ave

-----------

. ,

| `

exp =

p σ ( )

4σ

σ

ave

2

-----------

2σ –

σ

ave

-----------

. ,

| `

exp =

p σ ( )

4σ

σ

ave

2

-----------

2σ –

σ

ave

-----------

. ,

| `

exp =

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 37

- for all cases the value of σ to be substituted in the radar equation is σ

ave

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0.025

0.03

0.035

0.04

0.045

0.05

PDF for Swerling 1 and 2 targets

average cross section = 20

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0.025

0.03

0.035

0.04

PDF for Swerling 3 and 4 targets

average cross section = 20

97.460 PART II RADAR

38 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

- comparison of the ﬁve cases for a false alarm number n

f

= 10

8

is shown in Fig. 2.22

- when detection probability is large, all 4 cases in which σ is not constant require greater SNR

than the constant σ case (case 5)

- Note for P

d

=0.95 we have

Case # S/N

1 16.8 dB/pulse

2 6.2 dB/pulse

This increase in S/N corresponds to a reduction in range by a factor of 1.84. Hence if the character-

istics of the target are not properly taken into account, the actual performance of the radar (for the

same value of σ

ave

) will not measure up to the predicted performance.

- also when P

d

> 0.3, larger S/N is required when ﬂuctuations are uncorrelated scan to scan (cases 1

& 3) than when ﬂuctuations are uncorrelated pulse to pulse.

- this results since the larger the number of independent pulses integrated, the more likely the ﬂuc-

tuations will average out ⇒ cases 2 & 4 will approach the nonﬂuctuating case.

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 39

- Figures 2.23 and 2.24 may be used as corrections for probability of detection (Fig. 2.7)

97.460 PART II RADAR

40 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

Procedure:

1) Find S/N from Fig. 2.7 corresponding to desired P

d

and P

fa

2) From Fig. 2.23 ﬁnd correction factor for either cases 1 and 2 or cases 3 and 4 to be

applied to S/N found in Step 1. The resulting (S/N)

1

is that which would apply if detection

were based on a single pulse

3) If n pulses are integrated, The integration improvement factor I

i

(n) is found from Fig.

2.24. The parameters (S/N)

1

and nE

i

(n)=I

i

(n) are substituted into the radar equation 2.33

along with σ

ave

.

Note: in Fig. 2.24 the integration improvement factor I

i

(n) is sometimes greater than n. Here the S/

N required fro n=1 is larger than for the nonﬂuctuating target. The S/N per pulse will always be less

than that of the ideal predetection integrator.

Note: data in Fig. 2.23 and 2.24 are essentially independent of the false alarm number

(10

6

<n

f

<10

10

)

Note: the PDF s for cases 1 &2 and # & 4 of the Swerling ﬂuctuations are special cases of the Chi-

square distribution of degree 2m (also called the Gamma distribution)

σ > 0

Note: for target cross section models, 2mis not required to be an integer. It may be any positive real

number.

for cases 1 and 2, m=1

for cases 3 and 4, m=2

Note: For the Chi-square PDF

here is the standard deviation

and m

1

is the mean value

Note: as m increases, the ﬂuctuations become more constrained. With m = ∞, we have the nonﬂuc-

tuating target.

- the Chi-square distribution may not always ﬁt observed data, but it is used for convenience

- it is described by two parameters σ

ave

and the number of degrees of freedom 2m.

p σ ( )

m

m 1 – ( )!σ

ave

-------------------------------

mσ

σ

ave

-----------

. ,

| `

m 1 –

mσ –

σ

ave

-----------

. ,

| `

exp =

µ

2

m

1

---------- m

1

2

--- –

=

µ

2

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 41

- aircraft ﬂying straight and level ﬁt Chi-square distribution with m between 0.9 and 2, and with

σ

ave

varying 15 dB from min to max.

- the parameters of the ﬁtted distribution vary with aspect angle, type of aircraft and frequency

- the value of m is near unity for all aspect angles except broadside which give a Rayleigh distribu-

tion with varying σ

ave

- it is found that σ

ave

has more effect on the calculation of probability of detection than the value of

m.

- the Chi-square distribution also describes the cross section of shapes such as cylinders, cylinders

with ﬁns (e.g. some satellites). Here m varies between 0.2 and 2 depending on the aspect angle.

- the Rice distribution is a better description of the cross section ﬂuctuations of a target dominated

by a single scatterer than the Chi-square distribution with m=2.

- Here the Rice distribution is

where s is the ratio of the cross section of the single dominant scatterer to the total cross

section of the smaller scatterers

I

0

is a modiﬁed Bessel function of zero order

Note: when s=1 the results using the Rice distribution approximate the Chi-square with m=2, for

small probabilities of detection

- The Log Normal distribution has been suggested for describing the cross sections of some satel-

lites, ships, cylinders, plates, arrays

σ > 0

where s

d

= standard deviation of

and σ

m

= median of σ

also the ratio of the mean to median value of σ is ρ =

p σ ( )

1 s +

σ

ave

----------- s –

σ

σ

ave

----------- 1 s + ( ) – I

0

2

σ

σ

ave

-----------s 1 s + ( )

. ,

| `

exp =

p σ ( )

1

2πs

d

σ

--------------------

1

2s

d

2

--------

σ

σ

m

-------

. ,

| `

ln

. ,

| `

2

– exp =

σ

σ

m

-------

. ,

| `

ln

s

d

2

2

-----

. ,

| `

exp

97.460 PART II RADAR

42 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

- Comparisons of several distributions models fro false alarm number n

f

= 10

6

, with all pulses dur-

ing a scan correlated and pulses in successive scans independent, are shown in Fig. 2.25.

Note: The two extreme cases treated are for pulses correlated in any particular scan but with scan-

to-scan independence (slow ﬂuctuations), and for complete independence (fast ﬂuctuations).

- there could be partial correlation of pulses within a scan. The results for this case would fall some-

where between the two cases.

2.9 Transmitter Power

P

t

in the radar equation is the peak power

- this is not the instantaneous peak power of the carrier sine wave

- it is the power averaged over a carrier cycle which occurs at the maximum of a pulse.

- the average radar power, P

av

is the average transmitter power over the PRI

here τ = pulse width

T

p

= PRI

f

p

= PRF

P

av

P

t

τ

T

p

------ P

t

τ f

p

= =

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 43

now which deﬁnes the duty cycle

- the typical duty cycle for a surveillance radar is 0.001

- Thus the range equation in terms of average power is

here (B

n

τ) are grouped together since the product is usually of the order of unity for pulse radars

- if the transmitted waveform is not a rectangular pulse, we can express the range equation in terms

of energy

Note: In this form R

max

does not depend explicitly on λ or f

p

2.10 Pulse Repetition Frequency and Range Ambiguities

- PRF is determined primarily by the maximum range at which targets are expected

- echoes received after an interval exceeding the PRI are called “multiple-time-around” echoes

- these can result in erroneous range measurements

- consider three targets A, B and C. here A is within the maximum unambiguous range R

unambig

, B is

between R

unambig

and 2R

unambig

and C is between 2R

unambig

and 3R

unambig

P

av

P

t

--------

τ

T

p

------- =

R

max

4

P

av

GA

e

σnE

i

n ( )

4π ( )

2

kT

0

B

n

τ ( )F

n

S N ⁄ ( )

1

f

p

------------------------------------------------------------------------- =

E

τ

P

av

f

p

-------- =

R

max

4

E

τ

GA

e

σnE

i

n ( )

4π ( )

2

kT

0

B

n

τ ( )F

n

S N ⁄ ( )

1

----------------------------------------------------------------- =

97.460 PART II RADAR

44 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

-one way of distinguishing multiple time around targets is to operate with a carrying PRF. The echo from an

unambiguous target will appear at the same place on each sweep, however echoes frommultiple time around

targets will spread out.

- the number of separate PRFs will depend on the degree of multiple time targets. Second time around tar-

gets need only 2 separate PRFs to be resolved

- alternative methods to mark successive pulses to identify multiple time around targets include changing

amplitude, pulse width, frequency, phase or polarization from pulse to pulse

- these schemes are not very successful in practice

- one limitation is the foldover of nearby targets (e.g. nearby strong ground targets, clutter) which can mask

weak multiple time around targets

- a second limitation is increased processing requirement to resolve ambiguities

- the range ambiguity in a multiple PRF radar can be conveniently decoded by use of the Chinese remainder

theorem

2.11 Antenna Parameters

- the gain of an antenna is

G(θ,φ) = power radiated per unit solid angle in direction of azimuth θ and elevation φ

power accepted by antenna from transmitter/4π

- G is a function of direction. If it is greater than unity in some directions, it must be less than unity in others

- from reciprocity, if an antenna has a larger gain in transmission in a speciﬁc direction, then it also has a

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 45

larger effective area in that direction

- the most common beam shapes fro radar are the pencil beam and the fan beam

- pencil beams are axially symmetric with a width of a few degrees. They are used where it is necessary to

measure the angular position of a target continuously in azimuth and elevation (e.g. a tracking radar for

weapons control or missile guidance). These are generated with parabolic reﬂectors.

- to search a large sector of sky with a narrow beam is difﬁcult. Operational requirements place restrictions

on the maximum scan time (time for beam to return to the same point) so that the radar can not dwell too

long at any particular cell.

- to reduce the number of cells, the pencil beam is replaced with the fan beam which is narrow in one dimen-

sion and wide in the other.

- fan beams can be generated with parabolic reﬂectors with a shaped projected area. many long range ground

based radars use fan beams

- even with fan beams, a trade-off exists between the rate at which the target position is updated (scan time)

and the ability to detect weak signals (by use of pulse integration)

- scan rates are typically from 1 to 60 rpm

- for long range surveillance, scan rates are typically 5 or 6 rpm

- coverage of a simple fan beam is not adequate for targets at high altitudes close to the radar.

- the elevation pattern is usually shaped to radiate more energy at high angles as in the csc

2

pattern.

-here for φ

0

< φ < φ

m

here φ

0

and φ

m

are the angular limits of the csc

2

φ ﬁt

- this pattern is used for airborne search radars observing ground targets as well as ground based radars

observing aircraft. For the airborne case φ is the depression angle

- ldeally φ

m

should be 90˚ but it is always less

- csc

2

φ patterns can be generated by a distorted section of a parabola or with special multiple horn feed on a

true parabola, or with an array such as a slotted waveguide

- the csc

2

φ pattern gives constant echo power P

r

independent of range for a target of constant height, h and

having a constant σ.

- substituting into the range equation (simple form)

G φ ( ) G φ

0

( )

φ csc

2

φ

0

csc

2

----------------- =

P

r

P

t

G

2

φ

0

( ) φ ( ) csc

2

λ

2

σ

4π ( )

3

φ

0

( ) csc

2

R

4

----------------------------------------------------- K

1

φ ( ) csc

R

4

---------------- = =

97.460 PART II RADAR

46 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

- now for a constant height, h of a target, we have

therefore

- hence the echo signal is independent of range

- in practice P

r

varies due to σ varying with viewing angle, the earth not being ﬂat and non perfect csc

2

φ pat-

terns

Note: the gain of csc

2

φ antennas for ground based radars is about 2 dB less than for a fan beam having the

same aperture

- the maximum gain of any antenna is related to its size by

where ρ is the antenna efﬁciency which depends on the aperture illumination

- this is controlled by the complexity of the feed design

- Note: Aρ = A

eff

- a typical reﬂector gives a beam width of

where l is the dimension

2.12 System Losses

- losses in the radar reduce the S/N at the receiver output

- losses which can be calculated include the antenna beam shape loss, the collapsing loss and the plumbing

loss

- losses which cannot be calculated readily include those due to ﬁeld degradation, operator fatigue and lack

of operator motivation

Note: loss has a value greater than unity - Loss = [Gain]

-1

Plumbing Loss

φ ( ) csc R h ⁄ =

P

r

K

1

h

4

------- K

2

= =

G

4πA

λ

2

----------ρ =

θ deg ( )

65λ

l

--------- =

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 47

- loss in transmission lines between the transmitter and antenna and between antenna and receiver

- note fromthe Fig 2.28 that, at low frequencies, the transmission lines introduce little loss. At high

frequencies the attenuation is signiﬁcant

- additional loss occurs at connectors (0.5 dB), bends (0.1dB) and at rotary joints (0.4 dB)

Note: if a line is used for both transmission and reception, its loss is added twice

- the duplexer typically adds 1.5 dB insertion loss. In general, the greater the isolation required, the

greater the insertion loss

Beam Shape Loss

- the train of pulses returned from the target to a scanning radar are modulated in amplitude by the

shape of the antenna beam

- a beamshape loss accounts for the fact that the maximumgain is used in the radar equation rather

than a gain which changes from pulse to pulse. (this approach is approximate since it does not

address P

d

for each pulse separately)

- let the one way power pattern be approximated by a Gaussian shape

here θ

B

is the half power beam width

S

2 2.78θ

2

–

θ

B

2

------------------- exp =

97.460 PART II RADAR

48 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

- n

B

is the number of pulses received within θ

B

and if n is the number of pulses integrated, then the

beam shape loss (relative to a radar that integrated n pulses with equal gain) is

Example integrating 11 pulses gives L (beam shape) = 1.66 dB

Note: the beam shape loss above was for a beam shaped in one plane only (i.e. fan beam or pencil

beam where the target passes through the centre of the beam)

- If the target passe through any other part of the beam the maximum signal will not correspond to

the signal from the beam centre

- when many pulses are integrated per beamwidth, the scanning loss is taken as 1.6 dB for a fan

beam scanning in one coordinate, and as 3.2 dB when two coordinate scanning is used

- when the antenna scans so rapidly that the gain on transmission is not the same as the gain on

reception, an additional “scanning loss” is added.

- additional loss for phased array search using a step scanning pencil beam since not all regions of

space are illuminated by the same value of antenna gain.

Limiting Loss

- limiting in radar can lower the P

d

- this is not a desirable effect and is due to a limited dynamic range

- limiting can be due to pulse compression processing and intensity modulation of CRT (such as

PPI)

- limiting results in a loss of only a fraction of a dB for large numbers of pulses integrated providing

the limiting ratio (ratio of video limit level to RMS noise level) is greater than 2

- for small SNR in bandpass limiters, the reduction of SNR of a sine wave in narrowband Gaussian

noise is π/4 (approx 1 dB)

- if the spectrum of the input noise is shaped correctly, this loss can be made negligible

Collapsing Loss

- if the radar integrates additional noise samples along with the wanted signal +noise pulses, the

added noise causes degradation called the collapsing g loss

- this occurs on displays which collapse range information (C scope which displays El vs Az)

- in some 3D radars (range, Az, El) that display outputs at all Elevations on one PPI (range, Az) dis-

play, the collapsing of the 3D information into 2 D display results in loss

- can also occur when the output of a high resolution radar is displayed on a device which is of

L beamshape ( )

n

1 2 5.55k

2

– ( ) n

B

2

⁄ ( ) exp

k 1 =

n 1 – ( ) 2 ⁄

∑

+

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- =

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 49

coarser resolution than the radar

- Marcum has shown that for a square law detector, the integration of m noise pulses, along with n

signal + noise pulses with SNR per pulse (S/N)

n

, is equivalent to the integration of m+n signal _

noise pulses each with SNR of

- the collapsing loss then is the ratio of the integration loss L

i

for m+n pulses to the integration loss

foe n pulses

- recall

Example: 10 signal pulses are integrated with 30 noise pulses

Required P

d

= 0.9, n

f

= 10

8

From Fig 2.8b

L

i

(40) = 3.5 dB

L

i

(10) = 1.7 dB

therefore L

i

(m,n) = 1.8 dB

- collapsing loss for a linear detector can be much greater than for a square law detector

- Fig 2.29 shows the comparison of loss for each detector

S

N

----

. ,

| `

m n + ( )equiv

n

m n +

-------------

S

N )

-------

. ,

| `

n

=

L

i

m n , ( )

L

i

m n + ( )

L

i

n ( )

----------------------- =

L

i

n ( )

1

E

i

n ( )

------------- =

97.460 PART II RADAR

50 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

Nonideal Equipment

- transmitter power - the power varies from tube to tube (for same type), and with age for a speciﬁc

tube. Power is also not uniform over the operating band

- hence P

t

may be other than the design value.

- to allow for this, a loss factor of about 2 dB can be used

- receiver noise ﬁgure - the NF will vary over the band, hence if the best NF is used in the radar

equation, a loss factor must account for its poorer value elsewhere in the band

- matched ﬁlter - if the receiver is not the exact matched ﬁlter fro the transmitted waveform, a loss

of SNR will occur (typically 1 dB)

- threshold level - due to the exponential relationship between T

fa

and V

T

a slight change in V

T

can cause signiﬁcant change to T

fa

hence, V

T

is set slightly higher than calculated to give good T

fa

in the event of circuit drifts. This is equivalent to a loss

Operator Loss

- a distracted, tired, overloaded, poorly trained operator will perform less efﬁciently

- the operator efﬁciency factor (empirical) is where P

d

is the single scan probabil-

ity of detection

Note: operator loss is not relevant to systems where automatic detection is done

Field Degradation

- when a radar is operated under ﬁeld conditions, the performance deteriorates even more than can

be accounted for in the above losses.

- factors which cause ﬁeld degradation are:

- poor training

- weak tubes

- water in the transmission lines

- incorrect mixer crystal current

- deterioration in the receiver NF

- poor TR tube recovery

- loose cable connections

- radars should be designed with BIST (built - in systemtest) and BITE (built - in test equipment) to

aid in performance monitoring

ρ

0

0.7 P

d

( )

2

=

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 51

- a preventative maintenance plan should be used

- BITE parameters to be monitored are

- P

t

- NF of receiver

- Transmitter pulse shape

- recovery time of TR tube

- with no other information available, 3 dB is assumed for ﬁeld degradation loss

Other Loss Factors

- MTI radars introduce additional loss. The MTI discrimination technique results in complete loss

of sensitivity for certain target values (blind speeds)

- in a radar with overlapping range gates, the gates may be wider than optimum for practical rea-

sons. The additional noise introduced by nonoptimumgate width leads to degradation performance.

- straddling loss accounts for loss in SNR for targets not at the centre of a range gate, or at the cen-

tre of a ﬁlter in a multiple bank processor

Propagation Effects

- the radar equation assumes free space propagation

- the earth’s surface and atmosphere have a signiﬁcant effect on radar performance

- the effects fall into three categories

- attenuation

- refraction by the earth’s atmosphere

- lobe structure caused by interference between the direct wave and the ground reﬂected

wave

- for most microwave radars, attenuation through the normal atmosphere or through precipitation is

not signiﬁcant

- however reﬂection from rain (clutter) is a limiting factor in radar performance in adverse weather

- the deceasing density of atmosphere with altitude results in bending (refraction) of the electro-

magnetic wave. This normally increases the line of sight. the refraction can also be accounted for

by assuming the earth to have a larger radius than actual. A “typical” earth radius is 4/3 actual

radius.

- at times atmospheric conditions create ducting (or super refraction) and increases the radar range

considerably. It is not necessarily desirable since it can not be counted on. Also it degrades MTI

performance by extending the range at which ground clutter is seen.

97.460 PART II RADAR

52 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

- the presence of the earth also breaks the antenna elevation pattern into many lobes. this arises

since the direct and reﬂected waves interfere at the target either destructively or constructively to

produce nulls or lobes. This results in non uniform illumination.

2.14 Other Considerations

- the radar equation is now written

Note: The following substitutions can be made:

E

τ

= P

av

/f

p

= P

t

τ

N

0

= N/B (power spectral density of noise)

Bτ ≈ 1

T

0

F

n

= T

s

Note: The above radar equation was derived for rectangular pulses but applies to other waveforms

provided that matched ﬁlter detection is used. The equation can be modiﬁed to accommodate CW,

FM-CW, pulse doppler MTI or tracking radar.

Radar Performance Figure - ratio of pulse power of Transmitter to S

min

of receiver

- not often used

Blip-Scan ratio - same as single scan P

d

- method used to check performance of ground-based radars

- here an aircraft is ﬂown on a radial course and for each scan of the antenna it is recorded

whether or not a target blip is detected. The ration of the number of scans the target was

seen at a particular range to the total number of scans is the blip scan ratio

- head on and tail on aspects are easiest to provide.

Cumulative Probability of Detection

- if single scan probability of detection id P

d,

the probability of detecting a target at least

once during N scans is the cumulative probability of detection

P

c

= 1-(1-P

d

)

N

Note: the variation of P

d

with range might have to be taken into account in computing P

c

.

- the variation with range based on the cumulative probability of detection can be the 3rd

power rather than the 4th power which is based on a single scan probability

R

max

4

P

av

G Aρ

a

( )σnE

i

n ( )

4π ( )

2

kT

0

B

n

τ ( )F

n

S N ⁄ ( )

1

f

p

L

s

------------------------------------------------------------------------------- =

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 53

- in practice P

c

is not easy to apply. Furthermore radar operators do not usually report a

detection the ﬁrst time it is observed (which is required by the deﬁnition of P

c

). Instead

they report a detection based on threshold crossing on two successive scans, or on two out

of three scans

- for track while scan radars, the measure of performance might be the probability of initi-

ating a target track rather than just probability of detection.

Surveillance Radar Equation

- the radar equation which describes the performance of a radar which dwells on the target for n

pulses is sometimes called the searchlight range equation

- in a search or surveillance radar, the additional constraint that the radar must search a speciﬁed

volume of space in a speciﬁed time modiﬁes the range equation signiﬁcantly.

- If Ω represents the angular region to be searched in scan time t

s

, then we have

where t

0

is the time on target = n/f

p

Ω

0

= solid angle beamwidth

Ω

0

≈ θ

A

θ

E

where θ

A

is the Azimuth beamwidth

and θ

E

is the Elevation beamwidth

also

with these substitutions the range equation becomes

- this indicates that the important parameters for a search radar are the average power and the

antenna effective aperture

- frequency does not appear explicitly, however low frequency is preferred since high power and

large aperture are easier to obtain at low frequency and it is easier to build MTI (moving target indi-

cator) and weather has little effect on performance.

Note: the radar equation will be considerably different if clutter or external noise (jamming) rather

than receiver noise determine the background for the signal

t

s

t

0

Ω

Ω

0

------- =

G

4π

Ω

0

------- =

R

max

4

P

av

A

e

σE

i

n ( )t

s

4πkT

0

F

n

S N ⁄ ( )

1

L

s

Ω

------------------------------------------------------ =

97.460 PART II RADAR

54 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

Accuracy of the Radar Equation

- the predicted value of range from the range equation cannot be checked experimentally with any

accuracy

- the safest means to achieve a speciﬁed range performance is to include a safety factor.

- this is sometimes difﬁcult to do in competitive bids but results in ﬁne radars

MTI and Pulse Doppler Radar

- The doppler shift produced by a moving target may be used in a pulse radar (1) to determine the relative

velocity of the target or (2) to separate desired moving targets from undesired stationary clutter

- the second application has been of greater importance

- the MTI radar usually operates with ambiguous doppler measurements (blind speeds) but with unambigu-

ous range (no second time around echoes)

- the pulse doppler radar has a high enough PRF to operate with unambiguous doppler, but at the expense of

range ambiguities

- MTI is a necessity in high quality air surveillance radars that operate in the presence of clutter

- MTI adds cost and complexity and digital signal processing

- practical, economical MTI has been available only since the mid 1970s

Operation

- a simple CW radar is shown. In principle the CW radar can be converted into a pulse radar by providing a

power ampliﬁer and a modulator to turn the ampliﬁer on and off.

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 55

Note: The main difference between this pulse radar and the one described previously is that some portion of

the CW power that generates the transmitted pulse is applied to the receiver as the local oscillator.

- this LO provides the coherent reference needed for doppler frequency detection.

- Coherent means that the phase of the transmitted signal is preserved in the reference signal.

- let the CW oscillator voltage be

- therefore the reference voltage is

(1)

- the doppler shifted echo voltage is

(2)

here c = velocity of propagation

R

0

= range of target

- the reference and echo signal are mixed in the receiver and the difference extracted

(3)

Note: equations 2 and 3 represent carriers upon which the pulse modulation is imposed

Note: for stationary targets, f

d

= 0 therefore V

diff

will have a constant value somewhere between -A

4

and A

4

.

- examples of V

diff

are shown in ﬁgure 4.2

- when f

d

> 1/τ the doppler can be discerned from the information in a single pulse (4.2 b)

- when f

d

< 1/τ the pulses will be modulated an amplitude given by equation 3 (Fig 4.2.c)

V A

1

2π f

t

t sin =

V

ref

A

2

2π f

t

t sin =

V

echo

A

3

2π f

t

f

d

t ( )t

4π f

t

R

0

c

------------------- – sin =

V

diff

A

4

2π f

d

t

4π f

t

R

0

c

------------------- – sin =

97.460 PART II RADAR

56 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

- in this second case, many pulses will be needed to extract the doppler information

- the situation shown in Fig. 4.2 c is typical of aircraft detection radar

- the situation shown in Fig. 4.2 b is typical of detection of missiles or satellites (i.e. high velocity)

- doppler ambiguities can occur in Fig. 4.2 c but not in 4.2 b

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 57

- moving targets can be distinguished from stationary targets by observing the video on an A scope (ampli-

tude vs range

- a single sweep might appear as in Fig. 4.3 a.

- this also shows several ﬁxed targets and 2 moving targets indicated by the two arrows.

- from the single sweep it is impossible to distinguish moving targets from ﬁxed targets

- successive A scope sweeps (PRIs) are shown. Echoes from ﬁxed targets are constant while echoes from

moving targets vary in amplitude at a rate corresponding to the doppler shift

- superposition of the sweeps shows the moving targets producing a butterﬂy effect

Note: the video is bipolar. Fixed targets can give either a positive or a negative pulse (corresponding to the

previous comment on the value ranging from -A

4

and A

4

.

- the butterﬂy effect is not suitable for display on PPI

- to extract doppler information in a form suitable for a PPI, one can use a delay line canceller

- the delay line canceller acts as a ﬁlter to eliminate DC

- ﬁxed targets with unchanging amplitudes pulse to pulse are cancelled

- the amplitudes of the moving targets are not constant pulse to pulse and subtraction results in an uncan-

celled residue

- the rectiﬁer provides the video for the PPI

- A Diagram of an MTI employing an HPA (high power ampliﬁer) is shown below. This arrangement is

called a MOPA (master oscillator, power ampliﬁer)

-here the coherent reference is supplied by a coho (coherent oscillator). The coho is a stable oscillator whose

frequency is the same as the IF frequency in the receiver.

- the coho f

c

also mixes with the stalo (stable oscillator) f

l

- the RF echo is heterodyned with f

l

to produce the IF

- after ampliﬁcation at IF the received signal is phase detected with f

c

. (Note: the heterodyne process is used

to avoid 1/f noise) to give video proportional to the phase difference between the two signals

- the electronics excluding the high power ampliﬁer are collectively called the exciter-receiver

Receiver

Delay Line

T=1/PRF

Subtract

Full

Wave

Rectiﬁer

97.460 PART II RADAR

58 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

Note: although the phase of the STALO inﬂuences the phase of the transmitted signal, any STALO phase is

cancelled on reception

- again, the main feature of MTI is that the transmitted signal must be coherent (phase referenced) with the

downconverting oscillators in the receiver.

- the HPA may be a Klystron, a TWT (travelling wave tube), crossed ﬁeld ampliﬁer, triode, tetrode. Each has

its advantages and disadvantages

- before the development of the Klystron ampliﬁer, the only high power transmitter was the magnetron oscil-

lator. Here, the phase of the oscillator bears no relationship from pulse to pulse.

- hence the reference cannot be generated by a continuously operating oscillator

- however a coherent reference an be obtained by readjusting the phase of the coho at the beginning of each

sweep according to the phase of the transmitted power (sweep is the term for the period between pulses)

- here a portion of the transmitted signal is mixed with the STALO to produce a phase which is directly

related to the phase of the transmitter. This IF pulse is applied to the coho and causes the coho to lock in step

with the phase of the IF reference pulse.

- the phase of the coho is then related to the phase of the transmitted pulse and can be used as the reference

for echoes from that particular transmitted pulse

- upon the next transmitted pulse, another IF locking pulse relocks the phase of the CW coho.

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 59

Delay Line Cancellers

- the time domain delay-line canceller capability depends on the quality of the mediumused as the delay line

- the delay required is equal to the PRI and might be several milliseconds (long!!!)

- this can not be achieved with electromagnetic transmission lines

- converting the electromagnetic signal to an acoustic signal allows the design of delay lines with reasonable

physical length since the velocity of acoustic waves is approximately 10

-5

that of electromagnetic waves.

- the signal at the output of the acoustic delay device is then converted back to an electromagnetic wave.

- solid fused quartz using multiple internal reﬂections to obtain a compact device were developed in the

1950’s

- these analog delay lines have been replaced by digital delay lines using A/D and digital processing

- the use of digital processing allows implementation of complex delay line cancellers which were not prac-

tical with the analog methods.

Note: An advantage of the time domain delay line canceler as compared with the frequency domain ﬁlter is

that a single network operates at all ranges and does not need a separate ﬁlter for each range resolution cell.

Filter Characteristics of a Delay Line Canceler

- the canceler acts as a ﬁlter to reject DC clutter but because of its periodic nature it also rejects energy near

the PRF and its harmonics

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- the video received from a target at range R

0

is

- the signal from the previous transmission which is delayed by a time T = PRI is

- the ouput from the pulse canceler is

- This will be zero when the argument πf

d

T is 0, π, 2π,

The speeds at which these occur are called the blind speed of the radar

These are ; n=0,1,2 or

for λ in metres, f

p

in Hz and v

n

in knots we have the following:

- if the ﬁrst blind speed is to be greater than the expected maximum radial speed, then λf

p

must be large

- hence the MTI must operate at a long wavelength or high PRF or both

- however there are other constraints on λ and f

p

and blind speeds are not easily avoided.

- large λ has the disadvantage that antenna beamwidth is wider and is not satisfactory where angular accu-

racy is important

- high f

p

reduces the unambiguous range

- ﬁgure 4.8 shows the ﬁrst blind speed v

1

as a function of maximum unambiguous range (R

unambig

= cT/2)

v

1

k 2π f

d

t φ

0

– ( ) sin =

v

2

k 2π f

d

t T – ( ) φ

0

– ( ) ( ) sin =

v v

1

v

2

– 2k π f

d

T 2π f

d

t

T

2

--- –

. ,

| `

φ

0

– cos sin = =

v

n

nλ

2T

------- =

v

n

nλ f

p

2

-------------- =

v

n

nλ f

p

=

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 61

Example:

- in practice MTI radars in L and S band are designed for the detection of aircraft and must operate with

blind speeds if they are to operate with unambiguous range

- systems which require good MTI performance must operate with ambiguous range (pulse doppler radar)

- the effect of blind speeds can be reduced by operating with more than one PRF (staggered PRF MTI)

-operating at more than one RF frequency can also reduce effect of blind speeds.

Double Cancellation

- single delay line cancelers do not always have as broad a clutter reject null at DC as might be desired

- the null can be widened by the use of cancelers as shown

- in Fig 4.9a, the output of the two single delay line cancellers in cascade is the square of that from a single

delay canceler

- the response of this double delay line canceler is shown in Fig. 4.10.The ﬁnite width of the typical clutter

spectrum is also shown to illustrate the additional cancellation offered

- the two delay line canceler of Fig. 4.9b has the same frequency response characteristic as the double delay

line canceler

Table 2:

R

unambig

f

130 NM 200 MHz

13 NM 3 GHz

4 NM 10 GHz

v 4 π f

d

T ( ) sin

2

=

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- here the output of the adder is

where f(t) is the received video signal

- this arrangement is called a three pulse canceler

Transversal Filters

- the 3 pulse ﬁlter of Fig. 4.9b is a transversal ﬁlter

- the general form is shown below for N pulses and N-1 delays

- it is also called a feed-forward ﬁlter, a nonrecursive ﬁlter, a ﬁnite memory ﬁlter and a tapped delay line ﬁl-

ter

- the weights for a transversal ﬁlter with n delay lines that gives a sin

n

πf

d

T are the binomial coefﬁcient with

alternating sign

; i=1,2,3....n+1

Note: a cascade conﬁguration of three delay lines each connected as a single canceller is called a triple can-

celer: but when connected as a transversal ﬁlter it is called a four pulse canceler

- the transversal ﬁlter with alternating binomial weights is closely related to the ﬁlter which maximizes the

f t ( ) 2 f t T + ( ) f t 2T + ( ) + – =

w

i

i – ( )

i 1 – n!

n i – 1 + ( )! i 1 – ( )!

-------------------------------------------- =

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 63

average of the ratio

where S/C is the signal to clutter ratio

and I

c

is the improvement factor for clutter

The average is over the range of doppler frequencies

I

c

is independent of target velocity and depends only on the weights w

i

, the autocorrelation function (power

spectral density) of the clutter, and the number of pulses.

- for the two pulse canceler (single delay line), the optimum weights based on the above criterion are the

same as the binomial weights when the clutter is Gaussian.

- for the three pulse canceler, the difference between ﬁlter with optimal weights and one with binomial

weights is less than 2 dB.

- the difference is small for higher order cancelers also

- for any order canceler, the difference between optimum weights and binomial weights is small over a wide

range of clutter spectral widths

- similarly the use of a criterion which maximizes the clutter attenuation (C

in

/C

out

) is also well approximated

by a transversal ﬁlter with binomial weights with alternating signs, when the clutter spectrum can be repre-

sented by a Gaussian function whose spectral width is small compared to the PRF

- the transversal ﬁlter with binomial weights also approximates the ﬁlter which maximizes the P

d

for a target

at midband doppler frequency or its harmonics

- the disadvantage is due to notches at DC, the PRF and harmonics of PRF increasing in width as the number

of delay lines increases

- the added delay lines reduce the clutter but also reduce the number of moving targets because of the

reduced pass band.

- for targets uniformly distributed across the doppler frequency:

we have for the criterion that -10dB response of the ﬁlter is the threshold for detection, the following table:

- although these ﬁlters are optimum for I

c

they are not necessarily best. They are only best under a given set

of assumptions.

%of targets

rejected

n pulse canceler

20 2

35 3

48! 4

I

c

S C ⁄ ( )

out

S C ⁄ ( )

in

----------------------- =

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- it would seem that the MTI ﬁlter should be shaped to reject the clutter at DC and around the PRF, but have

a ﬂat response over the region where no clutter is expected.

- the transversal ﬁlter can be designed to achieve this desirable ﬁlter response but needs a large number of

delay lines. This sets a restriction on the radar’s PRF, beamwidth, antenna rotation rate and dwell time

- Fig 4.12 shows the amplitude response of a 3 pulse canceler with sin

2

πf

d

T(1), a 5 pulse “optimum” can-

celer which maximizes I

c

(2) and a 15 pulse Chebyshev ﬁlter (3)

- even a 5 pulse Chebyshev design gives a signiﬁcantly wider bandwidth than the 5 pulse optimum design

Note: the Chebyshev design has a lower I

c

but is worthwhile if the clutter spectrum is narrow

- when there are only a few pulses available for processing, there is little that can be done to control the ﬁlter

shape

- hence for 3 or 4 pulse cancelers it is best to use the classical sin

2

or sin

4

response of the binomial cancelers.

Shaping the Frequency Response

- non recursive ﬁlters employ only feedforward loops. These yield zeroes for synthesizing the frequency

response

- if feedback loops are used, each delay line can provide one pole as well as one zero

- the canonical form is shown below:

Fig.4.12

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 65

- when feedback loops are used the ﬁlter is called recursive

- can synthesize in principle almost any frequency response using z transform techniques

- canonical conﬁguration is not always desirable due to delay tolerances

- it has been shown that the canonical conﬁguration can be broken into cascaded sections with no section

having more than two delay elements

- this synthesis technique applies to Chebyshev, Butterworth, Bessel and elliptical ﬁlter design

- the recursive delay line ﬁlters offer steady state response that is superior to that of nonrecursive ﬁlters

- however they have poor transient response due to the feedback loops

- the presence of large clutter returns can effectively appear as a large step input which leads to severe ring-

ing in the ﬁlter output which can mask the target signal until the transient response dies out.

- in surveillance radar, the number of pulses fromany target is limited. Hence the MTI ﬁlter is almost always

in a transient state for most recursive ﬁlters

- a ﬁlter with steep frequency response skirts might allow 15 - 30 pulses to be generated at the ﬁlter output

due to feedback. This could make the system unusable in situations with large discrete clutter, or with inter-

ference or jamming from other radars

- poor transient response is also undesirable in radars with step scan phased array, since the extra pulses

might have to be gated out after the beam has been moved.

- for step scan radars the undesirable transient effects can be overcome by using the initial return from each

new beam position to apply initial conditions to the MTI ﬁlter. These initial conditions are the steady state

values that would appear in the ﬁlter after an inﬁnitely long sequence. This effectively suppresses the tran-

sient response.

- an alternative to the recursive ﬁlter is to use multiple PRFs

Multiple (Staggered) PRFs

- multiple PRFs reduce the effect of blind speeds and also allow a sharper low frequency cutoff

- the blind speeds of two independent radars will be different if their PRFs are different. This same result can

be achieved with one radar which shares its PRFs between 2 or more values

- PRF can be switched every other scan, every time the antenna is scanned half a beam width or pulse to

pulse (staggered PRF)

- Fig. 4.16 shows the composite response of MTI with two separate PRFs with a ratio of 5:4

Note: the ﬁrst blind speed of the composite is greatly increased (i.e. at f

d

= 4/T

1

= 5/T

2

)

but regions of low sensitivity appear

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- the closer the ratio T

1

: T

2

approaches unity, the greater the frequency of the ﬁrst blind speed, and the

deeper he ﬁrst null in the vicinity of f

d

- 1/T

1

.

- the null depth can be reduced and the ﬁrst blind speed increased by operating with more than 2 PRFs

- Fig 4.17 shows a ﬁve pulse stagger (4 periods) response with periods in the ratio 25:30:27:31

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 67

- here the ﬁrst blind speed is 28.25 times that of a constant PRF with the same average period

- if the periods of the staggered pulses have the relationships

where n

1

, n

2

,.....n

N

are integers

and if v

B

is the ﬁrst blind speed of a nonstaggered pulse with period equal to the average period

then the ﬁrst blind speed v

1

is

- weighting can also be applied to received pulses of a staggered PRF

- Fig. 4.18 dashed curve shows the response of a 5 pulse canceler with ﬁxed PRF and using weights of 7/

8;1;-3 3/4; 1 7/8

- the solid curve is for a staggered PRF with the same weights but with 4 interpulse periods of -15%, -5%,

5%, 15%

- Note that the response at the ﬁrst blind speed is down only 6.6dB

- the disadvantage of staggered PRF is its inability to cancel second time around clutter echoes. Such clutter

does not appear at the same range from pulse to pulse and produces uncancelled residue.

- second time around clutter can be removed by the use of constant PRF providing there is pulse to pulse

coherence (i.e. power ampliﬁer form of MTI)

- constant PRF might be employed only over angular sectors where second time around clutter is expected,

n

1

T

1

------

n

2

T

2

------ …

n

n

T

N

------- = =

T

ave

1

N

---- T

1

T

2

…T

N

+ + [ ] =

v

1

v

B

n

1

n

2

…n

N

+ +

N

------------------------------------- =

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or by changing the PRF each time the antenna scans half a beamwidth, or by changing the PRF each scan

period.

Range Gated Doppler Filters

- it is possible to use frequency domain band pass ﬁlters in MTI radar to sort the doppler frequency shifted

targets

- a narrow band ﬁlter with a pass band designed to pass the doppler components of a moving target will ring

when excited by a short radar pulse.

- the narrow band ﬁlter smears the input pulse since the impulse response is the reciprocal of the ﬁlter band-

width. This smearing destroys the range resolution.

- if there are more than one target in the smeared region they can not be resolved

- even for one target, noise from other range cells will interfere (collapsing loss) resulting in reduction in

sensitivity

- the loss of range information and collapsing loss can be eliminated by quantizing the range into small inter-

vals (range gating)

- the width of the range gate is usually of the order of the pulse width

- the range resolution is established by range gating. Once the return is quantized, the output from each gate

is applied to a narrow band ﬁlter since the pulse shape need no linger be preserved for range resolution.

- collapsing loss does not take place since noise from other range intervals is excluded.

- the output of the phase detector is sampled sequentially by range gates

- the range gate acts as a switch which opens and closes at the proper time. Gates are activated once each

PRI.

- the output from a stationary target is s series of pulses of constant amplitude

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 69

- an echo from a moving target produces pulses which vary in amplitude according to the doppler frequency

- the output from the range gates is stretched in boxcar generators (or sample and hold circuits). This helps

the ﬁltering and detection process by emphasizing the fundamental of the modulation frequency and elimi-

nating harmonics of the PRF

- clutter rejection ﬁlter is a band pass ﬁlter whose bandwidth depends on the clutter spectrum

- the full wave rectiﬁer then converts the bipolar video to unipolar form

- an integrator acts as a low pass ﬁlter. The signal is then applied to the threshold detector circuit

- following threshold detection the outputs from each range channel must be properly combined for display

on the PPI etc.

- the band pass ﬁlter can be designed with a variable low frequency cutoff that can be varied to conform to

prevailing clutter conditions (i.e. adaptive)

- for example, a wide notch at DC is needed to remove echoes frombirds but may also remove some desired

targets. Since the appearance of birds varies with time of day and season the adaptive notch width might be

important

- MTI using range gates is more complex than MTI with single delay line canceler

- MTI using range gates improves performance and allows ﬂexibility of range gates and ﬁlter bandwidth.

4.5.Digital Signal Processing

- allows multiple delay line cancelers with tailored frequency response to be achieved

- is more dependable, requires less adjustment than analog cancelers, does not vary with temperature etc.

- most advantages of digital MTI result from the use of digital storage in the place of analog delay lines

- here the IF signal is split into I and Q channels

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- the outputs of the two phase detectors are 90˚ out of phase

- the quadrature channel eliminates the effects of blind phases. Note that this is seldom done in analog delay

line cancelers due to the complexity involved with additional analog delay lines.

- the baseband bipolar video is sampled at a rate to obtain one or more samples per range resolution cell

- the A/D output is stored in the memory for one PRI and then subtracted from the words from the next

sweep

- the I and Q outputs are combined as either or

- the combined output is then converted to an analog signal with D/A for display

Note: more complex ﬁltering schemes are normally implemented.

- the memory can be RAM or a shift register

- A/D must operate at high speeds to preserve the information content, and also have sufﬁcient number of

bits to quantize the signal to preserve precision

- the number of bits determines the maximum improvement factor for the MTI radar

- the A/D converter must cover the peak excursion of the phase detector output. To ensure this, a limiter may

be necessary

- the quantization noise introduced by the A/D imposes a limit to the improvement factor of

where 2

N

- 1 is the number of discrete intervals

this is approximately 6dB / bit

Example:

a 9 bit A/D has 511 levels

thus the maximum resolution is 1 out of 511

= 54 dB

Note: I

QN

= 52.9 which is close

- blind phase - this is different from blind speed

- blind speed occurs when pulse sampling occurs at the same point on the doppler cycle at each sampling

instant (Fig 4.22a)

I

2

Q

2

+ I Q +

I

QN

20 2

N

1 – ( ) 0.75 [ ] log ≈

I 20

511

1

--------- log =

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 71

Fig. 4.22b shows the I channel with the pulse train such that the signals are of the same amplitude and with

spacing such that when pulse a

1

is subtracted from pulse a

2

the result is zero

However a residue is produced when a

2

is subtracted from a

3

, but not when a

3

is subtracted from a

4

.

Note: The pulse pairs that were lost in the I channel are recovered in the Q channel and vice versa

- the combination of I and Q channels results in a uniform signal with no loss

- an extreme case, resulting in the complete loss of signal, occurs, with only one channel when the doppler

frequency is half of the PRF and the phase between the two is such that the echo pulses lie on the zeroes of

the doppler signal

- however if the Q channel is added the all of the echo pulses occur at the peaks of the doppler signal

- other phase relationships also give loss with single channel MTI

Advantages of digital processing over analog delay lines

- greater stability

- greater repeatability

- greater precision

- greater reliability

- no special temperature control required

- greater dynamic range (i.e. no spurious response)

- avoids restriction that PRI and delay time must be equal

- different PRI can be used (without switching delay lines of various lengths in and out)

- greater freedom in selection of amplitude weighting for shaping ﬁlters

- allows easy implementation of I and Q channels (eliminates blind phases)

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Digital Filter Banks and the FFT

- a transversal ﬁlter with N outputs (N-1 delays) can be made to forma bank of N contiguous ﬁlters covering

the spectrum of 0 to PRF

- consider the transversal ﬁlter of Fig. 4.11 to have N-1 delays each with a delay of T = 1/f

p

- let the weights at the outputs be

where i = 1,2,... N represents the ith tap

and k = an index from 1 to N-1

- each k value corresponds to a different set of N weights and to a different doppler frequency response

- the N ﬁlters generated by the index k constitutes the ﬁlter bank

- the impulse response of the transversal ﬁlter with the above weights is:

the Fourier transform yields the frequency response

- the magnitude of the frequency response yields the amplitude characteristic

Note that the peak response occurs when the denominator is zero i.e.

π(fT-k/N)= 0,π,2π ....

for k=0, the peak response occurs at f= 0,1/T,2/T etc.

- this is a ﬁlter centred at DC, the PRF and harmonics of the PRF

- this ﬁlter has no clutter rejection capability, but it is useful fro providing a map of clutter

- the ﬁrst null occurs when the numerator is 0

- for k=0 this is f= 1/NT

- the bandwidth between nulls is then 2/NT and the half power bandwidth is:

BW(3dB) ≈ 0.9/NT

w

ik

e

j 2π i 1 – ( )k N ⁄ [ ] –

=

h

k

t ( ) δ t i 1 – ( )T – [ ]e

j 2π i 1 – ( )k N ⁄ –

i 1 =

N

∑

=

H

k

f ( ) e

j 2πfT –

e

j 2π i 1 – ( ) fT k N ⁄ – [ ]

i 1 =

N

∑

=

H

k

f ( ) e

j 2π i 1 – ( ) fT k N ⁄ – [ ]

i 1 =

N

∑

πN fT k N ⁄ – ( ) [ ] sin

π fT k N ⁄ – ( ) [ ] sin

-------------------------------------------------- = =

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 73

When k=1, the peak response occurs at f = 1/NT, 1/T + 1/NT....

- hence each k deﬁnes a separate ﬁlter response, each with a bandwidth between nulls of 2/NT

- since each ﬁlter occupies the 1/N bandwidth of a delay line canceler, its SNR will be greater than the delay

line canceler

- also the dividing of the band by N ﬁlters allows a measure of the doppler frequency to be made

- if moving clutter (birds, weather) appears, the threshold of each ﬁlter may be adjusted individually to adapt

to the clutter in it.

- this selectivity allows clutter to be removed which would be passed by a delay line canceler

- the ﬁrst sidelobe level is at -13dB

c

for the ﬁlters with the above weights. This can be reduced at the expense

of wider bandwidth by adjusting the weights (windowing)

- two forms of windows are the Hamming and the Hanning

- it is not always convenient to display outputs of all of the doppler ﬁlters. One approach is to connect ﬁlter

outputs to a “greatest of” circuit, so that only one output is obtained (Note: the ﬁlter at DC would be

excluded)

- the improvement factor for each of the 8 ﬁlters of a 8 ﬁlter bank is shown in Fig. 4.24 as a function of the

standard deviation of the clutter spectrum, for a spectrum represented as a Gaussian function.

- for comparison, the improvement factor for an N pulse canceler is shown in Fig. 4.25

Note: the improvement factor for a two pulse canceler is almost as good as that of the 8 pulse doppler ﬁlter

bank. However, maximizing the improvement factor is not the only criterion for judging the effectiveness of

MTI doppler processes

- if a 2 or 3 pulse canceler is cascaded with a doppler ﬁlter bank, better clutter rejection is obtained

- Fig. 4.26 gives I

c

for a 3 pulse canceler cascaded with an 8 pulse ﬁlter bank. The upper ﬁgure assumes uni-

form amplitude weights (-13.2 dB sidelobes) and the lower ﬁgure gives the results for Chebyshev weights (-

25 dB sidelobes)

- It is found that doubling the number of pulses in the ﬁlter bank to 16 does not offer signiﬁcant improve-

ment (i.e. increased pulses ⇒increase in bandwidth as well as decreased sidelobes

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radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 75

- if the sidelobes of the individual ﬁlters in the ﬁlter bank can be made low, the inclusion of the delay line

canceler ahead of it might not be necessary

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4.6 Other MTI Delay Lines

- solid crystal has been mentioned previously

- electrostatic storage tube

- here the signals are stored on a mesh similar to that of a TV camera. The ﬁrst sweep reads the sig-

nal on the storage tube. the next sweep written on the same space and generates the difference

between the two. Two tubes are required; one to write and store the new sweep, the other to subtract

the new sweep from the old. The electrostatic storage tube can be used with different PRFs

- the charge transfer device (CTD) is a sampled data, analog shift register which can be used as a delay line,

transversal ﬁlter and recursive ﬁlter

- there are two types of CTD;

- the bucket brigade device (BBD) with capacitive storage elements separated by switches. Here the

data is transferred through the BBD at a rate determined by the rate at which the switches are oper-

ated. The delay time is determined by the number of stages and the switching (or clock) speed.

- charge coupled devices (CCDs) are similar except that charge packets are transferred to adjacent

potential wells by a clocked potential gradient

Notes: - the sampling frequency must give one or two samples per resolution cell

- no A/D or D/A required as for digital systems

- MTI cancelling can be done at IF. Here no blind phases occur

- ﬁnally the video can FM modulate a carrier f

or acoustic delay. This avoids problems of amplitude stability of acoustic delay lines.

4.7 Example of an MTI Radar Processor

- the moving target detector (MTD) was developed by Lincoln Labs for the FAA’s airport surveillance radars

(ASR)

- the ASR is a medium range (60 NM) radar located at most US airports.

- it has 2.7 to 2.9 GHz RF, 1µs pulse width, 1.4 ˚ azimuth beamwidth, antenna rotation rate of 12.5 to 15

RPM PRF from 700 to 1200 Hz and average power from 400 to 600 W.

- the MTD processor is based on digital technology.

- uses a 3 pulse canceler followed by an 8 pulse FFT doppler ﬁlter bank with weighting to reduce sidelobes

- the total system has alternating PRFs to eliminate blind speeds, adaptive thresholds and a clutter map used

for detecting targets with zero radial speed.

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 77

- the measured I

c

of the MTD on the ASR was 45 dB (20 dB better than with a conventional 3 pulse MTI

processor)

- the MTD also achieves a narrower notch at zero velocity blind speeds

- the processor is preceded by a large dynamic range receiver to avoid reduction in I

c

caused by limiting

- the IF is applied to I & Q detectors and the video is A/Dd with 10 bit resolution

- the range totalling 47.5 NM is divided into 1/16 NM intervals and the azimuth into 0.75 ˚ intervals

- in each 0.75˚ interval (≈ 1/2 beamwidth) 10 pulses are transmitted at constant PRF

- on receive the 10 pulses are processed by the delay line canceller and doppler ﬁlter bank which forms 8

doppler ﬁlters

- hence the radar output is divided into 2,920,000 range/azimuth/doppler cells

- each cell has its own adaptive threshold

- in the alternate 0.75˚ azimuth intervals another 10 pulses are transmitted at a different PRF

- changing PRF every 10 pulses eliminates second time around clutter

- the MTD processor is shown in Fig. 4.27. The 3 pulse canceler ahead of the ﬁlter bank eliminates station-

ary clutter ahead of the ﬁlter bank and reduces the dynamic range required of the doppler ﬁlter bank

since the ﬁrst two pulses of a three pulse canceler are useless, only the last 8 of the 10 pulses are passed to

the ﬁlter bank (implemented using the FFT)

- following the ﬁlter bank, weighting is applied in the frequency domain to reduce the ﬁlter sidelobes. This is

necessary since the frequency spectrum of rain and wind blown clutter requires sidelobes lower than the -

13.2 dB available from uniformly weighted samples

- the magnitude operation forms I

2

Q

2

+

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- separate thresholds are applied to each ﬁlter. For non zero velocity resolution cells the thresholds are estab-

lished by scanning the detected outputs of the same velocity ﬁlter in 16 range cells, eight on either side of the

cell of interest

- hence each ﬁlter output is averaged over one mile in range to get the mean level of non zero velocity clutter

- the ﬁlter thresholds are determined by multiplying the mean levels by a constant to achieve the desired P

fa

- this adaptive threshold on each doppler ﬁlter at each range cell provides a constant false alarmrate (CFAR)

and results in subclutter visibility (for different radial velocities of aircraft and weather)

- a digital clutter map establishes the thresholds for zero velocity cells. The map is implemented with one

word for each of the 365000 range/azimuth cells

- the purpose of the zero velocity ﬁlter is to recover the clutter signal and use it to establish a threshold for

targets with zero radial velocity

- in each cell of the ground clutter map is stored the average value of the output of the zero velocity ﬁlter for

the past 8 scans (32 seconds) On each scan 1/8 of the output is added to 7/8 of the value stored in the map

- the map is built up recursively requiring 10 to 20 scans to establish steady state clutter values

- the values in the map are multiplied by a constant to establish a threshold for zero velocity targets. This

allows elimination of usual MTI blind speed at zero relative velocity for targets with large cross section

- the MTD ﬁlters are shown in Fig. 4.28

- here the ﬁlters 3 through 7 establish the threshold from the mean signal in 16 range cells

- ﬁlter 1 establishes the threshold from the clutter map

- ﬁlters 2 and 8 adjacent to the zero velocity ﬁlter establish the threshold from the larger of the mean signal

over 16 range cells and the clutter map

- Fig 4.28 also shows the advantage of using 2 PRFs to detect targets in rain. As shown, the PRFs are 20%

different.

- typical rain storm spectrum is shown o the bottom and has about 25 to 30 knots width centred anywhere

from - 60 to +60 knots

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 79

- an aircraft return is also shown at the right of the ﬁgure and is shown as occupying ﬁlters 6 and 7 on PRF-1

and ﬁlters 7 and 8 on PRF-2 (the difference is due to frequency foldover)

- with PRF-2 the aircraft velocity is competing with the rain clutter, but at PRF-1 it is clear of clutter.

- hence by using 2 PRFs alternating every 10 pulses, aircraft targets will appear in at least one ﬁlter free of

rain (except when the aircraft’s radial velocity is that of the rain)

- interference from other radars may appear as one large return among the ten returns processed

- the MTD has an interference eliminator which compares the magnitude of each of the ten pulses against

the average magnitude of the ten pulses. If any pulse is greater than 5 times the average, all information from

that range/azimuth cell is discarded

- the output of the MTD is a hit report containing azimuth, range, amplitude, ﬁlter number and PRF

- on one scan, a large aircraft might be reported frommore than one doppler ﬁlter, fromseveral coherent pro-

cessing intervals and from adjacent range cells

- up to 20 hit reports might be generated from a single large target

- a post processor groups together all reports which appear to originate fromthe same target and interpolates

to ﬁnd the best azimuth, range, amplitude and radar velocity

- target amplitude and doppler are used to eliminate small cross section and low speed angle echoes before

targets are delivered to the automatic tracking circuits.

- tracking circuits eliminate false hit reports which do not form logical tracks

- the output of the automatic tracker is what is displayed on the PPI.

- since the MTD processor eliminates large amounts of clutter and has a low false detection rate, its output

can be remoted via narrow bandwidth telephone

4. 8 Limitations of MTI Performance

- improvement in signal to clutter is affected by factors other than the doppler spectrum

- instabilities in the transmitter and receiver, physical motion of the clutter, ﬁnite time on target and receiver

limiting all affect I

c

.

Deﬁnitions

- MTI Improvement Factor, I

The signal to clutter ratio at the output of the MTI systemdivided by the signal to clutter ratio at the

input, averaged over all of the target radial velocities of interest

- Subclutter Visibility (SCV):

The ratio by which the target echo may be weaker than the coincident clutter echo power and still

be detected with speciﬁed P

d

and P

fa

. All target radial velocities are assumed equally likely

97.460 PART II RADAR

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Note: A typical value is 30 dB

Note: two radars with the same subclutter visibility might not have the same ability to detect targets

in clutter if the resolution cell of one is greater and accepts more clutter echo power

- Clutter Visibility Factor V

oc

- the signal to clutter ratio after cancellation (or doppler processing) that provides the stated P

d

and

P

fa

- Clutter Attenuation CA

- the ratio of the clutter power at the canceler input to the clutter residue at the output, normalized

(divided by) to the attenuation of a single pulse passing through the unprocessed channel of the

canceler

- Cancellation Ratio

- the ratio of canceler voltage ampliﬁcation fro ﬁxed target echoes received with a ﬁxed antenna, to

the gain for a single pulse passing through the unprocessed channel of the canceler.

Note:

Note: When the MTI is limited by noiselike system instabilities, V

oc

should be chosen as the SNR for range

equation calculations

Note: when the MTI is limited by antenna scanning ﬂuctuations, let V

oc

= 6dB for a single pulse

Note: Once again, I is the preferred measure of MTI performance but does not account for possible poor per-

formance at certain velocities

- Interclutter Visibility

- the ability of the MTI to detect moving targets in clear resolution cells between patches of strong

clutter. Resolution cells can be range, azimuth or doppler

Note: the higher the radar resolution, the better the interclutter visibility. A medium resolution radar with 2

µs pulse width and 1.5 ˚ beamwidth has sufﬁcient resolution to achieve a 20 dB advantage over low resolu-

tion radars

Equipment Instabilities

- the apparent frequency spectrum from perfectly stationary clutter can be broadened (and hence will

degrade the MTI improvement factor) due to the following:

- pulse to pulse changes in amplitude

- pulse to pulse changes in frequency

- pulse to pulse changes in phase

- timing jitter on transient pulse

I

c

SCV ( ) V

oc

( ) =

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 81

- variations in time delay through the delay lines

- changes in pulse width

- changes in coho or stalo between time of transmit and time of receive

- consider the effect of phase variations.

- let the echo from a stationary clutter on pulse 1 and pulse 2 be

where ∆φ is the change in oscillator phase between the two pulses

- On subtraction

- hence the limitation on the improvement factor due to oscillator instability is

Note: to achieve I > 40 dB requires ∆φ < 0.01 rad from pulse to pulse!. This applies to the coho locking or

the phase change introduced by the HPA

- the limits to I imposed by pulse to pulse instability are:

Transmitter frequency (π∆fτ.)

-2

Stalo or coho frequency (2π∆fT)

-2

Transmitter phase shift (∆φ)

-2

Coho locking (∆φ)

-2

Pulse timing τ

2

/(∆t)

2

2Bτ

Pulse width τ

2

/(∆τ)

2

Bτ

Pulse amplitude (A/∆A)

2

where ∆f = interpulse frequency change

B = bandwidth

τ · pulse width

T = transmission time

∆φ = interpulse phase change

∆t = timing jitter

∆τ = pulse width jitter

∆A = interpulse amplitude change

Note: the digital processor does not experience degradation due to timing jitter of the transmit pulse if the

clock controlling the processor timing is started from the detected RF envelope of the transmitted pulse

Internal Fluctuation of Clutter

- absolutely stationary clutter - buildings, water towers, mountains, bare hills

g

1

A ωt cos =

g

2

A ωt ∆φ + ( ) cos =

g

1

t ( ) g

2

t ( ) – 2A

∆φ

2

-------

. ,

| `

ωt

∆φ

2

------- +

. ,

| `

A∆φ ωt

∆φ

2

------- +

. ,

| `

sin ≈ sin sin =

I

A

2

A∆φ ( )

2

------------------

1

∆φ ( )

2

-------------- = =

97.460 PART II RADAR

82 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

- dynamic clutter - trees, vegetation, sea, rain, chaff

- can limit the performance of MTI

- most ﬂuctuating clutter targets can be represented by a model consisting of many independent scatterers

located in the resolution cell

- any motion of the scatterers relative to the radar results in a different vector sum from pulse to pulse

- Fig. 4.29 shows the power spectral density of clutter for a 1 GHz carrier

- experimentally measured spectra of clutter can be approximated by

where W(f) = clutter power spectrum

g(f) = Fourier transform of the clutter waveform

f

0

= radar carrier frequency

a = a parameter (given by Fig 4.29)

- this equation can be rewritten as:

(19)

where σ

c

is the RMS clutter frequency spread in Hz

- or as

W f ( ) g f ( )

2

g

0

2

a

f

f

0

------

. ,

| `

2

– exp = =

W f ( ) W

0

f

2

–

2σ

c

2

--------- exp =

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 83

where σ

v

is the clutter velocity spread in m/s

Note:

- the improvement factor can be written as (20)

where CA = C

i

/C

0

- clutter attenuation averaged over all doppler frequencies

- for a single delay line canceler

(21)

where H(f) is the frequency response of the canceler

- for a single delay line canceler

h(f) = 1- exp(-j2πfT)

= 2jsin(πfT)exp(-jπfT) (22)

- substituting eqn 19 and 22 into 21 gives

assuming σ

c

<< 1/T yields

- if the exponential is small, we can use the ﬁrst two terms of its series expansion

W f ( ) W

0

f

2

λ

2

–

8σ

v

2

---------------- exp =

σ

c

2σ

v

λ

--------- =

a

c

2

8σ

v

2

--------- =

I

S

0

C

0

⁄

S

i

C

i

⁄

----------------

. ,

| `

S

0

S

i

-----

. ,

| `

ave

CA = =

CA

W f ( ) f d

0

∞

∫

W f ( ) H f ( )

2

f d

0

∞

∫

---------------------------------------------- =

CA

W

0

f ( ) f

2

2σ

c

2

⁄ – [ ] f d exp

0

∞

∫

W

0

f

2

2σ

c

2

⁄ – [ ]4 πfT ( ) sin

2

exp f d

0

∞

∫

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- =

CA

0.5

1 2π

2

T

2

σ

c

2

– [ ] exp –

--------------------------------------------------- =

97.460 PART II RADAR

84 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

or

or

Now the average gain (S

0

/S

i

)

ave

for the single delay line canceler is 2

- hence (25)

- similarly for a double canceler, whose average gain is 6

(26)

- a plot of equation 26 is shown in Fig 4.30 with f

p

λ as a parameter. Several representative examples of clut-

CA

f

p

2

4π

2

σ

c

2

------------------ =

CA

f

p

2

λ

2

16π

2

σ

v

2

--------------------- =

CA

af

p

2

2π

2

f

0

2

------------------ =

I

1c

f

p

2

2π

2

σ

c

2

---------------

f

p

2

λ

2

8π

2

σ

v

2

---------------

a f

p

2

π

2

f

0

2

------------ = = =

I

2c

f

p

4

8π

4

σ

c

4

---------------

f

p

4

λ

4

128π

4

σ

v

4

----------------------

a

2

f

p

4

2π

4

f

0

4

---------------- = = =

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 85

ter are indicated at particular values of σ

v

- Note: σ

v

(spectral spread in velocity) is with respect to the mean velocity which for ground clutter is zero.

- rain, sea echo and chaff have non zero mean velocity which must be accounted for

- Note: the frequency dependence of equations 25 and 26 for the clutter spectrum can not be extended over

too great a frequency range since no account is taken of variation of cross section of individual scatterers as

a function of frequency

- for example the leaves and branches of trees have considerably different reﬂecting properties at K

a

band

where their dimensions are comparable to λ, than at UHF frequencies.

- the general form for an N pulse canceler with N

l

= N-1 delay lines is

Antenna Scanning Modulation

- a scanning antenna observes a target for time t

0

where n

B

is the number of hits received

- the received pulse train of ﬁnite duration t

0

has a frequency spectrum which is proportional to 1/t

0

I

NC

2

N

l

N

l

!

--------

f

p

2πσ

c

------------

. ,

| `

2N

l

=

t

0

n

B

f

p

-------

θ

B

θ

˙

S

------ = =

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86 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

- hence even if the clutter were perfectly stationary, the clutter spectrumwould have a ﬁnite width due to the

ﬁnite time on target.

- if the clutter spectrum is too wide due to too short an observation interval, the improvement factor will be

affected

- this limitation is called scanning ﬂuctuation or scanning modulation

- to ﬁnd the limitation on I

c

we ﬁrst ﬁnd the clutter attenuation CA

here W

S

(f) describes the spectrum produced by the ﬁnite time on target

and H(f) is the MTI processor frequency response

- if the antenna main beam is approximated by a Gaussian shape, the spectrum will also be Gaussian. hence

the results previously derived for a Gaussian clutter spectrum can be applied.

- thus equations 25 and 26 apply for the antenna scanning ﬂuctuations with the correct interpretation of σ

c

(the RMS spread of the spectrum about the mean)

- here the voltage waveform for the clutter is modulated by the antenna power pattern (equal to the two way

ﬁeld strength pattern), as it is rotated

now

where θ and θ

B

are in degrees

therefore

where S

a

(t) is the modulation of the received signal due to the antenna pattern

and is the scan rate in ˚/s.

CA

W

S

f ( ) f d

0

∞

∫

W

S

f ( ) H f ( )

2

f d

0

∞

∫

------------------------------------------------ =

G θ ( ) G

0

2.776θ

2

–

θ

B

2

---------------------- exp =

S

a

G

0

2.776

θ

θ

˙

s

-----

. ,

| `

2

–

θ

B

θ

˙

s

------

. ,

| `

2

------------------------------ exp =

θ

˙

s

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 87

now and

hence

- the spectrum is found by taking the Fourier transform

=

Since this is a Gaussian function we must have

- hence Note: this is for the voltage spectrum

- for the power spectrum we have

- hence the σ

s

due to the antenna scanning is

- substituting this for σ

c

in equations 25 and 26 yields

single canceler

and

θ

θ

˙

s

----- t =

θ

B

θ

˙

s

------ t

0

=

S

a

K

2.776t

2

–

t

0

2

--------------------- exp =

S

a

K

2.776t

2

–

t

0

2

--------------------- j2πft – [ ] exp exp t d

∞ –

∞

∫

=

K

1

π

2

f

2

t

0

2

–

2.776

-------------------- exp

π

2

f

2

t

0

2

–

2.776

--------------------

f

2

2σ

f

2

---------- =

σ

f

1.178

πt

0

------------- =

σ

s

σ

f

2

------- =

σ

s

1

3.77t

0

--------------- =

I

1s

n

B

2

1.388

------------- =

I

2s

n

B

4

3.853

------------- =

97.460 PART II RADAR

88 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

- Note: the stepped scan antenna also is limited in MTI performance by the ﬁnite time on target. The time

waveform is rectangular which gives a different improvement factor.

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 89

Limiting in MTI Radar

- a limiter is used just before the MTI processor to prevent the residue fromlarge clutter echoes fromsaturat-

ing the display

- ideally an MTI radar should reduce clutter to a level comparable to noise. However, when I is not great

enough, the clutter residue will appear on the display and prevent the detection of aircraft whose radar cross

section is larger than the clutter residue.

- this condition can be prevented by setting the limit L relative to the noise N equal to the MTI improvement

factor I

- if the limit level is set too high, clutter residue obscures part of the display. If the limit is set too low, there

may be a black hole effect

- the limiter provides a CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate)

- a nonlinear limiter however causes the spectrum of strong clutter to spread into the canceler pass band and

results in the generation of additional residue which degrades the MTI performance.

- Figure 4.32 plots I for 2 pulse and 3 pulse cancelers with various levels of limiting. The abscissa applies to

Gaussian clutter spectrum generated by clutter motion (σ

v

) or by antenna scanning modulation (n

B

)

- here C/L is the ratio of RMS clutter power to the IF limit level

Note: the loss of I increases with the complexity of the canceler. Limiting in a 3 pulse canceler will cause a

15 to 25 dB reduction in performance. A 4 pulse canceler with limiting is only 2 dB better than a 3 pulse

canceler. Hence adding complexity is not justiﬁed in a limiting environment

- limiting is not needed if processor I is large enough to reduce the largest clutter to the noise level (typically

requires I ≈ 60 dB). This is difﬁcult to achieve since it requires the receiver to have a linear dynamic range of

at least 60 dB, the A/D must have at least 11 bits, the equipment must be stable, the processor must be

designed for I = 60 dB and the number of pulses processed must be sufﬁcient to reduce the antenna scanning

modulation

L

N

---- I =

97.460 PART II RADAR

90 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 91

5.10 tracking with Surveillance Radar

- the track of a target can be determined with a surveillance radar from the coordinates of the target mea-

sured from scan to scan

- the quality of such a track depends on the time between observations, the location accuracy of each obser-

vation and the number of extraneous targets present in the vicinity of the tracked target

- a surveillance radar which develops tracks on targets it has detected is called a “track while scan” (TWS)

radar

- tracks can be obtained by having an operator mark the location of a target on the face of the PPI with a

grease pencil on each scan

- a single operator however can not handle more than about 6 target tracks when the radar has a twelve sec-

ond scan rate

- also an operator’s effectiveness in detecting new targets decreases rapidly after 1/2 hour of operation

- these problems are avoided by automating the target detection and tracking process. This is called “auto-

matic detection and tracking (ADT)

- the ADT performs the following functions:

- target detection

- track initiation

- track association

- track update

- track smoothing

- track termination

- the automatic detection quantizes the range into intervals equal to the range resolution

- at each range interval the detector integrates n pulses (n is the expected number of hits expected from the

target due to the antenna scan rate)

- the integrated pulses are compared with the threshold to determine the presence or absence of a target

- an example is the “moving window detector” which examines continuously the last n samples within each

quantized range and announces the presence of a target if m out of n of these samples cross a preset thresh-

old

- by locating the centre of the n pulses, an estimate of the target’s angular direction can be obtained. This is

called “beam splitting”

- if there is only one target present within the radar’s coverage, then the detection on two scans is all that is

required to establish a target track and estimate its’ velocity.

- however there are usually other targets plus clutter echoes and hence three or more detections are necessary

to establish a track reliably without the generation of false tracks.

- a computer can recognize and reject false tracks, however too many false tracks can overload a computer

97.460 PART II RADAR

92 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

- hence the radar using ADT should exclude unwanted signals from clutter and interference

- a good ADT system therefore requires a good MTI and a good CFAR receiver

- a clutter map generated by the radar is sometimes used to reduce the load on the tracking computer by

blanking the clutter areas and removing detections associated with large point clutter sources not rejected by

the MTI

- slowly moving echoes that are not of interest can also be removed by the clutter map

- the availability of distinctive target characteristics such as altitude might prove of help when performing

track association

- when a new detection is received, an attempt is made to associate it with existing tracks

- this is aided by establishing for each track a small search region (gate) within which a new detection is pre-

dicted based on the estimate of the target speed and direction.

- it is desired to make the gate as small as possible to avoid having more than one echo fall within it when

trafﬁc density is high, or when two tracks are close

- however a large gate is required if the tracker is to follow target maneuvres.

- hence more than one gate size may be used

- the size of the gate depends on the accuracy of the track

- when a target does not appear in the small gate, a larger gate could be used. The size of the second gate

would depend on the maximum acceleration expected of the target

- on the basis of past detections, the track while scan radar must make smoothed estimates of the target posi-

tion and velocity as well as the predicted position and velocity

- one method of computing this information is the α−β tracker (also called the g-h tracker)

- here the present smoothed target position and velocity are computed using

where x

pn

= the predicted position of the target at the nth scan

x

n

= the measured position at the nth scan

α = the position smoothing parameter

β = the velocity smoothing parameter

T

s

= the time between observations

- the predicted position at the n+1 scan is

x v

x

n

x

pn

α x

n

x

pn

– ( ) + =

v

n

v

n 1 –

β

T

s

------ x

n

x

pn

– ( ) + =

x

pn 1 +

x

n

v

n

T

s

+ =

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 93

- when acceleration is important, a third equation can be added to describe an α−β−γ tracker where γ is the

acceleration smoothing parameter

- if α · β · 0 then the tracker uses no current data, only smoothed data.

- if α · β · 1 then no smoothing is included at all

- the α−β ﬁlter is designed to minimize the mean square error in the smoothed (ﬁltered) position and veloc-

ity assuming small velocity changes between observations

- to minimize the output noise variance at steady state, and the transient response to a maneuvering target

modeled by a ramp function the α−β coefﬁcients are related by

- the choice of α between 0 and 1 depends on the system application and in particular on the tracking band-

width

- a compromise must be made between good smoothing (narrowbandwidth) and rapid response to maneuvre

(wide bandwidth)

- a criterion for selecting the α,β coefﬁcients is based on the best linear track ﬁtted to the radar data in the

least squares sense. This gives values

n>2

n>2

where n = the number of scans or target observations

- a standard α − β tracker does not handle the maneuvering target

- an adaptive α − β tracker is one which varies the two smoothing parameters to achieve a variable band-

width so as to be able to follow maneuvres.

- the value of α can be set by observing the measurement error x

n

- x

pn

- at the start of the tracking, the bandwidth is set to be wide and is narrowed down if the target moves in a

straight line

- as the target maneuvres, the bandwidth is widened to keep the tracking error small

- a Kalman ﬁlter is similar to an adaptive α − β tracker except that it inherently provides for dynamical tar-

gets

- here a model for the measurement error has to be assumed, as well a model of the target trajectory and the

disturbance of the trajectory

- disturbances might be due to neglect of higher order derivatives in the model of the dynamics, random

motions due to atmospheric turbulence, and target maneuvres

β

α

2

2 α –

------------ =

α

2 2n 1 – ( )

n n 1 + ( )

----------------------- =

β

6

n n 1 + ( )

-------------------- =

97.460 PART II RADAR

94 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

- Kalman ﬁlters can use a wide variety of models for measurement noise and trajectory disturbance, however

these are usually assumed to be white noise with zero mean

- a maneuvering target does not always ﬁt this model since it produces correlated observations. Proper inclu-

sion of realistic dynamical models increases the complexity of the calculations

- The Kalman ﬁlter is sophisticated but costly to implement

- its chief advantage over the classical α − β tracker is its inherent ability to account for maneuvre statistics

- if Kalman ﬁlters were restricted to modelling the target trajectory as a straight line and if the measurement

noise and trajectory disturbance noise were modeled as white Gaussian noise with zero mean, then the Kal-

man ﬁlter equations reduce to α − β tracker equations, with the α and β computed sequentially by the Kal-

man ﬁlter procedure

- the classical α − β is easy to implement

- to handle maneuvering targets, some means may be included to detect maneuvres and to change the values

of α and β.

- the data rate might also be increased during target maneuvres in some radar systems

- as means for choosing α and β become more sophisticated, the optimal α − β tracker becomes equivalent to

a Kalman ﬁlter even for a target trajectory with error

- here the computation of α and β require a knowledge of the statistics of the measurement errors and the

prediction errors, and are determined in a recursive manner in that they depend on previous estimates of the

mean square error in the smoothed position and velocity

Note: The concept of the α − β tracker or the Kalman ﬁlter apply also to a continuous single target tracker

where the error signal is processed digitally. The equations describing the α − β tracker are equivalent to a

Type II servo system

- of the track while scan radar does not receive target information on a particular scan, the smoothing and

predicting operations can be continued by accounting for the missing data

- when data to update a track is missing for a sufﬁcient number of consecutive scans, the track is terminated

Example: if the criterion for establishing a track is 3 target reports, 5 consecutive misses is suitable for termi-

nation

- ADT effectively reduces the bandwidth in the radar output allowing the data to be transmitted to a remote

site via narrow band phone lines

- this allows the outputs from several radars to be communicated to a central control point economically

- the adaptive thresholding of the automatic detector can cause worsening of the range resolution

- it would seem that two targets might be resolved if their separation is about 0.8 pulse width

- however with automatic detection, the probability of resolving targets in range only exceeds 0.9 if they are

separated by 2.5 pulse widths

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 95

- to achieve this resolution, a log video receiver should be used and the threshold should be proportioned to

the smaller of the two means calculated from a number of reference cells on either side of the test cell

- this resolution limit assumes that the shape of the return pulse is not known. (If it were, it would be possible

to resolve targets within one pulse width)

- when more than one radar are covering the same volume of space, it is sometimes desirable to combine

their outputs to form a single track ﬁle (Automatic Detection and Integrated Tracking, ADIT)

- ADIT has the advantage of a greater data rate than a single radar and reduces the likelihood of a loss of tar-

get detections caused by antenna lobing, fading, interference and clutter

- the integrated processing allows a favourable weighting of better data and lesser weighting of the poorer

data

RADAR ENGINEERING

1. Introduction - Radar is an electromagnetic system for the detection and location of objects (RAdio Detection And Ranging) - radar operates by transmitting a particular type of waveform and detecting the nature of the signals reﬂected back from objects - radar can not resolve detail or colour as well as the human eye (an optical frequency passive scatterometer) - radar can see in conditions which do not permit the eye to see such as darkness, haze, rain, smoke - radar can also measure the distances to objects - the elemental radar system consists of a transmitter unit, an antenna for emitting electromagnetic radiation and receiving the echo, an energy detecting receiver and a processor. - a portion of the transmitted signal is intercepted by a reﬂecting object (target) and is reradiated in all directions - the antenna collects the returned energy in the backscatter direction and delivers it to the receiver - the distance to the receiver is determined by measuring the time taken for the electromagnetic signal to travel to the target and back. - the direction of the target is determined by the angle of arrival (AOA) of the reﬂected signal. - also if there is relative motion between the radar and the target, there is a shift in frequency of the reﬂected signal (Doppler effect) which is a measure of the radial component of the relative velocity. This can be used to distinguish between moving targets and stationary ones. -Radar was ﬁrst developed to warn of the approach of hostile aircraft and for directing anti aircraft weapons. - modern radars can provide AOA, Doppler, MTI etc.

- the simplest radar waveform is a train of narrow (0.1µs to 10µs) rectangular pulses modulating a sinusoidal carrier - the distance to the target is determined from the time TR taken by the pulse to travel to the target and return and from the knowledge that electromagnetic energy travels at the speed of light thus:

cT R R = --------2

or R(km)=0.15TR(µs) or R(nm)=0.081TR(µs)

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

1

the radar range equation relates the range of the radar to the characteristics of the transmitter.97.mif 1/6/06 .more advanced signal waveforms then the above are often used -e.460 PART II RADAR . the carrier may be frequency modulated (FM or chirp) or phase modulated (pseudorandom biphase) too permit the echo signals to be compressed in time after reception. receiver. target and the environment.radars employ directional antennas to channel the radiated power Pt in a particular direction .if the PRF is too high echo signals from some targets may arrive after the transmission of the next pulse. This rate is called the pulse repetition rate (PRF) . Such pulses are called second time around pulses . .the gain G of an antenna is the measure of the increased power radiated in the direction of the target. antenna. This leads to ambiguous range measurements. . compared to the power that would have been radiated from an isotropic antenna 2 radarnotes_2006.thus the maximum rate at which pulses can be transmitted is determined by the maximum range at which targets are expected.here the 4πR2 represents the surface area of the sphere at distance R . The Radar Range Equation . Note: unmodulated CW waveforms do not permit the measurement of range. -If the transmitter delivers PT Watts into an isotropic antenna.once the pulse is transmitted by the radar a sufﬁcient length of time must elapse before the next pulse to allow echoes from targets at the maximum range to be detected. .the range beyond which second time around pulses occur is called the maximum unambiguous range c R UNAMBIG = --------2fP where fP is the PRF in Hz.it is used as a tool to help in specifying radar subsystem speciﬁcations in the design phase of a program.this achieves high range resolution without the need for short pulses and hence allows the use of the higher energy of longer pulses . then the power density R from the radar is PT -----------2 4πR (W/m2) at a distance . .this technique is called pulse compression -also CW waveforms can be used by taking advantage of the Doppler shift to separate the received echo from the transmitted signal.g.

∴ Pt G Power density from a directional antenna = -----------2 4πR .Since the power density (Watts/m2) is intercepted across an area Ae. It can be thought of as the size of the target as seen by the radar. These are related by: Ae G ----.-----------.mif 1/6/06 3 .Now the maximum range Rmax is the distance beyond which the target cannot be detected due to insufﬁcient received power Pr The minimum power which the receiver can detect is called the minimum detectable signal Smin.the target intercepts a portion of the incident power and redirects it in various directions . the power delivered to the receiver is Pt G σ P r = -----------.-----------2 2 4πR 4πR Note: the radar cross-section σ has the units of area.= ----2 4π λ As long as the radar uses the same antenna for transmission and reception we have 1 -4 Pt G λ σ R max = ------------------------3 ( 4π ) S min 2 2 or radarnotes_2006.the measure of the amount of incident power by the target and redirected back in the direction of the radar is called the cross section σ.the receiving antenna effectively intercepts the power of the echo signal at the radar over a certain area called the effective area Ae . . Pt G σ Hence the Power density of the echo signal at the radar= -----------. Setting Pr= Smin and rearranging the above equation gives 1 -- Pt G Ae σ 4 R max = ------------------------2 ( 4π ) S min Note here that we have both the antenna gain on transmit and its effective area on receive.A e 2 2 4πR 4πR .

1 MW Note 1: these three forms of the equation for Rmax vary with different powers of λ.460 PART II RADAR 2 Pt Ae σ 4 R max = ----------------------2 4πλ S min 1 -- Example: Use the radar range equation to determine the required transmit power for the TRACS radar given Prmin =10-13 Watts G=2000 λ=0. This results from implicit assumptions about the independence of G or Ae from λ.mif 1/6/06 .0 ) 8 4 = 3.0m2 c Now R max = ----------PRF From P r ( 4π ) R P t = -----------------------------------2 2 4 G λ ( PRF ) σ 3 4 – 13 3 3 ( 10 ) ( 10 ) ( 4π ) ---------------- 2 P t = -----------------------------------------------------------------2 ˙˙ 2 4 ( 2000 ) ( 0. clutter. noise ﬁgure etc.23m PRF=524 σ=2. Note 3: The observed maximum range is often much smaller than that predicted from the above equation due to the exclusion of factors such as rainfall attenuation.23 ) ( 524 ) ( 2. Note 2: the introduction of additional constraints (such as the requirement to scan a speciﬁc volume of space in a given time) can yield other λ dependence.97. 4 radarnotes_2006.

Although it provides better sensitivity.mif 1/6/06 5 . This is done by the duplexer.duplexer consists of 2 gas discharge tubes called the TR (transmit/receive) and the and an ATR (anti transmit/receive) cell .the magnetron is the most widely used oscillator . The LNA is not always desirable. .typical PRFs are several hundreds of pulses per second b) The waveform travels to the antenna where it is radiated c) The receiver must be protected from damage resulting from the high power of the transmitter. .typical power required to detect a target at 200 NM is MW peak power and several kW average power . A receiver with just a mixer front end has greater dynamic range. it reduces the dynamic range of operation of the mixer.typical pulse lengths are several µs . -solid state ferrite circulators and receiver protectors with gas plasma (radioactive keep alive) tubes are also used in duplexers c) The receiver is usually a superheterodyne type.The TR protects the receiver during transmission and the ATR directs the echo to the receiver during reception.RADAR BLOCK DIAGRAM AND OPERATION WAVEGUIDE PRESSURIZER DUPLEXER TRANSMITTER (HPA) LNA (LOW NOISE AMPLIFIER) X IF STRIP 2nd DETECTOR VIDEO AMP DISPLAY (PROCESSOR) ~ BITE POWER SUPPLIES TIMING ELECTRONICS a) transmitter may be an oscillator (magnetron) that is pulsed on and off by a modulator to generate the pulse train. is less susceptible to overload and is less vulnerable to electronic interference radarnotes_2006.duplexer also channels the return echo signals to the receiver and not to the transmitter .

. 140Mz. mixer Si max d) The mixer and Local Oscillator (LO) convert the RF frequency to the IF frequency.the IF is typically 300MHz. 60 MHz. 6 radarnotes_2006. EFFECT OF LNA ON DYNAMIC RANGE ~ X 1dB compression Si max DR Noise Floor LSi min Si min LSi max DR ~ G X 1dB compression.the IF strip should be designed to give a matched ﬁlter output.this occurs if the |H(f)| (magnitude of the frequency response of the IF strip is equal to the signal spectrum of the echo signal |S(f)|. and the ARG(H(f)) (phase of the frequency response) is the negative of the ARG(S(f)). . . This requires its H(f) to maximize the signal to noise power ratio at the output.97. mixer Si max G DR Noise Floor L(GNi+Ne) Si minGL GNi+Ne Si max GL Noise Floor Noise Floor Si minG Si min Ni 1dB compression.460 PART II RADAR . 30 MHz with bandwidths of 1 MHz to 10 MHz.mif 1/6/06 .

timing signals are applied to the display to provide zero range information.monopulse tracking circuits for sensing the angular location of a moving target and allowing the antenna to lock on and track the target automatically . . power load and receiver sensitivity .A B scope display uses rectangular coordinates to display range vs angle i. . .since both the PPI and B scopes use intensity modulation the dynamic range is limited . .An A scope plots target echo amplitude vs range on rectangular coordinates for some ﬁxed direction.Also the beam rotates in angle in synchronization with the antenna pointing angle.e. It is used primarily for tracking radar applications than for surveillance radar. g) The simple diagram has left out many details such as .the most common type of CRT display is the plan position indicator (PPI) which maps the location of the target in azimuth and range in polar coordinates . H(f) and S(f) should be complex conjugates .Circuits in the receiver to reduce interference from other radars . the x axis is angle and the y axis is range.the PPI is intensity modulated by the amplitude of the receiver output and the CRT electron beam sweeps outward from the centre corresponding to range.pulse compression to achieve the resolution beneﬁts of a short pulse but with the energy beneﬁts of a long pulse.monitoring devices to monitor transmitter pulse shape.AFC to compensate the receiver automatically for changes in the transmitter . Angle information is supplied from the pointing direction of the antenna. a conventional IF ﬁlter characteristic approximates a matched ﬁlter if its bandwidth B and the pulse width τ satisfy the relationship Bτ ≈ 1 e) The pulse modulation is extracted by the second detector and ampliﬁed by video ampliﬁers to levels at which they can be displayed (or A to D’d to a digital processor) f) The display is usually a CRT.rotary joints in the transmission lines to allow for movement of the antenna .AGC .for radar with rectangular pulses.MTI (moving target indicator) circuits to discriminate between moving targets and unwanted stationary targets .i. .built in test equipment (BITE) for locating equipment failures so that faulty circuits can be replaced quickly radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 7 .e.

quantizing the echo level at range-azimuth resolution cells .phased array antennas are sometimes used. fed from a point source (horn) at its focus .460 PART II RADAR h) Instead of displaying the raw video output directly on the CRT.adding (integrating) the echo level in each cell .97. L band radar) is much smaller than the complete range of frequencies assigned to the letter band 8 radarnotes_2006.g.most radars operate between 220 MHz and 35 Ghz .establishing a threshold level that permits only the strong outputs due to target echoes to pass while rejecting noise .special purpose radars operate out side of this range Skywave HF-OTH (over the horizon) can operate as low as 4 MHz Groundwave HF radars operate as low as 2 MHz millimeter radars operate up to 95 GHz laser radars (lidars) operate in IR and visible spectrum The radar frequency letter-band nomenclature is shown in the table.displaying the processed information This process is called automatic tracking and detection (ATD) in a surveillance radar i) Antennas .mif 1/6/06 .maintaining the tracks (trajectories) of each target .the most common form of radar antenna is a reﬂector with parabolic shape. it might be digitized and processed and then displayed. This consists of: . Her the beam is scanned by varying the phase of the array elements electrically Radar Frequencies . Note that the frequency assignment to the latter band radar (e.the beam is scanned in space by mechanically pointing the antenna .

Nominal Frequency Range 3-30 MHz 30-300 MHz 300-1000 MHz 1000 . Air Trafﬁc Control .3700 MHz 13. and for rendezvous/docking.2000 MHz 2000 .18 GHz 18 . ships and land vehicles.27 GHz 40 .300 GHz Speciﬁc radar bands based on ITU assignments for region 2 138-144 MHz 216-225 MHz 420-450 MHz 890-942 MHz 1215-1400 MHz 2300 .300 GHz 40 .airborne radar is used to detect other aircraft.2500 MHz 2700 .high resolution radar is used at large airports to monitor aircraft and ground vehicles on the runways. shorelines and other ships. Major Applications 1.36. It is also used for mapping of terrain and avoidance of thunderstorms and terrain. location and tracking of aircraft of space targets .7 GHz 24.4 . .17.05 .4 .14.spaceborne radar is used for the remote sensing of terrain and sea.0 GHz 15.25 GHz 33.24.used to provide air trafﬁc controllers with position and other information on aircraft ﬂying within their area of responsibility (airways and in the vicinity of airports) .mif 1/6/06 9 . it is also used to observe aircraft .0 GHz radarnotes_2006.4000 MHz 12 .7 .ground-based radar is applied chieﬂy to the detection.Table 1: Band Designation HF VHF UHF L S Ku K Ka mm Applications of Radar General .shipborne radar is used as a navigation aid and safety device to locate buoys. taxiways and ramps.

MLS (microwave landing system) and ATC radar beacon systems are based on radar technology 2.radar astronomy .ionospheric sounder (used to determine the best frequency to use for HF communications) . Air Navigation .radio altimeter (FM/CW or pulse) .detecting other craft and buoys to avoid collision . agricultural land use. Space . most reliable and largest applications of radar .to probe the moon and planets .mif 1/6/06 .ground mapping radar of moderate resolution sometimes used for navigation 3. Remote Sensing .97. SAR and Side Looking Airborne Radar SLAR) 10 radarnotes_2006.radars are used for rendezvous and docking and was used for landing on the moon .weather avoidance radar is used on aircraft to detect and display areas of heavy precipitation and turbulence.shore based radars of moderate resolution are used from harbour surveillance and as an aid to navigation 4. environmental pollution (Synthetic Aperture Radar. forest conditions.doppler navigator .large ground based radars are used for detection and tracking of satellites .GCA (ground controlled approach) or PAR (precision approach radar) provides an operator with high accuracy aircraft position information in both the vertical and horizontal. Ship Safety . synthetic aperture radar) 5.satellite-borne radars are used for remote sensing (SAR.460 PART II RADAR . water resources.these are one of the least expensive. .used for sensing geophysical objects (the environment) .earth resources monitoring radars measure and map sea conditions. geological formations.automatic detection and tracking equipment (also called plot extractors) are available with these radars for collision avoidance . . The operator uses this information to guide the aircraft to a landing in bad weather. ice cover.terrain avoidance and terrain following radar (primarily military) .

intrusion alarm systems 7. This due.mif 1/6/06 11 .1) All of the parameters are controllable by the radar designer except for the target cross section σ. and propagation losses Because of the statistical nature of these parameters.ﬁre control and guidance of weapons 2.6. Law Enforcement . If the receiver output exceeds the threshold. σ. to the failure to include various losses It is also due to the statistical nature of several parameters such as Smin. a signal is assumed to be present radarnotes_2006. the range is described by the probability that the radar will detect a certain type of target at a certain distance.navigation . in part. The actual range may be only half of that predicted.automobile speed radars . Military . 2. The Radar Range Equation From page 3 we have 2 Pt Ae σ 4 R max = ----------------------2 4πλ S min 1 -- (2.surveillance .2 Minimum detectable Signal The ability of the radar receiver to detect a weak echo is limited by the noise energy that occupies the same spectrum as the signal Detection is based on establishing a threshold level at the output of the receiver. In practice the simple range equation does not predict range performance accurately.

The presence of noise sometimes enhances the detection of weak signals. two signals are present at point B and C. In the ﬁgure. At point C the noise is not large enough and the signal is lost. B C 12 radarnotes_2006. but not so low that noise peaks cross the threshold and give a false target.a large signal is detected at A The threshold must be adjusted so that weak signals are detected.mif 1/6/06 . The voltage envelope in the ﬁgure is usually from a matched ﬁlter receiver. The noise voltage at point B is large enough so that the combined signal and noise cross the threshold. Here the threshold is difﬁcult to predict and may not remain ﬁxed in time. Although detection decision is done at the video output. it is easier to consider maximizing the SNR at the output of the IF strip (before detection) This is because the receiver is linear up to this point It has been shown that maximizing SNR at the output of the IF is equivalent to maximizing the video output. The SNR necessary to provide adequate detection must be determined before the minimum detectable signal Smin can be computed. The selection of the proper threshold is a compromise which depends on how important it is if a mistake is made by (1) failing to recognize a signal (probability of a miss) or by (2) falsely indicating the presence of a signal (probability of a false alarm) Note: threshold selection can be made by an operator viewing a CRT display.97. A matched ﬁlter maximizes the output peak signal to average noise power level A matched ﬁlter has a frequency response which is proportional to the complex conjugate of the signal spectrum The output of a matched ﬁlter is the cross correlation between the received waveform and the a replica of the transmitted waveform.460 PART II RADAR Threshold RMS value of noise t A A sample detected envelope is show above . The shape of the input waveform to the matched ﬁlter is not preserved.

The total noise can be considered to be equal to thermal noise power from an ideal receiver multiplied by a factor called the noise ﬁgure Fn (sometimes NF) N0 F n = ---------------------------. This additional noise is created by other mechanisms than thermal agitation.38 x 10-23 J/deg T = degrees Kelvin Bn = noise bandwidth Note: Bn is not the 3 dB bandwidth but is given by: ∞ Bn = –∞ -------------------------------2 H ( f 0) here f0 is the frequency of maximum response i.g. Noise power (Watts) = kTBn where k = Boltzmann’s constant =1. Bn is the width of an ideal rectangular ﬁlter whose response has the same area as the ﬁlter or ampliﬁer in question Note: for many radars Bn is approximately equal to the 3 dB bandwidth (which is easier to determine) Note: a receiver with a reactive input (e.mif 1/6/06 13 .e.= Noise out of a practical receiver/Noise out of an ideal receiver at T0 ( k T 0 B n )G a here Ga is the gain of the receiver Note: the receiver bandwidth Bn is that of the IF ampliﬁer in most receivers So G a = ----. The noise power in a practical receiver is often greater than can be accounted for by thermal noise. Noise may be generated in the receiver or may enter the receiver via the antenna One component of noise which is generated in the receiver is thermal (or Johnson) noise. a parametric ampliﬁer) need not have any ohmic loss and hence all thermal noise is due to the antenna and transmission line preceding the antenna.and N i = k T 0 B n Si ∫ H( f ) df 2 Since radarnotes_2006.Receiver Noise Noise is unwanted EM energy which interferes with the ability of the receiver to detect wanted signals.

mif 1/6/06 .7) Probability Density Function (PDF) Consider the variable x as representing a typical measured value of a random process such as a noise voltage.1) yields Pt G Ae σ 4 R max = -------------------------------------------------------------------2 ( 4π ) k T 0 B n F n ( S 0 ⁄ N 0 ) min (2. N 0 min hence (2.460 PART II RADAR we have Si ⁄ N i F n = ---------------S0 ⁄ N 0 rearranging gives: k T 0 Bn F n S o S i = ----------------------------N0 Now Smin is that value of Si corresponding to the minimum output SNR: (So/No) necessary for detection S0 S min = k T 0 B n F n -----.97. divide the continuous range of values of x into small equal segments of length ∆x. and count the number of times that x falls into each interval The PDF p(x) is than deﬁned as: p(x) = lim ∆x → 0 N→∞ (No of values in range ∆x at x) N where N is the total number of values The probability that a particular measured value lies within width dx centred at x is p(x)dx also the probability that a value lies between x1 and x2 is x2 P ( x1 < x < x2 ) = ∫ p ( x ) dx x1 Note: PDF is always positive by deﬁnition 14 radarnotes_2006.6) substituting 2.6 into the radar range equation (eqn 2.

or mean of x is ∞ 〈 x〉 ave = –∞ ∫ xp ( x ) dx = m1 also the mean square value is ∞ 〈 x 〉 ave = 2 –∞ ∫x 2 p ( x ) dx = m2 m1 and m2 are called the ﬁrst and second moments of the random variable x. Variance is deﬁned as ∞ µ 2 = σ = 〈 ( x – m 1 ) 〉 ave = 2 2 –∞ ∫ ( x –m1 ) 2 p ( x ) dx =m2 . This is the RMS value of the AC component. standard deviation. µ2 multiplied by the resistance gives the mean power of the AC component. σ is deﬁned as the square root of the variance. Uniform Probability Density Function K.mif 1/6/06 15 . Note: if x represents current.∞ also –∞ ∫ p ( x ) dx = 1 The average value of a variable function Φ(x) of a random variable x is: ∞ 〈 Φ ( x )〉 ave = –∞ ∫ Φ ( x ) p ( x ) dx hence the average value. a<x<a+b p(x)= 0 x < a.m21 Variance is also called the second central moment if x represents current. then m1 is the DC component and m2 multiplied by the resistance gives the mean power. radarnotes_2006. x > a+b example of a uniform probability distribution is the phase of a random sine wave relative to a particular origin of time.

mif 1/6/06 .97.460 PART II RADAR the constant K is found from the following ∞ –∞ (a + b) ∫ p ( x ) dx = ∫ a 1 K d x = 1 ⇒ K = -b hence for the phase of a random sine wave 1 K = ----2π the average value for a uniform PDF (a + b) m1 = ∫ a 1 x d x = a + b -- b 2 1/b 0 a m1 a +b x (a + b) the mean squared value is m2 = ∫ a 1 x 2 d x = a 2 + ab + b ---- b 3 2 the variance is 2 b m 2 – m 1 = ----12 2 the standard deviation is b σ = --------2 3 16 radarnotes_2006.

radarnotes_2006. identically distributed random quantities approaches the Normal PDF regardless of what the individual distribution might be.exp -----------------------. also the cross section ﬂuctuations of certain types of targets and also many kinds of clutter and weather echoes.mif 1/6/06 17 . 2 2 2σ 2πσ an example of normal PDF is thermal noise we have for the Normal PDF m1 = x0 m2 = x20 + σ2 σ2 = m2 . Rayleigh PDF 2 x x p ( x ) = ----------------.exp – --------------------- 2 2 2 〈 x 〉 ave 〈 x 〉 ave x≥0 examples of a Rayleigh PDF are the envelope of noise output from a narrowband band pass ﬁlter (IF ﬁlter in superheterodyne receiver).m12 p(x) 2 1/√2πσ x x0 Central Limit Theorem: The PDF of the sum of a large number of independent. provided that the contribution of any one quantity is not comparable with the resultant of all the others For the Normal distribution. there is always a ﬁnite probability of ﬁnding a greater value Hence if noise at the input to a threshold detector is normally distributed there is always a chance for a false alarm.Gaussian (Normal) PDF) –( x – x0 ) 1 p ( x ) = ---------------. no matter how large a value of x we may choose.

mif 1/6/06 .460 PART II RADAR p(x) x 4 σ = m 1 -. w - w0 0 w≥0 this is called the exponential PDF or the Rayleigh Power PDF p(x) x here σ = w0 The Probability Distribution Function x p( x) = –∞ ∫ p ( x ) dx in some cases the distribution function is easier to obtain from experiments SNR here we will obtain the SNR at the output of the IF ampliﬁer necessary to achieve a speciﬁc probability of detection without exceeding a speciﬁed probability of false alarm.6 to obtain Smin. the output SNR is then substituted into equation 2.exp – ----. the minimum detectable signal at the receiver input 18 radarnotes_2006.– 1 π here if x2 is replaced by w where w represents power and <x2>ave is replaced by w0 where w0 represents average power then 1 w p ( w ) = ----.97.

exp – – --------- ψ0 2ψ 0 here R is the amplitude of the envelope of the ﬁlter output now the probability that the noise voltage envelope will exceed a voltage threshold VT (false alarm) is: ∞ p(V T < R < ∞) = ∫ VT 2 VT R R -----.IF Ampliﬁer BIF second detector Video Ampliﬁer BV here BV > BIF/2 in order to pass all video modulation the envelope detector may be either a square law or linear detector The noise entering the IF ampliﬁer is Gaussian v2 1 p ( x ) = ----------------. 2πψ 0 2ψ 0 here ψ0 is the variance.exp – – --------- dR = exp – – --------- = P fa ψ0 2ψ 0 2ψ 0 2 (2.24) The average time interval between crossings of the threshold by noise alone is the false alarm time Tfa 1 T fa = lim --N → ∞N ∑ Tk k=1 N here Tk is the time between crossings of the threshold by noise when the slope of the crossing is positive Now the false alarm probability Pfa is also given by the ratio of the time that the envelope is above the threshold to the total time radarnotes_2006. the mean value is zero When this Gaussian noise is passed through the narrow band IF strip. the PDF of the envelope of the noise is Rayleigh PDF 2 R R p ( R ) = -----.mif 1/6/06 19 .exp --------.

exp --------- B IF 2ψ 0 2 20 radarnotes_2006.since the average duration of a noise pulse is approximately the reciprocal of the B IF bandwidth.mif 1/6/06 .460 PART II RADAR P fa = tk k=1 ---------------N ∑ N ∑ Tk 〈 t k 〉 ave 1 = -----------------.25 k=1 Tk tk VT tk+1 Tk+1 1 Where 〈 t k 〉 ≈ -------.= ----------------〈 T k 〉 ave T fa B IF (2. equating 2.25 VT 1 T fa = -------.24 and 2.97.

g. equation 2. I 0 ------- ψ0 2ψ 0 ψ 0 where I0(Z) is the modiﬁed Bessel function of zero order and argument Z now e 1 I 0 ( Z ) ≈ -------------.+ … 8Z 2πZ Z 2.11x10 6 ( 15 ) ⋅ ( 60 ) ⋅ 10 Note: the false alarm probabilities of practical radars are quite small.000 hours Note: If the receiver is gated off for part of the time (e. Here the output of the envelope detector has a Rice PDF which is given by: R 2 + A 2 RA R p ( R ) = -----.27 reduces to the PDF from noise alone The probability of detection Pd is the probability that the envelope will exceed VT ∞ Pd = ∫ VT p ( R ) dR radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 21 . We now consider a sine wave signal of amplitude A present along with the noise at the input to the IF strip.95 dB 14. The effect is usually negligible. 1 + -----. Example: for BIF = 1 MHz we have the following: VT2/2ψ0 12.Example: for BIF = 1 MHz and required false alarm rate of 15 minutes.25 gives –9 1 P fa = -------------------------------------. This is due to their narrow bandwidth Note: False alarm time Tfa is very sensitive to variations in the threshold level VT due to the exponential relationship.exp – -----------------. during transmission interval) the Pfa will be increased by the fraction of the time that the receiver is not on.= 1.27 for Z large Note: when A = 0 equation 2.72 dB Tfa 6 min 10. This assumes that Tfa remains constant.

29 we can make the following substitutions: A ---------.= ln -------P fa 2ψ 0 . 2.7 is plotted The performance speciﬁcation is Pfa and Pd and Fig.mif 1/6/06 .460 PART II RADAR for the conditions RA/ψ0 >> 1 and A >> |R-A| VT – A ( V T – A ) ⁄ ( 2ψ 0 ) 1 P d = -.= ψ0 2 2S ----. Fig 2.7 is used to determine the S/N at the receiver output and the Smin at the receiver input Note: this S/N is for a single radar pulse 22 radarnotes_2006.+ -------------------------------------------.1 – er f (---------------.and N (eqn 2.) + exp – ------------------------------------------- 2 2ψ 0 2 2π A ⁄ ( ψ 0 ) 2 V T 1 + ( V T – A ) ⁄ ψ 0 1 – -----.97.24) VT 1 --------. 2.29 2 4A (8 A ) ⁄ ψ 0 2 p(R) R/√ψ0 VT/√ψ0 Note: the area the area represents the probability of detection represents the probability of false alarm if Pfa is decreased by moving VT then Pd is also decreased In equation 2.with these substitutions.

2.999 to 0.4 dB can change the Pd from 0.mif 1/6/06 23 .5 Integration of Radar pulses Fig.5. This is due to the requirement for the Pfa to be small.7 applies for a single pulse only . A change in S/N of 3.Note: S/N required is high even for Pd = 0. When a target cross section ﬂuctuates. the change in S/N is much greater than this S/N required for detection is not a sensitive function of false alarm time 2.5.however many pulses are usually returned from any particular target and can be used to improve detection radarnotes_2006.

however.the number of pulses nB as the antenna scans is n B = ------------. is easier to implement ( S ⁄ N )1 E i ( n ) = ---------------------n ( S ⁄ N )n .for postdetection. .the simplest integration method is the CRT display combined with the integrating properties of the eye and brain of the operator. the integrated SNR is less than the above since some of the energy is converted to noise in the nonlinear second detector .all integration techniques employ a storage device .= ------------˙S 6ω m θ where θB = antenna beam width (deg) fP = PRF (Hz) ˙ θ S = antenna scan rate (deg/sec) ωm = antenna scan rate (rpm) Example: For a ground based search radar having θB = 1.97.postdetection integration can not preserve RF phase .mif 1/6/06 .integration after detection is called postdetection or noncoherent integration .460 PART II RADAR θB f P θB f P .predetection integration requires the phase of the echo signal to be preserved .integration before detection is called predetection or coherent detection .5 ˚ fP = 300 Hz ˙ θ S = 30˚/s (ωm = 5 rpm) determine the number of hits from a point target in each scan nB = 15 .for electronic integration.postdetection integration.The process of summing radar echoes to improve detection is called integration .for predetection SNRintegrated = n SNRi where SNRi is the SNR for a single pulse and n is the number of pulses integrated .integration efﬁciency is deﬁned as where ( S ⁄ N ) 1 = value of SNR of a single pulse required to produce a given probability of detection 24 radarnotes_2006. the function can be accomplished in the receiver either before the second detector (in the IF) or after the second detector (in the video) .

Fig.8b .8 is called the false alarm number which is deﬁned as the average number of possible decisions between false alarms nf = [no. Ei(n) = 1 and hence the integration improvement factor is n Examples of Ii are given in Fig. of range intervals/pulse][no. Note: for postdetection integration. not the average time between false alarms . 2.hence Tfa is more meaningful than Pfa Note: some authors use a false alarm number nf ’ = nf/n caution should be used in computations for SNR as a function of Pfa and Pd .we can also develop the integration loss as 1 L i = 10 log -----------Ei(n) this is shown in Fig 2. . then there are B/n possible decisions/ sea.and ( S ⁄ N ) n is the value of SNR per pulse required to produce the same probability of detection when n pulses are integrated.if n pulses are integrated before a target decision is made. the integration improvement factor is Ii = nEi(n) for ideal postdetection. there are B = 1/τ possible decisions per second on the presence of a target .hence the false alarm probability is n times as great Note: this does not mean that there will be more false alarms since it is the rate of detection-decisions is reduced. there is not much difference from a perfect predetection integrator.mif 1/6/06 25 .note that Ii is not sensitive to either Pd or Pfa . Thus radarnotes_2006.the parameter nf in Fig 2.8a shows that for a few pulses integrated post detection.8a from data by Marcum . 2. of pulse periods/sec][false alarm rate] = [TP/τ][fP][Tfa] here TP = PRI (pulse repetition interval) fP = PRF nf = Tfa /τ ≈ TfaB ≈ 1/Pfa Note: for a radar with pulse width τ.

mif 1/6/06 .460 PART II RADAR 26 radarnotes_2006.97.

257 2. an efﬁciency factor ρ can be calculated which is the ratio of the average S/N for the exponential integrator to the average S/N for the uniform integrator: nγ tanh ----.31 in 2.7 Radar Cross Section of Targets Cross-section: The ﬁctional area intercepting that amount of power which.for this weighting.32 P t G A e σnE i ( n ) 4 R max = --------------------------------------------------------2 ( 4π ) k T 0 B n F n ( S ⁄ N ) 1 here (S/N)1 is found from Fig. when scattered equally in all directions. some postdetection integrators use a weighting of the integrated pulses.7 and nEi(n) is found from Fig 2. . .8a. These integrators include the recirculating delay line. produces an echo at the radar that is equal to that actually received..the radar equation with n pulses integrated is Pt G Ae σ 4 R max = --------------------------------------------------------2 ( 4π ) k T 0 B n F n ( S ⁄ N ) n 2. radarnotes_2006.if an “exponential” weighting of the integrated pulses is used then the voltage out of the integrator is V = ∑ V i exp [ –( i – 1 )γ ] i=1 N here Vi is the voltage amplitude of the ith pulse and exp(-γ) is the attenuation per pulse .23 here (S/N)n is the SNR of one of n equal pulses that are integrated to produce the required Pd for a speciﬁed Pfa using equation 2. the storage tube and some algorithms in digital integration.when there are many pulses integrated (small S/N per pulse) the difference is pronounced. 2 ρ = ---------------------γ n tanh -- 2 also [ 1 – exp ( – nγ ) ] ρ = --------------------------------------γ n tanh -- 2 2 for a dumped integrator for a continuous integrator Note: Maximum efﬁciency for a dumped integrator corresponds to γ =0 Maximum efﬁciency for a continuous integrator corresponds to nγ =1. 2. the LPF.mif 1/6/06 27 .

ships and terrain. 2.« 1 (the Rayleigh region).EM diffracted ﬁeld: is the total ﬁeld in the presence of the object Note: for radar backscatter. the scattering from a sphere can be used for modelling rainλ drops 28 radarnotes_2006.EM scattered ﬁeld: is the difference between the total ﬁeld in the presence of an object and the ﬁeld that would exist if the object were absent .460 PART II RADAR σ = power reﬂected towards the source/unit solid angle incident power density/4π 2 Er 2 = lim 4πR ----R→∞ Ei where R = range Er= reﬂected ﬁeld strength at radar Ei = incident ﬁeld strength at target Note: for most targets such as aircraft.9) 2πa -when --------. the σ does not bear a simple relationship to the physical area . the two ﬁelds are the same (since the transmitted ﬁeld has disappeared by the time the received ﬁeld appears) .97.the σ can be calculated using Maxwell’s equations only for simple targets such as the sphere (Fig.mif 1/6/06 .

travel the length of the rod and reﬂect from the discontinuity at the far end ⇒ large σ.mif 1/6/06 29 .6 dB smaller.backscatter of a long thin rod (missile) is shown. . .The Cone Sphere here the ﬁrst derivatives of the cone and sphere contours are the same at the point of joining radarnotes_2006.» 1 the σ approaches the optical cross section πa2.6 dB greater than the optical value or 5.the usual radar targets are much larger than raindrops and hence the long λ operation does not reduce the target σ 2πa -when --------.since σ varies as λ-4 in the Rayleigh region. -here θ = 0˚ is the end on view and σ is small since the projected area is small. λ Note: in the Mie (resonance region) σ can actually be 5. Note: For a sphere the σ is not aspect sensitive as it is for all other objects. Where the length is 39λ and the diameter λ/4..however at near end on (θ ≈ 5˚) waves couple onto the rod. . the material is silver. and hence can be used fro calibrating a radar system. rain and clouds are invisible for long wavelength radars .

2. the σ is approximately that of a sphere . Here the discontinuities are small: the tip.4λ2 and a min of 0. the join and the base of the sphere (which allows a creeping wave to travel around the sphere) .mif 1/6/06 .when the cone is viewed at perpendicular incidence (θ = 90 . has a max of 0.the nose on σ for f above the Rayleigh region and for a wide range of α.g.460 PART II RADAR The nose-on σ is shown in Fig.97. the surface smooth and no holes or protuberances allowed. Example: σ at S band for 3 targets having the same projected area: Corner reﬂector: Sphere Cone sphere 1000 m2 1m2 10-3 m2 . This gives a very low backscatter (e. σ = 10-4 m2.12 Note: Fig.12.α. 30 radarnotes_2006. 2.In practice. The σ for θ near 0˚ (-45˚ to +45˚) is quite low. This is because scattering occurs from discontinuities. to achieve a low σ with a cone sphere. the tip must be sharp. at λ = 3 cm.01λ2. where α is the cone half angle) a large specular return is contained -from the rear.

mif 1/6/06 31 .radarnotes_2006.

or found using scale models .a comparison of nose-on σ for several cone shaped objects is given in ﬁgure 2. terrain) are complicated functions of frequency and viewing angle . 2. -An example of the variation of σ with aspect angle is shown in Fig.460 PART II RADAR .a complex target can be considered as being composed of a large number of independent objects which scatter energy in all directions .97. measured experimentally.16.mif 1/6/06 .the σ can be computed using GTD (Geometric Theory of Diffraction).the σ of complex targets (ships.33˚.the relative phases and amplitudes of the echo signals from the individual scatterers determine the total σ.This data was obtained by mounting the actual aircraft on a turntable above ground and observing its σ with a radar. Broadside gives the max σ since the projected area is bigger and is relatively ﬂat (The B-26 fuselage had a rectangular cross-section) .13 Note: the use of materials such as carbon ﬁbre composites can further reduce σ. Complex Targets . aircraft. If the separation between individual scatterers is large compared to λ the phases will vary with the viewing angle and cause a scintillating echo. The σ can change by 15dB for an angular change of 0. 32 radarnotes_2006.

The radar track data establishes the aspect angle.the most realistic method for obtaining σ data is to measure the actual target in ﬂight. The solid lines are the theoretical (computed using GTD) data . and then computing the contributions of each (accounting for shadowing) . C. and X band radars..mif 1/6/06 33 . This is sometimes an average value or sometimes a value which is exceeded 99% of the time radarnotes_2006.an example of a model measurements is given in Fig.a single value cross section is sometimes given for speciﬁc aircraft targets for use in the range equation. S. . Data is usually averaged over a 10˚ x 10˚ aspect angle interval.17 by the dashed lines. 2. .a more economical method is to construct scale models. The US Naval Research Lab has such a facility with L.The computed data is obtained by breaking up the target into simple geometrical shapes.

or 4-passenger jet Large ﬁghter Medium bomber or medium jet airliner Large bomber or large jetliner Jumbo jet Small open boat Small pleasure boat Cabin cruiser Pickup truck Car Bicycle Man Bird Insect 0.5 1 2 6 20 40 100 0.mif 1/6/06 .97. unmanned winged missile Small. single engine aircraft Small ﬁghter.460 PART II RADAR Examples of radar cross sections for various targets (in m2)) Conventional.01 10-5 34 radarnotes_2006.02 2 10 200 100 2 1 .

88 0. the PDF and the correlation properties with time may be used for a particular target and type of trajectory σ (m2) 0.one method of dealing with this is to select a lower bound of σ that is exceeded some speciﬁed fraction of the time (0.Note: even though single values are given there can be large variations in actual σ for any target e.33 0.this procedure results in conservative prediction of range .variations are caused by meteorological conditions.1. to 50 ft.mif 1/6/06 35 .495 . to 30 ft. the AD 4B.368 .g. an average cross section taken from port. “ “ “ “ “ 10 m2 .95 or 0.05 0. a propeller driven aircraft has a σ of 20 m2 at L band but its σ at VHF is about 100 m2 This is because at VHF the dimensions of the scattering objects are comparable to λ and produce a resonance effect For large ships. give σ(X band) approx 5 m2 40 ft.140 . starboard and quarter aspects yields σ median = 52 f D 3⁄2 here σ is in m2 f is in MHz D is ship displacement in kilotons .e.0. equipment instability and the variation in target cross section .human being gives σ as shown: f (MHz) 410 1120 2890 4800 9375 2.8 Cross-Section Fluctuations .cross section of complex targets are sensitive to aspect .22 radarnotes_2006.033 .small boats 20 ft.2.alternatively. as seen from the same elevation .1.098 .99) .automobiles give σ(X band) of approx 10 m2 to 200 m2 .997 0.the echo from a target in motion is almost never constant . lobe structure of the antenna.1.this equation applies only to grazing angles i.

exp ---------.mif 1/6/06 .the power spectral density of σ is also important in tracking radars. but are independent (uncorrelated) scan to scan This case ignores the effect of antenna beam shape the assumed PDF is: 1 –σ σ≥0 p ( σ ) = ---------.it is more economical to assess the effects of ﬂuctuating σ is to postulate a reasonable model for the ﬂuctuations and to analyze it mathematically Swerling has done this for the detection probabilities of 5 types of target. Case 1 echo pulses received from the target on any one scan are of constant envelope throughout the entire scan. σ ave σ ave Case 3 Same as case 1 except that the PDF is – 2σ 4σ p ( σ ) = ---------. σ ave σ ave Case 2 echo pulses are independent from pulse to pulse instead of from scan to scan 1 –σ p ( σ ) = ---------.exp ---------.exp ---------. .e. 2 σ ave σ ave Case 5 Nonﬂuctuating cross section . number of pulses) .the correlation function gives the degree of correlation of σ with time (i.The PDF assumed in cases 1 and 2 applies to complex targets consisting of many scatterers (in practice 4 or more) . .97.it is not usually practical to obtain experimental data for these functions .the PDF gives the probability of ﬁnding any value of σ between the values of σ and σ + dσ.The PDF assumed in cases 3 and 4 applies to targets represented by one large reﬂector with other small reﬂectors 36 radarnotes_2006.460 PART II RADAR .exp ---------. 2 σ ave σ ave Case 4 Same as case 2 except that the PDF is – 2σ 4σ p ( σ ) = ---------.

**- for all cases the value of σ to be substituted in the radar equation is σave
**

0.05 0.045 0.04 0.035 0.03 0.025 0.02 0.015 0.01 0.005 0 0 average cross section = 20 PDF for Swerling 1 and 2 targets

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97.460 PART II RADAR

- comparison of the ﬁve cases for a false alarm number nf = 108 is shown in Fig. 2.22

- when detection probability is large, all 4 cases in which σ is not constant require greater SNR than the constant σ case (case 5) - Note for Pd =0.95 we have Case # 1 2 S/N 16.8 dB/pulse 6.2 dB/pulse

This increase in S/N corresponds to a reduction in range by a factor of 1.84. Hence if the characteristics of the target are not properly taken into account, the actual performance of the radar (for the same value of σave) will not measure up to the predicted performance. - also when Pd > 0.3, larger S/N is required when ﬂuctuations are uncorrelated scan to scan (cases 1 & 3) than when ﬂuctuations are uncorrelated pulse to pulse. - this results since the larger the number of independent pulses integrated, the more likely the ﬂuctuations will average out ⇒ cases 2 & 4 will approach the nonﬂuctuating case.

38

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

- Figures 2.23 and 2.24 may be used as corrections for probability of detection (Fig. 2.7)

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

39

2. The parameters (S/N)1 and nEi(n)=Ii(n) are substituted into the radar equation 2.97. m=1 m=2 Note: For the Chi-square PDF – -µ2 2 --------. the ﬂuctuations become more constrained. σ ave ( m – 1 )!σ ave σ ave σ>0 Note: for target cross section models. for cases 3 and 4. The integration improvement factor Ii(n) is found from Fig. It may be any positive real number. The S/N per pulse will always be less than that of the ideal predetection integrator.24 the integration improvement factor Ii(n) is sometimes greater than n. 2.33 along with σave.460 PART II RADAR Procedure: 1) Find S/N from Fig.the Chi-square distribution may not always ﬁt observed data.= m m1 1 here and µ 2 is the standard deviation m1 is the mean value Note: as m increases.24 are essentially independent of the false alarm number (106<nf<1010) Note: the PDF s for cases 1 &2 and # & 4 of the Swerling ﬂuctuations are special cases of the Chisquare distribution of degree 2m (also called the Gamma distribution) mσ m – 1 m – mσ exp ---------. Note: data in Fig. 2. 40 radarnotes_2006. for cases 1 and 2.mif 1/6/06 . p ( σ ) = ------------------------------.23 ﬁnd correction factor for either cases 1 and 2 or cases 3 and 4 to be applied to S/N found in Step 1. 2. 2. With m = ∞. ---------. 2m is not required to be an integer. but it is used for convenience . Here the S/ N required fro n=1 is larger than for the nonﬂuctuating target.7 corresponding to desired Pd and Pfa 2) From Fig. . Note: in Fig.23 and 2. we have the nonﬂuctuating target.24.it is described by two parameters σave and the number of degrees of freedom 2m. The resulting (S/N)1 is that which would apply if detection were based on a single pulse 3) If n pulses are integrated.

The Log Normal distribution has been suggested for describing the cross sections of some satellites. type of aircraft and frequency .the Chi-square distribution also describes the cross section of shapes such as cylinders. plates.the parameters of the ﬁtted distribution vary with aspect angle. 2 σ 2πs d σ m 2s d where sd = standard deviation of ln ------ σ m σ σ>0 and σm = median of σ 2 s d also the ratio of the mean to median value of σ is ρ = exp ---- 2 radarnotes_2006.( 1 + s ) I 0 2 ---------..exp – s – ---------. cylinders. . some satellites).the Rice distribution is a better description of the cross section ﬂuctuations of a target dominated by a single scatterer than the Chi-square distribution with m=2. arrays σ 2 1 1 p ( σ ) = ------------------. and with σave varying 15 dB from min to max. . .exp – ------.aircraft ﬂying straight and level ﬁt Chi-square distribution with m between 0.9 and 2. for small probabilities of detection . ln -----.2 and 2 depending on the aspect angle.it is found that σave has more effect on the calculation of probability of detection than the value of m.g.s ( 1 + s ) σ ave σ ave σ ave where s is the ratio of the cross section of the single dominant scatterer to the total cross section of the smaller scatterers I0 is a modiﬁed Bessel function of zero order Note: when s=1 the results using the Rice distribution approximate the Chi-square with m=2.mif 1/6/06 41 . Here m varies between 0. . cylinders with ﬁns (e.Here the Rice distribution is 1+s σ σ p ( σ ) = ---------.the value of m is near unity for all aspect angles except broadside which give a Rayleigh distribution with varying σave . ships.

97. .= P t τ f Tp p here τ = pulse width Tp= PRI fp = PRF 42 radarnotes_2006.9 Transmitter Power Pt in the radar equation is the peak power . with all pulses during a scan correlated and pulses in successive scans independent. The results for this case would fall somewhere between the two cases.mif 1/6/06 .there could be partial correlation of pulses within a scan. .460 PART II RADAR . Note: The two extreme cases treated are for pulses correlated in any particular scan but with scanto-scan independence (slow ﬂuctuations). 2. 2.it is the power averaged over a carrier cycle which occurs at the maximum of a pulse.Comparisons of several distributions models fro false alarm number nf = 106.25. are shown in Fig.the average radar power. Pav is the average transmitter power over the PRI τ P av = P t -----.this is not the instantaneous peak power of the carrier sine wave . and for complete independence (fast ﬂuctuations).

if the transmitted waveform is not a rectangular pulse.001 .these can result in erroneous range measurements .consider three targets A. B and C. here A is within the maximum unambiguous range Runambig.which deﬁnes the duty cycle Tp Pt .10 Pulse Repetition Frequency and Range Ambiguities . B is between Runambig and 2Runambig and C is between 2Runambig and 3Runambig radarnotes_2006. we can express the range equation in terms of energy P av E τ = -------p f E τ G A e σnE i ( n ) 4 R max = ----------------------------------------------------------------2 ( 4π ) k T 0 ( B n τ )F n ( S ⁄ N ) 1 Note: In this form Rmax does not depend explicitly on λ or fp 2.mif 1/6/06 43 .Thus the range equation in terms of average power is P av G A e σnE i ( n ) 4 R max = -----------------------------------------------------------------------2 ( 4π ) k T 0 ( B n τ )F n ( S ⁄ N ) 1 f p here (Bnτ) are grouped together since the product is usually of the order of unity for pulse radars .echoes received after an interval exceeding the PRI are called “multiple-time-around” echoes .= -----.PRF is determined primarily by the maximum range at which targets are expected .the typical duty cycle for a surveillance radar is 0.now P av τ -------.

clutter) which can mask weak multiple time around targets .g.11 Antenna Parameters . then it also has a 44 radarnotes_2006.φ) = power radiated per unit solid angle in direction of azimuth θ and elevation φ power accepted by antenna from transmitter/4π .the number of separate PRFs will depend on the degree of multiple time targets. nearby strong ground targets. phase or polarization from pulse to pulse . it must be less than unity in others . pulse width. if an antenna has a larger gain in transmission in a speciﬁc direction. Second time around targets need only 2 separate PRFs to be resolved .460 PART II RADAR -one way of distinguishing multiple time around targets is to operate with a carrying PRF. The echo from an unambiguous target will appear at the same place on each sweep.G is a function of direction. .the gain of an antenna is G(θ.mif 1/6/06 . frequency. If it is greater than unity in some directions.the range ambiguity in a multiple PRF radar can be conveniently decoded by use of the Chinese remainder theorem 2. however echoes from multiple time around targets will spread out.these schemes are not very successful in practice .from reciprocity.a second limitation is increased processing requirement to resolve ambiguities .97.one limitation is the foldover of nearby targets (e.alternative methods to mark successive pulses to identify multiple time around targets include changing amplitude.

These are generated with parabolic reﬂectors. the pencil beam is replaced with the fan beam which is narrow in one dimension and wide in the other. h and having a constant σ. . .the most common beam shapes fro radar are the pencil beam and the fan beam .= K 1 --------------4 3 2 4 R ( 4π ) csc ( φ 0 ) R 2 2 2 radarnotes_2006. or with an array such as a slotted waveguide .scan rates are typically from 1 to 60 rpm .the csc2 φ pattern gives constant echo power Pr independent of range for a target of constant height.even with fan beams.pencil beams are axially symmetric with a width of a few degrees.csc2 φ patterns can be generated by a distorted section of a parabola or with special multiple horn feed on a true parabola.the elevation pattern is usually shaped to radiate more energy at high angles as in the csc2 pattern.g.ldeally φm should be 90˚ but it is always less .this pattern is used for airborne search radars observing ground targets as well as ground based radars observing aircraft.substituting into the range equation (simple form) P t G ( φ 0 ) csc ( φ ) λ σ csc ( φ ) P r = ---------------------------------------------------. For the airborne case φ is the depression angle .coverage of a simple fan beam is not adequate for targets at high altitudes close to the radar. many long range ground based radars use fan beams .larger effective area in that direction .mif 1/6/06 45 . a tracking radar for weapons control or missile guidance). .fan beams can be generated with parabolic reﬂectors with a shaped projected area. a trade-off exists between the rate at which the target position is updated (scan time) and the ability to detect weak signals (by use of pulse integration) .to search a large sector of sky with a narrow beam is difﬁcult. scan rates are typically 5 or 6 rpm . They are used where it is necessary to measure the angular position of a target continuously in azimuth and elevation (e.to reduce the number of cells. csc φ G ( φ ) = G ( φ 0 ) ---------------2 csc φ 0 2 -here for φ0 < φ < φm here φ0 and φm are the angular limits of the csc2 φ ﬁt . Operational requirements place restrictions on the maximum scan time (time for beam to return to the same point) so that the radar can not dwell too long at any particular cell.for long range surveillance. . .

h of a target.mif 1/6/06 . operator fatigue and lack of operator motivation Note: loss has a value greater than unity .= K 2 4 h therefore .Note: Aρ = Aeff .losses in the radar reduce the S/N at the receiver output . the earth not being ﬂat and non perfect csc2 φ patterns Note: the gain of csc2 φ antennas for ground based radars is about 2 dB less than for a fan beam having the same aperture 4πA -ρ .Loss = [Gain]-1 Plumbing Loss 46 radarnotes_2006. the collapsing loss and the plumbing loss .this is controlled by the complexity of the feed design .in practice Pr varies due to σ varying with viewing angle.97. we have csc ( φ ) = R ⁄ h K1 P r = -----.losses which cannot be calculated readily include those due to ﬁeld degradation.the maximum gain of any antenna is related to its size by G = --------2 λ where ρ is the antenna efﬁciency which depends on the aperture illumination .now for a constant height.losses which can be calculated include the antenna beam shape loss.460 PART II RADAR .12 System Losses .hence the echo signal is independent of range .a typical reﬂector gives a beam width of where l is the dimension 65λ θ ( deg ) = -------l 2.

the duplexer typically adds 1. the greater the insertion loss Beam Shape Loss . bends (0.1dB) and at rotary joints (0.loss in transmission lines between the transmitter and antenna and between antenna and receiver .5 dB insertion loss. At high frequencies the attenuation is signiﬁcant .mif 1/6/06 47 .5 dB). at low frequencies. the transmission lines introduce little loss. its loss is added twice ..additional loss occurs at connectors (0.28 that. the greater the isolation required.note from the Fig 2. (this approach is approximate since it does not address Pd for each pulse separately) .4 dB) Note: if a line is used for both transmission and reception.the train of pulses returned from the target to a scanning radar are modulated in amplitude by the shape of the antenna beam .let the one way power pattern be approximated by a Gaussian shape – 2. In general.a beam shape loss accounts for the fact that the maximum gain is used in the radar equation rather than a gain which changes from pulse to pulse.78θ 2 S = exp ------------------2 θB 2 here θB is the half power beam width radarnotes_2006.

6 dB for a fan beam scanning in one coordinate.if the spectrum of the input noise is shaped correctly.for small SNR in bandpass limiters. Az) display. the added noise causes degradation called the collapsing g loss .when many pulses are integrated per beamwidth.limiting in radar can lower the Pd . the collapsing of the 3D information into 2 D display results in loss . an additional “scanning loss” is added. fan beam or pencil beam where the target passes through the centre of the beam) .this occurs on displays which collapse range information (C scope which displays El vs Az) .55k ) ⁄ n B ) 2 2 k=1 Example integrating 11 pulses gives L (beam shape) = 1.limiting can be due to pulse compression processing and intensity modulation of CRT (such as PPI) .97. then the beam shape loss (relative to a radar that integrated n pulses with equal gain) is n L ( beamshape ) = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------(n – 1) ⁄ 2 1+2 ∑ exp ( ( – 5.limiting results in a loss of only a fraction of a dB for large numbers of pulses integrated providing the limiting ratio (ratio of video limit level to RMS noise level) is greater than 2 . the scanning loss is taken as 1. El) that display outputs at all Elevations on one PPI (range.additional loss for phased array search using a step scanning pencil beam since not all regions of space are illuminated by the same value of antenna gain. Limiting Loss . and as 3.can also occur when the output of a high resolution radar is displayed on a device which is of 48 radarnotes_2006.460 PART II RADAR .nB is the number of pulses received within θB and if n is the number of pulses integrated.if the radar integrates additional noise samples along with the wanted signal +noise pulses.e. the reduction of SNR of a sine wave in narrowband Gaussian noise is π/4 (approx 1 dB) .in some 3D radars (range.when the antenna scans so rapidly that the gain on transmission is not the same as the gain on reception. this loss can be made negligible Collapsing Loss . .this is not a desirable effect and is due to a limited dynamic range .66 dB Note: the beam shape loss above was for a beam shaped in one plane only (i.mif 1/6/06 .If the target passe through any other part of the beam the maximum signal will not correspond to the signal from the beam centre . Az.2 dB when two coordinate scanning is used .

8b Li (40) = 3.the collapsing loss then is the ratio of the integration loss Li for m+n pulses to the integration loss foe n pulses Li ( m + n ) L i ( m.n) = 1. the integration of m noise pulses.Fig 2. -----.8 dB . .collapsing loss for a linear detector can be much greater than for a square law detector . n ) = ----------------------Li ( n ) .mif 1/6/06 49 . N ( m + n )equiv m + n N ) n .coarser resolution than the radar .recall 1 L i ( n ) = -----------Ei(n) Example: 10 signal pulses are integrated with 30 noise pulses Required Pd = 0.= -----------. along with n signal + noise pulses with SNR per pulse (S/N)n. is equivalent to the integration of m+n signal _ noise pulses each with SNR of n S S --. nf = 108 From Fig 2.Marcum has shown that for a square law detector.29 shows the comparison of loss for each detector radarnotes_2006.5 dB Li (10) = 1.9.7 dB therefore Li (m.

receiver noise ﬁgure .in test equipment) to aid in performance monitoring 2 50 radarnotes_2006. This is equivalent to a loss Operator Loss .97.matched ﬁlter . and with age for a speciﬁc tube. a loss of SNR will occur (typically 1 dB) . a loss factor must account for its poorer value elsewhere in the band .mif 1/6/06 .weak tubes .when a radar is operated under ﬁeld conditions. poorly trained operator will perform less efﬁciently .if the receiver is not the exact matched ﬁlter fro the transmitted waveform. the performance deteriorates even more than can be accounted for in the above losses.poor training .due to the exponential relationship between Tfa and VT a slight change in VT can cause signiﬁcant change to Tfa hence.7 ( P d ) where Pd is the single scan probability of detection Note: operator loss is not relevant to systems where automatic detection is done Field Degradation .the operator efﬁciency factor (empirical) is ρ 0 = 0. tired.the power varies from tube to tube (for same type).a distracted.transmitter power .threshold level . a loss factor of about 2 dB can be used .in system test) and BITE (built . .poor TR tube recovery . Power is also not uniform over the operating band .the NF will vary over the band.factors which cause ﬁeld degradation are: . .radars should be designed with BIST (built .deterioration in the receiver NF . VT is set slightly higher than calculated to give good Tfa in the event of circuit drifts.460 PART II RADAR Nonideal Equipment . hence if the best NF is used in the radar equation.water in the transmission lines .to allow for this.loose cable connections .hence Pt may be other than the design value.incorrect mixer crystal current . overloaded.

with no other information available.the deceasing density of atmosphere with altitude results in bending (refraction) of the electromagnetic wave.the radar equation assumes free space propagation .BITE parameters to be monitored are .straddling loss accounts for loss in SNR for targets not at the centre of a range gate. radarnotes_2006..a preventative maintenance plan should be used .MTI radars introduce additional loss.refraction by the earth’s atmosphere .mif 1/6/06 51 .at times atmospheric conditions create ducting (or super refraction) and increases the radar range considerably. the refraction can also be accounted for by assuming the earth to have a larger radius than actual. . The additional noise introduced by nonoptimum gate width leads to degradation performance. or at the centre of a ﬁlter in a multiple bank processor Propagation Effects . Also it degrades MTI performance by extending the range at which ground clutter is seen.the effects fall into three categories . It is not necessarily desirable since it can not be counted on.Transmitter pulse shape .lobe structure caused by interference between the direct wave and the ground reﬂected wave . attenuation through the normal atmosphere or through precipitation is not signiﬁcant . .NF of receiver .however reﬂection from rain (clutter) is a limiting factor in radar performance in adverse weather .recovery time of TR tube . The MTI discrimination technique results in complete loss of sensitivity for certain target values (blind speeds) .Pt . A “typical” earth radius is 4/3 actual radius.in a radar with overlapping range gates. 3 dB is assumed for ﬁeld degradation loss Other Loss Factors .the earth’s surface and atmosphere have a signiﬁcant effect on radar performance .for most microwave radars. the gates may be wider than optimum for practical reasons.attenuation . This normally increases the line of sight.

if single scan probability of detection id Pd. Cumulative Probability of Detection .97.the presence of the earth also breaks the antenna elevation pattern into many lobes. pulse doppler MTI or tracking radar.14 Other Considerations . .460 PART II RADAR . Radar Performance Figure . The ration of the number of scans the target was seen at a particular range to the total number of scans is the blip scan ratio . The equation can be modiﬁed to accommodate CW.same as single scan Pd .not often used Blip-Scan ratio . FM-CW.the radar equation is now written P av G ( Aρ a )σnE i ( n ) 4 R max = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------2 ( 4π ) k T 0 ( B n τ )F n ( S ⁄ N ) 1 f p L s Note: The following substitutions can be made: Eτ = Pav/fp = Ptτ N0 = N/B Bτ ≈ 1 T0Fn = Ts Note: The above radar equation was derived for rectangular pulses but applies to other waveforms provided that matched ﬁlter detection is used.ratio of pulse power of Transmitter to Smin of receiver . 2.method used to check performance of ground-based radars .here an aircraft is ﬂown on a radial course and for each scan of the antenna it is recorded whether or not a target blip is detected. this arises since the direct and reﬂected waves interfere at the target either destructively or constructively to produce nulls or lobes.mif 1/6/06 .the variation with range based on the cumulative probability of detection can be the 3rd power rather than the 4th power which is based on a single scan probability (power spectral density of noise) 52 radarnotes_2006. This results in non uniform illumination.head on and tail on aspects are easiest to provide. the probability of detecting a target at least once during N scans is the cumulative probability of detection Pc = 1-(1-Pd)N Note: the variation of Pd with range might have to be taken into account in computing Pc.

then we have Ω t s = t 0 -----Ω0 where t0 is the time on target = n/fp Ω0 = solid angle beamwidth Ω0 ≈ θAθE where θA is the Azimuth beamwidth and θE is the Elevation beamwidth 4π also G = -----Ω0 with these substitutions the range equation becomes P av A e σE i ( n )t s 4 R max = ----------------------------------------------------4πk T 0 F n ( S ⁄ N ) 1 L s Ω .for track while scan radars. .this indicates that the important parameters for a search radar are the average power and the antenna effective aperture . the measure of performance might be the probability of initiating a target track rather than just probability of detection.in practice Pc is not easy to apply. Instead they report a detection based on threshold crossing on two successive scans. Furthermore radar operators do not usually report a detection the ﬁrst time it is observed (which is required by the deﬁnition of Pc).in a search or surveillance radar. Surveillance Radar Equation .frequency does not appear explicitly.the radar equation which describes the performance of a radar which dwells on the target for n pulses is sometimes called the searchlight range equation . Note: the radar equation will be considerably different if clutter or external noise (jamming) rather than receiver noise determine the background for the signal radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 53 . or on two out of three scans .If Ω represents the angular region to be searched in scan time ts.. however low frequency is preferred since high power and large aperture are easier to obtain at low frequency and it is easier to build MTI (moving target indicator) and weather has little effect on performance. the additional constraint that the radar must search a speciﬁed volume of space in a speciﬁed time modiﬁes the range equation signiﬁcantly.

the second application has been of greater importance . . 54 radarnotes_2006.the safest means to achieve a speciﬁed range performance is to include a safety factor.the predicted value of range from the range equation cannot be checked experimentally with any accuracy .MTI adds cost and complexity and digital signal processing .97.this is sometimes difﬁcult to do in competitive bids but results in ﬁne radars MTI and Pulse Doppler Radar . economical MTI has been available only since the mid 1970s Operation .practical.MTI is a necessity in high quality air surveillance radars that operate in the presence of clutter .mif 1/6/06 .the pulse doppler radar has a high enough PRF to operate with unambiguous doppler.the MTI radar usually operates with ambiguous doppler measurements (blind speeds) but with unambiguous range (no second time around echoes) .460 PART II RADAR Accuracy of the Radar Equation . but at the expense of range ambiguities . In principle the CW radar can be converted into a pulse radar by providing a power ampliﬁer and a modulator to turn the ampliﬁer on and off.a simple CW radar is shown.The doppler shift produced by a moving target may be used in a pulse radar (1) to determine the relative velocity of the target or (2) to separate desired moving targets from undesired stationary clutter .

therefore the reference voltage is V ref = A 2 sin 2π f t t .when fd < 1/τ the pulses will be modulated an amplitude given by equation 3 (Fig 4. .when fd > 1/τ the doppler can be discerned from the information in a single pulse (4.2 .examples of Vdiff are shown in ﬁgure 4.the reference and echo signal are mixed in the receiver and the difference extracted 4π f t R 0 V diff = A 4 sin 2π f d t – -----------------c (1) (2) (3) Note: equations 2 and 3 represent carriers upon which the pulse modulation is imposed Note: for stationary targets. fd = 0 therefore Vdiff will have a constant value somewhere between -A4 and A4.let the CW oscillator voltage be V = A 1 sin 2π f t t . .mif 1/6/06 55 .Note: The main difference between this pulse radar and the one described previously is that some portion of the CW power that generates the transmitted pulse is applied to the receiver as the local oscillator.this LO provides the coherent reference needed for doppler frequency detection. .2 b) .Coherent means that the phase of the transmitted signal is preserved in the reference signal.2. .c) radarnotes_2006.the doppler shifted echo voltage is 4π f t R 0 V echo = A 3 sin 2π ( f t ± f d )t – -----------------c here c = velocity of propagation R0 = range of target .

many pulses will be needed to extract the doppler information .doppler ambiguities can occur in Fig.in this second case.2 c but not in 4.the situation shown in Fig. 4.2 b is typical of detection of missiles or satellites (i.e.the situation shown in Fig.460 PART II RADAR .2 b 56 radarnotes_2006. 4.2 c is typical of aircraft detection radar .97.mif 1/6/06 . high velocity) . 4.

A Diagram of an MTI employing an HPA (high power ampliﬁer) is shown below.the electronics excluding the high power ampliﬁer are collectively called the exciter-receiver radarnotes_2006. Fixed targets can give either a positive or a negative pulse (corresponding to the previous comment on the value ranging from -A4 and A4.the butterﬂy effect is not suitable for display on PPI .the delay line canceller acts as a ﬁlter to eliminate DC . This arrangement is called a MOPA (master oscillator.3 a.the coho fc also mixes with the stalo (stable oscillator) fl . (Note: the heterodyne process is used to avoid 1/f noise) to give video proportional to the phase difference between the two signals .superposition of the sweeps shows the moving targets producing a butterﬂy effect Note: the video is bipolar.mif 1/6/06 57 .moving targets can be distinguished from stationary targets by observing the video on an A scope (amplitude vs range .the RF echo is heterodyned with fl to produce the IF . power ampliﬁer) -here the coherent reference is supplied by a coho (coherent oscillator). Echoes from ﬁxed targets are constant while echoes from moving targets vary in amplitude at a rate corresponding to the doppler shift .ﬁxed targets with unchanging amplitudes pulse to pulse are cancelled . 4.after ampliﬁcation at IF the received signal is phase detected with fc.the rectiﬁer provides the video for the PPI . . .to extract doppler information in a form suitable for a PPI.successive A scope sweeps (PRIs) are shown.this also shows several ﬁxed targets and 2 moving targets indicated by the two arrows.from the single sweep it is impossible to distinguish moving targets from ﬁxed targets . . .the amplitudes of the moving targets are not constant pulse to pulse and subtraction results in an uncancelled residue . The coho is a stable oscillator whose frequency is the same as the IF frequency in the receiver. one can use a delay line canceller Receiver Delay Line T=1/PRF Subtract Full Wave Rectiﬁer .a single sweep might appear as in Fig..

. crossed ﬁeld ampliﬁer.however a coherent reference an be obtained by readjusting the phase of the coho at the beginning of each sweep according to the phase of the transmitted power (sweep is the term for the period between pulses) .here a portion of the transmitted signal is mixed with the STALO to produce a phase which is directly related to the phase of the transmitter. a TWT (travelling wave tube). .mif 1/6/06 . another IF locking pulse relocks the phase of the CW coho. Here.again. triode. . the main feature of MTI is that the transmitted signal must be coherent (phase referenced) with the downconverting oscillators in the receiver.97. the only high power transmitter was the magnetron oscillator.upon the next transmitted pulse. Each has its advantages and disadvantages . This IF pulse is applied to the coho and causes the coho to lock in step with the phase of the IF reference pulse. the phase of the oscillator bears no relationship from pulse to pulse. 58 radarnotes_2006.hence the reference cannot be generated by a continuously operating oscillator .the HPA may be a Klystron. any STALO phase is cancelled on reception .460 PART II RADAR Note: although the phase of the STALO inﬂuences the phase of the transmitted signal.before the development of the Klystron ampliﬁer. tetrode.the phase of the coho is then related to the phase of the transmitted pulse and can be used as the reference for echoes from that particular transmitted pulse .

solid fused quartz using multiple internal reﬂections to obtain a compact device were developed in the 1950’s .mif 1/6/06 59 .the canceler acts as a ﬁlter to reject DC clutter but because of its periodic nature it also rejects energy near the PRF and its harmonics radarnotes_2006.the signal at the output of the acoustic delay device is then converted back to an electromagnetic wave. .the delay required is equal to the PRI and might be several milliseconds (long!!!) . Filter Characteristics of a Delay Line Canceler . .converting the electromagnetic signal to an acoustic signal allows the design of delay lines with reasonable physical length since the velocity of acoustic waves is approximately 10-5 that of electromagnetic waves. Note: An advantage of the time domain delay line canceler as compared with the frequency domain ﬁlter is that a single network operates at all ranges and does not need a separate ﬁlter for each range resolution cell.this can not be achieved with electromagnetic transmission lines .these analog delay lines have been replaced by digital delay lines using A/D and digital processing .Delay Line Cancellers .the use of digital processing allows implementation of complex delay line cancellers which were not practical with the analog methods.the time domain delay-line canceller capability depends on the quality of the medium used as the delay line .

the video received from a target at range R0 is v 1 = k sin ( 2π f d t – φ 0 ) .mif 1/6/06 .however there are other constraints on λ and fp and blind speeds are not easily avoided.8 shows the ﬁrst blind speed v1 as a function of maximum unambiguous range (Runambig = cT/2) 60 radarnotes_2006. fp in Hz and vn in knots we have the following: v n = nλ f p . The speeds at which these occur are called the blind speed of the radar nλ f p nλ These are v n = -----.if the ﬁrst blind speed is to be greater than the expected maximum radial speed.ﬁgure 4.large λ has the disadvantage that antenna beamwidth is wider and is not satisfactory where angular accuracy is important .high fp reduces the unambiguous range ..the ouput from the pulse canceler is v = v 1 – v 2 = 2k sin π f d T cos 2π f d t – --- – φ 0 2 . . 2π.460 PART II RADAR . n=0.97.2 or v n = ------------2 2T for λ in metres.the signal from the previous transmission which is delayed by a time T = PRI is v 2 = k sin ( 2π ( f d ( t – T ) – φ 0 ) ) T .This will be zero when the argument πfd T is 0.hence the MTI must operate at a long wavelength or high PRF or both . π. then λfp must be large .1.

Double Cancellation .The ﬁnite width of the typical clutter spectrum is also shown to illustrate the additional cancellation offered .in Fig 4. 4.9b has the same frequency response characteristic as the double delay line canceler radarnotes_2006. the output of the two single delay line cancellers in cascade is the square of that from a single delay canceler v = 4 sin ( π f d T ) 2 .systems which require good MTI performance must operate with ambiguous range (pulse doppler radar) .in practice MTI radars in L and S band are designed for the detection of aircraft and must operate with blind speeds if they are to operate with unambiguous range . 4.the response of this double delay line canceler is shown in Fig.the effect of blind speeds can be reduced by operating with more than one PRF (staggered PRF MTI) -operating at more than one RF frequency can also reduce effect of blind speeds.9a.the two delay line canceler of Fig.mif 1/6/06 61 .the null can be widened by the use of cancelers as shown .single delay line cancelers do not always have as broad a clutter reject null at DC as might be desired .Example: Table 2: Runambig f 200 MHz 3 GHz 10 GHz 130 NM 13 NM 4 NM .10.

4..here the output of the adder is f ( t ) = – 2 f ( t + T ) + f ( t + 2T ) where f(t) is the received video signal .9b is a transversal ﬁlter .the 3 pulse ﬁlter of Fig.the transversal ﬁlter with alternating binomial weights is closely related to the ﬁlter which maximizes the 62 radarnotes_2006..460 PART II RADAR . a nonrecursive ﬁlter.the general form is shown below for N pulses and N-1 delays ..3.n+1 wi = ( –i ) ( n – i + 1 )! ( i – 1 )! Note: a cascade conﬁguration of three delay lines each connected as a single canceller is called a triple canceler: but when connected as a transversal ﬁlter it is called a four pulse canceler .the weights for a transversal ﬁlter with n delay lines that gives a sinn πfdT are the binomial coefﬁcient with alternating sign n! i–1 -------------------------------------------.it is also called a feed-forward ﬁlter.mif 1/6/06 .2.this arrangement is called a three pulse canceler Transversal Filters ..97. a ﬁnite memory ﬁlter and a tapped delay line ﬁlter . i=1.

the optimum weights based on the above criterion are the same as the binomial weights when the clutter is Gaussian.the added delay lines reduce the clutter but also reduce the number of moving targets because of the reduced pass band. They are only best under a given set of assumptions.the difference is small for higher order cancelers also .for any order canceler.the disadvantage is due to notches at DC.for the three pulse canceler. . the difference between optimum weights and binomial weights is small over a wide range of clutter spectral widths .mif 1/6/06 63 . .although these ﬁlters are optimum for Ic they are not necessarily best.similarly the use of a criterion which maximizes the clutter attenuation (Cin/Cout) is also well approximated by a transversal ﬁlter with binomial weights with alternating signs. the autocorrelation function (power spectral density) of the clutter. the difference between ﬁlter with optimal weights and one with binomial weights is less than 2 dB. . when the clutter spectrum can be represented by a Gaussian function whose spectral width is small compared to the PRF .( S ⁄ C ) out average of the ratio I c = ---------------------( S ⁄ C ) in where S/C is the signal to clutter ratio and Ic is the improvement factor for clutter The average is over the range of doppler frequencies Ic is independent of target velocity and depends only on the weights wi. .the transversal ﬁlter with binomial weights also approximates the ﬁlter which maximizes the Pd for a target at midband doppler frequency or its harmonics .for the two pulse canceler (single delay line). and the number of pulses.for targets uniformly distributed across the doppler frequency: we have for the criterion that -10dB response of the ﬁlter is the threshold for detection. the PRF and harmonics of PRF increasing in width as the number of delay lines increases . radarnotes_2006. the following table: % of targets rejected 20 35 48! n pulse canceler 2 3 4 .

This sets a restriction on the radar’s PRF.it would seem that the MTI ﬁlter should be shaped to reject the clutter at DC and around the PRF. antenna rotation rate and dwell time . Shaping the Frequency Response .the transversal ﬁlter can be designed to achieve this desirable ﬁlter response but needs a large number of delay lines.460 PART II RADAR . a 5 pulse “optimum” canceler which maximizes Ic (2) and a 15 pulse Chebyshev ﬁlter (3) Fig.12 shows the amplitude response of a 3 pulse canceler with sin2 πfdT(1).Fig 4. but have a ﬂat response over the region where no clutter is expected.12 .4.non recursive ﬁlters employ only feedforward loops. there is little that can be done to control the ﬁlter shape . These yield zeroes for synthesizing the frequency response .the canonical form is shown below: 64 radarnotes_2006.even a 5 pulse Chebyshev design gives a signiﬁcantly wider bandwidth than the 5 pulse optimum design Note: the Chebyshev design has a lower Ic but is worthwhile if the clutter spectrum is narrow . .mif 1/6/06 .97.hence for 3 or 4 pulse cancelers it is best to use the classical sin2 or sin4 response of the binomial cancelers. beamwidth.when there are only a few pulses available for processing.if feedback loops are used. each delay line can provide one pole as well as one zero .

since the extra pulses might have to be gated out after the beam has been moved.the recursive delay line ﬁlters offer steady state response that is superior to that of nonrecursive ﬁlters .however they have poor transient response due to the feedback loops .for step scan radars the undesirable transient effects can be overcome by using the initial return from each new beam position to apply initial conditions to the MTI ﬁlter.can synthesize in principle almost any frequency response using z transform techniques . .the blind speeds of two independent radars will be different if their PRFs are different. This could make the system unusable in situations with large discrete clutter.a ﬁlter with steep frequency response skirts might allow 15 .. This same result can be achieved with one radar which shares its PRFs between 2 or more values . at fd = 4/T1 = 5/T2) but regions of low sensitivity appear radarnotes_2006. This effectively suppresses the transient response. .Fig. or with interference or jamming from other radars . Butterworth. Hence the MTI ﬁlter is almost always in a transient state for most recursive ﬁlters .PRF can be switched every other scan.mif 1/6/06 65 .in surveillance radar. 4.poor transient response is also undesirable in radars with step scan phased array.canonical conﬁguration is not always desirable due to delay tolerances .multiple PRFs reduce the effect of blind speeds and also allow a sharper low frequency cutoff .when feedback loops are used the ﬁlter is called recursive .the presence of large clutter returns can effectively appear as a large step input which leads to severe ringing in the ﬁlter output which can mask the target signal until the transient response dies out. These initial conditions are the steady state values that would appear in the ﬁlter after an inﬁnitely long sequence.e. . the number of pulses from any target is limited.it has been shown that the canonical conﬁguration can be broken into cascaded sections with no section having more than two delay elements .this synthesis technique applies to Chebyshev.an alternative to the recursive ﬁlter is to use multiple PRFs Multiple (Staggered) PRFs . every time the antenna is scanned half a beam width or pulse to pulse (staggered PRF) .16 shows the composite response of MTI with two separate PRFs with a ratio of 5:4 Note: the ﬁrst blind speed of the composite is greatly increased (i.30 pulses to be generated at the ﬁlter output due to feedback. Bessel and elliptical ﬁlter design .

the null depth can be reduced and the ﬁrst blind speed increased by operating with more than 2 PRFs . and the deeper he ﬁrst null in the vicinity of fd .1/T1.Fig 4.460 PART II RADAR .97. the greater the frequency of the ﬁrst blind speed.mif 1/6/06 .17 shows a ﬁve pulse stagger (4 periods) response with periods in the ratio 25:30:27:31 66 radarnotes_2006. .the closer the ratio T1: T2 approaches unity.

[ T 1 + T 2 + …T N ] N then the ﬁrst blind speed v1 is n 1 + n 2 + …n N v 1 = v B -----------------------------------N . Such clutter does not appear at the same range from pulse to pulse and produces uncancelled residue..= … ------TN T1 T2 where n1.constant PRF might be employed only over angular sectors where second time around clutter is expected.the disadvantage of staggered PRF is its inability to cancel second time around clutter echoes. radarnotes_2006.Fig.here the ﬁrst blind speed is 28.weighting can also be applied to received pulses of a staggered PRF . . -5%.e.6dB . 1 7/8 .25 times that of a constant PRF with the same average period nn n2 n1 .18 dashed curve shows the response of a 5 pulse canceler with ﬁxed PRF and using weights of 7/ 8.. 15% .. n2.-3 3/4.if the periods of the staggered pulses have the relationships ----.second time around clutter can be removed by the use of constant PRF providing there is pulse to pulse coherence (i.1. power ampliﬁer form of MTI) .the solid curve is for a staggered PRF with the same weights but with 4 interpulse periods of -15%.mif 1/6/06 67 .Note that the response at the ﬁrst blind speed is down only 6...= ----.. 4. 5%.nN are integers and if vB is the ﬁrst blind speed of a nonstaggered pulse with period equal to the average period 1 T ave = --.

it is possible to use frequency domain band pass ﬁlters in MTI radar to sort the doppler frequency shifted targets . or by changing the PRF each scan period.if there are more than one target in the smeared region they can not be resolved . noise from other range cells will interfere (collapsing loss) resulting in reduction in sensitivity . Range Gated Doppler Filters .collapsing loss does not take place since noise from other range intervals is excluded.the output from a stationary target is s series of pulses of constant amplitude 68 radarnotes_2006.the output of the phase detector is sampled sequentially by range gates . This smearing destroys the range resolution. . Once the return is quantized.mif 1/6/06 .a narrow band ﬁlter with a pass band designed to pass the doppler components of a moving target will ring when excited by a short radar pulse.the range gate acts as a switch which opens and closes at the proper time.the narrow band ﬁlter smears the input pulse since the impulse response is the reciprocal of the ﬁlter bandwidth. Gates are activated once each PRI. .the loss of range information and collapsing loss can be eliminated by quantizing the range into small intervals (range gating) . .the range resolution is established by range gating.97.460 PART II RADAR or by changing the PRF each time the antenna scans half a beamwidth.the width of the range gate is usually of the order of the pulse width . the output from each gate is applied to a narrow band ﬁlter since the pulse shape need no linger be preserved for range resolution.even for one target. . .

a wide notch at DC is needed to remove echoes from birds but may also remove some desired targets..MTI using range gates is more complex than MTI with single delay line canceler .is more dependable. .the full wave rectiﬁer then converts the bipolar video to unipolar form . does not vary with temperature etc. adaptive) . requires less adjustment than analog cancelers. 4.5. This helps the ﬁltering and detection process by emphasizing the fundamental of the modulation frequency and eliminating harmonics of the PRF .the band pass ﬁlter can be designed with a variable low frequency cutoff that can be varied to conform to prevailing clutter conditions (i. . The signal is then applied to the threshold detector circuit .Digital Signal Processing .clutter rejection ﬁlter is a band pass ﬁlter whose bandwidth depends on the clutter spectrum . Since the appearance of birds varies with time of day and season the adaptive notch width might be important .most advantages of digital MTI result from the use of digital storage in the place of analog delay lines .allows multiple delay line cancelers with tailored frequency response to be achieved .the output from the range gates is stretched in boxcar generators (or sample and hold circuits).following threshold detection the outputs from each range channel must be properly combined for display on the PPI etc.MTI using range gates improves performance and allows ﬂexibility of range gates and ﬁlter bandwidth.an integrator acts as a low pass ﬁlter.here the IF signal is split into I and Q channels radarnotes_2006.an echo from a moving target produces pulses which vary in amplitude according to the doppler frequency .e.for example.mif 1/6/06 69 .

the combined output is then converted to an analog signal with D/A for display Note: more complex ﬁltering schemes are normally implemented.the A/D output is stored in the memory for one PRI and then subtracted from the words from the next sweep .460 PART II RADAR .the quantization noise introduced by the A/D imposes a limit to the improvement factor of I QN ≈ 20 log [ ( 2 – 1 ) 0.the outputs of the two phase detectors are 90˚ out of phase .the baseband bipolar video is sampled at a rate to obtain one or more samples per range resolution cell .75 ] where 2N .97. .blind speed occurs when pulse sampling occurs at the same point on the doppler cycle at each sampling instant (Fig 4.this is different from blind speed .the memory can be RAM or a shift register .the number of bits determines the maximum improvement factor for the MTI radar . .A/D must operate at high speeds to preserve the information content.the A/D converter must cover the peak excursion of the phase detector output.the I and Q outputs are combined as either I +Q 2 2 or I + Q . To ensure this.blind phase .9 which is close .1 is the number of discrete intervals this is approximately 6dB / bit Example: a 9 bit A/D has 511 levels thus the maximum resolution is 1 out of 511 511 I = 20 log -------1 = 54 dB Note: IQN = 52.the quadrature channel eliminates the effects of blind phases.mif 1/6/06 .22a) N 70 radarnotes_2006. and also have sufﬁcient number of bits to quantize the signal to preserve precision . Note that this is seldom done in analog delay line cancelers due to the complexity involved with additional analog delay lines. a limiter may be necessary .

4. no spurious response) .the combination of I and Q channels results in a uniform signal with no loss .greater dynamic range (i. Note: The pulse pairs that were lost in the I channel are recovered in the Q channel and vice versa .greater precision .greater stability .greater freedom in selection of amplitude weighting for shaping ﬁlters . occurs. resulting in the complete loss of signal.other phase relationships also give loss with single channel MTI Advantages of digital processing over analog delay lines .no special temperature control required .different PRI can be used (without switching delay lines of various lengths in and out) .an extreme case.greater repeatability . but not when a3 is subtracted from a4.e.Fig.greater reliability .however if the Q channel is added the all of the echo pulses occur at the peaks of the doppler signal .avoids restriction that PRI and delay time must be equal .mif 1/6/06 71 .22b shows the I channel with the pulse train such that the signals are of the same amplitude and with spacing such that when pulse a1 is subtracted from pulse a2 the result is zero However a residue is produced when a2 is subtracted from a3. with only one channel when the doppler frequency is half of the PRF and the phase between the two is such that the echo pulses lie on the zeroes of the doppler signal .allows easy implementation of I and Q channels (eliminates blind phases) radarnotes_2006.

11 to have N-1 delays each with a delay of T = 1/fp .a transversal ﬁlter with N outputs (N-1 delays) can be made to form a bank of N contiguous ﬁlters covering the spectrum of 0 to PRF .let the weights at the outputs be w ik = e – j [ 2π ( i – 1 )k ⁄ N ] where i = 1.this ﬁlter has no clutter rejection capability. .2π .1/T. N represents the ith tap and k = an index from 1 to N-1 ...460 PART II RADAR Digital Filter Banks and the FFT .the impulse response of the transversal ﬁlter with the above weights is: hk ( t ) = ∑ δ [ t – ( i – 1 )T ]e i=1 N – j2π ( i – 1 )k ⁄ N the Fourier transform yields the frequency response – j2πfT Hk( f ) = e ∑e i=1 N j2π ( i – 1 ) [ fT – k ⁄ N ] .e. for k=0. π(fT-k/N)= 0.the ﬁrst null occurs when the numerator is 0 .the bandwidth between nulls is then 2/NT and the half power bandwidth is: BW(3dB) ≈ 0..the magnitude of the frequency response yields the amplitude characteristic Hk( f ) = ∑e i=1 N j2π ( i – 1 ) [ fT – k ⁄ N ] sin [ πN ( fT – k ⁄ N ) ] = -------------------------------------------------sin [ π ( fT – k ⁄ N ) ] Note that the peak response occurs when the denominator is zero i.97.for k=0 this is f= 1/NT .2/T etc.mif 1/6/06 .2..this is a ﬁlter centred at DC.consider the transversal ﬁlter of Fig. 4..the N ﬁlters generated by the index k constitutes the ﬁlter bank . the PRF and harmonics of the PRF .9/NT 72 radarnotes_2006.each k value corresponds to a different set of N weights and to a different doppler frequency response .π. the peak response occurs at f= 0.. but it is useful fro providing a map of clutter .

1/T + 1/NT.2 dB sidelobes) and the lower ﬁgure gives the results for Chebyshev weights (25 dB sidelobes) .It is found that doubling the number of pulses in the ﬁlter bank to 16 does not offer signiﬁcant improvement (i. each with a bandwidth between nulls of 2/NT . the improvement factor for an N pulse canceler is shown in Fig.also the dividing of the band by N ﬁlters allows a measure of the doppler frequency to be made . One approach is to connect ﬁlter outputs to a “greatest of” circuit. However.25 Note: the improvement factor for a two pulse canceler is almost as good as that of the 8 pulse doppler ﬁlter bank. its SNR will be greater than the delay line canceler . for a spectrum represented as a Gaussian function. 4. 4. The upper ﬁgure assumes uniform amplitude weights (-13.. so that only one output is obtained (Note: the ﬁlter at DC would be excluded) ..for comparison. better clutter rejection is obtained .mif 1/6/06 73 .hence each k deﬁnes a separate ﬁlter response. the threshold of each ﬁlter may be adjusted individually to adapt to the clutter in it.it is not always convenient to display outputs of all of the doppler ﬁlters.if a 2 or 3 pulse canceler is cascaded with a doppler ﬁlter bank.. increased pulses ⇒ increase in bandwidth as well as decreased sidelobes radarnotes_2006.24 as a function of the standard deviation of the clutter spectrum.the ﬁrst sidelobe level is at -13dBc for the ﬁlters with the above weights.if moving clutter (birds. the peak response occurs at f = 1/NT. .since each ﬁlter occupies the 1/N bandwidth of a delay line canceler.26 gives Ic for a 3 pulse canceler cascaded with an 8 pulse ﬁlter bank. This can be reduced at the expense of wider bandwidth by adjusting the weights (windowing) .When k=1. maximizing the improvement factor is not the only criterion for judging the effectiveness of MTI doppler processes . . weather) appears.two forms of windows are the Hamming and the Hanning .e. .this selectivity allows clutter to be removed which would be passed by a delay line canceler . 4.Fig.the improvement factor for each of the 8 ﬁlters of a 8 ﬁlter bank is shown in Fig.

97.460 PART II RADAR 74 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 .

. the inclusion of the delay line canceler ahead of it might not be necessary radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 75 .if the sidelobes of the individual ﬁlters in the ﬁlter bank can be made low.

4 ˚ azimuth beamwidth.460 PART II RADAR 4. transversal ﬁlter and recursive ﬁlter .electrostatic storage tube . the next sweep written on the same space and generates the difference between the two. the other to subtract the new sweep from the old.the ASR is a medium range (60 NM) radar located at most US airports. adaptive thresholds and a clutter map used for detecting targets with zero radial speed.9 GHz RF.the sampling frequency must give one or two samples per resolution cell .the MTD processor is based on digital technology.the charge transfer device (CTD) is a sampled data.ﬁnally the video can FM modulate a carrier f or acoustic delay. Here no blind phases occur .solid crystal has been mentioned previously . Two tubes are required.7 Example of an MTI Radar Processor . 1µs pulse width.here the signals are stored on a mesh similar to that of a TV camera. Here the data is transferred through the BBD at a rate determined by the rate at which the switches are operated.the bucket brigade device (BBD) with capacitive storage elements separated by switches.7 to 2.6 Other MTI Delay Lines . antenna rotation rate of 12.there are two types of CTD. This avoids problems of amplitude stability of acoustic delay lines.mif 1/6/06 . . The delay time is determined by the number of stages and the switching (or clock) speed. 4. 1.the moving target detector (MTD) was developed by Lincoln Labs for the FAA’s airport surveillance radars (ASR) . The electrostatic storage tube can be used with different PRFs .it has 2.MTI cancelling can be done at IF. one to write and store the new sweep.the total system has alternating PRFs to eliminate blind speeds. .charge coupled devices (CCDs) are similar except that charge packets are transferred to adjacent potential wells by a clocked potential gradient Notes: . . The ﬁrst sweep reads the signal on the storage tube. . analog shift register which can be used as a delay line. .no A/D or D/A required as for digital systems .uses a 3 pulse canceler followed by an 8 pulse FFT doppler ﬁlter bank with weighting to reduce sidelobes . 76 radarnotes_2006.5 to 15 RPM PRF from 700 to 1200 Hz and average power from 400 to 600 W.97.

each cell has its own adaptive threshold . only the last 8 of the 10 pulses are passed to the ﬁlter bank (implemented using the FFT) ..the IF is applied to I & Q detectors and the video is A/Dd with 10 bit resolution . The 3 pulse canceler ahead of the ﬁlter bank eliminates stationary clutter ahead of the ﬁlter bank and reduces the dynamic range required of the doppler ﬁlter bank since the ﬁrst two pulses of a three pulse canceler are useless.the range totalling 47.27.changing PRF every 10 pulses eliminates second time around clutter .75˚ interval (≈ 1/2 beamwidth) 10 pulses are transmitted at constant PRF .in each 0. weighting is applied in the frequency domain to reduce the ﬁlter sidelobes.75˚ azimuth intervals another 10 pulses are transmitted at a different PRF .2 dB available from uniformly weighted samples . 4.hence the radar output is divided into 2.mif 1/6/06 77 .the magnitude operation forms I +Q 2 2 radarnotes_2006.in the alternate 0.000 range/azimuth/doppler cells .the measured Ic of the MTD on the ASR was 45 dB (20 dB better than with a conventional 3 pulse MTI processor) .920.the MTD processor is shown in Fig.the processor is preceded by a large dynamic range receiver to avoid reduction in Ic caused by limiting . This is necessary since the frequency spectrum of rain and wind blown clutter requires sidelobes lower than the 13.following the ﬁlter bank.on receive the 10 pulses are processed by the delay line canceller and doppler ﬁlter bank which forms 8 doppler ﬁlters .75 ˚ intervals .5 NM is divided into 1/16 NM intervals and the azimuth into 0.the MTD also achieves a narrower notch at zero velocity blind speeds .

hence each ﬁlter output is averaged over one mile in range to get the mean level of non zero velocity clutter . eight on either side of the cell of interest . The map is implemented with one word for each of the 365000 range/azimuth cells .60 to +60 knots 78 radarnotes_2006.typical rain storm spectrum is shown o the bottom and has about 25 to 30 knots width centred anywhere from .mif 1/6/06 . . 4.this adaptive threshold on each doppler ﬁlter at each range cell provides a constant false alarm rate (CFAR) and results in subclutter visibility (for different radial velocities of aircraft and weather) .the purpose of the zero velocity ﬁlter is to recover the clutter signal and use it to establish a threshold for targets with zero radial velocity .Fig 4.ﬁlters 2 and 8 adjacent to the zero velocity ﬁlter establish the threshold from the larger of the mean signal over 16 range cells and the clutter map .the ﬁlter thresholds are determined by multiplying the mean levels by a constant to achieve the desired Pfa .ﬁlter 1 establishes the threshold from the clutter map . As shown.here the ﬁlters 3 through 7 establish the threshold from the mean signal in 16 range cells .28 . This allows elimination of usual MTI blind speed at zero relative velocity for targets with large cross section .28 also shows the advantage of using 2 PRFs to detect targets in rain. For non zero velocity resolution cells the thresholds are established by scanning the detected outputs of the same velocity ﬁlter in 16 range cells.97.separate thresholds are applied to each ﬁlter.the values in the map are multiplied by a constant to establish a threshold for zero velocity targets.in each cell of the ground clutter map is stored the average value of the output of the zero velocity ﬁlter for the past 8 scans (32 seconds) On each scan 1/8 of the output is added to 7/8 of the value stored in the map .the map is built up recursively requiring 10 to 20 scans to establish steady state clutter values . the PRFs are 20% different.a digital clutter map establishes the thresholds for zero velocity cells.the MTD ﬁlters are shown in Fig.460 PART II RADAR .

a post processor groups together all reports which appear to originate from the same target and interpolates to ﬁnd the best azimuth.the MTD has an interference eliminator which compares the magnitude of each of the ten pulses against the average magnitude of the ten pulses.Subclutter Visibility (SCV): The ratio by which the target echo may be weaker than the coincident clutter echo power and still be detected with speciﬁed Pd and Pfa. 8 Limitations of MTI Performance .with PRF-2 the aircraft velocity is competing with the rain clutter. aircraft targets will appear in at least one ﬁlter free of rain (except when the aircraft’s radial velocity is that of the rain) . but at PRF-1 it is clear of clutter. range.tracking circuits eliminate false hit reports which do not form logical tracks . . amplitude. I The signal to clutter ratio at the output of the MTI system divided by the signal to clutter ratio at the input.up to 20 hit reports might be generated from a single large target . physical motion of the clutter.target amplitude and doppler are used to eliminate small cross section and low speed angle echoes before targets are delivered to the automatic tracking circuits.improvement in signal to clutter is affected by factors other than the doppler spectrum .instabilities in the transmitter and receiver. ..mif 1/6/06 79 .since the MTD processor eliminates large amounts of clutter and has a low false detection rate.on one scan. Deﬁnitions . amplitude and radar velocity .hence by using 2 PRFs alternating every 10 pulses. ﬁnite time on target and receiver limiting all affect Ic.an aircraft return is also shown at the right of the ﬁgure and is shown as occupying ﬁlters 6 and 7 on PRF-1 and ﬁlters 7 and 8 on PRF-2 (the difference is due to frequency foldover) . All target radial velocities are assumed equally likely radarnotes_2006.the output of the MTD is a hit report containing azimuth.interference from other radars may appear as one large return among the ten returns processed .the output of the automatic tracker is what is displayed on the PPI. all information from that range/azimuth cell is discarded . ﬁlter number and PRF . a large aircraft might be reported from more than one doppler ﬁlter. range. averaged over all of the target radial velocities of interest .MTI Improvement Factor. from several coherent processing intervals and from adjacent range cells . . If any pulse is greater than 5 times the average. its output can be remoted via narrow bandwidth telephone 4.

5 ˚ beamwidth has sufﬁcient resolution to achieve a 20 dB advantage over low resolution radars Equipment Instabilities .pulse to pulse changes in phase .the signal to clutter ratio after cancellation (or doppler processing) that provides the stated Pd and Pfa .97. Voc should be chosen as the SNR for range equation calculations Note: when the MTI is limited by antenna scanning ﬂuctuations. let Voc = 6dB for a single pulse Note: Once again.timing jitter on transient pulse 80 radarnotes_2006. azimuth or doppler Note: the higher the radar resolution.the ratio of the clutter power at the canceler input to the clutter residue at the output.the ratio of canceler voltage ampliﬁcation fro ﬁxed target echoes received with a ﬁxed antenna.Clutter Visibility Factor Voc .Clutter Attenuation CA . I is the preferred measure of MTI performance but does not account for possible poor performance at certain velocities .460 PART II RADAR Note: A typical value is 30 dB Note: two radars with the same subclutter visibility might not have the same ability to detect targets in clutter if the resolution cell of one is greater and accepts more clutter echo power . the better the interclutter visibility.mif 1/6/06 .the apparent frequency spectrum from perfectly stationary clutter can be broadened (and hence will degrade the MTI improvement factor) due to the following: .pulse to pulse changes in frequency .the ability of the MTI to detect moving targets in clear resolution cells between patches of strong clutter.Interclutter Visibility . to the gain for a single pulse passing through the unprocessed channel of the canceler.pulse to pulse changes in amplitude . normalized (divided by) to the attenuation of a single pulse passing through the unprocessed channel of the canceler . Note: I c = ( SCV ) ( V oc ) Note: When the MTI is limited by noiselike system instabilities. A medium resolution radar with 2 µs pulse width and 1. Resolution cells can be range.Cancellation Ratio .

= ------------2 2 ( A∆φ ) ( ∆φ ) Note: to achieve I > 40 dB requires ∆φ < 0.On subtraction ∆φ ∆φ ∆φ g 1 ( t ) – g 2 ( t ) = 2 A sin ------ sin ωt + ------ ≈ A∆φ sin ωt + ------ 2 2 2 .let the echo from a stationary clutter on pulse 1 and pulse 2 be g 1 = A cos ωt g 2 = A cos ( ωt + ∆φ ) where ∆φ is the change in oscillator phase between the two pulses ..changes in pulse width . bare hills radarnotes_2006.variations in time delay through the delay lines .)-2 (2π∆fT)-2 (∆φ)-2 (∆φ)-2 τ2/(∆t)22Bτ τ2/(∆τ)2Bτ (A/∆A)2 2 ∆f = interpulse frequency change B = bandwidth τ = pulse width T = transmission time ∆φ = interpulse phase change ∆t = timing jitter ∆τ = pulse width jitter ∆A = interpulse amplitude change Note: the digital processor does not experience degradation due to timing jitter of the transmit pulse if the clock controlling the processor timing is started from the detected RF envelope of the transmitted pulse Internal Fluctuation of Clutter .the limits to I imposed by pulse to pulse instability are: Transmitter frequency Stalo or coho frequency Transmitter phase shift Coho locking Pulse timing Pulse width Pulse amplitude where (π∆fτ.changes in coho or stalo between time of transmit and time of receive . .consider the effect of phase variations.buildings. This applies to the coho locking or the phase change introduced by the HPA .mif 1/6/06 81 . mountains.hence the limitation on the improvement factor due to oscillator instability is A 1 I = -----------------. water towers.absolutely stationary clutter .01 rad from pulse to pulse!.

29 shows the power spectral density of clutter for a 1 GHz carrier .trees.mif 1/6/06 . vegetation.experimentally measured spectra of clutter can be approximated by W ( f ) = g( f ) 2 f 2 2 = g 0 exp – a ----.97.or as 82 radarnotes_2006. chaff .dynamic clutter .Fig.29) .any motion of the scatterers relative to the radar results in a different vector sum from pulse to pulse . rain.this equation can be rewritten as: –f W ( f ) = W 0 exp -------2 2σ c 2 (19) where σc is the RMS clutter frequency spread in Hz . f 0 where W(f) = clutter power spectrum g(f) = Fourier transform of the clutter waveform f0 = radar carrier frequency a = a parameter (given by Fig 4. 4.most ﬂuctuating clutter targets can be represented by a model consisting of many independent scatterers located in the resolution cell .460 PART II RADAR . sea.can limit the performance of MTI .

–f λ W ( f ) = W 0 exp --------------2 8σ v where σv is the clutter velocity spread in m/s 2σ v σ c = -------λ c a = -------2 8σ v S0 S0 ⁄ C0 . = ----- CA Si ⁄ Ci S i ave where CA = Ci/C0 . we can use the ﬁrst two terms of its series expansion radarnotes_2006.substituting eqn 19 and 22 into 21 gives ∞ (22) ∫ W 0 ( f ) exp [ – f ∫ 0 2 ⁄ 2σ c ] d f 2 0 CA = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------∞ 2 2 2 W 0 exp [ – f ⁄ 2σ c ]4 sin ( πfT ) d f assuming σc << 1/T yields 0.exp(-j2πfT) = 2jsin(πfT)exp(-jπfT) .for a single delay line canceler ∞ 2 2 2 Note: (20) ∫ W ( f )d f 0 CA = --------------------------------------------∞ 2 W( f ) H( f ) df (21) ∫ 0 where H(f) is the frequency response of the canceler .mif 1/6/06 83 .5 CA = --------------------------------------------------2 2 2 1 – exp [ – 2π T σ c ] .if the exponential is small.for a single delay line canceler h(f) = 1.the improvement factor can be written as I = --------------.clutter attenuation averaged over all doppler frequencies .

a plot of equation 26 is shown in Fig 4.= --------------.97.30 with fpλ as a parameter.hence (25) . whose average gain is 6 fp f pλ a fp I 2c = --------------.460 PART II RADAR fp CA = ----------------2 2 4π σ c or f pλ CA = -------------------2 2 16π σ v or af p CA = ----------------2 2 2π f 0 Now the average gain (S0/Si)ave for the single delay line canceler is 2 fp f pλ af p I 1c = --------------. Several representative examples of clut- 84 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 .= --------------4 4 4 4 4 4 8π σ c 128π σ v 2π f 0 4 4 4 2 4 (26) .= --------------------.similarly for a double canceler.= ----------2 2 2 2 2 2 2π σ c 8π σ v π f0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 .

Note: the frequency dependence of equations 25 and 26 for the clutter spectrum can not be extended over too great a frequency range since no account is taken of variation of cross section of individual scatterers as a function of frequency .a scanning antenna observes a target for time t0 nB θB t 0 = -----.the general form for an N pulse canceler with Nl = N-1 delay lines is Nl f p 2N l 2 I NC = ------. .rain. than at UHF frequencies.mif 1/6/06 85 . sea echo and chaff have non zero mean velocity which must be accounted for .Note: σv (spectral spread in velocity) is with respect to the mean velocity which for ground clutter is zero.= ----fp ˙ θS where nB is the number of hits received .the received pulse train of ﬁnite duration t0 has a frequency spectrum which is proportional to 1/t0 radarnotes_2006. .for example the leaves and branches of trees have considerably different reﬂecting properties at Ka band where their dimensions are comparable to λ. ------------ N l! 2πσ c Antenna Scanning Modulation .ter are indicated at particular values of σv .

776θ G ( θ ) = G 0 exp ---------------------2 θB 2 now where θ and θB are in degrees therefore θ 2 – 2.if the clutter spectrum is too wide due to too short an observation interval.this limitation is called scanning ﬂuctuation or scanning modulation .here the voltage waveform for the clutter is modulated by the antenna power pattern (equal to the two way ﬁeld strength pattern). .mif 1/6/06 . θ ˙s S a = G 0 exp ---------------------------- θ B 2 ----.776 ---. hence the results previously derived for a Gaussian clutter spectrum can be applied.thus equations 25 and 26 apply for the antenna scanning ﬂuctuations with the correct interpretation of σc (the RMS spread of the spectrum about the mean) . as it is rotated – 2. the spectrum will also be Gaussian. . 86 radarnotes_2006.460 PART II RADAR .to ﬁnd the limitation on Ic we ﬁrst ﬁnd the clutter attenuation CA ∞ ∫ W S ( f )d f 0 CA = -----------------------------------------------∞ 2 W S( f ) H ( f ) d f ∫ 0 here WS(f) describes the spectrum produced by the ﬁnite time on target and H(f) is the MTI processor frequency response . the improvement factor will be affected .if the antenna main beam is approximated by a Gaussian shape.hence even if the clutter were perfectly stationary.97. the clutter spectrum would have a ﬁnite width due to the ﬁnite time on target. ˙ θs where Sa (t) is the modulation of the received signal due to the antenna pattern ˙ and θ s is the scan rate in ˚/s.

776 Since this is a Gaussian function we must have 2 –π f t 0 f -------------------.776 2σ f 2 2 2 2 2 2 .776t exp -------------------.776t S a = K exp -------------------2 t0 2 hence .the spectrum is found by taking the Fourier transform – 2.= t 0 ˙s ˙ θ θs – 2.exp [ – j2πft ] dt 2 t0 –∞ ∞ 2 Sa = K ∫ –π f t 0 = K 1 exp -------------------2.388 2 single canceler and nB I 2s = -----------3.for the power spectrum we have σ s = -----2 1 .77t 0 .hence the σs due to the antenna scanning is σ s = -------------3.853 4 radarnotes_2006.θB θ now ---.= --------2 2.substituting this for σc in equations 25 and 26 yields nB I 1s = -----------1.= t and ----.178 σ f = -----------πt 0 Note: this is for the voltage spectrum σf .hence 1.mif 1/6/06 87 .

97. 88 radarnotes_2006.460 PART II RADAR .mif 1/6/06 . The time waveform is rectangular which gives a different improvement factor.Note: the stepped scan antenna also is limited in MTI performance by the ﬁnite time on target.

the limiter provides a CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate) .here C/L is the ratio of RMS clutter power to the IF limit level Note: the loss of I increases with the complexity of the canceler. If the limit is set too low. This is difﬁcult to achieve since it requires the receiver to have a linear dynamic range of at least 60 dB. The abscissa applies to Gaussian clutter spectrum generated by clutter motion (σv) or by antenna scanning modulation (nB) .32 plots I for 2 pulse and 3 pulse cancelers with various levels of limiting. the equipment must be stable. the A/D must have at least 11 bits. clutter residue obscures part of the display. when I is not great enough.this condition can be prevented by setting the limit L relative to the noise N equal to the MTI improvement factor I L --. the processor must be designed for I = 60 dB and the number of pulses processed must be sufﬁcient to reduce the antenna scanning modulation radarnotes_2006. A 4 pulse canceler with limiting is only 2 dB better than a 3 pulse canceler.a nonlinear limiter however causes the spectrum of strong clutter to spread into the canceler pass band and results in the generation of additional residue which degrades the MTI performance. Hence adding complexity is not justiﬁed in a limiting environment .ideally an MTI radar should reduce clutter to a level comparable to noise. However. .limiting is not needed if processor I is large enough to reduce the largest clutter to the noise level (typically requires I ≈ 60 dB).a limiter is used just before the MTI processor to prevent the residue from large clutter echoes from saturating the display . .= I N . Limiting in a 3 pulse canceler will cause a 15 to 25 dB reduction in performance.Figure 4.if the limit level is set too high. there may be a black hole effect . the clutter residue will appear on the display and prevent the detection of aircraft whose radar cross section is larger than the clutter residue.Limiting in MTI Radar .mif 1/6/06 89 .

97.460 PART II RADAR 90 radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 .

.if there is only one target present within the radar’s coverage.tracks can be obtained by having an operator mark the location of a target on the face of the PPI with a grease pencil on each scan . This is called “beam splitting” .the ADT performs the following functions: .also an operator’s effectiveness in detecting new targets decreases rapidly after 1/2 hour of operation .track update .track association .a surveillance radar which develops tracks on targets it has detected is called a “track while scan” (TWS) radar . This is called “automatic detection and tracking (ADT) .target detection .5.at each range interval the detector integrates n pulses (n is the expected number of hits expected from the target due to the antenna scan rate) .the integrated pulses are compared with the threshold to determine the presence or absence of a target . however too many false tracks can overload a computer radarnotes_2006.however there are usually other targets plus clutter echoes and hence three or more detections are necessary to establish a track reliably without the generation of false tracks. the location accuracy of each observation and the number of extraneous targets present in the vicinity of the tracked target .the quality of such a track depends on the time between observations. then the detection on two scans is all that is required to establish a target track and estimate its’ velocity.track smoothing . an estimate of the target’s angular direction can be obtained.the track of a target can be determined with a surveillance radar from the coordinates of the target measured from scan to scan .mif 1/6/06 91 .track termination .the automatic detection quantizes the range into intervals equal to the range resolution .track initiation .by locating the centre of the n pulses.10 tracking with Surveillance Radar .a computer can recognize and reject false tracks.a single operator however can not handle more than about 6 target tracks when the radar has a twelve second scan rate .an example is the “moving window detector” which examines continuously the last n samples within each quantized range and announces the presence of a target if m out of n of these samples cross a preset threshold .these problems are avoided by automating the target detection and tracking process. .

97.460 PART II RADAR

- hence the radar using ADT should exclude unwanted signals from clutter and interference - a good ADT system therefore requires a good MTI and a good CFAR receiver - a clutter map generated by the radar is sometimes used to reduce the load on the tracking computer by blanking the clutter areas and removing detections associated with large point clutter sources not rejected by the MTI - slowly moving echoes that are not of interest can also be removed by the clutter map - the availability of distinctive target characteristics such as altitude might prove of help when performing track association - when a new detection is received, an attempt is made to associate it with existing tracks - this is aided by establishing for each track a small search region (gate) within which a new detection is predicted based on the estimate of the target speed and direction. - it is desired to make the gate as small as possible to avoid having more than one echo fall within it when trafﬁc density is high, or when two tracks are close - however a large gate is required if the tracker is to follow target maneuvres. - hence more than one gate size may be used - the size of the gate depends on the accuracy of the track - when a target does not appear in the small gate, a larger gate could be used. The size of the second gate would depend on the maximum acceleration expected of the target - on the basis of past detections, the track while scan radar must make smoothed estimates of the target position and velocity as well as the predicted position and velocity - one method of computing this information is the α−β tracker (also called the g-h tracker) - here the present smoothed target position x and velocity v are computed using x n = x pn + α ( x n – x pn ) β v n = v n – 1 + ----- ( x n – x pn ) Ts where xpn = the predicted position of the target at the nth scan xn = the measured position at the nth scan α = the position smoothing parameter β = the velocity smoothing parameter Ts = the time between observations

- the predicted position at the n+1 scan is x pn + 1 = x n + v n T s

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- when acceleration is important, a third equation can be added to describe an α−β−γ tracker where γ is the acceleration smoothing parameter - if α = β = 0 then the tracker uses no current data, only smoothed data. - if α = β = 1 then no smoothing is included at all - the α−β ﬁlter is designed to minimize the mean square error in the smoothed (ﬁltered) position and velocity assuming small velocity changes between observations - to minimize the output noise variance at steady state, and the transient response to a maneuvering target modeled by a ramp function the α−β coefﬁcients are related by α β = ----------2–α

2

- the choice of α between 0 and 1 depends on the system application and in particular on the tracking bandwidth - a compromise must be made between good smoothing (narrow bandwidth) and rapid response to maneuvre (wide bandwidth) - a criterion for selecting the α,β coefﬁcients is based on the best linear track ﬁtted to the radar data in the least squares sense. This gives values 2 ( 2n – 1 ) α = ---------------------n(n + 1) 6 β = ------------------n(n + 1) where n = the number of scans or target observations - a standard α − β tracker does not handle the maneuvering target - an adaptive α − β tracker is one which varies the two smoothing parameters to achieve a variable bandwidth so as to be able to follow maneuvres. - the value of α can be set by observing the measurement error xn - xpn - at the start of the tracking, the bandwidth is set to be wide and is narrowed down if the target moves in a straight line - as the target maneuvres, the bandwidth is widened to keep the tracking error small - a Kalman ﬁlter is similar to an adaptive α − β tracker except that it inherently provides for dynamical targets - here a model for the measurement error has to be assumed, as well a model of the target trajectory and the disturbance of the trajectory - disturbances might be due to neglect of higher order derivatives in the model of the dynamics, random motions due to atmospheric turbulence, and target maneuvres n>2 n>2

radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06

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97.460 PART II RADAR

- Kalman ﬁlters can use a wide variety of models for measurement noise and trajectory disturbance, however these are usually assumed to be white noise with zero mean - a maneuvering target does not always ﬁt this model since it produces correlated observations. Proper inclusion of realistic dynamical models increases the complexity of the calculations - The Kalman ﬁlter is sophisticated but costly to implement - its chief advantage over the classical α − β tracker is its inherent ability to account for maneuvre statistics - if Kalman ﬁlters were restricted to modelling the target trajectory as a straight line and if the measurement noise and trajectory disturbance noise were modeled as white Gaussian noise with zero mean, then the Kalman ﬁlter equations reduce to α − β tracker equations, with the α and β computed sequentially by the Kalman ﬁlter procedure - the classical α − β is easy to implement - to handle maneuvering targets, some means may be included to detect maneuvres and to change the values of α and β. - the data rate might also be increased during target maneuvres in some radar systems - as means for choosing α and β become more sophisticated, the optimal α − β tracker becomes equivalent to a Kalman ﬁlter even for a target trajectory with error - here the computation of α and β require a knowledge of the statistics of the measurement errors and the prediction errors, and are determined in a recursive manner in that they depend on previous estimates of the mean square error in the smoothed position and velocity Note: The concept of the α − β tracker or the Kalman ﬁlter apply also to a continuous single target tracker where the error signal is processed digitally. The equations describing the α − β tracker are equivalent to a Type II servo system - of the track while scan radar does not receive target information on a particular scan, the smoothing and predicting operations can be continued by accounting for the missing data - when data to update a track is missing for a sufﬁcient number of consecutive scans, the track is terminated Example: if the criterion for establishing a track is 3 target reports, 5 consecutive misses is suitable for termination - ADT effectively reduces the bandwidth in the radar output allowing the data to be transmitted to a remote site via narrow band phone lines - this allows the outputs from several radars to be communicated to a central control point economically - the adaptive thresholding of the automatic detector can cause worsening of the range resolution - it would seem that two targets might be resolved if their separation is about 0.8 pulse width - however with automatic detection, the probability of resolving targets in range only exceeds 0.9 if they are separated by 2.5 pulse widths

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interference and clutter . (If it were.when more than one radar are covering the same volume of space.to achieve this resolution. it is sometimes desirable to combine their outputs to form a single track ﬁle (Automatic Detection and Integrated Tracking..the integrated processing allows a favourable weighting of better data and lesser weighting of the poorer data radarnotes_2006.mif 1/6/06 95 .ADIT has the advantage of a greater data rate than a single radar and reduces the likelihood of a loss of target detections caused by antenna lobing.this resolution limit assumes that the shape of the return pulse is not known. a log video receiver should be used and the threshold should be proportioned to the smaller of the two means calculated from a number of reference cells on either side of the test cell . it would be possible to resolve targets within one pulse width) . fading. ADIT) .

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