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By- Deepti Sankar 09CB07
Indian economy post independence Primarily agricultural Share of agriculture in GDP down to one-third but still employs two-third of work-force Rapidly growing economy post-liberalisation helps in reducing poverty Accompanying challenges include inequitable wealth distribution affecting vulnerable groups including women
Labor market in India
3 Sectors of Indian labor market: Rural workers (60%), Organised sector (8%), Urban unorganised sector (32%) Labor force categories: Self employed workers, Wage earners, Casual workers & Unemployed Self employed: Working in own farm or non-farm enterprises, most loosely connected to labor market Wage earners: Earn regular wage, not on basis of periodic renewal of work contract
closest connection to labor market Unemployed: Actively seeking associated to labor market work. no job or social security. Casual workers: Engaged on a day-to-day basis. closely Self employed and casual worker status more prevalent in rural than urban India and among female than male workers Unemployment higher in urban than rural workforce: 48% of unemployed come from 22% of workforce .
Increase in labor force of India .
Division and Distribution Statistics of Labor in India .
ethnicity etc intertwine with gender to define job options Women started with clerical roles. race. rapidly growing economy Women's class. moved to service and sales related jobs and now also take up other high-level white-collar jobs Still overrepresented in traditionally feminized jobs .Shifting gender roles in labor Increasing workforce requirement due to industrialisation.
Contd Increasing women participation in labor force due to shift from agriculture to manufacturing to services based economy Women workforce participation lower than men in urban and rural areas.68% in 2001 More women in workforce from rural areas compared to urban areas .67% in 1981 to 26. rose to 19% in 2004 Work participation rate rose from 19.
58% in public sector. 42% in private sector Employment of women rose by 1.5% in private sector in 2004-2005 .Contd Rural women workers mainly employed agriculture and cottage industries Urban women primarily unorganised sector employed in in the 50.1% in public sector and 2.16 lac women employed in organised sector in 2005.
Genderwise employment in organised sector: 2004 Distribution of women in organised sector: 2005 .
o wo en job eeker 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 No.Some vital statistics No. o wo en (La % o oa ) .
of educated women job seekers 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 No.No. of women ('00 lacs) % to total .
Rajasthan has the minimum (1.1% in women employment in 2005 Wholesale & retail trade showed an increase of 7. Kerala has maximum women job-seekers (21.4% in 2004 Manufacturing faced a dip of 1.1 lacs) followed by WB and TN.8% .3% in 2001 to 70.0 lac) The percentage of educated women job seekers among the total women job seekers has gone down from 73.
2% Electricity.4% Transport showed an increase of 1. insurance & real estate services showed an increase of 5.5% Finance. Mining and quarrying trade showed an increase of 5.6% Agriculture and animal husbandry showed an increase of 5.7% Construction showed an increase of 1.5% Social services showed an increase of 1. gas & water showed an increase of 1.2% .
6% of total female population registered as workers Majority of women workers employed in rural areas Highest women employment in social services Lowest in electricity.Women labor Women lag behind men in terms of level and quality of employment 25. gas & water sectors .
and activities like transplanting and weeding are regarded as women s jobs . in agriculture. traditions and cultural considerations affect the type of work performed by men and women in India For example. improve wages & working conditions and enhance their skills Social customs. Government focus to remove handicaps. land preparation and ploughing are seen as the responsibility of men. strengthen bargaining capacity.
Participation of rural women in India in labor force(State Wise) .
participation and earnings High correlation between employment rates and participation rates (95% overall and 99% for women) Low employment & participation rates in NE states. our focus on employment.Labor market conditions across states Significantly different labor markets across India. Kerala & WB . UP & Bihar High income levels but low employment & participation rates in Delhi.
UP & Bihar. AP. Gujarat & Maharashtra Variation in female participation rates 15-20 times higher than in males . Gujarat & Rajasthan Variation in female employment rates significantly higher than for men. AP. female employment & participation rates are surprisingly low in WB & prosperous Punjab High in TN. Karnataka. High employment & participation rates in TN. Karnataka. regional patterns not clear Besides NE states.
Male & female employment rates across states .
Female participation rates across states .
Employment growth: Trends .
Annual rates of employment growth Late 90's showed dramatic deceleration but recovery in 2004-2005 Better recovery in rural areas Still lower than rates recorded in '88-'94 .
Labor force participation rates Follow trend of employment growth rates Recovered to levels of earlier decade for rural males & females Significant increase in rates for urban males & females Includes declining rates among youth (age 15-29) & a rise for older age groups .
Labor force participation rates .Current daily status 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 93-94 99-00 04-05 Rural Males Rural Females Urban Males Urban Females .Usual status 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 93-94 99-00 04-05 Rural Males Rural Females Urban Males Urban Females Labor force participation rates .
Share of casual labor in usual status employment Casual labor has fallen in proportion to total labor .
Share of self employment in usual status employment Significant increase in self-employment among all categories of workers .
Employment by industry Decline in agriculture as a share of rural employment. rise in construction Decline in trade. hotels and restaurants for urban males & females Rise in construction & transport related activities for urban men Rise in manufacturing (self-employed) for urban women .
1 24 28.5 6.9 Rural males Rural females 0.3 1.1 5.4 3.1 Urban females 24.2 85.1 0.6 8.3 Urban males 9 6.9 8.7 18.1 53.8 Rural females 0.9 1.9 .4 21 20.9 7 7.4 66.6 6.7 9.1 1.4 10.Table 2: Employment by industry [per cent of employment according to Usual Status (PS+SS)] 1993-94 1999-2000 2004-05 Agriculture Rural males 74.7 3.3 Rural females 2.9 29.7 10.7 Urban females 1.7 17.2 3.9 12.4 28 Urban females 10 16. storage & communications 2.4 Other services Rural males 7 6.4 Rural females Urban males 23.5 6.5 Urban males 6.4 83.2 35.9 3.8 8.5 Urban females 24.8 1.5 Rural females 86.1 4.5 Urban males 21.2 4.1 2 Urban males 9.8 Urban males Urban females 35 34.3 Construction Rural males 3.1 2 2.1 Manufacturing Rural males 7 7.2 3.2 4.8 Urban females Trade.2 Transport.4 23.9 Rural females 26.5 22. hotels & restaurants Rural males 5.3 7.8 3.
unemployment in states explain low rates of urbanization and economic migration in India Relationship between growth & employment rates is clear in the long term . exception to this are wages which converge across rural & urban India Along with this.Summing up We have seen how regional differences in labormarket outcomes are striking in India.
Increasing employment opportunities for females will help to arrest the decline in femaleparticipation rates Economic opportunities are the strongest factor affecting female participation Steadily growing economy and development have led to rising female participation in labor force of India. rise will continue in coming years as women overcome different barriers .
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