P. 1
Ch 6 (cont'd)

Ch 6 (cont'd)

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Miles Eckles Chem 101 A

March 3, 2011 Chapter 6

Last thoughts on Bohr s Model
y Bohr s model worked perfectly for explaining the spectra of atoms containing a single electron (H, He+, etc.) y Further refinements needed to explain other atoms

Wave Behavior of Matter
y DeBroglie suggested that electrons orbiting about a nucleus have a characteristic wavelength and dubbed the wave characteristics of particles matter waves. The wavelength of a matter wave: y y = h/mv photons have wave-like and matter-like behavior

The product of mass and velocity is momentum.

The Wavelength of a Baseball
Calculate the wavelength of a baseball thrown by Carlos Zambrano of the Chicago Cubs (fastball v = 95 mph) Mass of the baseball is 143 g.

= h/mv v = 95 mi x 1hr x 1.6093km x 1000m = 42m/s hr 3600s mi km

= 6.63 x 10-34 J-s / (0.143kg)(42 m/s) = 1.1 x 10-34 J-s2 kg-m2/s2
kg-m 1J

= 1.1 x 10-34m
y this value is awfully small; can t perceive in the microscopic world.

The Uncertainty Principle
y States that it is inherently impossible for us to know simultaneously both the exact momentum and exact location in space y Fundamental limitation on knowing where any electron is; got to treat as wave and particle

Quantum Mechanics
y Schrodinger developed equation to relate wave and particle nature of electrons, opening up the field of quantum mechanics or wave mechanics. y Wave functions ( ) are solutions to Schrodinger s equations, but they have no physical meaning y

, however, represents a probability density of finding the electron.

When wave functions is squared an electron in a certain position

it gives us a physical 3-D representation of finding

Orbitals and Quantum Numbers
y Orbitals are wave functions o Each orbital has a characteristic energy and shape y n principal quantum number specifies orbital energy o integer values 1, 2, 3 y l azimuthal quantum number specifies shape of orbital o Integral values from 0 to n 1    y Example: if n = 1 : l =0 Example 2: if n = 2 : l = 0, 1 Example 3: if n = 3 : l = 0, 1, 2

l =0 (s orbital), l = 1 (p), l = 2 (d), l = 3 (f) o s = spherical , has 1 type

o p = p orbital (oblong dumbbells), has 3 types (px, py, pz) o d = d orbital (clover leaves), 5 types (dxy, dxz,dyz,dz2, dx2- y2) o f = f orbitals, 7 types o Group 1 and Group 2 elements s orbitals o Group 17 and 18 (gases) have p orbitals y ml is the magnetic quantum number o describes the orientation of the orbital in space o can have integral values from -l to l, including 0  y y can have only 3 values in this case

All electrons in orbitals with same n are said to be in the same electron shell. All electrons in orbitals with same n and l are said to be in same subshell.

Effective nuclear charge
y Effective nuclear charge, Zeff equals the number of protons in the nucleus (Z) minus the average number of electrons (S) between nucleus and electron in question. 

Zeff = Z


o Electrons in outer most shell are involved with other atoms y The screening effect (positive charge felt by outer shell electrons ) is caused by inner electrons shielding nuclear force from the outer electrons.

In General
y y In many electron atom, for a given value of n, Zeff decreases with increasing value of l For many electron atom, for a given value of n, the energy of the orbital increases with increasing l y Orbitals with the same energy are said to be degenerate

Electronic Spin and Pauli Exclusion Principle
y The electron spin quantum number, ms, is observed in line spectra.

o Possible values are + ½ and 1/2 o Represents how an electron might spin, either clockwise or counterclockwise y Pauli excursion principle states that no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers n, l, ml, and ms.

Electron Configurations
y The way in which the electrons are distributed among the various orbitals of an atom is called its electron configuration. y y The ground state is the most stable and lowest energy state of atom. Hund s rule for degenerate orbitals, the lowest energy is attained when the number of electrons with same spin is maximized

Orbital Energy Levels in Multi Electron Systems ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ 3d ___ 4s ___ ___ ___ 3p ___ 3s ___ ___ ___ 2p ___ 2s ___ 1s
Arrow represents increase in Energy

Electron Configurations
y Write the orbital diagram for the ground state of sodium. The electron configuration is [Ne]3s1.


Using the [Ne] abbreviation lets you 1s22s22p6 configuration of Ne is Na.

3s Electronic Structures Examples
y What is the electron configuration of Li? 1s22s1 or [He]2s1 y What about Ti? 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d2 or [Ar]4s23d2 y What about Zn? 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d10 or [Ar]4s23d10

Core vs. Valence Electrons
y Core electrons are electrons in the inner shells, while outer shells are known as valence electrons. y Valence electrons are the ones that play the real roles in chemical behavior

Kinds of elements
y y y y Transition Elements fill d orbitals. Lanthanide elements are filling the 4f orbitals. Actinide elements are filling the 5f orbitals. Main group elements are filling s and p orbitals. o See Figure 6.28 for full electron configurations

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