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Published by: adihind on Mar 08, 2011
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. employees get strong input to identify their objectives. Ideally. when he said: "It's just another tool." . Peter Drucker himself decreased the significance of this organization management method. time lines for completion.. MBO includes ongoing tracking and feedback in the process to reach objectives. It is not the great cure for management inefficiency.What is MBO?   Management by objectives (MBO) is a systematic and organized approach that allows management to focus on achievable goals and to attain the best possible results from available resources. In the 90s. Management by Objectives (MBO) was first outlined by Peter Drucker in 1954 in his book 'The Practice of Management'. etc. 90% of the time you don't. It aims to increase organizational performance by aligning goals and subordinate objectives throughout the organization. Management by Objectives works if you know the objectives.

Instead of just a few topmanagers. all managers should: participate in the strategic planning process. getting so involved in their day to day activities that they forget their main purpose or objective. designed to help the organization stay on the right track.Core Concepts of MBO    According to Drucker managers should "avoid the activity trap". . and implement a range of performance systems. in order to improve the implementability of the plan.

They delegate tasks by "negotiating a contract of goals" with their subordinates without dictating a detailed roadmap for implementation. Management by Objectives (MBO) is about setting yourself objectives and then breaking these down into more specific goals or key results. . not the activity.Managerial Focus  MBO managers focus on the result.

The complete MBO system is to get managers and empowered employees acting to implement and achieve their plans. which automatically achieve those of the organization. as well as awareness of their own roles and responsibilities in achieving those aims. or objectives. of that organization.Main Principle of MBO  The principle behind Management by Objectives (MBO) is to make sure that everybody within the organization has a clear understanding of the aims. .

Where to Use MBO    The MBO style is appropriate for knowledgebased enterprises when your staff is competent. It is appropriate in situations where you wish to build employees' management and selfleadership skills and tap their creativity. Management by Objectives (MBO) is also used by chief executives of multinational corporations (MNCs) for their country managers abroad. . tacit knowledge and initiative.

The Five-Step MBO Process .

MBO Principles      Cascading of organizational goals and objectives Specific objectives for each member Participative decision making Explicit time period Performance evaluation and feedback .

Types of Objectives    Routine objectives Innovation objectives Improvement objectives The objectives must be:  focused on a result. not an activity  consistent  specific  measurable  related to time  attainable .

Disadvantages  The development of objectives can be time consuming.  MBO process secures employee commitment to attaining organizational goals.MBO Advantages & Disadvantages Advantages  MBO programs continually emphasize what should be done in an organization to achieve organizational goals. . leaving both managers and employees less time in which to do their actual work. careful communication of goals. and detailed performance evaluation required in an MBO program increase the volume of paperwork in an organization.  The elaborate written goals.

2. Role playing is an instructional technique which involves a Spontaneous acting out of a certain situation or condition. Role plays are important learning activities in which trainees assume a role to practice a variety of language skills. .What is Role ²Play 1.

Why use role-play??? Benefits        Teaches empathy Simulates authentic language experiences Provides a memorable learning experience Adaptable for multiple levels Decreases inhibitions and increases motivation Builds confidence Develops social skills .

Disadvantages or Limitations    Role-playing is time consuming Learners are usable to identify with the characters or situations Learners with talent often monopolize the situation .

Role-playing.Effective teaching method???    Major publishers of role-playing games consider them to be a form of interactive and collaborative activities Role-play is a hands-on (experiential) approach for learning Trainees learn through active involvement .

Making a role-play successful        Model Language support Have realistic goals Use realistic scenarios Bring situations to life Keep it real and relevant Error correction .

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