bhagavadgita by sankaracharya | Bhagavad Gita | Brahman

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VEDIC RELIGION
TMB BMASAITAB-MTA,
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rHE BHAGAVAD-GITA
WITH THE COMMENTARY OF

SRI

SANKARACHARYA

TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH
BY
A.

MAHADEVA

SASTRI,

b. a.,

Curator, Government Oriental Library, Mysore.
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SECOND EDITION
REVISEP AND IMPROVED, WITH ADDITIONAL NOTES.

MYSORE
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WHO TOOK AN ACTIVE INTEREST IN THE REVIVAL OF OUR ANCIENT LITERATURE AND RELIGION. 6i. Sri BhamarajGndraladayarlahadur.i.. I'he Late JVEaharaja of ]VIysops.I fof TO THE MEMORY OF (A A A i.i. iviSSSOl .i.

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I. Chief Court. I have added.PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. corresponding portion of the text of the Gita case I in which have either altogether omitted the Bhashya or trans- lated only those portions of the text than merely which rather explain the meaning in show what order the words literal in the text should be construed or merely give their synonymous of the equivalents. c. Bangalore).. as embodying a most popular form the essence of the whole Vedic Religion within a short compass. each such extract being marked(A)at the . Ramachandra Iyer (Judge. explanations mostly extracted from Anandagiri's Tika. A. Wherever a mere translation Bhashya is not likely to bring out its full import or leaves any room for doubt as to its meaning. i. Under the designation " proposed to publish of the in VEDIC RELIGION " it is a series English translations of some most important Ancient Scriptures of the Aryans with such authoritative commentaries as may throw more light upon their teachings. Subrahmanya Iyer e. Mr. Seshadri Iyer. I *********** have throughout attempted a literal translation and of the literally Bhashya. The Bhashya has literal been translated the of it in full except where a translation of Bhashya of a whole verse or even of a considerable part would be a mere repetition of the translation of the .. the Hon'ble Sir. of love —further on liberality of Sir is altogether k. The Bhagavad-Gita in justly heads the series. k. due to the kindness and s. The publication of the present volume and the possibility of prosecuting the work — to me. in the form of foot-notes. the text of the Bhagavad-Gita being also translated in the light of the Bhashya. S. K.c.

intelligible to a general reader as I without unnecessarily departing from original. clearly the understand given in as it Bhashya in the original. It has always been my special aim to make the Bhashya the in its English garb as clearly could.Vm end. I of the Western philosophy and theology. especially as to. in With have introduced into the translation as few technical terms as possible. always the clearest and most to the point of the and is almost indispensable for a proper understanding of some important portions disciple of Bhashya. he should also be the safest guide. Even itself. inasmuch as are found not to convey adequately the intended idea. I if the translation be not quite clear it when to read by have no doubt that will at least enable those who are even slightly acquainted with Sanskrit. presents in several places difificulties —even as to the exact relation of the different parts of which follow one another Sanskrit in the course a discussion— which students who are not thoroughly conversant with the author's style and system . whether of the Eastern or this end view. my edition above referred The Bhashya. have been used. exact sense of every such Sanskrit term will be found plained where it The ex- occurs for the first time in the it Bhashya or may be gathered from the context in which occurs. have been used along with their In some cases Sanskrit terms alone their English equivalents original Sanskrit terms English equivalents. Where necessary. written is in the author's peculiarly terse and archaic style. is An immediate Sri-5ankaracharya as he reputed to be. This Tika is PREFACE. even as regards the structure of sentences.

'ain to lie thus able to study the original and avoid the errors into which commonplace readers may themselves to the translation. moreover. It is.PREFACE. of philosophy can scarcely ix overcome without the help of Anandagiri's T(ka or some such help as the present translation affords. always a distinct j. fall if they should confine .-^ .

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INTRODUCTION. — The purpose of the Divine Incarnation. pp. ERRATA.60Nn[iENTS. — The Gita and the Commentary. is is object of the Gita-Sastra. . — How Karma-Yoga a means to the Supreme Bliss. —Juana-Yogd the means to the Supreme Bliss. i-6. Page. — The specific subject and The twofold Vedic Religion.

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Lord. Arjuna's grief at the evils of war. — Some cases of immortal. —-No a room for grief. —Arjuna alone from the Lord. — How Karma-Yoga a means to the Supreme Bliss. is is object of the Gita-5astra. 7-13. — The Self immutable. Sanjaya narrates the course of the war. — The Self Endurance a condition of wisdom. — The Gita and the Commentary. — Self-knowledge — The doctrine that knowledge should be conjoined with works. pp. survey of the — Both enemy. apparent conjunction explained. — x\ warrior should fight. — Sankhya and Yoga distinguished Conjunction inconsistent with the sequel. -The enlightened should are Works — — resort to Jiitina-Yoga. — Yoga. — The specific subject and The twofold Vedic Religion. First Discourse. — Arjuna's words of despondency. Arjuna's weakness condemned by the seeks instruction eradicates misery. — Yoga. Knowledge of the Immutable Self is possible.— GONirENTS. . of Arjuna. — The purpose of the Divine Incarnation. —Jnana-Yoga the means to the Supreme Bliss. — The enlightened man has to renounce works is is is in is meant for the unenlightened. Sankhya-Yoga. INTRODUCTION. — Arjuna's — Duryodhana armies ready for battle. — The Self unreal. — The Real and the unconcerned action. The Despondency addresses Dro«a. i-6. pp. — How the Self is immutable. Second Discourse.

pp. — Thought senses work mischief.Yoga. — The wise should set an example —The wise man's action as contrasted with that of the ignorant. Arjuna qualified for Karma. in — (i) Satisfaction the Self. delight and aversion. Third Discourse. worldly-minded. a mere dream to the Sage. for to characteristic attributes of a perfect Sage. is Arjuna's question. (6) for (7) self.— The unenlightened should not give up Karma. — Results of Karma. — How an aspirant for Moksha to the masses. — Karma. — Sense-restraint conduces to steady The Universe. 14-70. Arjuna's perplexity. — Advice The merit of Wisdom.Yoga is not meant for the Self-knower. Influence of man's nature on his con- — Scope for man's personal exertion. is — Wisdom one. — No wisdom possible the the Yogin. — the sage. — Desire is the . knowledge. CONTENTS. Felicity. — The ignorant are swayed by Nature.— — xii. Karma. — Subjugation of Works are not meant — Knowledge leads to Divine desire and personal — (5) is evil.Yoga. — The paths of Knowledge Knowledge and Action Karma- — Which — Yoga leads to freedom from action. Action. — Karma. should do actions duct. of Knowledge and — Renunciation effect of enjoined in the scriptures. — Conjunction is better. — (2) Equanimity in pleasure and pain. — The safe course.Yoga. — the source of — Sense-control leads of sense-objects to peace and happiness. — Devotion to the Lord. — No conjunction an action.Yoga The wheel of the world should be set going. (4) ComUnrestrained plete withdrawal of senses from objects. — (3) Absence of attachment. — Moksha inconsist- cannot be the ent with or Action.Yoga.

— The surest means to wisdom. Samnyasa-yoga. pp. — The the sole Incarnation. — Wisdom.— . — Karma-Yoga and Sa. purpose of Divine means and to moksha. — Karma. — The Sage's action for bodily The is Sage's worldly action does not bind him.. — Divine dispensation of worldly Caste as a divinely — Divine Incarnations. Which Sa. Fourth Discourse. pp. — Sacrifices effected by action. — ordered institution.Yoga or — The question not with reference to the enlightened. xm.myasa inapplicable to the enlightened. Tradition of J«ana-Yoga. — Wisdom-sacrifice and killer superior to other sacrifices. the seek of doubt.Yogin —A Sage's actions are really no is untainted by the results of his life — The blissful embodied of a Sage. actions action.myasa goal. — The seat of — How to kill out desire..myasa is ? better for the is ignorant. — Wisdomshould sacrifice. Karma. soul. enemy desire. a consumer of all sins wisdom actions. Jnana-Yoga. —A Sage's actions do not affect him. — The Sage is has no more births. — How and where one L Wisdom.. — Sankhya is and Yoga lead to the same to — Karma. Fifth Discourse. of man Desire enshrouds wisdom.— CONTENTS. as — Who a Sage — The Sage's worldly action an example to the maintenance. — Karma. masses. — Nature the source of activity.Yoga a means Sawmyasa. 104-138.ana-Yoga is benefits salvation. — J/.— The Sage sees the One in all beings.Yoga suits the ignorant better than Sa. —Action without attachment does not human bmd the is — The ? real nature of action and inaction. — Wisdom and unwisdom. 71-103.

is The Sage liberated while still on earth. — Evolution of the Universe out of Divine Praknti. 188-200. — The effect of Dhyana-Yoga. practice of Yoga. how reached The Paths of Light and Darkness. — The Sage's infinite joy The — Realisation of the Lord by Dhyanapp. — The Sage is free from grief and rejoicing. Seventh Discourse. : — The Divine Principle it. — Meditation of the to the Pra»ava. — Divine worship leads to pp. — Failures in Yoga and the after-career. — The Highest Goal. Yoga. 201-214. realisation. CONTENTS. Sixth Discourse. Eighth Discourse. penetrating the Universe.— — XIV. The Day and the Night of Brahma. . Four Gods. Dhyana-Yoga in action. Abhyasa-Yoga. pp. VlJNANA-YoGA. Dhyana-Yoga. — Practice and Indifference are the surest means to Yoga. — No re-birth on attaining Divine Being. is is incompatible with works is Renunciation —Action a stepping-stone Who a Yogin — Directions for the ? to Dhyana-Yoga. Realisation of the Lord by meditation. — The best of the Yogins. The seven to things to be realised by meditation is — Constant in meditation of the Divine necessary. classes of — The root — Maya How to overcome devotees. 139-162. pp. — Excel- — lence of Yoga. path of Nirvana. — The ignorant worship inferior of ignorance. 163-187. — The Divine Being Divine the be meditated upon. Consummation Further directions concerning the practice of Yoga.

234-247. — All beings rest in Lord is the source and the end of all beings. — Even the low-born attain salvation by Devotion. — The Yoga of Devotion. — The — Arjuna's question about the Lord's enumeration of His — Divine Glory described in brief. — The ways of the faithful devotees — The — worship goes to the Lord. — The His devotees with wisdom. Brahma-jfiana the Lord. Sovereign Wisdom and Secret.— The manifestation of the Lord's UniVish. The Universal Form. — The versal Form Universal Form (continued). — The life of All the impious. XV. — The Lord's advent for destruction — ./u is one with the Unconditioned. The Lord is the source of all manifestations — Knowledge Lord endows of the Lord's Glory conduces to Yoga. Arjuna's prayer for a vision of the Universal to Form. pp. Lord's manifestations manifestations. interests. pp. — The impartiality of the Supreme. is the best Religion. 215-233. —The Supreme watching His devotee's — Other devotees do but worship the Supreme in ignorance. — The wonderfulness of the Theterribleness of the Universal Form Universal Form Arjuna's vision of the defeat of the enemy. — Facility in Devotion to the Supreme. Tenth Discourse. Divine Manifestations. see Arjuna endowed with heavenly sight wherewith Universal the Form.— CONTENTS. Eleventh Discourse. — The Lord is not bound by His acts. Ninth Discourse. — The splendour of the Universal Form. —The fruits of interested over acts of Vedic ritual.

prayer for the Lord's resumption of His usual — Arjuna's form. Thirteenth Discourse. due to illusion.. — Scriptural injunctions concern the unenlightened Learned but deluded. Matter and The main evil only Spirit. —The Lord resumes His usual form. Service of the Lord. — Matter in trine is is all its Virtues conducive to Self-knowledge is Brahman. the fruits of actions. The essence of — the whole teaching of the Gita. is the Knowable Brahman is beyond speech and thought activity. — The worshippers of Akshara. — Summary of the Docetc. — The body and soul The soul is is Identity of the soul with the Lord subject to through ignorance. pp. Self. the ? worshippers of Isvara. 248-264.— Brahman Brahman the source of all uncondi- .?a really unaffect- ed by sa7«sara. — Devotion as the sole means to the realization of the Universal Form. — The relation of the Self to samskra a mere illusion. subject of the discourse. Bhakti-Yoga. — Salvation by worship of Isvara. Twelfth Discourse. — Abandonment of Abhyasa-Yoga of the Akshara-upasakas. — Bondage and liberation are not real states of the Self. 265-276. to the Self forms The Doctrine extolled. not in the — Scriptural injunctions apply only to the state of bondage. — The worshippers of Akshara life pp. — Avidya inheres in the organ. — Kshetraj. — The perception of the relation of avidya.— — XVI. CONTENTS. Arjuna's adoration for of worlds of the Universal Form Arjuna's prayer the Lord's forgiveness. Who are superior. or the —The worshippers of Isvara.

bind the soul. Brahman is the Cause of the one Self in all. summed up — — The functions of the Self the gu. not the the source and the abode of Self. — Prakriti acts. is all. Fourteenth Discourse.jas — Knowledge of the origin for salvation. — The — Seek the Light through devotion. Spirit. — Life after as governed by the gu/zas. 339-354. sawsara The four paths to Self-knowledge all. is all. leads to immortality. — The is gunas. all XVll. is — Universe. — Self-knowledge removes the cause of Light the heart every one. is in — Brahman o-f is the Illuminator of all. — The nature and functions of the gu. . — Devotion to the Lord leads to liberation. — Evolution of of Spirit and Matter. — Prakriti and Purusha are eternal. The subject of the discourse. pp.— — CONTENTS.2as. — Prakriti and Purusha as the Cause of sawsara. — Brahman. theperceiver of the gu«as — Brah- man is all Brahman the Brahman is comprehended only by the wise.zas Realisation beyond the gunas The Supreme The Tree of Saw/sara. exists outside the Self. — The Self — The unaffected by the fruits of acts. Nothing — The one Self in — Knowledge of the one Self leads to moksha. — The Self illumines Self — The doctrine summed up. — The mutual action of the a particular gana. illusory — Brahman. — Avidya and Kama are the cause of rebirths. — Cut the Tree and seek the Goal. life — The marks of a liberated soul — The conduct in of a Liberated one. — Unity of Atman. The Three Gunas. of the universe is necessary the Universe from the union gu. tioned. the basic Reality in phenomena. 277-338. Fifteenth Discourse. — How of to know death when predominant. pp.

— Materialistic disposition. living organisms. — The three kinds of Gift. . — Threefold Food. (i) as the Light of (3) Consciousness. Men of Rajasic and Tamsic Faiths. — The three kinds of Austerity according to Gu«as. — Results of the two dispositions. — How is Jiva dwells in visible the body and departs from the eye of knowledge. The Threefold Faith. — The Goal it. pp. — The materialist's aspirations. all-illumining Immanence of the Lord. — Austerity in speech. — The Glory of Self-knov\ledge. — Let the Law guide thy Spiritual disposition. pp. life. defective acts. — The materialist's neglect of Divine The materialist's Commandments — The three Gates of Hell to be avoided. is The Path Being. PP. — How to perfect the The ignorant.— — XVm. Spirituality and Materialism. — (2) all As the all-sustaining Life — As the Digestive Fire in the hearts of all.— The as guided by materialist's view of the world — Men's materialism. to the Goal. life fall. — Works without faith are fruitless. is the Lord's Glorious — Jiva a ray of the Lord. but faithful. — The teaching of the discourse summed up. — Physical Austerity. — The materialists.355-37^- Sixteenth Discourse. 372-383- Seventeenth Discourse. — The three kinds of Worship. 334-395. Mental Austerity. — (4) As the Self in — The Lord beyond the perishable and the imperishable universe. — The Self only to — No Self-knowledge without Voga. Worship and Gift. — The three kinds of Food. CONTENTS. — The materialist's sacrificial rites. —The three kinds of Faith.

— The sequel sums up the whole Doctrine. — Tamasic Agent. Rajasic Firmness. — Renunciation renunciations works is Sattvic. all — From ation of works — Renunciation renunciation in works to renunciof fruits alone possible after for the ignorant. — Devotion to one's own duty leads to perfection. The Lord's theory of illusion action The enlightened alone can renounce . Conclusion. — No man or god free from gu»as. or — Should the is ignorant perform works not ? — The works that the ignorant should perform — The is Lord's decree obligatory works should be performed without attachment and Rajasic renunciations of Tamasic in works. • ' Sa. of the Pari/zama-Vada.— Refutation of the Vaiseshika theory. — Effects of the two — Factors in the production of an act.s. Intellect. — Tamasic Firmness. Rajasic — Tamasic Insellect.— CONTENTS. — Sattvic Pleasure.. Knowledge. — The agency of the Self an illusion — Realisation of the non-agency of death. — Is entire renunciation of action Rajasic Action. — Refutation entirely. — Sattvic Intellect. — Tamasic Pleasure. is • — Tamasic Knowledge. Eighteenth Discourse. — Pleasure threefold according to gu«as. — Tamasic Action. — Sattvic Agent. and Vaiseshika theories.- Buddhistic. XIX. threefold The Impulses according to to action The Impulses are the guna. Rajasic Agent. — Duties of the four castes ordained according to nature. — Sattvic is possible?— The Sankhya. is the Self leads to absolution from the effects of all works.myasa ' and 'Tyagja' distinguished. — Intellect and firmness are threefold according to gu«as. — Sattvic Knowledge. — Rajasic Action. — Rajasic Pleasure. —Sattvic Firmness. — One ought not to abandon one's own duty.

— Qualification for instruction in the Gita Doctrine. — Sanjaya Lord and His teaching. pp.ledge and Works is meant for distinct classes of aspirants.Yoga. Right Knowledge and Renunciation. — The of Path Absolute Perfection.Kri»^a. Renunciation of all works is necessary for Absolute Perfection. Devotion to the Lord is the Secret of success in Karma. consummation — — — — — — — Refutation of the theory that the Nitya. merit of —The merit of teaching Doctrine. Perfection in Karma. of — Absolute Perfection ledge. — Cognition and the to self-revealed. — Refutation of the theory of the Self's agency by mere presence. 396-479. — The Knowledge attained by Devotion. — The the hearing the — The Lord assured by extols Arjuna of his grasp of the Teaching. the Doctrine. — The theory of Avidya does not militate against the authority of Karma.Karma leads future births. the consummation all? Self-know- — Is Self-knowledge possible at in — The Self reveals Cogniser are Himself Pure Reason. What is the means the Highest Bliss. Knowledge or Works ? Selfto Knowledge alone is the means to the Highest Bliss.— XX. — Action a creature of Avidya. :s: .Yoga is leads to absolute Perfection. to no are — The Paths of Know. Devotion to the Lard by works enjoined. CONTLNTS. Refutation of the theory that salvation is attained by works alone. Knowledge cannot be conjoined with works. — The theory of Avidya concluded.

Manu is lo. here spoken is evolved the principle of Hira. in the popular conception.THE BIIAGAYAD-GITA WITH S'RI A A SANKARACHARYA'S COMMENTARY. \Yithin the the is Mundane Egg. Earth made up of verily. Maya. the Itihasa (ancient tradition) and the Naraya«a is./yagarbha. or the of as A«(fa Mundane Egg. Na. out of which. This a paura«ic verse speaking of the Antaryamin. which is . the Divine Being whom all embodied souls have their being. According to a subtler conception. teach one and the same doctrine. and further with a view to shew that the Pura»a (archaic Gitti history). when in apparent union with Isvara. far He It is is not a creature of the Avyakta.raya«a in the Antaryamin. INTRODUCTION./a is beyond tbe Avyakta . Na- raya«a. but transcends it. I. From And [ the Avyakta the Mundane Egg is born . the Avyakta. the Avyak/ita. the undifferentiated matter. • Naraya. the Creator who was brooding over the waters just before the beginning of Creation. Cf. namely. all souls. are these worlds the seven Dvipas. after the orthodox fashion. It is the Inner Guide and Regulator of quoted here by the commentator in order that he may begin his important work. with the contemplation of his favorite God (Ish/a-Devata).

see approaching its end. VII. the Renunciation. Krau?. See VishHupura»a. ' J . The words dirghe«a kalena' (mean- They were without desire or pas- ing a long time) in the Com. —who sought welfare. with the next following sentence. loo Mann remained — as is. pp. in number. Wilson's V. ' Vishnupurana. \'ol. ' ' For further particulars regarding I. 5almala and these. 109 ff. as an alternative interpretation. >• ' p. He then created others such as Sanaka and Sanandana and caused Religion of them to to adopt the Nivntti-Dharma. | .. 34.e.' i. composed An the intermingling of the five rudimental elements of matter gives rise to the principle of the Viraj. "^y/ikon'^s yi:sh. tjjeclining create . construed. Authorities diSer as to their Sanatkumara. Renunciation maintains order in the This Religion which directly leads to liberation \ and Avorldly prosperity has long been practised by all castes and religious orders (var»a-asrama) — from name the brah- nia«as downwards.. The. see Pushkara. and wishmg to secure Prajapatis" (Lords of the ' brdfer' tnerein' 'He flr'st created the creatures) such as Marichi and caused them to adopt the Pravntti-Dharma. Ch. of which are formed Earth and all- the other lokas or inhabited or insular regions. 77—78. that . it ous Part as to of progeny. their The authorities names and number P.] till • ' . are also inspired with holy wisdom. 35. Vol. tq I.mpura»a Vol. difier . Saka. characterised by knowledge and indifference worldly objects. Religion of Works.— 2 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. — 102.rrhrt Iloru created universe. Cf. The seven Dvipas Kusa. See pp. implies miiras. the Krita and the Treta Vugas had been over and the Dvapara-Vuga was Then when means 'a long time after. estranged from the universe and undesirsion. — (A) These. first. progeny. of the five simple rudimental elements of matter.— {Anandagiri). continents are Jambu. ' Wilson's ever pure and innocent. Plaksha.' I. the of the boys. It is the twofold Vedic Religion of that Works and universe.twofold Vedic 'tlie Religion.cha. * They are ten J. ever Ku- names and number. t I.

—the Mulaprakriti. on all ^y Vasudeva earthlv the preservation of the hands recognised as a Vish. was overpowered by faculty it irreligion caused by irreligion the vanishing of discrimination. incarnated Himself as Knsh/za.isa 'amsena sambabhuva.) J.^^^ for ^ady Devaki begat incarnation of God. Q^ln*ll?TI*1^\l'^t .'" own f will.^ .g y^^^^ "in an illusory form created by His yaj)ias or sacrifices.Inandagiri (Santi-parva.' that is.\. controls the of three Maya. always possessed as He of (infinite) knowledge. following passage .„„ . corresponding ai.u.— (. was then that the original Creator (Adi-kartn). 3 The purpose When.r „.g .ias _ r\ S3e xiv.(. begotten the preservation of the ( ' in Devaki by Vasudeva.m.^j^^^ || But of the several forms of the Krishna full is ^^^ ^^. . might and vigour. "Earthly 'amsena' to mean 'svechchha- is explained by Nilaka«/ha to brahma». 47th . ^ ^^ 2^^'a^I ^ j . the spiritual class . wishing to maintain order in ''' the universe. supre- macy.?. Gu«as ^ or energies. ^*^^ th^ study of Scriptures. life For it was by the preservation ' that the Vedic Religion could be preserved. .as. ^ V3 . the composed First Cause.) Accordingly. since thereon depend all distinctions of caste and religious order. .INTRODUCTION'. For a full description of the Gu.' The Commentator here : refers to the II. means a part. tl.. 5 et seq.' As ^^^ . . Vish//u. Brahman. and He appears to the world as though in the He is born and embodi- The words to this are Com. . known as Naraya«a. u Ksnatnyas L. it would mean that Kiish«a was a partial incarnation of God Vish. — belonging to Him as Vish/m. and was advancing. to the ascendancy of lust in its votaries. plains incarnation of ex- Brahman Adhvaya . . power.' f for earthly of spiritual life Brahma^atva of spiritual ) on the earth. and nirmitena-mayamayena svarupena. ^OTT .«/„„fl.^^ performance of sacred rites and in .. . is The Lord. owing religion of the Divine Incarnation.. strength. In the .. and others require the help of the brahma«as.

Spirit. He taught to Arjuna. the former being as real as the latter acting in unison with it. embodied Veda-Vyasa (the arranger of the seven hundred verses called This famous Gita-5astra of the difficult is an epitome of the essentials its whole Vedic teaching. stress laid here on Maya as belonging is and being under the control of the tsvara chiefly intended to impress the idea that act Maya does not exist or independently of Brahman. but with the sole of helping His creatures.4 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. and to meaning is very understand. the Isvara. Pure. on the other hand. — (A. The followers of the historical school of the that Sankhya-darsana hold. .) of ] Without any intention interest His own. is the Lord of creatures. He is quite independent of Maya. ed and helping the world at large whereas really He is is unborn and indestructible. It is this Religion which was taught by the Lord that the omniscient and adorable in the Vedas) Gitas. Matter and Prakriti and Purusha. critically examined by laity still I have found that to the . unlike the individual souls subject to its who are influence. import to aff'ord a clear view of its teaching. evidently thinking that the the twofold Vedic Religion would widely spread when accepted and practised by men of high character. [The special to Intelligent and Free. and several commentators. and by nature Eternal. who was deeply plunged in the ocean of grief and delusion. The Gita and the Commentary. has been explained word by word and its sentence by sentence. are two and distinct principles. it Though. Religion.

but which . Parva xvi. indeed. the Lord says in the Anu-Gita''' as follows is : " That religion. therefore." • (xviii. Vol. requested tion Knshna" to repeat the instruc- certain ancient story. to in other the fratricidal war Sometime after was over." In the (Xsv. it appears to teach diverse and quite contradictory doctI rines. but agreed. So. seat."— See Sacred Books which had been conveyed him on 0/ the East. xliii. in lieu of that.) same place " it is also said He is without silent merit and without sin. without is weal and woe. 197—198." : And He also says " Knowledge is characterised by renunciation. equal to a verbatim recapitulation of the Bhagavad-gita. the holy field of Kurukshetra. propose. the Supreme Bliss. a complete cessation of sawsiira or transmigratory life and of its cause. This accrues from that Religion (Dharma) which consists in a steady devotion to the knowledge of the Self. 12. Arjuna to impart to Arjuna the same instruction words through the medium of a VIII. pp. — he who absorbed in the one and thinking nothing. briefly. This forms part of the Asvaniedhais had gone out of sh)ia parva and contained in chapters 16-51 It his degenerate mind. with reference to this Religion. Jnana-Yoga is the means to the Supreme Bliss. . the Absolute. professes to bj a sort of recapitulation of the teaching of the Bhagavad-Gita. its to write a brief commentary with a view to determine precise meaning. the doctrine of the Gita. 26. The aim of this famous Gita-Sastra is." {Ibid.: : INTRODUCTION. the realisation of quite sufficient for of the state Brahman. all preceded by the renunciation of -works. Kiithereupon protested that He was not of that parva or section.) Here also at the end Arjuna all is thus exhorted " Abandoning dharmas. 66). come to 'Me alone for shelter.

placing them in Brahman.6 THE is BHAGAVAt)-GitA. A knowledge of teaching leads to the realisation of all human aspirations. related to whom which it is intended. and the relation in the subject as an exposition thereof. ii). with this very idea « Accordingly. ndirect]}^) and him knowledge and thus the Religion Works forms also a means to the Supreme Bliss. How Karma. for the purification of the self. whose aim is the Supreme Bliss. before commentand the object Salvation.Here means of attaining . the Parabrahman. to it conduces to the purity is of the is mind comes The man whose mind of (i pure to competent of tread the . It expounds specially the nature of'the Supreme Being and Reality known as Viisudeva. means of attaining worldly prosperity. Thus the Gita-5astra treats of a specific subject with a '''' specific object and bears a specific relation (to its the subject and object).— which. without attachment. Hence my attempt to explain it. when practised in a spirit of complete devotion to the Lord and without regard to the (immediate) results. The Gita ^aslra expounds this twofold Religion. intend- ing on a work. lo. who forms the subject of the discourse.— leads the devotee to the region of the Devas and the like. the subject ed for those who seek deliverance from It is object. to the object as a and it. (sattva-5uddhi). enjoined on the several castes and religious orders. still. the Lord says : " He who does actions. (v. the commentator to state. * It is considered incumbent on a tlie subject is is the Para-Urahnian It is . it stands to the three severally.Yoga Though a means is to the Supreme as a Bliss." Tlie specific subject and object of the Qita = Sastra. as well as the class of personsf or the turmoil of samsara. in mind. the Rehgion of Works. path knowledge." " Yogins perform actions. Moksha.

" Dhrishfaketu. king of Kasi. What did FiVidns sons and mine do when together on for battle. : of the war. marshalled by thy talented pupil. " O teacher. eminent • Technically. V 3. equal Yuyudhana. look at this grand army of the sons of Pan^u. they assembled the sacred plain of ? Kurukshetra eager O Sa. the son of Drupada. Chekitana. man Saibya ' maharatha' means a ' who single-handed can archers.»jaya said 2. mighty archers. the master of a great car (maharatha). and the valiant Purujit and Kunti-Bhoja and that . THE DESPONDENCY OF ARJUNA. prince of the Pan^avas drawn up approached his Duryodhana then teacher and spoke (these) words : Duryodhana addresses Drona." fight a thousand warrior proficient in military science . in Here are heroes. Sanjaya narrates the course Dhntarash/ra said I. * 5. Having seen the army in battle-array. and Drupada. " — Virata. battle to Bhima and Arjuna.FIRST DISCOURSE. 4.«jaya : Sa.

likely to more interpretations win the battle. the him. oldest of the Kauravas. for battle. Asvatthaman and Vikarwa. O I best of the twice-born. [DiS. the son of Somadatta " And many for all other heroes sake. His mighty grandsire. " But know. support Bhishma only.. THE BHAGAVAD-GITA." Both armies ready 12.tators. larger and led by an is by difterent commei'. in (Bhishma). the son of Subhadra and the sons of all masters of great cars (maharathas). which go to make Duryodhana mean . " Thyself and Bhlshma. * " And therefore do ye all. the leaders name to thee by way of example. suggests various all nandagiri's abler leader than the enemy's. 6. is all at once. heroic Yudhamanyu and the brave Uttamaujas Draiipadij 7. " This army of ours protected by Bhishma which is inadequate. the victor in war. roar and blew his conch. that his * gloss This sloka diftercntly interpreted -4 army. whereas that army of is theirs under the protection of Bhima 11. " The . 8. lion's order to cheer sounded on high a 13. conches and kettledrums. 10. and Karna. and g. also Jayadratha. who have with given up various their lives my fighting weapons. I. is well-skilled in battle. among us. occupying your respective positions in the several divisions of the army. adequate. Then. and also Kripa. who are the most of distinguished these my army.

Dhrish/a- dyumna and IS. the son of Kanti. (the doer) of great conch Paun^ra. seated in a grand chariot yoked to white horses. terrible deeds. blew thair 15. 20-22. Madhava and the son of Vividu. cymbols. an excellent archer. Then seeing the people of Dhritarash/ra's party regularly marshalled. all together blew their respective conches. Arjuna's survey of the enemy. blew his Bhima.] THE DESPONDENCY OF ARJUNA./^u. Prince Yudhish/hira. blew the Anantavijaya. took O Achyuta (Immortal). O King of his bow and said thus to K/ishna " Pa. and the sound was a tumultuous uproar. \'ira/a. 14. Arjuna. (the That tumultuous sound rent the hearts of people) of Dhritarash/ra's party. drums and horns were played upon. making both heaven and earth resound. and Arjuna blew the Devadatta. 17. the son of ensign was a monkey. I place my chariot between the two armies. 6-^22. and the unconquered Satyaki Drupada and the sons of Draupadi. that may just see those 2 . ig. while the discharge of weapons began.: . of mighty arms. celestial conches. too. 16. Hrlshikesa blew the Panchajanya. Sikhaniin. Then. O lord of earth. The king of Kasi. whose up earth. the master of a great car. and the son of Subhadra. while Nakula and Sahadeva blew the Sughosha and the Manipushpaka.

" 26-27. look : assembled Kauravas. 27-2S. O Krishna. : Seeing these kinsmen. maternal uncles. fathers-in-law and friends. [DiS. I will observe those who are assembled here and are about to engage in battle desirous to do service in war to the evil-minded son of Dhritarash/ra. grand- sons and comrades. When the son of Kunti saw all the kinsmen standing. I who stand here desirous to I fight. Then the son of Pritha saw arrayed there in both the armies fathers and grandfathers. teachers.: 2^ THE BHAGAVAD-GiTA. must '' fight in this strife of battle. my body and my hairs stand on my limbs droop A tremor comes end. Arjuna said 28-29. at thes3 Bhishma and Drona and all the and said " O son of Pritha. fight. ." Sa/njaya said 24-25. and know with whom 23. arrayed and desirous to down. sons. Hrishikesa (Arjuna) (Krishna) thus addressed by Guiakesa car stationed that between the two armies in front of rulers of earth. brothers. he was overcome with deepest pity and said thus in sorrow Arjuna's words of despondency. : O descendant excellent of Bharata. and on my mouth is dried up.

having staked teachers. maternal uncles. us are here their life and wealth : sons as well as grandfathers fathers-in-law. . desire not victory. ^}. I do not wish the sake of less to kill. my mind is whirling round. to us. men. grandsons. even . 35. and my am also unable to it stand and 31. II The is Ga. bro- thers-in-law as also (other) relatives.22—37-] 30. nor kingavail is dom. O slayer of kill Madhu. as I were. after how can we slaying our own for. sin only will take hold of us. O Kesava. people ? O Madhava. though they me. These. for dominion over the three worlds for the sake of the earth ! how much 36. enjoyb}' ments and pleasures are sought standing. my hand. We had then better not slay our own kins./^iva slips from I skin intensely burning. fathers. O Janardana. Of what dominion O Govinda ? Of what avail are pleasures and even life ? 33-34. And. . THE DESPONDENCY OP ARJUNA. I in battle. They for whose sake dominion. nor pleasures. what delight shall be ours the sons of Dhritarash/ra ? after killing On kill- ing these felons. the sons of Dhritarash/ra be happy. O Krishna. evil. I see omens foreboding killing Nor do see any good from my kinsmen 32.

. their fore- (down to hell). t the By the prevalence of impiety. that necess- ary is the dwelling in hell of the men whose family dharmas are subverted. others).12 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. impiety (adharma) overtakes the whole family. 42.. O Janardana. deprived of the offer- ings of 43. Women there will be intermingling of castes corrupted. On the extinction of of a famil}'. p\)idsi (rice-ball) and water. whose intelHgence is stricken by greed. O Krishna. the dharmas disappear.zkara). learn to refrain from this sinful deed ? 40. perceive no evil in the extinction of families and no sin in treachery to friends. who clearly see evil in the extinction of a family. We have heard. (varna-sa. the im- memorial dharmas * that family disappear.zis. O descendant of Vrish. the eternal dharmas of castes and families are subverted. I. When 41. Arjuna's grief at the evils of war. destroyers of families also to hell fathers fall for. 44. women of the family become corrupt. deeds of the destroyers of I I By these evil families which cause the intermingling of castes. O 38-39. should not we. yet. * The th-3 duties and ceremonies practised accordance with the of t Of the destroyed (according the destroyer to some)) by family in (accordiny to some scriptural command. these. Confusion of castes leads the family of these . Though Janardana. [DiS.

46. for the pleasures of would be better for me. I3 we have resolved to commit a great inasmuch as we are endeavouring to slay our Alas ! kinsmen out of a craving dominion. '^^^ DESPONDENCY OF ARJUNA.38 — 47'] 45. sorrow-stricken mind. in : Having said thus. if the sons of Dhritarash^ra. Arjuna. with arms in hand. sin. cast aside his midst of the battle bow and arrows in the and sat down in the chariot.«jaya said 47. It Sa.|>2^V'4'<»— . should slay me unarmed and unresisting in the battle. -.

Cast off this ness of heart and arise. I should only in this enjoy the pleasures of w^ealth. * Which y And we know not which * of the two— living upon alms witiiout slaying our dut7. debarring from heaven and causing disgrace.\. . 6. to slay these teachers. ? Yield not to unmanliness. delights stained with blood.—h.\rjuna said Madhu. were world I But. base weakfoes. Arjunas weakness condemned by the Lord. thus overcome with pity full and and and whose eyes were the destroyer of of tears as agitated. 1. fighqpg tii« wfaicfa is ^::je¥3?^ . O slayer of alms than to slay the teachers of high honor. O slayer of enemies. O tormentor of Arjuna seeks instruction from the Lord. how shall I assail in battle with arrows Bhishma and Dro«a. To him who was afflicted. : Madhu spoke : follows The Lord 2. O It .rjuna 3.: SECOND DISCOURSE. said Whence this in (this) perilous strait has come upon thee weakness cherished by the ojxwoir- thy. Better indeed in this world to live even upon 5. does not become thee. who are worthy of worship. 4. O son of Pritha.^) is the better or otfaers. SANKHYA YOGA.

—To and explain In ii. Even the sons of Dhritarash/ra. near and remote I — all this from his < ' notion that " here means ' am ' theirs and they are Pbanna ' 3rahinan who supports aU—(A) . who have sought Thy grace. Guiakesa. Hrishi- smiling. separation from. 2 to ii. as if O descendant of Bharata. etc. kesa. my mind Tell confounded about Dharma.I — 10. * is I ask Thee me what absolutely good. dominior. Now which the portion from i. . even after attaining I unrivalled and prosperous dominion on earth or Samjaya said even lordship over gods. My : heart contaminated by the taint of help- lessness. grief delusion caused by his attachment and the sense of friends. arising kinsmen. stand arrayed against us. ^/ seq Arjuna displayed for. Instruct me. said to Govinda. 15 alternative for us we know whether we shall conquer them or they will conquer us.' I will not remained silent. wellrelations. wishers. ' the tormenter of foes. in sentient creatures : cause the misery of samsara.] Sankhya'Yoca.. fight. spoke these words: Self-knowledge alone eradicates misery. nor do do not wish to 7 live. delusion. I am Thy 8 pupil. : 9 Having spoken thus and verily to Hrishikesa. do not indeed S22 what can dispel the grief which burns up my senses. 10 To him who was grieving in the midst of the two armies.. sons. g should be interpreted as showing whence 4 arise those evils of grief. the elders. after killing whom we .

said %q be a mere abstract. and of on very probable that which tha Sri-bhashya of Sri charya is K amanuja- one and the same person was the author of the two Vnttis or gpmm. grief all creatures whose intelligence swayed by and delusion and other evil influences naturally abandon their proper Even if duties and resort to those which are prohibited. therefore.. And seeing that their cessa- tion could not b3 brought about except by Self-knowledge whole world ii. i. owing an accumulation of and demerit. marit is egoistic and is prompted by a longing to for In their case. the is Vcitti- n it unlikely that the author of th3 Vritti w. which was the duty of a different is caste^ Accordingly. who had of himself been in battle as the engaged duty of the warrior caste. The I . they are engaged in their duties. Lord Vasudeva wished knowledge for the benefit of the through Arjuna and began His teaching with ii. the commentator here referred V>-ittikira's interpretation of the I. abstainlead ed from fighting and proposed to a mendicant's life. The doctrine that knowledge should be conjoined with works. Against the cannot at * foregoing view some f say : — Moksha all be attained by mere A'tmaj«ana-nish^ha.entaries. inasmuch as 5ri Sankaracharya's in which consists in the renunciation of bhashya is profeisodly very short it.-Israma voluininous. According to A'nandigiri. formal religion and worldly poss2ssions. Ilf mine. It [DiS.:- kara to. happiness and misery. the sawsara. A said to have written a volumin- Brahma-sutras to II — 19 is also referred ous commentary by Sankaricharya that section. becomes incessant. on the Gita na who is no other than Bodhayaon th? Brahmi-siitras. + compirison with It is. Grief and delusion are thus the cause of sa. thought and deed reward. p which consists in passing through good and bad births. all The brahmanas Viitti on the Gitu was evilently very enter the fourth ." grief was when discrimination was overpowered by and delusion that Arjuna. then. of dharma and a-dharma.l6 THE ehagavad-gItA. by alone are allowed to of sa/imyasa.«sara. added to renunciation of to teach that all works. their conduct in speech. It is in his commentary nearly a million slokas in extent.

shalt incur sin. 33). 11 is called Sankhya. because involves cruelty. sons and the like and further says that. and the enlightened who hold this view are called Sankhyas. prescribed in the 6ruti and the smriti. respectively — — owing to the absence in Him of such changes as birth forms the Sankhya standpoint (Sankhya-buddhi). in is and He the case of a neglect of this duty. This is — By — the conclusive teaching of the whole Gitii. ing this view may It be cited —they say —the verses 33. This is clearly tantamount to asserting that those rites which are enjoined as life-long duties by the Vedas are sinless though they involve cruelty to animals. since fighting which sion of the warrior caste it is the profes- is the proper duty (of the caste). etc. since the Lord has made a distinction between J«ana-nishfha and Karma-nish/ha. brothers. that the Self is no doer. 47. Sankhya and Yoga This is wrong. an intellectual conviction of the truth produced by a study of that section. ii. . iv. ritual is sinful should not be supposed that the it Vedic ?. such as the Agnihotra. therefore very horrible . our Lord says that." "abandoning thy duty and fame thou (ii. to Self-knowledge preceded I7 mere devotion tion of all by the renuncia- what then ? Absolute freedom can be attained by knowledge conjoined with works. as based upon two distinct standpoints The real nature 30 by the Lord of the Self as expounded here in ii. "' — Why For.— (A). As supportii. etc. is not sinful though it involves cruelty to elders. distinguished. 15. between the devotion of knowledge and the devotion of works. Yoga consists in the performance * — before the rise of the foregoing Such as the eating of uchchhish/a or What remains of the food of which another has already eaten.— jf — lOJ works SANKhvA YOGA.

wish only the Self. or devotion to knowledge. and so also He will assign to the Yogins the path of Karma-yoga. based upon the Siinkhya standpoint . and presupposing that the is Self is distinct from the body and the doer and the enjoyer. " the Brahma: »a continues thus ^ »' in explanation of the said injunction What have we to do this iv. "The brahma^as who. to [DiS. Thuswuth reference to the Sankhya and the Yoga standpoints two distinct paths have been shown by the Lord. and the other on the idea of agency and multiplicity. In the same Brahma«a {ibid. before marriage and after completing the investigation into the nature of the the world ' Dharma ' or \'edic injunctions. seeing the impossibility of J«ana and Karma being conjoined in one and the same person simultaneously. 4. and the performers of works who hold this view are Yogins. 4. in the made here is also referred to 5atapatha-Brahma. a son and the twofold wealth. II. the one being based upon the idea of nonagency and unity. 3).— the one kind of wealth being . namely.r^ THE BAGAVAD-GITA. Self?" (Bnhadara«yaka-Upa- nishad. and of Devas). of Pit/'is. should give up all worldly concerns. for this region of having no worldly attachments. Of these. based upon the Yoga standpoint (iii. — Having enjoined renuncia- The distinction tion of all works in the words. —we who we live in this region. ^ Such conviction forms the Yoga standpoint (Yoga-buddhi). He will assign to the Sankhyas the J»ana-yoga. Accordingly two distinct standpoints are referred to by the Lord in ii. the man of desired to acquire the means of attaining to the three regions (of man.a. requiring a knowledge of virtue and sin. or devotion to works.. with progeny. i. 22). 39. conviction— of works as a means moksha. 17) are told that.

In that case how migfat Aijiana adk about onlj of the two. ' consisting oi mrn-M off and leadinig to the ie^:i(Mi of Pitris. i) ? a {^ysacian £as piresQribed a mixture composed of bo::^ sweet: and cooling articles far a man who wishes to reduce bilious heat (in the system) the question. npasana) and leading to the region of Dsvas. Vedic rites.(iMrd and to have rrc is —that which — : : : r. The renandation of these isenjoined on him who sads cnlj the fcgion of the Sdf and is firee fr ~' Ti^sure.. if conjunctian of knowiedge and works be intended Cor all.: i r : -^-"^ )• ^ - How might Aijuna fdbseJy impute to the IjobA— iiL I ~ allied {by the of^oncjat) been taught be&ure by the L. t ~ .* nnmsis<t™g in wealth bang caiM^ ' godly wisdsm (^vidTa. well as the superisioty of knowledge to wtvks ? Meireovo^. it m^ust have been intended for Arjui!iJ. XeitlM9r could Aijuna's questifan with whic : _: : . '' . is I: well. " Tell me con<dusively that which is the better of " the two If (v. Thus the Vedk. thete cannott arise which one akme of the two ingredients caa alleviate tnliotts Iieat ? . xhis a^!'ag»Tnii[ini«r qc the two fMlrihis to two mstmdt of pe^Ae would be unjustifiable if the Locd had intended a simultaneous conjunctiaa <tf knowledge and ' .rt by Aijuna. lites are intended fsK him oraly who has deames and has no knowledge of the Sdlf..' called ' humian ^nmanmsha). namdiy. j^ui: Discoujrse c^pensbe sattisfeudbcuily explained (on . and the otber kind (dairal. Idae impossibility of and wixrks being idllowed by one and the Sui .

Arjuna's blame Lord as conveyed to by his words " why dost Thou (iii. enjoined in the sruti or in the smriti. etc." in the may before continue performing works same manner as with a an example to the masses. Some cases of apparent conjunction explained. accordance with the question and If it altogether beside be held that knowledge to be conjoined with such works only as are enjoined in the smriti. of the Moreover. having since attained purity of mind by gifts. — an answer which is is not it. the Brahman. arrives this is at the knowledge of the grand truth that "all one. II. view to set the Absolute. It is not. be proper to answer in the words " A path was taught by in Me " (iii. therefore. side. the reply of the of the Lord. do this horrible deed ?" i) would be since he knew that fighting was enjoined in the smriti as a kshatriya's duty. the non-agent. and sacrificial rites. why are you thus mistaken would not. Arjuna's question. might be alleged on the other was due to his not having understood aright the teaching then. possible for anybody to show that the Gita-5astra teaches a conjunction of knowledge with any work whatever. even then the assigning of the two paths to two distinct classes of people respectively and other statements in that connection would be equally inexplicable. tendencies. it [DiS. a person who. 3). Even in Lord should have in been given accordance with : the question and the following form "I meant a conjunction of knowledge and ?" It works. on the twofold is other hand. having been first Now owing engaged in works evil to ignorance and worldly attachment and other austerity. command me inexplicable.20 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA.. though neither works .

and the suppose further that the desire vanishes when the sacrifice is half completed. "Do thou also perform (iv. 7). suppose that Janaka and the rest were engaged truth. they did so lest people at large might go astray whereas they were sincerely — but not the Self—were engaged .: I — lo] life SANKHYA YOGA. (v. Now " as regards the passages. and "The Self neither acts nor is tainted. egotism and hope of in ' both alike. 15). or that conduces to the attainment of any specific end of His. others aim perfection" 20). indeed. He who knows the man truth act. we must distinguish two cases and terpret the passages thus First. any more than Lord Vasudeva's of the duty is activity in His discharge to of the military caste can constitute the action that to be conjoined with His knowledge as a means reward being absent does not think 'I moksha. nor does he long for the results. Or to take another example: suppose a seeking svarga or other such objects of desire goes through the ceremony of the Agni-adhana as a preliminary to the per- formance of sacrificial rites such as the Agnihotra whereby to attain his desire. action as did the ancients in the olden time" and at in- By action alone. 21 nor their results attract him any longer. did Janaka and (iii. of active This semblance on his part cannot constitute that course of is action with \vhich knowledge sought to be conjoined as a means of attaining moksha. but that the : man goes on with it all same the Agnihotra can no longer be regarded as an interAccordingly our Lord says " though doing. and then commences the Agnihotra." (xiii. . which has thus became a kamya (interested) rite. in works though they knew the convinced that 'the senses' Then. ested rite. " 31). he is not tainted.

' Janaka and the rest ' perfection meaning here says self. Avorks that Tliough the stage of renunciation had they been reached. to him who has attained perfeclion. 11 Elsewhere. That such is the teaching of tlie Gita we shall shew here and there according to the context. 50) . . did not formally renounce works. — to Isvara. in the following sections The Self is immortal. finding no means other than Self-knowledge Arjuna who was thus confounded as in the for the deliverance of and was deeply plunged Lord Vasudeva who wished to mighty ocean of help him out of it : introduced him to Self-knowledge in the following words II. "( xviii. man attains perfection by worshipping Him with his own dut}'' (xviii. Now to his duty grief. not by knowledge conjoined with works. in the following words " How he who has having said that . Secondly. therefore. that do thou learn from Me. either mind' or that the ' the dawn refers of true knowledge. [DiS. is to say. 46) the Lord again recommends the patli of knowledge. : attained perfed^ion reaches Brahman. they attained perfection without abandoning . Then of the passages should be interpreted — By meons attained purity of ' works dedicated perfection.— 22 in THE BHAGAVAD-gIta.' It is to this doctrine Lord when he ' " The Yogin performs ) . The salvation conclusion. action for the purification of the after " (v. Thus they reached by knowledge alone. II. suppose that they had not known thus : the truth. the objects (iii. The Lord said For those who deserve no grief thou : hast grieved. of the Bhagavad-gita is is that attained by knowledge alone. perfection 28).

I and the spiritual teacher..) I — 12] SANKHYA YOGA.ndltcih ) — those who know the For. This shews to what is 5 The second half of the verse is intended to show that Arjuna's delusion was class of persons this teaching due to his ignorance of the true nature of — ( A.^zetscq. Up." (Bri. who know the Self. the Self. the i. {Question) — How — The Lord says : : ? : : '' to illusion. sruti says Having obtained wisdom its {pdnditya. who are really eternal and who really deserve : no grief wherefore you are foolish.) their present + Whether you regard . and by investi- Referring to what Arjuna said in gating into the nature of things as they are with a view to clearly i. you grieve for those . ^3 and words of wisdom thou speakest. c. the wise pa.. ledge of the Self) in 5. He who knows not the Self is He who is subject to words subject illusion personalities or their real nature. ^ For grieve Such people as Bhishma and Drowa deserve no grief f.. Thus you and wisdom. For i .— (A. of what avail are pleasures of dominion and other things to me left alone without them ? " And you also speak the words I of wise men. — (A. such teachings.) understand addressed. (Question) {Anszi'cr) — Why do they deserve no grief? [Ansiver) — For. exhibit inconsistency in yourself. knowIII. the living and for the dead the wise not. for they are men of good condudl and are eternal in their You have grieved for them saying " I am the real nature. nally they are Perso.1-) entirety.death. they are eternal. Self— grieve neither alone are wise " for the living nor for the dead. — foolishness ( — like a They : maniac. cause of then. That is. men of good condCct in will obtain right knowledge by devoutly of the Scripture their real nature (as identical with the listening to the Absolute) they are eternal.

.: 14 12. I always that is. on the other hand. THE BMAGAVAD-GITA. So also. At the close of the first of these stages the Self is not dead. on the other hand. Just so . and old age or the age of decay. on the other hand. I cease to exist . nor will these rulers of men and no one of us ever hereafter cease to exist. There the Just as in this body the wise man is not distressed. they always did exist. on the other hand. Never did did exist I . we shall all certainly continue to exist even after the death of these bodies. the Atman. never did these rulers of men cease to exist . always existed. we present are eternal in all the three periods of time (past. nor thou. So. through the past bodily births and deaths. The than one plural ' us it ' is used with reference to the bodies that are different Self. so does He pass into another body. II. — Now. all distinct from one another. neither shall we ever cease to exist . nor is He born again at the com- mencement of the second . not exist. never did you cease to exist . Never did I [DiS. So. As the Self. you always did exist. on the other hand. and future). how the Self eternal — Here follows an illustration : is ? : embodied (Self) passes into childhood and youth and old age. youth or the middle age. in the We see how the embodied Self passes unchanged present body into the three stages (avasthas) of childhood. does not mean that there are more {Question) {Answer) 13. we see the Self passing unchanged into the second and third stages. .

which cause heat and they cold.\. : Now Arjuna might argue as follows It is is true that when the one knows the Self to be eternal there distressful delusion that the Self will die. —which produce heat and of cold. Endurance is a condition of wisdom. O son of Kunti. which are contacted by the senses. the wise man is not troubled (in mind) about it. So also heat * is an inconstant nature. is the distressful delusion the Self subject to heat and cold. to another interpretation. no room for But quite common that among people. i. the contacts of the senses with their objects such as sound it is — or. 25 does the Self pass unchanged into another body. f But pleasure and feelings of of Kunti' Here Arjuna is addressed as the 'son and again as the 'descendant of implies that the subjective harmony and discord external objects first are the immediate Bharata. such as sound.. Them by which according endure bravely. pleasure and pain. pain. pleasure and Cold is pleasant at one time and painful at another. The senses are those of hearing and the It is sound and other things are perceived. the 14.* like.' to show that he alone is fit to antecedents of pleasure and pain.— (. f — (A.— 12—14] SANKHYA-YO GA. the sense-objects. pleasure and pain . Lord says it : The sense-contacts is. as also to grief due to the loss of pleasure or to the suffering of pain. O descendant of Bharata. as is we see.) of heat The separate mention and cold which should properly be included and cold or the feelings of harmony and discord. such as the sensations of heat mother's side. and then produce pleasure and pain. As against the foregoing. they are impermanent. come and go. the senses and the contacts e. Such being the case. The receive the teaching who is well descen- produce subjective ded on the father's as well as on the changes.) under the category of objects (vishayas) .

—that man. give not thyself up to joy or —What good ? will accrue to him who bears heat and cold and the like [Answer) 15. them. Because are not permanent.. of ths Bhdshya here add: may be objected that it the objects the wheel of . heat and cold &c. — who affect in_virtue _of his in his vision of the a man of wisdom. leads to deliverance. not.. Wherefore heat and cold are mentioned separately '' from pleasure and pain. have.. which leads to deliverance. therefore they f Wherefore do thou bravely endure . | * "It Some MSS. calm endu(\).. he for immortality That person is to whom pleasure and pain are alike. these afflict chief of men. firm eternal Self and bearing calmly the pairs is of opposites (such as heat and cold). does not He who laid has satisfied all the apply here. for t conditions a second condi- Here is laid down nature of his only is down can realize own eternal Self. [Question) : i. to whom pleasure and pain is fit. by nature. e. Though by endurance alone one may not be able to secure the highest human of the senses or their contacts give plea- end. tion still. II. when coupled with to discrimina- sure and pain. since those objects and their contacts with senses and pleasures. [Dis.and pain. are endless. — (A). he fit for the final teaching that rance in pleasure . a beginning and an end. able to attain immortality (moksha). these sense-contacts. mundane the and indiflercnce worldy objects existence will be endless.. whom heat and cold and other things such as those mentioned above do not vision of the eternal Self.'. This objection these. grief on their account. verily. etc. pain are constant in their respective natures as pleasure and pain. it becomes a means to the right knowledge. . and the then tion of right knowledge. O That wise man whom. : — Listen. vis.— 26 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. neither exults in pleasure nor feels —who dejected in pain. are same.

is . they are effects or changes (vikara). proves apart is to be real. such as an earthen pot. no existence — of the unreal (asat) such as heat and cold as well as their causes. Of tiio unreal no being there real. and the causes thereof. neither This implies that the Absolute Reality not conditioned by causality and there. because not perceived as distinct from is cause. unreal because not perceived apart from ( its cause. + is IV.15 — 16] SANKHYA-YOGA. 16. every fact of experience involves twofold consciousness (buddhij. : f it Objection § : ) — Then comes to this : nothing at all exists. Heat. are not absolutely real (vastu-sat) . Whatsvei. For instance.' (Gaudap.ldakariktts on the must be illusory."" it is And the cause. it is proper that thou shouldst abandon grief and distressful delusion and calmly For. There is no bhava — no being. 31). such as a pot. which are (no doubt) perceived through the organs of perception. 27 The Real and the Unreal. no objective form. presented to consciousness by the eye.exists not in the before ths perception of the series of causes effects * Cp. {Ajisiciey) — No (such objection applies here). etc. also because perceived likewise production and after is its destruction. it is Every not effect. For the following reason also endure heat and cold. etc. there is is r no non-being of the Of both these the truth seen by the ssers of the Essence. for. and § For. — (A). there cannot be a thing which a ca\iso nor an effect. such as clay. because effect its it is not perceived it from clay. thinks that is The objector evidently Miindiikya-upanishad. before its unreal. .— (A).. ' ginning or in the end exists not really In the present. Thus every is unreal. and every change is temporary. cold.

Thus. what is fleeting must be unreal. &c. is because constant more than a pot cloth. is — When the pot absent and the consciousfails. out. because the is unfailing. related to each other as the universal and the particulars. In the were as real as existence case of our illusory perception of a rope mistaken for a snake. For. ' a cloth ' existent. we hold that the we should be at a loss to explain why.' ' ' an elephant ' existent —not as in the expression a blue lotus § —and so on everywhere. the object corresbecause but what corresponds to is ponding to our consciousness of pot.. our experience." — is it real. the two — existence and a and the pot ness of whereas what corresponds the perception "this the rope. They which are unreal. its attribute. for our consciousness all its of on the other hand. . the consciousness of existence also * There mast be an Absolute Reality which is neither a cause nor an effect. temporary as was already pointed but not the consciousness of existence. or as a substance and the pot. is Of the two. that to existence — and all Existence and the pot refer sentence this is — as in the the rest being unreal. can account the through illusory manifestations. If what is constant must be real. — (A). Illusion. [DlS. &c. is unreal. which corresponds — namely. twofold consciousness arises with reference to one and the as. to with reference one and the same sub- snake is it unreal because our consciousfails. arising with reference jg are thus to be inferred from our own g^g ^^j jj^j sa^^o substratum... &c. of which and that to our consciousness never fails be unvcal. stratum. (sat) is . Now. ness of it fails. ' same substratum (samanadhikarana). twofold consciousness of existence and there The reality and the unreality of things the pot and so on. Now that and the consciousness of (said to be) real. § being only ono lotus blue and ' being two realities. our consciousness of existence consciousness {Objection) : not unreal. a snake. and not two distinct realities.— 28 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. Reality experience. is the consciousness temporary . is or the like— should always present themselves togsther to our consciousness any to "this" in viz.' a pot existent. Thus the distinction of and unreality depends on our consciousness. the consciousness of the real the unreal (asat)..II. of which our consciousness reality in all ' fails. as in the case of a rope mistaken for various other things tha man we saw' — to are only one thing really existing. *the consciousness of pot.

for the consciousness of the pot does not arise with reference to a cloth. {Objection) — Neither does the consciousness of existence arise in the case of the pot that has disappeared. (AnsKier) : — No '• (such objection applies still For the consciousness of existence other objects such as cloth. {Objection) : — If the substantive such as the pot be unreal.l6] SANKIIYA-VOGA. existence signified by reference to the must be as real as existence. the pot. . 29 liere). arise in the corresponding how can the consciousness of the attributive ? absence of the substantive — Not that there is no objective reality present. twofold consciousness arising with reference to the one and same substratum : is inexplicable.^ {Ansic'cr) — No. is for. the consciousness of the pot also arises with reference to another pot (present). {Ohjecfion) :~L. corresponding to the consciousness of existence. as for instance in of existence still § the case of a In all The consciousness The objector means this: our arises in conjunction with the abssnce of is experience. so.' and the the pot attributive to be real. arises with reference to of existence The consciousness corresponds indeed only to the attributive (visesha/^a). w [AnsK'er) : — You cannot say . for there is no substantive (viseshya) present. we find the twofold consciousness arising with reference to one and the same substratum. When we is say ' here no pot. even to the twofold though one of the two objects corresponding consciousness * unreal.ike the consciousness of existence. we find both substantive So. The consciousness that of existence corres- ponds to the attributive and as there can be no consciousof the ness of the attributive without substantive. — (A) place where the pot is said to be absent. here. {Answer) : — You : cannot say so.

mirage. —you must understand — does not 'Sat'. before the the real and the vmreal. the Inexhaustible. the Brahman. there is no existence of the unreal. being assured are really that all phenomena (vikaras) non-existent and are. just as pots and other objects are pervaded by the iikasa or space. is This Brahman. None can cause the destruction of That." fictitious Therefore. fails. and. then. That'. the Self and is the non-Self. 17. of which some are constant and others inconstant in their nature as productive of pleasure or pain. in Itself . That vanish . is not exhausted for. our consciousness of the Self never This conclusion unreal is — that the real never existent — regarding minds of is ever existent and the the two. shake grief and delusion. mere fagle appearances. has no parts. It . Nor does for. [DiS. Unlike the unreal. those who attend only to truth. Brahman therefore does not undergo increase or diminution and inexhaustible. is That. where our consciousness takes the form " this is water. or of their causes. the the Real.— 30 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. the pairs of opposites real — such as the body and the for. It diminish by (loss anything belonging to nothing . by which all this world. including the akasa. do thou calmly bear heat and cold and other pairs of opposites. pervaded. like the mirage. the unlike the body of) It ' Sat '. What. — the Self (Atman) — ever cease to exist as already pointed out. is that which is ever real ? Listen : — all But know that is to be imperishable by which this pervaded. always present the All.II. to the real nature ' of the Brahman. the Absolute. Neither does the . Thou hadst therefore better follow the view of such off" truth-seers.

two kinds of eternality and of destrucour experience. is the Self. Self. then. constant 18. No- body act — not even the Isvara. : whose existence is not Listen These bodies of the embodied (Self) who is eternal. indestructible and unknowable. Bharata. . the eternality of .' for. is said to have been destroyed. and one cannot the upon What. is and have become (something ' "Eternal" subject to and ' indestructible here imply that the Self neither sort of destruction. It is Do fight^ therefore. for instance. the Self oneself. indestructible and unknowable. ruined by that wealth but Brahman does not suffer loss in way. entirely disappearing when reduced to ashes. The physical body. ' [No tautology ' involved in the use of both eternal ' and indestructible . ? is the unreal (asat). and thing) then said to have ceased to be (someelse). Otherwise.l6 — 18] S\NKHYA-YOGA. 31 is belongs to the loss of Devadatta. tion are The physical body. nobody can bring about the disappear- ance or destruction of the inexhaustible Brahman. for instance. are said to have an end. may to be transformed owing to sickness or such it is other causes. Wherefore. Supreme Lord — can destroy Brahman Itself. mirage consists into their nature of such objects as the — The end the cessation — as the by proper tests result of investigation of truth — of the idea of reality which has been associated with So also these bodies is them. O descendant of said by the enlightened that these bodies of the Self. have an end. For. have an end. while existmet with in ing as such. who is eternal. in like those seen in dreams or produced by a juggler.

which is within all.— (A) § by the t he Seh'is the only real thing and that all. the is Brahman.] The — not determinable by the senses means is (pratyaksha) or any other [Objection) : of knowledge. Such as humanity and agency. In fact. mining the Self— nobody. The sruti also describes the Self thus " That which is the Immediate. then only possible a search for proper authorities on the part of the knower with a view to obtain right knowledge.. do thou fight. but not unknown. The Sruti teaches that reahsation of this truth taught sruti. Indeed the Self unknown And the Scripture (Sastra) which its the iinar'' authority obtains authoritativeness regarding the Self. therefore. the is knower (pramatn). which (Bn. the Unremote. others are^ illusory and non-existent. thus eternal (nitya) and immutable (avikriya). the last.— 3^ THE bhagavad-gItA Self. prior to Revelation. Up. — The Self determined by the Agama or Revelation. and by perception &c. ii. — do not abstain from * i. as serving only to eliminate the adhyaropa/^a or superimposition (on the Self) of the attributes § alien to as revealing what has been altogether : Him. II." 4. When the Self. [Dis. {Answcy) : — The objection is untenable. epithets. e. without deterseeks is ' I am I ' —-none to determine the (aprasiddha) is knowable to objects. like Atman. i). the Self. the this might perhaps be understood to be It is that of clay or other material objects. No pramana or authority can survive the . for the Self is self-determind (svatas-siddha). is Because the Self fighting. has been determined. the denial of which Self is is conveyed by the two unknowable.

know not aright." — How ? ig. nor both is He speak- He who ing understands the Self — of whom we are —as the agent in the act of slaying. and whoever looks upon these slain. viz. I am slain Those who think I slay or when the body is slain. and thus identify the ' Self with the (ahani). grief and delusion) that fore in the is ' here attempted by the Lord. the removal of obstructive causes (pratibandha. says the Lord. ' Where- words '• do thou fight . such as grief is verses to confirm the intended to remove the cause of to and delusion. That is Lord does not here absolutely neces- mean sary. He has simply shewn that Arjuna . only a false notion of yours. Whoever looks upon Him as the slayer. I will be their slayer.' — they do not understand the real nature of the to say.. Arjuna had But overpowered by already been engaged in lighting. the is the ego Self. He only refers Lord issues here no to what is commonly The Self is unconcerned in action. * object of the consciousness of 'I. but not enjoin works. neither of these two has understood the Self aright.— l8 — 19] SANKHYA-YOGA. 33 Here the duty of fighting is not enjoined. want of discrimination. that you think thus " Bhishma and others will be killed by me It is : in the battle . The Lord now quotes two Vedic view that the Gita-5astra sawsara. It is only grief and dehision he abstained from fighting. the new command (vidhi) known already. Him as He slays the slain. ' and he who regards Him for ' as the sufferer in the act of slaying when ' the body is slain. not. that fighting in had no reason to desist from the fightin<: which he had engaged of himself.

Not so the Self. so as to imply the absence of such changes of condition as motion. yet and the thought changes. Having no parts. die. He does not diminish His own sub- . like the body. verse..' &c. unchangeable and primeval. after- wards ceases to fore Neither does the Self existence. having not existed come into before.] He is unchangeable of condition : He is constant. not subject ( to the change known as decline in apakshaya ). is [DlS. — die * : this denies ' the Ever should be construed with the denial of every change. never dies. He He last is when the body is no such change of condition as birth takes place in the Self. in the words all ' unchangeable. by the denial of the changes have been denied.directly deny the intermediate changes. comes is existence. and so on. Nor does He change of condition called death. . nor does He ever die . having is He is unborn. isted. who. having once ex- does not afterwards cease to be any more. He again ceases not to be nor the Unborn. Being immutable (avikriya). thus born. ? How 20. not slain not born . For. having once existed.\nd because He does not first it He last is eternal. all [Though. . Wherefore He unborn. neither II. is necessary to . the agent The Self is immutable.34 THE BHAGAVAD-GiTA. : He is never — For. In ordinary is parlance he said to die be. though not specified here. after re- having been. the Self. he into is said to be born not existed. is the Self immutable : — This is answered by the n3xt verse He is not born. Wherewho. the Self nor the object of the action of slaying. eternal. is slain.

sorts of change. . For. As devoid of parts. nal.- ig — 21 ] SAN'KHYA-VOGA. — To avoid : tautology. is 19) the proposition that the Self neither the agent nor the object of the action of slaying. not subject to the change known as growth (vrlddhi) as opposed to decline. eter- Whoso knows Him unborn and inexhaustible. means that the Self is devoid of all Hence the words in the previous verse. as fresh in the past (as He is ever the same) is . to in the Self of the six * of condition — of the six vikdvas or changes which all hhavas or beings in the world are subject. the Lord concludes the proposition as follows 21. not aright. O son of Pritha. growth. 35 stance. existence. the Self is slaying is interpreted to mean transformation not subject to transformation. transformation. renounce works. and destruction. is He does not diminish by He primeval. loss of As devoid a quality. of qualities. does such a man cause does he slay ? to slay. and whom * Such as birth. on the whole. — as indestructible. and whom. This verse teaches the absence bhava-vikaras. He is now or will be in future He never grows. slain when is the body c. — How. . and having stated in the next verse the immutability of the Self as the reason for that statement. decline. The passage. And He is not slain He is not transformed when : the body transformed." to " both these know The enlightened man has Having started (in ii. that in size which increases by the accretion of parts is said to grow and to be renewed. the Self . was i.

" ing to all The reason for the denial of slaying apply- actions alike. however. — True.. unborn and inexhaustible.. as the only enlightened not included man * should be identical with the Because no reply follows. II. {AnswerJ: enlightened (vidvattrt) — This man is objection does not apply. Therefore. since the enlightened man is distinct from the immutable Self.e.e. as He who knows indestructible. {Objection) : — What special reason for the absence of action in the case of an enlightened Avhen denying actions in the slay " ? man does the Lord see words " how does such a man [Ansiver) : — The : immutability of the Self has already for the been given as the reason [Objection) absence of . denial meant. the Self (described in the last verse) devoid of the final change called death. it has been given but that cannot be a sufficient reason. . [DiS. or how does he cause another to slay does he at is He slays nobody at all.. i. what the Lord means to teach in this section appears to be the denial of all action whatso- ever in the case of the enlightened . devoid of change called transformation. We cannot indeed say that a pillar man who has known an immovable can have no action to do. all actions. since no question can have f been asked. nor all cause another to slay.— 36 THE BHAGAVAD-gItA. the Self.e. who is f ij. as eternal. i. of this description how does an enlightened man do the act ? of slaying. as i. Enlightenment etc. other alternative. does not pertain to the aggregate of the body. the denial. the identical with the Self. devoid of birth and decline.. — In both the places. of the specific act of slaying being only meant as an example. the immutability of the Self. For..

that those acts which are enjoined by the scripture are intended for the unenlightened. the Lord From this assertion of impossibility of action in the case of an enlightened is man. (Ansji/er) : —This objection does not apply. the conclusion of evident. while remaining immutable. sacrificial rites He thinks that the Agnihotra and other are to be . as flour over again — to would be useless like grinding the impart knowledge to those who already it is — possess that it. and not for the works are meant for the enlightened. by reason states His not being distinguished from intellectual (buddhi-vnttis). on understanding the meaning of the injunctions regarding the Agnihotra &c. through ignorance. the Self is imagined unreal to be enlightened.— 2l] in the aggregate in the case of SANKHYA-YOGA. but just to deny action in the words " how does sucli a man slay ?" Now. Similarly. for instance. 37 being possible all and is immutable. imagined. perceived by intellect the and other means. Wherefore. No action it is an enlightened man. such as sound. is. the Self. merely because of avidyrt associating with that intellectual perception Him — which is which takes the form of discrimination between the Self and the not-Self. For. to be of the percipient of objects. the distinction can be explained by the existence or non-exisfor the un- tence of something to be performed in the two cases respectively. is — Even knowledge it intended for the unen- lightened only. (To explain) : There remains something enlightened man to do. while in reality the Self has undergone no change whatever. Works {Objection) : are meant for the unenlightened. hard to explain the distinction unenlightened.

on the contrary. has no doubt to perform being not prejudicial to his de%'Otion knowledge. 27. Vyasa said to his "Now there are two first. unenlightened. i. In the same connection. 21. regarding the. xxiv. the enlighten- man is and with reference to him actions are denied in the words " fore the enlightened how does such a man slay ?" Thereman who has seen the immutable Self have only to ''' and the nian who renounce all is eager for emancipation works. &c. remains to be performed subsequent to the reahzation of the truth of such teachings as are contained real nature of the Self. and teaches to them respectively two son. work. and again in v. ' He thinks further. . in ii. the distinc- tion referred to can bs accounted for. said that "both these know not aright" ed 19). Wherefore. for (ii. this is my duty. In ii. he who is eager for the acts enjoined on him. performed. Vy^sa said that the path of works is the and that renunciation comes next. but who does not yet possess Self-knowledge. * The latter. 20 etc. 6). there will necessarily arise the idea that he this or that thing to do. and on him actions are it is Such a man specified. In the case of him who thinks that the Self is the doer of actions. " am the agent. 13.. e. [DiS. arises No other conviction except that the Self is one and non-agent." Nothing. 3).38 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. these acts to Moksha." (Alokshadharma. and that the many necessary accessories thereto I should be acquired. Hence it is that Lord Naraya»a distinguishes the enlightened Sankhyas from the unenlight- ened followers of works.) Our Lord this will refer to this distinction again {vide iii. paths. has A man who is possesses this sort of knowledge enjoined. II.. 28 . distinct paths (iii. is qualified for actions. Accordingly.

in I vain then would be the Scriptural teaching. renunciation of all works is enjoined. such as "the Self is not born. ' things in the world which conviction arising. The mind. the mind and the senses teachings of the Scripture and the Teacher. non-agency. 19). For. [Answer) : — Not For.. &c. mere temerity knowledge can arise. while the the that Scripture and inference it is (anumiina) teach to hold immutano such bility of the Self. is inaccessible to any of the senses. constitutes the — — sense by which the Self may •'• be seen. 4. death." refined Up. to which . e. devoid of the all changes. the non-agent. * The inference may be thus stated : more than Infancy. Thus. Sclf. such as birth." &c. — In this connection arise some conceited pedants conviction 'I say: To no man can Self.2l] SANKHYA-YOGA. the Scripture says " [Bi'i. by the subjugation of and equipped with the the body. They (the objectors) may be asked in the why knowledge of the immutability. [Ansioci'): — This objection does not apply (ii.. 39 is Knowledge [Objection] : of the Immutable Self possible.any . of the Self cannot be produced by the Scripture same way as knowledge of the existence of dhavma and a-dharma and of the doer passing through other births is produced by the teaching of the Scripture ? [Opponent) : — Because the Self so. It can be seen by the mind alone. 20). youth and old age are such changes as birth. by Sama and Dama /. agency and the like arc not inherent in tlic inherent in Him. unity. iv. here. the the am the six immutable are subject One.

[DiS.' [Objection): — The renunciation of all mental acts only [Answer): 'all is meant. opposite. — No. Since all acts of speech and body are preceded by mental activity. &c. since the Self is It is immu- only the agent. 13). that Sankhyas should resort to J»ana-Yoga or devotion to knowledge. they cannot exist when the mind is inactive.. *^ . then. 40 The enlightened should It resort to Jnana-Yoga. with a view to show — Lord that the enlightened man has nothing to do with any action whatsoever. 21 an enlightened man. arises must be granted that the knowledge which thus its necessarily dispels ignorance. [Answer) : — No. (v. "Renouncing all actions by thought. has he to do — This has been already answered : ? in iii. for there the qualification. the So also. of the Self a product of ignorance holds good table. there taught of the agent or the object the action of slaying is a is product of ignorance. subject to variations of condition. that causes another person. all This agency — direct and causative with respect to actions alike in the case of Vasudeva denies in ii. in the case of all actions alike. 3. actions. an action. 11. body — neither acting nor causing to act " [Objection) is — Here the word is ' thought ' implies that there no renunciation of the acts of speech and body.: — THE BHAGAVAD'GiTA. the self-controlled man rests happily in the nine-gated city. works in the in Lord will teach renunciation of all the words. [Question) [Answer) the : — What. to do who can be acted on by him. That the agency. It This ignorance is has been already indicated that the notion that the Self in is ii. ig.

( ) — Let body us then construe the passage thus : Neither acting nor causing another to act. for. knows and that all activity belongs to the body. here taught by the Lord. as you ha\e done. may be meant for the dying man. there is the qualilication.' to deposit. let him renounce all other acts of of speech mind except such as are necessary for those acts and body which are enjoined by the Scripture. then. 4I {Objection) : — Then.' Therefore. the of resting presupposes a place to rest in. not to the Sslf) rests happily. it. he rests in on the contrary. {Answer) is : — No. deposits activity in the (/. the Gita-Sastra teaches that he wlio has acquired a knowledge of the Self should resort to renuncia- tion only. . ' Let us not. he. "•' Moreover. {Objection) {Anszi'ey):—No. for.2t] SANKHVA-YOGA. Tiiis in w^ shall show here and there the following sections. all No man who Objection : is dying can by giving up activity be said to rest in the body. the qualilication ' rests in the nine-gated city — in the body ' would have no meaning. wherever they treat of the Self. "neither acting nor causing to act.. the renunciation of all actions. not to works. (Aiisii'ei') : — No. * Wherefore the Self cannot be the agent of an action." :— Then.' &c. not for the living man. whereas the act of renunciation does not presuppose And not the Sanskrit verb ' ' saw + nyas ' means ' to renounce. the body. construe. (saw + nyas) all c. Everywhere iict (in thesruti and in the smriti) is emphatically asserted that the Self immutable. the disembodied soul of the enlightened man.

all-pervading. and this cannot take place in the So. Why 23. partless by wetting Self. 24. up. and eternal. How To ble ? the Self is immutable. Him. . nor dried He is everlasting. Him. a man man casts off the clothes that in have been worn-out and puts on others which are new. stable. like the (of the world). such as swords.42 THE BHAGAVAD-GiTA. the embodied Self abandons old bodies. nor wetted. Him ashes. it . [DiS. Him. Just as. wind dries not. \Mierefore. II. is the Self quite changeless ? The Lord . is has been stated that the Self indestructible. Like what : He indestructi- Here follows the answer 22. says : not. they can e. in this world. do not effect whom we are speaking. weapons cut not Him. but even wind cannot dry up the Self. fire burns and Him. He cannot be cut. Just as a man casts off worn-out clothes " and puts on others which are new. nor burnt. lies Neither does water wet Him the power of water is in disjoining the parts of a thing which made up of parts. so the embodied (Self) casts off worn-out bodies and enters others which are new. It is return to the immediate subject. water wets not. wind destroys it an object containing moisture. with^-i'*- undergoing any change. into parts. firm. and. no division of : Him . enters others which are new. cut.. i. So. the same manner. hre does to not burn Him even fire cannot reduce for. the embodied Self of weapons. by drying up . As He has no parts.

so that in some way or other the truth may be grasped by the intellect of the mortals (saw/sarins) and to understand. which. the He is stable like a pillar. can be is change its form. the Self is thought. 25. Wherefore eternal. more being repeated very difficult Since the Self is a thing k Lord VAsudeva again and again introduces the subject and describes the same thing n other words. No room Moreover. For. because is He is inaccessible to the senses. is unraanifest. Self is inaccessible to any of the senses. He is unthinkable. He. is Self is firm.22 — 25] Because the like SANKIIVA-YOGA. unthinkable and unchangeable. that alone which is perceived by the senses becomes an object of Verily. all-pervading. itiade to He He unchangeable. therefore He He He is everlasting. said regarding the Self in these verses 21-24) ^dds nothing to verse. Because swords and the is — cannot destroy the Self. it is said. thou hadst better grieve not. unthinkable. is not Wherefore. Wherefore. changeless. not produced out of any cause. be brought against the ii. 43 objects mutually destructive — namely. knowing Him He to be such. — what was taught in that one something being repeated verbatim. As the manifest. Because all-pervading. stable. also because . Xo verses charge of tautology can (ii. not new. thus the cessation of their saw/sara may be brought about. 21-24) o^ the ground that in 20 the eternality and the immutability of the Self have been taught and that what has been (ii. and something in idea. The Self mixed with buiter-milk. isquite unlike milk. Because everlasting. for grief.

the Lord pro- ceeds .• But even if thou thinkest of Him as ever being born and ever dying. Therefore. armed. Accordingly. and is birth natural to that which has had death. even then. and to that which dead. — even what if the Self were so. thou oughtst not to grieve thus. 27.lI. if If is death is natural to that which has had birth. birth cer- ^^'herefore. Because the Self changeless. To that whicli is born. To that which has had birth. as to you . is you ought not is grieve thus birth is death inevitable to is born . and again and again dead — — whene^er the body think. [DiS. is He to for. O mighty-armed. nor think that thou art their slayer and tliat they are slain by thee. death is happens without is failure. about the unavoidable thing. unavoid- Regarding such an unavoidable thing you ought not to grieve. . thus understanding the Self. He is unchangeable. therefore you ought not to grieve regarding such an unavoidable thing. for. thou hadst better not grieve. Grariting that the Self is not everlasting. and in- evitable to what dead. according to the popular view. death is is indeed is certain. has no parts . Since birth and death are unavoidable. dies. again and again born whenever a body comes into existence. tain. O mighty26. whatever has no parts is ne\er found undergo change. thou oughtst not to grieve.44 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. the thing able. Granting that the Self of whom we are speaking is. and birth sure to happen to that which dead.

said : " He has come from non -perception (the unseen) and has gone back to non-perception (the unseen). state is non-perception And having come to death into existence. One sees the Self as a wonder. then seen. 29. their middle — previous Thus it — is perceived. common to all One may ask how is it that the Self : • is difficult to realise ? The Lord says : Him as a wonder and so also another speaks of Him as a wonder. 2-13) illusions About these mere again unseen — first is unseen.. And so. ^5 are regarding beings which effects . they become unperceived again.25—29] Neither is it SAN KliVA. and their end unseen again. proper to f^rieve . material elements correlated as causes and (avyakta). as seen another speaks of on a sudden. illusion. Beings have their beginning unseen. their middle seen. Str/parva. who are mere combinations effects. mere combinations of (material) causes and 28. as something strange. Him as a wonder and another hears . none understands Him at all. nor thou for ?" his. The Self just spoken of very Why is am I to blame you alone while the cause. . and as a wonder another hears of Him and though hearing. for. and — what occasion is ? there for any lamentation? difficult to realise. as a thing all unseen.YOGA. viz. He is What is this vain lamentation (^lahrtbh. Why any lamentation regarding them ? The origin — prior to manifestation — of is beings such as of sons and friends. One sees . . not thine. Again their end non-perception: after is death.

to a Kshatriya. the Self cannot bs killed wherefore. Bhishma or anybody A Here (in ii. the embodied killed. (/. can ^c^er be rata. Thus hard to understand. O descendant of Bhato grieve Wherefore thou oughtst not about any creature. none reahses Him : at all. He that speaks and he that Him is only one among many thousands. is killed.46 of THE BHAGAVAD-gItA. II. Now 30. Not only from the standpoint of absolute truth. Though seeing Him. — from which is natural to you c. (Self) in every one's bodv. warrior should fight. the Lord concludes the subject of this section thus: He. not opposed to Law. but also. through conquest of dominion. [DiS. else. thou oughtst not to waver. becoming the caste and the order This fighting it is to which you belong). you ought not to grieve regarding any creature whatever. which that natural to a Kshatriya. Having regard to thine own duty also. has been shown that from the standis 30) it point of absolute truth there no occasion for grief and attachment. . there nothing more wholesome than a lawful battle. otherwise interpreted) like is He that sees is something hears of the Self a wonder. is a supreme duty. Him Or (as as a wonder. Though the body of any creature whatever . also to the fact that fighting to is Having regard ya's duty. is a Kshatri- you ought not swerve from that duty. is For. 31. since conducive. hearing and the Self speaking of Him.

you have given up your duty and fame. on the other hand. will Not only but also. more than death. come an open door Are not those Kshatriyas happy who this presenting itself find a battle like ? unsought.d obtained thu Paiupatd astra pocs. "i. O of son of Pritha. he worshipped Him ai. have abandoned your duty and lost the fame that you acquired by your encounter with such persons as Mahadeva. . to if be your duty. will recount . If. and which will. fight Now thou wouldst not this lawful battle. 47 . thou shalt incur sin. having abandoned thine own duty and fame. is one who has been esteemed. find itself.ige to the kingdom pilgrj- appeared ( in the guise of a mountaineer the true Arjuna went on a Kirita ^. People. to the interests Law is and popular well-being and to a Ksliatriya nothing else ful battle. to lost his * When Vudhish/hira by gambling. this. and. you is will not fight this battle is which enjoined on you as a duty. 34. more wholesome than such a law- And why says : also should the battle be fought ? The Lord 32. an open door to heaven Though found •ij. such a battle as to heaven. Happy Kshatrix'as.29 — 34l of SAN KHYA. then. thy everlasting infamy infamv and. you by neglecting this battle. There he fought with 5iva who a celestial missile.YOGA." Thus you will only incur sin. havi. not opposed to Law.:g found Himalayas to propitiate the ds and obtain from them celestial wca- characterof his adversary. too.

too. 36 talk Thy enemies. O son of Kunti. II. Duryodhana have been esteemed as possessed (in their and of others. thou wilt reach heaven . but by not through compassion.. Wherefore. Victorious : that is. victorious. having defeated Kar. scorning thy power. will many abusive words." . In either case you will have an advantage only. Duryodhana and others — warriors fighting in great cars will think that you have withdrawn from the battle through fear of — Kama and others. withdrawn from the battle through thou wilt incur their contempt. — Who are they that will think so? —The very persons. fight with Kar//a and others. Killed. arise. rise. you estimation). death is preferable to infamy. having been (hitherto) highly esteemed by them. 35 The great car-warriors will think thou hast fear . Moreover. is no pain more unbearable than that of scorn thus Now. will again grow very small Moreover. qualities. Having been thus esteemed. People. and. thou wilt enjoy the earth. What is more painful ? than that There incurred. whom you many noble qualities. too. Wherefore with the resolution " I will conquer the enemy or die. which will survive you To him who has bsen esteemed as a hero and as a righteous man and as one possessing other such noble long. resolved to fight. will recount your infamy. when you 37.a and other heroes.• 48 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA [DiS.

but they do not form the main it is subject of teaching. treating alike pleasure and pain. This. the whole shewn here. &c. as a duty Then. advic3 I 49 while you fight Now off^r : to yo. 3) will proceed the more smoothly. This. pleas'.— that wisdom by which may be brought 7 .. constitutes wisdom of the (buddhi) concerning Sankhya or the true nature Absolute Reality.] Yoga. and the hearers also will subject of the sastra as has been understand subject.34 — 39] listen to the it SANKMYA-VOGA. which has (ii. and this. it the more easily for this division of the : whole Hence says the Lord 39. that forms the the realisation Supreme Reality (ii. is concluded in ii. success and defeat. listen to wisdom concerning Yoga. is wisdom concerning Sankhya. the battle regarding 38.iye Treating alike and pain: i. which has been taught to thee. without liking the one and disliking the other. gain and loss. and thus wilt thou not incur sin.). which possessing thou shalt cast off the bond of action. the 5astra. Now.e.i. portion 12. which has been taught to you. that portion of the work which will treat of the two paths later on (iii. incur sin.) of main subject of this the discourse. prepare for the battle. Worldly considerations have been adduced dispel grief 31 — 38) to and attachment . Thus fighting. ^ (ii. by making such a division of 20 ct seq. been treated of already 39 with a view to exhibit the division of the whole subject of For. of the On the other hand. is you will not [This injunction as to fighting only incidental.

you will cast off the concerning Yoga. from the fear of sa/z^sara.-—-When possessed of wisdom son of Pntha. there is no uncertainty regarding the result of any Neither it effort in the path of Yoga. all Now He to create extols the an interest wisdom concerning Yoga. Path of Yoga. consists in practising samadhi or m performing works withpairs of opposites (such out attachment. in order in it. evil " [DiS. is Unlike agriculture.— of grief. is there any chance result harm resulting from as may sometimes the result? from done. * Th? ignorance qf the true nature of the Si^lf. That is. Yoga. which is the means of attaining wisdom concerning San- khya : this Yoga. which constitutes the worship of Isvara. Even a little of this devotion delivers one from great fear. of merit and demerit. Now. after killing as heat and cold). of birth and death. is II" about the cessation of the which the cause of sa. — \Vhat in this is — Anything however little it be. listen to the teaching (which follows presently) concerning Yoga. of dharma and a-dhavma. of virtue and sin. medical treatment. nothing that path to moksha. attachment. in this attempted here — in this of devotion by works — is entirely lost. this severance of the bond being effected only on attaining to a knowledge of the Self through Divine Grace (Isvara-prasrida). O bond of action (karma). it.«sara. a safe course.^O THE BHAGAVAD-GiTA. saves one from great fear. There is no loss of effort here. . and the like. Moreo\'er. there is no harm. 40.

discrimination produced by the right But when. and whose minds are drawn away by that flowery speech which the unwise enamoured of Vedic utterances. Many-branched and endless are the thoughts of the irresolute. owing to source of knowledge cease. having svarga as their . there is one thought of a resolute nature. Xo conviction of a resolute nature is mind of those who are attached to pleasures and power. and is subversive of it. is one. the those thoughts of the irresolute — of who are not possess- ed of the discrimination produced by the right source of knowledcre o^ — are endless. full of desire. these thoughts of ceases. other many-branched thoughts opposed to — that thought having sprung from the right source of knowledge. endless in variety sawsara also Owing to variety each of their branches. By up to these many-branched thoughts. other thoughts which are opposed to acting it Those are various. 5! Wisdom described 41. O son of Kuru. there it is only all one thought of a resolute nature. O son of Kuru. 42-44. of a resolute Na wisdom As regards those who have no conviction nature.//sara becomes endless and ever-spreading. possible for the worIdIy = minded. far The wisdom concerning Sankhya and Yoga thus is of the following nature : Here. in this path to Bliss.— 3'J — 44] SANKHVA-YOGA. Here. declaring there is formed in the nothing else. sa.

the antah-karana. ( — a speech ) O son of Pritha. ll which promises birth as the reward of actions and which abounds in specific acts for the attainment of pleasure and power. Their chief and final goal is svarga. They regard pleasure and power as necessary they are in love with them and have identified themselves with them. all in Avhich are gathered together objects of enjoyment for the pnriisha. They hear. no — no conviction of a resolute or wisdom concerning Sankhya Yoga will arise. fine like a flowery tree. They say that there is nothing else besides works which are the means of attaining svarga. free O Arjuna. Be. from from acquisition and preserva- . the individual soul nature. talk words. and other such objects of desire. Their intelligence and wisdom are pleasures and .zas. The Lord now speaks of the result accruing to those ful persons who are thus wanting in discrimination : lust- 45. free treat of the triad of the gunas. . They are unwise they are wanting in discrimination. the biiddki. and wherewith Thus talking these foolish people wander in the sawsara. Advice to the Yogin. goal [DiS. utter. cattle. very pleasant to Their speech holds out births as the reward of works. They are enamoured of the Vedic passages composed of many a praise (to gods) and unfolding various ends and means. They are full of desires and are ever in pursuit of them. attain cattle. like. ( as it were ) by this speech abounding in specific In their mind samddhi. treats and of specific acts wherewith to secure to svarga. blinded acts. free from the triad of the gu.— 52 THE BHAGAVAD-GiTA. progeny and the power. The Vedas pairs.

53 remaining in the Sattva (Goodness). the ritualistic brought about by the interaction of the guiias. from of : mutually opposed objects which are the causes pleasure and pain. be without desires. Be acquialso 1 self-possessed: be guarded. practice of virtue | is impossible . practise purity. from free the triad of the gu«as. c. c. to follow This is the advice you haxe when engaged in the performance of duty. ' 1. to from the Vedic to are not to be sought what end are they ? be performed and dedicated to the Isvara (Ausiyey) : — Listen to what follows there is : 46. stand ever in the Sattva Take your To him who is '^ anxious to acquire what has not been acquired and to | preserve what has been already acquired. all . ever SANKHYA-YOGA. the same (utility) there is in all Vedas for an enlightened Brahma7.i(/a.a. sinful. portion of the Vedas. had better be /.. The Vedas their subject. all Be from pairs ( dvandvas ). and self-possessed. {Question) : — If all those endless advantages which rituals are said to result after. on the other hand. Do not yield to thj objects of the and mixed deeds and enses. Karma=Yoga.^ new ones.«sara free I is You. k . + which is made up of virtuous. What utility in a reservoir (as compared) with an all-spreading flood of water. sa.44 —4^J tion. wherefore be not anxious about sitions or about the preservation of the old . ''' treat of the triad of the guwas . their results. the Kannaka.

" (Chh. is Wherefore! for a man who fit qualified for works it is necessary to perform works (which ) stand in the place of wells and tanks for the before he becomes path of knowledge. * you should have a which thirst results of Thus in That is to say. the end enjoined in the Vedas in the bliss comprehended leads to the attainment of the infinite which the man who has cannot be futile. . as the ed the Self finSs as the essence of his own Self. while doing works. for let thy attachmant You are qualified for works alone. the all-spreading thing him who knows what he (Raikva) knew. is.— (A). there be no the results of works under any circumstances for the whatever.— (A) i Because the Path of Karma-Yoga is kinds of limited bliss are compre- not futile. not the path of knowledge. Thy concern let is with action alone. whatever utility there the Vedic ritual. 4-1-4). all the pleasure all hended in the Infinite Bliss. which served by an all-spreading flood of water is that is. which bliss of the Self. all So also. and every one must. motive. And 47. never fruit b:^ with results.. all that only as much as the utility . a is [Dis. desire for And If then. drinking. li. that is possessed by will also be said here (iv."'' is The all sruti says : — " Whatever good . and utility is many other small reservoirs of water &c. nor Let not the of action be thy for inaction. this knowledge corresponding flood of water. admit that alj questioner has been led to suppose. that comprehended in the utility of the right knowledge possessthe world and has ed by a Briihma/ia who has renounced to completely realized the truth concerning the Absolute Reality . the former utility comprehended is in all in the latter. The same thing done by people. — of bathing. as for you. 33).Yoga.— 54 THE bhagAvad-gita. Whatever utility served by a well. the results from the performance of is works realis- Path of Karma. and the like is tank. Up.

and failure by one without longing results from the opposite course. 55 works.46 — 49] SANKHYA-YOGA. In wisdom i . : how then are they to be performed ? The reply follows 48. * What this : is that devotion (Yoga) to which in Arjuna has been ? exhorted to resort performing works in The reply is is — Evenness of mind success and failure called devotion (Yoga). thinking painful Neither avail may you " Of what are these works if their fruits should not be desired ?" If a man should not perform works urged by a desire for their results. in success and failure. O Dhana./jaya. casting off even such attachment as in "May of God be pleased. Steadfast in devotion do thy works. \'erily action is far K -svisdom (buddhi-yogal. inferior to devotion in 49. then he action. being the same Yoga. casting off attachment. will bs subject to rebirth as the result of be attached to inaction. you will have to reap those not your Therefore let motive be the fruits of your action. In comparison with action thus performed in the service of the Isvara with evenness of mind. Success ( siddhi ) consists in the attainment knowledge purity their fruits J7/ana as the result of are done mind (Sattva) attaining for when works . fruits. God's sake. When a person performs works thirsting for the results of those works.7g"aya. O Dhana. Evenness is called Steadfast in devotion fYo:^'a) psrform works merely for this.." and being equanimous ( ) success and failure.

wretched he who departs from this world without knowing the Akshara. For devotion is a power.e. Wretched are they reward whose motive is the Action done by a seeker of devotion in wisdom. or rather arises wisdom of Sankhya. II. The is sruti says O Gargi. of i. pu«ya and papa) through attaining mental purity and knowledge. For. The man that has evenness of mind casts off in this world both merit and sin (suknta and dushknta. devotion is regard to actions a power. in the O Dhana/wjaya. its [DiS. is far inferior to to action is performed with evenness mind . for. The merit of Wisdom. That is. seek refuge in the knowledge of the Supreme Reality. — devotion being the equanimity of mind on the part of him who is in success and failure engaged in the performall | ance of his the while. the former the cause of birth and death. his mind resting on the tsvara indeed a power." (BH. Up. 3-8-13). the Imperishable.56 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. fruit. wretched are are incited to action they who " resort to inferior action. Wherefore apply yourself to devotion with equanimity. attains Now. which latter when Yoga attains maturity. own It is duties. learn as to what result he own duty with evenness of mind : who performs his 50. because works which are . seek shelter in the wisdom of Yoga.. who : by thirst for its fruit. (buddhi) seek thou shelter. Wherefore. Wherefore apply thyself to devotion. He who is endued with wisdom casts In off here both good deeds and bad deeds.

They then attain knowledge. intuition (buddhi) shall cross of by which the sense is the Self and the not-Self confounded and the mind 8 . beyond the mire discrimination between (anta/i- W^hen your of delusion. knowledge of the Absolute Reality. and attain the supreme or liberation abode of Vish/m is free —the state of moksha — which the from the all turmoils.Yoga . the fruit of works. which arises when the mind I is purified for.Yoga through works ? The answer follows : or devo- 52. wisdom (buddhi) 49 — 51) may be the Sankhya-(not the Yoga-) wisdom. e.. When is thy mind shall cross beyond the mire attain to a disgust of delusion. (ii. 57 of a binding nature lose that nature when done with even- ness of mind. 50 that wisdom W'hen tion directly brings about the destruction of - good and bad deeds. then wilt thou of what yet to be heard and what has been heard. While still alive. men of wisdom. Wherefore be equanimous. men of wisdom action possessed of knowledge and ) released from the bond of birth. cast off the fruit of ( 51. (corresponding to the wide-spread expanse of water). they are released from the bond of birth.Yoga. it is said in ii. escape from good and bad births. For. they go to the place where there For.49 — 52] SANKHYA-YOGA. cast off i. is that conviction attained which (it is said) arises as soon as the mind is purified by Karma. by Karma. possessing evenness of mind. referred to in the three verses Or. . Results of Karma. is no evil.

O Kesava ! . is the description of is one of steady knowledge. ask : You may now the mire of " When shall attain the true Yoga or conviction of the Supreme Truth. II. [DiS. then you will attain Yoga. and steady in the then wilt thou attain Yoga. who except.— (A) . your intuition (buddhi=:antaA-kara. by crossing beyond delusion and obtaining wisdom by discriminaListen: tion of the Self ?" 53.e.. for Having found an occasion asks with a desire to interrogation.^tiiian. without distraction (vikshepa^viparyaya) and doubt i. When heard. point of your meditation). the teachings of the scripture regarding the . constant in con- of course. : What. turned towards the objects of the senses attains is i. (vikalpa^^sawsaya). the knowledge which arises from discrimination.— 58 kara«a) is THE BHAGAVAD-GITA.. samadhi. thy mind. perplexed by what thou shall stand firm hast Self. Arjuna know the characteristic marks of one who has attained wisdom in steady contemplation (sarnadhi- Arjuna said 54. in the Self (Samaidhi. The characteristic attributes of a perfect Sage.e.2a) When which the has been perplexed by what you have heard about multifarious ends and ing the life means in all their relations life — concern- of activity and the of retirement — shall stand the objective firm. the Self. e. when your reason a disgust of what purity —then I will you attain to yet to be heard and what has already been heard ''' : they will appear to you to be of no use. i.

the characteristic attributes of a man of steady knowledge as From knowledge are taught to him who. satisfied the Self alone by the desires of the himself. — how such a man spoken move ? of by others ? ? does the does he man sit ? of steady knowledege himself speak How How Arjuna How does he — In this verse are. all When a man completely abandons is the various desires that enter the heart and satisfied with the True Inner- . The Lord 55. constitute the (i) means as well. and who is intent on contemplation is How man who is (samadhi). then he said to be one of steady knowledge. Yogin are taught as the means since they are to be attained by The Lord now points out those characteristic attributes which. For. 59 How sit. effort. ? SANKIIYA-YOGA. everywhere in spiritual science sastra). the very characteristic attributes of the successful (of attaining that stage). knowledge (sthitaprajwa) 55 to the end of the Discourse (adhyaya). as attain- able by effort.52—55] templation speak. does one of steady knowledge ? how a how move has a firm conviction that he is the Supreme Brahman. asks in order to know what the characteristic attributes of a man of steady ii. has entered upon a course of Devotion to (j«ana-yoga-nish/ha). as well ledge as to Knowhim who has (adhyatma- reached that stage by means of Devotion to works (Karmayoga). having from the very commencement renounced well as the means of obtaining that all works. completely casts off all mind. Satisfaction in the 5elf. said in : When is a man.

(all who works). a man of steady know56. in himself. most Self (Pratyagatman) without longing for external possessions. is with the Self. fear and wrath.e. &c. [Dis. one whose knowledge arising from the discrimination of the Self — and the not-Self has been steadied.. averse to everything else because of his acquisition of the immortal nectar. intelligent. then he is said to be a wise man (vidvan). i. He whose heart is not distressed in calamifrom whom all longing for pleasures has ties. arising the Adhibhautika. I . Moreover. departed.II. all desires. is Hence he the words ' satisfied in all the Self &c. possessions and the world. who has abandoned desires connected with progeny. in Equanimity pleasure and pain. Adhyatmika^ arising from disorder one's in beings as Vaksha.] That has renounced to say. [If. that ing of nothing should be found to cause satisfacstill it tion while the cause of the embodied state his would follow that behaviour would be like of a mad man or a maniac. Unlike * Calamities are divided into the threj classes Aditidaivika.— he (2) the who delights in the Self and plays man whose knowledge is steady. ledge. his realisation of the Supreme Truth.— 6o THE bhagavad-gIta. from external same three classes. His heart arise is not distressed in calamities such as in the may from disorder body . Rakshasa and Pisacha. objects such as a tiger. Pleasures also are divided into own body. who is free from attachment. (adhyatmika). he is called a sage. arising from the action of following according to their sources: cosmic forces such as those which cause rain and storm or such great. on his abandonoperates.

(4) Complete withdrawal of senses from objects. its the tortoise his (withdraws) is limbs from /. neither exults nor hates. a Sannyasin. not able to partake of sensuous objects withdraw from sense-objects. withdraws his senses from as the tortoise of fear. one (^) who has renounced works. knowledge arising from discrimination be- comes steady. Absence of attachment. He does not exult befall in pleasure. 57. which increases as said to be a added. He. without attachment anywhere. fuel is 6l his fire. his knowledge becomes steady. When he completely withdraws the senses as from sense-objects. is He man of steady He called a sage. 58. Moreover. longing for pleasures does not increase a? more pleasures are knowledge. delight and aversion. all sides. the devotee who strives in the path of all knowobjects ledge (j/mna-nish/'ha). Moreover. e. his When he is thus free from delight and distress. knowledge steady. even the senses of a diseased man who them ceases not. but the taste for that cease ? How does {Aiisiver) : — Listen : . attained. on meeting with anj^thing good or bad. {Question) is : withdraws its limbs from all sides out — Now.. Whoso. nor he averse to pain that may him.55 — 5^] is SANKHYA-YOGA. The sage has no attachment even for the life of the is body.

ceases. vanishes the case of the devotee who. forcibly carry away the mind of a wise man. O son of Kunti. having seen the Supreme that is Reality. to say. Lord says The dangerous senses. [DiS. this : In the absence of right knowledge. Unrestrained senses work mischief. his taste. steadiness of right knowledge (prajna) should be acquired. — ' vishaya//. all extremest austerity. here stands for the the — it is withdraw from objects practising . the taste. even the subtlest desires are killed out. He who would acquire steadiness of right knowledge (prajwa) should first bring the senses under control. and.' and rasa. 'J in Even that subtle attachment. has lost is germ The meaning . The even in senses. * It is no fallacy of mutual dependance For. II.62 59. thinks all 'I am myself That'. [Rasa is used in ' the sense of taste or inclination in such expressions as * svarasena pravntta/^. his perception of sensuous objects becomes of evil.j '/a//. but not On 'seeing meaning true. ' rasika/z.' that taste. seedless (nir-bija). steadied and perfected. abstains from sensuous objects but the taste or inclination (rasa) for those objects ceases not. even while striving (to control them). too. as on the killing of desires and that knowledge desires vanish when knowledge arises. THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. Objects withdraw from an abstinent man.' senses. they will do harm. the Brahman. literally sense-objects. . desire in at the first its grossest form disappears (anyonyasraya) to arises say that knowledge dawn is of knowledge. : if not controlled. So. there can be no ''' annihilation of taste for sensuous objects wherefore. case of an ignorant person who. the Supreme. the For. 60.

Wherefore. thus seated.. while repeatedly thinking of the § i. loss . while the man is wide awake * though the mind is posessed of discriminative knowlebge. j. His knowledge steady whose senses are under control. should bring the senses under control and sit calm all intent on Me. 63- The senses are dangerous.YOGA. He and i. ^g —63] SAN KHVA. e. from desire arises wrath. the Innermost Self of sit he should thinking ' I am no other than He. Thought of sense -objects to is the source of evil. .t^.. has by practice brought the senses under his own control. (5) Devotion to the Lord. thinks of -their beauty etc. attachment From attachment arises desire . man thinks of objects. they carry it away by force.. Vasudeva. Restraining them all. They agitate the mind of the man who is incUned to sensuous objects. 61. of memory from failure of memory. intent on Me. from delusion. a man should remain is steadfast. arises when a man thinks of them when desire is frustrated by some cause 63.' The knowledge of that devotee is steady who. e. Having thus agitated the mind. Attachment specifically J for objects arises — Wrath or other. evil nature of sensuous objects. all Now evil in the Lord proceeds point out the : source of the case of the unsuccessful 62. for When a them arises. failure * From wrath arises delusion.

buddhi) he aspirations. approaches objects with senses devoid of love and hatred and brought under his own control. ruined. Despite the presence no reminiscences arise of things already impressed upon the sastras mind by the teachings of the and of the teacher (acharya).64 of conscience . tHe bMaGavad-gIta from loss of [Dis. He who longs for deliverance resorts only to unavoidable objects with senses— hearing. described as follows He attains who. man utterly by of conscience (anta/j-kara?ia. ruined. — devoid of love and hatred and brought under his own control. is By loss of conscience he utterly is ruined. memory. conscience he is utterly ruined. When Thus. the : means of deliverance (moksha) 64. his . when a wrathful man gets From inmfatuated. Now peace. From v/rath arises delusion. fatuation follows failure of of favourable conditions. From failure of memory of the right follows loss of conscience (buddhi) — the inability inner sense (anta/i-kara»a) to discriminate between and wrong (karya and a-karya). . Man is is man only so long as his anta/i- kara»a competent it to discriminate between the right is and wrong. is unable to do loss so. he is led to insult even the Guru. Verily.. a lack of discrimination be- tween right and wrong. self-controlled. The natural activity of the senses is characterised by love and hatred. etc. he is debarred from attainnig human Sense-control leads to peace and happiness. II. The contemplation the of sense-objects has been described as source of is all evil.

63—66] inner sense (atman his SANKIIYA-YOGA. pervading on i. thus extolled is : There no wisdom to the unsteady. •' there be happiness ? To' the unsteady (ayukta — asamahita). the attainment of peace there pertain to is an end of all the the devotee's miseries such as the body and For. the reason of the tranquil-minded soon be- comes steady. 65 = antaA-kara72a) being made obedient to attains own will. and no meditation to the unsteady. On mind. and to the unmeditative no peace to the peaceless. in the is form of the : The is sense of the passage is this —-The man whose heart pure and whose mind steady has achieved his object. for. Tranquillity 66. Such a man peace. there can be no meditation. (buddhi). to the man who be no cannot fix the mind in contemplation. to intense devotion to Self-knowledge.. him who is not devoted to Self-knowledge there can be no peace. with the senses devoid of is love and hatred. it remains steadfast. there can wisdom Self. the reason (buddhi) of the all pure-minded man soon becomes steady. no trany . sides like the akasa Self. : — What — Listen : will : happen when peace is attained ? In peace there is an end of all his miseries . no So. Wherefore the devout man should resort only to those sense-objects which are indispensable and not forbidden by the sastras. c. tranfiuillity. self- possession. no knowledge of the true nature of the To the unsteady. how can . (Question) {Answer) 65.

While there thirst. in several ways the proposition enun- 60 — 61.. mind which in the senses engaged is in their respective objects. [DiS. is Therefore. there be happi- To the peaceless man. away) a ship on water. there can be no trace of happiness it. mind which yields to the roving away his knowledge. his knowledge steady whose senses have been entirely restrain- ed from sense-objects. is This mere misery indeed. the mind which altogether engrossed the thought of the various objects of the senses. the : 67. e. It has been shown that evil arises from the senses pursuis ing sense-objects. the Lord : concludes by reaffirming the same proposition 68. senses carries (carries P^or. how can in ness ? Verily. that devotee's knowledge . as the wind yields to the /. so the mind carries ness from the Self and turns towards sense-objects. THE BHAGAVAD-GlTA. Having explained ciated in ii. we cannot so much as smell 5ense = restraint conduces to steady knowledge. . O mighty-armed. not last is the thirst objects.: 66 quillity. destroys the devotee's discriminative knowledge of the Self and the not-Self. — How? — As the wind carries away away the devotee's consciousit a ship from the intended course of the sailors and drives her astray. II. {Qncstiou) {Ansit'cy) : — Why is there no knowledge for the unsteady ? — Listen For. happiness consists the freedom of the in senses from thirst for sensual (tnsh«a) for enjoyment. Wherefore.

and. Just as what day night-wanderers. it is it the is effect of to nescience and nescience ceases because opposed : knowledge. causes confusion of things. who reality sleep in night of ignorance. is are aw'ake. ceases on the cessation of nescience . it is . (6) The Universe. awake. as such. imbued with the distinct notions of perceiver and things perceived. (avidya) . the Supreme Reality dark. To make is this clear. so. that is the night of the sage who To The all beings the Supreme Reality night. Where is all beings sees. it were mere dreamers nescience itself. is like is night . the self-restrained Yogin who has subdued the senses. experience of all matters. all When all beings are said to be in when beings. In the case man who possesses discriminative his knowledge and whose knowledge has become steady. for it is not accessible to those whose minds are not lity. in sleep at — that state is night in the eye of the sage wl o . With off the reference to that Supreme Reais f.. Reality is accessible only to a is man of steady know- ledge. 67 Steady whose senses have been restrained from sense-oUjects (such as sound) in forms. a mere dream of the to the Sajfe. knows the Supreme Reality for. in It. the all Lord proceeds What night to is beings. therein the self-controlled one awake.66 — 69] all SANKHYA-YOGA. for. awake. subjective and objective. are as night. 6g. and who has shaken fully sleep of Avidya (nescience). to all becomes night to beings who are ignorant and who to others correspond to the night-wanderers. Night by nature tamasic. temporal and spiritual (laukika and vaidika. the /. sensuous and supersensuous).

the knowledge of Atman means the knowledge of one's own There is indeed no need of an injunction impelling Self. and becomes the source of it — is regardaction. : [Objection) — In the absence of an injunction (pravartaka prama»a either. Wherefore works are enjoined on the ignorant. itself in Before the dawn of wisdom. enjoined by such an authority as all — but not though all this looking upon it this duality as mere illusion. Our Lord will accordingly show in (v.) that such a man's duty consists devotion to wisdom. neither organs of knowledge nor objects of knowledge present themselves . when he has realised the consists not in the performance of action. -^= vidhi) one cannot have recourse to that course (Aiisicey): — This objection does not apply. means and results. Works the wise. not on Wisdom (Vidya) arising. as were night. all When action. for the very reason is Atman one's own very Self. II. are not meant of the sage. it is regarded as of no authority. in j/nxna-nish/ha. engages is ed as authoritative. for. nescience presents various forms —as actions. but in the renunciation of all action. as though Self. one that to devote oneself to one's Atman.— 68 THE bhagavad-gIta. [DlS. ly cf seq. nescience (Avidya) disat appears as does the darkness of the night sunrise. And all organs of knowledge (prama/^as) are so called because they ultimately lead to a knowledge of the Self. in action cannot induce it A man regarding as his duty regarding that action the \'eda. When he has learnt to duty look upon it dual world as a mere illusion. his were night. \\'hen the knowledge of the true nature of the Self has been attained.

too. the Veda). (viz. in whose Self they are absorbed. but not he from remains unaltered who sides. and whose wisdom is stead*y.. all desires objects. and while so denying.. The ocean sides . e. so. is filled with waters flowing from all Its state is unaltered. Vv'ithout renouncing. self. {i. that that devotee only who is wise. into whom . In ordinary experience. by an illustration. it though waters flow into the while Avithin its it from remains all change. the \'eda itself ceases to be an authority. all desires filled enter waters sides. we do not any organ of knowledge necessitating further operation of the (on the part knower) when once the thing to be perceived- by that organ has been perceived. the is in 69 final consciousness any longer. but not he who. teaches that the Self authority. as a result of that teaching). (7) Subjug^ation of desire and personal The Lord proceeds to teach. He as all attains peace. Because . enter the ocean. 70. which.6g to — 70] SANKHYA-YOGA. all sorts That sage enter enter into all whom sides in this bounds without manner desires of from into without affecting him — as of w^aters the ocean — even in the presence objects.^ For. cherishes a desire for objects of pleasure. reality no perci- pient of objects. who has abandoned desires. and . just as the dream-perception (ceases to be an authority) in the find waking state. can attain moksha. whom they do not enslave the other that sage attains peace (moksha). but not who it is has a longing for external objects. therefore.

attains peace (u'lrvkna. Brahman. all goes through life content with the bare neces- sities of life.70 71. II. he becomes the very Brahman. That man of renunciation. all the end of the misery of sawsjira (mundane existence). extolled as follows: This is the Brahmic state. pertains to and has being in who renounces throughout while yet a student and dwells in attains the Felicity of Brahman the life Brahman. in even at the last one at- tains to the felicity of Brahman. Remaining in this state even at the last period of life. the And it needs no saying that he felicity of Brahman. has no attachment even for those bare necessities of who regards not as his even those things which are needed that for the mere bodily existence. On reaching this state. — such a man of steady knowledge. THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. Brahma-Nirva7/a. moves about without attachment. the state of its Brahman. O son of Pr/tha. to Divine Felicity. entirely abandoning desires. . In short. none is deluded. [DlS. one is no longer deluded. period of Remaining life. abandoning all desires. with- out selfishness. is Knowledge leads This devotion to knowledge 72. That man attains peace. one attains moksha. who life. Attaining to this state this. man who knows Brahman. who. all This foregoing statey-to renounce and to dwell in It Brahman — is the Divine state. without vanity. who.) . who is not • vain of his knowledge.

55 to the end of the Discourse.. 4y— (A) . From ii. This perplexity thinks. He aspect of wisdom). Arjuna's perplexity. too points to this state mind and the Lord's words * in reply to the question are Vide ii. The two Prav. (HL i.THIRD DISCOURSE. in Arjuna's mind is quite explicable. Seeing Arjuna is troubled in mind and therefore puts a question to the Lord. KARMA-YOGA. namely is adherence to the Sankhya aspect of wisdom. He "how might the Lord first describe to me — a devout seeker of Bliss —the direct means of attaining Bliss. — relating respectively to and NivTitti. to the Path of Works and the Path of Renunciation with which the Gita-5astra is concerned have been pointed out by the Lord in the Second Discourse. And 47 that he should resort to works (karma) alone as based on Yoga-buddhi (the Yoga has declared in ii.e. to Arjuna. w^hile it has not been said that the '•' Highest Good can be attained by that alone. Arjuna's question. this. 72 that their can be achieved by being devoted to that alone. speaking of — them as wisdom concerning San- khya and wisdom concerning Yoga. 2). and then com- mand me evil to do action which is fraught with many a tangible at- and which ? but an indirect and uncertain means of taining Bliss of .'itti aspects of wisdom i. He has recommended renunciation of action to those who hold to the Sankhya-buddhi (Sankhya end as aspect of wisdom) and has added in ii.

Thus. when the sastra makes such a distinction (between Sankhya and Yoga) as has been described above. he makes out that devotion to only one of the is two paths is taught. Gita-sastra in na's question differently and explains the Lord's reply as opposed (to So also. This tantamount to saying that the very works which are life enjoined by the scriptures as obligatory throughout have to be renounced. is denied.. p. How is it possible either for for the Lord to teach ? such contradictions or the disciple to accept them That commentator may perhaps explain away the contradiction thus : — It is only to the g/'ihasthas (to the order of married salvation house-holders) — but to. in he sums up the intro- the teaching of the one way ductory portion of his commentary. preceded by the renunciation of works enjoined in the sruti and in the smnti. the while he interprets question ? and answer It is in this connection in a different way. of Arju- A certain commentator* interprets the meaning the question) in meaning. by knowledge alone. . No conjunction of Knowledge and Action. e. [DiS. inculcated is 'in the Gita-5astra and moreover a emphatic attained specific statement denial of the made amounting to an doctrine that moksha can be i. i6. the case o( otiicy orders.72 explicable only THE BMAGAVAD-GITA. not to other orders — that by mere knowledge.! * The Vrittikara is here referred mere knowledge there is is said to be possible in Vitie ante t note on ill. III. But here. — How — stated in the introduction that a simul- taneous conjunction of knowledge and action for stages of religious life is men in all . without those works which are enjoined by the scriptures as obligatory throughout life. in the Third Discourse. In the Discourse salvation by no contradiction. they hold.

Discourse) that salvation by mere knowledge ? meant for some religious orders Then thus : the commentator It is may explain away is the contradiction ( with reference to the srauta-karma action enjoined in the sruti) that the assertion tion made that salva- by mere is I. the existence restrictions as enjoined in the smriti.— Introduction. if. he cannot JO I .'ihasthas.i-kanna.. for For. as a means of obtaining sah'ation. a gnhastha can obtain it by knowledge conjoined with the srauta-karma. meant for all relij^ious orders by how could he. say is here (in iii. in contradiction lliereto. and in the absence of the srauta-karma.. on a grihastha thit is to say. is this sense salvation 4 by mere knowledge denied in the case ol gn hast has. how is is it possible any intelligent man to believe that salvation by knowthe other ledge conjoined only with the smarta-karma g/'ihastha denied to a alone. This. after declaring? (in the introduction) that a simultaneous conjunction of is knowledfje and action the (lita-iHStra. Thus a conjunction of as a knowledge with action salvation holds smarta-karma may be ignored in case. involves a self-contradiction. It may be The sawnyasins have renounced only karnia which he bound to do is only of the siauta-Vcarma. while a sa. binding salvation by knowledge conjoined with the smarta-karma. which is of primary importance of the his to him. the srauta-karnia .nyasin can at- means of obtaining in the case of tain good sawnyasins. The sniarta: ^L ^^P fiirtlier explained thus . is On the other hand. it is or secondary import- attain salvation by knowledge unconjoin- ance ed with the sraut.. Thus.] • KARMA-VOGA. For. in tlie if it The smarta-karma is action enjoined is smriti ) that '•' meant It is in for a gri- hastha that ignored as were absent. This also involves an absurdity. the smarta-karma should be conjoined with knowledge in the case of the sawnyasins— the fourth ^K ^K * religious order. — then is it follows Because to him. unconjoined with the 5rautakarma — knowledge ( denied to the g.e. l)ut tliey have yet to do certain acts and be bound by certain secondary imporiance to him. too. but not to other orders ? On hand.

it could r. he should become a world. say : The commentator g/'ihastha. too much exertion in the shape of both the srauta- karma and falls to the smarta-karma. Renunciation enjoined in the scriptures. in the in the Purtvia. not with the sralita-karma.— 74 that. According to this view. [DiS. and the blind enly. . the very If sawmyasa were meant for the lame sacrificial fires or not. certain Both § in the 5ruti and According a ritualistic "On the completion of the studQ^it- school of Mimamsakas. as they have not performed the srauta-karma. the sawinyasins cannot attain forest-dweller and then retire from the engaged in austerities or not. but not in question may now Because of this multiplicity of exertion. salvation is attained only by a to by other religious orders who have not do the iiitya or obligatory srauta-karma. * is This. in all the in the Upanishads. J abdla-Upanishad . whether moksha.ot h^ve been meant as an accessory to knowedge. III. knowledge should be conjoined only with the smarta-karma. Then. and Yoga-sastra. the : it is only in the case of a grihastha that a conjunction (of know- smarta-karma is both being of equal importance salvation. whether he has quenched the In short. Or he may retire from the world when he is yet a student. to him — necessary for whereas the sawnyasins can attain moksha by knowledge conjoined with the If so. the same day he should retire from it. or retire from the house or from the forest. for the THE BIIAGAVAD-GITA gnhasthas also. whether he is who are afflicted with physical disabilities.'ihastha." He nee that view is wrong. renuncia- tion of all karma I enjoined on the seeker of moksha § as an in the accessory " to to knowledge. then. for the lame and the blind who cannot perform the complicated Vedic sacrifices according to prescribed rules. he may explain away the contradiction thus ledge) with both the srauta-karnia and. day on which he may get disgusted with the world. wrong is . for. he has completed or not the student's career. too. Itihrtsas. smarta-karma only. leaving home. . very painful in themselves. renunciation of the srauta-karma is life intended for those one should become an house-holder. the lot of the g.^.

of these austerities. I ^Psay. truth. 4-79. For. . No. some attained immortality.] karma-yoga. renunciation of all action is enjoined on the seeker of moksha. S them pectively are binding on them. the world when yet a student.Intyodiiction." " Renunciation alone excelled. give up untruth. to all orders are sanctioned by the duties also that are assigned to the res- asramas or religious orders." (Taittiriya-Up. * When it is said that all the religious sruti. A is con- is Kven that idea of personality which implied in the thought. they lead a mendicant life. a gradual passage the fourth order) is orders to enjoined." Jabala-Upanishad. following : The passages from the smnti may also be quoted — Having given up both truth and ungive up that § by which you give them up. in jump (from any one of the three If so— the commentator of '•• question may retort — it follows that a conjunction knowledge with action is necessary for all religious orders. not by wealth." " ( One may renounce 4). renunciation. as the following passages from show : " Having given up 3-5-I-) all desire for progeny.^-12). as well as a sudden to the fourth order). for wealth. (through the tliree 75 smnti. I have aban' \ I junction ot knowledge with action thus doned these. they is excellent. (we the 5ruti reply). " Wherefore. and for the world. " Not by action." — (Bri. but {Ibid. not by progeny."' proved be necessary in the case of " Give up religion. give up irreligion.78). Give up truth. by renunciation.

: — THE BHAGAVAD-GITA.myasins. effect — out is omission the obligatory — which an abhdva onkr i. duties is {Objection): — The performance of obligatory in- tended for the mere avoidance of the sin {Answer) (of their omission). III. Suka's teaching runs as follows : "By action a person is bound. " (Brihaspati). and \>y wisdom he is released. the unmarried grow quite weary of life and renounce the world. '= Neither of sin is it. when they are not when they have not formally renounced works. " &.asramai. 241-7)."' Therefore. which arc both eu- . a seeker of moksha. the order of certainly (as the opponent Avill sa. the sages (. being no of an act. It possible to imagine that a sawnyasin ting the agui-kdrya must admit) not incur sin by omitfire —worship of the sacred — as students yet sa/«- (Bralimacharins) do thereby incur nyasins. too. is For. 76 "Finding the sawsara (mundane existence) worthless and wishing to get at the essence. — No. " Renouncing actions by thought. who see the goal do no ^lokshadharma. possible to imagine the is generation of the —which of a hhdva or positive duties.e. II is iidmillc'lby all that :i nraliiiia- joiiH-fl only on the in fact is first thuiiii a'cue incurs sin by omitting a^nifire) ^'o i^iii incurred by any rtliyiou-i kdrya (throwing fuel into the sacred order of men neglecting the duties not enjoined en that cr Jcr. i. [DiS. the sin arises only in the case of one who has not formally entered the fourth order. efl'ect jMoksha. iuJ the ^£dic -ludy. indeed. no action will miimukshu. (v. action. Here all (in the Bhagavad-gitu) also we have.. 12). Moksha cannot avail a be the effect of an action.Santipar\ a..

) Arjuna's question in the would also be inexplicable.. Second Discourse.] kar. and hence also the absurdity action. It there could be no occasion for the question. of —in which case the question on the tlieit part Arjuna distinguishing (one path from the otherj taiUaiuount to saying in itself * For. a conclusion which for acceptable to none. for. 6-2). the supetwo. of a conjunction of knowledge and Conjunction is inconsistent with Arjuna's question. it w'as said by the Lord that both in knowledge and action should be simultaneously conjoined in Arjuna himself. that the generation existence out of non-existence is impossible is taught by the sruti in the words " How can existence arise out of non-existence ?" [Chhdndogya-Upanishad . absurd '• and non-performance alike This would further lead to the or revelation is creative. anuhhii^. it the \'eda should teach what is inconceivable to us. for. that the \'eda ccjnduces to tantamount is to saying no good and therefore no authority . (in iii. it is so by the sastra authority.) can by no means be supposed that knowledge. or is the blams./myasins. 77 of or mere negation . direct me to this terrible action? " (iii. which implied in Arjuna's words " then Avhy dost O Kesava. then his question If it iii. i. was taught to Arjuna that both knowledge in and action should be conjoined him. conclusion that srtstra is not indicative. i. If. If viz. cannot be ex- plained. Hence no karma sa.ma-voga. performance would only produce pain. that evil arises from the is omission of prescribed duties.iHiyoduction. was forbidden to Arjuna alone by the Lord rior of the in His previous teaching. which is of absolute an abhava which ii cannot produce iiivusttd with a iiu\str to do . knowledge which is superior to action must certainly have been meant for him. Then Thou.

III. moreover. The Lord. words "do thou there- 15).mna or karma. Arjuna's request to the Lord to teach him only one of the tw^o. is better. unaided (by action). If. might on the other hand. Even supposing that question was to asked from ignorance. Which I. of the Gita Wherefore the conclusion nishads that alone. the Lord's answer that devotion knowledge and devotion distinct to action are assigned to two classes of men cannot be explained. emphatically teaches the impossibility of devotion to j/zana in the case of Arjuna. then the question (in iii. would be unaccountable. it has been previously taught by the Lord that knowledge and action are intended for two distinct classes of men respectively.78 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. i) beto comes explicable. arise. O Janardana. this very From answer of the Lord to — that devotion to knowledge conjunction of and devotion persons action are assigned to distinct classes of — follows is this. If it O Kesava. j. If and of all the Upa- moksha can be obtained by knowledge a conjunction of the two were possible (for one man). direct me to this terrible action bad been meant that knowledge and action should ." (iv. [DiS. why then dost ? Thou. : Arjuna said If it be thought by Thee that knowledge is superior to action. in the fore perform action only. on the ground that a simultaneous de\'otion man — —on the part the of one their knowledge and action was impossible owing to mutual opposition. Neither can the reply of the Lord be attributed to His ignorance. the impossibility of a knowledge and action. Knowledge or Action.

by which me may of dull No This doubt the I^ord speaks clearly . the a conjunction of were Arjuna's consider- sion for Arjuna's complaint. they cannot at the distinct as same time be regarded effects. in that case. 79 be conjoined. a groundless separation of knowledge from action would have been made by Arjuna declaring knowledge to be superior to action. they cannot the same time be supposed as to become effects. then. With an apparently perplexing speech. ledge and action are held to form together but one means to moksha. Now. (wa}) Tell I I with certainty that one attain bliss. '•' to be account what Arjuna said — " Why then dost Thou meaning to me to this terrible action " — as direct censure the Lord. Lord who had taught knowledge and action could not have enjoined mere action on Arjuna. on finding that He — for what reason for ? producing distinct Neither could we if Arjuna could not see clearly the — had exhorted after him to follow unwholesome course of action declaring that knowledge was superior to action. . 2. still. if a conjunction karma only were intended the words of Arjuna terrible action ? of knowledge with the smartafor all by the Lord and underjustify to this stood by Arjuna as so intended. and. If the two be regarded as constituting together a single means to a single end. and so there would be no occaFor. to me imderstanding the speech of the Lord appears to be perplexmay be explained with reference ins of the two as distinct from each other to the present case thus: — When knowat might find some § justification." I — 2] KAKMA-YOGA. distinct If this producing distinct possible. then the means of salvation would be one only . j " how could we then why dost Thou direct me ^loreover. Thou it confusest as were my understanding.

In this world castes. Thereby "Thou confuses! as it were my understanding. then teach me one is knowledge or action. confusion ? Hence I say ' Thou confusest ^5 it were my understanding. had not indeed been said by the Lord that only of the two." Arjuna means — " It is not possible that Thou wouldst Thou who hast undertaken to remove my confuse me. to be at least why then should It Arjuna wish know about only one of them. — a twofold nish/ha or path of devotion . III. for —with reference to the people of the three whom alone are intended the teachings of the sastra (the Scripture).So ing. Me O sinless one : that of the Sankhyas by devotion to knowledge. THE BIIAGAVAD-GITA. and that of the Yogins by devotion to action. but — in which case alone Arjuna might ask both one only. said : In this world a twofold path was taught by at first. cannot both be followed by one and of the two. action. seeing that would not be taught The Paths The Blessed Lord of Knowledge and Action. by which If me that one of may attain bliss. knowledge or action. same person. which : conformity with the question The Blessed Lord 3. which are intended two distinct classes of aspirants. to knowledge had been intended by the Lord an accessory to devotion to action. and is in accordance with the and powers of his understanding . is in gives the following reply. after determining (within Thyself) that " this one alone state suited to Arjuna.'" He goes on: — If Thou for thinkest that knowledge and the action. knowledge or to him. [DiS. He would for teach him one not both." teach I the two.

whose dwelt on Brahman only. who approached Him two paths for of knowledge and action were respectively intended distinct two w^e classes of aspirants ? If. I created people and revived the tradition of the \''edic doctrine for teaching them the means of attaining worldly prosperity and Bliss. is had already been taught or in going to be taught by in the Lord the — and if it had been taught the Vedas as well conjoined in knowledge and action should be one and the same person as a means to one as a beloved pupil. The other was of action. on the other hand. the devotion —action itself being Yoga or devotion. at the beginning of creation. when at iirst. the nature of things in the to the highest light of the who belonged class of sawnyasins thoughts ever known as the Paramahawsas. to those who were If it inclined to action. 8l was taught by Me. who renounced first from the Brahmacharya (the holy order asrama). the devotion of knowledge — knowledge itself being yoga — — suited Jo the Sankhyas. Lord meant that Arjuna. — suited Gita to yogins. how might the Lord teach Arjuna. that the conjoined. to those of the Self who possessed a clear knowledge the world or and the not-Self. the Omniscient Lord. to both of them simultaneously suppose.— 2 — 3] KARMA-YOGA. karma-yoga. who determined Vedantic wisdom. would be tantamount to saying that the Lord is subject to love and hatred and that therefore He is no then it n . that the — that both and the same end. after hearing Him teach knowledge and action. What was that twofold path of devotion ? One of them was jwana-yoga. of his own accord. would devote himself. to karmins. but that to others He would teach that the two paths were intended for two distinct classes of aspirants.

: Not by abstaining from action does man win actionlessness. i). the connection of what has gone before with sequel tlie may man be thus stated to action are to resort to it : As devotion to it is knowledge impossible and devotion for mutually opposed. the Lord proceeds with iii. evidently the opinion of the Lord. Or. But the truth is this : Devotion to action a means to the end. Now seeing that Arjuna. authority such matters) : which is absurd. conduce to the destruction . afflicted as he was at heart on the ground that the Lord had urged him to action which caused bondage. not directly. per- formed in this or a previous birth. to freedom from action. To show this. was resolved not to perform action. to action. 'Action' refers to the acts of worship (Yaj^^a) which. leads to the goal directly. Since it has been stated that the two paths are intended such is for two distinct classes of aspirants. knowledge true. (in [DiS. must be because there tjie no denial of And it must also be true that path of knowledge is in- tended for sawmyasins only. one both of them at one and the same follow that each leads to the goal time. Wherefore by no argument can a conjunction be proved. nor by mere renunciation does he attain perfection. but . P'roni this may is quite independently of the other. III.82 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. without extraneous help. of knowledge and action Karma-Yoga leads The Arjuna superiority of (iii. the Lord says 4. only as leading to devotion to knowledge whereas the latter. which is attained by means of devotion to action. 4. referred is to by it.

devotion to knowledge. is O mighty-armed. From vity the statement that man wins it is not freedom from acti- by abstaining from i.) By abstaining from action man cannot attain to actionlessz. ness (naishkarmya). devotion in the path of knowledge. past and anta/[-kara«a) and by thus purifying mind. the condition of the actionless Self. renunciation hard to attain. 204-S. Devotion action is — a is to the means of attaining freedom from activity. by yaj. here. reaUsing the Self that sought Here (in the Bha: gavad-Gita) the following passages point to the same view " But without Yoga." (Bri. In this passage. they said in the Maliabharata cause knowledge to spring up and lead to the path of devotion to knowledge. ^.) . karma-yoga declared to be a means to j/zana-yoga " following passage The Brahma?ms 4-4-2^)- seek to know this (the Self) by the study of the \'edas. for instance. 83 cause purity of mind of sins (sattva. then. The answer follows: For.e.: 3 — 4] committed in KARMA-YOGA. action." (v. I Up.. c. freedom from activity. It is : "Knowledge springs in men on sinful karma. when the Self is seen mirror. Certainly there no attaining of an end except by proper means." the destruction of in self as in a clean (5ahtiparva. performance of action is means of attaining freedom from activity. by performing man attains freedom from attain For what reason. does he not freedom from activity by abstaining from action ? activity. — as taught in the in the sruti as is well as In the sruti. the .. understood that by the action. i. opposite course. 6.?a or worship. karma-yoga is is pointed out as a means of after.

harm to any being as he used to do when he was a gnhastha. /. 11. t '. . attained also by renouncing the prescribed favours the idea that Our experience is freedom from activity can be attained by abstaining from ance of action." (xviii.) action for the purification of the Self. Of Avhat use then the perform? action to one who : seeks for freedom from action In reply the Lord says i. does a person not attain perfection. The energies ' ( guwas ' ) are three.e. — " Having beings. ever remains for every doing no action one is driven helpless Rajas and that is to action by the energies born of Nature. i.) austerity are the purifiers Now. The ignorant are swayed by Nature. without possessing knowledge. verily. even for an instant. or devotion in the path of know- ledge — by mere renunciation.— 84 " THE bhagavad-gIta.f Every one that he means every saall living being + Having promised crifice would the sacrificial rites enjoined on a gri- no animal." " Sacrifice. vide Dis- coursp xiv. having renounced For a description of these. in all the smnti. : None. III.. by mere renunciation unaccompanied with knowledge for is ? — The reason thus asked gi\'en as follows 5. For what reason. Sattva. that he would do no hastha. Yogins perform (v. freedom from activity. then.. one the following objection may be raised: —A passage promised* immunity from fear to activity should resort to freedom from (naishkarmya). by merely abandoning action. Nobody can attain perfection.. [Dis.e. e. Tamas. i . gift and also of the wise." — shows that actionlessness can be duties. freedom from activity. 5. Having abandoned attachment.

it is not right to : I neglect the duty enjoined on him. of action are the hand. (aj/?a). the man whose anta//-kara«a thus deluded. 85 Self) is ignorant.Yoga.. The unenlightened should not give up Karma = Yoga. engages in Karma. a 7. 21. it is said (of a wise man " that is otie) " who unshaken by the energies " (xiv. thinking in his mind of the is objects of the sense?.— 4 — 7] KARMA-YOGA. he said to be one of false conduct. forms action with the hand. 3). who only qualified for action. sits So. with organs of action. the Karma-yoga. is ignorant man. with the organ of speech. and who in themselves are devoid of any change whatever.ias. restraining the organs of action. The man who knows who has not completely .and not the Self and is thereforu said to have alone (. the Lord says He who. is &c. he If the is esteemed. called man of sinful conduct. O Arjuna.) is driven to action by the gu. unattached. crossed over them. who knows he not (tlie . who are unshaken comments on ii. self-deluded. As for by the gu?jas. indeed the meant wise for the ignorant only.) Since the Sankhyas have been distinguished from the is Yogins (iii. Now. The organs a hypocrite. for. not for the wise. for him who knows not the Self. 6. •it He who knows the Self is immovable controlled the body and the senses — he by the guiias. 23. per&c. But whoso. the Karma-yoga And this was explained at length in our is out of place. restraining the senses by mind.\. devotion to action. The self-deluded is man.

restraining the organs of of the result. action For the following reason him who is qualified for it * should be done by Taittiryya-Sa. more worthy than the who is a hypocrite. 1-7-4. from attachment. are bound to do it and who accordingly psrform it. the sruti* says ' Yaj/za. that which (in bound to perform. . ' Do is thou perform (thy) bounden duty . And even the main- tenance of the body would not be possible for thee by inaction. ' So.' This world means those persons who. [DiS. —^\Vhy Except in the case of action for Sacrifice's is sake./hita. perform.: ' 86 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. the Supreme Lord. verily. 8. By inaction you cannot attain success in the journey. Wherefore. as qualified for action only. for. The distinction between action and inaction It is also thus seen in our own experience. and which is not prescribed the scriptures) as a means life's is to a specific end. is Vish7?u. g. also. The world is not bound by action done for the Lord's sake. action superior to inaction. he is knowledge by mind and unmindful other. Thy bounden one is duty is the obligatory (nitya) act. III. to wrong to suppose that actions lead bondage ? and that they should not therefore be performed. Action for the sake Thereof.. Sacrifice (Yaj«a) here means Is vara. Perform action without attachment. Action is superior to inaction in point of result. this world action-bound. do thou. free O son of Kunti.

the Them — Their bestow on you &c. He who * given by Gods.e. enjoys is — without offering to sacrifices. and by oflspring. Or. enjoys what is cattle. . Pleased with your all Gods shall enjoyments. ihe Gods. i. The Gods shall nourish you with rain. the sacrifice leads to svarga. 87 10. Fiyst : composed The of three castes.7 — 12. 12. &c. all of plenty : the cow which yields How 11.'"' Moreover.. the Prajapati said. he who it gratifies the cravings of his own body and senses! without discharghi the latter case 'The supreme Kood' here spoken of whereas ly to leads direct- iii:iy be either the knowledge of Brahman or svarga. Having first created mankind together with sacrilices. the Gods shall indeed bestow on you the enjoyments ye desire. and ultimately leads knowledge." 'The supreme good' is the attainment of the knowledge of Brahman in due course. "By this sacrifice ye nourish the Gods such as Indra." Whoso gifts. according as he lu the former case.. he verily a thief. and the Gods shall nourish you : thus nourishing one another. can this be achieved by sacrifice \\'ith this ? do ye nourish the Gods. the A'ishis and the Pitris rcspectively by sacrilicc. let this be to "By this shall ye you the cow of plenty. : . by the ^ludy of thu purity of heart in this brith or a subsequent to sacred scriptures.] KARMA-YOGA. + '• c. including women. The result depends upon the motive of the aspirant. ye shall attain the supreme good. the 'supreme good' may mean 'svarga. ^'Nourished by the sacrifice. children. propagate Mankind desires. coiu at the begin- ning of creation. he who is bent upon feeding his own body and senses w^ithout satisfying desires salvation or worldly enjoyment.

the the remains food— which sins called at amnta. it is ? action that wheel of the world going. which every dvija ought ^^"^ to perform. remnant of but sin do sakes.to The sins committed Pi"''S- Vide Uanu Ail 67— 7:. the production of food from rain is . The wheel by him who sets the of the world should be set going. For. Ill ing the debt due to the Gods.. But as to the others. while they themselves are sinners. from sacrifice sacrifice born of action know thou that action comes from Brahman and that =? The five places referred to are the five maha-yajuas or great sacrifices fire-place. what they eat is sin itself. the sacrifice. eat after performing sacrifices to the Gods. : — How —-The come rain answer follows 14-15.88 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. From . a thief indeed. a robber of the property of the Gods. '•• ambrosia — are freed from all committed the five places of animal-slaughter (such as the fire-place). as well as from those sins which result from involuntary acts of injury and other causes. the cutting.^^^ ^°''^' ^"'^ daily committed. For the following reason also should action be performed is qualified for action. On the other hand. comes forth . is [DiS. 13. food creatures is forth . The righteous. the water-pot. ^'^^''^' "'^". here are said be washed away by the . &c. are freed from the impious eat all sins who cook of for their own is Those who. and ''^'^ grinding and sweeping apparatus. These are the five places where injury to is life "'hich are intended to satisfy the Bhutas. who are selfish and cook food for their own sakes. &c. who eat the .

from the sun comes rain from rain food {Maim.: 12 — 16. iii. the Imperishable. the Veda. taught in the following text Rain proceeds from from the smnti " sacrifice as The offering thrown into the . the cause and the effect. — the Akshara. things. indulging sensual pleasures. when eaten. sacrifice. 89 Brahman comes from the Imperishable. it being. 16. and the Veda comes from the Imperishable. e. is converted into blood and semen.. and from p this (food) all creatures. are born from food. does not follow the wheel of the world * The unseen form \vhich a sacrifice is suits become manifested . 12 . the Paramatman. but who. prehending as revealing i. the connecting link between the performance and the time when its re- two. in He who ought to perform action. which. it is evident. These activities are enjoined in the Highest Self.a or sacrifice here spoken of refers to apurva. fire reaches the sun .-'' what is called and this apurva is the result of the activities of the sacrificer and his priests (ritviks) engaged in a sacrifice. Therefore. Yaj/.] KARMA-YOGA. Because the Veda has arisen from the the Highest Self. as the breath man. ever rests in it treats mainly of sacrifices and the mode of their performance. set in who of sinful indulging in senses. . he lives in vain. all comes out of a though all-comsacrifice. follows is not here the wheel thus life. the all-pervading Brahman ever rests in All living creatures. He who motion." 76). therefore. Veda (Brahman). O son of Pritha. in said to assume between the time of its short.

devotees of the Brahman.(. 9-16) Self it. it was taught is that till he attains the qualification for Devotion to the knoAvledge of the Self. or with a view to afford. the Self. Karma = Yoga Now. Self). He proceeds to show that what is intended to be is taught the Gita-sastra the same sruti : truth that embodied in the following passage of the (the " The brahma«as knowing who does this. of this section (iii. '- he lives in vain. whom intended. and. the not meant for the Self=knower. has been made from a neglect of action. the and free from illusory *. were incidentally propounded (in iii. accord.«. devotion in him only who has not yet attained the path of knowledge which the Sankhyas or by is to or Self-knowers tread and which attainable by the ignorant of action by means cribed of his ? of devotion in the path already des- In answer to this question. further. . 4-16) for is that action should be performed by the ignorant man. as wheel by studying the Vedas and per- commanded by /svara. therefore.go THE bhagavad-gIta.ionning the sacrifices therein enjoined. many and is reasons why the man who knows of evils arising is not the (therefore) qualified for action should too. to be fol- lowed by all. to Lord Himself supposes Arjuna set in ask the fol- lowing question: Is the wheel. The main it is drift. the man who knows only) of attaining not the Self and therefore qualified (for action should resort to Devotion to action as a means there Devotion to knowledge . Ill thus set revolving by Isvara. In iii. he not follow the .. thus motion. on the basis of the Veda and sacrifices. 4-8. perform Mention. a clear own in understanding of the teaching o is the sastra. [Dis.

not in objects of the senses v. is who is content the Self alone. resort to devotion to Self-knowledge. For the man thus served by action. 17. He has no object whatever to gain. he content in the Self only and has no desire for anything. or by way of losing the the world from inaction. (Prajapati) there.. and they lead a mendicant life. either by Self. the — for such a man. progeny. for him there nothing to do. 18. For him. life for the barest r necessaries of They have nothing else to do than 3-5-1). there is is here no interest whatis ever in what there in all done or what not done. there is nothing to do. arises in way this of incurring sin. in Up. &c. then. verily. in all beings from Brahma objects. who rejoices only in the who is satisfied with the Self. any evil called sin (pratya- vaya) arise from inaction ?— No Nor to is evil whatever. no purpose is — Does. not with food-essence. &c. down sthavara or immovable to gain any whose support he has by action. one is in Self-knowledge joy the Self. whereas. that — . Self. That man. off all desires of 9I knowledge. for which he_has to depend . Nor is I beings any one he should resort to for any object. for man who knows the Self. devoted the But to man — a sa. — whose ." (Bri. disregarding these.«nyasin. Moreover. by those who are subject to illusion. shake shed. 1 6 — 1 8] KARMA-YOGA. all who is contented in the Self others derive contentment from possession of external is things. cheristill of necessity.— . rejoicing in the Self. the Sankhya.'ho is satisfied only with the Self. .

to attain perfection.. perform the action which should be done for. man attains moksha. Even with a view to the protection of the masses thou shouldst per20 action only. III. Therefore. The tried wise kshatriyas of old.92 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. without abandoning \ide Chhandogya-Upanishad v. did Janaka form (action). then we should understand that. since they had been engaged in works they tried to reach moksha with * action. also For the following reason action): (shouldst thou perform and others tr}. Arjuna qualified for the Karma right yoga. i. without attachment. for the sake of the Isvara. then he would have to exert himself to gain that object. man reaches the Supreme. such as Janaka and Asvapati''' to attain by action alone moksha (sawsiddhi). If they were persons possessed of right knowledge. corresponds to the all-spreading flood of water 46). through attaining purity of mind (sattva-suddhi). e. Performing action. without attachment. upon any particular being if he were to have any object in view.4. By indeed. : [DiS. seq. . constantly . The wise should set an example to the masses. et. You have Wherefore: 19 not attained to knowledge. which {vide ii. 11. performing action without attachment.

whether is in relation to the spiritual or temporal matters. you ought to perform action. (we should under- the means of attaining moksha through action which purity of mind (sattva-suddhi).mya- they were kshatriyas. with a view to set 93 If. the same regarded as the authority by his followers. If and that it does not follow from that fact alone that action should be performed by another ledge and has done to all who possesses right knowthen. as of right knowledge. lest.1 8 — 21. they that they should attain / karma which led them to that birth and which had to be worked out in that moksha in virtue of their right knowledge. that the world follows.°h such persons as Janaka ware they birth) which caused them to be born as men sa.] KARMA-YOGA. Whatever authority the chief among men follows. that sets alone the other men do . such men who is had* not attained right knowledge. kshatriyas. It is. should secure the welfare of the world : ? And how ? The answer follows Whatsoever a great man does.f. otherwise. whatever he up as the standard. had no right to enter the fourth order of sa). action. as Janaka were persons on the other hand. they tried to attain then. and to a this birth having regard also to the purpose of preventing the masses from resorting path.. . you think that obligatory works were performed by the ancients such as Janaka ^because they were ignorant. however. stand). the masses would follow proper their example. wrong Who 21. — even your prarabdha-karma (the karma which has led you as a kshatriya). '• an example to the world. therefore to the went on in their spiritual career without renouncing works.. In obedience their prarabdha-karma(i. as subject to his duties. If you have a doubt even as regards the necessity there * Tho-.

of — or suppose (for that man tlie thinks that he has achieved his ends why do you try to not follow My ex- from going astray by setting an example yourself. the protection of the masses. I would be the author of confusion of castes. creatures. nor is there anyI thing unattained that should be attained. men would matters follow My O son of Pritha. in all unwearied. I Thus. should not perform action I should be the cause of confusion of castes. you matter) any other ir t. their The wise man's action as contrasted with that the ignorant.'itha. though working for the welfare of the would bring about lord. If I and should destroy these should not perforni action. then there would be no tlie action conducive to all continuance of the universe. and thereby destroy these creatures. there is I have nothing 23. their ruin. these worlds would fall Moreover. [DiS.94 is for THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. for. ? And what harm 24.. and into ruin. e. there in that — The Lord says if I : These worlds would be ruined . Suppose. My : I being the chief is among men. ample and prevent masses . should not ever engage in action. to achieve. path. on the other hand. yet engage I in action. O son of P. nothing unattained. creatures. For. — which would be unbecoming of Me. III. why do you not observe Me*? 22 I have nothing whatsoever to achieve in the three worlds.

though for liimself he may have nothing to do. ? In what 27. knowing the is Self. way is an ignorant man attached to actions in all Actions are wrought cases by the is energies of Nature. Pradhana) the the equipoised state of three gu«as or energies. Let no wise minds of the filling man cause ignorant who are all unsettlement in the attached to action actions. yajas § Even he should perform action in view of the welfare of others. he should those actions. I An ignorant man who is attached to action believes " its I should do this action and enjoy result." The wise man he who knows / the Self.] KARMA-YOCA. so should the wise man act. The ignorant expect the result of their action thus: "The : result of this action shall accrue to me.. from a wish to protect the masses. O iiharata.' is deluded by egoism thinks ' I am Nature (Praknti. unattached. viz." No wise man ? should unsettle that firm belief. . or any other person who. sattva (goodness). 25. . He whose mind the doer.— 21 — 27. — What then should he do make them do Himself doing deligently and well the actions which the ignorant have to do. he should make them do himself ful- them with devotion. thus seeks the welfare of the world. the following advice is oflfered 26. it be with a view to that welfare of the world at To such a : man who knows the Self. . 95 and has realised the Self. there nothing to do except large. even he should work i for the wel- fare of otliers. As ignorant men act attached to work. for For me.

It is [DiS. but move amid Self. ^. III. (activity). is variously deluded by egoism of identifying the aggregate of the body and the senses with all the Self. ) The man whose mind by aha. that all our actions. sees actions I himdoer. (anta/j- ksLVSLua. The man who knows the All — the man who knows the Self — should not of himself . thinking that the energies act upon the energies. tamas (darkness). about the divisions of the energies and (their) not attached.. manifesting themselves as the body and the and senses. by the gu/ias or the modi- fications of Nature./2kara." foolish believe " we do action for the sake of its These men who are attached to action look only to the results of their actions. i. Those deluded by the energies of Nature are the functions of the energies. O mighty- armed. is truth.96 THE BttAGAVAD-GlTA. he forms no attachment (for actions). Now. e. But he who knows the functions. he : am the But as regards the wise man 28./He attached to who knows the All should who know not the All. He who gies as is versed in the classification of the energies the eneras sense- (gu»as) and their respective functions holds that sense-organs not the objects. conducive to temporal spiritual ends. who the ascribes to himself the attributes the body and senses and thus thoroughly thinks " identifies in himself with them self: — he. Thus the energies holding. are done. by nescience." as regards every action. /^ • not unsettle the unwise The result. 29.

7

32.]

KARMA-YOGA.

97

unsettle such
tion.

men,

/.

^.,

he should not disturb their convic-

I
How
an aspirant
for

Moksha should do

actions-

How

then should action be performed by the ignorant
is

man who seeks moksha and who only ? The answer follows
:

qualified for

action

Renouncing all actions in Me, with thy thought resting on the Self, being free from hope,
30.
free

from selfishness, devoid of

fever,

do thou

fight.
\

To me, Vasudeva,

the Divine Being, the
all,

Supreme Lord,
actions, with

the Omniscient, the Self of

surrender

all

the wise thought that "I, the agent, do this for the Isvara's

sake as His liege."
31,

Fevcy

:

anguish,

grief.

Men who

constantly practise this teaching

of

Mine with

faith

and without

cavilling, they too

are liberated from actions.

Men who
cavilling,
/.

always follow this teaching of Mine without
e.,

without cherishing any feeling of envy

to-

wards Me, Vasudeva, the Supreme IMaster (Parama-Guru)

—they
32

too are

released

from actions,

i.

e.,

from dharma

and a-dharma, from the merit and demerit of actions.

But those who, carping
it

at this,

My

teaching,
all

practise

not,

— know them as deluded in
men doomed

know-

ledge, as senseless

to destruction.

Influence of man's nature on his conduct.

Then, why do they, not following
others' duties

Thy

doctrine, perform
to

and neglect

their

own ?Thus opposed
13

Thee,

:

98

TKE BHAGAVAD-GiXA.
not afraid of the sin of transgressing

[DiS. Ill'

why are they mand ?
33.
ity

Thy com-

Even

the

man

of knowledge acts in conform;

with his

own

nature

(all)

beings follow (their)
?

nature; what shall coercion avail

Nature (praknti)
manifesting

is

the

sawskara (the latent self-repro-

ductive impression of the past acts of
itself at

dharma and a-dharma) the commencement of the present birth.
to his

Even

the
;

man

of

knowledge acts according
nature.

own
follow

nature

it

needs no saying that an ignorant

man

acts ac-

cording to his
their

own
?

Thus

all

living beings

own

nature.

What
That
is

shall coercion in
to say, to

the shape of

prohibition avail

Me

or to

anybody

else,

nature

is irresistible.

Scope for man's personal exertion.

— If every —-and there nature only,
(Objection)

beiftg
is

acts

according to

its

own
its

none that has no nature of

own,

— then,
:

there

being possibly no scope for personal
the Teaching (sastra)

exertion,

(purushakara),

would be

quite purposeless.
(Ansicei')

— The Lord replies as follows
;

:

Love and hate lie towards the object of each sense let none become subject to these two
34.
for, the}'

;

are his enemies.
all

As

regards

sense-objects, such as sounds, there neces-

sarily arises

in

each sense love for an agreeable object,

and aversion
where
ching
lies

for a disagreeable object.

Now

I

shall tell

you

the scope for personal exertion and for the Tea-

(sastra).

/He who would follow the Teaching should

33—35]
at the

KARMA-YOGA.
rise

99

very commencement

above the sway of affection

and aversion. For, what we speak of as the nature (prakriti) of a person draws him to its course only through love and
aversion.

He

then neglects his

own

duties and sets about

doing those of others.
restrains these feelings
will

When, on
of the

the other hand, a person
their

by means of

enemy", then he

become mindful

Teaching only, no longer sublet

ject to his

own

nature. Wherefore,
;

none come under the on the road.

sway

of these

two

for,

they are his adversaries, obstacles

to his progress in the right path, like thieves

Now,

the

man who

is

led
;

by love and aversion may mishe

understand the Teaching

may

think that one

man

may
is

follow the duty (dharma) of another because the latter

also a duty.

But

it is

not right to think so

:

35.

Better one's

own

duty, though devoid of

merit, than the duty of another well discharged.

I

Better

is
is

death in one's

own duty

;

the

duty of

another

productive of danger.
to

For a man
merit
is

die doing his

own duty though devoid

of

better than for

him

to live doing the

duty of another

though perfectly performed..

For, the duty of another

leads to danger, such as hell (naraka).

Desire

is

the

enemy

of

man.
ii.

Though
&c.,

the source of evil has been pointed out in
iii.

62,

and

in

34, yet

with a view to

elicit

a concise and

what was but desultorily and vaguely for, the exact cause being known, expressed, he might Arjuna asks exert himself to exterminate it,
clear statement

of

:

*

Viveka-jnana or Right knowledge

is

jnana or

illusory

knowledge, the source

the

enemy;

for,

it

is

inimical to mi7/y<i-

ofaflection and aversion.

:

100

THE BHAGAVAD-GITA.
Arjuna said

[DiS. III.

But by what dragged on, O Varshneya, does a man, though reUictant, commit sin, as if constrained by force ?
36.

Dragged on and
Vdrshneya
:

constrained
in the

:

as a servant by the king.

one born
says
:

family of the Vnsh«is.
I

The Lord
is,

Listen,

shall tell

you who that enemy
all evil is
),
:

of

whom you
is

ask,

— who the source of
(

[Vasudeva

here called the Lord

Bhagavat

because

He

is

one

in

whom

the six attributes of unimpeded domi-

nion, &c., ever abide collectively

and

in perfection,

and who

possesses a complete knowledge of the origin of the universe &c.

Says the Vish;m-Pura»a

:

" 'Bhaga' means the six attributes

— perfect dominion,
salvation."

might,

glory,

splendour,

dispassion and

fvi. 5-74).
*'

He

is

called the

Lord

(I^hagavat),

who knows

the

and the end, the coming and going of beings, what is wisdom and what is ignorance." (vi. 5-78.)]
origin

The Blessed Lord
37. It
is

said

:

Desire,

it is

Wrath, born of the energy

of Rajas, all-devouring, all-sinful; that,
is

know thou,
all

the foe here.
of the

The enemy
cause,
is

whole world

is

desire,

from which

the evil comes to living beings.
desire
itself.
is is

When

obstructed by some

transformed into wrath.
It
is

Whence wrath

desire

born of the energy of Rajas.
;

— Or,
when

desire itself

the cause of the energy of Rajas
it

for,

desire arises,

rouses the Rajas and urges the person to

:

3^

— 39]
We often
'

KARMA-YOGA.
hear the cry of
riiisejr.ble

lOI

action.

pei'sons^who

are engaged in servitude, &c., under the impulse of the

Rajas,

— saying
;

I

have been led to act so by
it is

desire.'

It is

very sinful

for

man commits
man's foe here

sin.

when urged by Wherefore, know that
only

desire
this

that

a
is

desire

in

sawsara.

Desire enshrouds wisdom.

He now
38.
b}' rust,
is

illustrates

how

it

is

our foe

As

fire is

surrounded by smoke, as a mirror
is

as the fcetus

enclosed in the

womb,

so

this covered

by

it.

As a bright
with
it

fire is
is

surrounded by dark smoke co-existent
covered with desire.
referred
to

so this
is

What

the

thing
?

by

'

this
:

'

and which

is

covered with desire
39.

— The answer follows
son of Kunti,
is

Covered,

O

wisdom by

this

constant

enemy
greed}'

of the wise, in the form of desire,

which

is

and

insatiable.
before suffering the conse-

The

wise

man knows even

quence, that he has been led by desire to evil ways,
therefore he feels ever miserable.

and

Whence desire

is

a con-

i

stant

enemy
is

of the wise, not of the ignorant. For, the latter

regards desire as a friend at the time he thirsts for objects,

and
fore,

it

only

when

suffering results from

it,

— but not berendered

— that he learns the truth that he
Wherefore
It is
it it

has been
a constant

miserable by desire.
the wise alone

is

enemy
;

of

insatiable

and greedy

it

never
i.e.,

has enough,
there
is

i.e.,

finds

nothing enough for

itself,

no

limit to its

consuming power.

h

01

TH£

BHAGAVAI>-GtTA..

JDlS. III.

The

soHt of desire.
is

He now tells

us where

seated desire which, by en^'elop-

ing wisdom, forms the eiiemj' of the whole world.
seat of the enemj- being knov^Ti,
it is

The

e^y to

kill it. ai'e

40.

The
saaal

senses, mind,
;

and reason

said to
it

ht

its

veiling

wisdom through

these,

deludes the embodied.
Its satt:

the seat of

desire. Tliesc

:

the senses, mind (manas),

and reason (buddhi).

Mow
Wherefore,
^..

to

kill

out desire.

Therefore,
"first,

O

Jord of the Bharatas, restrain
off this sinful

the senses
wrhich
is

do thou cast

thing

destructrve of knowledge

and wisdom.
and other things

"[»mna

is

the knowledge

of the

Self

acquired from the 5astra (scripture) and from a teacher
(acharya).
Wi-jndiia is the personal experience of the things

so taught.

Do thou

cast off

from you the destroyer of jiiana

and vijnana which lead to the highest good.
It has
desire,

been taught,

'•

first
it

master the senses, and cast

off

thy enemy."

Now

may

be asked,
off

—Where should
The answer

one take one's stand and cast
follows
:

desire?

They say that the senses are superior superior to mind superior to the senses is mind
42.
:
:

is
is

reason

;

one

who

is

even superior to reason

He.


40

—43]
senses are
five,

KARMA-YOGA.
the sense of liearing,
is

IO3
etc.

The
and
ly

When

compared with the physical body, which

gross, external,

limited, the senses are superior as they are comparativeinternal,

more subtle and

and have a more extensive
wise.

sphere of action.
is

So say the

Superior to the senses

mind (manas, the impulsive nature) which is composed of thoughts and desires, of errors and doubts, (sa«kalpa and vikalpa). Superior to mind is reason (buddhi) characterized
by determination (nischaya). So,
visible, inclusive of reason, the
it

He who
in

is

behind

all

things

Dweller

the body, whom

has been said

— desire,
is

seated

m

the senses and

other

ijuarters,

bewilders by enveloping wisdom,

— He,

the Self,

the witness of reason,

superior to reason.
is

43.

Thus knowing Him who
self

superior to
slay thou,

reason, subduing the

by the

self,

O

mighty-armed, the enemy

in the

form of desire,

hard to conquer.

Thus understanding
and subduing the
the self by
difficult to

the Self

who
i.

is

superior to reason

self

by the

self,
'•

e.,

steadily

composing
It is

means

of the self,
desire,

do thou slay
its

desire.

conquer

on account of

compjex

a nd

incomprehensible nature.

IZL

* The
(self,

regenerated or purified mind
is

self-composure (manas-samiidhana)— (A),

manas)

the

means

of attaining

FOURTH DISCOURSE.
JNANA=YOQA.
Tradition of Jnana = Yoga.
This Yoga of Devotion to knowledge taught
in the

last

two Discourses, accompanied with renunciation and attained by means of Karma- Yoga, this Yoga in which the Vedic teaching regarding the life of activity and retirement is this Yoga (Pravntti and Niv/'itti) is comprehended, it which forms the subject of the Lord's teaching throughout

the Gita.

Thinking, therefore, that the Vedic Doctrine has

been concluded,

He

extols

it

by relating

its

pedigree.

The Blessed Lord
I.
I

said

:

taught this imperishable Yoga to Vivasvat
it

;

Vivasvat taught

to

Manu

;

Manu

taught

it

to

Ikshvaku.
This Yoga, treated of
taught to the Sun
in the

two preceding Discourses,
at the

I

(Vivasvat)

commencement

of

Evolution in order to infuse strength into the kshatriyas, the
rulers of the world. It
is

only

when possessed
protect

of the strength

of this Yoga, that they can
spiritual class.

the brahma;ias,

the

And when
it is

the spiritual and ruling classes
possible to maintain the world.
its

are well maintained,

That Yoga
results.

is

imperishable, because of

imperishable
of complete

Indeed, Moksha, the fruit of this

Yoga

devotion to right knowledge,

never perishes.
it

Vivasvat

taught
the

it

to ^lanu;

and

Manu

taught

to his son

Ikshvaku

first ruler.

I

4]

JNAKA-YOGA.

IO5
in succession, the

2.

This, handed

down thus

King-sages learnt.

This Yoga, by long lapse of

time, has been lost here,

O

harasser of foes.
in

This Yoga,

thus handed

down
The

regular

succession
at

among
has

the kshatriyas, the king-sages
saj^es

— men
O

who were
Arjuna,

once kinjjs and

— learnt.

tradition of this Yosra

now

for

a long time been broken here,

who

harassest thy foes, like the sun, by the heat of thy prowess.

Seeing that the Yoga has been

lost

by

falling into the

hands of the weak who could not control
seeing also
object of
3.

their senses,

and

that the people have not been able to attain the

life,

That same ancient Yoga has been today taught to thee by Me, seeing that thou art My devotee and friend for, this is the Supreme
;

Secret.

This knowledge, this Yoga,

is

the

Supreme

Secret.

Divine Incarnations.
In order not to leave in anybody's
that an inconsistent

mind an impression statement has been made by the Lord,
Arjuna asks as
an objection
birth,
I

and with a view
though he were
4.

to avoid that impression,
:

to raise
is

Later
;

Thy

and prior the birth of
understand that
beginning
?

Vivasvat

how am
Yoga
is later,

to

Thou

taughtest this

in the

Thy
then,
this

birth

in the

house of Vasudeva

;

Vivasvat's
;

(Aditya's) birth

is prior, in

the beginning of evolution

how,

am

I

to reconcile the statements that

Thou

taughtest

Yoga

in the

beginning

(to

Vivasvat), and that Thou, the

Io6

THE BHAGAVAD-GITA.

[DiS. IV.

self-same person, hast

now
the

taught

it

to

me

?

To remove — as was
the ignorant

aim

of Arjuna's question

— from
:

Vasudeva was not the Onmipotent and the Omniscient, the Blessed Lord says
the impression that

The Blessed Lord
5.

said

:

Many

births of
;

Mine have passed,
all

as well as

of thine,
est not,

O Arjuna O harasser
not,

these

I

know, thou know-

of foes.
is

Thou hiowest

because thy power of vision

obstruct-

ed by thy past action, good and bad (dharma and a-dharma).
I,

on the other hand, know them, because

I

am by

nature
is

eternal, pure, wise,

unbound, and

My

power

of vision

unobstructed.

How,
in

then, canst

the absence of
6.

Thou, the eternal Lord, have a dharma and a-dharma ? Listen

birth,

:

am unborn, of imperishable nature, and though I am the Lord of all beings, yet ruling over My own nature, I am born by My
Though
I

own Maya.
Though
the
I

am

unborn, though by nature
is

vision (J7;ana-5akt:i)

undecaying, though

I

my power of am by nature
to

Lord
is

of all creatures

from Brahma down
Prak/ati, the

grass,

yet

ruling over

My Nature— the

Maya

of Vish;m,

and Tamas, to which this whole universe is subject, and by which deluded the whole world knows not Vasudeva, its

which

made up

of the three energies of Sattva, Rajas

own Self,— I appear to be born and embodied, through my own Maya, but not in reality, unlike others.

Bharata. The good g. then manifest Myself. and for what purpose He so born ? — The answer O I Whenever there is a decay of religion.. purified by the fire (tapas) of wisdom. is When follows: 7. he comes to Me. O Arjuna. not of ordinary nature liberated. Whoso knows is thus My divine birth and action in truth not born again on leaving this body. : those who are in the right path. absorbed in Me. the firm establishment am born in ever\. (aprakrita).age. but it was in vogue 10. fear and anger. manifest Myself through Maya. Religion: Dharma as embodied in the institution of castes (van/a) and religious orders (asrama) which are the means of attaining worldly prosperity and salvation. . of IO7 The purpose Divine Incarnation. for I for the des- truction of evil-doers. is This path of salvation ancient times : not recent. in Free from passion. For what purpose 8. of religion. I Whenever there is a decay of religion (Dharma).. Divine. ? For the protection of the good.4 — lO. It is My He is birth is an illusion (Maya).] J NAN A.YOGA. and an ascendency of irreligion. He comes to Me : Jnana-Yoga even in is the sole means to moksha.. many have reached My being. peculiar to Isvara. taking refuge Me.

Jnana- religious austerity (tapas) in the form of j. Thus do I men of . to a few only. e. reward the unselfish. even so do reward them My path do men follow in all II . I reward men in distress by relieving them from distress. men follow My path. firmly devoted to wisdom only. knowing Brahman. Paramesvara. Wherefore. who . who do their prescribed duties . not to all ? —The answer follows : I Howsoever men approach Me. the Supreme Lord. at the Me . Divine dispensation of worldly benefits and salvation. Then. Thou cherishest the feelings of affection and aversion./ana or Self. seeing their identity with Isvara. or from delusion.. reward all. they do not One cannot indeed pursue pleasure and same time seek for moksha./ But never do I reward any from affection or aversion. reward men by granting them the things they accordance with the just in way in which they seek Me and the motive with which they seek seek for moksha. since Thou awardest moksha. e. and seek for moksha. for. This compound indicates that Devotion to knowledge is quite independent of all other austerities (tapases). Me.I08 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. IV. by granting them knowledge I reward knowledge who have renounced the world and seek for moksha. Paramatman. Thy Being (identity with Thy Self). Taking refuge in i. desire. Having attained to highest purity by means of this fire of austerity {tapas). I O son of Pritha. the path of the tsvara. things. just in the way they seek Me. I reward seekers of fruits by securing to them their selfish ends I . by granting them moksha similarly. knowledge of the Highest — — many have attained moksha. In all things.. Ahsovhed in Me'. [DiS. tapas : i.

] {Question) : — If Thou. . only to this world of men upon castes and end religious orders apply. 1 the Lord. ' thinking.. since Thou gracious to all creatures alike and able to grant every desire. this — By Lord : the expression " soon in in other man " the implies that even worlds actions produce results it is the only difference being that that injunctions based * 1. for a selfish that abides as the Self in every or for moksha. after success in They who long action sacrifice to the sruti says : Gods. . art free from affection and art other evil passions. all lOQ for all those f exists in forms/'= [Here 'men' stands who are engaf^jed in works prescribed according to their respective ends. not that all why do they desire moksha and seek Thee.." (Bn. on the other hand. 1-4-10). world of . .. They who long" after success in actions sacrifice here to the Gods . world of performing the works enjoined on them (var.. The "He who. He is separate from me and to the I am separate cattle from Him' (to — he knows not.. ' It is men that Vedic injunctions are meant. wuth selfish ends in view. then.. form.?a) according to their caste for this and order (asrama). in the path of ledge. other bemgs well. the fruit of action reaped in this world of For/quickly men by external those who. with the knowledge is all ? it is Vasudeva : {Ans7t>er) — Listen why so : 12. . Up. but . such as Indra and Agni.] JNANA-YOGA. worships a separate God. It is works or of knowthe Supreme Lord Himself Not men (A) only. should follow . whether it be . is He is Devas as men). livara. . every one . sacrifice to Gods. for. soon in this world of man accrues success from action.— 10 — 12.— (A) as f.

institution. colours) have been created by tsvara. created the energies four only Thus have been castes according to the distribution of and actions. The Me. in and Sattva &c. austerity. whom Rajas predominates and Tamas is subordinate to Rajas. The ). (xviii. Rajas (foulness." (iv. are serenity. only... though I am the author thereof. 42). are agriculture. but not that of any other 13. in (xviii.lV. (servant). are 43). The actionof a 5udra acid whom Tamas is predominates servitude.. The actions of a vaisya (merchant). The actions of a in brahmawa ( priest whom Sattva predominates. should follow Why should they necessarily Thy path in follow Thy path : things. energies are Sattva (goodness). and four castes (van. (xviii. &c.. Hence "in this world of man. Rajas is sub- ordinate to Tamas. activity). ?— The answer follows The fourfold caste has been created by Me as according to the distribution of energies and actions. . daring.no THE BHAGAVAD-GlTA. and Tamas (darkness). This fourfold caste does not exist the limitation in other worlds. is subordinate to Rajas. [DiS. etc. lit. 12). know Me non-agent and immutable.'as. The ac- tions of a kshatriya (warrior). but not worlds? — Or the question may the be put thus : has been said that men. 44). according to the distribution of energies (gu7zas) of actions. self-restraint. Caste as a divinely ordered human What in this is the foundation of the law that the respective duties of the several castes and It religious orders obtain only in other warld of men. in whom Rajas predominates prowess. castes split up into communities of several and all orders (varwas and asramas).

. of egoism For want pollute (ahawkara). Thou art not the eternal bound by Lord nor the eternally unbound. Me by necessitating incarnation nor have I a desire but right for the fruit of these actions. Action without attachment does not bind the soul. who thinks "I am no agent. : Ill (Objection) — Oh ! then Thou art the author of the act of creating the its effects ." — his actions too will not necessitate incarnation. not bound by actions. nor have I a desire He who knows Me thus these actions do not . Me to ba the author.1 2 — 15. too. it is that actions should pollute those men of the world for the (viz. On the other hand. (sa. As I have none of these. I have no longing for the fruits of actions.' 15. know thou am in reality no agent and therefore not subject to sawsara. Thus knowing. four castes. men of hope of liberation . who knows Me I to Self. is Me not. Since I am not in reality the author of those actions of which you think 14. be his for desire and at- tachment).] JNANA-YOCA. Knowing that ' I am no agent. when that I viewed from the standpoint of Maya.«sara) who the are attached to their actions. old performed actherefore do thou tion in the . and as such Thou art wherefore. thinking themselves to be authors thereof. actions cannot pollute ]Me. Actions pollute for the fruit of actions. have no longing the fruits of actions. Any other person. (Answey): — Though I am the author of this act still. and longing fruits of such actions.

If self.112 also THE BHAGAVAD-gItA. The If action I real nature of action and inaction. perform action as did the ancients in the olden time. even the wise are deluded. thou art If ignorant. For in a great difficulty (understanding) action. What action What is inaction I ? — As to this. action do not sit quiet. and inaction means absence " about them ? Wherefore ? to sit quiet. by knowing which thou shalt be liberated from evil. of the body. shall teach thee such action. was performed by : the ancients such as Janaka in the olden time it is not a recent institution. (in this should be performed here it world of man) shall perform on the authority of it Thy word. do thou also perform . IV. knowing which thou shalt be released from the evil of samsara. nor renounce action. It is familiar to all Neither shouldst thou think thus: " that action means movement of it. [DiS. deluded as to what I is action and Wherefore will explain to you the nature of action and of inaction. Why shouldst thou add that the olden time? there is — (In is was performed by the ancients in reply the Lord says:) Listen. do thou perform action for It the protection of the masses. What is there to be learnt The answer follows : . As the ancients performed action. do thou perform action to purify the art wise thou and knowest the truth. Even what is the wise are inaction.—-How ? ? i6.

\. he in is action. What. about the action which un- and about inaction.] JNANA-YOGA. something to know somcthin<:^ even of know of unlawful action. ) is done. Inaction in inaction. he is the performer of Action ' means what in action. and . is the true nature to of about which much has ? be learnt. In nature of action fact. ^^i. Thus is he extolled who sees action in wise — inaction * It and vice versa.15 — 18.) Self. and agent possible only we have is not yet attained to the Real (vastu). an act in general. ' devout. thou hast to action. presupjKJses no agency of the Self. yogin).itti and action (prav/'itti) presuppose an agent. he action. can also see action wise who among all men. something to know of inaction stand is hard to under- the nature of action. is For there lawful. can be seen inaction ( and action since both niv. : and inaction. much to be learnt about the action which is is enjoined by the scripture. For is has been said that action should be it seen in inaction and vice versa because in both an agent is action or inaction. is all our experience of such things as action only in a state of avidya. and he has done all action. and that therefore 15 . and of unlawful action. then. — Listen in He who is can see inaction inaction. it is hard to understand the true (enjoined). For. Pravritti or Xivritti presupposed. — he among men. when He who sees inaction in action and who sees action in inaction. This cannot nivritti resorted to only be/ore obtaining a know- be objected to on the ground that or inaction is ledge of the Real attaining it.^(." In fact. and which you have action promised to teach 18. as a means of resorted to only when the One real Self is known. \ 17. of inaction. he is devout (yukta.

17). it never appears to be anything else ." &c. the Lord says. cannot be said to be jujube (badara) fruits in a vessel. or as the mother-of-pearl mistaken (Objection) : — Action ? is ever action to all . for. Hence no incongruity. for is mistaken for the other. : [DiS. what in reality inaction appears as action. teaches " action or contained in He as who can see inaction in action " &c. is —This objection does not apply to our interpreignorant To an man of the world. nor can inaction be ? How can one ever reaHze such an incongruity : {Answer) tation. we should understand that action and inaction are misunderstood by all living beings and that the Lord. and what in reality is action With a view to teach what their real ndture is. located in Moreover. " He who can see inaction in action. >r/ (Objection) — What in means this incongruity. much to be leavnt about ' action and inaction. inaction is but the absence of Wherefore (the meaning of the Lord must be that) action and inaction are not rightly understood by people and that the one mistaken for silver. inaction it. Wherefore. action can never be inaction. 16) and certainly freedom false from evil cannot be achieved by means of knowledge. wishing to remove this false view of them. IV. It has also been said that ' by knowing which thou . shalt be liberated from evil (iv. is who realizes this view of action and in- and has introduced the subject by saying that there (iv. nor can action be said to be located action. It must be a bare truth that the Lord means to teach here. has said that he action is zvise. inasmuch as He appears as inaction. as the is mirage is water. in inaction . " in who can ? see inaction action and action inaction" Surely action.114 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA.

on the shore appear.-24 '^"'^ ^^ ^^'^^^ ''•'^° ^2 taught hereafter. difficult the Wherefore. howaction ever. so clearly taught by smnti. to remove this " false impression. action is awny from our eye appear tlie be in- Similarly. as from that cessation (of I he imagines I be quiet. Though such an objection has been more than once answered. ii. " even the wise are deluded as to what is what is inaction" etc. I am quiet and happy. and action inaction. (v. without worry and without action. with the actionless action and though it is contrary to His real nature. which ' results shall body and the senses. Action pertains to falsely the physical body action is (deha) but to the Self and imagines man " I am attributes the agent. the motionthe ship. and often and often raise objections based on false premises. activity he falsely imputes to the Self the cessation of really pertains to the which also the happiness activity) . to a in man on board .. When in motion. a ship is II5 {Answey) less trees — Not so. Wherefore. The sruti. a deep-rooted habit of the mind to connect Self. forget the truth though often and often taught. (in for case of the Self) for mistaken action. i6). here. 20. people who have long been subject to great misconceptions are deluded often and often. mine action.YOGA.: l8J J NAN A. the Lord often answers such objections. so that I may be false happy. has been ! taught here also in It is. the Lord says He who can see inaction in action " &c. to move the opposite direction distant and moving to bodies which are far motionless. and do nothing this now. and reason. seeing how Real is for us to know." To remove . truth that the Self is actionless. wherefore." Similarly. by me shall the fruit of action be reaped.

Lord says " [Dis. is action in is inaction. which is commonwhile yet retaining — ly supposed by all to pertain to the Self.. do not produce any and may therefore be evil e. he who has the right knowledge that action."action as — he who now is . he the performer of all all.. — for. they regards the oblisince they do not said to have interpreted the verse thus: gatory duties (nityakarma) as — He who inaction. inaction but a cessation falsely and mental activities. i. termed equivalent Accordingly.e. be to action.. only figuratively. they are equivalent to inaction. He from evil he has achieved This verse has been interpreted in a different way by some commentators.ii6 impression. and like action attributed to the Self and causes the " quiet and feeling of egoism as I sit expressed in the words doing nothing. he is is devout released (Yogin). He who to the can see inaction in Now. can realize the nature of action and is in- explained wise among men actions.e. does not really belong to the to the Self. just as motion does not really pertain of the river) trees (on the shore which appear he (to a . performed for the sake of Isvara. and neglect of those duties produces action. man on board the and he who sees that even inaction of bodily ship) to move in the opposite direction i. is falsely imputed by all to the Self who is actionless and immutable. own nature as action. and may it is therefore." &c. happy. .e. THE bhagavad-gIta. whence even a learned man thinks " I act. produce any effect — ^just as a cow may be be no . action which belongs its body and the senses. effect — How? — The obligatory duties (nityafiguratively karma). i. i. termed inaction. who knows it is action." Hence the passage means: He who sees inaction in action.. the action. IV.

i6) as we are to fix our idea of thou shalt be Uberated from the Lord refers to of. evil such as hell (naraka). can never be granted that it will accrue from the mere knowledge that they do not produce any effect. (they hold). This interpretation cannnot hold good.! by a false knowledge which regards + Just * For. F non-performance of obligatory duties leads can non-performance (which obligatory is Neither non-existent in itself) of duties be enjoined as an object on l^or which to fix our thought. is an abhava or knowledge duce no that obligatory nonentity. this precept enjoins. It cannot be urged that it has been taught here by the Lord. not serve the liy COW when she does purpose of yielding milk. As such knowledge cannot lead to libaration from that evil. 1 6) would prove false. the Lord's statement evil " knowing whicli thou shalt be liberated from (iv. Moreover. he among men. Even though it be granted (for mere argument's sake) that liberation from evil it " by accrues from the performance of obligatory duties (nitya- karma).l8] JNANA-YOGA.* also The same argument holds good to against their view as seeing action in inaction. " (v. Indeed. but only that obligatory duties should be performed. in words "by knowing which evil. not that neglect of obligatory duties (nitya-karma) should be regarded as action. no good can result from the knowledge that to evil. Certainly it is nowhere revealed (in sruti) that liberation from evil accrues from the knowledge that obligatory duties do not produce effects or from a knowledge of those obligatory duties themselves. k I . effects. —and he is who regards the neglect of obligatory duties as it an action. knowledge of the things duties pro- Vishnu on a symbol such as an idol. The symbol alleged to be presented here to fix there. spoken but not to the particular our thought upon. since wise produces &c.

It is not necessary to mystify the doctrine (of obligatory duties) by means of symbolic it language. . but a figur- ative idea based upon the fact of productiveness or unpro- ductiveness of effects. moreover. and needs no It only what high and worthy of our worthless. might be the purpose served by such an ambiguous circumlocution as "he who can see inaction in action. knowing. others by these utterances. then. or said all wise and devout and to have performed actions: and such a knowledge deserves no is itself the evil . " &c. such as action (karma). For. The has been said here. immediate subject of discourse and speaking of something else. if expressed often and often and in more ways is For. possible to express more directly the effects fact that obligatory duties do not produce and that What. object arise '- effort that is is worth kndwing. the same doctrine reiteration. False knowledge evil ? how can it release us from another Darkness does not expel darkness. IV' inaction as action can a to be man be released from evil. [DiS. Of the unreal no object of illusory knowledge. [Objection) : — The is knowledge that inaction is is action or that action inaction not an illusion. nowhere is it taught that even such a figurative idea regarding action and inaction is of any Neither is any purpose served by thus ignoring the good. " No can from non -performance It no existence can arise from non-existence. more is clearly expressed is 47. ? Such an explanation is tantamount to saying that the Lord wanted to confound their omission leads to hell. praise. (Ansji^ey) : — No. but not the v/orth No knowledge is acquiring .Il8 THE DHAGAVAD-GiTA. nor e^'il is its —which * unreal — worth . nor is it possible to maintain that can be easily understood than one. It is. in ii.

To is say that an existent object arises from the non-existent tantamount ence and all to saying that non-existence itself becomes existit is vice versa." ( ii. for. Kc whose engagements are all devoid of desires and purposes. who performs mere deeds without any immediate purpose. tion (sfistra) is would simply amount that Revela- of no good. admitted that omission of such duties to this. More- over. leads to hell.l8 — 19] is. such an act painful in performance. he performs — . 6-2-2J. and whose actions have been burnt by the fire of wisdom. The man who has realized the truth described above. this verse admits only of a literal interpretation. him the wise call a sage. . he does so with a view to set an example to if he the masses has renounced worldly life. II9 " being there and in the sruti How can the existent arise from the non-existent?" (Chha. if he be engaged in worldly action. \\'herefore. ? Who The realization : is a sage in of inaction action and vice versa is extolled as follows 19. is The cannot enjoin an act is wliich its productive of no good. 16). and we have interpreted it accordingly. and no pain would ever be deliberately Since it it is incurred. Up. he efTects tion. whose works are all free from desires and from purposes (sankalpa) which cause those desires. which cannot be maintained as scripture (silstra) against evidence. JNANA-YOGA. since performance as well as omis- sion of duties therein enjoined alike result in pain. who admits at the that obligatory duties produce no liolds that and same time they lead to salva- lands himself in a self-contradiction.

since all his actions are inaction. . having started with action and having since obtained the right its knowledge of the Self. IV. The Sage's worldly action as an example to the masses. finding that for some reason he cannot abandon before. for the fruits of action. as he finds action of no use. . dependent on none. is required for the bare existence of his body. are consumed in the realization in the fire of wisdom which of inaction in action call vice versa him the wise who know Brahman a real sage {pandita. but who. only doing — what truth. He who who can see action in inaction and vice versa. in action — even though he had been engaged ^ before realizing the On the other hand. really abandons action with action. and its man and therefore having no selfish end in view such a His action is equivalent to really does nothing. no objects of senses . consumed the Lord says : in the fire of Having abandoned attachment in actions.. is. To teach this. there may be a person who. 20. (i.120 THE BHAGAVAD-GiTA. longing for who seeks nothing whereby to achieve . free from action he renounces (the world) and engages in no action. with a may conti- nue doing action as view an example to the world at large. who is always content. has realized the true nature of action and inaction).). [DiS. knowledge. devoid of attachment to action result. by virtue of that very realization. ever content. e. though engaged nothing at all all does he do. to set all accessories. deeds only for bodily maintenance. for He who attachment has abandoned concern action and all for its results in virtue of the knowledge of the truth explained above. — whose and actions good consists : and bad.

Even dharma a sin. — he incurs no sin which is produce evil effects. even before engaging Absolute) Self ( with Brahman (the abiding within all ) . the Lord says Free from desire. ions. JNANA-YOGA. is free from desire for objects of pleasure. except . possesssin. The Sage's action for bodily maintenance. he incurs no He and from whom all desires have departed. doing mere bodily action. unlike the one just spoken in action. to secure for enjoyments selfish . renounces all is intended to secure such objects action with accessories. this. To teach 21. in this birth next) who. — such a man. — in the i6 . though all. realized his identity has. without attachment even will for that action. the external aggregate of causes have been controlled. He who. with the mind and the having relinquished all self controlled. finding impracticable to get away from action. want of any its end in view. engages in action as before with a view to set an example to the world or to avoid the displeasure of the orthodox. steady in his devotion to knowledge. necessary for who does mere bodily action (action the bare existence of the body). 1 engaged in actions. really does nothing at since he is ^ endued with knowledge of the actionless Self. as the innermost actionless the Pratyagatman who . therefore. what is necessary for the bare bodily maintenance is such a devotee.] his . 121 any end of or the c. of. seen or unseen and who. find- ing no use in action which of pleasure.: 19 — 21. by whom the mind and the body effects) (the self. might give up action with it accessories but who. by whom all property has been disowned. {i. liberated.

he is liberated from sawsara. respectively called dharma and a-dharma. that he who does a lawful act in speech or thought incurs sin to contradict the scripture . [DiS. ' interpreted to mean action ref^uired for the bare existence y^^ . IV. i. "bodily action" be on the other hand. To and say.122 case of THE BHAGAVAD-GlTA. the ' even the opponent would never advance. then. the words would imply that e\en he who. of the And no say that he who does by means of body a lawful action productive sin is to some visible or invisible results incurs deny something which Moreover. what does the phrase mere bodily action (sarirakarma) mean ? Does it mean action which can be performed by means of the body only ? Or does it mean action required for the bare existence of the body ? One may if' ask : What ' is ' the good of this enquiry ? What ' ' bodily action ' means action done by means of the body ? or action necessary for the bare existence of the body reply as follows : We : Firstly If [ mere bodily action ' means '. does an un- some to visible or invisible results.— inasmuch as it causes bondage. qualifications ' doing bodily action ' and in mere ' Avould imply that sin accrues to him who speech or thought performs actions enjoined or prohibited by the sastra. would be to say that he who is does an unlawful act in speech or thought incurs sin a useless reiteration of Secondly: If. ' action which can be performed by means of the body only lawful action productive of incurs no sin. Then this teaching would contradict the teaching of the sastra. him who seeks hberation. ' ' Now. c. He is liberated from both (dharma and a-dharma). by means of the body. what is known.

Since cannot even be imagined that such a called sin.] JNANA-YOGA. he is man not can do any subject to re- wrong which may be birth . productive of results here or hereafter who. equanimous he is and failure. free rising above the pairs of opposites. 18). the articles of food action' thus understood Since an ascetic who has disowned it all property does not for own even and other things required the maintenance of the body. 123 this of the body. since all his actions have been consumed is in the fire of knowledge. 22. performs in the eye of the world just those acts which are required for the bare existence of is the body without even such attachment for those acts as implied in the words " it I do. would follow that the body of obtaining should be maintained by begging or such other means Now the Lord points out such means for the food and other things required maintenance of the body : as are sanctioned b}' the texts like the following " for. in success from en\y. speech or thought." [Baudhdyana-Dharmasntra.. 2-8-12). which have bsen described already ' (in iv. though acting not bound. in action. not previously arranged what has been brought to him without his effort. in deed. he is liberated without any let or hindrance. speecli amounts to and thought does no other : He who . Thus.' then the teaching deed. What is not begged for. is He who satisfied with whatever he may obtain by . Satisfied with what comes to him by chance. lawful or unlawful.— 21 — 22. gives The phrase mere bodily no room to objection.." he does not incur sin. there here only a reiteration of the results of the right knowledge.

said This is only a reiteration of what has been already (iv. though . Self. he obtains or not such things as effort. Thus. — such a devotee. but who. ever steady in his knowledge of the true nature of the Self. [DiS. 21). who is not affected in mind by the attack of such pairs of opposites (dvandva) as heat and cold. action and results." — in all acts of the body. and so is he the agent in the act of begging and the like. It has been shown in iv.— 124 "^"E BHAGAVAD-GITA. 19. agency of the he really does no act at not even the act of begging. which are the source of bondage. as based on the teaching of the scriptures which are the source of right knowledge. 20 that that man does no action who. have been burnt in the fire of wisdom. The Sage's worldly action does not bind him. has since realized the actionless Self as one with Brahman and has seen the non-existence of agent. who cherishes no feelings of envy and jea- who is calm whether might come to him without lousy. From his own is point of view. without his effort or request. since action and its cause. though he performs the act of for the like required he no agent at all. feeling no pleasure or pain whether he obtains or not food and other things required for the maintenance of the body. seeing action in inaction and vice versa. begging and the bare existenfce of the is body.. however. he is not bound. — thus realizing the nonall. while begging or doing anything else for the bare existence of the body. etc. ty of far But as he appears to act like the generalimankind. and though with reference to these acts agency imputed to him by others. agency is imputed to him by people. always disowning agency " I do nothing at all. chance. IV. energies act upon energies. having started in life with action.

just as silver has no existence apart from that of the mother-of-pearl (mistaken for silver). What (in the illustrationj appears as silver is nothing but the mother-ofpearl. has fled away. " who acts with a its view to the parformance of a result is dissolved sacrifice — his action with away. from whom cause of bondage. . who liberated. 24. I25 competent renounce action. has continued as Of him who. b . on account of something in action preventing him from doing before. dharma and a-dharma. Brahman is the offering. Vish«u). so. entireits without producing natural result ? — Listen why. That man from all whom all attachment is gone. does no action. as thus shown. ly dissolved.: 22 — 24] to JNANA-YOGA. is whose mind ever fixed in wisdom alone.— (A). Brahman the oblation by Brahman is the oblation poured into the Brahman verily shall be reached fire of Brahman by him who always sees Brahman in action. The man who has but realized Brahman is sees that the instruin the fire is ment by which the oblation poured nothing Brahman . is all action which he does. . whose mind established in ledge. * What people look upon as the instrument of to please Lord. — knowhis whole action melts awav. that it has no existence apart from that of the Self. then. is Of the man whose attachment is is gone. the Lord Says 23. ofTler-^ With a view Narayawa (Yajiia= Sacrifice. yet. who acts for the sake of sacrifice. For what reason. Wisdom = sacrifice. is reduced to nothing.

126 ing to THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. and with egoism on the part of the agent and his attachment for the results. wherein the oblation it is is offered is nothing but is Brahman and . Thus. the instrument of offering and other ac- cessories connected with the actual sacrifice are nothing but Brahman.. IV. e. the action performed by him who wishes to set an example to the world is in reality no action. Every sacrificial rite. Brahman one is has realised Brahman. when every- Brahman. no act of sacri- ever possible in the absence of such an idea. This representation as a sacrifice (Yaj?za) of the right knowledge possessed by him who has is given up its rites and has realised re- nounced that all action quite in place. nothing but is as oblation to what is regarded him nothing but Brahman. to one is who realises that all all no action. as serving to extol right knowledge. [DiS. No sacrificial rite is ever found unassocialed with the idea of the accessories of action . who is one with no purpose to speak thing is his own as Self. there is Wherefore. is. the agent is is none other than Brahman. The act of offering: nothing but Brahman and the result.e.. So the fire the oblation : i. and indeed. as in it has been destroyed by the realisation of Brahman all action. the goal to be reached by him who always sees Brahman in action. who Brahman. is nothing but Brahman. . iz associated with an idea (derived from the revealed texts) of the accessories of action such as a particular God or Gods to whom the oblation should be offered. it would be to specifically of the instrument rite and other accessories of a sacrificial Brahman. such as Agnihotra. i. is Moreover. idea of the accessories of action fice is absent. Else. Brahman. by Brahman that the offering made. For him who has the Supreme Reality.

7-1-5). it ceases to be action. if upon name. all But this (wisdom-sacrifice) is an action wherein idea of the instrument ories of action. results. c.m fixed is ' fixed Brahman should be fixed accessories in the same way that the idea upon an idol or the idea of Brahman is {VideChh. 8^ also to remove access- ^ all idea of duality.] JNANA-YOGA. the act itself results — his action. " (iv. Whence said " the whole action melts away In interpreting this passage. Accordingly. that And the is Brahman manifests its Himself five forms. v. our Lord here and there tries no action at all. it is shewn in iv 18. Whence . some say : — Wliat we in call in Brahman fact it is the instrument of action and so on. It is i. 23). the other hand. its result and its ories. 28. — and does On the action. Upanishad. taught that the idea of its upon action and of Vish.— 24. all idea of and other various accessaction itself and of its results. admitted in the case of the Kamya-Agnihotra the sacrifice of Agnihotra performed for pose — that it absence of that actions some selfish purceases to be a Kamya-Agnihotra in the purpose.' Indeed. 127 and for unaccompained with egoism and a longing the results. has been replaced by the one idea of Brahman. here too. 20 Thus teaching. — such it is as action and accessories.. of action. So also we are given to know that different produce results according as they are performed deliberately or otherwise. the idea of the instrument and other accessories of action does not cease to exist. though appearing as such externally. even this view would be f>ossible this particu- . In this case. in the case of the wise man in whom the idea of as. This is iii. the Brahman and has replaced all idea of duality — such is instrument and other accessories of the act of its offering.

126).. [DiS. act just as the idea of Vish. and without reference to the present here taught that the idea of sacrificial it is Brahman should is be fixed on a idol. terms " Superior is the wisdom-sacrifice to the sacrifice with objects. cannot be the aim of the for. : knowledge. and the concluding portion of the Discourse shewn by the closing verses. On the Lord will here speak of the several acts of worship termed yajuas the right (sacrifices) in these and then praise wisdom. IV./u fixed on an . Right knowledge treats of the the subject of which this Discourse treats {vide. all topic. on a sudden. indeed opposed to truth to maintain that moksha can be obtained without knowledge. according to their interpretation. Moreover. which has been hitherto spoken teaching here ." (iv. with those fixed maintain that the idea of sacrificial rite is Brahman should be upon the and all its accessories. 33. 39). It the goal to be reached. But. connected with a sacrificial rite. iv. just as the idea of Vish. etc. fixed of. this verse would be mainly concerned. Such interpretation is is also opposed to the context. moksha cannot be obtained by that knowledge which consists in fixing the Brahman on a symbol (such has been here said that Brahman is idea of It is as a sacrificial rite). 18).m on 'name' — upon an idol or the idea of Brahman the Brahma-vidya (knowledge of Brahman).128 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. And who it has been shewn that the verse is intended to re- present wisdom as a sacrifice (z^^W^ p. lar section of the discourse were not here concerned with ( the praise of the Wisdom-sacrifice other hand. as ledge (iv. 33). with the instrument. Accordingly it is not right to maintain that. our juana-yajna). The Discourse indeed concludes by extolling right know- same subject.

Consciousness and Bliss. in the fire of Brahman others offer the Self by the Self. " Brahman who is is immediately cognised by Self of all " (B." (Bn. all." Up. — as described in the following texts is " Brahman (Tait. the Real. into This oblation of the Self fire. but (such as atman is — who is in reality one who all conditioned their by the upadhis superimposed buddhi) with attributes upon Him. Some rites yogins. — for ' yajua. the Self. the Lord proceeds to enumerate other kinds of : sacrifice with a view to extol the right knowledge 25. sacrifice the Self by the Self in the fire of Brahman. the Absolute. devotees to action. the Infinite. Up. exis- Brahman devoid of all characteristics of mundane tence (sawsara) such as hunger and thirst. perform only sacrificial to in devotion the Gods. and who the Innermost is Up.'i. 2-1). poured by the Self Brahman.: 24-25] JNANA-YOGA. should be interpreted as has been Sacrifices effected by action. is " Brahman who 3-9-28). 3-2-1). this verse I29 Wherefore done by us.' ' is ' enumerated among the is terms synonymous with with Brahman. as taught by the Scripture 17 . Consciousness. inconceivable in in any particular form or aspect. while others who know Brahman. Other yogins resort to sacrifices to Gods . After representing the right knowledge as a sacrifice. is oblation — here termed the place into which that poured. The oblation (ahuti) in this latter sacrifice is yajua.

" (Bn. And others sacrifice all the functions of the vitality in the senses and the functions of the fire wisdom-kindled • of the Yoga of Self-restraint. hearing and other senses in the others offer sound and of restraint other objects in the fires of the senses. etc. are expansion. 33). Some restraint yogins offer hearing and other senses in the fires of (samyama) . they regard as a sacrifice to direct their senses only to the unforbidden objects of senses. the vital the individual's body. is not thus. knowledge This is the sacrifice which performed by those who. with a view 26. it [DiS. hav- ing renounced action. while others sacrifice the objects of senses in the fires of the several senses.130 the terms. ' fires ' is used because the restraint differs with each sense — they are ever engrossed in restraining their senses. "It is THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. This Wisdom-Sacrifice ( described 24 ) is here enumerated along with the Gods-Sacrifice (Daiva-yajila) and others. Up. Others are sacrificers by their wealth. lamp air in kindled by The functions of pra«a. it i. Wisdom-kindled is : kindled by discriminative wisdom. 27. of the The I functions senses and of the vital air are com- pletely dissolved while the yogin concentrates the mind on the Self. 28. . as a oil. contraction. in iv. — the plural . IV. fires to extol it (iv. identical To know conditioned the conditioned Self as with the un- Brahman all is to sacrifice the Self in is Brahman. Others offer . are ever steady in their of the identity of the Self with Brahman. c. 4-4-22). not thus.

sacri- by reading and knowledge. the kind of pra«ayama called practise . absorb- ed in pra. . merged in the former. whose sins are destroyed : by sacrifice. and apana. Puraka (filling in) some the kind of Pra«ayama called Rechaka (emptying) some are engaged in the practice of Pra«ayama called Kumbhaka by impeding the outward passage of the air through nostrils and the mouth.?ayama (restraint of breath). comprising such practices as Pra«ayama (restraint of \ital airs) and Pratyahara (withdrawal of the mind from external objects) some by way of repeating Vedic texts such as the /?ig-Veda according to prescribed rules some by way of studying the contents of the Scriptures (sastra). trolled. sacrilicers by Yogas. 31. sacrifice . and by impeding the inward passage of the direction. by way of giving away . 30. as were. 29. with regulated food. ascetics of some rigid \o\vs. their some by austerity some by Yoga./a pra. knowers of sacrifice. Of others. All these are offer life-breaths in life-breaths. into they sacrifice it other life-breaths these latter become.A. the remnant of the . Eating of ambrosia. Some practise . and apana restraining the passages of pra.a. Others. I3I by austerity. air in the opposite Moreover.25 — 3l] sacriticers ficers JNANA-YOr. life-breath has Regulated limited. it Whatever all been con. wealth to the deserving . Others offer pra»a ( outgoing breath in ) in apana (incoming breath)..

are known from : the Vedas through such passages as the following sacrifice pra.. action. such as those mentioned above. of prescribed food in a prescribed is Food If called ambrosia. — of this action in deed. right knowledge. [DiS. they manner. to they wish sake. eat.. How can there be to him another world which can ? be secured only by superior means 32. are spread at the mouth of Brahman. thou shalt be liberated. Thus manifold sacrifices are spread at the mouth of Brahman. Thus various sacrifices.a in speech. as we should understand which consistency's is Even common to all beings. is Wisdom = sacrifice iv. Know them all as born of Thus knowing. superior to other sacrifices. . at intervals." you will be released. i. is I actionless. If you I realise that " these are not am by actionless.e. Knowledge now extolled as compared with these latter kinds of sacrifices objects of hu- which are means of attaining the several man pursuit. from evil. from the bond of sa/wsara. is THE RHAGAVAD-GITA." " We my Know that they are all born of V the not-Self. not for one who performs none of the sacrifices mentioned above. Brahman is in course of time. am unconcerned. This world . for not at once. sacrifice in is Right knowledge has been represented as a Then all several sacrifices were taught. speech and thought. 24.— 132 sacrifice. anirita (immortal). not for the non-sacrificer best of Kurus. they go to Eternal Brahman. sacrifices whence the other ? O Performing the so eaten w mentioned above. for moksha. — for the Self actions. they go this world. IV.

to For. and what nescience (avidya). but not all. So says the sruti the in game of four dice) the three dice are comprehended the fourth termed kjdta. fore wisdom-sacrifice is Wheremeans superior to the sacrifice performed the with material objects. Do service to the Guru. those men of wisdom who have realisthis: ed the truth will teach thee wisdom. Go to the ? and humbly prostrate thyself before Ask them what is the cause of bondage (bandha) and what the means of deliverance what is wisdom (vidya) them. all which is moksha. is one should seek wisdom. wisdom. Won will over by these and other marks of respect. . performed with material objects produces The sacrifice material effects. is with objects. whereas wisdom-sacrifice does not. Know Up. knowing the truth as well as impart to thee their wisdom.: 3I-34I JNANA-YOGA. — that wisdom which has . know as as realise the truth. comprehends "Just as (in action. Any other man who knows result.) that which he knew (obtains the same 4-1-4)- — (Chha. Superior is wisdom-sacrifice to the sacrifice All action. compre- hended in wisdom. 133 ^^. — By this the Lord means to say t hat know ledge alone which is imparted by those who . without exception. Know teachers thou by what process (Acharyas) it is obtained. been described above. by enquiry. grand wisdom to be obtained? this by service. well that Some only. by long prostration. the teachers realising it who. O harasser of thy foes. themselves. O son of Pritha. that reaches him. How and where By what means 34. so whatever all good people do.

even dharma proves to be a How ^y. . / of all sins Wisdom.e. so does wisdom-fire reduce ashes. see 36. thou error. i. all O Arjuna. and actions. thus " And these beings exist in the Supreme Lord. you will not be again subject to confusion as you now all are. have realised the truth effective. Brahma also see (the Creator) down to grass. does wisdom destroy sin ? — Here is an example : As kindled fire reduces fuel to ashes. Vasudeva. Having" obtained the wisdom imparted by them. [DiS. thou cross all sin by the bark of wisdom. is : how excellent knowledge Even shouldst thou be the most shalt verily sinful of all the sinful. For one who seeks sin. and no other kn owledge—can prove Then alone 35. Just as a well-kindled fire all actions to reduces fuel to ashes.. a consumer Moreover. shalt not again thus into O Pan^ava wilt see all beings in and by which. IV.e.— 134 "^HE BHAGAVAD-GITA.. you can cross the sin." i. With ocean of the boat of this knowledge. liberation. thou thy Self and also in Me." You them all in Me. it the fire of wisdom reduce renders . so does actions to ashes. in your own You will will then realise that "these beings exist in : Me. 'By this wisdom you will also immediately perceive beings. fall the following statement will hold good : Knowing which. you will realise that unity of the individual Soul (Kshetraj»a) and the Isvara Avhich is so clearly taught in all the Upanishads. verily. from Self.

Yoga and by Samadhi-Yoga will after a long practice. The surest means The follows surest : to wisdom. Accordthe cause l)y we should understand all that right which renders which to this actions impotent. Verily. it is enjoined that he should ever be intently devot- . himself find spiritual wisdom in The — — himself. I35 literally them impotent. there^ exists here no purifier equal to in wisdom. full of faith A man whence obtains wisdom. 38. attains Having obtained wisdom. seeker of moksha who has perfected and regenerated ^ himself by Yoga by Karma.34-39-] JNANA-YOGA. He who is perfected by Yoga finds it time in himself by himself. into But the actions existence will fully body has been brought those actions come work- an end only when . But he may be slow. and who has subdued the crc long senses. the many Wherefore. ingly The fire of wisdom cannot indeed knowledge is reduce actions to ashes as fire reduces fuel to ashes. it. wisdom is means of acquiring taught as 39. or those done previous births. have already commenced their destroy only such actions as eflfects. He obtains who is devoted to wisdom who is fall of faith. Thus/^visdoni can to have not yet begun produce their whether they in are actions done in this birth before the rise of knov/ledge and along with knowledge. their effects will have been ed out effects. he to the Supreme Peace. for.

There is neither this world. and the man whose mind is full of doubts. nor happiness. — — : obtained wisdom. Mere external acts (iv.— How * — Even this world which And listening to their teachings. ruined. for one of self. called Moksha. is That the right knowledge quickly leads all to moksha an established truth clearly taught by sastras as well as reason. since they may be But hyprocisy is impossible when a man is full of faith and so on. nor the other. is Such a man devotion and self-control sure to obtain wisdom. IV. such as long prostration before the Guru. but not to same extent sinful as a man ? of doubting mind. The ignorant.34). [DiS. and may not have mastery over the senses also enjoined that he should their withdraw whence it senses away of faith. &c. He the is most of all. and one of doubting doubting self.— 136 THE BHAGAVAD-GiXA. The man who knows not the Self is ruined. . devotion is A man his of faith . Wisdom Thou shalt not : the killer of doubt. may fail to produce the required effect. ed to the means of obtaining wisdom. Whence these are the certain means of acquiring wisdom. such as constant attendance on the Teachers (Gurus) '=. doubt for doubt is most sinful. No is doubt the ignorant and the the faithless are ruined. How? — Listen 40. as also the man who has no faith in the teachings and the words of his Guru. he swiftly attains the Supreme Peace. from engrossment in objects. this. What is the result of this acquisition of wisdom ? The answer follows Having tinged with hypocrisy. is the faithless.

and since that man is ruined who entertains doubts as to the practice of karma and knowledge. has renounced actions by Yoga. in virtue of the practice of karma- all his doubts cut asunder by knowledge which arises as a result of all impurity is having been washed away. It is born of ignorance and 18 lies in . actions do not bind him . is in virtue of his Yoga. Him who whose doubts have been cloven asunder by wisdom. 42. Wherefore thou not doubt.»jaya. O Dhana.40 — 42-] JNANA-YOGA. not for. Therefore with the sword of wisdom cleave in asunder this doubt of the Self lying the heart Arise. they do not produce any effects (good or bad) in the case of him who. won by a sceptic. O Bharata. actions bind not. He who has b3en cloven asunder by the realisation of the oneness of the Self with the Isvara. not bound by actions because they have been consumed in the fire of wisdom. sees the Supreme Being renounces all actions — dharma and a-dharma— by virtue of Yoga or knowledge of He attains this stage when his doubt the Supreme Being. has renounced all self. — For. and resort to Yoga. ' actions and ever watchful over his Since that yoga. to all 137 other common men is . Wherefore ? 41. and born of ignorance. nor happiness even these things come within shalt the sweep of his doubt. is Doubt most sinful. As he traces all actions to the interactions of the energies (gu/eas). who is self-possessed. has man who. nor the world.

THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. O descendant of Bharata. by right knowledge of the [The word " atmana/i the Self. like. IV by wisdom. folly. is destructive of all evil. Self. If Arjuna could ever think that one man's doubt might say ' ever to be cut by another.' concerning Arjmia's doubt cherished by thyself. then the thy doubt ' Lord kill as opposed to anothe/s doubt.' is but not ' means of the Self. to kill the is Even if Arjuna has been asked it doubt concerning one cherished by the Self. such as grief. the cause of thy apply thyself to Karma. ZZ- .] implies also that the doubt Knowledge and the ruin.138 the buddhi. the means of acquiring knowledge.' ' ' " here about the is Self. Having thus slain doubt. right Now arise and fight. i\rjuna.Yoga. Kill it [DiS.

FIFTH DISCOURSE. iv. . action and renunciation better of the (v. 22. Karma = Yoga or In Samnyasa? 37 and 41. Which is better for the ignorant. but not he Self. spoken of the renunciation of all and in in iv. 21. SAMNYASA-YOGA. 19. the two cannot be accomplished by an individual one and the same time. Arjuna asks the better of the Lord with a desire to know which of the two. 24. him who has realised the Self. thereof. that such a man has to renounce action. the Lord has actions . i) — he should — performance resort to is of the two to the exclusion of the other. 33. therefore. 32. them forms Arjuna's duty so that thinking that. only one of . performance of Owing to the mutual opposition between perform- ance of action and renunciation thereof as between motion and at rest. who has not realised the Since performance of action and renunciation of action thus pertain to ively. Neither have two distinct peri- ods of time been prescribed for their respective observance. of the two. 42 He has exhorted Arjuna to engage in Yoga. {Objection): — As going to speak of entire devotion to of J/2ana- yoga on the part has taught. two distinct classes of people respect- Arjuna's question with a view to better than the other is know which of the two is irrelevant. the Lord in the passages quoted above. action. By inference. i8.

But from the questioner's (Arjuna's) own standpoint. to by the wise alone Else it would involve the fallacy of a double in- Accordingly. from your standpoint the question levant. "The wise should renounce be meant . only one time). of them can form inasmuch as it the duty (of an individual at a is And the better one of the followed. because renunciation It elsewhere enjoined on him also. — How — In .. [Dis.isakas hold that a single proposition can embody but a single injunction.Yoga both lead to the highest bliss but Karma- I •' Whtn he is full of vairagya or in- to enjoin renunciation. it cannot at the difiercnce t to all worldly concerns. is irre- (Answey):— Yes. the term 'wise') ." is cannot be made out that renunciation of action here intended for that man only who it. we say. V. if the proposition '. The question That reply. two that should be the question with a view to is know which of the two is the better not irrelevant. has realised the Self. owing to the mutual opposition of the two courses as shown above. is quite relevant.140 THE bhagavad-gIta. Arjuna thinks that an man may either perform action or renounce But.f Thus ignorant arguing. so that this injunction of renunciation should be extended so as to apply to that man also is who has not realised the Self.' junction in a single proposition. is is the meaning of Arjuna's question also evident from an examination of the meaning of the words in — How — The ? reply runs as follows : "Sawmyasa . sametimeenjoin be resorted that renunciation should The Mima). — (A). and Karma. the passages quoted above. ? the question. duty (in Lord enjoins renunciation as a and it the form " Let the wise man renounce") tlie it cannot be enjoined as a duty unless is (the term 'renounce') more important than the agent {i. but not the other. this is not with reference to the enlightened.e.

Yoga to his Karhowever. or to say that Karma.. .myasa. and that the Karma./myasa is impossible. {Question) : to the — Are both Karma. Karma-Sawnyasa. We should now ascer- Is in reference to the Karma.] samnyAsa-yoga./myasa ? ? What is the reason for the impossibility * How ( is the former supposition liable suppositions are repeated shya.Yoga and the Karma- Sawnyasa that it is resorted to by a that they man who has realised the Self highest bliss as their said lead to the result. neither Karma-Saw- nyasa nor Karma..Yoga the Self.— Introduction. Karma.2). Inasmuch as.Yoga and Samnj'^asa inapplicable enlightened.myasa and opposite — Karma..Yoga better than Karma. would have been right to speak of them as alike leading to the highest bliss or to speak of the superiority of his ma-Sa. is it Karma- Karma-Sa.Yoga and Karma-Sa. Karma. but they have in the Bhain the to objection? or how ) is the latter reasonf been omitted able? Anandagiri Here the two translation].Yoga it (perform- — were possible. or only one of them impossible.myasa. alike leading to the high- not right to speak of them as est bliss. Karma.Yoga nor Sawnyasa.Yoga to his Self.Sa. for a man who has Yoga or realised the Self? If only one of them. ance of action) for a its man who then has realised the Karma-Sa. it is is possible for a man who is has realised not right to speak of them as alike leading to the highest bliss. or of the superiority of his If.Yoga two ? is for some reason the better of the Or is it in reference to those resorted to by a man who has not realised the Self that the statement is made is ? — What then — Listen: ?'•• sed the Self resorts to neither it As a man who has realiKarma. 141 Yoga tain: is the it better of the two" (v.

&c. owing to the opposition between right knowledge and illusory knowledge as well as between their effects. presupposing an active Self and based on the idea of agency caused by illusory knowledge. Karma. 31. to be impossible for ( How. then. 47. 19 and ii. Wherefore it is but right to say that. — that such a the man has to renounce Self. Here.. must be impossible for him.Yoga is and who is free from which is based upon knowledge (Question) impossible. devoid of changes of birth. in the sections treating of the real nature of the it is said that a man who knows is the Self. real nature of the Self in which the man who knows the to Self is said to have : no action do ? (Answer) — In 17. V. and in other places is here and there. he has nothing to do with Karma- Yoga. Karma. e. 18. and whose illusory knowledge has been replaced by right knowledge. for him illusory illusory who has realised the Self knowledge.Yoga is also taught here and there said in the sections treating of the real nature of the Self./myasa.g. ii. (Objection) : — Karma. and is actionless. the man who has realised the Self said to have no action to do.Yoga which illusion based in upon Self. in ii.142 (Answer) free THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. all actions. the Gita-5astra..Yoga be a man who has realised the Self ? so. are the sections treating of the : — What. then. : [DiS. inii. — Since the man who has realised the Self is is from illusory knowledge. 21. the reverse of Karma. Answer ) : — It is because there is an opposition between right knowledge and illusory knowledge as well as . ever dwelling in true actionless and it is further said that. all who knows himself to be the Self that &c.Sa. can Karma.

Wherefore it is the Sawnyasa and the Karma. samnyasa-yoga. . 6 as an accessory to the acquisition Self. 143 3 it is said that the Sankhyas them- who have realised the true nature of the Self apply selves to devotion in the path of wisdom — ever dwelling in the actionless Self — as distinguished from devotion in the is path of action which realised the Self. the the true nature of the Self is may be man who knows ' directed in v. object to gain. This Sawmyasa. 8 always to it is meditate with a concentrated mind on the idea that not I that do it. that iv. In such passages as 4 and v.] l)etween their efFects.Yoga realised the Self that are of the man who has not spoken of (in this connection) as leadin ' ing alike to moksha.Introduction. This sort of renunciation is teach. different from the one already spoken from the * He thinks that he has yet to learn what the Vedantas or the Upanishads the gnhasthas or the second religious order (asrama). to reason about it and to meditate thus partial and is meant to afford to upon it. 21 all action is denied to him except .Yoga is enjoined of the knowledge of the while in vi. so opposed to right knowledge and entirely based upon illusory knowledge. realised the Self has no longer any In iii.' It is not possible to imagine even in a dream that the man who knows the Self can have anything to do with Karma-Yoga. in is do with Karma- Yoga. 3 it is said that the man who to has obtained right knowledge has no longer anything Further. intended for those who have not The man who has that he has iii. He has renounced only those the aspirant greater leisure to apply himself to the acquisition of spiritual actions which are specially enjoined on wisdom. which consists is renouncing a few actions only while yet there agency. 17 it is no more duties perform.'is an idea of of. which required for bodily maintenance and even with reference to such acts of hearing and seeing as required for mere bodily maintenance. In iii. Karma. since he said has achieved to all.

there- . in reply Thus an examination of the meaning of the words leads also to the same conclusion as has been at arrived before as regards the meaning of Arjuna's question. And Karma. Arjuna said I. At the beginning asked the Lord " of the Third Discourse. have. seeing that knowledge and action could not coexist in one tell man.— 144 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. in is And from the statement "nor by mere renunciation does he attain perfection. is better for a man who : has no knowledge. Karma. Arjuna now asks with a view to know as to which one of them. 4 ) it is the view of the Lord.Yoga or Sa. much has been enjoined 42). inasa (iv." ( iii. and Thou is teachest also that perI formance of those very actions necessary. — which is resorted to by the man who of ' has realised the performance as ' it is The former becomes very difficult further associated with yama and ' ' ni-yama and the like (which are the various forms of is self-control). O l\r\shn?i. Self. — and that devotion in the path of action was meant for the Yogins. and again Yoga. renunciation of actions.Yoga.«nyasa. Renunciation of actions. clear that." and in reply the tion in the path of Lord declared decisively that devoknowledge was meant for the Sankhyas the renouncers. me that which is the better of the two. V. as it too. Thou teachest renunciation of those actions which are enjoined in the 5astras.Yoga is comparatively easier ot per- formance and therefore spoken of as the better of the two. Karma. the Sawnyasins. renunciation with knowledge tion. means of attaining perfecmust lead to perfection. all [DiS. is Tell me conclusively that which the better of the two. Arjuna. Thou praisest.

e. performance of It is (prescribed) actions or renunciation of those actions..— 1 : — 2] SAMNYASA-YOGA. 19 I I . which is jccouipanieJ with knowledge. of the two. — be it performance of actions or renunciation of actions. Karma. that fore perferable that and thereKarma-samnyasa tliaii.«nyasa and Karma-yoga. yet. both lead to moksha. is esteemed more than renunciation Sa. Though lx)th lead to moksha. Yoga through action of action. but. the better course which must be followed. Wherefore ? The answer follows '•'• — : 3. Thus the Lord has praised Karma. renunciation of actions and performance of actions. impossible for man I to resort to both at the same time. by which you think may attain to perfection.Yoga. — it beinj.Yoga is better than mere i. who neither hates nor desires is for. -The Lord does not of course mean that Karma-Voga is superior to true Karmasamnyasa. Wherefore one tell me conclusively that one. free from the Karma-Yoga. which io unaccompanied with knowledge. though the True Karma-saHinyasa. Karma = Yoga suits the ignorant better than 5amnyasa. To the state His own opinion with a view to clear the doubt. He should be known as a perpetual rcnouncer . of the two means of attaining moksha. a far higher path than latter is easier to. better. a doubt as to which of them is 145 fore. unaccompanied with knowledge Karma- — sa»myasa. as giving to (spiritual) rise knowledge. said : Renunciation and Yoga through action both lead to the highest bliss. Lord says The Blessed Lord 2.

though he is known as a perpetual renouncer in action. But the wise. he is easily set from bondage. be mutually opposed in their results also. Wherefore. Arjuna indeed asked . V. pairs of opposites.Yoga.: 1^. They should says: not. there is no diversity in the result. — the Lord Children. not as distinct.Yoga'. which are to meant for two distinct classes of people and are opposed each other. should be (sawmyasin). neither hates pain The Karma.6 THE BHAGAVAD-C-iTA. engaged Sankhya and Yoga (Objection) : lead to the same goal. the wise.Yogin who jects and the obthe objects causing pain. (Objection) : — Having started is it v\-e v/ith the and 'Karma. He who observes even one of them. vis. nor desires pleasure and causing pleasure. obtains the fruits of both. free O mighty-armed. [DiS. speak of Sankhya and Yoga He who of is rightly devoted to even one obtains the fruits of both. Sankhya or Yoga. Both lead to the same result. moksha. on the other hand. should. Sankhya and Yoga as proand opposite results. (Answer) 4. men they produce but one harmorightly believe that nious result. It is children who speak ducing distinct of knowledge.. both lead to moksha alike. how and Yoga that He Sa»myasa speaks of Sankhya words ' ' —with which same : are not at present concerned ? —as producing the (Aiisuj^y) results is — There no fault here. — Sawnyasa and Karma. properly speaking.

Yoga with reference to which you have asked me " which one is the better of the two?" In accordance with the question. But added to them some the Lord. My answer has r .Yoga better than Karma-sa. Hence no How 5./myasa. without leavin*. is reached by Yogins also. these.superior to Yoga. them. Sa. — but through the attainment of true knowledge and renunciation. indirectly. Sankhya and Yoga. — by those who perform their duties as a means end in view. [Anstver) : — Listen why it is so. and That man sees rightly who are one. They reach the state called moksha. can a man obtain the results of both by the right ? observance of only one — The answer follows is : That state which reached by Sankhyas sees. In the opinion of the Lord. has additional conceptions of His own and has answered the question. Sankhya and Yoga as leading to an identical result.— 3 5-1 SAMNVASA-YOGA. The same state is reached by Yogins also. 1 47 tlie (luestion witli reference to simple Sa/z/nyasa and simple Karma.' dedicating having no sees that selfish them to the Isvara. How is then is it Sawnyasa must be ./myasa and Karma-Yoga are themselves termed Sankhya and ^'oga when knowledge of the Self mity ( (j/nina) and equanito samabuddhitva) are respectively added irrelevant topic. It is the simple Karma- sawnyasa and the simple Karma. {Question) : — If so. He who sees Sankhya and Yoga as one. speaking of tliem under other names. of attaining knowledge. Sankhyas are those who are devoted to knowledge and have renounced the world.Yoj^a. that it has been declared that Karma.

A sage (muni) is so called because of his meditation (manana) on the form of the Isvara. (Sawnyasa) here spoken of is the true (paramarthika) Sa. is it that the ? aim of the : Karma." {Tait. because renunciation consists in the ' ' knowledge of the Highest Self (Paramatman) sruti says . But that Sawnyasa which is based upon knowledge is regarded by Me as Stinkhya. which consists in steady devotion to right knowledge. [DiS. 4-78)./myasa).Yoga that (true or Samnyilsa) — Listen But renunciation. I the true renunciation. Yoj^a is conduces Karma a means to Samnyasa. Yoga (performance and entirely free of \'edic ritual) dedicated to the Isvara from motives. . is hard a sage equipped with to attain except by Yoga Yoga ere long reaches Brahman. and the What is is called "Nyfisa" is Brahman .'myasa and Yoga is the Vedic KarmaRenunciation . O mighty-armed. Brahman here means renunciation (sawnyasa. V. which is now being spoken of). been given — without having regard to knowledge — that Karma. A sage equipped with Yoga soon reaches Brahman. Wherefore.: 148 THE BIIAGAVAD-GiTA. is How Yoga 6. have said that Karma. inasmuch Yoga or Sa. It is only by a figure that the Yoga through Vedic as it rites is called to that (true Yoga or Sawmyasa. Up. and Silnkhya itself is the true (paramartha) Yoga.. better.Yoga is .Yoga is superior to Karma-sawnyasa. and Brahman verily the Great.

steadfast. whose mind (atman. eating. should he think so. Wherefore. the beings from has formed the Self of Brahma down i. by whom the self has been conquered. — remembering that the senses move among sense-objects. whose senses have been subdued. 149 A When 7. as a means of attain- the devotee resorts to ing right knowledge He who is equipped with Yoga. has conquered the body rightly.. (atman. clump of grass. The truth-knower is he who knows the true nature of the who sees the Supreme Reality. though doing. opening and closing the e3-es. — g. he will not be bound by actions. He who sattva) is equipped with Yoga.. thus should the truthhearing. thus knowing the truth and . masses. has been purified. e\'er intent on the truth ? — The answer is given thus : ' though seeing.' The duty of the man who.e. self) who Self. — he will not be tainted. letting go. whose Self has become the Self of all beings. ing. though he may continue to perform them for the protection of the /. going. A 8 sage's actions are really no actions. v. smelling. seizing. — though seeing. &c. Yoga. 'I do nothing at all'. sleeping.: 5 9] SAMNYASA-YOGA. knower think. who sees to a whose all Inner Consciousness. is sage's actions do not affect him. Neither does he really do anything.ith a view to set an example to the masses. whose mind quite pure. he is — not tainted. the and the senses. e. — When and how Self. touching. breathspeaking.

even after knowing for the no water.' -y^ith 'Mere' should be construed along with 'body' &c. resolute I act only for the sake of the Lord. who it thinks of quenching his thirst in a mirage.I50 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. in the faith that ' free from egotism. The man. TDlS. will not. II I3y the body. Yogins are those who are devoted in all their acts. also. offering is them to Brahman. He who does actions. in I act for His sake'. He has no attachment for the result. the faith that ' He offers all actions to the Is\-ara. to the same place purpose quenching his Karma=Yogin is untainted by the results of tiis action. he sees the absence of action. abandoning attachment. works. and nothing Because. The done is only purity of the mind. by the mind. not tainted as a lotus leaf b}. V. bv sin. the intellect. moksha. sees only inaction in actions — in in all the movements ing all of the . even for result of actions so else. free from egotism without attach- .water. as a servant acts for the sake of the master. Mere : Yogins perform action. thinking rightly. not a truth-knower and is But as to the : man who is engag- ed in action 10. of each one to them separately. resort thirst. mistaking it is for water.. without for the purification cf the self. not for my benefit. that of for instance. by mere senses attachment. body and the senses — consists renounc- actions for. by.

do thou only perform action. They act only for the purification of lies the mind. for do actions sake of the Lord. to the man who Supreme Being. firmly bound. devotion to knowledge. thinking I do this act for my benefit. as the : result of devotion. I5I inent for their results. the in embodied one happily the nine-gated city. Wherefore. and some special which are only optional (kamya-karma. attached to the fruit through is the action of desire. or those intended for securing ends. attains the peace born of devotion." abandons the purity of attains the peace called moksha. (sattva). then. The unsteady one.n).hich are forbidden (pratishiddha-karma»i). \\'herefore. abandoning the fruit of action. and rests all Self-controlled. be thou steady-minded.or those v. or those arising on the occurrence of some special events (naimittika-karma. attainment of .n). Renouncing all actions by thought. The steady-minded one. neither at acting nor causing to act. renunci- ation of actions and is lastly. The But as 13. Actions are either tlie obligatory duties (nitya-karma«i). blissful embodied sees the life of a sage. then. as thy duty only there. resolved that " I The lor the fruit steady. through the following stages first. 12. not action my benefit. knowledge .' He is firmly bound. But is he who unsteady ' led by desire and attached to the fruit. Also because. The man who .minded man who.(J — 13] SAMWASA-VOGA. of the mind all is .

two nether ones for the passage of the urine and the dung. As having these nine openIt is like body is said to be a nine-gated city. thought and deed. by discriminative wisdom —-the action attributed to the Self through ignorace. — all working for the sole benefit Lord and producing all consciousness of various objects. the idea that he rests in the body quite possible. e. by seeing inaction in . having renounced [Objection) : — Of what use is the qualification " he rests in the in body"? Every man. be- ing the organs of sensation . case of a man who regards the Self as distinct from the agis gregate of the body. rests the body only. thought. actions in speech. and rests happily. excepting the Self. the qualification is meaningless. be he a sawnyasin or not. So. on a seat. But in the regarding the mere body as himself. V. He rests happily because he . In such a nine-gated city action.. renounces all [DiS. ings. but which really pertains to the not. and thinks " I on the ground. [Answer): — He that of the is ignorant identifies himself with the : mere aggregate rest in a house.. (foreign to the Self) have ? departed from his mind. cannot indeed cherish the idea that he rests in the body as in a house. and deed. because his mind all interests calm. the city. by discrimination. inhabited by the of their citizens of the senses. intellect. And it is also right that he should renounce by thought— by knowledge. action. the senses." Such a man. body and the senses.— 152 jhas subdued 1 THE "CHAGAVAD-GITA. Though a man has attain- ed discriminative wisdom (/. because. mind. has given up all action in speech.Self. because is he is without worry.v^Where and In the body which has nine openings : how does he rest in the seven head. &c. has realised his true Self as X . its a with the Self for Monarch. as well as their objects. the embodied one rests.

may be inhere. 4-3-7). as pointing to a distinction between the respective standpoints of the wise {Objection) and the ignorant. 31).it m and may remain in him who has renounced (Aiisury): actions. it that the Self in the body. is not inherent in the Sslf is for. Nature Moreover." (B/i. is the source of activity. like the motion of a moving person ? or that the power is : not inherent in the Self (Answ:)') — The power of acting or of causing to act . senses attributed falsely to the Self the power of acting and of causing the Self through ignorance to act still. — It is true that he renounces the actions of the body and of the . inasmuch ayfils personal consciousness (of resting) arises only with reference to the of the body in virtue of the traces of the unspent portion prarabdha-karma— the karma which brought the present body into existence — still continuing to be felt. nor causes the body and the senses to act. 23). Lord has taught and "though seated the (xiii. he acts not. Up. renunciation. it may be said that he rests in the \ nine-gated city of the body as in a house. Neither agency nor objects does the Lord 20 ./Thus ' the qualification he rests in the body ' has a meaning. {Question) — Do you mean that the power of acting and of is causing to act inherent in the Self and that it ceases by . "It were and moves as were. nor thinks as it is he tainted" Thesruti says. all I53 con- distinguished from the not-Self) and has renounced cern with action.: 13 — 14] SAMNYASA-YOGA. unchangeable (ii. 14. still. — The Lord says: : He nsicher acts himself.

. and the Lord of Creation. or charity. the Lord the body). Self. Svabhava. the offering of an oblation into the or the like ? Lord says in reply: Discriminative knowledge is enveloped by ignorance. e.— an act [Answer): of worship. and other Nor does the Self unite him who makes a car or the like with the {Question): ) fruit of the act. The Lord takes . like the sun wisdom illuminates that Supreme. 15. Prakriti. I cause to enjoy. through avidya— (A). [DiS. actions. do this.. ' \ Maya. shall enjoy. does not Himself act that acts and causes nor cause others to others to act { what then is it ? [Anscvev) : —^Listen. — If the Self in the body act. whose unwisdom is destroyed by wisdom of the Self. does not create agency ' does not of Himself urgs any one to action. It is Nature. Wisdom and Unwisdom. cause to act. objects of desire. thereby mortals are deluded. " I act." and so on. ' the Divine Maya made up of gu. Mtmaii forms the agpnt.154 "^^^ BHAGAVAD-GITA.' Neither does the Self create cars. In reality. the enjoyer. sacrifice. (of The i.^as -' ( vii. 14 ). mansions. neither the evil nor even the good deed of any wisdom is enveloped by un- wisdom. jars. Thereby the ignorant mortal creatures I in sa. nor union with the fruits of But it is the nature that acts. fire. V* create for the world. 16.//sara are deluded and think. But to those * That is 10 say. Of any : even of His devotees. : [Question) — With what object — The I then is done by devotees any msritorious act.

the condition of a well-disciplin- * . In a Brcihma. Reality having been illuminated by wisdom. as the sun illuminates all wisdom illuminates Supreme Reality. in Fixing their consciousness the very actions Brahman and alone. their delight being solely in the unconditioned Self. the (jf When the Self. with their goal. intent on That. The sagfe sees the One in all beings. . so able.''^ the is t wise see the same. as also in a dog and Humility in a dog-eater. ranquillity. they That for go never again to return. ^-In the case of such men. their With supreme consciousness in That.] SAMNYASA-YOGA. they renounce and dwell Brahman —the Supreme Brahall sins man being their highest goal. How Self whose ignorance of the has been removed by knowledge ? Listen do those wise see truth men — : 18. the whole of the Know- The sage has no more The Supreme 17. in an elephant. realising that all Supreme Brahman in is tiieir Self. never returning to embodied life. an outcaste.\ chaik/ala. births.?a endued with wisdom and humility. and other causes destroyed by of mundane existence (sawsara) are wisdom described above.14 — 1 3. that 1 55 unwisdom bywhich the mortals are enveloped and deluded is destroyed by wisdom or discriminative knowledge objects. their sins shaken off by means of wisdom. and they depart from here. their Self being That. then. in a cow.

. ig. Even here rests is overcome by them whose Spotless. and whose (anta/j-kara«a) rests unwavering on the equality c. the In all of them the_sages in see the One who is immutable Himself and q uite unRajasic. in who is spiritually regenerated and highly Sattvic whom the energy oi Sattv a predominates). and the}' Brahman living wherefore in Brahman Even while intuition [i. homogeneity) of to the ignorant. and Rajasic [i.e. [DlS. the Law says "Where one's equals are honored in a different manner. and where parsons who are not one's equals are honored in the same manner (Gautama's as oneself. Of the creatures mentioned. mind equal rest. same. Brahman in such impure bodies as those of .) . persons. which are purely Tamasic (the energy of Tamas predominating). not spiritually regenerated. in which the energy of Rajas predominates).: 15^ THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. the highest ed soul. sinful — They (the sages spoken of) are others. The sage [Objection) : is liberated while just still on earth. must not be eaten. is the brahma/^a {iic. here on earth. or touched by Sattva and other energies.. indeed. Though. Brahman in all creatures. whether Sattvic. a dinner Institutes. V." {AnsK>er) : — They are not sinful birth is for. &c. or by the tendencies born of those energies. xvii. birth has been brought under control by those sages who see the One. whose food should not be eaten by For. on equalit}^ . Last come the elephant. Tamasic. Next comes thecow. 20.

/gas).] SAMNYASA-YOGA. Distinctions the such an attribute to only inferred in order ^°'^y cannot certainly point to distinctions '" '^"^ S^'f since °"s'>' account for a distinction which is other- wise perceived. yet spotless.l8 — 19. various bodies. since they liave no egotism and do not identify themselves with the aggregate of like. a knowledge of the six auxiliary sciences (a. who are the objects of honor. for. a and the * like. It is the body and the only to those who is are egotistic and who it identify the Self with the aggregate of the body and the like. It is '''o . in Wherefore they in Brahman only. of Water. And the Lord speaks of desire and the like as tra tlia attributes of the Kshespeaks — of the body. — The an eternal substance which distinguishes it Manas (mind). o\vinf( any heterogeneous attributes inherent Himself. Not the slightest can blemishes of bodies affect them. He not hetero^^eneous either. is distinction in the Self. such as a knowledge of Brahman. 31). '•' Hence Brahman (the sages) rest homogeneous and one. — and He also Self as beginningless and without attributes (xiii. I57 dog-eaters and the like appears to be contaminated by their impurities. Nor are there ' what are called ' ultimate particu- lars (antyaviseshas) in the Self. ^'"d '" definable peculiar attribute inherent in atoms of and of Air Time. ^Ikasa (ether). since refers to persons gifts. knowledge of the four Vedas But Brahman is free from all attributes. of the of the not-Self (xiii 6). since as the basis of individual distinctions their no evidence can be adduced to prove tlie existence in relation to is several bodies. that the institute quoted above applicable. to He is unaffected by is them and in is therefore Further. In honoring and giving qualifications some special are taken into account. for which W-danta in individual The existence of sees no evidence. /I tman (soul) : . good are thus enumerated According to the Vaiseshika system ' of philosophy niityn-viscsha' is that in- Earth. is The nntyii-viseshas from another eternal substance.4tman only inferrible from a that in its an eternal substance which marks identity. . consciousnes s (chaitanya) has no attributes. Space. of Light. The eternal substances a yogin can simultaneassume.

V. When his intuition (antaA-kara«a) is uncontaminated by attachment to things contacted by the senses. of the GIta 13 to the end of the all adhyaya) is a section treating of 'renunciation of works. they rest in Brahman. Hence the statement ' [DiS.158 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. resting cause pleasure and Brahman. is blemishless Because Brahman. whereas this portion (from v. free . he has renounced The sage's Moreover. 20. nor grieve on obtaining tho unpleasant. with the Self engaged in the contemplation of I>rahman he attains the endless joy. and bad. he does no action. him who sees thepure t_he since the latter neve r objects. from delusion. resting 21. Brahman. in — steady-minded. He is He rests in Brahman described above all action. therefore. in infinite joy. to the sound . the institute quoted above taken from a section which is concerned with works (Karma). and homoge- He who knows Brahman can neither rejoice on obtaining the pleasant. Self. the neous. homogeneous. not to Self. tacts. undeluded. With the self unattached to external conis he finds the joy which in the Self. that is. Pleasant and unpleasant objects can pain to them only who regard the body as the Self.' is a Moreover. and spotless creatures. The sage is free from grief and rejoicing. comes by pleasant and unpleasant conscious that in all He is undoubtingly Self is one.

and their separation D elights a re temporary. rejoices not in them. he who seeks for the endless joy of the Self should withdraw the senses from the momentary pleasure of external objects. object its the delights cause pain. O son of Kunti a wise man The pleasures that are caused by contacts of the senses since those with sense-objects are only generators of pain. those delights which arc born of pain. (the For the following reason also he should withdraw senses from external objects) 22. but also end. so in the is —as the word in the indicates. 'only' As in this world. in When in intui^on in ( anta/i-kara«a ) is engaged Yoga.— 19 — 22. are tra- ceable to other. a deep and steady contemplation of Brahman. found to rejoice . se nse-objec ts 159 external is in and other his which are all (to the Self). bliss. then the sage attains the imperishable Therefore. them (delights) only. Samadhi. : For. of contacts are only generators having a beginning and an end. Not only do they have a beginning and an its The contact of a sense with marks the beginend. nin^j)f a pleasure. delights are caused all troubles arising by nescience (avidya). Seeing that there no trace of joy sawsara. the sage realises the joy which there the Self. the devotee should withdraw the S2ns23 from the mirage of sense-objects. like cattle It is only quite ignorant like. in the sense-objects. We do find that in the body (adhyatmika). tion and who has and the realised moment of interval (between A^nian who possesses discriminathe Supeme Reality does not repersons that are. occurring in the the origin and the end). etc. .] SAMNYASA-YOGA. joice in them..

the Lord teaches till that the impulse of desire its and anger is unavoidable during life. Before liberation fioiii up to the point of death. the source off. with. and whoso has his light within that . thing. when being seen. causes are init numerable. very mighty : should be made. he is a Yogin. He who a Yogin. and the like. he is a happy man. within. of all evil. lip-biting. is heard of. [Dis. and that the very is moment of death should not be trusted. What man? 24. for the or cause of pain. The path And there is of Nirvana.. By since thus marking death as the limit. and anger (krodha) the aversion for the disagreebale. while still here. a most thing to deal with. of the The impulse mind (anta/i-kara//a) as indicated by hairs standing on end and by a joyful countenance and the impulse of anger is the mental agitation indicated by the trembling of the body. or when coming remembered of. can withstand the impulses of desire and anger is and he is a happy man here on earth. to repel the enemy 23. He that is able.i6o THE bhagavad-gIta. the impulse of desire and anger. fiery eyes. sort of a man : resting in Brahman attains Brah- — The Lord says Whoso has his jo}' within and his pastime only. Desire (Kama) the longing for a pleasure- giving agreeable object of our experience in the ken of our senses. While the body : still here : while yet living. very difficult to efforts ward so that. says the Lord. by of desire (kama) is the agitation . heard remembered. v. before liberation from the body. perspiration. to with- stand. also a wicked difficult an enemy on the path to Bliss.

And now. 26. and anger. Moreover. he attains moksha. all has been said that those who. and lastly moksha. Brahman's bliss exists everywhere. has often been and will be declared by the Lord that Karma. all actions and attained right whether living or dead. : (/?ishis) men of right knowledge and renuncia- Intent. have been destroyed and doubts removself-controlled who are all and intent on welfare of Sages tion.23 — 26] Brahman. : injuring none. To the devotees who are free from desire their thought. who have controlled w^ho have and known the Self. on earth. He attains the bliss (nirva«a) in Brahman.Yoga. — while still living here Moreover. remain steady It knowledge obtain instant liberation. the Lord teaches the 21 . l6l Yogin attains Brahman's himself becoming Within: in the Self. then knowledge. bliss. &c. Realisation of the Lord by It Dhyana-Yoga. then renunciation of actions. the proximate means to right knowledge. 25. Those who have renounced knowledge are liberated. leads to moksha step by step : fiyst the purification all of the mind. beings. — they the whose ed. renouncing in right actions. — /. c. SAMNYASA-YOGA. The sins sages attain Brahman's bliss. which is performed in complete dev^otion to the Lord and dedicated to Him. with a view to propound at length the Dhyana-Yoga.

am the Friend of doing good to them without expecting any return for in the heart of all Lying beings. V. external are kept outside mind within These objects which are them. they attain peace. the cessation of all saw^sara. is — the sage who ever (remains thus) verily liberated. the sage leads constant- ly this kind of renouncing he is no doubt liberated : he has nothing else to do for liberation. is sought by their means). whose grace all. meditate upon in the Dhyana-Yoga ? On knowing all Me. I am the dispenser of the all fruits of all actions and the witness of cognitions. having moksha as his highest goal. On knowing Me. the Friend of I beings. controlling the mind and free intellect. A sage (muni) is when a man does not think of one who is given to contemplation all (manana) and who renounces in actions. fear and anger. in the following [DiS. The sound and other sense-objects enter the through the respective organs. equalising senses. — he goes to Peace. Dhyana-Yoga 27-28. When all. the out-going and the in-going breaths which pass through the nostrils. as the God it. from desire. the both as their Lord author and as and austerities. goal.— l62 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. — the Lord of all all sacrifices and austerities. of all sacrifices their am Naraya/ja. What to has he — he whose mind is thus steadily balanced know and 2g. . the Great Lord of worlds. c. few aphoristic verses : Shutting out all external contacts and fixing the sight between the eye-brows. Keeping the body the posture described. his he should always look up to moksha as supreme life. Devata I {i.

action is the means' (vi. were meant that each of them he who wishes to attain to Yoga as well as he who has and attained to ciation. perform it till he is able to attain to Dhyina-yoga vi. — Yoga by meditation. 3) is also said that he who has attained Yoga has only to resort to If it renunciation (sama). who wishes and because to attain it Yoga. (householder) on whom action is enjoined. the Lord extols action in {Objection) : — '•Now. because of the specification that. —which knowledge has been taught is the proximate means which to right in a few aphoristic verses 27-29). action. . (karma) is an external aid to Dhyana-Yoga and a i:^)i- hastha. Dhyiina- Yoga (v. is At the close of the next preceding Discourse. is enjoined should be performed throughout limitation. since action which life. to for the sage . Dhyana-yogfa incompatible with works. if it should produce the intended that . Here commences the Sixth Discourse occupies the position of a commentary thereon.— SIXTH DISCOURSE. ' what is the meaning of the ? till he is able to attain to Dhyana-Yoga' (Ansii'ey): —This objection does ' not apply here. i. Yoga — should it resort to both action and renun- then would be useless to specify that action renunciation are respectively intended for * him who wishes The Samuchchaya-Vadin maintains knowledge should be conjoined with action result. Now. should . and bearing this in mind. DHYANA = YOGA.

Yoga were meant failure in for a grihastha. that the first two classes should be specified and shown separately as distinguished from the third.164 to attain THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. If. as taught by so great an authority as the Veda. those who have attained Yoga should not. no action forms a necessary duty throughout Failures in Yoga are also spoken of here (vi. We have also said i that the obligatory duty (nitya-karma). as may i practise Karma. i8. : [DiS. sion. cannot be produced by an action. one class . 3) — No. then there could be no occasion for the ruin. VI. must produce — cannot of course produce) moksha. attained Yoga. this renunciation leading to the Yoga. may obtain the fruit of Karma. another class comprises persons who have alreadyattained Yoga. or obligatory and disinterested (juYj^). though they Yoga with a view to realise iv. (it An action done. 37. which. in the Sixth Discourse. the true nature of the Self. though a Yoga. being eternal. Vide commentary on belonging to the order ofgriha- . whether interested {kamya). life. Yoga and for him who has them into two distinct classes. or to divide {The opponent) — Among reUgious devotees (asraniins=gncomprises persons who wish to attain Yoga. while the rest are those who neither wish to attain Yoga nor have attained Yoga and it is but right hasthas). that the same person who to wished to attain to Yoga has only renounce action when he has fruition of attained Yoga. must produce a The opponent renounce result * drives at this conclu- sthas. its effect . ' the words ' the sanie ' devotee and the repetition of yoga in the clause when he has attained to Yoga at first imply this. that while the first and third classes of aspirants are bound to perform Karma. 38). * 'for ' (Answer): (in vi. supposition of his inasmuch as he. Thus.

grihastha who engaged works. and that he who does no action or keeps no Yogin or a Sa»/nyasin. .14. say. but right to suppose that such a be ruined. who may prove a failure both ways would {The opponent) : — In vi. {The oppoiunt): The Karma which has been done has — been oflered to the Lord in . Neither would as a failure in both Veda would serve no be proper to speak of agnhastha he would still ways . leads result . etc. 10) then it might be argued that loneliness is enjoined is with a view to prohibit that aidf vi. wife's aid at the not possible to think of any kind of time of Dhyana . (vi. wherefore. the offering of Karma Lord must lead to still greater results. if it were possible. the 165 of its own. since. {The oppojunt) : — It leads only to moksha. for perform Karma and there would therefore be no occasion for a failure therein. life And what taught in without property" — is not compat(vi. {Ansii>er)'. 10. 10 — "without desire. for. such Karma can to the bring no result to the author. It is the verses vi.—^o\ for. i. for . enjoin renun- ciation of action. {Ansiver): — No. merely extols the abandonment of he cannot fulfil That is to Dhyina-\j)ga _as not meant for a in the conditions laid down taught in "the se^el is fn vi. —The man offering of all actions to the to Lord. The question in regarding him not arise.myasin and a Yogin. i. lo. too. is vi. 38). when conjoined with Yoga. {Ansiver): t is further fire cannot be a — No. it purpose.] diivAna-ygga.Introduction. moksha and it is to no other but. ible with the of a gnhastha. otherwise. a man of action (Karmin) it is said said to be both a Sa>. 14. since he has failed in will Yoga.

by v/ay of purifying the mind. which leads one not he alone to is DhyAna-Yoga without fire in due course). 19. for [DiS. said to be a Sa7. per- for the purification of the mind (sattva-suddhi). for the sage who wishes to attain Yoga and has already entered on the career of a grihastha. 16. Lord Himself teaches 71. the who is literally a sa7. the Pura.— l66 THE BIIAGAVAD-GITA. attachment results of actions. order. xii.sin — is a Samnyasin and To forbid the fourth order would contradict what in iv. the Itihasa and the Yoga-sastras. Therefore. who."'' both praises the abandonment of attachment for results of actions and forbids the fourth sruti./as. e. not proper to hold that one and the same proposition. 140. On this ground he and a Yogin by way of praise. a means to is Dhyana-Yoga. ii. said : He who. / It is. without depending on the performs his bounden duty. Thus by way of praise the latter is said to be a Sawmyasin and a Yogin. which is clearly teach that a man who without fire and without action i. but also one devoted to action. action (such as the Agnihotra) performed without a desire for fruit its becomes. VI. Further.znya. moreover. forms an external aid (bahiranga) to Dhyana-Yoga.e a Yogin.myasin and a Yogin. 13. performance of which {i.myasin Renunciation in action « The Blssed Lord I. abandoning attachment forms them for the results of actions. * I'icle note 1 on p. : fruits is of action. -y^lt is who and without action that is both a Sa7. he a Sa7»nyasin and a Yogin fire not he who is without and without action. the Lord cannot contradict the the smriti. .

who neither lights sacrificial fires nor engages other actions. it is plainly taught that a fire Sa«myasin or a Yogin action. in {Objection) : — In the the sninti.] dHyana-yoga. With a view is to impress this truth. such as austerisacrificial fires.: 1. and in the yoga- sastras. and the like which require no help of sruti.myasin because of his renunciation . it is intended to represent a devotee to action as a Sa»myasin and a Yogin a secondary sense of the two terms. — he who performs actions actions in a different superior to those who perform spirit./myasin and a Yogin who ties is without fire action. as a means of attaining some specific immediate thus is end in view. . the attributes of renunciation (sa/«nyasa) and steadfastness of mind (Yoga). the Lord says that he a Sa. and he is He is regarded as a Sa/. — not as a kamya-karma done with a motive. He should be regarded as possessing both the attributes. but different from him the man in question he is not de- pendent on the fruits of actions. of the thoughts concerning the fruits of action regarded as a Yogin because he performs action as a means of attaining to Yoga or because he abandons thoughts concausing unsteadiness of cerning the fruits of actions as . [Ansic'cr) — This in is not to be regarded as a fault for. He who is thus free from a desire for the fruits of actions fire-sacrifice and performs action. 167 is He who desires the fruits of actions is dependent thereon . and without in Not he alone should be regarded as a sa./myasin and a Yogin. is one the fire who is without and without How is it that Lord teaches here a strange doctrine and performs actions is that he who lights ? a Sa//myasin and a Yogin . such as the Agnihotra or as a bounden duty or action (nitya-karma).

who has renounced well as their accessories. actions and ^ —those thoughts causing the desires which impe' A follower of one to action. Thus. know Yoga . For.1 68 THE bhagavad-gIta. unsteadiness of mind. This the Yogin. causes Lord teaches in the following : No devotee to action who has not given up the thought of reward can be a for.Yoga and pure sa/zmyasa so is agent concerned. comes a Yogin who has not renounced thoughts.myasin. says 2..Yoga. it is [Dis. words too. call O Pan^ava. Do thou. renounces thoughts of results. only in a secondary sense that the two It is terms are applied to him. the true renunciation which consists in the abandonment of all action as well as its fruit. on the other hand. The Lord. Do in thou understand that the Yoga. he actions who as is a pure Sa. that devotee to action . mind. be- which they renunciation no one. that which those who are versed the sruti and the smnti declare to be sawmyasa. all abandons thoughts (saw/kalpa) concerning their fruits. not. accordingly. to be that verily. meant that he is in reality a : Sawnyasin and a Yogin. the thought of reward a man of steadfastness . while he performs actions. which consists is in performance of action. Karma. (Question) : — On what point of similarity between Karmaabstaining from of Yoga which action consists in the performance of action (pravntti) in and the pure Sawnyasa which consists (nivntti) is the representation of identity the former with the (Answey) larity : latter is based ? — There all of course a certain amount of simifar as the between Karma. That is to say. VI.

quiescence . to attain to Yoga. a man all of steadfastness.Yoga in (the so far as the devotee in either the. His end Dhyana-Yoga. He now proceeds to show how Karma. when i. he has attained to Yoga. on the other hand. as Sawmyasa with a view to extol it. forms an external aid (bahira//ga) to leads the devotee to Dhyiina-Yoga (in Dhyana-Yoga. a steady-minded mati. 2. to Thus. Action is a stepping-stone to Dhyana-Yoga.. 22 . fruit thoughts concerning of Karma-Yoga has been represented in \i. quiescence (sama) said to be the means. has given up all 1 69 who thoughts of reward will become a the cause of Yogin. action — fr is is said to be the means (of The more thoroughly does he free abstain from action. the likeness between pure Sawmyasa and Karma.. said to be the means. For the same devotee. And the Lord extols it because the Karmi-Yoga. and who wishes to attain to Yoga. having regard case renounces action). to Dhyana-Yoga. is /.—/. c. who is unable to remain steady is in Dhyana- Yoga. due course). For a devotee who wishes is action votee). the more he is om trouble the . For the same (de- when he has is attained to Yoga. and first this the niinU aiiU ihca citaies dcsiru und he attains by action 'which purffies capacity for Dhyana-Yoga.Yoga a means j. — action (karma) said to be the means '•' of attaining his end. who has not already risen to it. inas- much as thought of reward which is unsteadiness has been given up.— 1—^3] DHYANA-YOGA.e.all the abstaining from attaining his end). more the senses are controlled. practised without regard to the fruit of action. For a devotee (muni) who has given up the fruit of action.<:.

keeping the mind steadfast. and the more steadfast his mind remains. . then he said to have become a Yogaruiha. Ac- no wealth equal truthfulness."— (Maz/w ii. VI. When tachment a Yogin. desires spring from thoughts. and of thought yaj/ias are born. regarding it as of no use to him. is Then he to be- Yoga. straightforwardness.: — [DiS. comes a Yogkrudha. then he is said to have attained to Yoga. Yoga ? — The answer follows a : 4. to be one who has attained to Yoga. for the objects of the senses feels no at- such as sound. and re- nunciation of the several actions. — whether gatory) or vaimittika (obligatory and incidental) or hdmya (done with a motive) or pratishiddha (forbidden by law). to Who When to is is a Yogin ? have attained man said to be a Yogariir^ha. as the smnti says : " Verily desire springs from thought (sawkalpa). steadiness.. is not attached to sense-objects and actions. 1/0 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. 175-38). 2). all all — The words " renouncing all thoughts" imply that For. Brahman creatures). desires as well as all actions should be renounced. When a man. one who has attained cordingly it is said in the Mahabharata " For a Brahma»a there viz. to this." 4 — (Santiparva. (knowledge of) oneness and in all homogeneity (of character. nor nitya (obli- thinks that he has to do any action. renouncing all thoughts. and when he has is learned to habitually renounce all thoughts which give rise to desires for objects of this world and of the next. harmlessness.

as passages in the sruti like the following '• show the object of desire. which alone is is the cause of bondage. I7I " O Dssire. 5antiparva. by himself. then the evils self is raised self from out of the numerous of sa/wsara. that he wills. he alone is he alone the friend of the enemy of himself. Let a sawsara. 4-4-5). sa.«sara nay. Yogaru^ha.' of himself. Up. one cannot move should at all. man lift /. is he alone is the friend of himself. let up himself who is drowned in the ocean of let him so train himself as to become a him practise and attain to Yoga. Thou art born of thouj^^ht. — (Mahabha- 177-25).y When by the a man has attained to Yoga. Whereall all by saying that the aspirant renounce thoughts. himself."— (Bri. surrendering fore. wills. The other And enemy who he alone the is outside enemy made an . that Whatever forms and whatever he he acts. There from indeed no other friend that can lead to liberation . and thou shalt cease to exist as well as thy root. of all desires. the On all the abandonment abandonment of actions necessarily follows. ^. Hence is the emphasis is he the friend of himself. the so-called friend is only inimical to him who ' seeks liberation. all thoughts. on Reasoning also leads to the same conclusion. For.: 3 — 5] nilVANA-YOGA. is let him not lower himself. the Lord implies that he should abandon sires de- and all actions as well." rata. Let him not for. 5. Therefore. as the former forms an object of affection. lower himself. I know where I tliy root lies.. sIkiU not think of thee. Let a man raise himself for.

then the Supreme Self actually becomes 8. to him who has not (conquered) himself. in the place of an enemy like the (external) foe."he alone is the friend of himself. his control the aggregate of the body self- But in the case of a man who is not own self does injury to himself. a stone and gold are equal. enemy. in pleasure and pain. who has brought under and the senses. and with wisdom (Yij??ana). what sort of a nian the friend of himself and wliat sort of a man is the. BHAGAVAD-GITA. only by himself. external foe 7. who remains unshaken. whom a lump of earth. ledge" The Yogin whose self is satisfied with knowand wisdom. When the Yogin is satisfied with knowledge (j»ana) of things as taught in the scriptures. as also in honour and disgrace. m . When a man has subdued the aggregate of the body and his mind*(anta/«-kara»a) all is the senses. his own self stands 6. controlled. but." Now it may be asked. just as any him. His self is the friend of himself who is self-controlled. his own self is the friend of himself. when tranquil. he for said to be a saint. he alone the enemy is of himself.— ^72 THE. is Hence the emphasis ' he alone the It enemy of himself. his own Self. VI. when he has renounced actions. may do injur}' to The Self is self-controlled and serene man's Supr- eme steadfast in cold and heat. who is has conquered the senses.ehemy of himself? —The answer follows : To him who has conquered himself by himself. [DiS.' is has been said that .

Not only should he renounce the world when he abandon all practises Yoga.. alone. in ' a mountain- the like. he is so taught. relatives. and having no possessions. then he to said to be saint said have attained samadhi or steadfastness of mind. In seclusion 'in . with the mind and body controlled. who is partial to neither of two contending sides a ncittraV man is one who means well by both the contending sides. the hateful.an . or : he who meditates. and the unrighteous are those who resort to forbidden acts. Wherefore. the neutral...5 — lo] is dhyAna-yoga. the indifferent. [There is also another reading which means 'he is liberated. among those who have attained to Yoga. He is esteemed. ' ' without expecting any service in return an : ' indifferent ' m. free from desire. ( in 173 i.. The righteous are those who follow the Sastras. results. is ' one Directions for the practice of Yoga. to attain the highest 10. Yogin cave. ^foreover. foes. friends.e. . Let the Y'ogin try constantly to keep the mind steady. the righteous. He is esteemed: HeJ_s_the best among the Yogarurfhas. who is of the same mind to the good-hearted. 9.'" Who is of the same mind who thinks not of a man as to wh at he is or what he does A good-hearted man does good to another : . with the realisation his own ex perience) of the things (yukta). but he'should also possessions. and the unrighteous. remaining in seclusion. show that he should resort to renunciation (sa?/. The words seclusion and 'alone' evidently nyasa).

with cloth. in What 12. eating. recreation and the like as aids to Yoga.'/a. sense-objects The self: the anta/j-kara. and other particulars in to describe the effects of Yoga and connection with it. [DiS. all He before should withdraw the mind from concentrating it. with- out looking around An * erect body may be is in it motion . First of : He prescribes a particular mode of sitting as follows 11. what should be the posture of the body 13. skin.. as also to define the characteristic marks of the man who all. or made so by artificial improvements. Here the Lord . on the tip of his nose. the Lord proceeds to prescribe for him who practises Yoga particular modes of sitting. ChanJy either naturally so. gazing the body. Cloth. has attained Yoga.. the inner sense. should be done after establishing the seat ? . ? Now. neither too high nor too low. let him. the mind. seated there on the seat. and kusa grass thereon : . &c. 174 '^^^ BHAGAVAD-GITA. with the actions of the mind and the senses controlled. should be spread on the seat the reverse order of their enumeration here. Having in a cleanly spot established a firm seat. — Listen still : Holding erect and firm. Now. Making the mind one-pointed. The external seat has been described. and neck. hence the qualification were' still.' He to gaze as were on the tip of his nose we have to understand the words ' as'it . for. head. in the sequel. practise Yoga for the purification of the self. VI.

Mahadeva (the Great God). with the mind controlled. life.' ' vi. (by with- drawing it from external objects) and this. thinking on to Me. He should strictly observe the vows of i. &c. de- pends on the steadiness of mind. let him sit. and balanced. As a matter dwell in the of fact. He should also restrain the mind. He should also regard Me as the Supreme. ever of Me. Serene-minded. not the gazing on the tip of his nose'. fearless. /if. within.' / gazing 'means here the fixing of the eye-sight Moreover. 14. repress its He should ever think of Me. on the other hand.] DHYANA-YOGA. very act of ' 1 75 means to prescribe. and also regards Me as the Supreme Being. or be. as will be taught in Self. the Yogin. mind on Making the mind ' Wherefore the words ' as it were ' being understood. the Supreme Lord. attains to the 15. on the other hand. as thinks Now the fruit of Yoga is described as follows : Thus always keeping the mind balanced. the very act of 'gazing on the tip of his nose' were meant here. as the case may the Supreme. He regards either his soveremodifications. The Yogin. but he never regards her as supreme. of course.. ign. A lover may always think of a w^oman. The vow of a godly life (Brahmachari-vrata) doing service to the Guru. looking up the Supreme.e. the Yogin is to concentrate his 25. godly life. but the fixing of the eye-sight within .11 — I^. in eating of the Me as consists in food obtained by begging. . not on the Self. ' the Self. then the mind would be fixed only there. firm in the vow of godly having restrained the mind. the Paramesvara.

and the fourth should be reserved for free motion of air. VI. accrues Yoga which is destructive of pain. the third ((quarter) for water. and who sleeps and who . which cuhninates in Nirva.) Thus : Me. eat at all. nor for him who does not wakeful. then can Yoga be achieved — The answer follows is : To him whose food and recreation are in moderate. nor for nor for him who him who Eats too addicted to too (ever) : much sleep. The " sruti Whatever food is suited to oneself. is much says eats more food than what suited to him. more nor this : The what Yo-jin should therefore eat neither suitable for him. that protects . in [DiS. it injures not.ia in the manner prescribed above. less than is is Or eats it may mean The Yoga not possible for him who more than the quantity pres- cribed for a Yogin in the Yogasastra. Here 16. &c too : Yoga is is is not possible for him who eats much. Peace abiding (moksha. to whose sleep and waking are moderate. A greater quantity injures and a smaller quantity protects not. O Arjuna. follow regulations as regards a Yogin's food.: 176 THE BHAGAVAD-GiTA." — (5atapatha-BrahmaHa). him To him who resorts to food and recreation (such as walking) within prescribed limits." ? How 17. whose exertion actions moderate. is quantity of food thus prescribed : "Half (the stomach) for food and condiments.

Yoga . flicker. 20. In the Self only having abandoned thoughts of external objects. which attained : to one-pointedness or conall centration. When is thought is quiescent. When the mind of Yoga. to him accrues Yoga destructive of the misery of sa. (fit by virtue of the practice of Yoga. become for one. then he Well-restrained: is said to be a Saint. the restrained from all quarters by practice Yogin sees the Self— the Supreme Intelligence 23 . the thinking principle (chitta) remains steadily in the Self.' 'As a lamp in a sheltered spot does not — this has been thought as the simile of a in the Yogin of subdued thought. by those who know the ways of the thinking principle.pointed concentration). Objects of desire : seen or unseen.//sara.: : 15 — 20] at DHYANA-YOGA. does he become a saint (Yukta) ? — The answer When the well-restrained thought is established in the Self only. Having thus. the 1 77 wakes up which is prescribed hours. without longing for any of the objects of desire. This simile has been thought out by those versed in Yoga. restrained by the practice of self. The below simile of such a Yogin's steadfast mind is described ig. practising Yoga Self. like a lamp sheltered from the wind. seeing the Self by the he satisfied in his is own Self. when. Consummation When follows 18.

: lyS (chaitanya) THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. he It : when. having obtained it • it. purified by samadhi. It lies beyond the : He the wise man. That Yoga by a sort of irony. independently of the senses. etc. of its attributes in the verses begin- 20 This severance from union with pain. the real Self. ning with 23. This Yo^a. it is not produced by sense-objects. it — this peculiar state of the Self which has been many : described in so vi. VI. be is That Yoga must be practised with determination and with undeknown. and the All-resplendent Light [DiS. And 22. in Pain : such as may be caused by a sword-cut. called union (Yoga). therein is not moved even by Therein : a great pain. — by self (the anta/. the Lord again refers to the necessity of it. by the mind which has been satisfaction in the Self. . when. can be grasped by reason 21. the gain of the Self. transcending the senses. When .kara/za. and attains And: he knows that Infinite Joy which. (in the Self). the inner sense). When. ken of the senses : . he moves never from That joy can be grasped by reason (buddhi). with a view to show that determination and non-depression (self-reliance) are necessary means to Yoga. Sevctance from union with pain union) is called Yoga (which means Having thus concluded speaking of the effect of Yoga. steady the Reality . pressed heart. he thinks no esta- other acquisition superior to blished.

24.20 — 26. thing. 26. Sound and other objects are the causes which make the mind wander away. by reason keeping the mind firmness .— (A. self of the illusoriness of sense-objects . established in the Self. Further directions concerning the practice of Yoga. the mind can be restrained from objects and firmly. 1 79 the Yoga which can produce the resuhs described above. ( Little ) by little let buddhi held in him withdraw. and by cultivating indifference sense- to worldly objects. thus strives to Now. By whatever it cause the wavering and unthat let steady mind wanders away. that nothing else He exists. as to the Yogin who make the mind abide in the Self.) . let him not think of anyabide in the Self. 25. should bearing in make the mind constantly mind that the Self is all and ' is the highest This form of Yoga. Moreover. the senses from all quarters by the mind . from restrain him and bring it back direct under the control of the Self.] DHYANA-YOGA. Abandoniiif^ without reserve well-restraining all all fancy-born desires. brought back to the Self wherein to abide virtue * In of this practice of Yoga. By the mind : endued with discrimination. through a-n investiga- tion into their real nature. It is a natural weakness of the mind By convincing oneto be thus led away by sense-objects. the The steadiness of Yogin's mind.

the perception of oneness with Brahman. a-dharma. The Self abiding in all beings. the Creator. who is not affected by dharma and become a Jivan-nmhta (a . down to inanimate — he sees he sees that the Self and Brahman (the Absolute) are one. convinced that all is Brahman who has no bbmish whatsoever. attains peace in the Self. the Creator. self steadfast. Whose passion.: in whom all passion. 28. Brahman. and all be- ings (abiding) in the Self. sees he whose self has been made steadfast by Yoga.: ) l8o THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. i. ment and other causes of pain. effect of Dhyana=Yoga. including attach. — as one the and in all the differ- ent beings objects — from Brahma. Thus always keeping the sins. who is blemishless. Supreme Bliss verily comes to this Yogin. same . e. whose passion is quieted. Always : unimpeded by any of the obstacles to Now all will be described the effect of Yoga. has disappeared who has man whose soul is liberated while still alive). who everywhere sees the same. He clump sees all beings of grass — from Brahma. the Yogin. j mind The 27. . whose mind is quite tranquil. [DiS. VI. down to a with the Self .. &c. freed from attains with ease to ( the infinite bliss of contact with the Supreme Yoga. which leads to the cessation of sawsara 29. who has become Brahman.

will DHYANA-YOGA. intent on unity. all . Me. in all beings. Whoso. worships Me who abide in ever his beings. that Yogin dwells in Me. He sees that whatever is pleasant to himself is is pleasant is to all creatures. and that whatever painful to himself painful to all beings. verse referring to the ' knowledge imparted Myself. am of the unity of Self. Me. O Arjuna. be it pleasure or pain. Mc does he vanish. and all other beings. the Self of all. Brahma. effect of that — the Lord : speak of moksha as the knowledge 31. ^Moreover.w 26 — 32'] Now 30. one. in the state of he ever liberated nothing obstructs his path to moksha. the Self of I — hen he has thu s seen the unity of —who am the Isvara leave — never leave his presence . by comparison with himself. nor does that wise man My for his Self and Mine are oneself. in the . all I all. He who in sees and who sees the Self. 32. presence. Vasudeva. This man of right knowledge dwells Vishwu . in is Me. Thus seeing that what is pleasure or . and one's own Self cannot but be manifest to Now. the Self of will in the preceding the seer — namely that Whoso. he is deemed the highest Yogin. sees the same everywhere. to him vanish not. be described the efiect of this l8l perception of the unity of the Self: He who sees Me I everywhere and sees everynor to thing in Me. supreme state. what- mode of life. the Creator.

to is very difficult of attainment. is Doing no harm.: 1 82 THE BHAGAVAD-GtTA.'ish ' to scrape. it is by any means. a kind of shark. as impossible cut it as to cut the restrain tantunaga. means Seeing that the Yoga above described. or pain to all beings. The Lord says : — So it is./a ' is derived from ' k. because of the restlessness (of the mind). This 34. restless. O Destroyer of Madhu. taught by Thee. ' Knsh. — I see not its steady con- tinuance.?a is so called because He and other causes of evil the mind restless. regarded as the and devoted highest to all right knowledge. he among Yogins. the Varu«a-pa5a. as to irrepressible. VI pain to himself alike pleasure . the To mind of such a nature is even more difficult than to restrain the wind. he causes pain to no being he is harmless. is a well-known fact verily. is [DiS. restraint strong and obstinate. Thereof the deem quite as difficult as that of the wind. but also turbulent not possible to restrain It is away all sins from His devotees. The mind I O Krishna. Practice and Indifference are the surest to Yoga. Arjuna wished it. Knsh. This Yoga in equanimity. the Yoga of right knowledge. as you say : . Not only is scrapes or draws — : it agitates the body quite and the senses and makes them subject It is it to foreign influences. is. turbulent. know the surest means of attaining : and said : Arjuna said 33.

methinks. it O be and by indifference may restrained. has not yet been the Yogin's mind strays away from the path the and Yoga at the time of death. But as regards him who 36. works which are and in means of attaining success in this world the other wovld have been renounced. means to moksha. Uncontrolled self: the anta/i-kara?/a not controlled by means gain. . while the right knowledge. * Practice ' consists in constantly repeating the same idea ' or thought regarding some one object of thought.: 32 — 37] 35. Indiffer- ence ' means freedom from It is desire for any pleasures seen or that vikshcpa. is which is the result of perfection in Yoga and which attained of . — It is thus that the mind is is restrained. : O mighty-armed. can be acquired by (proper) means. can be restrained. 183 said The Blessed Lord Doubtless. it him who (often) strives. the mind is hard to restrain and restless son of Kunti. unseen. DHYANA-YOGA. attained through a constant perception of evil in them. of constant practice and by indifference to worldly : Self-controlled who has subdued the mind. by practice and indifference the passage of thought in the direction of external objects. hard to attain b}' for a man of uncontrolled self. after=career. all Failures in Yoga and the On the engaging in the practice of Yoga. Arjuna thought that such a destruction and therefore asked : man would meet . not self-controlled is Yoga. but self-controlled. but by practice.

39. He who strives not. right and during the last — knowledge 38. ? and perplexed Both path to : path to Brahman the path the path of Karma and of Yoga. do Thou dispel completely for none other than Thyself can possibly destroy this doubt. Having failed to attain the fruition of Yoga namely. ' has failed Yoga will not be subject to a lower birth than the present one either here or hereafter. supportless. like a — what end does such a man meet Having failed in ? both. My in son.— 184 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. with memory lost. : [DiS. O Krishna. VI. does he not perish riven cloud. This doubt of mine. . neither in this world nor in the next there destruction for who does good. tata ' ' My son : is ' translated into ' son 'j . The Blessed Lord 40. root . He in the has faith in the efficacy of Yoga but does not strive path of Yoga . ' Tata ' in Sanskrit 'tan') means father because the father propagates (Sk. him none. having failed to attain perfection in Yoga. does he meet ? faith. verily. The Brahman : the path by which Brahman can be reached. ever comes to grief. but who is possessed of whose mind wanders away from Yoga. . Thou alone canst destroy this doubt. None other : be he a R'lshi or a Deva. in the O mighty-armed. Arjuna said ^•j. O Krishna. moments of life his mind wanders away from Yoga. said : O is Partha. He who [Sk. what end.

he is born in a family of wise Yogins like this. a birth hard to obtain in this world. : acting according to the prescribed rules. completely enjoyed the a world. as the context shows. is very only. O son of the Kurus. Even a ? disciple^ though not a son. And for the following reason : 43. The righteous : those who worship by the asva-medha or horse-sacrifice. 24 . will happen to him Having attained to the worlds of the righteous. What. and having dwelt there for eternal years. The pun 42. is Since thus the father himself the son. more difficult to obtain than the one mentioned above. There^he gains touch with the knowledge in the for was acquired more t han before that former body and strives perfection. Motx than before : with greater vigour than that with which he strove 44. 40. of a sawnyasin engaged path of (Dhyana-) Yoga. Or else he is born in quite a different family. in the former birth. verily. in a is Yogins. he who failed in Yoga is reborn in a house of the pure and wealthy. This in the is said. he is Having pleasure (he is entitled to) in such reborn in a house of the pure and wealthy. then.37 —44'] DIIYANA-YOGA. &c. addressed as son because he is like a son. that of poor family wise Yogins. the son also is is called tata. Else. is By that very former practice he borne on. of poor A birth in a family of this sort. This. 1 85 himself in the form of his son.

But on the exhaustion of adharma effects it : t]ie_tendency caused is by Yoga begins produce its that to say. it is not liable to destruction though may have in the long been in absyance. is best of the Yogins. Yoga is failed in borne on towards perfecIf by the force of the practice of the former birth. then. the tendency of Yoga prevails. and superior men of knowledge . THE BHAGAVAD-GiTA. A Yogin is deemed superior to even to men of austerity. a many little births. from the effects of the observance of Vedic Karma what need is there to say that he who knows Yoga and : practises it in steady devotion will be free from its effects ? The And why 45. 46. as the context shows.— l86 . though unwilling. even the tendency born of Yoga to certainly overpowered by a-dharma. purified from sins and perfected in the course of Veril}-. certainly. only wishing to even he will free himself from know its nature. [DiS. of a the life Yogin preferable ? Yogin who strives with assiduity. then. c. births he many \Yherefore. thus acquired obtains rig ht in Then he knowledge and reaches the Supreme (loal. Thus he i. he had done no unrighteous deed (a-dharma) which could overpower the tendency caused by the practice of Yoga. and by the aggregate perfected. In the course of many is births he acquires facility in facility Yoga by little. know of Yoga rises The man who tion Even he who merely wishes to superior to the Word-Brahman. then reaches the Supreme Goal. a sawnyasin who tlie has failed in Yoga —-who works path of Yoga. If a-dharma be is stronger. VI. Word-Brahman (5abda- Brahman).

he is deemed A Me : as most devout. teachings of the sastra. inner self abiding Me: The anta/z-kara-va kept stead- fast in Me. etc. Of all Yogins. worships Me by The with his inner abiding in Me. therefore be thou a Yoi^in. Arjuna. . \^isudeva. Action: such as Agnihotra.^-. self full of faith. those Yogins who in meditate upon Rudra. Aditya. whoso.44 —47*] he is DIIVANA-YOGA. also iSj superior to men of action . Knowledge: of O tlie. worship of the sacred 47. . fire.

and such and such abides in Me. power. as a means of attaining that The Yogin. grace and other attributes " The Lord 2. thou hear. strength. combined with experience. on all the other hand. in full and finding refuge Me. without being asked. you also. 47 an occasion for further interrogation. Me undoubtingly. which being known. Having given is and so My Real Being. in O Partha. possessed of such attributes as will be mentioned below. without doubt. means with his thought intent on Me to what 1 am going to say as to how will. that shall fully teach thee this knowledge . or to a gift or the like. thus acting. other listen Now.SEVENTH DISCOURSE. abandoning alone." . Realisation of the Lord by meditation. ." the is : the one whose inner self Lord said : said The Blessed Lord 1. the Supreme Lord. know Me in full. resorts to Me alone. The Yogin's mind practises is intent on Me. VIJNANA = YOGA. nothing more besides here remains to be known. how that do without doubt thou shalt know Me. He Yoga or steadfastness of mind and finds refuge in Me alone. practising Yoga. I is you will know so and so only. With the mind intent on Me. Supreme Lord. the end resorts to end. and wishing to teach. that " so in vi. an austerity. possessed of infinite greatness. some action such He who as seeks a or human to Agnihotra.

element of earth and so water.— I — 4. l8g And this knowledji^e concerning Me. etc. thought (Manas) and reason (Buddhi). Thought (Manas) stands Ahamkara or egoism reason (Buddhi) which is Mahat principle. only one perchance knows me they are indeed perfect who strive for moksha. conjoined . fire. He who knows Me knowledge is in truth becomes omniscient. fire. I shall relate to thee in full. for the the cause of Aha7«kara . Perfect : perfect. ? — Listen Among : thousands of men. In the latter — portion of the verse the Lord extols the knowledge which is going to be taught. as borne out by My own experience. ether. its c?LUse . water. Nothing more no other means to a human end. and Aha. one perchance . Earth. . Prakriti divided eightfold. the Unmanifested. mixed with poison is itself called poison.] VIJNANA-YOGA. with a view to prepare the hearer to follow it. in Having prepared the hearer for the teaching by inducing him a taste for it. conjoined with Avidya or Just as food which is nescience. Evolution of the Universe out of Divine Prakriti. the Lord proceeds thus : 4. strives for perfection even among those who strive in and are truth. for the subtile Earth stands the rudimental element or Tan- Prithivi-tanmatra or the subtile rudimental .«kara Avyakta. air. so the Avyakta. How 3. the First Cause. air and ether stand for the for for the Tanmatras of water. and is Thus the therefore productive of great results very hard to obtain. egoism (Ahamkara) — thus is My matra.

called here ism find. There : is naught else is higher than I. but as distinct from this know thou life. My inferior Nature (Prakriti) and My superior Nature are the (Prakriti). vasana. VII. or latent unconscious impression. itself constituting Prab'iti is the : bondage of it is but the superior pure My it. I. of Aha7//kara. by w^hich this universe upheld. am Wherefore.igO with the THE BIIAGAVAD-GITA. beings. Prakyiti. is am the origin and the end of the whole That to say. the omniscient Isvara. through this twofold Prakriti. the very is O mighty-armed. the Kshetraj/^a. evil. Know So. This the inferior (Prakriti) . am the source and dissolution of the whole universe. is the impelling cause of Ahawkara inasmuch as Egoall. womb all of all Because my Prakriti is the womb of universe. the Thus divided eightfold My Maya is belonging to the Isvara. 7. This Prak. My superior Prakriti. matter (Kshetra) and creatures. we is from our ordinary experience. that egoism the cause is of the activity of every being. O Dhana7?jaya of in Me all this woven as clusters gems on a string. As a matter of fact. very Self.'iti is inferior. is itself [DiS. that which enters within the whole universe and sustains 6. 5. that by which life is sustained. impure. I that all beings have their birth in these. the cause of the universe. These. I spirit (KshetraJ7/a). . productive of sa^z/sara.

or clusters of beads on a string. So as am humanity all men. am the syllabic the Vedas. I Prawava in all Vedas are woven. am the austerity in ascetics. is The essence of water sapidity. : alone Avell am Wherefore all beings as as the whole of this universe are woven in Me. The . the vitality in all be- and the brilliance ings. O son of Kunti. hu- manity in men. in — Just the as am the the sapidity in waters. I — Listen I am the sapidity in water.e. — So I in all cases. is la Me as odour the earth . sound in ether. am tliat in a person which In I\Ie makes in that person regarded a human Sound being. am the light moon and in all I am the Pra/^ava.. is humanity : persons are woven. as a cloth in the warp. i. the Supreme Lord the cause of the universe. as sound Tdcasa is the essence of iikasa q. The Divine Principle penetrating the Universe. And and I I am the agreeable odour in the earth in the fire.4 — 9'] VIJN ANA-YOGA. Me woven. that the syllable Om the I Vedas : in Me who am also. I am the light in the Oiii in all moon and the sun. is IQI There I no other cause besides Me. woven. so the sun . —-OdouY by itself is agreeable the disagreeableness of odour in the earth and of the like being due to the combination of one element with some other element or elements under the influence of the avidya anda-dharma of individual souls in the world. What is are in Thy Thee attributes ? showing that the whole of : this woven 8. In Me who am that I sapidity waters are woven.

In Me as austerity the ascetics by which are woven. And of the energetic am . Passion senses. they are in me.. desire much of eating and drinking. Moreover. which is necessary for the bare sustenance of the body. or of Tamas. and which result of the respective come into existence as the karma of living beings. I am not in them. live. for instance. gent. know them to proceed from 12. that beings 10. beings lord of O the Bharatas. And whatever beings are of Sattva or of Rajas or of Tamas. as the eternal seed I am the intelligence of the intellibeings . senses. the discrimi- native power of the anta/j-kara»a. Vll« agreeableness thus spoken of with reference to the earth appHes also to the agreeableness of the sapidity in waters. or of Rajas. and so on. proceed from . 11. (Kama) I : thirst : for objects not present to the Attachment (raga) love for those presented to the is am that energy which necessary for the bare sustenance of the body. the etc. Intelligence .Tg2 THE BHAGAVAD-GiTA. all — 1 am the vitality in all beings. So I am : the desire not opposed to the I teaching of the scriptures for that am. whether formed of Sattva. I the energy de(all) void of passion and attachment I am the desire unopposed to and in dharma. O Partha. Seed : the cause of growth. Me : still. [DiS. of all Know Me. the bravery of the brave. Know that all beings. certainly not that which causes thirst and attachment ( for sense-objects ) in the case of worldly mortals.

distinct from them and immutable. devoid of all attributes . which pertain How 14. all this world knows not Me as 13./as. to Maya How overcome it. they cross over this Illusion. the Lord. intelligent and free who is the . they cross over the Illusion which deludes all living beings: they are liberated from the bondage of sawsara. On the other hand.^9 — 4'] VIJNANA-YOGA. whoever abandon all formal religion (Dharma) and completely devote themselves to Me. like am not subject them mortal beings (sa. they are subject to Me : : they are dependent on Me. which are all modifications of gu7?as. their own Self. ? — What — Listen.«si'irins). by knowing the whom due to they might burn up the evil which is seed of sa/wsara. hard to surmount. Immutahle : devoid of such changes as birth and the to all things in the world. formed of Vishnu. the Lord of Illusion. as love. I I93 Me. is made seek up of gu»as. Me. to Though they thus proceed from Mc. 25 . Such being the case. Whoever Me alone. All living beings are deluded by such things hatred and attachment. . Self of all beings. gu. pure. then can one surmount this Divine Illusion (Maya) of Vish. like.ai made up of the three gu7?as ? — Listen : Verily this Divine Illusion of Mine. is inherent in This Illusion (Maya). who is thus the Supreme Lord who by nature is eternal. The Lord now expresses His regret that the world does not understand Him. is this ignorance on the part of the world Deluded by these three (sorts of) things composed of gunas.

to all in this world dear to every one. VII. as the Self of the wise man. iiise man he who knows the real nature of Vish. — the distressed. why do not all resort to Thee only — Listen : 15. as knowing the truth. he who Since I worship. My very Self and is therefore very dear to . Illusion.m. those who resort to Thee ? cross over the Illusion. is ever steadfast./a. I One is superior to all others. and he is dear to Me. 17. men of good deeds Four kinds of virtuous men worship Me. Not Me do the evil-doers seek. Of them the wise man. wisdom by following the ways of the Demons. Naraya. is — And the wise man Me. the four. : men. and the like. the Bharatas. a tiger. the Demons Four classes But as 16. deprived of Me. devoted to the One. am am excessively dear to the wise man. the Supreme Lord. is Therefore Vasudeva. The tmys of are cruelty. ever steadfast and for. The distyessed he who The is in distress. excessively dear am Of I to the wise. Knowledge : of the real nature of the Lord. that the Self is — It is well-known dear to him. O Arjuna. the vilest of men. illness or the like. overpowered by a : robber. is devoted to the his very Self. the wise man. and devoted to the One. O lord of : the seeker of wealth. to the best of of devotees. untruth. finding no other object of Thus.194 If '^^^ BHAGAVAD-GITA. and the wise man. excels. [DiS. the deluded. the seeker of knowledge.

? Noble indeed arc I those but the wise steadfast in man. the innermost Self (Pratyagatman). I95 Then the three others../a. the man of mature wisdom resorts to Me. one perchance strives perfection " 3. mind.e. are not ? dear to Viisudeva 18. (realising) that Vasudeva he is the noble-souled (Mahatman). — How — Realising ? . — Why so — ? It is my con- viction that the wise from Me. faith that /The wise man is the very Self. : man is excessively dear to Me. not different man strives to reach Me. the distressed and the rest. those three also are dear There is no devotee of Mine but is dear to Me.) . firm in the j he himself is the than He. is a Mahatman. the man of is wisdom comes the all : Me. Naraya. that Vasudeva is the i /He who thus comes to Me. the Self of All. a man of high soul there is no other either equal to him or superior to him. — What all then . . the Supreme Brahman. is again extolled : At the end of to many births. deem. this difference the wise Me.15 — 19] VIJNANA-YOGA. All. for. it has indeed been said that " for among thousands (vii. the very Self. Vasudeva. as j 1 the highest goal to be reached. He seeks Me Lord Vasudeva and is no other only. very hard to find. Vasudeva. Therefore such a man is very hard to find of men. The wise man ig. goal. — Not is so. he resorts to Me alone as the unsurpassed These are to all noble indeed . of ^At the end many births occupied in spiritual regeneraj tion as preparatory to the attainment of wisdom. There is. i. however.

in this From the God worshipped form he obtains the objects of his desire as ordained . 21. faith By whatever to a man is naturally actuated and seeks worship a particular form of Devata.196 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. he engages in the worship of that form of God. resort to other Self. Their desires for progeny. and they Gods (Devatas). VII. confirm his faith in the worship of same form. Of these lustful men. Now will be shewn the cause of (the people) not seeing that the Self or Vasudeva alone is the All : 20. Those whose wisdom has been constrained by their cattle. that same faith of his I unflinching. own nature. Possessed of that faith he engages in the . by that peculiar tendency (sawskara) which they acquired in the previous births. faith Whatever devotee seeks to worship with what form soever. [DiS. 22. Possessed of that faith ordained by Me. worship of these Gods they being constrained to do so by their own nature (praknti). other than Vasudeva. worship of that (form) sires. The ignorant worship inferior Gods. led away by this or that desire resort to other Gods. the in rites peculiar to the They engage . engaged in this or that rite. svarga and the like deprive them of their power of discrimination. of make in Whatever form that God I (Devata) a man of desire worships devotion and faith. thence he obtains his de- these being indeed ordained by Me.

Worshippers of .. . — Thus does the Lord express His regret.20 — 24] VIJNANA-YOGA. mean that desires But desires can be beneficial only in a secondary sense for. (which accrues) to those men of small intellect. the Omniscient. therefore. ! is very miserable. do they not come unto : Me ? — it may be asked. into manifestation. full Because they are unwise and the of desires and resort to means 23. unsurpassed nature. . strictly speaking. know lie- cause their desires are all ordained by the Lord Himself. therefore the devotees are sure to obtain them. knowing not My high- immutable. Gods (Devatas) go to Gods (Devatas) votees come unto Me. of attaining finite results. Not knowing my higher nature I ignorant think that tion. they are beneficial to nobody. Though there is My de- ^ the same amount Alas it of exertion (in the two y i/O^ kinds of worship). The answer follows The foolish regard Me as the unmanifested coming er. To what is their ignorance due ? — Listen . though am the ever luminous Lord. . Another interpretation the last part of the verse is also given which would make are beneficial. I 1 97 by Me. people do not resort to Me so that they may attain infinite results. as the precise relation between actions and their alone fruits. Why 24. the Supreme Lord. That result indeed is finite. have just Supreme Self. the now come into manifestaas the I having been unmanifested hitherto.

.Maya is the Maya which is none other than the Yoga or union of the three guwas. O harasser of thy foes. just as the glamour (maya) caused by ledge —the a juggler (mayavin) does not obstruct his own knowledge. subject to My control. beings are subject to illusion at birth. whereby deluded. My real nature. the past and the present and the future beings. veiled (as I am) by Yoga-Maya. is Mine. except that one man who worships want of Me and seeks refuge with Me. Yoga. I am manifest who are my devotees. Yoga is the firm will of the Lord or Isvara. root of ignorance. O Arjuna. I know. — That Yoga. This deluded world knows not Me. but Me nobody for knows. The Illusion or veil only to a few — thereby spread are deluded and is called know Me Yoga-Maya. [DiS. " What ? is that obstacle to their all know- ledge of are born 27.Maya by which I am veiled and on account of which people do not recognise Me. " creatures that know Me not — Listen all : From the delusion of pairs caused by desire and aversion. c. unborn and imperishable. I THE BMAGAVAD-GlTA.igS 25. Wherefore. Vllg am not manifest to all. I am not nianJest to all people that . it cannot obstruct My know- knowledge of the Isvara. I am veiled by YogaMaya. Just of My real nature. 26. O Bharata. as such. i. and. of the possessor (or wielder) of the Maya. Wherefore people not as unborn and imperishable. knowledge Nobody knows Me. — Or. may be asked. is to say. nobody worships The It Me.

there cannot indeed Supreme Reality. and which. the Self. are. All creatures coming into existence are born its subject to this delusion. arise a knowledge of things as they . 199 to each and aversion which are opposed other like heat and cold. Those persons of good deeds good deeds causing purity whose sin has almost come to an end are freed of mind from the delusion of pairs spoken of above and worship Me. Who then are free from the delusion of pairs and as their know to Thee and worship Thee Teaching (5astra) 28. when all and aversion arise on the occurrence of pleasure and be- pain or of the causes thereof. are known as pairs (dvandva). an end. and therefore worships Me not as the Self. Divine worship leads to realisation. They resolutely abandon all else. firm .25 — 28.] The very desire VIJNANA-YOGA. who are freed from the delusion they worship Me with a firm resolve. they cause delusion in ings and create obstruction to the rise of a knowledge of the by subjugating to themselves the To one whose mind is subject intelligence of those beings. occur to every being in desire its turn. — — their Highest Self. to the passions of desire and aversion. even of the external world is and it needs no saying that to a man whose arise a intellect overpowered by passion there cannot Innermost Self. arising in connection with pleasure and pain and their causes. the Lord says: sin has Those mortals of pure deeds whose to come of pairs. Now. intelligence obscured Wherefore every being has . knowledge of the in its inasmuch as there are many obstacles way. by the delusion of pairs that I and thus de- luded it knows not am the Self. ? Self according the — In answer to this.

and they 30. strive full. steadfast mind. in the conviction that the Supreme Reality and no other. realise in Me even at the time of departure. That. the individual Those who. they Self. Those who and in realise Me ( in the Adhibhuta (physical region). object do they worship ? — Listen all : Whoever resorting to Me strive for libera- tion from decay and death. realise in full that Brahman.200 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. the Supreme (Para) Brahman. steadfast in Me. with the mind Lord. know all about action (karma). VII. ^- . " This is [DiS. They realise the Reality underlying the full Innermost individual Self (adhyatma). in the Adhidaiva (the divine re- gion) the Adhiyajwa region of Sacrifice )." the Supreme realise in in for liberation from decay and death. and action." With what 29.

In vii 29. What is that Brahman ? ? ? the Individual Self (Adhyatma) What What is is ? about action (Karma). to be and how at the time of death by the self-controlled ? art Thou known in their The Lord proceeds order : to answer these questions The Blessed Lord said Brahman is the Imperishable (Akshara). He who dwells in the body). the Imperishable. The : offering is which causes the origin of physical beings called action (Karma). Supreme. The Ego is said to be the Individual Self (Adhyatma. O Aladhusudana. Accordingly Arjuna proceeds to ask thus : Arjuna said I : — 2. the . ABHYA5A = Y0QA. it at the 26 . the 3. O Purushottama And what declared to be the physical region (Adhibhutal is the divine region (Adhidaiva) said to is And what be ? And how and who Adhiyajna (the Entity concerned with Sacrifice) here in this body. is Brahman Self the Akshara. 30 such things have been mentioned by the Lord as have given occasion to Arjuna to put a question. The seven things to be realised by meditation. Supreme is (Paramatman) the sruti says " O Gargi.EIGHTH DISCOURSE.

the syllable Imperishable." (Bn. that every individual first said to be Adhydtma: which shows as the Innermost Self in the body and turns out in the end is to be identical with the known by the term ' Supreme Adhyatma '. itself is existing as the Ego. literally. held in heaven and earth remain.202 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. The Adhiyaj. come into existence. (than to the 'Om'). i. the latter subsequently specified (viii.j the . who transcends all.' the Brahman" ' Om " . e. here in the body. 3-8-9). Reality. 13). i. cakes and the like to the Gods (Devatas). and which causes the origin of for. command that Imperishable Paramatman. and other regions of the perishis 4. after passing through rain life. O best of the embodied. that Purusha is. by which every thing lies in is filled. as the Pratyagatman. the Brahman. animate and inanimate. The physical region (Adhibiita) is able existence. The same Supreme Brahman Innermost body. VIII. ' Karma ' . forms the seed as were of beings it is in virtue of this act that all beings. Upanishad. as the in Self. it is known by all the term . And the epithet supreme applies better ' to Brahman. syllable " Akshara' does not here mean the is thus . ' their places. of every thing that has birth. of this Akshara. The Adhibhuta is that which gathers itself round the whole animated creation and perishable existence. it all creatures. and Purusha or the Soul the di- vine region (Adhidaivata). (pri=to fill) or that which the body (pur). — "Uttering the syllable 'Om. for. is composed of the whole c. The sacrificial act which consists in offering cooked rice. the [DiS.ia (Entity concerned with Sacrihce) is Myself.

be performed by the body. 1-7-4) He to is verily Myself. Being: a particular Devata or Deity. end a man Him alone. the Divine . Dii/elt Him alone Only : the Being thought and no other." I (Taittiriya-Sawhita. it said to be inherent in and as such 5.3 — 7-] ABHYASA-YOGA. he reaches My being there no doubt in this. And whoso. necessary. departure. may be said to rest in the body. being : Vish/Hi.m. body and goes is forth. — As an act of it is sacrifice (yaj//a) has it. of Constant meditation Not 6. In as to whether he reaches or not. : to Me alone does this rule apply but also at the Of whatever Being thinking leaves the body. T\\& Adkiyajnaxs sacrifice. Because thus the of the final thought determines the character body to be attained next. Soul abiding in the Sun i^ (Aditya). the Sustainer and the Stimulator of the sense'- organs of all living beings. O son of Kunti. of life's At the end: at the time of. the He who identifies himself . . reaches he by whom the thought of that Being has been constantly dwelt upon. the Universal 2tf3 Ilira/jyaj^arbha. npon : constantly meditated. Therefore fight : times do thou meditate on Me and with mind and reason fixed on Me thou shalt doubtless come to Me alone. alone. at all 7. am the Deity concerned with all acts of sacrifice in the body. at the time of death. thinking of Me Me : leaves the . this : My is My real being as Vish. with all : acts of Deity named Vishjui verily the sruti says " Yaj«a (Sacrifice) is Vish/ai. the Supreme Lord.

204
Meditate:

THE BHAGAVAD-GITA.
According to the Teaching
as meditated upon by thee.

[DiS.VIII
(sastra).

Fight

:

do thou perform thy proper duty of fighting. Me: Vasudeva.

Come

to

Me

:

The Divine Being
Moreover,
8.

to be meditated upon.

Meditating with the mind engaged in the
of constant practice, not passing over to any
else,

Yoga
thing

one goes to the Supreme Purusha, the

Resplendent,

O

son of Pritha.
of one

Pyactice consists in the repetition
idea, uninterrupted

and the same
to
is itself

by any other thought, with reference
your thought. Such a practice
the
to

Me, the

sole object of

said to be Yoga.

With

Yoga, not passing over
of the

mind thus solely engaged in any other object, the Yogin who
acharya

meditates according to the teaching of the scripture and
teacher

— of

the sastra and

— reaches
Orb.
:

the

Purusha, the Transcendental Being

in the Solar
?

What
g

sort of

Purusha does he reach
meditates

— Listen
the

10.

Whoso
all,

on

Sage, the

Ancient, the Ruler, smaller than an atom, the Dis-

penser of

of unthinkable

nature,

glorious like

the Sun, beyond the darkness, (whoso meditates on

such a Being)

at the

time of death, with a steady
of Yoga,

mind endued with devotion and strength

well fixing the life-breath betwixt the eye-brows,

he reaches that Supreme Purusha Resplendent.
Sage
:

the Omniscient.
:

The

Rtilev

:

of the

whole world.

Dispenser

who

allots to all living beings actions
It is

and

their

results in all their variety.

very

difficult

for

anybody

7

II.]

ABHYASA-YOGA.

205

to conceive of

His form though

it

exists.

Like the Sun,

He

is gloyiotis

with the splendour of His Eternal Intelligence
is

(Nitya-Chaitanya) which
nescience (Aj;/ana).
steadiness of
the

beyond the davkness of delusion or of Yoga consists in the

The

siiciigth

mind which
practice of)
in

results

from the

after-effects of
first

(constant
is
;

samadhi.
lotus

/At

the

mind

'

(chitta)

subdued
then,

the

of the

heart

(hndaya-

pu^rfarika)

by means

of the up-going narfi (sushumna),

after gradually obtaining control

over the several stages of

matter (earth and the other four rudimental elements), the
life-breath of the

heart

betwixt the eye-brows.

drawn up and carefully fixed By this means the wise man, the
is

Yogin, reaches the Supreme Purusha,

who is resplendent.

/

Meditation of the Divine in the Pranava.

The Lord now
the
in the sequel,

assigns a

name

to that

Brahman whom

Yogin wishes to reach by means

to be pointed out again

and who

will be

now

described in such terms
:

as

'

being declared by the knowers of the Veda,' &c.
II.

That Imperishable Goal which the knowers of the Veda declare, which the self-controlled and the passion-free enter, which desiring they load the godly life, That Goal will I declare to

thee with bre\ity.

Those who understand the teaching of the Veda declare the Imperishable as devoid of any attribute whatsoever.
" This verily is that (which you wished to The sruti says know of), the Imperishable, O Gargi, as the brahma;/as ( the knowers of the Brahman ) declare, not gross, not subtle'" &c, (B>'i-Upa. 3-8-8.) The sawnyasins, ever con:

'

trolling themselves, free

from passion, enter the Imperish-

206
able, on

THE BHAGAVAD-GITA.
attaining to right knowledge.

[DiS. VIII.

And
life

desiring to

know

the Imperishable they enter on godly

(Brahmais

charya)

with

a

Garu.

Of That
I

Goal which

called

Akshara, the Imperishable,

shall tell thee with brevity.

Having

started with the

words "
'

He who
'

verily

among
to

men

meditates on the syllable
to
?

Om

till

death, what region
said

will he thereby attain

"

he (Pippalada)
this,
'

him

(Satyakama)
nishad, 5

:

"

O

Satyakama,
is

the

Brahman, the
(Prasna-Upa-

Higher and the Lower,

the syllable

Om

'."

was subsequently said: " He who will meditate on the Supreme Purusha by the three-lettered syllable Om '—he is borne up by the Sama-hymns to the Brahma-loka, to the region of Brahman." {Ibid, S'S)i, 2)
;

and

it

'

Again, having started with the words " Elsewhere than
in

dharma and elsewhere than
;

in

a-dharma,

tell

me what
for),

thou seest

" (Ka^ha-Upanishad, 2-13), thesruti says, "that
all

goal which

the Vedas speak

of
of,

{i.e.,

are

intended

which
the

all

the austerities speak

desiring

which they lead
I

life

of
:

Brahmacharya

(celibacy), that goal
"

tell

thee in

brevity

It is this,

the syllable 'Om.'

{Ibid 2-14).
'

In such passages as these, the syllable
either as an expression of the

Om

',

regarded

Para-Brahman

or as a

symbol

of

Him

like

an

idol, is

intended for persons of dull and midof
;

knowing the Para-Brahman and the contemplation of the 'Om' is said to produce moksha Now, the same contemplation at a subsetjuent period.
dling intellects as a

means

(conjoined with firmness in Yoga)

of

the

syllable
'

'Om',
'

productive of mukti at a subsequent period

— the Om

forming, as shown above, a means of knowing the Para-

Brahman
as well as

described here

(viii. g,

11)

— has to be taught here

some minor matters connected with the main


II


:

14.]

ABHYASA-YOGA.

207

subject.

With

this view, the

Lord proceeds with the sequel
all

12-13. fined

Having closed
in the heart,

the gates, having con-

mind

in the head,

engaged

in

having fixed his life-breath firm Yoga, uttering Brahhe
reaches
the

man, the one-syllabled 'Om,' thinking of Me, whoso

departs,

leaving the body,

Supreme Goal.

/ Having

closed

all

the avenues of knowledge and having
in

concentrated thought

the lotus

of the heart,

and with

thought thus controlled, he ascends by the NcWi which
passes upwards from the heart, and then fixing life-breath
in

the head, he utters the syllable

'

Om

',

the appellation of

the

Brahman, and meditates on l\Ie./-' Leaving the hody^ shows the mode of departure. The departure takes place by the Self leaving the body, not by the Self being destroyed.

No

re= birth on attaining to tlie Divine Being.

Moreover,
14.

to

Whoso constantly thinks of Me and long, him I am easily accessible, O son of Pritha, to
thinks of Me,
the

the ever-devout Yogin.

He who
not for six

Supreme Lord, long

i.

e.,

out

life,

months or a year, but uninterruptedly throughto that Yogin who is ever steadfast in thought, I
accessible.

am

easily

This being

so,

therefore,

without

thinking of another, one should ever dwell steadfast in Me.
It

/

may be
;

asked, "

What
of

if

Thou art
is

easily accessible ?"

Listen

I

shall tell
:

you

what use

My

being thus easily

accessible

:

2o8
15.

THE RHAGAVAD-GtTA.

[DiS. VIII.

Having attained to Me, they do not again attain birth, which is the seat of pain and is not
eternal, they

having reached highest perfection. Me, the
Isvara, having reached
is

Having
seat of

attained to

My
the

being, they are not again subject to birth. Birth here

ah pain arising from the body,

etc.,

and

is

of an evercalled

changing nature.

Having reached the highest stage
attain

moksha, they do not
other hand,
earth).

birth again.

Those, on the
(to

who do

not attain to Me, return again

the

Do

those again return

who have reached any

other being

than Thyself?
16. (All)

— Listen:
worlds including the world of

Brahma
but,

are subject to returning again,

O
of

Arjuna
is

;

on

reaching Mc,

O

son of Kunti, there

no

rebirth.

The Day and the Night

Brahma. Brahma

Why
How?
17.

are

all

the worlds including the world of

subject to returning?

— Because

they are limited by time.

night

They know
is

— those
that the

people

who know da}' and day of Brahma is a thousand
is

yugas long and the night

a thousand yugas long.

Those persons who to compute Time know that Brahma's day is a thousand yugas long, and that His night is of the same
the Prajapati, the Viraj.
duration as His day.

Brahma know how

Because the worlds are thus limited

by time, therefore they return again.

What

takes place during the Prajapati's day and what

takes place during His night will

now

be described

:

15

— 19]
18.

ADHYASA-YOGA.

209-

From

the Unmanifestcd

all

the manifesta;

tions proceed at the

coming on of day

at

the
in

coming on of night they dissolve there what is called the Unmanifested.

only,

The Unmanifested ( Avyakta ) is the sleeping condition of the Prajapati who is asleep. Out of That, all manifestations (vyaktisj, all creatures, unmoving and moving (sthavara
and ja;/gama), are manifested
at the

i^

when Brahma awakes. So, when Brahma goes to sleep,
there only,
in

at
all

coming on of day, the coming on of night,

i. e., i. e.,

the manifestations dissolve the one already

what

is

called Avyakta,

spoken

of.

With a view

to

avoid the fallacious implication that a

man

reaps the fruits of what he has not done, or that he does not

reap the fruits of what he has done, with a view to show that
the teaching of the scripture concerning bondage

(bandha)

and

lib3ralio:i

(moksha) has a purpose

to serve,

and with a
(nescience)

view further to teach detachment from sawsira by shovving that, as the effect of

karma caused by avidya

and other sources
into being again

of evil, all creatures involuntarily

come

and again and dissolve, the Lord says

ig.

This samj multitude of beings, having come

into being again

and again,

is

dissolved

at

the

coming on of night, .not of their will, O son of P/'itha, and comes forth at the coming on of da}'.
This multitude of beings comprising those that move as
well as those that do not
in

— the same multitude that existed the preceding kalpa or age, and no other — involuntarily
into being at the

comes

coming on

of day,

and

is

dissolved

again at the coming on of night, at the close of the day.
27

:

210

THE BHAGAVAD-GITA.
it

[DiS. VIII.

Again, at the coming on of day,
existence.

involuntarily

comes

into

The Highest Goal
In
the
viii. 13, etc.,

— how reached.
Now, with
with a view

has been shown the way, by which to reach

Imperishable (Akshara) described above.

a view to indicate ths nature of the Akshara, thus to specify that so and so
is

the thing to be reached

by

this

path of Yoga, the Lord proceeds as follows

20.

ing,

But that other eternal Unmanifested Bedistinct from this Unmanifested (Avyakta),
all

He
'

does not perish when

creatures perish.
is

But' indicates that the Akshara who
is

to

be described

now

distinct

from the .Vvyakta.

Being: the Supreme,

the Para-Brahman, called the Akshara.

Though

distinct

from the Avyakta, one
nature as the

may suppose that He is of the same Avyakta. To remove this impression, the

Lord

qualifies

Him

by other
'

',

meaning thereby that

He is

of a different nature from the Avyakta.
ed, imperceptible to the

He

is

unmanifest-

senses.

He
is

is

distinct
itself,
is

from the
the seed

Avyakta mentioned
is

abov-e,

which

Avidya
;

of the whole multitude of created beings

that

to say,

He
does

of quite a different nature from

the

Avyakta.

He

not perish
21.

when

all
is

beings from Brahm'i downwards perish.
called the

What

Unmanifested and the
is

Imperishable, That, they say,

the highest goal

;

which having reached none
highest place.
Th.ii
:

return.

That

is

My

ishable,

Avyakta which is called Akshara, the Imperthe Unmanifested Bsins:. Havins: reached that o
that

:

19

23.]

ABHYASA-YOGA.
to sa;«sara, the

211

state,

none has returned
Vish;/u's)

mundane

life.

That

is INIy {i. e.

Supreme Abode.

The means
out
22.

of attaining to that state will

now be

pointed

Now,

that

Highest Purusha,

O

son of

Pntha, within
this
is

Whom all beings dwell, by Whom all
is

pervaded,
is

attainable by exclusive devotion.

Purusha
because
tained

so called because

He

rests in
is

the body,

or
at-

He

is full.

Than Him none
i.e.,

higher.
or

He

is

by exclusive devotion,

by

J7?tlna

knowledge of

the Self.
for,

All the created beings abide within the Purusha;
its

every effect rests within
is

cause

;

and by that Purusha

the whole world

pervaded.
of

The Paths

Light and Darkness.
'

Now
just

it is

necessary to speak of the Uttaramarga,

the

Northern Path', the Path of Light by which the Yogins
spoken of attain to Brahman,

— those

Yogins

who
'•'

meditate here on
the syllable
'

Brahman as inhering in the Pra//ava, in Om and who attain to moksha later on.
',

And The

this will

be taught
is

in the section

beginning with

viii.

23.

path of return

also described, only with a view to

extol the other path.

23.

Now,

in

what time departing, Yogins go
I

to

return not, as also to return, that time will
thee,
'

tell

O

chief of the Bharatas.

In what time' should be construed with 'departing.' 'To
'

return

means

to be reborn

'

Yogins

'

stand for those

who

are engaged in meditation
*

{i. e.,

those

who

are

properly

At the end of the kalpa.

'

212

THE BHAGAVAD-GITA.
i. e.,

[DiS, VIII.

called Yogins) as well as for Karmins,

those

who

are

karma or action. The latter are spoken of as Yogins only by courtesy and they are so spoken of in I shall tell you, when dying the Yogins are not born iii. 3. again, and when dying they will be born again.
engaged
in
;

He

speaks of that time

:

24.

Fire, light, day-time, the bright

fortnight,

the six months of the northern solstice,
parting,
'

— then
'

de-

men who know Brahman

reach Brahman.
;

Fire

'

is

the deity presiding over time

so also

is 'light
'

a deity presiding over time.
'

— Or,
;

it

may
'

be that

fire

and
and

light

'

are the deities so called

the reference, however, to
in

the path as a whole by the expressions
'

what time

'

that time

'

being due
*

to the
'

predominance of the
day-time
'

deities

presiding over

time.'

— The
the
'

is

the deity presid'

ing over the day-time,

bright fortnight

is

the deity
the

presiding over the bright fortnight.
northern solstice
:

The
deity

six

months of

here also,

it

is

the
this

that

forms the
of the

path.

The
is

principle on

which

interpretation
''

passage

based has been established elsewhere.

Those

who

die,

having been engaged

in

the

contemplation of

Brahman, reach Brahman by this path. The expression "in course of time" should be understood after 'reach'; for, those who are firm in devotion to right knowledge and
attain to

immediate liberation have no place

to

go

to or to

return from.

Smoke, night-time, and the dark fortnight, the six months of the southern solstice, attaining by these to the lunar light, the Yogin returns.
25.

*

Sariraka-Mimamsa,

iv. 3-4.

23

— 28]
'

ABHYASA-YOGA.
*

213
'six

Smoke,'

night time' the

'

dark fortnight,' and the

months of the southern solstice,' are all deities presiding over smoke and periods of time spoken of. By this path,
the Yogin

— the Karmin who performs sacrifices and other works — attains to the lunar and,
light,

(to

Gods)

on the

exhaustion thereof, returns again to earth.
26.

These bright and dark Paths of the world

are verily

deemed
bright
'=
'•'

eternal

;

by the one a man goes
illumines knowledge
in that light.

to return not, by the other he returns again.

The one
other
is

is

because
it

it

;

the

dark

because

is

wanting

The twoopen to
is

paths are open to those only in the world
in action or

who

are engaged

devoted to knowledge

;

they are not

the whole world.
eternal.

They
:

are

eternal,

because sawsara

By

the one

by the bright one.
these paths,
:

27.

Knowing
is

O

son of Pritha, no
all

Yogin
fast in

deluded

wherefore at

times be stead-

Yoga,

O

Arjuna.
the

The Yogin who knows that one of
leads to
lonijer deluded, f v-^^

two foregoing paths sawsara and that the other leads to moksha is no

Excellence of Yoga.

Now, hear
*

of the greatness of that

Yoga
.

The two paths ^

are

respectively ' "

11 mine knowledge,
1

is

called
to the

Devayana and Pitiiyana. the path ^ Devas and the path to the Pitris.
is

nescience, and
,

.

,

.

is

u j or reached by avidya „. j. . by marked ^. throughout u
1 a
. ,
,

The one

smoke and other dark
x t
t

.

,

things
1

,

.
.

said to be

bright because
is

it

u As the \ogm includes the v. .u of Path r
,

.u

i-

j

illumines knowledge and "

reached by '
is
; ;

j-. ^u» u n Light in u- tit his Meditation, he will not re•

knowledge, and

its

course

marked
the othei other
illu

gard the other path as the one he should
resort to.— (A.)

throughout by bright objects
is

said to be dark because

it

does not

sacrifices. — beyond in all this multitude of fruits rises the Yogin who rightly understands and follows the teaching to the seven imparted (by the Lord) tions. [DiS. and he attains to the Supreme Primeval Abode. —beyond all this goes the Yogin on knowing this . Whatever fruit of merit is declared to accrue from the Vedas. when austerities are well practised.^-. the beginning — He attains Brahman. austerities and gifts. fl^ . Whatever fruit of merit is declared by the scriptures to be attainable when the Vedas are properly studied. when the sacrifices are performed in all their parts. VIII.— 214 28. THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. ques- and he then attains in abode of Isvara which existed even the Cause. His answers to the highest . .

tjie knowledge this Brahman. In the eighth discourse has been declared the Yoga its of concentration cess f. Brahma-=Jnana is the best Religion. 12. and which has been declared discourses.) * 'the bright. intuitive or direct percep- ^ tion. 13.' is f i all the gates (viii. Such as closing vii. ' fire and light ' — whence there no Now. To thee who dost not cavil. . is than the attainment of Brahman — at a subsequent and the like. (dhiira«a) result through nkdl " as well as pro- and its has been shown to be none other period. t which having shalt be liberated from evil. ig. centration (dharana) auxiliary of Yoga.— : NINTH DISCOURSE. This : known thou uf the Brahma-jwana. only an anga or 5dA:s/ia/A«ra. as declarthe preceding ed in the sruti and the smnti is " The Vasudeva Siislu4!niiu the AH" Con- (Bhagavadgitd. Nott' : word points to the superiority of knowledge (over Dhyana): this right knowledge alone forms the direct means of attaining moksha. SOVEREIGN WISDOM AND SECRET. with a view other. which in is going to be declared. through return. knowledge com- bined with experience. to give no room to the supposi- tion that the attainment of means and by no moksha is possible only by the Lord proceeds as follows said : this : The Blessed Lord I. I shall now declare this. the greatest secret.

6-2-1. the Se\L"—{Chhdnd.— 2I§ " All this " is — [DiS. which has been accumulated during many thousand births.* they shall attain to perishable regions. root and — all the karma. brilliant j Indeed. dharma and a-dharma. it is not it through revelation solely. as welt like the other things which are. by immediate perception. this knowledge Brahman all. it the king of secrets. by imme diate or or its effect. it is the The Sovereign Science. imperishable. because it is of great splendour. like the feeling of pleasure and so on. very easy to perform. many is a desirable the may be opposed to dharma one Brahman. Upa." {Ibid. Supreme Purifier is this immediately com. is the best purifier.) On attaining this knowledge you will be liberated from the bondage of sawsara. revoaled by the sruti those % Greater reverence is shewn to who know Brahman than to other men of learning. but not so know- * That all this I3 with the Brahmu-juana. it That it is a purifier needs no saying. the Sovereign Secret.) {Ibid. And 2. Moreover. quality What is possessed of .. Of sciences it is the king. unopposed to Dharma. but is known kn own by pratyaksha. IX. THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. § and the smriti. as the pass: ages of the sruti like the following declare " Now the other princes who understand otherwise than thus. equally . since reduces karma to ashes in an instant. the science of sciences. 7-25-2. of Of all the purifiers. it j can be comprehended by pyatyalisha. intuitiv e The Brahma-j«ana Un- perception.) One only without a second " is And nothing else a direct means to moksha. Brahman is is tlie most of all So also. prehensible. 7-25-2.

the Supreme Lord. It is very easy to acquire. does not perish like an act effect is is exhausted. says the Lord. the implication that they do not attain even to devotion (Bhakti) which is one of the paths leading to Me they are sure to remain in the path of . those who do not believe in its existence or in of the its effects. * Verily this knowledge is easily ac. power of discriminating gems.I — 3-] SOVEREIGN WISDOM AND SECRET. quired when taught by an adept so is 2a . not opposed to difficult Even . and difficult acts are found to be productive of great results. . the It Lord says that imperishable. remain verily in the path of the mortal world. and sinful persons do not attain Me. without reaching Me. of the other those which involve little trouble and are easily ac- complished are seen to be productive of small results. to ly — these greedy . O harasser of thy foes. not separable from it Dharma. regarding the physical body is itself as the Self. then but may be supposed that it is very to attain it is not so. out of question —The attaining of Me is certain- wherefore. on the other hand it. But.. 217 it ledge of is Atman opposed to Dharnia i.. e. 3. '"' like the acts. Persons having no faith in this Dharma. Those who have no faith in this Dharma (law. knowledge of the Self. religion) viz. Brahma-jndna. Wherefore knowledge of when the Atman (Self) worth acquiring. Now. Accordingly it may be imagined that this Brahma-j«ana which is : so easily attained perishes when its effect is exit hausted is to prevent this supposition. the sinful who follow the doctrine Demons (Asuras).

the Self. dwell yet these beings. I am unconnected with any object. the cause of beings. be: cause of the absence of contact with others. My And not in Nor do those beings dwell in Me behold Divine Yoga Sustaining all beings. indeed be contained anywhere as though I Wherefore. the Divine Mystery. behold My Divine working. All beings dwell in Me and do not dwell in them. e. in that path only which to hell y (naraka) and to the lower kingdoms of animals. Having prepared Arjuna extolling it. . All this world is pervaded by to the senses. would seena to the deluded as though I dwell in Wherefore I say I do not dwell in those beings. leads etc. the all underlying them it all. All beings rest in the Lord.2l8 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. them. [DiS. from Brahma downwards. That which unconnected with any object cannot in a receptacle. . the mortal world. Me . My No form being invisible form. the innermost essence even of the is akasa. certainly. what they are 'Since I in virtue of Me. Wherefore they dwell c. (to listen to the Doctrine) by By Me all this world is pervaded. to the plant. they are self-existent (or have an individual existence) through Me. i. My Highest Being. . I am. .. unlike corporeal things. as 5. of unmanifested beings from Brahma down in being devoid of the Self can ever become an object of experience. IX. My form I unmanifestcd.) am the Self of those beings. {i. the Lord says: 4. Self. dwell all In Me. they are Me. but not ! dwelling in them. is My Self.

(. seeing that unconnected with any object is : " Devoid of He is attachment. the Lord says As the mighty wind moving everywhere rests ever in the akasa. Accordinf^ly.) 3 — 7] SOVEREIGN WISDOM AND SECRET. that the Atman. all beings. as long as the world lasts. — so following only the popular conception . the Lord's ( — Then how answer : to justify words. of illustrating By way 6. My Self supports beings. certainly that He believes.A. . Up. so. as the Self. who am all-pervading like the akasa. ever rests in the akasa so also in Me. all Though unattachin ed. observed in our ordinary experience that the wind. Self & the bodily aggregate .) — (A. and regarding that aggregate as the far ' I '. that cause beings to grow. 'My Self? — We Separating from the Real Self ) the aggregate of the physical and other material environments. rest Me. the sruti speaks of the unattached condition of the Self. do all beings. there is — ( Brih. the it is distinct all from Himself. The Lord rest in is the source and the end of rests in the akasa. all Thus." Behold. 21^ the real nature of the Self. by an example what has been : taught in the two preceding verses. in know thou. He never attached. do all beings rest. but does not dwell "•' them. f And further Myself that cause all beings to come into being. the Self is Because with any unconnected + Because such a relation between the is illusory. as the wind so do beings Me object. as shown above with reasons. is masses ignorantly believe. the Lord speaks of the Self as ' My not Self.) yet another mystery. without any contact at all. It is moving everywhere and mighty in expanse. 3-9-26.

we now all of see to emanate again and again from the Praknti the influence of the Prakriti. the Isvara. The Lord Then is not bound by His acts. knowing the immutability is of the Self. bind Me. remain like one who unconcerned. THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. Thou. IX. the Supreme Lord. and is the beginning of a kalpa : the time of production (utpatti). I again and again send forth this whole multitude of beings. multitude of beings of unequal shalt be subject to ? as creating this conditions. powerless under the control of the Prakriti. All [DiS. unattached to The acts involved in the unequal creation of the multitudi- nous beings do not bind Me. Resorting to My Prakriti. O Dhanawjaya. c. the 9. which is Me. O son of Kunti. I cause all these beings . Nor do these acts. dharma and a-dharma Lord says : arising from that act — In reply. gives the reason — Now.e. the help of the Prak^'iti.220 7. without attachment for the fruit of the act. With subject of Avidya. Pvakviti : the inferior one is composed The end Thus of a kalpa the time of dissolution (pralaya). of them being evil rendered powerless by avidya and other sources of i. . go into I My Prakriti at the end of a kalpa. to i.. like one unconcerned. remaining those acts. send them forth of the three gu//as. under Svabhava or Nature. beings. again at the beginning of (the next) kalpa. the Lord why He is not affected by the acts: — I.

Because universe I am the witness. the superintendent of all acts..— 7 : — 10. Now. case of others also. O son of Kunti. ' all activity in ' world— such this.^. without the egotistic feeling t do. >^ j. this. ' Wherefore. the Avidya. the world revolves. i.e. composed objects. moves on the the and through as ' all stages. the luminous. Indeed.' ' ' I shall enjoy this.' alone.' I hear I I feel pleasure. beings ' statements ' 1 send forth this multitude like ' of (ix. 2-8-9) . hidden in beings. the abode of all beings. the manifested and the unmoving unmanifested. agency and the absence of attachment of freedom (from cause tjie deluded in the man the is dharma and a-dharma bound by bis own acts Otherwise. produces the universe comprising the moving and the unmoving ' So says the chant all The one.] SOVEREIGN WISDOM AND SECRET. because I preside.' by way of forming an object of being in consciousness and has shall consciits ousness . : as a immutable witness. By Me presiding. Br. 7) and ' remaining one unconcerned involve : a self-contradiction. like the silk. mere viewer on evey side and the My Maya.' ' I ' see this. and free from {Svetasvatara-Up. the witness.worm cocoon. 6-1 1). ' in the Supreme Heaven (of the heart) is the witness of this (Tai. By Me presiding of the three gu«as.' I feel pain.. In explanation thereof.' learn this ' — arises has its To gain this I shall do it. the Lord says 10. 'I 221 in the of. the perceiver. qualities. Such chants as ' Who . Prakj'iti produces the mov- ing and the unmoving because of . he absen ce of the egotistic feeling for results is the ). this comprising the moving objects. all- 1 pervading. it end in consciousness. the Inner Self of all.

because is opposed to moksha^ not right to ask or answer %vhat the Thus. am thus eternal. is [DiS. 15). a mere witness. Accordingly'" as there entity other than the no conscious One Divine it is ' . the Divine. and free by nature. is very hard no other enjoyer. there cannot be a separate enjoyer . are deluded. these • The is ' fools not understanding My /svara being the creator of the is ^'o"" '^ s^'"'' Creation intended to secure niokit Universe t It the mere witness is thereof. for for as Creation due to the Maya of the enjoyment of the Supreme for. is for there is is no other . My higher being as the Great Lord Fools. It is pure consciousness. all.-(A. is conscious entity. And there is the I Supreme. point only to this view. thereby mortals (v. Fools disregard Me clad in human form. Of what purpose this creation Spirit or by the One. The Lord has ' Wisdom is S enveloped by unwisdom. wise. 2-8-9). also said : this '— (Tai. the Self of II. IX. and who could variegated crea- whence born and why Br. the Supreme really enjoys nothing. Omniscient. This sruti to ^ow >> the means that it Supreme Self. and f therefore irrelevant to ask or to is V answer the question Consciousness. and there is is no occasion We cannot say that meant . despise Me living among them with a human body. . This passage shows that creation aj«ana or nescience.) 111 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. neither the question nor an answer to it is it. pure. question lion ?' the purpose it is of Crea- possible . not knowing of beings. the pure all-witnessing having really no concern with any enjoy? ' ment whatever So says the (It) srutit : 'Who declare tion? could perceive directly. Being.' — The Though I life of the impious. unable to discriminate. The /svara one only ^^ue to and what not conscious cannot enjoy.

They partake of the nature of Rakshasas and Asuras. who are engaged in devotion (Bhakti) who walk in the path of moksha. c. (is their condition pitiable) ? Of vain hopes. as Rakshasas or Asuras.10 — 13] I SOVEREIGN WISDOM AND SECRET. like sYkasa. How 12. actions performed by them are because they insult Self. these poor creatures are ruined. . of vain actions. break. devour. that — not knowing that I am the Supreme am. Self. of vain knowledge. partaking The Mahatmans.* They beyond the body and engage in cruel deeds. worship Me with mind turned to no other. Then by continually despising Me. other They cherish vain hopes. in the absence of charity J Those whose mind (sattva) has been purified by yajna or sacrifice. rob others' property. to But. of Pntha. because they neglect their own Even their knowledge see no self is fruitless. devoid of discriijiination. the faithful i. the Lord.' The the Lord. partaking only of the delusive nature of Rakshasas and Asuras. drink. the other than ^ * After deuth such people will be born with the mind resting on Self. The nature of Innermost their who am no Rakshasas consists of cruelty. f knowing (Me) as the imperishable source of all beings. &c. 13. higher being. The agnihotra and fruitless. They are devoid of discrimination. that all am the Great Lord. the very Self. their rule of conduct being 'cut. Mahatmans: the high-souled. more intimately connected with things I than even akasa. of beings. O son of the nature of the Devas. in committing deeds and that of Asuras in rob- own bing another's property.j The nature + of the Devas Me. vva3's of the faithful devotees. 223 Self. and of sacrifice.

ways. verily./ AH worship If goes to the Lord. over the body. by way of cultivating the virtues of self-control. thinking that the one exists in all the different forms. kindness. always devout. the senses. as different. Knowledge by abandoned varies thus all of the of Lord is itself a sacrifice. as the sun. (do they worship) ? Always talking of Me. in faith all and the hke. in their control [DiS. Beings bhutas. different ? they worship in so many ways. . Me who am 15. They ever strive by way of subjugating and the like. the moon and forms the like. how do they (as Thou * sayest) worship The Brahma-nishihas. Thee only those —The Lord says who are devoted to Brahman. strenuous. as One.their Lord. is the Para-Brahman. and reverent. they worship Me with love. IX. How 14. the All-faced. And that :-^Some worship with the knowledge of the real One. firm in vows. they worship Me in love. others* adore Me. . with his face on sides. in kindness. Firm in their vows. others in various adnre Me. the very Brahman.: 224 (Gods) consists T"E BHAGAVAD-GiTA. They always talk of Me. ? In what different ways do they worship — Listen : Worshipping by the wisdom-sacrifice. mind and the : senses. having other forms of worship. — who exists in Lord all all — as the All- faced. living creatures as well as all elements of matter.' Some truth that worship with the knowledge that the Lord Vish/m Himself ' exists as different beings. Worshipping knowledge this sacrifice wisdom. innocence. their very Self lying in the heart. Others worship Him.

Myself the butter. the Origin.\ am I ' \ 29 . the Seed imperishable. I am the source of the world. Or. I am yajna. I am the abode wherein all . and grandsire I am the knowable. I am the Friend pecting any return.— 13 — 18] i6. fire. . 225 am I kratii. the Shelter and the the Witness. including rice and barley. and that in which it stays. I SOVEREIGN WISDOM AND SECRET. 18. the Treasure-house. I am is the goal. is — I am the chant with which the oblation offered to the Pitns is and the Devatas. svadha ( is food in general. the fruit of action I am the witness of I ] what done and what is not done by all living beings. also the T^ik. I am the fire into which the offering And. Friend. I am the Goal. am am the act of offering.' and the Saman. I am ma»tra. the Abode. the Yajiia is the worship enjoined in smnti. food ) serving to alleviate sickness. I am the father of this world. Svadha is the food offered to ancestors (Pitns). The aushadha means plants in general. The dispenser . eaten by all living is beings. the Sustainer. and aushadha the medical the mantra. the Lord. 17. I am the shelter for the distressed relieve : Me. the dispenser. I that in which it is dissolved. the mother. Dissolution and Stay . and the Yajus also. the purifier. come to from distress those who / I do good without ex. poured. the syllable ' Om. of the fruits of action. I am svadha. is Kratti a class of Vedic sacrifices. living beings dwell. I I aushadha. And.

. the cause). it and since growth confails. ."'' The fruits of interested acts of Vedic ritual. driven to nihilism. the effect). is understood that continuity of the seed never And. / Nothing is indeed springs up without a seed stant. as of non-existence " it is im- spoken of as and the un' possible to conceive existence arising out . of Those men wisdom who are devoted to Me. (to am existence. manifested cause as 'non-existence. which manifests itself in relation the cause) . some powerful rays by it certain send forth rain and having sent forth I take it back by certain rays during eight months. endures. and which ) endures as long as the world saw/sara . leading of Retirement forms described above. I am the immortality of the I gods (devas) and the death of the mortals. As rays the sun I give heat by . and I am the reverse. that which causes the growth of things that ( germinate. am the treasure-house.226 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. ig. adoring lives Me Me * by the as sacrifices in various mentioned above. O Arjiina. that which living beings shall enjoy I in a future period. How can existence ? come out of non6. — they reach Myself according is to The manifested world 'existence' of effects spoken of as non-existence. exist- ence and non-existence. (the manifested.) essence for then we are existence " — (Chhand. — Indeed the it Lord can never be said ) be altogether non-existent. I hold [back and send forth rain. nor can the cause be for the sruti itself says. and again send it forth in the rainy season. Up. I give heat. I am I the immortality as well as death. nor (can effect is existence that the and the cause is non-existen^. the non-existence (the unmanifested. IX. and regarding One or as different. [DiS. We cannot indeed hold that the Divine is non-existence. am all the imperishable seed.

free interests. 21. Men of the three Vcdas. the reward of their sacrifices . worship Me all around. pray for the goal of heaven . they reach the holy in world of the Lord of the Gods and enjoy the heavenly pleasures of the Gods. the soma-drinkers. as regards those men of right knowledge who are from desires. ritual The Dharma of the Triad : mere Vedic (karma) that to which is enjoined by the three Vedas. and there enjoy supernatural (a-prakrita) pleasures. purified from sin.l8 — 22] SOVEREIGN WISDOM AND SECRET. But as regards those who are ignorant and who long 20. desiring (objects of) desires. 22. — to them who are ever devout. thus following the Dharma of the Triad. 227 their knowledge. their merit (pu»ya) exhausted. — they go to the world of Indra who had performed a hundred sacrifices. They have go and return. The Supreme watching over His devotees' Now. They. Those men who. having enjoyed that spacious world of Svarga. the R\k. heaven Men who know the three Vedas. . they attain to the state of going and returning. the Saman and the Yajus who drink Soma and are thereby purified from who worship Me as the Vasus and other gods by sins who seek for Svarga as sacrifices such as the Agnish^oma . and never attain independence anywhere. . I secure gain and safety. enter the world of the mortals. meditating on Me as non- separate. for objects of desire. . worshipping Me by sacrifices.

as + Constantly and earnestly engaged in 7 infinite. so. devoted with faith. [Answer) : —True. them safety.myasins) 228 [DiS. : —Just Them indeed : Even those who.— (A. . I Narayana. I Those men all who worship Me Supreme God. /As said in vii. what i. worship worship Myself. I 'as non-separate. 18. IX. .^ Other devotees do but worship the Supreme in ignorance. Lord alone is Wherefore the Lord Himself secures to them or death the gain and safety. not already possessed is and I secure to them 1 preservation of what already possessed. to other Gods. latter never cherish a desire for their refuge. .* ever meditating on Me. their devotees also worship Thyself. He is undoubtedly secures this difference : (to and tees safety) .! is secure gain.e. 17. x^hose who for see nothing as separate from themselves do not work their own gain and safety. * i. dhyana. O son of Kunti. they form My very Self and are dear to Me.. but there while other devo- work themselves also for their own gain and safety. of renunciation (sa. life Indeed these . [Answer) 23.. Who see Me all around. secure to around. [Objection) : — If other gods (Devatas) are Thyself only. looking upon the Self. [Objection): — To other devotees also the Lord secures them gain gain and safety. I who i are ever devout. e..e. in ignorance. regarding themselves i.) — THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. as their own — to these who see the Reality.

of yaJHa or sacrifice. they fail to attain the fruit of the sacrifice.1 SOVEREIGN WISDOM AND SECRET. go to the Gods. sacrifices are offered) am the Enjoyer and the Lord I of all sacrifices enjoined in the sruti and the smnti. iind as the Antarthe the Inner Regulator of useless. in 22g With faith: believing those Gods). I am indeed the Enjoyer. worship Me to in ignorance. but of all . My Gods. e. \\'hy dost the efficacy (of the worship of Thou say that they worship in ignorance ? For. : Enjoyer of all yamin.— 22 — 25. but they have world after a time. devoted to other gods. as also the Lord. indeed the Lord So they do not in ig- know Me as I am . having worshipped norance. performing sraddha and other * rites in As the Vasus and other Devatas the sacrifices are offered. Votaries of the Gods go the Gods . t sacrifices. to the Pitris go the votaries of the Pitris to the . whence. fail. as Universe. they do not know Me in truth whence they Devatii. . How ?— 25. The worship of the Gods is not quite The worshippers do attain results to return to this I am the Lord of all sacrifices. engaged in devotion to the Pitns. As the I as the God to whom am 4. Bhutas go the worshippers of the Bhutas worshippers come to Myself. Not having dedicated their actions to suited to the form of worship. they return to this world from the . + The fruit of sacrifice certainly accrues I to them also who. sacrifices. 24. I to region to which they attain as the result whom am the of their sacrifice. Me. as said in viii. The votaries of the votaries of the Pitns such as the The Agnishvattas..--' (i. those whose devotion and vows are directed to the Gods.

not enjoined the sistra) and whatever thou offerest in sacrifice as enjoined in the sruti or the smriti. it is co. of good and mind with the Yoga of renunciation. — How I 26. [Dis. because of their ignorance. whatever thou givest.. IX. ? also easy for them to worship Me. come to Myself. whatever thou eatest. Wherefore they attain very Facility in Devotion to the Supreme. The Bhutas are the Vinayakas.e. brahma7?as and others. —that with devotion by the pure-minded.. do as an Me. thou shalt come to Me. equipped in . When a one offers to Me with devotion a eat. e. leaf.— — : 230 THE bhagavad-gIta. therefore. i.. listen as to what will accrue to you doing thus Thus results shalt thou be liberated from the bonds of actions evil which are productive . Because 27. devotees attain an endless result. of thy Whatever thou doest in own accord [i. i. Notwithstanding of' trouble. Not only do but it is My attain a state from which there is no return to this world. . go to the Pitns.do all that as an offering to Now 28. whatever thou givest such things as gold — to the Me. a fruit. My worshippers. small results. the four Bhaginis and the Hke. water. in it whatever austerity thou engagest. and liberated. whatever thou offering to sacrificest.. Vish?m's votaries. the equahty people do not worship Me alone..e. Whatever thou doest. offered flower. the hosts of MatJ'is.

cannot (be said hate the latter. fire : just as fire does not ward it off" cold from those who at a distance and wards off" from those who devotees. Just as light. with devotion are of course.1 25 — 29. so performing the duties of their caste and order. thou shalt be liberated from bonds while yet living this . to Me there none hateful or dear but whoso worship I Me with devotion. also is is reflected in a clean mirror. as a matter not owing to any attachI ment on to) ' My part. His grace on His devotees. not on go near others. their moved by ix. where. devotion. It is renunciation inasmuch as everything is off'ered to Me and It is also Yoga inasmuch as it is an action (karma). Those '•' who are devoted mind. 23 Thus : when you thus offer everything to Me. but Me. they are in Me. The impartiality (Objection) : the Supreme. since He b)estows : Lord has love and hatred. . bjing in their course.] SOVEREIGN WISDOM AND SECRET. as a become pure in in in virtue of matter of course in those persons only that very devotion of unthinkable grand- from whose minds all dirt It has been resaid in eur . and when body is dead. wath mind equipped with Yoga and renun. Me. I am like are it. c. ciation. — (A) hj Sun's though pervading ever y- . in so I bestow My grace on My Those who worship Me. is The same I am to all beings . not in others. only as a matter I of course. are rendered for My minds presence. not on others. and they are fit Me. the — Then (Ansiiey) — Not so : 29. and am also in them. i. In them also am. the Supreme Lord present . the Lord. Thus. This (act of ofTering everything to Me) constitutes the Yoga of renunciation. ever do good to them. I presence as a matter of who partake of the nature of the devas. thou shalt of come to Me. And. By to this behaviour. has been 13 that those are devoted to the Lord.

232 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. spiritual Holy : of pure birth. those who have attained to JT . The Yoga 33. Even the Iow=born attain salvation by Devotion. proclaim eternal peace . shall tell you how excellent a thing devotion : If one of even very evil life worships Me. finding refuge in Me. resorting to none else. —even they attain to —women. may be of a sinful birth vaisyas as well as siidras. of Devotion. they also who. He who 32. By abandoning power 31. that My is devotee never perishes. he righteous. He is rightly resolved evil : he is a man of good resolution. IX. O son of Pritha. for he is must indeed be deemed rightly resolved. Soon he becomes righteous and attains do thou. [DlS. fit bodies such as those for a life of devotion birth should lead a life of devotion to the Lord. more then the holy brahma»as and devoted royal saints. human birth * which is means human of attaining « As non-human of animals are not to the Lord. ways in his external and by the of his internal right resolution. This the world : the world of man. Now I to Me is 30. life. O son of Kunti. this the real truth : thou mayest proclaim that never perishes. is Listen. Having reached this transient joyless world. the Supreme Goal. do thou worship How much Me. devoted to Me in his inner soul For.

SOVEREIGN WISDOM AND SECRET. Thus steadied. Fix thy mind on Me. all : in thought (chitta). I am the Self of beings.30 — 34'] ^Moreover. and am the Supreme goal. and which very hard to attain. with Me as thy Supreme Goal. the Self. 34. be devoted to Me. *-^'i^^^^i^i«^ 30 . sacrifice to Me. is 233 aspirations (purushartha). thou Steadied I shalt reach Myself. Me : Vasudeva. bow down to Me.

listen to for My Supreme word. speak to thee : who art delighted. Why 2.TENTH DISCOURSE. The Lord is the source of all manifestations." Rishis : such as BhHgu. the essential nature of the Lord and His manifestations have been pointed out. Now it is necessary to point out in what forms of being the Lord should be thought of. O mighty-armed. the Lord says The Blessed Lord 1. DIVINE MANIFESTATIONS. as though you are drinking the immortal nectar. stand. and it is also necessary it to describe the essential nature of the Lord. should He speak of it ? — The Lord says am : Neither the hosts of the Gods nor the Great i^ishis the know my origin Gods and the Great . — as it is a hard thing to under: With this view. . for I the source of all i^ishis. — though has been described already. Prabhava (interpreted as oyigin) may also mean " Great Lordly Power. In the seventh discourse and in the ninth. Delighted you are intensely delighted with My speech. said : Again. I. which shall from a desire thy well-being. : Supreme as revealing the unsurpassed Thing.

is thought. patience. therefore am unborn. fear. I Because am beginningless. Self- nstraint: quieting the external senses. 3. Because i^ishis. as heard or seen. fame.-kara«a injuring living beings. equanimity. austerity. am unborn and beginningless. innocence. . Calmness: the tranInnocence: not quillity of the inner sense or anta/. am else the source of the Gods and Great none I exists as the source of My existence I wherefore. Patience not being agitated in mind when assaulted or abused. wisdom.] DIVINE MANIFESTATIONS. Undeluded: devoid of delusion. Non-illusion consists in acting with discrimination when any thing has to be done or known at the moment. calmness. I — 5. said to is be intelligent who is possessed of this power. : : with a view to impress it on the mind of another. 235 Moreover. All sins: consciously or unconsciously incurred. He who knows Me as is I as unborn and beginning- less. He. contentment. self-restraint. he among the mortals undeluded. shame ( these ) different kinds of dispositions of beings arise from Me ) alone. Truth giving utterance to one's own actual experience of things. non-illusion. beneficence. he is liberated from all sins. Intelligence. For the following reason worlds : also I am the great Lord of the 4-5. and security . pain. truth. the great Lord of the worlds. Contentment : being satisfied with . pleasure. death. birth. Self Wisdom the knowledge of the and other such things. is Intelligence ( (buddhi) the power which the inner sense anta/f-karawa has of understanding subtle objects of indeed..

) . X' one's present acquisitions. of Mine endowed with unshaken Yoga there is no doubt of * The Lord ( is ) not only the material of all. had directed their thoughts to Me exclusively and were therefore endow- ed with the power ot Vish^m. theirs are these creatures in the world. Atisterity: bodily torture accom: panied with the restraint of the senses. of the Lord's Glory conduces to Yoga. 6. Lord of for of all . The Manus were the Rulers of creatures and were themselves Omniscient Lord and were therefore en- dowed with the power of Vishou and obtained wisdom and power. All these different dispositions of living beings mentioned above. from Bhcigu to Vasish/ha. in truth this glory He who knows is it. by mind alone. the Lord (Isvara). Both these belonged to the primeval age and were born of the mind of the Lord. with their being in Me. Shame due to a- dharma. The seven great /^ishis such as Bhngu. The Great iJishis. were born of mind . cause sclent prakriti but. Benejicence (one's sharing own things) with others as far as one's : own means : may permit. Fame due to dharma.* Knowledge 7.— (A. and power . arise from Me alone. according to their respective karma. were omniscient and were the original teachers of the Traditional wisdom. by birth and by knowledge. He is also the Ruler He produced the Great Tfishis The Great ifishis and the Manus had their thought directed to the and the Manus. The present denizens of this world are their creatures. [DiS. The seven Great and i^ishis as well as the four ancient Manus. all. as the Omni- Lords. Moreover.236 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. such as intelligence. Born i?ishis in the They were produced by Me creation of these Manus and creatures of the Great are these comprising the moving and the unmoving beings. as well as the four Manus of the past ages known as Savarwas.

— or the Yoga may here stand power of achieving and he is controlling mighty things as well as Omniscience t endowed with unshaken Yoga. effect and enjoyment. he who knows the fact that the °" '" accordance with the Law. 'S . I. engaged the contemplation of the Supreme Moreover.(A. termed V^sudeva. c.-. as partaking of a very small portion of the Lord's ieishis Hit only those life who see the emptiness fit f/jhc^vorldly that are for of devotion to the Lord. — (A. the wise in all its changes. — (A . every thing moves + e. en- dowed with contemplation. .. ? is that unshaken Yoga with which they are en: — The answer follows I am .) ) ) 5 — 9'] DIVINE MANIFESTATIONS. in truth this vast 237 He who knows and extent of My being * for My is achievement (Yoga) born of Yoga. and ever speaking of Me. The knowledge of leads to love. they are content and delighted. power and wisdom t . .) by the come devoted to Supreme Reality Lord of all. they beMe. action. With in their thought on Me. From Me j alone evolves the whole universe ing. . as infinite. :J What dowed 8. When men know all. and these lead devo- Controlled and impelled Me as tion to the Lord. instructing each other.) the Inner Regulator. viz.(A. regard to and earnestness. '^^ all. from Me everything evolves thus thinking the wise worship Me. ardently Reality. i. g. with their life Mc. of the Conditioned to the is Lord as the Self of the Omniscient the Cause of The knowledge the doorway leading of the Unconditioned. the source of all . including existence and disappearance. am the source of the whole world. absorbed * He who knows Me . the Supreme Brahman. a life Great and the Manns possessed their power and wisdom. Thus think- who know in the Supreme Reality*^ worship Me. with steadiness in right what — knowledge. § knowledge — (A.

give that devotion of knowledge by which they come to Me. The Lord endows His devotees with wisdom. To ever devout. wisdom. All their senses (pnwas) such as the eye are absorbed in Me. — Supreme Lord.) 238 THE BHAGAVAD-GlTA. to them — that devotion of right knowledge (buddhi-yoga) 0/ My Me the essential nature " with their by which they ='— those who worship thought on Me" (x. power. Why doest yoga) to Thou give the devotion of knowledge (buddhi? Thy devotees — And what : that obstacle in the path leading to Thee which the devotion of knowledge that Thou givest to Thy devotees serves to remove ? In answer — to this question. X. the Self. might and other are delighted as if in They thus obtain satisfaction and the company of the beloved. as their own is Self . . life Or —according is to another interpretation — their very as (prana) devoted to Me. Out of mere compassion self. They ever speak of Me possessed of supreme qualities. that * karana produced by Dhyiina. Those alone who are thus devoted to the Lord can attain to Buddhi-Yoga. To them who I are ever devout. not for Me. worshipping o'v n. I devoutly in the ways men- tioned above. 10. abidof ing in their destroy the darkness born ignorance. by which they reach that form of the Lord which is devoid of all extremely superior condition of the antn h- limitations. the Lord says 11. but out of love for any purpose of the ir give Me. by the luminous lamp of wisdom. I. [DiS. worshipping Me with love. As to those who worship Me these. for them. — (A. 9) and so on kno\v^Me.

or itself through an intellectual same class as darkness.g — 13. held in the anta/i-kara«a which is comthe \ pletely detached from all worldly concerns. furnished with the wick of right intuition purified by the cultivation of piety. chasti- and other virtues. and shining with the by light of right knowledge generated incessant practice of concentration and meditation. can destroy nescienc«3 and illusory knowledge.e. anxious as to 239 /Out of men compassion they is : how may attain bliss. caused by the absence of pure — that illusory knowledge which of discrimination. Arjuna says Arjuna said 12-13. remove darkness. — by the lamp of is wisdom. Having heard of the : Lord's Glory and His mysterious power. therefore the Lord has said that He Himself destroys darkness.^It either the Spirit manifesting state. Supreme Purifier art the Supreme All the Light. / Arjuna's question about the Lord's manifestations. It is only . I dwell in their anta/i-lvara«a''= which engaged. fanned by the wind ty of earnest meditation on Me. belonging as it does to the ing of the 5astra. But the Spirit (Chaitanya) cannot directly an intellectual state that pervaded by the Spirit. in thinking exclusively of the Self and destroy the darkness of ignorance. the * i. Darkness here includes both the beginningless an Intellectual state that is found to illumine an object unknown before. by the lamp of discriminatory knowledge.. Hence it is that the Spirit removes ignorance by nescience and the illusory perception It itself shining through a state of the intel- resuliing from that nescience. out of mercy.] DIVINE MANIFESTATIONS. placed is in \ wind-sheltered enclosure of the mind which withdrawn | from the sense-objects and untainted by attachment and aversion. : The Supreme Brahman. ill the anta/i-karaHa functioning on the plane of Spirit exclusively. Thou. cannot lect such as the one induced by the teachis be removed by matter or any material phenomenon. fed by the oil Devotion (Bhakti-prasiYda).

and Thou Thyself also sayest Highest all (so) to me. possessed wisdom. the source Devas and others. Omnipresent so said the divine sage Narada. Unborn. Divine Purusha. things.) I. tioned nature of Thyself. meditate constantly on Thee. sovereignty and other powers. In what manner should who am \ of dull understanding. being + Since Thy nature. ever meditating. without reserve. Thee as Eternal. O Lord of beings. Thyself.t as the of unsurpassed 16. O God of Gods. these worlds. [DiS. without i. e . O to Yogin. X. the uncondiSelf: ary to t. . 14. O Ruler of the world.* O Purusha Supreme. art Thou * Thou . O Lord. as also Asita. not as something external. the : Self. e. me . The Primal Rishis : the God who existed before other Gods. what several be thought of by Me ? know Thee. Because Thou therefore. i. Scd . Thou Thyself knowest Thyself as the Self. — (A.Lord. know Thy unconditioned being: — (A. the Primal God. (A. O Source of beings. Devala and Vyasa God . seen by others. which it is necess- taught knowest Thyself. + As the —(A. The Supreme Brahman'. . How§ in shall I. Is vara Knowest Thyself: as the . by which Glories Thou all remainest pervading 17.) ) ) 240 i^ishis declare THE BHAGAVAD-GJTA. I believe to be true all this which Thou sayest to vas. such as Vasish^ha. Thy divine Glories. 15. in order that my reason may thereby be purified so as to be able to Not even Thy conditioned nature as can be the Lord of the Universe. of Thou shouldstt indeed tell. for neither the Gods nor the Danaof the O Lord.now. know Thy art manifestation. § is invisible to others.

My heavenly Glories. listen to this. there no limit to I My you extent. conqueror of sleep or — 'Guddkesa' means either thick-haired — He who unable ' is to think of Me as the Self should think of Me 31 in those . I O am Guc^akesa. in their pro- minence. though described besatiety in hearing the immortal (ambrosia) of the speech issuing from Thy mouth.. Tell me in detail of Thy mysterious power (Yoga) and sovereignty (aisvarya) and the various things to be meditat- ed upon. Now. — Tell there me is again of them. are the enemies of the Gods. possible even in a whole century to describe of them. is indeed. 20. of Thy power and Glory. in their is prominence.: 12 — 20. The Lord's enumeration of His manifestations. prayed to by no all people for worldly success and salvation. causes to —Janardana so called go (ardayati) — the Asuras. to hell and the like or be- cause He for. is is because He sends —or who those people (janas) . as there no limit to the extent of My Glories. of You should ' think of all ' Me ' as the innermost Self. mc afjain in detail. seated in the the all beginning and the beings. fore . Tell 24I 18. heart of beings. in the first place I am all the Self. The Blessed Lord ig. all e. as also the end. seated in the heart within of beings. O Janardana. said : Now will I tell thee of My heavenly Glories. It is not. where they are severally the most prominent. O best of the Kurus.] DIVINE MANU'ESTATIONS. middle. of Now will tell i. for there is no satiety for me in hearing the immortal.

such as the Rudras and the Adityas. of the Yakshas and Rakshasas the Lord of wealth. son of P/'itha.). O . I am I the Aditj^a known as Vishnu. 23. the resplendent am Vish«u of the radiSun I am Marichi of the . is the chief of priests. . for I am the source. The Rudras The Lord of 24. Maruts. Of the twelve Adityas. of theasterisms. the and the end of 21. of the mountains I am the Meru. is that state of the intellect (buddhi) which manifests the aggregate of the body and the And of the Rudras I am Sawkara. : am am the intelligence in living beings. Brihaspati I of generals Byihaspati is am Skanda. Gods Indra. because he is the house- hold priest of Indra. and mind.) 242 THE BHAGAVAD-GiTA. Of the eleven senses itself in I am the mind. Chetana. Skanda •^ the general of the Gods. [DiS. X« things which are mentioned below stay.e. Vasava: i. and forming the medium for the manifes- . the Moon. pervading throughout death. tation of Of It exhibits itself in it the aggregate till the Spirit or Consciousness body. And I of the household priests of kings. intelligence. ivealth Kubera.. Of the Vedas I am the Sama-Veda. senti'' ency or senses. — (A. and of the Vasus I am Agni. know Me the chief one. of lakes am the Ocean. (Chaitanya. and the : Vasus eight. of the senses I I am the Vasava of the Gods. Maruts are a kind 22. are eleven in number. I Of the Adityas ances. . of Devatas. all beings.

Kandarpa 29. and of Uchchais-sravas is born in the (ambrosia). . Kamadhuk desired . DIVINE MANIFESTATION'S. am the Ocean. The thunderbolt : the Vajra made of Dadhichi's bone. name of the kingly horse. of serpents am Vasnki. the Sage Kapila of the Saints (Siddhas\ Divine Rishis i^ishis or : Who are Devas and are eft the same time : seers of mantras. I And Ananta of snakes am. Of all trees (I am) the Asvattha. 28.e. 27. Airavata. sravas. I Of the Great /^ishis ' I . Know Me among men horses as Uchchais- born of Amrita.— 20 — 28] i.' am Bhrigu of words I am the one syllable Om of offerinp^s am the offerin°j of Japa (silent repetition). I Of weapons I am the thunderbolt. of unmovin<:j things the Himalaya.. Kama or love. the offspring of Iravati. am Varu. 243 I the natural made by the Gods — reservoirs./a . The Saints (Siddhas) those who at their very birth attained to a very high degree of Dharma. I am the progenitor KanI darpa. Vdsuki I : the lord of serpents. who was ocean when it was churned for the amrita Know Me among kingly elephants as the the Airavata. Chitraratha of Gandharvas. and Narada of divine i^ishis. of detachment ( vairagya ) from worldly concerns. 26. of knowledge. of lordly elephants the the king. 25. and of supremacy. of cows am the Kamadhuk. : or cow of Vasish^ha which yielded all objects any cow in general which may yield plenty of that : milk.

vita7jia. lord of beasts the lion or the tiger. — vada. the stay and the end of evolution. and the end of all sentient existence . and : of beasts birds. I am Yama Ananta f^ods. Of creations I am . By is disputants we should here understand the several kinds of disputation. At the commencement (x. Aryaman is the king of Pit?'is. the middle. ' leads to moksha. the beginning and the middle and also the end knowledges I am the knowledge of the Self. and I Vada of disputants. as a means * ' of determining truth. am the lord and Vainateya of The son. but here the whole creation in general is referred to. 31. of water-beings. [DtS. is I'ii(/rt that is way of arguing. X. all am the source. am Time. Vainateya : Vinata's Garutmat. and Aryaman of Pitris I am. in idly ' Vitandii ' consists girding a certain question. Of those who bear weapons 32. of controllers. jalpa. : Vavnna : the king of water- Water-heinss the Devatas or Gods connected with waters. : the king of snakes. 20) it was said that He is the beginning. am the shark.— 244 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. of I reckoners of beasts. of of his adversary by overbearing reply or which the object to arrive at truth reis wrangling rejoinder. Rama of warriors I am I. 30. it is Vada the chief of them. 'Jalpa' an to carping at the arguments or asser- argument assert his in which a disputant opinion and tries tions of another without attempting to own to refute that establish the opposite side of the question . all The knowledge because it of the Self is the chief among ' knowledges." &c. I And Prahlada am I of Diti's progeny. of streams am the Ganges. Of purifiers of fishes I I am the wind. I am Rama. of all Dasaratha's son.

245 of all Of letters the letter 'A' am I. I am the Supreme Lord who is the All-seizer. ing are it —of those — who are to be prosperous in future. Constancy. Fortune and Speech. Of Samans also I. effort. or to the Supreme Lord who is the Time (Kala=the Measurer) ksha. because of His carrying all away at the time of pralaya or I am the prosperity dissolution. verily. Or. and he who Of them the seizer of life is the all-seizer. Time * I am the All-faced Dispenser. I am.' a I — even of time. Death is of two sorts. I what is called Vasanta. season is am the Gayatri The flowery 36. Mehe mory. the inexhaustible . I Of the Riks. am I the Dispenser of results of actions to the whole world. I am the Brihat-Saman. Intelligence. who seizes wealth. Gayatri and other metres. ' Brihat-Saman in ' the chief of the Samans. and dvandva compounds.— 29^3^-] Z3- DIVINE MANIFESTATIONS. I am victory. Endurance./a. of seasons the flowery season. I the splendour of the splendid. composed Rik. etc. &c. the spring. and the means of attainseizes life. of I metres Gayatri am is of months am Margasirsha. life. viz. perity of those who are to be of the feminine am) Fame. the ultimate element of time.. refers either to Time' here ' what is generally so called. and the prosprosperous . am am am the goodness of the good. I am He. 34. people regard themselves successful in 35. the best of the feminine. . moment. am Fame.. And (I am all-seizing^ Death. and possessed of the mere semblance thereof. I who fit to attain prosperity.. I I am the gambling of the fraudulent.

for. oi' those who .«lory have been declared only by It is indeeti \\a\ of instance.. the Self of all.! Myself. I'llofM*/*'*'.e. everything \ of My nature. N'nsmlova. Ot punishcrs 1 1 am the sceptre. the omniscient beings. that can exist without me. to describe or not possible for anybody know the exact extent of the Pivine Glories of the Lord. in those whv> aie en^rosseU vS\j.u>\ sock to con^luc^ 1 au\ the polity. who am The saints yoiu fiicml.y5 : meditation and know all thinj.. : I'tishnis: the ilosctMulants of VaiUi.**.uu of the rAni/avas 1 . . X. the Lotd summarises (vibhv^ti) as follows: His Glory — There I is no beini^ without Me ! .c.\s 1 victorious. is tl\e seed of is all l>eini.Wherefore. whether movinj. or unmoviui. O harasser ot thy foes: but the details of My <. To conclude the present section.e o{ kni>\vcrs 30. of tlic the 37. fDis. iliosc> o{ extens- ive knowledj.un UsanAs tl\o sai. am the essence of everything)y' 40.s. (i. am alsi^ silence. that also am O Arjima. Of 1 tl\c V/ishMJs 1 .mi Phanat\jaya.s. (tafMhlin^: surli I . \n\ what I. auvl o( thinj^s secret 1. of tlio saj^cs : . jS.2^f^ riiK nnAOAVAnotTA. dice-play. There no beini. anything into which ha\ e not entered would be (siinya).. There is no end of My heavenly Glories. i\\\\ the clYort of tliosc am ilu> victory of who make an ctTort. anil 1 saints am \"yAsa. 1 without Self (could not exist) auvl wv>uld be void is . the knowlcdj.

of what avail to thcc is this vast thing being known. prosperous. by one all Ixjings. this you can be Listen.' . one part of Myself constitutes So says the chant (TaiUiriya Aranyaha. •All beings form His foot. I knowledge of vast but imperfect details I will tell you completely of it. that know thou Splendour. by foot . or stronj(. Whatever being is {glorious. e. My : the Lsvara's. i. 3-12). stand sustaining firmly this whole world by one part. one limb. Divine Olory de/M:ribed 42..: — 247 in brief 30^42-] DIVINE MAMFEbTATIOKS. to be a manifestation of a part of My 15 Jt. 42. O Arjuna? I stand sustaining this whole world by one part Of what avail to ? (of Myselfj.

. Form &c. hast I declared Thyself to be. called Adhyatma. O like Lotus-eyed. Adhydtma that which treats of the distinction between the Self and the non-Self. sovereignty. Moreover. O Purusha Supreme. Lotus-eyed : not in brevity. is : which gone. Now.m.ELEVENTH DISCOURSE. as Thou. 3. ly. Delusion: non-discrimination. veri- have been heard by me in detail from Thee. having eyes lotus-leaves. this.\ that of Vish.' Arjuna was desirous to see with his ow^n eyes that Primal Form of the Lord which is manifested as the universe. as possessed of (infinite) wisdom. — my benefit. The Glories of the Lord have been ' described. O Supreme Lord. THE UNIVERSAL FORM. as also In detail : Thy inexhaustible greatness. on hearing the Lord's statement that I stand supporting the whole world by one part of Myself. prowess and splendour. : By for that speech which has been delivered by Thee is — that highest secret my delusion. So it is. 2. and accordingly said : Arjuna said 1. (Still) desire to see Thy form as Isvara. power. The origin and the dissolution of beings. strength. Arjuna's prayer for a vision of the Universal Form.

— including the whatever else moving and the unmoving thou desirest to Whatever else : — and see. show me it possible for Thy Then : Eternal because am very anxious to see. the Vasus. many marvels never seen before. By hundreds and thousands: like. said : See. Thus implored by Arjuna. Arjuna endowed with heavenly sight where = with to see the Universal Form. green and the Shapes arrangements of parts. My heavenly forms.I — 7. O Bharata. O son of P. sorts. and also the Maruts. this alone Now behold here in My body. behold the Asvins. 249 4. Self. the eleven Rudras. the two Asvins.] THE UNiViERSAL FORM. about which you have entertained a doubt 6). I me O Lord of Yogins. the seven heptads of Maruts.'itha. the eight Vasus. 32 . the whole world established in one. Behold the twelve Adityas. by hundreds and thousands. thinkest to see do Thou. in: numerable. : Not 7. 6 Behold the Adityas. O Gu^/akesa. the Lord said: The Blessed Lord 5. Heavenly: and of Supernatural. or defeat. Your success (ii. of different various colours and shapes. Behold also many other marvels never seen before by you or any- body else in this world of man. If it. then. O Lord. the Rudras. Thou. Colours: such as blue.

8. Form : the Uni- Form. all-wonderful. putting on the Universal Form. all With faces on all sides : as He is the Self of beings. the great Lord of Yogins. natural. of the earth). of prak^'iti. This I : Praknta. He showed. that which belongs to Me as Is vara. Such a form He showed. boundless. resplendent. anointed with heavenly unguents. will give thee a divine by which you be able to see Me. Such a form Moreover. Here follows an illustration. of tlie The Lord's manifestation Universal Form.: : $56 But. possessed of many wondrous sights. 11.fa. O King. of many heavenly ornaments. thy eye alone I give thee a divine eye behold My Me eye. Containing many mouths and eyes.XL Thou art not indeed able to see . Me with this . Sawjaya said Having thus spoken. (fleshy. By that eye. Hari : Naraya. . by an example. with faces on all sides. THE bhagavad-gIta. Hari. showed to the son of Pntha the Supreme Form as Isvara. King versal : Dhntarash^ra. of many heavenly weapons held up 10. then. : lordly Yoga. such a form did Arjuna see. Wearing heavenly garlands and vestures. g. [Dis. or. behold My great miraculous power of Yoga. of the splendour of the Lord's Universal Form .

which forms the third (from here). with his hair standing on end. in the body of the God of Gods. — If no such thing can ever exist. The Mighty Being : the Universal Form. antariksha or the middle loka . viz. 14. that he sees the Universal Form shewn by Arjuna said : the Lord 15. all ivishis the Lord. bowed down with his head. The God: putting on the UniWith joined palms in order to bow down. Pdndu : Arjuna. 13. Dhana»jaya. In the shy in or in the heavenly region. in that Form. Then he. Fitns. as also hosts of various classes of beings Brahma. If the 25I splendour of a thousand suns were ever to present itself at once in the sky. filled with amaze- ment. with joined palms. There. : How ? — Arjuna declares his own experience.: 8 — 150 12. versal Form. the son of Pa«du then beheld the whole world established in one. son of men God and other sorts of beings. that would be like the : splendour of that Mighty Being. and and heavenly serpents. and separated into There. many groups. of Gods: Hari. then the splendour of the Universal all else. and. seated on the lotus-seat. Form excels Moreover. thus address- ed the God. I see all the Gods. O God. Many The groups: Devas. THE UNIVERSAL FORM. in Thy : body.. Then: having seen Him. .

the Four-faced. and : of various forms. Rishis such as Vasishfha. neither I Thy end nor the middle nor the begin- ning do see. Thou art the great Abode of this Universe . Thou art the undying art Guardian of the Eternal Dharma.) . XI. O Lord of the Universe. : Immeasurable whose is limits cannot be Vishnu one with the Unconditioned. very hard to look at. the Lord of creait He is seated in the centre of the Earth-Lotus. To be known: by seekers of liberation. Middle : what lies between two extremities. (continued. stomachs. the Supreme Being worthy to be known. and discus. on the Meru which forms the cup or seed-vessel as : were of the Earth-Lotus. and immeasurable. I see Thee of boundless form on every side with multitudinous arms. The Universal Form Moreover. 17. From I this vision of Thy power of Yoga wonder-working ( infer. mouths and eyes . : [DiS. all like burning fixed.) 252 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. Brahiiid tures. O Universal Form. Moreover. 18. I the deem. fire a mass of splendour shining everywhere. 16. Thou ancient Purusha. Serpents: such as Vasuki. around blazing club. I see Thee with diadem. and sun. Variotis classes of beings both animate and inanimate. Thou art the Imperishable.

now fighting. all This space betwixt heaven and earth and the quarters are seen this. I 253 ig. in Thy Universal Form. by Thee alone. Some of them These hosts of Suras : these warriors only call out to Thee. enter these hosts of Suras " some it extol Thee in fear . in order to 6) as to his remove the doubt entertained by Arjuna success.] THE UNIVERSAL FORM. 20. Now. May be well! " thus saying. the Lord proceeds to show that vicis tory for Pa«rfavas 21. the great i?ishis and Siddhas say well for the world ' ! May be and offer their prayers to Thee in full hymns. middle or end. indeed.15 — 22. sec Thcc without beginninj:^. Arjuna goes on with joined palms : Into Thee. . — who have incarnated themselves as human beings for lightening the earth's burden. the filled three worlds are trembling. unable even to flee. the sun and the moon being Thy eyes. the burning fire Thy face heating the whole Universe with Thy . . certain. — the Vasus and others. of manifold arms. They are seen entering into Thee. Seeing Him. The wonderfulness Moreover. of the Universal Form. infinite in power. Having discoverevil ed portents and other forebodings of as ' the war it approached. Thcc : O High-souled Being. bands of great ivishis and Siddhas praise Thee with hymns com- plete. (ii. all of them Devas. radiance. Having Thy marvellous and awful form.

and of many stomachs. and fearful with many tusks. XI. Vasus. such as HS. Many colours ? fearful. my terror) On seeing sky. Virochana. terribleness of the Universal Form. Maruts and Ushmapas. of many arms and thighs and feet. Asuras. they are Ushmapas all : looking at Thee. with mouths wide I open.! — '''"^ : — [Dis. Having seen worlds are The zDorlds : terrified. of many mouths and eyes. possessed. : a class of Pitns. be Thou of the O : Lord of GDds and Abode Universe Tim's Fins the fires which consume the worlds at the . Adit5'as. with large fiery eyes. Thy immeasurable Form. all quite astonished. putting on different shapes. such as such as Kapila. O Vish»u.ha Asuras : and Huhu. Yakshas. Gandharvas Yakshas Siddhas : . nor do eraciousl I find peace . and Siddhas. (of Here follows the cause 24. the 23. bhagavad-gIta. . am terrified at heart and find no courage nor peace. such as Kubera. The For. blazing in Thee (Thy Form) touching the many colours. all living and I also. Having seen Thy mouths which are fearful with tusks and resemble Time's Fires. and Sadhyas. A The Rudras. O Mighty-armed. hosts of Gandharvas. 254 22. creatures in the world. I know not the four quarters. Wherefore 25. Visvas and Asvins.

My fear. with hosts of princes. Universal Form. ? Why 29. Thy fierce rays are blaz- O Vishwu. Arjuna's vision of the defeat of the enemy. with the warrior chiefs of ours. edly rush into Thy mouths of the The splendour But. Dro»a and that son (Karnal of a charioteer. and how do they enter — /\rjuna says : As moths hurriedly rush into a blazing lire for destruction. Sons : such as Duryodhana. 26 — 27. such as Bhishma. of defeat at the hands of others is gone . just so do these creatures also hurrifor destruction. so do these heroes in the world of men These enter : Thy flaming mouths. cannot dis- criminate the different quarters. . for. ing forth. I mt fonv I qiiartevs'. terrible behold. like a piece of flesh. do they enter into Thy mouth — Arjuna says : As many torrents of rivers flow direct towards the sea. cannot distinguish the East and the West.22 —30'] THE UNIVERSAL FORM. Bhishma. enter hurrying into with tusks and fearful to Thy mouth. Sticking : Ouvs : such as Dhnsh^a- dyumna. worlds on filling Thou lickest up devouring all every side with Thy flaming mouths. And all these sons of Dhntarashira. / know 255 the time of dissolution (pralaya). ? How 28. the whole world with flames. too. Some are found with their sticking in the gaps betwixt the teeth heads crushed to powder. 30.

/a and Bhishma. I said am the mighty world-destroying Time. I bow to Thee.: ) 256 Vishnu '. By Myself have Bhishma and they been already slain . O Savyasachin. Because Thou 31. PDlS. now engaged out thee. Conquer the enemies and enjoy the unrivalled dominion. so fierce in form. all-pervading. in destroying the worlds. Jayadratha. Arjuna who could shoot arrows even with the hand. I know not indeed Thy doing. The Lord's advent for destruction of worlds. Even within hostile none of the warriors arrayed live. fight^ thou shalt conquer the enemies. . unconquerable even to Devas. XI. art so fierce. The Blessed Lord 32. Therefore do thou arise and obtain fame. — these. Fame : that other atirathas (great warriors arrayed in the hostile army. have been defeated by Arjuna. case. the Original Being. me who thou art. Kar»a and others. Tell . be thou a mere instrument. Kama and other brave warriors. Bhishma. THE BHAGAVAD-GiTA. do thou kill. O God Supreme have mercy. wherefore. 34. Dro«a. killed by Me. fear not. Dro. Such being the 33. only of good karma. Savyasachin left : Such a fame : is the result Enemies such as Duryodhana. armies shall Warriors . I desire to know Thee.

the crowned one 'Arjuna). weapons and was especially his (Arjuna's) own dear greatest Guru. overwhelmed with When a man is overpowered with fear or with of tears. bowing down. his head too shall fall. the science of archery. : Having heard that speech of Kesava.jaya hoped that on seeing that killed for his (Dhnta- rash^ra's) son would certainly be want of support the unconquerable four. his father was engaged in austerity. As Jayadratha. Bhishma had his death at his own command and was possessed of celestial weapons.. fear. his eyes become full owing to the attack of pain or is owing to the phlegm. trembling. born of a maiden.— 30-35-] THE UNIVERSAL FORM. Wherefore he is Enemies such as Duryodhana. Sa»jaya said 35. He. down was furnished with an unerring Sakti (missile) given him by Indra./a and Bhishma. with joined palms. firmly solved that " whoever causes to re- my son's head to drop Kar7/a. Sa/ijaya's speech on this occasion is very significant. on earth. should be killed 33 . love." : Arjuna's adoration of the Universal Form. stammering. again addressed Krishna. including Drowa. too. How if ? — Sa. of these 257 iVrjuna had it The Lord speaks any reason to fear warriors —whom Now was — as killed by Himself. rise of joy: then his throat choked up with in this again causes indistinctness Thus did Arjuna speak in and dulness a stammering tone. also mentioned by name. Dro/za is evident why there should be any hesitation (on the part of Arjuna) his teacher in concerning Dro. He was a son of the sun. prostrating himself. once entered into a single was possessed of celestial combat with Para5u-Rama and was not defeated. and speech.

Greater (than all else). as well as the non-existent i. — form the upadhis (conditions) of the . This verse may be also mean The Lord is the proper object of : and love. And how should they not. far as It is should be the case so Thou art concerned.: 258 THE bhagavad-gIta. to Even to this. that with reference to which arises our consciousness of non-existence. : Praise description of rendered so as to delight Thy glory. the Being and the non-Being. [Dis. as light and worship. Thou art the revealed in the Vedantas ( Upanishads ) : — Sat and the A-sat. For the following reason delight. O Lord of Thou art the Gods. also the Lord is the object of ^y. the Primal bow to Thee. owing mighty Destiny. Thus he hoped there would be happiness to both. Arjuna said 36. O Hrishikesa. (Because Thou art the Mighty Being). Thy praise . The existent. Siddhas such as Kapila. Cause even of Brahma. O Mighty Being. XI- by Arjuna. for the : Lord is the Self of all and the Friend meet that such of all beings.. which Bi'ahma is : the Supreme. Dhntarash/ra did not Usten. Dhntarash^ra might despair of success and bring about peace. is : It is meet. therefore Thou art the proper object of deThou art the Supreme Being. O Abode of the Universe Imperishable. etc. That . e. O Infinite Being. Rakshasas fly in fear to all and all hosts of Siddhas bow to Thee. that the world delighted and rejoices by quarters. the Hira/jyagarbha.

: Knowey: of all knowable of Vish/ai. the Imperishable (Akshara) whom the Veda-knowers speak of transcends the Sat and the A-sat. of infinite forms. infinite in power and infinite in daring. 39. Piinisha: so called because He lies in the body. things. or the A-sat. Then art the Supreme Abode of all this. ! Hail to Thee hail ! a thousand times. Thou art Va3'u.35 — 40'] THE UNIVERSAL FORM. the existent or the non-existent. wherefore Thou art W\. He again extols the Lord thus Thon art the Primal God. O Being 38. the Moon. Hail ! Prajapati. Varu. Thou art the Knower and the Knowable and the Supreme Abode. Great Grand-Father: the dis- father even of satisfaction Brahma. Moreover./a. Piiiual God: because Thou art thecreator of the Universe. . on account of whicli He is spoken of as the 5^^ In reality. Agni. And. Yama. 40. pervadcst all. Hail to Thee before and behind ! Hail to Thee on every side! O All! Thou. to his Again : This shows Arjuna's due extreme faith and devotion. 259 Akshara. and self He is Thy- and none else. Abode: that in which the Universe Supreme Abode rests during the Great Pralaya tlie and such other periods. and the Great Grand-Father. By Thee is all pervaded. . and again and again Prajapati: hail to Thee ! such as Kasyapa. the Ancient Piiriisha.

said by me from as carelessness addressing Thee " O Krishna. All : without Thee nothing exists. superior to Thee. the world could if there were more than one . ignorant of this ness. therefore. of affection. moving bj- and unmoving. Immeasureable. Pervadest Thou by Thy One Self. cannot be two Isvaras or Isvara. O Yadava. A man may be powerful. the Greatest Guru (for) Thy equal in ? exists not whence another. in the [DiS. the three worlds. 41-42. to forgive." looking on Thee great- merely as a friend. Thou art the Father of art this world. O friend. Thou to be adored .— 26o Before all : THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. but he may . O Achyuta. On he every side : as thou art present in quarters. : not dare lo slay the enemies. Carelessness: The Universal Form That: all Isvara. Love : confidence born those offences. Because I have been a sinner for want of knowledge of Thy greatness. (world). when alone. an assembly. this Thou . Whatever was rashh' or love. For. Thy — I in whatever way I may have in insulted Thee for fun while at play. or company that implore Thee. or in at meals. 43. O : Being of unequalled greatness for there Thy Lords equal exists not . on bed. the mind being attracted elsewhere. Arjuna's prayer for the Lord's forgiveness.XI A East. or art infinite both in may be slow in daring but power and in daring. : Looking on Thee merely as a friend Greatness: owing as to misconception.

Therefore show me only that form (which Thou wearest) as 46. As ihe father. mercy. it The world could not exist as exists now. Thy former form referring * : O Universal Form. desire to destroy. as the son ofVasudeva.] THE UNIVERSAL FORM. O Abode of the Universe. Show me that form only.''= When even Thy equal exists ? how can there exist a being superior to Thee Because 44. O God have O God of Gods. prostrating my body. Arjuna's prayer for the Lord's resumption of His usual form. crowned. as friend with friend. having seen seen before and (yet) my what was unmind is confounded . When one /svara desires to create. does. it is Therefore. O Thousand-armed. in Thy former form having four arms. — (A. As a father forgives his son's offences. Thousand -armed: to the Universal Form eflbrt manifested at present. possessed of the club. meet Thou shouldst bear with me as the father with the son. with fear. with the discus in the hand. the .40-46. 45. It is implore Thee. I bowing down. it 261 not get on as not. unseen before: the Universal What was seen by Form never before me I or anybody else. to forgive. my friend. wish to see Thee as before. delighted. only. I am .) all be independent of each other. now so. another may There is of one /svara in one direction would be neutralised by that of another in no guarantee that all the different /svaras would be of one mind and as they would : the opposite direction. as the lover with the beloved. etc. adorable Lord.

nor by severe can I austerities. Austeyiiy: such as Chandrayaz/a. never before seen by any other than thyself.. Seeing Arjuna afraid. The Lord praises that Form on Form. the Boundless. He said : The Blessed Lord 47. My Not by study of the Vedas and of the sacrinor by gifts.' the ground that ' Thou thy (Arjuna) shouldst be considered to have attained all ends by this vision of 48."- Rituals : such as Agnihotra. XI. this Supreme Form has been shown. by my sovereign — power — full of splendour. O Arjuna. four a regular study of the Vedas includes is the study of the sacrifices seperately mentioned in order to imply that a knowledge of the sacrifices is necessary.262 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. beginning with 15th at the the quantity is full moon therefore necessary to separately the meaning of the Vedas. \ It consists in ' — (A. nor by rituals. fices.f 49. gracious to thee. should also be learnt. the All.' of in them. be seen in this thyself.) diminishing the daily . The Lord resumes His usual form. e. * Be not afraid nor bewildered on seeing such dark half of the Some believe that the study of the in learning the consumption of food by one mouthful every day for the Vedas consists It is texts by month until at rote without understanding the meaning. the Original Form of Mine. of the nature of the sacrifices treated new moon and then increasing it in like manner during the fortnight of the moon's increase. reduced to zero the enjoin that t." do Thou put on Thy former one. [DiS. the Lord withdrew the Universal Form and . said : Ry Me. Withdrawing Thy Universal Form. Form in the world of man by any other than Though that of the sacrifices also. O hero of the Kurus. consoling Arjuna with sweet words.

My form- Formey form: which issodear a conch. — four-arnied. consoled him who was His own : as born in Vasudeva's family. do thou again see this er form. thou hast seen hold this form. Having seen this Thy gentle human form. Not by Vedas. ? as you have done. yet Long ever see to behold: though they long It to they have not seen It.: : : ^5 —54'] "^"^ UNIVERSAL FORM. nor shall they Why 53. now I have grown serene. Thou be seen ? Listen But by undistracted devotion can : — I. even the Devas ever long to beseethe Form. and turned to my nature. from fear and cheerful at heart. the Mighty Being. to you. nor by austerity. again showed His own form and . re- O Janardana. canst as thou hast seen How 54. a discus and a club. Having: thus spoken to Arjuna. 52. Arjuna said 51. wearing Vasudeva Sanjaya said 50. gifts. nor by nor by sacrifice. can I be seen in this Form Me. as this free 263 a terrible form of Mine . becoming gentle terrified. in form. of this . The Blessed Lord said Very hard to see is this Form of Mine which . Devotion as the sole means to the realization of the Universal form.

i. him to reach after death but My me . who is without as the Supreme.e. .. be known and seen into. Me and also looks on as the Supreme Goal I devoted to he serves with his heart and soul. Xl. which conduces Highest Bliss be summed up : the teaching being such as every one should follow 55. who is hatred for any being. He is not attached to wealth. is cognized by any of Of this Form: it is of the Universal Form.. 264 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. teaching of the whole will Now the essential to Gita-5astra here. O Pa. and in virtue of which no object other than Vasudeva the senses. Me Me. Me He is progeny. I and he seeks nothing This the teaching have to offer to thee. The essence of the whole teaching of the Qita. who to looks on who is devoted free from attachment. to or love. : Undistvaded devotion (Bhakti) that devotion which never seeks any other object except the Lord. Form.iava. and entered O harasser of thy foes. am his Supreme Goal. even though these may have done to great injury to him. in reality. but also to intuitively realise I Me am. O Pan^ava. [DiS. or to pleasures for them he has no attachment enmity for He cherishes no feeling of latter any of the creatures. Me alone in all manner of ways. to wife. A upon servant works for his master. but he does not look that master as the highest goal for . to obtain liberation. to friends. and to enter into Me. Such a man comes else. only to By this sort of devotion possible not know Me as as declared in the sastras.. he comes to Me. to kinsmen. is I am his highest Goal. devotee works for . Me. He who does works for Me.

34 of them : Yoga in ' ? Thus verse. ( 55 ) /A.. Thy Primal Form as Lvara manifesting itself as the whole Universe has also been shown by Thee for the same purpose of worship. and those also who (contemplate) the Imperishable. And having shown that Form. I ask of Thee is with a desire to know which of these : two ways the better. or the worshippers of Akshara ? Arjuna is supposed to have addressed the Lord with the second and — In the discourses beginning ending with the tenth which treats of Divine Glories. and so on. hast taught the worship of the able (Akshara) Thou Supreme Self. associated with the upadhi (condition) of that energy (sattva) which has the power of carrying on all evolutionary process and of know- ing everything. . Who Now thus : are superior — the worshippers of Isvara. ' referring to He what was said who does works for Me the last preceding xi. devoid of of all upadhis (conditions) and Thou hast also taught here and there worship of Thyself as the Lord the Universe. are better versed in —which and so on. the Imperish- Brahman. Those devotees who. BHAKir-YOGA. Thou hast exhorted me to do works for Thy sake only (xi. thus contemplate Thee. TWELFTH DISCOURSE. the Universal And in the (eleventh) Discourse treating of Form. Arjuna said I. 55). Wherefore. the Unmanifest. always devout.

as devoid of all is said to be manifested (v\-akta) which is \isible to the (avrakta. the Imperishable meditate on the (AV Imp. always hkh. -\^ tv" > able (Ak> tho— . in fixiin^: v their thought teimplate Me. wor^ippers of the Imperishho see righiS^and hav^e abandoned desires. ed all desires and reaoonced all actions. as : . and wor^i^ Meas the Gov^emi.> tiis not so. Lord said on Me. These dev'otees. but this.'"::... having abandonjust manifested. ih^t Uomanifesied.. -.s>-ara. whose tk^oq is free Srom the Umam (parblindness) of attachment and oirber ev^ passkKas. — who b anmanifest L r^.ie. sensefv as the root of the -vposrd * \yakta •: " implies .-. nobody e]s<^ for th«r refuge. they who allways — .^ the othears 1 «ie Klessed 2 . who are better versed m Yoga ? Tbe Tbe let L- m^nrsliippers «f l..tix^.ntg Lord of all Masters of Yoga. meditate on the steadfast in mind. . meditate on Thee in the Univ^ersal For There are others who. bAkt£^ nx theair Me in tbe U&i\nerssil i:hc Sapnnte Loni. conendued with sapreme mind on Those who. That indeed senses). ihc:^ Tbot^ae my . incomprebensable to the > or conditions. —These Of others . who is onnisdeat. ji3-tMws Aejxmi : eQ|.: : — [DiS. ^Form. XIl* a66 THE BHAGAVAD-CtTi. seeking Imperishable (aksharsL) Brahman —abo described abov^e. tbe two by other attributes classes^ be er . we shal" --^ '^ter on what has to be said :he "^r-* regarc. are tbe best Yogins.ag«d without wtermissnon in dtnng works (or tbe Lord's sake and in doing other thini^ taught before. .^ . asdeAned below.

are the best Vogins. Whatex'er Is visible to the senses can be . the Eternal. thought of by the mind also . intent on the wel^re of all beings. the Unchangeable. then. Wherefore Yogins. because He Is unmanlfiest. I think. — they reach Myself. the best Yogins thou what I have to say r^arding them 3 —Stop t hear — 4. Those who ever contemplate the Imthe Indefinable. \ pervading all like the ak4$a. is Because the Imperishable (Akshara) is unmanifest. Indeed.shara. is *a —The He Imperishable : who is the object of contemplation thus qualified is He is omnipresent. the Immutable. unthinkable. endowed with steadfastly (in the faith. He not acces^ble to words and cannot therefore be defined. in incessant they pass their days and nights thought of Me. always equanimoas. They contemplate the Imperishable evety where round. but the Akshara to the senses is invisible j and able (K(i/astha) — is ' therefore unthinkable. is He all unmanifestt not manifest to any of the organs of knowledge. the Unmanifest. Omnipresent and the Unthinkable. having restrain- — ed all the senses. Me supreme —these.: 1-4.] BHAKTI-VOCA 267 contemplate closing manner described in the verse of the preceding discourse). it is but proper to speak of them as the best The worshippers of Ak. ? Are not the others.^/M3ontemplation (Upisana) consists in ^proaching the object of worship by way of meditating it according to the Teaching (iistra) and dwelling for a long time steadily in the current of same thought (continuous) like thread of descending oil. the p>erishable. ' K(i/a /He is unchangemeans a thing which is good to all .

whose thoughts are set on the Unmanifest for. the Unmanifest. But. body. as Its Lord. is very hard for the embodied to reach. —which is by various terms such as Maya. Great indeed is the trouble of those who are engaged in 5. the is it wise man is deemed My very Self 18). the Goal. Greater is their trouble . It needs indeed no ' saying that they come to for. for very .268 appearance but to THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. to their bodies. it has been said that (vii.) 'Ku/astha' means He who is seated Maya ' as Its Witness. and so on . 14. /iyyrtATjVa (undifferentiated). Because of the necessity there is for abandoning attachment to the body. Accordingly it refers here that seed of sa.' — Or. — Me . but greater still is the identify themselves with the Imperish- contemplate the Supreme Reality. — seeing that they are one with the Lord Himself. thos3 who is are attached Therefore" their trouble greater. we shall describe the conduct in life of the worshippers of the Imperishable (Akshara-Upasakas). avidya (nescience) and within. contemplate the Imperishable. the Imperishable. heap. as in Svetcisvataropanishad lo) and in in the Gita (vii. Salvation by worship Later on of Isvara. all their They who senses. —the trouble arising from the necessity of having to abandon their atis tachment for the The Goal. evil [DiS. — they come to Myself. hard for the embodied to reach.«sara — including full of evil (iv. designated other things. XII within. ' Kiiifastha is ' may mean remaining like a Hence He immutable and eternal. doing works for trouble of those able and My who sake. curbing and always equanimous whether they come by the desirable or the undesirable. Neither necessary to say that they are the best Yogins. .

it is Because S. 269 — But those who worship Me. therefore. you cannot I If fix your thought on Me steadily in the manner have mentioned. will up from the ocean fixed of mortal sawsara. on the death of this body. alone hereafter. Me : the Isvara. Exclusive : having no other Universal Form. so. the Lord. Thou shalt no doubt live Me Fix thy mind (manas) —thy Thou purposes and thoughts in — in will Me. then by yoga of constant practice do thou seek to reach Me.— 4 — 9-] 6 all BHAKTl-YOGA. 7. the deliverer out of the ocean of the mortal sa. Fix th}^ mind in Me exclusiveh- apply thy in reason to Me. If thou art unable to fix thy thought steadi- ly on Me. fixed on Me. who are engaged in contemplating lift Me exclusively. ing on Me with exclusive devotion is for them whose thought long. the Lord (buddhi) also in the Universal Form. Thou doubt Abhyasa-Yoga. meditat(yoga) I . object of worship except Myself. regarding Me Supreme. become ere O son of Pritha. it. since in it their thoughts are on Me the Universal is Form. God in the Devotion (Yoga) : samadhi or steadfastness of mind. O Dhana»jaya. ? be the result — Listen — What shalt : shalt without abide in not Me as Myself. Fix Me thy fail reason which resolves and determines. because very hard to cross beyond it. Sawsara is an ocean. g.»sara. Those I. renouncing actions in Me. the Lord. then seek thou to reach Me in the .

self-controlled. Abandonment 11. 270 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. and abandon the Now He 12. extols the abandoning of the fruits of is all actions. Better indeed is knowledge than practice esteemed than knowledge meditation more than meditation the abandonment of the actions ately. steadfastness of mind acquired by such Service of the Lord. thou attain attain perfection — thou shalt purity of mind. (If) thou art not equal to practice either. then yoga or steadfastness. and then perfection (moksha). If of the fruits of actionsthis. then do thou perform actions renouncing of those actions. Practice (abhyasa) consists in withdrawing thought from all quarters and fixing ' it again and again ' on one or particular object. If thou canst not even be intent on doing actions for My fruit sake as thou hast just been taught. 10. actions for My sake. thou art unable to do even then refuged in devotion to Me. by yoga of constant practice (abhyasayoga). . then knowledge. fruits of on abandonment. Even doing perfection. practising yoga. do thou abandon the fruits of all actions. thou shalt attain Even first if thou doest mere actions shalt for My sake without . them all in Me. AbhyAsa-yoga means samadhana practice. . Universal Form.. Peace follows immedi- . XII. [DiS. then for be thou intent on (doing) actions My sake.

. but not at first. accomis the panied with the qualification | mentioned above. {Vide Bn.— (. being ' self-con- either insj. the act of listening to the teachsriitis (2) trolled. And all objects of desire are fruits of actions enjoined in smriti.) here the MSS. 9 — II. The former would mean accompanied . cessation of sa.) of the fruits of of the with a view to the practice of The abandonment it knowledge. From such an abandonment of the fruits of actions.1 the sruti and in the In the case of the enlightened person who is steadily /j/uYisd (practice) — occurring in the with discrimination. or dhyana actions forms here the subject of praise. and this is a truth ^ to all. is 27I '^'- Knowledge ignorance.'" 'he sruti. the fruit of all action is lin this verse. Wherefore the act of abandoning merely extolled by the declaration. A' '=>""'".. ' J* 4-4-6)-(A.* In what way does it ( the declaration ) form a mere praise ? In the Ka^hopanishad results (vi.\.! better than practice accompanied with is better than that .) f because are found : is the path intended to be Two in different readings of the (2) taught in this connection-(A. * .' 1' ii). with a firm resolve. 14) it is all said that immortality from the abandonment of quite familiar objects of desire .] CHAKTI-YOGA.' ^ text and the commentary— may (I) mean obtain The qualification (xii. knowledge than meditation (dhyana) with knowledge better meditation with knowledge abandonment of the fruits of actions. of the superiority of one over another for it has been taught as the course to be adopted is when a man unable to follow the paths already taught.«sara and of the cause thereof follows immediately it admits of no delay.) Up. bhashya (i) viveka-purvakdt.— (A. and aviveka-pfnvakat. only when unable to tread the paths taught before. Abandonment of the fruit of all action is taught as a means to Bliss in the case of an ignorant person engaged in action.

we should Karmayoga is not meant for the worshipper of the Akshara. on the Universal — Form. — and is the performance of works for the sake of the Lord have been taught. the Lord and the Self. To explain declared that the in the words 'They reach Myself (xii. As thou art unable to do this hinted— in the words If either '(xii. the Lord shows the impossibility of the worship Having of the Akshara to a Karma-yogin. mere abandonment of the fruits of all actions is praised —with a view to create a desire to follow the course same way that. 3) worshippers of the Akshara are independent as regards the attainment of liberation (kaivalya). [DiS. Now ment of the fruits of actions and because of this point of similarity. — in Thus. the Lord (xii. for him who sees no distinction (between the Lord and the Self). tjie engaged Peace imme diately follows abandonment of desires.XII.— J72 THE BHAGAVAD-GlTA. distinction by presupposing a between Isvara and Atman. of constitutes a factor mere abandonment of desires even an ignorant man's abandon. it is life of the Akshara=upasakas. in saying that the ocean was drunk by the brahma^a sage Agastya. Similarly. 7) has shewn in the words for them I become the deliverer' understand that the Lord here means to say that : — — ' . that Yoga which consists in concentrating thought on the Lord. in contemplation. a means to The Here. it has been taught that Karma-yoga accompanied is with the abandonment of the fruits of actions Bliss. even the brahmaj/as of this age are praised for the mere reason that they too the are brahma»as. 11) that Karmait is ' — Yoga associated with ignorance (ajfiana).

rjuuare(fom mends to him only Karma-yoga (iv. * This is another reason why Karmayoga cannot be combined with Akshara- + Because the attributes mentioned below cannot. He hates nothing._ owing to their realisation of the so that it would to be have been inappropriate to speak.Self of the Lord. . whose thought and reason are directed to Me. who is free from attachment and egoism. He regards all beings as himself. he who is (thus) devoted to Me is dear to Me. all of them. who are one and the same time. be cultivated Upasana in one and the same person at by the followers of ignorant of Self— (A). 35 .. that ' He proceeds to teach — such as direct absence of hatred of any being to immortality which form the 13-14. There- with reference to the worshippers of the Akshara. He is full of compassion for the distressed /.. who is enduring. for. not even that which causes him pain. were deemed as the identity very* . who is friendly and compassionate to all. "'^ M oreo the ledge fore t . 7) — that the others If these are dependent on the Lord. to the saw/nyasins w^ho are devoted to right knowledge and ' have abandoned those attributes all desires. and possessed of conviction. ye*". self-controlled. c.] BHAKTI-YOGA. to whom pain and pleasure are equal. they would be the very Akshara themselves . — 273 II — 14.— (A).ipf. ever content and firm balanced in mind. Karma. He is friendly and compassionate. (xii. it is the two are mutually opposed states. means He who hates no single being. man like to be subordinate to another after knowing himself to be the Lord>t^rough proper sources of right knowby the Lord.thern as persons delivered Lord who is preeminently a well-wisher c^y\. 15) ba^e4 fOn an idea of distinction and Nor would any quite dissociated i^oi right knowledge.' on an external Being.

He remains unaffected when abused or'beaten. the is sense- objects and their mutual connections. all is unconcerned. thought. 16 clever. froii^ I '. he Joy is dear to Me.274 "^^'E BHAGAVAD-GlTA. Me — here described Buddhi in ' Manas — purposes and thoughts — a? well as his is I to is ' is at 15. he who to the is (thus) devoted Me dear to i\Ie. fear : and sorrow. He is indifferent body. and so on. rightly on the spot in matters demanding prompt W . He is always content he thinks he has enoiigh whetiier he obtains or not the means not cause in . tears. untroubled. /The same truth which was indicated dear to the wise man and he am very dear 17 — length.s Also 'satisfied iS fi whether he comes always steadfast in by a good thing or not. the senses. He yoglri. He i. offered security of sin. renouncing to undertakings. He is b)- whum the \\'or]d is not afflicted is and who He not afflicted by the world. life [DlS. purity both internal and external.XII.//nyasin has directed to sively his Me exclu- vii. He who is free from wants. — the faculty of determining. He He is possessed of able to decide attention. envy. mind (anta//-kara. Such a devotee dear to Me.7a) on attaining an and is indicated by horripilation. of bodily sustenance. tlie consists exhilaration of object of desire. This sa. ' he ' is a sawnyais not regard anything as the notion of ' mine and free from eg^di-sm. lie has a iirin conviction regarding the essential nature of the Self. h^has. Pain and pleasure do him hatred and attachment. who is pure. ''b^-eidQes to all beings. the elevation or the sawnyusin. who in free from jov.

content with home- steady-minded. which was connnenced the various attributes of the sawnyiisins of — the worshippers of . ^ny a joixl. of devotion that man is dear to Me. 'W'H.tny. 2 /. nor nor desires. He is . 13.|.attaitiiq*. whom full censure and praise are anxthin::^. {Santi-pan<a.. He has no attachment Ivirt' for objects of any of kind. ^'rieves. and also honor and dishonor: who same is in cold and heat. he is 'houseless' as has is been i said in another sniriti..2^yi2). His thought fixed steadily on the Supreme Reality. He has no hxed abode.' content with thr said (in tin^ is means bodily r. wh.14 — 19-] BHAKTI-YOGA. actions calculated t" bccuxe objects whether of this world or of the uext. lilc^. : who is silent.1 . him the Gods call brah- ma«a.! . is He does not fret what desirable. Iiin^. (J.&. ^He who in is the same to foe is and the friend. who lies down anywhere. He' does not up undesirable.ii is t(Q(^'':iii<l evil. in xii. he who is full is cjear _ to Mc. not desire 181 tlj..• • He who neither ici'.s \r. He does not lie does| grieve un l^\p<^ to part with a beloved object.'icpSf^j^yjf hates.uistenance.ihahharata). The enumeration. i> 1^.ii|iattained. It . 17. renou^^in^' of devot^<»i rcji^ce.: hadn .O He does not take the side of a friend and the all >je habitually renounces of desire. in pleasure and pain: who free from attachment: to equal: less. . iC Moreover.' \yh.i <lad xvirh .Moksha-Dharma.

as follows this 20. 13. and devoted. knowledge : 01 the Supreme Reality — is concluded They. who follow immortal Law upto described above.he THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. by every who desires to attain to the Supreme Abode of Vish. 12) has been ex: ' length and concluded here thus me. endued with faith.— 276 t. looking Me asthe Siipremc. one Immortal Law should be zealously followed by every seeker of Liberation. Vd^rting to the words. the Imperishable Self.m. which consists in th^^'teotv^ledge of the Supreme Reality. XII. highest devotion. verily.' They verse exceedingly dear to The meaning of the Because he who follows the Immortal Law which has been now described becomes exceedingly therefore this dear to \'ish7m. Above: in the porlion'begannlng with Looking is up to Me as the Supreme : whose highest Unsurpassed goal Deveted : Myself. They lity. Akshara who are constantly devoted to the [DiS. What was implied in the ' I am are is : exceedingly dear to the wise plained at man' (vii. Immortal: as leading to immortaxii. they are exceeding!}' ^ear to Mc. : the sa./niyasiris. the Supreme Lord. — »33-K**^*-s<» .

from verse 13 to the end. And through Universe. Prak/'iti. of the three composed gu«as objective forms. the discourse. such as the bodies (karya). and is combined into various aggregates of the body and . the Lord Again. form' dane life and the other.myasins who : possess the know- ledge of Truth.. two Prakntis. (Natures) of the In the Seventh Discourse two Prakntis Supreme Lord were shown. (apara) its being the cause of sawsara or mun(para) Prak/dti. the superior life (jiva). being essentially one with the Lord these Himself. ing the very the Kshetraj. MATTER AND The main subject of SPIRIT. the Lord becomes the of is cause of the origin. — the one composed of the three inferior gu»as and divided eightfold.— THIRTEENTH DISCOURSE. the senses (kara«a). sort of i.e. in the last preceding discourse. —has been Now arises the question Possessed of what to the knowledge of truth do they become dear life set Lord by following the rule of discourse is forth above ? — The present also intended as an answer to this question. and sense-objects (vishaya).ia or the Knower of Matter . The body and the That Praknti which transforms itself into all is soul. essential nature of their possessor. the path of the sa/. described. sustenance and dissolution the Now of this discourse on Kshetra (Matter) of com- menced with a view Prakritis — by way describing the two Kshetra and Kshetraj/^a — to determine the (Isvara). what sort of life they lead. forming th^ because of .

«>1 Uleiitit\ riuis the soul with the l. the body. th(ju also all know Me as Kshetraj/za The knowledge O Bharata. or because to decay.. the body.' tlie comprehender of matter'. tu be the Supreme Lord. Pvsiieti.?a. . ' th. Listen : 2. is called Kshctra him who knows Kshetrajna. the licld matter. the Lord says : The Blessed Lord 1. enjoyment and liberation. viz. natural or imparted by others.ij//a Ksheira the an«. ' him they designate as Kshetraj. This body designated as this Kshetra. or in ' is destructible. the senses. ' the knower of the field. described above.'v who know of them call In the words' the body ' the Lord specihes the thing Kshetya it referred to by the pronoun so-called it 'this. XIII. Such an aggregate is this. that one hns tw acrniiic them ? —^No..— 278 — [DiS. said This. ie who who as distinct from himself by knowledge. to be Myself.' He it wlio in knows Kshetra. O son of Kunti. they who know of Kshetra and Kshetraj//a. he I comprehends perceives it understanding from head to foot.iIioni Is this all kiMwl«-'<h_je. THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. e.— .l Iiaxe been described. not a being of the . it. is in of the Kshetra and Kshetraj^a deemed by Me as knowledge Do thou also know the Kshetraj«a. matter — is because is shielded it from liable it injury. or because fruits of actions are ' is because the is reaped ' in as ' a field. In reference to this body.ord.' — the field. : our body. And do Kshetras. to subserve the two ends of Purusha or Spirit.' /.

the true nature of Kshetra. between It for. for. has been said: . no it distinct from Him. which together constitute the sa/«sara. ' really devoid of the various upadhis (conditions) ' ' inaccessible to any such word or thought as sat or asat '. namely. In the first place. The all subject to evil only through ignorance. the Self and the Lord. is. or that there else no sa.«sara arising from dharma and a-dharma. existent or nonAs nothing else remains to be known apart from existent.//sarin. includ- (pratyaksha). is this is : — The who is in Kshetras. — No. exists in other enjoyer. . — Vish/m — to be the right soul is : knowledge. and who differentiated by the to manifold upadhis or Kshetras. the conclusion ing sensuous perception opposed to all evidence. is no none is apart from the tlien. it Neither conclusion acceptable./a and the Isvara. would follow that and to the scriptures which treat of bondage and liberation their- respective causes would have no purpose is serve. that knowledge by which the two objects of knowledge. explained as due to a distinction j/(ana and aj//ana. would follow is either that the Isvara a sawsarin sa.: 2. Moreover. all AN'D SIMRIT. in And from our perception of variety the world may also be inferred the existence of sa. are known is considered by Me the Lord.] MATTER (sa/wsara).//sara because there Isvara. Isvara. be (Aiis7i:'er) identical. if there exists no being. Kshetraj. between knowledge and ignorance.>a. is Kshetras. are known to us by immediate perception. 279 Kshelraj«a world The nieaninjj. All this would be inexplicable that can be if the Atman and the Isvara. If [Objection) — only one Being. Kshetra and Kshetraj. pleasure and pain and their causes. you should understand. from Brahma down and is a clump all of grass.

is wisdom effect leading the right.— 28o — [DiS.) Those who live in the midst of avidya or ignorance . (the Supreme is Self) thus beto comes immortal here the Goal. ' He who knows Him .' ' there no other way reach — (Purusha-sukta. while the sweet the of unwisdom.) Then are these two paths. then there will be a great calamity.'~(Ibid. are quite (Ka^ha-Up. " These. THE BHAGAVAD-GITA.' &c. As to the sruti. (Kena-Upanishad. that unwisdom with its effect should be got rid of. Vyasasays: there 24-6. ii. wisdom and unwisdom. afraid of nothin. the following passages may be quoted : " If in this world a person true end is knows (the Self). — — (in the same Upanishad and to in the same context). we learn from the sruti. as producing quite the right and the sweet. smriti and reasoning." and lead to — And so also a distinction through effect between vidya and avidya. Now. if a person in this world does not know (the Self). ' Accordingly. &c. 'There are only these two paths. As regards the ignorant person is : 'But to him there ' the fear (of saw/sara). goals. what is known as wisdom and what distinct 4. XIII. then the gained . is pointed out opposite results.) is The wise man 2-4).' — (Moksha- dharma. Here (in the Gita) also two paths have been spoken of.) is known as different unwisdom." 2-5).-j ' — (Taittiriya- Upanishad. 2-7.

passages from the smriti xiii. Suchf being the who is the Isvara Himself. Self. f Knowledge and ignorance being. distinct in kind and as in 36 . shewn above. 1-4-10). appears to be a sa7«sarin owing to a distinct* Here follows the nyaya or reasoning above referred to.' — them see how estimable (Mokshadharma. and are liberated who.— 2. for. deluded as blind (KaHia-Upanishad. and 28. 6-20). 15. another am I. see that an ignorant man regards the physical as the Self." — (Bnhadara/iyaka-Up. peopls led by the blind ! ' — ' He who knows Brahman Whoever worships another is Brahman Itself. and no longer engage in righteous or unrighteous deeds to which those passions may lead. go round and with an erring step. — the Bhagavad-GIta v. while those to be distinct knowing the Self give from the body and the like. etc. without (>Sveta . fall thorns and wells by ignorance some into the effect of knowledge. 3-2-9). {Ibid. 1-4-10). performs righteous and unrighteous deeds is (Dharma and A-dharma). ment. the Kshetrajna.— (A). is impelled by attachment and hatred and the like. " Deity. Men avoid by knowledge serpents. men knowing God" And ig.' he does not know . up attachment and hatred. born and dead. not can the end of sorrow be..' 'He becomes " ( When men till can then ) roll up the sky like leather. As to him who knows the all this. 201-16) . —-may also be quoted. thinking 'He is another. This nobody can deny by argucase.' (Mu7irfaka-Up.] : — 28l MATTER AND SPIRIT. is Thus* we body. to the By reasoning It is (nyaya) also we come * same conclusion. 2-5). said . he is like a beast for the Gods.Up. then only.

up by avidya. ion in the upadhis set the same way avidya) is that the Atman or individual Self appears (by to be identical with the physical body.— (A). &c. If the attributes — such as illusion se: pleasure. just as a pillar (in darkness) avidya) for a of the mistaken (through essential quality human being. — No. like decay and death. XIII. actually pertains to the Self. dissimilar. nor is any essential quality of the pillar actually transferred to the man. illusion (bhrama). then the Self would also become unconscious. The identifying of the Self with the though. pain and dulness .. are mistaken one for the other. Wherefore''' object of the attribute of the body. the Self appears to be a saHisa- . consciousness never actually pertains to the body neither can it be that any attributes of the body — such as pleasure. (Ansu'er) : — No. such attributes are ascribed to the Self through Kshetrajna (Objection) pillar : is really the unaffected by samsara. which are respectively the cognised and the cogniser. two cases are The exter- and the man are boljt objects of cognition nal to the Self) and are as such mistaken one for the other by the cogniser through avidya.282 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. pain. in [DiS. for. to Conscious- ness. Similarly. &c. Beiiif. the cogniser. But thereby no actually transferred to the pillar. —actually pertain avidya. through the upadhis such as body being no mere Buddhi. though an cognition. — with the physical body and the is —which man is is common to all mortal creatures is caused by avidya. Thus the illustration differs from what has to be illustrated. to the Salf for. up by avidya. It a well-ascer- tained truth that that notion of identity of the individual Self with the not-Self.e. effect. ( i. . the Supreme and the in- rin— an * dividual Self must be essentially identical. like. whereas you say that the body and the Self.

the intended point of agreement between the tion illustra- and the thing illustrated consists in something being falsely attributed through ignorance. MATTER AND 283 i. and Such being the case. e. Nowhere in our ex- perience have we found anything rtn proved or spoiled by a not quality being falsely attributed through avidya. to explain why while others such as decay and death do not. the Lord. of Kshetra (Matter) which to the Self. But as to the contention thai no false is attribution experifails of the qualities of the object to the subject ever enced. As to the contention that the illustration it is quite ? analogous. — Why For. delusion. is etc. to the Self by avidya . . On the other hand.— 2. both agree.. inasmuch as sa»/sara which consists in doing and enjoying.. e. we are led to infer that those qualities of Kshetra Self. could ever pertain the cogniser. desire. can ever so much as smell of the nature of a saw/sarin. they also are attributed so on. attributes only of ascribed to a few Khetra (an object of cognition) which are the Self by avidya actually pertain to the Self. is only attributed to the cognizer by avidya. In this respect. state a reason for the difference. like decay and death. just as the akasa or ether concavity not affected by the attributes of dirtiness and which are ascribed to it by children through ignorance. an object of cognition.] — SPIRIT. Thus. do not actually pertain to the because. and which has its root in the cognized. the — — cogniser is is not thereby affected. hatred— of the body. then it would be necessary to i. it cannot be imagined that the Kshetrajila. it has been shewn that even this contention in the case of decay and death. though existing in all Kshetras. as also because they are objects shunned or sought for. we reply that is wrong to say so.

Avidya inheres ( in the organ. contrary to truth. We truth. ^is a Tamasic notion. is for avidya is born of Tamas. or causing doubt. — . we see that it is the organ of sight that is affected with the disease of timira. as partaking of the nature of a [Objection): veil. and . As possessed therefore of this avidya. the three forms of are not therefore attributes of the (A). &c. . when timira is is removed by the treatment to eye. {Answer): — No. a sawsarin.. reply : It is not right to say so for. • avidya are due to a certain disorder. It is unjust to say that Kshetrajua the Isvara Himself and not a sawsarin. the percipient * no longer subject such perception.. . also ixom. ih. pertain to the eye. nor the cause the perciof the { viz. a notion born of of discrimination. eye-disease — arising ). to the organ. [Ansiver): — No. is an inherent property (dharma) of the cogniser. XIII. percep- what quite the contrary of truth.— 284 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. Kshetrajua a sawsarin.e disease of ^m/ra). explain): [To — You is is (the opponent) say: Avidya is an inherent property of the cogniser. avidya tion of — whether causing of a . truth for. timiva [sxi causing dimness of sight which is Tamasic. Tamas it on the dawn ( of the light disappears and for instance) we find the same three modes of avidya such as non-perception. or causing nescience or non-perception i e. [DiS.." — Then avidya for. Kshetrajna is Objection ):— As possessed of avidya. As partak- ing of the nature of a veil. we see that such diseases as lead to the perception of what is contrary to and so on. SeU^ That is to say. is Neither the perception of what thereof pient . not in the 5elf.. pertains to for.

) were essential properties of the Self. objects and cannot therefore form the properties of the cogniser. they (false perception. as the heat is fire. only through .— (A. there any such evil as avidya. and all- impossible for the immutable and formless Self. The burden the of explaining an objectionable point admitted into their existence systems by of those philosophers lie who argue of Atraan does not all ^ on only one them — In what way do classes of philosophers admit into their systems this The Lord teaches here that the Self is devoid of attributes. properly pertain the instrument. {Objection): — Then. &c. to one or another sense-organ. and doubt. false perception. the wherein all sense-organs are absent. is Wherefore we conclude that the Kshetrajna ever identical with Isvara. Scriptural injunctions apply only to the state of bondage. of cognition the cogniser. of the Kshetrajila. is the conclusion inevitable that the sastra or scripture serves no purpose. 285 which therefore not a property of the percipient. any more than it the light of a lamp. to pervading unite part with anything whatsoever. Moreover. in the absence of sawsara and saw/sarins."" (. like the akasa. for. it is admitted by all. but not to the they are all Kshetrajna.] MATTER AND is SPIRIT. And because they are cognisable.) . Similarly. it is an essential property of there could be no getting rid of them or at any time . 31 ). as well as their cause.xiii. non-perception. The Lord also says. follows also that they can be cognised some the If organ which er is distinct in from the cogniser and no philosophstate of liberation is admits that.2. and so on. [Answer): — No all . " Being beginningless and without qualites.

so with us also. also unreal.«sara or of the state of being is bound to So. there can be no liberation.286 THE BHAGAVAD-GtTA. but not in the state of liberation. objectionable point? — All philosophers who admit sa. Thus the would have no subject to treat of and would therefore serve no purpose. when let the Kshetrajnas become one with the Lord. is then the sistra serve no It has. and as the bondage caused by avidya. They cannot be simultaneous states of the Self as they are mutually opposed. just as motion and states of one rest cannot be simultaneous and the same thing. they must be either simultaneous or successive. the sastra has some purpose to serve. as also the means thereto. still. (really) in differ- If Self. [DiS. exist the Self cannot — No — bondage and liberation be states of the . But in is the case of the non-dualists (Advaitins). Just as.«sa. something to be avoided and something to be attained. another. — All dualistic philosophers (Dvaitins) hold that liberation are real states of bondage and in conditions of the Self. . purpose. the dual world of the Self sdstra is unreal it is . XIII. If caused by another. according to our view. real the literal sense of the term. Bondage and {Objection): liberation are not real states of the 5elf . [Ansuey): ent states. If successive. a purpose to serve where there dualists (dvaitins) of all avidya.ra the exis- tence of a Self agree that liberated Selfs are not conscious of sa. however. it not beliv^ed that their systems are open to the objection that the sastra serves no purpose. the sastra has a purpose to serve only in the state of bondage. with the classes. Since thus there really exist. . they are If uncaused by either caused or uncaused by another. for.

It is. adrish/a. be held that the states of bondage and liberation do not the dualists cannot pertain to the Self. know that the Self is distinct from the Not even the dullest or the most fire. . in order to avoid the objection of non-eternality. to serve cannot is be brought against non-dualism . Wherefore. on the Scriptural injunctions concern the unenlightened. and the effect is the body to which The cause is agency and the effect is karma has given rise. then even avoid the objection that the sastra has no purpose to serve. the hypothesis^'S the we would determine . has to be admitted that the state of liberation has a begin. dualists The and the non-dualists being thus similarly situated. in- much less a wise man. the ignorant I who identify themselves with the cause and the effect for.] MATTER AND SPIRIT. ning and has no end which opposed to all evidence. but all having an end it and this is opposed to is alike evidence. or the cause is karma. 2. the That the states of bondage and libera- tion are real conditions of the Self. order of their occurrence. with the not-Self. 287 they cannot be inherent real. since they cause and the effect. insane person regards water and as identical . Similarly. the objection that the sastra would have no purpose for. first. Now. In point of fact. it if. state of bondage should come without a beginning. if in the Self And this is opposed the to and cannot therefore be Moreover. Nor is it possible to maintain the eternality of that which passes from one state to another. t enjoyment. indeed.how * or light and darkness.— . the 5astra concerned with the ignorant who view things as they present themselves to their consciousness.) . lie the burden of answering the objection does not non-dualists alone.— (A. But not the wise these latter do not identify themselves with the cause and the effect.

think so if . quite unconnected with causes Hence the conclusion that the injunctions and * Vide Bnha. it is only prior to the knowledge of the Self unconnected with causes > and effects that for. the Self to be distinct from the cause and the a certain person has been Of course. is only after having duly observed the injunctions and prohibitions of the sastra — but not beforef — that is a person attains to the knowledge that the Self and effects. 26-27. set once up by avidya (prakn'ti) — as still bound by the injunc- tions of the sastra..mmitra) has been so ordered he might. it it is possible for one to identify the Self with them. thinks that he (Vish. and to avoid a certain other course of action to which leads an evil . too. [Dis. thinking that he has been enjoined to adopt a certain course of action by which to attain a desirable end. not- withstanding their knowledge that distinct they are persons from each other. (Ansaier): — No.XIII. iv. . he did not understand to whom the injunction has been ad- dressed. t Vide Vedanta-Sutras III. O Devadatta. Up. junctions and prohibitions of the sastra do not apply to him who knows effect. however.288 THE bhagavad-gIta.m-mitra. when an action in the commanded to do words " Do this. 1-5-17. in the case of the cause and the effect here. though standing near and hearing the word of command. such as Vish. it unconnected with the cause and the is quite possible for a wise man to regard himself — in reference to etc. So. (Objection): is — Notwithstanding his knowledge that the Self effect." no other person. just as a father and his sons as '- regard every one among themselves bound by the all in- junctions and prohibitions addressed to every other. ) the connection (between the Self and the body.

Self exists and survives body 37 .. concerned with the injunctions such as " He who . desires svargamust sacrifice. and thus the sastra would serve no purpose at {Ansimr): * — No for.] MATTER AND SPIRIT. [Ansiver): — Performance of enjoined acts in and abstention from prohibited acts are possible the case of those know of the Self only through the Scriptures. very rare that . " he who derives his idea of the Self only from the scriptural i.— 2. the 5astra would have no purpose to serve. them . it for the results of Vedic rites and devoutly performs them all. seeing the wise not performing Vedic their followers also may not perform all. etc. — who He who knows Brahman and has realised the identity of the Kshetrajna with the Lord does not certainly engage in the Vedic rites.. —cherishes a longing Wherefore. there being no person who would observe scriptural injunctions. 289 prohibitions of the sastra concern only the ignorant. is the person who attains Knowing nothing more than the tho this conviction being formed on the basis of the teaching of the Karma-ku)u/a. — On . a fact which evident sastra to us cannot be said that the would have no purpose to serve. {Objection): — Neither those who know nor those that tlie Self is independent of the body. injunctions. who believes in the existence of the Self because the teaching of the sastra enjoining certain actions and prohibiting plicable.e. {Objection): rites. Neither does the person who denies the existence of " the Self and of the other world engage in such rites.' " Let none eat kalanja " thus. But. but (certain others) would otherwise be inex- who does not directly know : the Self in His the is essential nature. who regard the mere body as the Self are. (according to non-dualists).

avidya can do nothing to it miry with moisture. Their learning consists Self ! regarding the body If. (xiii. • This fact shews that the ignorant do In spite § That is to say. the Self is unaflect- we regard X Referring to wife. Nor is illusory knowledge able The water of the mirage. natural to man.zsara is only based on avidya and sees the world as efltect it exists only for the ignorant man who appears to him. . 2) know Me as Kshetrajfia' and 'By unwisdom wisdom is covered' (v. . it as pratibhasika. among many that attains wisdom. children. as we now Nor do the ignorant follow the evil passions men . 14). We ^'^ do see people engaging Lastly. attachment and other necesin sarily lead to action. for soil instance. XIII. only one see. [DiS." — like the sa. etc. the Real Thing. we to find some of the term. " nature that acts" (v.//sarins in {Answer): — Listen. for. can by no means render the saline So. ' Do thou also Learned but deluded. they would desire neither pleasure nor action with the attachment ' let it be mine' . 15). {Ohjcctioii): — How is it that the learned (paw^its) also feel^ ? " I am so and sot. while.. those who hold the this not always follow the wise men. etc. t Referring to superior birth. Wherefore has been said. itself as their § on the other hand. wisdom. Neither avidya nor its pertains to Kshetrajfia to affect pure and simple. as due to illusion. action It is is the practice of Black Magic. Therefore. Kshetrajfia. ^^ ^^ sawisara.— 290 THE BHAGAVAD-GtTA It is. of protests of wise belief are not pa«rfits in the proper sense men. We do admit only existence ignorant men resorting Sorcery or of such a belief. in point of afiso/Mfe truth. sa. pleasure and action are but changes of state. Black Magic. they really see the immutable • Kshetraj«a. wise indeed. too." " this:t is mine. as has been said already. for.

longing for results.. the activity senses and when. he confounds others.rfukya^ . The wise man.— 2. the meanest of the He is the slayer of the Self. of sawisara of Kshetra I To bring about the cessation should first acquire a discriminative knowledge and Kshetraj«a. directly taught + .— (A) the Lord. is Ignorant in himself. we say. is. is given to know who teaches thus! neither of them is the Kshetraj^a. engages is the ignorant man who. then attain a direct perception of the Kshetraj/ia.This Self is tj. which may be stated as is follows: The Lord Himself inct is Kshetraj«a. quite dist- from Kshetraj«a who perceives but I am a sawsarin subject to pleasure and pain. only figuratively. devoid as he of the traditional sastras. then. not being acquainted with * The individual Ego is distinct from ^ j • ^ ^^^ p^. There again. key (sampradaya) to the teaching of the is Ignoring what not taught. He who Scistra holds this view and hopes to make out that the is concerning bondage and liberation has a meaning learned. another sort of learning professed by some other (class of paz/^its).. by means of dhyanaor meditathus and he tion of the Lord.and_ does not therefore engage in action quence. he suggests what is Therefore. cherishes no longing for results . the contrary. SQI Thus.-'' He who . and then dwell in the true nature of the Lord. on . "-(Ma. that he abstains from action. as a conseof the body and the of the aggregate — — ceases. In such passages as "That Thou art'' . who sees the immutable Self. the Lord. in action.pj.> Brahman. ^^^ ^^^ teacher-(A) and should strive to attain to the state of /svara by means of the knowledge which can be brought about through dhyana.] MATTER AND it SPIRIT. and Kshetra it .

Nor is Kshetraj/ja affected by it. the traditional interpretation. This has also fact soil.. is [DiS. cannot l^lemish be vitiated by the due to it. and not a property of Kshetrajua. though learned in all sastras. what is perceived an attribute of Kshetra (matter) and Kshetraj«a. Kshetrajua is possessed of avidya makes Him a and the eftect thereof happiness and misery and so on {Ansii/ci') — is directly perceived. for. {Objection) — The very fact that sa. then that blemish could not * That is to Lord and the say. is — No .«sara and the sa///sarin are : creatures of avidya. the cogniser. as {viz.«sarin : objections have been met by saying that knowledge and ignorance are distinct in kind and in effects. and therefore forms a property of Kshetra. If there should be such an association.«sarin ./a. and that be no these if Kshetrajwas be one witli the Isvara there can there is sa/z^sara because no sa. he to be neglected as an ignorant man. . sarin— (A). To explain : whatever blemish to — not inhering in KshetraJ7/a —you ascribe comes under the cognised. XIII. it of the cogniser and the cognised is impossible.— 292 THE BHAGAVAD-GiTA. The relation of the Self to samsara is a mere illusion. since such intimate association Him. . by saying that the while illusion makes Kshetrajua a saHi- soul are one in reality. admitted by is all/'^ — To explain that the : The Real Entity isvara) not affected by the defect (sawsara) attributed to Him through ignorance of that Real Entity. been illustrated by the does not wet the saline water of the mirage And the objection raised on the ground that in the absence of a sawsarin there can be no sawisara has been answered by explaining that the sa. Now s4rin if as to the objections that the Isvara would be a sam- He be one with Kshetraj.

vith tainted same thing cannot be both the agent and the object of Avidya and cannot therefore be it an action..2. cognised as it is is property of the perceiver.while the Advaitin avoids by shewing that the Kshetra- + Whatever is perceived. if misery and nescience were properties of the Self. etc. to say. colour. self . [To explain Do you know ask to know whether avidya is Inheres as an attribute in entity. or to something else which in particular an independent is what that + i„ entity wherein * If the Self could perceive His also perceive own Him- ^^^^ following discussion. . But in cannot inhere Chit or Consciousness which is is vidya by nature. immediate perception'''? Or. He could .^ stance form and cannot be a can really hive no connection whatever with avidya which.] MATTER AND That is SPIRIT. 293 be cognised. the oppo- properties. no independent entity outside Chit. ed that all that is is knowable is Kshetra 5-6) and that nothit Kshetraj//a the knower and none else (xiii. is Now is asks : (the opponent) — Whose this avidya ? [To explain — This avidya w'hich accounts for the mistaken in notion not an independent entity and should inhere else something it which has an independent existence. always distinct from him. since one and the conclusion that the Kshetrajna . i). and there the question. Hence — (A)] it is (Reply): — By whomsoever : seen. it is ing but sheer ignorance which may lead one to contradict by saying that nescience and misery and the attributes like are the and specific properties of Kshetraj«aand that they are immediately perceived as such. how could they be objects of how could they ever be regarded t as the properties of the Self? Since it has been determin(xiii. by Him. The perception of the relation of avidya.'! identicalwith the /5vara. is : to the Self I due to illusion.8 nent tries to drive the Advaitin to the is which absurd. as for in- j.

it is not proper to ask. — THE bhagavad-gitA. since the Self wherein inheres reveals Himself in one's is own (A)] consciousness — there no occasion {Opponent) in point. XIII. — By whom By whom is is it seen ? — As regards this we say: is There is no use asking For. for. on the other hand. (A)] {Opponent)'.. have been meaningless. " is avidya seen ?" avidya perceived. Hence the question that follows. Whose ?" When the possessor of cows is seen. avidya be cognised. must be cognised as inhering in something then else. {Reply)'. if the question. there is no occasion for the it question at all. immediate perception also an objecj: of and so the question has no meaning. avidya it related. since it cannot exist by itself. avidyi be not cognised. there ?" no occasion [To explain : for the question " whose are the cows Since avidya it is an object of cognition. : — The illustration . then. If. is not analogous to the case Since the cows and their possessor are objects of their relation is immediate perception. you perceive also the one its who has that avidya. not is immediately perceived. {Reply) : possessor both objects of If they were. inheres In the first if case. its But not so are avidya and immediate perception. of what avail to you ? [The meaning is : — Though the possessor of avidya is . that avidya exists at all? is how do you know The opponent perhaps means to ask what that entity wherein avidya inheres. When " is possessor is it perceived. ? 294 it [Dis. the question would — If you know to what particular is entity. and for the question.

you know what for entity avidya inheres. the If I effects of avidya such as misery. is the cause of evil. time. [and I should try and get rid of {Reply) sessor. those vyho have no avidya. should not feel its ceiver and the perceived the same for. nor a separate cognition of that for then you would commit the fallacy of infinite may be the posfeel * The sessor of inference meant here as for instance the liberated souls. at the .* can you perceive the relation between the Self and avidya It is not indeed possible for you to perceive your Self as to related same moment (that your Self cognises avidya) for.] MATTER AND still.] (Opponent) — Why. — (A)] {Reply) — He who has can be no other — (A). it : it is it I who have avidya.)] know avidya and the Self. question ? Where does is then any occasion your The opponent {Opponent) not understand the real drift of the reply and proceeds as follows: : — (A)] it — Since avidya of. efiects .— (A). : — Then you : — (A. : avidya will get rid of it. SPIRIT. but not by immediate perception. . . 2. and avidya. . its pos- [so that your question has no meaning I {Opponent) — — (A)] How ? know. 295 in not immediately perceived.. f Neither can there be a (separate) cogniser of the relation between the cogniser (the Self) (relation) . ask to know whose [and avidya. I t The Self cannot have no avidya. . be both the perat avidya. do not fggi (he efiects of stated as follows :— I must be because I avidya— (A). [Hence {Reply) my : question —-(A)] Self —Then you know the avidya. I is a thing is that should be got rid [So. the cogniser (the Self) acts at the moment as the percipient of avidya. by inference.

places. is is ever the cogniser . he can never become the not at Such being the case. that imputed to the Self by avidya. and thus the series would necessarily be endless. 27. [Dis. cogniser. avidya — or. XIII. : [Objection) — There . just figure. THE bhagavad-gIta. spoken of as the is as. (Answer) : — No for. for that matter. is in the Self this blemish. in virtue of its heat.— (A). And in we shall also explain how if the same truth is taught the sequel. all tainted by nescience. then another of that again and so on If. it is only by a figure of speech that is the Self. viz. misery and the like. {Objection) : — Well ! the Self has in Himself no concern its with action or with if its accessories or with results. iii. to in ii. and that they are therefore said to belong to the Self only by a figure of speech. then another cogniser of that . another cogniser .. and v."''' Kshetraj«a. should be supposed to exist cogniser .296 regress (anavastba). the ig. We have shewn how here. there no proof phase of consciousness. it and they are ascribed (to the Self) by avidya. 15 and other Lord has they are taught that the Self has in Himself no concern with action or with its accessories or with its results. So also the cogniser cognised. whatever that avidya inheres in the Self . on the other hand. then it is ever the cognised only. by a do the act of heating. the immutable Consciousness. is that of He is the cogniser of Kshetra or matter which full blemishes. the cogniser. fire said. . — If the relation between the cogniser (the Self) and the cognised could be cognised. anything else — is the cognised. then would * Because the Self cannot be cognised is And the Self reveals himself in every by anything beyond.

2. but proper to to give beforehand a summary of the whole doctrine be explained at length in the sequel. of the Here follows a verse which forms a summary teaching of the Discourse on Kshetra course). Of what ' : ' nature : its properties. — (A). not also the knowledge that that Self is free from Self all attributes.i it does follow. ii. xiii. And what that Kshetra . is it already contained in brief in the verses is 1. to expatiate further on the subject. what efliects arise from what causes.: Who : He is that was spoken is of as Kshetrajiia and what His • And which form the ledge. the ritua- such as hunger.e. so we conclude for the present.) where the teaching of the whole sastra is summed up. 50. 3. and of what nature. etseq. 297 for the follow the rituals ( karmas ) are intended only ignorant. T The 5dstra demands from 38 . And ic'hence is what Who He is etc. and what its changes and whence is what and who He is and what His powers this hear thou briefly from Me. thirteenth Dis- which for. {i.. 2 — 3-] MATTER AND that SPIRIT. this opposed to the sastra list the knowledge of the existence of a often says that' one should persacrificial rituals with know- beyond the body. What what it that is in what was spoken of as this body Kshetra is what it is in itself. Summary of the Doctrine.* (AtisK'cy) : —Yes. And in the section (xviii. we No need here shall dwell more particularly on this point. . as we shall explain when commenting on xviii. ^TJiat Kshetra' refers to (xiii.. not for the wise. i). is.

such as the power of seeing) are which eye). Sages (A^ishis) R'lk. and the of the senses. XIII. They admit of no doubt. thou wilt understand The (five) and's imply that one should underthe truth. To Arjuna who prepared to hear 5. the ten senses and one. [Dis. has. 1-4-7). . Egoism. the doctrine of the true nature of Kshetra and — with a view to interest the mind of the hearer sages. Up. in vari(3us hymns. powers (prabhavas. Hymns i.. as also in the suggestive words about Brahman. : full of reasoning and decisive.e. full of reasoning. saktis. namely. by been it. arise Do . Reason. five objects also the Unmanifested. stand Kshetra and Kshetrajua in all these aspects. e. passages treating of Brahman. they are productive of certain knowledge. in Sung by many ways and distinctly. from the upadhis or environments (such as the thou hear My speech describing briefly the true Kshetrajua in all nature of Kshetra and aspects these specific and on hearing that speech. this praise (of the doctrine). contemplate Him " a man — such as "Only as the the words through (Bri.. Matter in all its forms. They are i. — The Doctrine The Lord now Kshetrajua.: — : 298 THE bhagavad-gIta. extolled. extols what He has proposed to teach. let in which alone Brahman is known. such as Vasish^fha. the Lord says as The Great Elements. — Self. : such as the has The true nature of Kshetra and Kshetrajua in the also been taught in the Brahma-sutras. 4.

UnmaniEnergy of the So much alone is Praknti. which is composed of thoughts and : purposes (sa. pleasure. spoken of as eight modifications. pain. i. . the vii. 14. so called because they produce knowledge. The cause fested. 6.e. Desire.] MATTER AND Gyeat Elements all Sl'IRlT. but not the attributes of Kshetrajua (the knower of matter). 299 The (Mahabhiltas) are so called because they pervade vikaras. etc. And the one the manas. is Reason (Buddhi) defined by determination and of the cause of Aha.«kara. courage briefly described — the Kshetrahas been thus its with modifications. the Lord proceeds to teach that even those which the Vaiseshikas speak of as the inherent attributes of (the Self) are merely the attributes of Atman Kshetra (matter). — — of the five "karma-indriyas. divided eightfold. five objects of the senses are is the eleventh sense. so called because they bring about aclion. of ego. the cause of is ' consciousness the Great Elements'.a) praknti in its . Desire (ichchha) * is that which impels a person who has once is The /svara-Sakti here referred to consciousness (chaitany. The elements here referred to are the subtle ones (sukshraa).— (A) Maya in vii. hatred. and Lord (Isvara-5akti) spoken of in 14. The Sankhyas speak of these as the twenty-four principles (tattvas)." Egoism (Ahaw/kara): self-consciousness. which latter will be spoken of as " the objects of the senses. senses of knowledge such as hearing.— 3 — 6." The ten senses are made up of the five " buddhi-indriyas". Now." senses of action such as speech and hand. intelligence. the Avyak>ita or Undifferentiated. The sound.«kalpa) and so on. not the root of . all modilications of matter. the Reason (Buddhi) is the Avyakta. the aggregate. the Mula- the root of the insentient matter.. not the gross (sthula) elements.

made up because of the Sattva principle. (xiii.— 300 THE BHAGAVAD-GiTA. same class on perceiving namely hatred. — pervaded by the Kshetra. state Intelligence is a mental as fire which manifests itself in itself in the aggregate —just It is manifests a burning metallic mass. Pleasure the agreeable. experienced a certain object of pleasure to seek perceiving an object of the latter as — on again same class. Virtues conducive to Self-knowledge. beKshetra. namely is a property of the inner sense (antaZt-kara^a) (matter) because it and Kshetra that is knowable. the tranquil. is only is Kshetra (matter). This. .* shew The thiit characteristic marks in- The cosmic body and the individual he alone who has grown bodies (saniasWideha and vyash/idehas) difierent (viralvta) to them is qualified for have been described here with a view to knowledge. it Pain is the disagreeable and it is Kshetra because is knowable. with its The Lord concludes Kshetra has been « thus briefly modifications such as Mahat (Buddhi). semblance of the consciousness of the because it is Self. XIII. of which the various modifications in their have been spoken of as " this body " ' (xiii. hatved is which leads a person. has been described in all its different forms. and the senses are upheld when they get depressed it is and Kshetra because it is knowable. knowable. Courage is that by which the body . it is conducive to pleasure. subject as follows: described. — (A) . to 'courage' 5-6). The aggregate is the com- bination of the body and the senses. So also. [DiS. to dislike an object of the this latter. —to . for all Desire and other the present qualities mentioned here stand the the qualities of the inner sense (anta/«-kara7/a). i). The totality Kshetra. who once experienced a certain object of pain. cause it is knowable. get hold of this desire. This. from the Great Elements' *. Even this is it is knowable.

now. which qualify a person for a knowledge of the Knowable. steadfastness. service of the teacher. not being affected : when others have done any injury. in the Purity : washing away the dirt the body by means of water and earths. 12. intent firm on which a sa. 6-7. ' The recognition of evil in all — (A) is another reading of the + There commentary which means that the aggre' gate is inimical to the Self and should therefore be restrained. . — that Kshetra- jua through a knowledge of whose powers be attained. Lord Himself can will describe Kshetrajua in detail.f Self-control consists in directing exclusively to the right path the body and the mind which objects of senses. patience. Steadfastness : concentration of all efforts exclusively in the path of salvation. modesty. up- rightness. Self-control: control of the self. Humility. self. purity. In xiii. to that immortality as But./myasin devotee in the is said to be a juana-nish/ha. Patience : Innocence: doing no injury any living being. Modesty : not proto claiming one's own virtues. of the aggregate of the body and the senses. This aggregate is spoken of as the because it is of some service to the true Self. a path of konwledge. of attaining Service of the teacher doing acts of service to the preceptor (acharya) who teaches the means from moksha. it — the inner purity of is mind consisting removal from of the dirt of attach- ment and other passions by cultivating the idea* that inimical to them. 7. means knowledge.] MATTER AND SPIRIT.. 30I the of Kshetrajua will be shortly described. virtues such as humility. innocence. self-control Humility : absence of self-esteem. the Lord prescribes. and which are designated ( as knowledge juana ) because they are the means of attaining knowledge.

be thus interpreted: — Pain itself Birth. .. Absence of attachment for objects . in sickness and pain. old age a and sickness is a misery. Or. etc. are all miseries. as shewn is above. 8. Similarly in death. in thinking of what lies Thus the evil in birth having to dwell in the womb and to issue out through the consists in uterus. XHI.. death and old age. whether adhyatmika. absence of affection for son. arising in one's own person. power and strength. etc. tion of the evil of pain in birth. or adhi- produced by supernatural beings. etc. i.302 are THE BHAGAVAD-GITA by nature attracted in all directions. i. So may be seen the evil caused by sickness such as head-disease or the evil caused by pain. produced by external agents.e. From this perception of the evil of pain in birth. Unattachment. Perception. the passage is evil.. should be regarded as painful. etc. there arises indifference to the pleasures of the body and of the senses Self to and then the senses turn towards the Innermost Because the percepobtain a glimpse of the Self. [DiS.e. and in being treated with contempt.. or adhibhautika. because they produce misery they are not miseries misery . and also absence of egoism perception of evil in birth. The also . Birth. evil of old age the decay of intelligence. conduces to knowledge. etc. Moreover. : for pleasures seen or unseen. of the senses.e.. daivika. etc. Absence of attachment : for sense-objects such as sound. g.. . i. in themselves. is a misery death is a misery . it is itself spoken of as knowledge.. evil there is severally in birth. may . Birth .

as in the case of a man who or happy or miser- able when another alive : is happy miserable and is who feels himself or dead when another alive or dead. solitude that the mind becomes calm like is possible so that meditation of the Self and the Society ) only in a solitary place. 303 wife. distaste for the society of men . And : this devotion is (conducive knowledge. attachment and consists in Affection is an intense form of complete identification with feels another. and that therefore to) He is our sole Refuge. or from impurities. Sclitary places : thieves and tigers such as a jungle.7-10. home and the like. ng the undesirable. Unattnchment : absence of liking for things which may form objects of attachment. sists is Untermed knowledge con- Constant equanimity not being delighted on attaining the desirable. and attain. \ temple of a God. other dependants. apnthak-samadhi. resort to solitary places. and so on. Unflinching devotion to Me in Yoga of non- separation. to) in not chafing on is This equani- mity also 10. equanimity on the attainment of the desirable and the undesirable . a steady unYoga of non-separation flinching^ meditation on the One with the idea that there is : no Being higher than the Lord. Vasudeva. attachment and absence of affection are because they lead to knowledge. of the ordinary unenlightened and undisciplined . free. The like others who are very dear. as also from fear of serpents. (conducive knowledge. made the which are naturally free.] MATTER AND SPIRIT. Wherefore resort to ( I solitude of men : is said to be conducive to ) knowledge. the sandbank of a It is in river. and constant. .

the cessation of mortal existence.. by them cannot be perceived Never indeed have we found humility and . development of such attributes as humility are the which of this means is attaining knowledge. Moreover. etc. disciplined men. the Knowable. not of THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. pride. and what is opposed to is ignorance. because they are is conducive to knowledge. {Objection) — Humility and the .«sara. cruelty. the enlightened and is [DiS. are only forms of self-control {yama and niyama) the Knowable. What is it that has to be known by this knowledge Lord proceeds with like ? — In answer to this question the : xiii.— — 304 people. II. hypocrisy. which should be known and avoided as tending to the perpetuation of samsara. XIII. The end should be endeavour to cultivate is only when one one will perceives the end of the knowledge of truth that the attributes which are the means from * of attaining that ' knowledge. This to be declared it knowledge. of kept in view . because it leads to knowledge. What opposed to this viz. impatience. Percep- etc : Knowledge of of truth results from the mature (xiii. 12. Constancy in Self-knowledge. insincerity and the like-^is ignorance. 7). perception of is the end of the knowledge of truth. Distaste Jor the society of ordinary men is knowledge. : knowledge of the Self and the like. be- cause the society of these latter an aid to knowledge. it knowledge sa. The end for. Brahman. These attributes humility ' ' to perception of the end of the knowledge of truth — are declared to be knowledge. moksha. Self-knowledge tion.

the Supreme Energy called Vasudeva. for. to be known. it is only the knowledge or consciousness of an object that has been found to deter- mine the nature of that object another object. t. or because they are secondary or auxiliary causes of knowledge. 12.] MATTER AND SPIRIT. And in all cases.' I It is not sat That which has is. and explain differently. is ' Beginningless said to be ' the or ' Supreme Brahman. thus: Brahman beginningless. And. (AnSii/ey): of knowledge.' anathe Bhashyakara has done. '' With ion ' a view to avoid tautology ' some split ' the expressit anadimatparam into * anddi matparam is . 305 Other attributes (mentioned above) serving to determine the nature of anything.lO — 12. That which has to be known I shall desknowing which one attains the Immortal.' has no beginning. It. the Brahman. shall fully describe as It — The Lord then knowledge goes on to describe what the result of atten- that tion will be. and lam Its Para-5akti. asat. just spoken of as That of creating in ' by way — which has to be known. as 39 . the unsurpassed One. we have said that humility and the spoken of as know- ledge because they conduce to knowledge. no object can bs determined through the knowledge of fire can be perceived through — This objection does not apply here like are . (But we say) : — True. any more than the knowledge of a pot. certainly. dimat as one compound. cribe .iking '• tautology might thus be avoided. * But the Tautology involved in . provided the given interpretation were possible. in order to call the hearer's h"m a desire to know^ of It.

" {Objection) : — That thing (alone) If the exists which can be a contradic- spoken of as existing. — How — Thus (Aiiswey) ? it is : quite the right thing that has been being inaccessible to speech. it is [DiS. the Knowable. then It cannot exist. and having thus for * called the hearer's attention by creating a desire It is the sat knowledge.^06 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. Knowable cannot be spoken of as existing. for intended here to all expound the nature attributes. XIII. since It is not an object of the consciousness of non-existence.' {Objection) — After proclaiming very loudly Knovvable. Therefore tautology should be explained as due to the exigencies of the metre. {Ansuer): — Neither is It non-existent. the (existent) ' Lord says: not said to be or : ' asat (non-existent). 2-3-6) and not gross. interpretation does not hold good. Up. ' that He is going to speak of the it ' does not become the ' Lord to describe It as neither : sat nor asat. as leading after worth knowing.—' Not thus (BH. not subtle {Ibid. It is of Brahman by denying specific a self-contradiction to speak of Brahman same as possessed of a particular kind of energy and at the time as devoid of all specific attributes. After saying that is He is going to speak of what.' — No. Brahman to immortality. is beyond speech and thought. 3-8-8) in the terms " It is defined in all ' * ' — not this. tion in And it is terms to say that It is knowable and that It cannot be spoken of as existing. (Objection):— Ewevy state of consciousness involves either . Upanishads only by a denial of all specialities. Brahis man. said.

— 12. * up the the says If not. 'It is other than the known and above the unknown. the and as of Knowable such can be known is is beyond the reach '5abda' (the solely through that instrument knowledge whi ch It c alled Word. like a pot. 307 the consciousness of existence or that of non-existence. etc. It is the consciousness of non-existence.2-3. tion in ' as regards the allegation that to a self-contradicnot said to be . can be an accompanied Since. it when. That which can be perceived by the senses.! after putting as the sruti hall for self-contradictory sacrifice. such object of consciousness as a pot. you cinnot escape the concluis authoritative.) [Objection): self- — Even the passage of the just sruti just is quoted is contradictory." for. since that passage alone is sion that lirahnian f If so. — No. the Knowable should be comprehended either by a state of consciousness accompanied with the consciousstate of ness of existence. Such being the case. i. Revelation). accepted as authoritative which contradiets do not accept the passage as no accepted authority.] MATTER AND SPIRIT. \vc indefinable— (A). cannot be. — (A) . indeed. (we say that) there no contradiction for. not an being beyond the reach of the object of consciousness accompanied with the idea of either (existence or non-existence). or by a consciousness accom- panied with (ylnswey): senses.e. on the of the senses with the idea of existence. it is Now. other hand. thing. the sruti says..' (Kena-Up. terms say that the Knosvable is is sat ' or 'asat'. or an object of consciousness accompanied with the idea of non-existence. an object of con- sciousness accompanied with the idea of either (existence or non-existence) and is therefore not said to be 'sat' or 'asat'..

" (who knows) there exists (any good) in the next world ?" (Taittiriya-Sa7«hita. then It could be denoted by a word implying a quality. Hence it is no authority in itself— (A) Brahman is described in the sruti as class. by something which should be accepted as passage quoted by the opponent — " who knows true. namely. {Aus7!>cr) : — No. as that Brahman Self.Svet. were possessed of qualities. 6-1-1). should subsidiary.! be read along with the injunction to which it is Moreover. Up.'ord cannot be expressed words such as for. wherefore (existent)'. 6-19). It cannot be denoted by such words as ' sat Being devoid of attributes. Thus and horse imply genera. — as associated with a certain genus. new truth.-(A) the passage as teaching no for. cannot be indicated by a word implying an says: It is The >Sruti " without parts. actionless and tranquil. than the known and above the unknown. act. possessing no own Inner and should therefore and so on. to be understood in import." (. it stands to reason in to say that 'sat'. a its full statement which. or a certain a certain quality. — (A) . we should not reject be accepted as authoritative + * in itself. teaches. * That it is to say. [DiS. It Being actionless. If It It possesses no qualities. teaches this is new it truth. white and black imply qualities. Brahman every v. ivealthy and cattle-owner But Brahman belongs to no genus \ imply possession. "'^' whereas the if there exist any good in the next world ?" — is a mere artha-vada. the passage which says that "It is other itself. employed or : to denote a thing denotes that thing — when heard or a certain by another act.3o8 THE BHAGAVAD-GJTA. no other than one's belonging to no colour. XIII. cook and teacher imply acts. C07i> mode of relation.

:


30g
It
is is

12

13.]

MATTER AND

SPIRIT.

It is

not related to anythinj^ else
It
is

;

for It is one,

with-

out a second,
Self.

no object
it

(of

any

sense).

It

the very

Wherefore,

is

but right to say that

It

can be

denoted by no word
the

at all ;and the

passages of the sruti like

following

point
{i.e.,

to

the

same thing

away from Brahman, unable to approach Brahman) all words return." (Tait. Up. 2-4-1.)

Whence

Brahman

is

the source of
that

all

activity.

When
may

it

is

said

Brahman
be
'

the

Knowable

is

not

accessible to

the word or thought of 'sat' (existent), one
It to

perhaps suppose

asat

'

or non-existent.

To

prevent this supposition the Lord proceeds to declare Its
existence as manifested through the

upadhis,

through the

senses of

all living

beings.
is

[To explain
all

:

Since nothing

found which

is

devoid of

conditions and quite beyond

all

speech and thought,
is

nay, since
nature,

everything

we

experience

of

a contrary

— one may suppose that Brahman as described

above

must be a void or non-entity (sunya). To prevent this supposition, the Lord proceeds to teach that Brahman
exists (i) as the Inner Self (Pratyak), (2) as the
all

source of

activity of the senses

and the

like,

(3)

as the source

whence

arises our consciousness of existence with reference

to all duality

which

is

imaginary,
all,

(4)

as Isvara or the

Lord

of the universe.

First of

here, the

Lord proves, by
as the Inner
self-conscious

way

of inference,

the existence of
:

Brahman
some
for,

Self-consciousness
principle
activity,

there must

be

(pratyak-chetana) behind insentient principles in

such as the physical body

;

we

invariably find

3IO
self-consciousness
activity,

THE BHAGAVAD-GITA.
lying behind
in
all

[DiS. XIII.
objects

insentient

in

such as a carriage

motion.

— (A)]

13.

With hands and

feet

everywhere, with eyes

and heads and mouths everywhere, with hearing everywhere, That exists enveloping all.

The Knowable has hands and
existence of Kshetrajna
is

feet

everywhere.

The
self-

indicated

by the upadhis of the
Kshetraj«a (the
sense-organs)
;

sense-organs

'

of all

living beings.

conscious principle lying

behind the

is

so-

called because of the upadhi of Kshetra
is

and

this

Kshetra

of various forms, such as hands, feet, etc.
in
is

All the variety

caused

Kshetrajwa by the variety in the upadhis of
but illusory, and
It is
it

Kshetra

has therefore been said
'

in
It
is
is

the words "

not

said to be

sat

'

or

'

asat

"
'

— that
it

should be

known
in the

as devoid of

all

variety.
is

Though what
still

caused

(in

KshetraJ7/a)

by upadhis
'

illusory,

spoken of
^vhere
'

words that
it

It

has hands and

feet

every-

—as though

only with a view to
there
is

were an attribute of the Knowable, Accordingly indicate Its existence.

the saying of the sampradaya-vids

— of

those

who

know

the right traditional
:

method
is

of teaching
all

— which runs
is

as follows

" That which

devoid of

duality

describ-

by superimposition and negation, by attribution and denial. Hands, feet and
ed by adhyaropa and apavada,"
constituting the limbs of
i.e.,

the

like,

all

bodies in

all

places,

derive their activity from the
ablef,

Energy inherent andas such they are mere marks of
of as
rest

in the
Its

Know-

existence

and are spoken
of

belonging to

It

only by a figure

speech.— All the

should be similarly interpreted.— It
t
t. e.,

* Because

there must be self-consciousof their activity.— (A)

they ^ct.in virtue of the mere

ness at the back

presence of that Energy.— (A)


13

14]

MATTER AND

SPIRIT.

311

(Brahman)
pervading

exists in the world, in the

whole animal creation,

all.

Brahman

is

unconditioned.

The purpose of this verse is to prevent the supposition the that the Knowable is [really) possessed of the upadhis

sense-organs such as hands,

feet,
It).

and the

like,

— which

are

merely superimposed (upon
14.

Shining by the functions of
without the senses,
;

all

the senses,

(yet)

unattached, yet support;

ing

all

devoid of qualities

yet enjoying, qualities.

All the senses:

the buddhi-indriyas

and karma-indriyas,

the organs of knowledge and the organs of action.
inner senses,

The
all

— manas

and buddhi,

— which
in

alike

form the
*

upadhis of the Knowable, are included
senses'.

the term

the

Moreover, even hearing and other senses form

upadhis only through the upadhi of the anta/f-kara«a, the inner sense.
fests Itself

Thus, we should understand that Brahman manithrough the upadhis of external and internal senses
all

through the functions of

the senses,

viz.,

determination,
like.

purposes and thoughts, hearing, speech and the
is

That

to say,

the
all

Knowable

functions, as

it

were, through the
:

functions of

the senses.
it

The
It

sruti says

" It meditates as

were,

moves as

it

were." (Bn.

^>-

4-3-7)-

Why

should

it
:

not
It is

mean

that

It

actually functions?

Says the Lord

not possessed of any of the senses.

Wherefore,' the Knowable does not actually function
the senses are functioning.
"

when

And
feet

as regards the verse,
is

Without hands and

He

swift,

He

grasps

;


312

THE BHAGAVAD-GITA.
sees without the eye,

[DiS.

XII

I.

He
there,
to

He

hears without the ear."

(5vet.

Up.

3-19)-

the sruti implies that the
Itself

Knowable has
that

the

power
all

accomodate

to

the varying functions of
It

the

senses which

are

Its

upadhis, but not

actually

possesses swift motion

and such other
'''•

activities.

The

verse

should be interpreted

like the passage "

The

blind one
It
is

saw the gem."

(Taitt.

Ara;iyaka,
It

i.

11).

Because

devoid of the senses,
of all attachments.

therefore

is

unattached, devoid

Brahman, the basic Reality
Though
is

in all illusory
all.
;

phenomena.

It is so,
'

yet It supports

Indeed, everything

based on the
'

sat,'

the Existent

for

everywhere the idea
exist

of

sat

'

is

present.

without a basis.

Not even the mirage and the like Hence it is said that It supports all.
of the

Brahman, the perceiver
There
is this

Qunas.

yet

another gate to a knowledge of the
:

existence of the
Sattva, Rajas,
joyer,

Though devoid of the gu«as, and Tamas yet the Knowable is the enKnowable

'

the perceiver, of the gu»as which, assuming
sense),

the

forms of sound and other (objects of

transform

themselves into pleasure, pain and delusion.

Brahman
Moreover,
15.

is

all.

Without and within
the arthavada passage
its

(all)

beings

;

the

unof the

* That
sense
;

is to say,

to

contradict the main subject

should not be understood in
it

literal

section.

— (A)

must be so interpreted

as

not

:

14-15.]

MATTER AND
moving.
;

SPIRIT.

3I3

movin;:; as also the
is

Because subtle, That
far

incomprehensible

and near and

away

is

That.
Without:
of the skin

What
And
'

lies
is

outside the

body which

is

inclusive

and which
inside

regarded through ignorance as one's
'

own

self.

ivithin

refers to the Inner Self, Pratyagat-

man, lying

the

'without and within'

body.— The statement that It is may imply Its absence in the middle.
It
is
*

^'^

To

prevent this implication, the Lord says that
as also the moving.'
It is

the

unmoving

able, that appears as the bodies,

Brahman, the Knowmoving and unmoving,

just as a rope appears as a snake.

Brahman
(Objection)
:

is

comprehended only by the wise.
things

If all

unmoving, were the

we perceive, the moving and the Knowable, then how is it that Brah'

man

is

not directly

comprehended by everybody, as

This

It is'?

(Anszi'cy):
It is subtle

—True,
§

''

It

manifests Itself as everything

;

but
Its

like the akasa.

Wherefore, on account of

subtlety. It is incomprehensible to the unenlightened,

though
to the
'

knowable

in Itself.

It is,

however,

always known

enlightened/as revealed
'All
this
is

in the

following texts
Self alone'

the

Self

and the

(Bn.

Up.

2-4-6.)

Brahman and Brahman alone.' (/i/rf. 2-5-1.) It is far away when unknown for. It is unattainable by the unenlightened even in millions of years. And to the enlightened It is very near, because It is their own Self.
'AH
this is
;

t. e. in the body which intervenes between the Pratyagatman and external

objects,
§

Beyond the reach

•f the senses.

40

:


THE BHAGAVAD-GiTA.
[DiS. XIII*

314

Brahman
Moreover,
16.

is

the one Self in

all.

And

undivided, yet remaining divided as
;

it

were

in beings
;

supporter of beings, too,
devouring, yet generating.

is

That,

the Knowable
It is

undivided
Still,
it

in the different bodies,

It is
all

one

like the

akasa.
bodies,

appears to be different
It

in

the different

inasmuch as

manifests Itself only in the bodies.

Brahman
The Knowable
of sustenance of

is

the Cause of the Universe.
sthiti,

supports beings during
the

the period

Universe; and

It

devours them at
It

pyalaya,

i.e.,

at the

time of dissolution.

generates them

at the time of ntpatti, the origin of

the Universe, just as a

rope gives

rise to

an illusory snake.
is

Brahman
;

the Illuminator of

all.

{Objection)

If

the

Knowable, though existing everyIt is
?

where,

is

not perceived, then

but darkness (Tamas).

{Aimvev)

— No. — What then
:

Moreover
17.

The Light even

bayond darkness. Goal of knowledge,
heart of every one.
That, the Knowable,
the sun.
*

That is said to be Kn jwledge, the Knowable, the
of lights,
(

It

)

is

implanted in the

is

the Light even of lights

''

such as

Indeed these
thfc

latter shine only

when illumined by
sun,
(A.)
etc.,

The

existence of Brahman,

Knowil-

luminin};

the
etc.

and

reason

able,

can be recognissd as the Light

(buddbiA


if)


'

I*^.]

MATTER AND
ot the

SPIRIT.

315

the

lij,4it

consciousness of the Self.

The Chants
'

say

:

That Light by which illumined the sun shines

(Taitt. Br. 3-12-9.)

'By

Its light all this shines

'—(Svet. Up. 6-14).
the Bhagavad-gita xv. 12.)

So says the smHti
It is

also here

(in

said to be

uncontaminated by Tamas, by ajwana, by

nescience.

The Light
Now,

is in

the heart of every one.

with a view to cheer up Arjuna

who seemed
Brahman)
be-

dejected at the thought of the knowledge (of

ing very difficult of attainment, the

Lord says:

ICnovvledge,

such as humility
xiii.

(xiii.

7-11); th e

Know able,
viz.,

as described in

12-17

;

and the same thing,

the Knowable, which,

when

kiiown, forms the fruit of knowledge and is therefore said

to be the Goal ofknoidedge,

and which as a thing

to

be

forms the Knowable
able,

:

these three (knowledge, the

known Knowindeed

and the Goal of knowledge) are implanted pre-eminentevery living being
;

ly in the heart (buddhi) of

it is

there that the three are distinctly manifested.

Seek the Light through devotion.
Here follows the verse which concludes the subject
treated of:
18.

just

Thus the Kshetra,
knowing

as well as

knowledge and
M)-

the Knowable, have been briefly set forth.
devotee, on
this,
is

fitted for

My

state.

Thus
the
'

the Kshetra, described above (xiii-5-6), beginning with
'

Great elements' and ending with

firmness;' knoivledge,

comprising the attributes which have been
beginning with
'

enumerated,
'

humility

'

and ending with

perception of

:

3l6
the end of the

THE BHAGAVAD-GlTA.
knowledge of truth'
(xiii.

[DiS. XIII.

7-11);

and the
set

Knowable, described
forth in brief.

in xiii -12-17 ;-^these

have been

Such, indeed,

is

the

whole doctrine, the doctrine of the
in brief.

Vedas and the doctrine of the Gita, taught
(Question)

[Answey)

— Who — He who
:

is fit is

to attain this right

knowledge
regards

?

devoted to Me,

who

Me —
he

Vasudeva, the Supreme Lord, the Omniscient, the Supreme

Guru who is

— as the Self (Soul,
possessed (as
it

Essence) of everything,
idea that
all

i.e.,

were) with the
is

that he

sees or hears or touches

nothing but the Lord, Vasudeva.
right

Thus devoted

to

Me, and having attained the
he
is fit

knowi. e.,

ledge described above,

to

attain to

My

state,

he attains moksha.
Prakriti and

Purusha are

eternal.

In the seventh discourse were described two Prakntis, the
superior

and the
it

inferior,

corresponding to
they are the
asked,

Kshetra and

Kshetrajua; and
creatures
that the
(vii. 6).

was
It

said that

womb
it

of all

may now be

how can

be said
are the

two Prakntis, Kshetra and

Kshetrajfia,

womb

of all beings?

— This question
;

will

now be answered:
Purusha

ig.

Know

thou that

Prak^'iti as well as

are both beginningless
all

and know thou also that

forms and qualities are born of Prakriti.
Spirit, are

Praknti and Purusha, Matter and
Prakntis of the Isvara, the Lord.

the

two

These two, Praknti and Purusha you should know have no beginning. As the Isvara is the eternal Lord, it is but right that His Pra-

kntis also should be eternal.

The Lordship

of the Isvara

iS-ig.]

MATTER AND
His possession

SPIRIT.

317

two Prakntis by which He causes the origin, preservation and dissolution of the universe. The two Prakritis are beginningless, and
consists indeed in
of the

they are therefore the cause of sawsara.

Some

construe the passage so as to
It is

mean

that the

two

Prakritis are not primeval.

by such an interpretation,

they hold, that the causality of the Isvara can be established.
If,
it

on the other hand, Prakriti and Purusha were eternal,

would follow that they are the cause of the universe, and
is

that the Isvara
It is

not the creator of the universe.

wrong to say so; for the Isvara would then be no isvara, inasmuch as there would be nothing for Him to rule
over prior to the birth of Prakfiti and Purusha.
if

Moreover,

sawsara had no cause (other than Isvara), there could be
'•

no cessation

thereof; and thus the sastra
to serve.

(the scripture)

would have no purpose

Likewise, there could be

neither bondage nor salvation, i

Prakriti
If,

and Purusha as the Cause
Prak/'itis

of

samsara.
Isvara be

on the other hand, the

of the

eternal, all this can be
all

explained.— How?

— Know thou that
such as those

forms,

all

emanations (vikaras) from buddhi down to
all

the physical body, and

qualities (gu»as)

which manifest themselves as pleasure, pain, delusion and
other mental
states to be described hereafter, spring

from

If the /s vara

were the

sole cause of

sara.— (A)
t

the universe, quite independently of the

Before the birth of the two Prakntis,

two Prakntis, the sawisara would be endless, inasmuch as there is nothing to prevent even the emancipated souls from
being hurled into sa»isara, so long
there
is

there could be no bondage and conse-

quently no moksha.

If at

any time there
nor

were neither

bondage

moksha,

as

there could be no cause which would ever

/svara, as the sole cause of

saw

bring them into existence,— (A).,

3l8

THE BHAGAVAD-GITA.

[DiS. XIII.

Praknti, Mayi\, composed of the three gu«as, that Energy
of the Isvara
ions.

which constitutes thecause of

(all)

emanat-

Know thou that they are all modifications of Praknti.* What then are those forms and qualities which are said
be born of Praknti
20.
?

to

— Says the

Lord
effect

:

As the producer of the
is

and the
;

instru-

ments t, Praknti
the cause. The
effect

said to be the cause

as experi-

encing pleasure and pain,

Purusha

is

said to be

(karya)

is

the physical body, and the instruments
[

(kara«as) are the

thirteen

located in the body.

The

five

elements (bhutas) which build up the body, and the five
sense-objects

which

are the

emanations of

Praknti as
'effect
;'

mentioned above, are included under the term
all

and

qualities,

such as pleasure, pain and delusion, which
are included under the term
'

are born of

Prak/'iti,

instru-

ments,' since those qualities are seated in the instruments,

the senses.

In the production of the physical body, of the
is

senses and their sensations, Praknti
for, it

said to be the cause,

generates them

all.

Thus, as producing the physical
is

body and the

senses, Praknti

the cause of sa;«sara.

In the place of 'kara»a' which

means instrument, some

read 'kara»a' which means cause.
tion of another
is

—-Whatever
emanates

is

a modificaof that

the effect

or emanation (vikara)
it

other

;

and that from which

is

the cause

* Praknti is that out of which all forms and qualities come into existence

less

and without qualities— M)
(according to another interpre-

| or,

Since PraAnti
source of
all

is

thus eternal and

is

the

tation), the effect
;

and the cause,
five of

forms (vikaras) and qualities (gunas), .^tman remains ever change-

Five

organs of sensation,

activity,

Manas, Buddhi, and Ahankara.

(A).IS an 01 these cessor and successor. which are once praknti and viknti. — How could there be sawsara at all without Praknti transforming itself as causes and effects. on the other hand. Mahat. as perceiving pleasure. Each . Purusha said to be the cause.isara. Manas and ly t The three last terms are respective- ihe five sense-objects. '^'- may be that the sixteen vikdms effect . cause and fore called and which are therePraknti.' 'Jiva.u five the ^ elements. ( Objection ) : — Why should Prakriti and Purusha be regarded as the cause of sawsara by way of generating ? causes and effects and experiencing pleasure and pain {AiiSK'ey )'. the object of experience. in * The . it by the terms 'the and the instruments'). . Aha»ikara. the experiencer. is In the production of these. as pleasure and pain. as the body and the senses. intended to show that Purusha here is + T VIZ.. or emanations t are here at spoken of as the and the seven effect. with all its Praknti. >^ 5 a conditioned being. and other objects of experience. .. . the opposite. the /Itman who is ever As producing is these. is is an intelligent d (chetana) \ / emanation from us predein r J principle. 319 cause and the the source of the which comprise the same things effect (that were denoted Or.. the (nitya-mukta) from sa>. cannot of Mulapraknti their cause. 1^^ u . there is a conjunction — in the form of avidya or nescience — of Purusha. the cause ing them all. — (A) firee turn the cause of all its For.-. And now are all will be shown how Purusha is is the cause of sawsara. • referred to not the Paraniatman or the Highest Self..' 'Bhoktyi (Enjoyer)'J synonymous terms. . X „/-. ten sense-organs. ^Pnnisha.' 'Kshetyajna.19-20] (kirana). are spoken of as the cause. as generat- Praknti-Vikritis. effect. »u T anmatras or rudimental J. — (A). pain. MATTER AND Praknti is SPIRIT.— Himself be subject to sa»isara — (A). and without the conscious Purusha experiencing them ? i When. is • J £ and . their basis.

as the experiencer of pleasure and pain. and Purusha is the sa.. It is this changes of state. then it is not proper to say that He is ever subject to sa«!sara.^sarin. then only is sawsara possiWherefore it is but right to say that Praknti and ble.'when seated the cause of his the qualities born of Prak?'iti. is has been said that Purusha the sawsarin as is experi- encing pleasure and pain. pain and delusion . transformations as the body and the senses. I am miserable. ? What in this (experiencing of — The Lord says Praknti. and which makes sajHsarin— (A). Purusha are the cause of sawsara the one generating the body and the senses. pleasure and pain) due to 21. qualities is Attachment to the birth in good and evil wombs. manifesting themselves as pleasure. in avidya or nescience. " am happy. experiences Purusha. the {Answer): — Sawsara : is this sa. 32Q THE BHAGAVAD-GiTA. the experiencer remains immutable (avikriya). I am * The objector means: If . as pleasure and pain. the Self. pains. — he I experiences the qualities born of Praknti.«sara?" is experience of pleasure and pain . the other experiencing pleasures and . Him a + That is to say : while experiencing . then. he thinks. [DiS. — that is to say. Because Purusha. not subject to quite unchanged. the experiencer. {Objection) — What. experience (bhoga) which constitutes His sa"!sara. XIII. f Avidya and It Kama are the cause of rebirths. fies is seated in Praknti. as causes and effects.4tnian be pleasure or pain.. because he identiare himself with the body and the senses which emanations of Praknti.— (A).

321 (the cause deluded..inyasa . Or.V. evil wombs of are those of lower animals. are those of Good wombs here Devas and the like . t kama the nimitUi or efficient — leads to about the cc£S:ition of avid) a . c. as implied — being opposed to no teaching.. : Up. of birth). the second half of the verse may be construed. " The says : As is his desire.i briiiRS ..//sara through births in good and evil wombs. order that we may i. kauia.e. and cause.''' Self=knowledge removes the cause [i.) experiencer's in Accordingly the for Lord says here — The birtlis attachment evil qualities leads him to good and wombs. try to remove it). — delusion. identification of Himself what He experiences. namely. — forms sruti is the main cause of Purusha's birth.A 20-21.' the nlxuhma or matrnial knowledge coupled vvUh UMiyas. We may also add. Prak/'iti.uul cause.' — spoken of as (Purusha's) being 'seated —and Kama or attachment qualities. knowledge and indifference conI joined with sa//myasa or renunciation * as has been clearly s Avidya beinj. so his will. This twofold cause has been taught here in for avoidance. together for constitute the cause of sawsara. The means cause are of bringing about the removal of the (twofold) Jnana and \'airagya. of samsara." Over and above avidya with ) His attachment to (/.] MATTER AND I SPIRIT. the (jualities of pain and pleasure. am wise. and 41 .e. The sense of the passage maybe explained as follows: in A^•idya. — the wombs men which are (partly) good and (partly) evil.' so as to mean Attachment the cause of His sa. 4-4-5.- Vdiragya saj." {Byi. by : supplying the word for qualities is ' sawsara.

the Self is the innermost and nearest seer. has been imparted in the begin- ning of this discourse. He is spoken of as Upadrashf/'i.et. and also spoken of as the Self. the body is the most external seer.. taught in the Gita-sastra. and beyond Him there is no seer in the interior. scq. Himsacri- When priests is and the another. The body. both by eliminating elements 12) and by attributing alien properties to (xiii. xiii. there an expert ficial matters. expressing approbation or satisfaction in concerning the acts of those who are engaged tion action. sitting by their side. the Self is Upadrash^n because. like the in Upadrash/n also the sacrificial rite. though Himself not engaged the in ac- while body and senses are active. He seems . : a bystander and a witness. He watches all. Enthe joyer. the knowledge has also been imparted foreign of Kshetra and Kshetrajna.' Or. is bad in the acts of the sacrificer and of the priests just so. a near witness of the body and the all senses and their acts. and the Self are the seers.— Or. Supporter. not taking part in the activities of the distinct body and the senses. and viewed from the body inwards. the Self is from them. sacrificer are engaged in in a sacrificial act. ' Thus. Spectator and Permitter. (is) Supreme body.: 322 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. And it in 12. — Or. Of the-e. the Purusha Supreme in this Spectator (Upadrash^/'i) self not acting. (xiii.) Now that again the is Lord proceeds teach directly what knowledge 22. baing the nearest seer. He is the Permitter (Anumantn). Buddhi. Great Lord. [DiS. and discerning what is good and what . XIII. seq. This knowledge. et. the sense of sight. Manas. it may be also explained thus . not taking part in the act. i^.

— Where is He ? — the Avyakta. Supporter The called the Supporter. — Or. because e. in the 5ruti Whence He is spoken of as 'Paramatman' Purusha. : As one with is whole universe and independent of as well as the Lord. Enjoyer (Bhoktn) : The Self is enjoyer i. in this is here body. by the Self who is ' nitya-chaitanyaeternal fire. Manas and Buddhi — which together to serve the purposes of Intelligent reflections some one else. only as — made by the svarupa'. : He the Great One The Supreme 5^// (Paramatman) the Self who has been defined as the Spectator.^ the Self. 17. as will be described hereafter in xv.21-23. that Intelligent Self. (Bhartn) body. He Self never stands their is in the those that are engaged in : respective activities. Self treated of in xiii. : him who knows He who thus knows Purusha and Prak7'iti together with qualities. whatever his conduct. constituted of pleasure. way being their of mere witness. or which convey. all states mind it (buddhe/i-pratyaya/i). to and the subject has been concluded. pain sion. whose inherent nature is is intelli- gence. and delu- which. who transcends also. because the aggregate the senses. are permeated as intelligent Self. viz. and which are. etc. as they come into being.] MATTER AND in SPIRIT. As the Self thus described 23. because He is superior to all those th'ngs — from the physical body up to the Avyakta — which are through ignorance mistaken for the Inner Self. mere of the Intelligence are what they are. just as heat perceived. he . is Supreme... The 2 has been described at length. in the inherent nature of are clearly of their mutual relations. were by the the The Gnat Lord all. 223 to be active co-operation with them.

or. And we see no distinction between (these hilation of these acts two groups • all of) acts J. he who knows the Prakriti he i. How much path of duty. . e. past births. the three clasess of acts knowledge. whether he acts).* ' who directly perceives Him as his very Self. . all ^ tbey must alike be neutralised by . — A. before producing their respective effects. of those acts which were done (in the present birth) before the attainment of knowledge or of those acts which may be done thereafter. more so the wise man ? who stands firm : in the {Objection) — What acts are neutralised by knowledge to the attainment Absence of rebirth subsequent of knowit ledge has indeed been taught here. or of those which had been done ann in the many . as 1 by knowledge are yet t As . forbidden he not born that is. whatever again life he may duties lead.. there should be at it is least three (more) births for not right to suppose the any more than to suppose the annihilation of the deeds whose fruits are being reaped in the present birth. begun -' their (anirvachya).— — [DiS. as the source of . beginningless. e. evil. e. the death of this. . not those which have already bc- gun J their effects >• • by way of generating the As all acts alike result from aj)u!m. /svara. is engaged is in the prescribed . . Purusha in the manner mentioned above.. so that there can be neutralised is As ihe basic Reality underlying no force in manifestations such as Jiva... indefinable all 11 -1 '^ose which have not effects. This I am. XIII. But. He who knows i.. he will not have to put on another body on i. not born again. at the end of the birth in which he has attained wisdom.' he who knows Prakfiti or Avidya described above i with all its modifications. the possible argument that the acts %vhich and so on. (i. 324 is THE BHAGAVAD-GlTA.e. . as resolved into nothing (abhdva) by vidya or knowledge. inasmuch as is not right (to suppose) the annihilation. Accordingly.

' right). and abhinivesa. 37 be taught also hereafter. . know.] will — SPIRIT. Wherefore is not right to say that he is not born again.' ' — {Ibid. becomes Brahman self. Consumption and will . : (it is passages of show His deeds perish. 5-24-3). injunctions) scriptural it would become ' useless... of possibility of annihilation what has been done would and the sastra (all lead to uncertainty everywhere. Only those acts of dharma and adharma which are occasioned by these Being karmnbhasas. ( 3-2-9). ' from the present body — ( Chhand. Up. a burnt cloth. '= for. 2-2-8. dvesha. can cause future births and it has also been stated by the Lord here and there in are accompanied with fried in the Gita that those actions which * In xviii. actions are burnt.' {Mund. his consciousness. they are not eftective causes and cannot bring about births for . of all acts has been taught here also in iv. klesas can bring about incarnate exist- instance. as the following [Answcv) the sruti ' : — No. is not delivered 6-14-2). to Dharmas. Up. As so the soft WhxQS of the ishika reed are burnt in the all his fire. cannot serve the purposes ence. or all of them combining Otherwise. the together give rise to a single birth. And this also stands to reason only those acts which spring from avidya affections.) It- * He who knows Brahman. from desire (kama) and such other which are the seeds f of all evil. abandon 66. is For him there only delay so long as he ). mere semblances of karma. termed klesas are in so far as they present themselves to pratitimatradehah.— 23. . asmita. MATTER AND give rise to will 325 thiee births . of a cloth — A. avidya. thus showing ledge those acts are said to exist only that t knowledge consumes all actions — A. riiga. These seeds of evil. (nescience). But as to the acts of a wise man. the all Lord teaches Arjuna their seeds have been .' [Ibid.

the ». as the has already begun to operate. (we say) like it is wrong. even while that knowledge arises. inasmuch as they are accompanied with knowledge ble to explain but it is not possiin how it can consume acts done this life before the attainment of knowledge. . so the affec- body cannot be formed again by wisdom-burnt tions. karma." so also. (Objection) — It may mean for. And Self-knowledge is no such obstacle in the way of the karma which has brought about the present birth . it — A. " . XIII.: 326 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA [DiS. cease to drops it with which i. though the purpose action is 11 e. so also do not perish in spite of even those acts which have not yet begun to produce their effects cannot perish. done in the (Answer) ' : — Do : not say so. As the fire-burnt seeds do not sprout again. — How — For. 37). subsequently to the attainment of knowledge. Now as regards the contention that just as the actions which have begun present birth their effects by way of bringing about the knowledge.. Accordingly. all those acts only which are done subsequently to the attainment of knowledge." {Objection): — Granted that knowledge consumes acts done . an arrow discharged. even after piercing bow at an aim does act till it through the aim. provided its Jt checked arises with its power checked by latter that by some overpowering obstacle in the way. because of the qualification all acts' (iv. for. (Answer) — No. there is no reason for the limitation. It is — but not other actions —are productive also said elsewhere. ? the former have.flects of the pr«rabdha-karma should be worked out in full. Just as an arrow once discharged from a not. down on the exhaustion of the whole force was propelled. egotism and desire of results. begun their effects. and those several past births.

also.Yoga. + These Vogins. to be identical ing the of Spiritual gence. when not discharged. Sviisraya. Up. energy which the cause of its c. — A. 327 of the bodily existence has been gained.''' can be neutralised by the knowledge of truth. can be withdrawn. By - meditation the Yogins behold - the Self. it Hence . s/ibhrisa anta/i karaiia. with the i. The four paths Now. . by meditation. there are to Self-knowledge. (Dhyana) consists in withdrawing by con- centration hearing and other senses into the Manas away from sound and other sense-objects. the effects of actions which have produced the just body continue as before till the exhaustion of their inherent energy. the acts which have not yet begun in their their own seat. though already fixed in the bow. * I. «.] : MATTER AND SPIRIT. comparison. and others by Meditation Karma. with the Parauuitman. as the (On the other hand). A.irins) behold the Self. same arrow when not is yet propelled activity. so effects. self By meditation some behold self. then withdrawing " the it Manas (that and then contemplating the Inner Intelligence). Thus it is but right to say that when the body of a wise man perishes he is not born which only abide ' agam.. several paths and they are mentioned here as follows 24. into the Inner Intelligence. the Self in the by the others by Sankhya-Yoga. who are of the highest the inner sense reflection or Manas containIntelli- dass of aspirants (uttamadhik.— 23-24. to Self-knowledge. f 7-6-1) Dhyana is a continuous and unbroken thought like a line of flowing oil. crane meditates as were the earth meditates as it were the mountains meditate as were" (Chha.

causing purity of the rise to mind knowledge.. i. -^ .. having heard from others they. 25. Yet others.. i. not able to know the Self described above by any one of the several methods already pointed out. i. the Inner Intelligence. not knowing . Karma leads to Yoga. is it is I As causing purity of mind. i. ' But there are yet others. adhering to what they heard. e. Such a course Yoga — only by a figure Some j of speech — inasmuch as (sattva). gives leads to Yoga. e.. who. is Yoga some f behold Karma is Yoga |. are Gu/^as.e. Sattva. they contemplate the idea in Even they is cross beyond death. who solely depend upon the authority of other's instructions and are • S-inkhya intellectual knowledge got through As investigation (vichara). spoken of as Yoga nimd. "'•' the that Self in the self by the — Karma Lord or action which per- formed of action it in the service is of the (Isvara). thus. in the self (Buddhi) by the their self.— A. too. Atman acts. Sankhya consists thinking thus is ' these. learn from others. i.- . t . — These are the aspirants of the middl- ing class (madhyauuidhi)uirins) — A. S These are the lowest class of aspir- ants. worship. beyond sawsara which best associated with death— even they whose equipment when connnencing to tread the path of moksha consists in what they have heard. behold the Self by this Yoga of action. to the concentration of leading to Yoga. itself. which.— A. c. worship. Rajas and Tamas. cross beyond death. . XIII.. they then engage faith. eternal. [DiS. from acharyas or teachers who full tell them " Do thou thus in rpeditate upon this" .— 238 A • THE BHAGAVAD-GiTA. the witness of their and distinct from the Gu«as. by own intelligence. e.' By Sankhyaself. by the in anta/i-kara«a refined by : Dhyana.

like the akasa. For.24-26] MATTER AND SPIRIT. inasmuch as Kshetrajna is.. 12 as the means moksha. How much more those who can independently appreciate evidence and discriminate. {Ansic'er) : — The union between Kshetra and Kshetrajna. 2 lias been spoken of is it in xiii. who fore is one with the P. without Nor can it be of the nature of samavaya or inseparit able inherence. 26. O best of the Bharatas.— A. is of the nature of mutual adhyasa . which are opposed each other it in nature. parts. 329 so. Whatever being is born. /.f .* of Kshetrajna with — Of what sort is ? union of Kshetra and Kshetrajna meant to be The union Kshetra cannot certainly be a relation through contact (sawyoga) of each other's parts. consists in confounding them as well as their attributes with each other owing to the absence of a discrimination between the nature of Kshetra and that of Kshetrajna. — For what reason so ? —The Lord proceeds to unmoving or that explain the reason. then. * like thcre- Everything is born of the union of . as between a rope and a vessel. themselves ignorant. The knowledge isvara of the identity of Kshetrajna with the — of the individual soul with the Lord — as taught to in xiii. Kshetra and Kshetrajna there exists no knowledge of that unity alone can being whatever apart h-oni Kshetrajna lead to moksha. 42 . to between the object and the subject. know thou. Nothing exists outside the Self. this to be owing to the union of Kshetra [Ohjectiou): and Kshetrajna. inasmuch as cannot be admitted that Kshetra and Kshetrajna are related to each other as cause and efll'ect.iramatman . the the moving.

is stands to reason that the wise man not born again in all. The one Self It has been said is tlie (xiii. XIII. [DiS. effects (sa»iskara) ot avidya —A. * J. who sees the Supreme Lord. the Knowable. like — when when he attains knowledge of the distinction in between Kshetra and Kshetrajna as defined able to separate Kshetrajna from Kshetra the ishika reed from the munja-grass and to realise that Brahman. (xiii. nagara (an imaginary existent birth has vanished in Kshetra is non- and only appears to be existent. or like a gandharvathe sky). in other knowledge which alone can remove will though already described. It which form the seed of is has also been said that the cause of birth the union of Kshetra and Kshetrajna caused by avidya.. the right avidyji. 12) is his own Self. He sees. 23) that the effect of right know- ledge cessation of births like '' through the removal of avidya (nescience) and the sa.wsara. or and palaces projected by a juggler's city in like a thing seen in a dreani. when he is convinced that. As the cause of it the case of such a man. . like the elephants art. 23). Therefore. which is devoid of all upadhis as described in the words " It is not said to be existent or non-existent " (xiii. e. union of a rope and a mother-of-pearl respectively for with a snake and silver when they are mistaken the one the other owing to the absence of discrimination. — is a sort of illusion (mithyajfulna) its and this illusion vanishes — because of man is opposition to the right to a knowledge the sastra. is The union of Kshetra and Kshetrajna which of the nature of adhyasa other — which a consists in confounding the one with the .330 the THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. again be described words as follows : 27.

the denial of the final change of Wherecomprehends their is the denial of effects. senses. affected with timiva sees more moons than one sees and sees with reference to him. avidya) and the All living beings are perishis individual soul (x\tman.' A man whose . There can be no change of itself quent to destruction. the Avyakta (the unmanifested. in all bcinjj^s. beings and that He is one and immutable He sees (rightly) who sees the Supreme Lord as now described. i. Buddhi. from Brahma down to the unmoving object (sthavara).] 1 MATTER AND SPIRIT. He is the Lord Supreme as compared with the body. : [Objection) —-Tlie whole world sees ..— 26-27. Manas. state fore. but ' it sees erroneously. Jiva). all it the preceding changes as well as Thus all may be seen that the Supreme Lord quite unlike in all. 33 remaining the same the dying. is who the one undivided Self as described above distinguished from those who erroneously see many distinct selfs — in . the causal body. Hence eye is the particularisation he alone sees. e.' Similarly here. the world sees. changing states a being (bhava-vikaras). since the object Attributes can exist only does not exist. when the substance exists. the change of state called birth all the root. ' who one moon luay be lie he alone sees. without any difference. able while the is Supreme Lord For. the ktiray/a-sarira. of all imperishable. why this one in particular ? [Answey) : —True. in all living beings. the undying in The Supreme Lord exists. the other changes ending with destruction occur subsestate subse- quently to birth. Thus of is there a great disparity between the Supreme Lord and the created beings. he specified thus.

. as there ^^^ procedure.^^^^ .— A. do not see. though seeing. the necessity / may be explained on the ground that ignorant the Self. the of ^^^^ should not be Similarly understood nnder- Supreme Bliss (ParanKinanda. the sage attains the highest goal. To praise the Right its of stating results Knowledge described above by way the Lord proceeds as follows : 28.: — THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. he who sees that He dwells ing verse is the same i.^i^„(j tijg we cannot denial here liten-lly. Because he who sees the Lord.^ ^^^^. on Earth has a meaning./. 5-2-7) ? — This objection does not apply here . destroys not the self by the therefore he reaches the Supreme Goal. Because he does not destroy the Supreme Goal..^^^_. ''An men * are guilty of ignoring ignorant man Knowledge destroys ignorance. self. It is no occasion in two that have hidden the true has been therefore this nature of the Self.' Others._^ ^^^ ^^^ ^_^^ . ..^ . not in (Ansii/er) : heaven " (Tait.^. XIII. and the ^^ ^. he reaches the — No living being whatever then is destroys itself by Where f the necessity for the denial " self. not Sa. inasmuch as they see erroneously like those see who more moons than one. be- . in all creatures alike — destroys not his '•' own self by himself.^^^ ^_^^ for knowledge veils ( niithyd-j. [Objection) itself. [DiS. ( On ) the g^^^ ^^^ prohibition of the destruction of nescience false aj»ana ). He who realises that the Isvara described in the last precedc. same everywhere. and it ^. in the sky.^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ construction with all evil is destroyed.— A. the highest end of determined that the prohibition ^^^^^^ man. seated the self.^ .^^ ^^^ ^^^^. t The prohibition of the construction the altar literally. he attains moksha.<ina „„ meaning._^^ . yet 332 the words ' he alone sees." He the destroys not the self " fire by the any more than for prohibition should be consecrated not on earth. for. Knowledge of the one Self leads to moksha.

4-10. and he regards the not-Self (physical as himself. self. — (Svetasva* tara-Up.: 27-29.) which he had accepted and accepts another new . who sees all actions performed by Prakriti alone and the Self not acting. ignores the Self who is quite manifest to self-manifested.) visible. and so on of the thus he goes on killing every new killed self that he has accepted. An ignorant man is is. He is sees. sees the Self as described al)ove. So the '* j\Iantra reads. Prakriti acts. kills not self by self in either of the ways shown above. It has been said that he in who sees the Lord (the Self) remaining the same the are self. etc. he reaches the supreme goal fruit he reaps the spoken of above. on the other hand. differentiated by differences in their respective deeds (karma) and qualities. men are but the slayers of the He who. self . self.) By Prakriti. To remove this objection the Lord says 29. all no perceptible effect of His existence. etc. . every being destroys not the self by This may be objected to on the ground that there many selfs. Maya. accordingly. inasmuch as there Thus. not the Self. 333 all. Let him know that the Praknti and that the Great Lord is the possessor of Maya./as. Wherefore. e. — i.. he kills even this self (the physical body. Having performed good and evil works (dharma and a-dharma).] MATTER AND SPIRIT. the Sakti or inherent energy . he kills this again and accepts another. and directly body. a slayer /Even ignorant the real Self is always by avidya. Praknti the Lord's Maya composed Maya is of the three gu.

— 334 of the — 'THE bhagavad-gIta. not the other. he sees that the various classes of beings i. perceive c. abide in the One. in unity one with must merge the Prakriti also the Self. e. or deed. forming Itself into all causes and effects such as the Mahat. resting in the One. the root of ths Self. is evolved from the being — . derived from the . the Self. unconditioned. of actions. just as there no variety in the akasa. in the Self. he sees the that there is supreme free truth. when he intuitively realises that all that we is only the Selff. i. To realise this unity. XIII. all i. —as stated is in the passage " From is the Self from the Self desire. The words * 5elf is the source and the abode is of all. When a man realises the whole variety of beings as and as an evolution from that (One) alone. in / -AVhen. for it is external to him. not the (Pradhana. in are done sorts thought. who realises this truth is and also upadhis the truth that the Self (Kshetrajna) or conditions . as the Siinkhyas say i — A. accordance with the teachings of the sastraand all ( of the teacher. Lord. in the (visesha). * With a view to prevent the supposi- realisss ths essential unity of the universe lion that Prakiiti are quite distinct and its modifications from Purusha.. He sees. [Dis. and (of all) is when from from he further sees that the origin. quite "ith the Self. from has he merging also the Prakritii down its to the ultimate particulars Self. whole universe. Self. in There is no evidence is to show any variety from all Him who non -agent. that One. and is specialities. then he becomes Brahman. is life. the self-existent) Prak/'iti (of the Sankhyas) described as transwhether done devoid of speech. The same Right Knowledge : again expounded in other 30. from the Self love. c.V. not possible to merge the To explain : on seeing that the whole all its universe of forms in unity Self except by with the pure universe of being in Prakriti variety. the evolution.

He must be necessarily this conclusion it is by their To avoid said 31. in bodies acts self. The Self has no beginning. qualities. He is without parts. as having no cause. is Therefore. does not act. Further. in the O son of Kunti. "jV- The If the Self is unaffected by the fruits of acts. He suffers no destruction. That which has a cause perishes by whereas This(Self) does not perish. is He does not perish because He witho ut qualities. though dwelling body. 29-31-] MATTER AND is SPIRIT. pervading nature of the inasmuch absorbed into unity with — A. as the cause of all limitation has Self. no cause. — He the is an agent is is by the fruit of the act but this agent and is therefore not tainted by the affected ( (the Self) a non- fruit of action. then defects.. then. Up. though dwelling in the body. Self — the Self He said to dwell in the body because the is manifested in the body. having no qualities. and is tainted ir If. Because of acts. is He not affected by the results The meaning this . because is He is devoid of Thus the Supreme Self imperishable." Chhil. this Having no beginning. from the Self are waters. on the one hand. the bodies. Objection ? : ) — Who. 335 the Self akasa. 7-26-1 )— then he ) becomes Brahman indeed. Supreme Self. neither acts nor is tainted. an embodied he realises the all- distinct been That is to say. imperishable. Self. . in all one Self be the Self affected . ( from the Self food. from the Self is light. because. for that which has qualities perishes by loss of qualities whereas the Self does not perish. itself. from the Self is is manifestation and disappearance. is : — yet He that does not act.

all is so subtle that The answer is The Supreme is pervades not at all without obstruction. this : Because akasa. — A.ijjyer. is —" It is Nature that acts " The idea that there is one who It and is tainted a mere illusion (avidya) and nothing in Action does not really exist the Supreme Self. like what : is he not tainted? Here follows the 32. Him J • He + /svara be the doer and c.— A. any more teaching should be accepted as true. I has been afforded by the Lord Himself. Self. Avho adhere to this doctrine Supreme Truth ( Paramartha-Sankhya-darsana ) and all have risen above avidya and vyavahara. 2). by avidyd. then the identi- ty of Kshetrajna with the Isvara spoken of in such places If. would be inexplicable. . (xiii. then tell as xiii. on the other hand. and the Buddhists. is it in reality neither the doer nor the enjoyerto affected by mire. never soiled. so i the Self seated in the body everywhere If the is not soiled..— A 336 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. Therefore the Lord's no longer the /svara. there be no embodied self distinct from the Isvara. has. 2 me who acts and is tainted : or say that the Isvara is not Supreme. — it it than ourselves. as well as by the Sankhyas. illustration As the all-pervading akasa is is. been pointed out by the is Lord here and there that there for those no necessity of performing works (karma) of devotees of Wisdom."- On the ground that is the doctrine of the diffi- Upanishads taught by the Lord cult to thus in every explain. which Agency and enjoyment are attributed pervades. it way understand and difficult to has been abandoned by the Vaiseshikas. the Arhatas. nescience and experience (due to avidya). acts [DiS. (AiisK'ey): — As regards this objection. XIIL from the Supreme and is tainted. Like what does He not act. from its subtletyt. etc. for this very reason. the following answer acts else. for the order of Paramahawsa-Parivrajakas.

of up. by means of that knowledge of the Self * The Lord proceeds Sslf. from the ' Great Elements ' down to ' firmness (xiii. O Bharata. He is unsoiled. The embodied one (Paramatman). 43 . between Kshetra and Kshetrajna. is ( Kshetrin ). the eye of and the dissolution of the Cause of beings. to show that the affected by the attributes ot the coguis* b3ing the cogniser.: ' 32-34'] MATTER AND Sl'IRlT. l ike the su n. from the Avyakta (theunmanifest- ed material cause of the universe) down to the unmoving objects. now pointed out. The doctrine summed The teaching follows 34. by the eye of wisdom. — A. the whole material being (Kshetra). As the one sun illumines all this world. the Self is One onl y in all bodies. go to the Supreme. 5-6). so does the embodied One. the all Supreme Self one and illumines bodies. and that like the sun. is the whole discourse concluded as They who by the distinction wisdom perceive between Kshetra and Kshetrajna.''' 5elf illumines all. — The illustration by means of the sun serves here — showing that. a double purpose with reference to the Self. bodies. — they They who in this manner perceive the exact distinction. illumine all ^^. 337 The Moreover. cannot be ed.

the material cause — they reach Brahman. [DiS. Self. and who also perceive the non- existence of Praknti. sastra (iicharya). of the which has been generated by the teachings and the master of beings. Xlll.338 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. the Supreme and assume no more bodies. . Avyakta. Avidya. the Real.

— but not independent themselves as the Sankhyas hold. that is has been said that all born is produced by the conjunction of Kshetra and so ? Kshetrajna. The subject It of the discourse. is — How can it be — The present discourse intended as an answer to this question.as ? How do they bind him ? How is liberation from the Gu«as attained ? What are the characteristics of a liberated soul ? With a view to answer these questions./sara (xiii. — that constitute the cause of the universe. I said : shall again declare that sublime all knowledge. THE THREE GUNAS. all the best of knowledges.FOURTEENTH DISCOURSE. c. in in it has been stated that the dwelling (of the Kshetrajna) the Kshetra {i. which having learnt. The Blessed Lord I. Or the connection may be explained thus With a view to show that it is Kshetra and Kshetrajna. both dependent : on the isvara. Though declared more than once in the preceding dis- . the Lord proceeds as follows — — : Knowledge of the origin of the universe is necessary for Salvation. In what Gunas and in what way is He attached? What are the Gu7. his for the self-identification with Kshetra) and his attachment Gu«as form the cause of sa7. 2i). the sages have passed to high perfection from here.

nor disturbed in the dissolution. those who are devoted to contemplation (manana) here — from this bondage as of the — have passed from body — to high perfection.— A. having resorted to this knowledge.' since in the Gita-sastrajio distinction made between the tsvara and the Kshetrajna. ledge.— 340 courses. is And a declaration of the (true main) end (of knowledge) here necessary to praise the knowledge. having knowledge.' in order to the minds of the hearers. 7-10. have attained to unity with Me. not that of knowledge. to : The Lord now proceeds declare that this knowledge unfailingly leads to perfection 2. all the sages And having know- (munis) — the sawnyasins. known moksha or liberation. whereas the knowledge which is going to be imparted So. i. and which result. They who. is ^ the best of all knowledges'as productive of the best ' All knoidedgcs does not refer to those which have in been spoken of as knowledge such things to be known. XIVis again declare that knowledge which itself sublime as concerning with the Supreme Being. I THE rhagavad-gIta shall [Dis. the ' in this discourse does lead to salva- tion. the verses xiii. It 'Unity' (siidharmya) here nieans 'identity. are neither born in the creation.''' resorted to this They who. of which the of Lord is here speaking.' does not mean 'equality is in attributes. having practised the * If equality were meant here. then would only be a statement of the fruit it dhyuna. Lord ' praises this latter knowledge by the rouse interest in learnt this epithets sublime and ' best. . c. but to those kinds of knowledge which relate to sacrifices and other These (latter kinds of knowledge) do not lead to salvation.

of kama (desire). any wombs whatsoever. to explain is The Lord now proceeds tion of 3. Whatever forms in is are produced. unite the Kshetrajfia with Kshetra. the Kshetrajfia conforming Himself to the upadhis of avidya (nescience). 4. the birth of all beings. 34I necessary means whereby to attain that attained neither to — have are at the identity with Me./as. afifected born at the time of creation nor disturbed at the /. O Bharata. the seed of the birth of the Hira»yagarbha.. I termed Brahman. what sort of conjuncall Kshetra and Kshetrajfia the cause of beings: My womb germ . the seed which gives birth the to all beings. they are not even time of Brahma's dissolution. of the three Gu. the two Prakntis Kshetra and the Kshetrajfia. time of dissolution. This act beings impregnation gives the birth of all through the birth of the Hira.— 1-4. f. their Great Brahman womb. In that Great Brahman place the germ. My own all it is Praknti.'iti which belongs to Me. I the seed-giving Father. . is the great Brahman is .e. knowledge.] THE THREE GUNAS. Evolution of the universe from the union of Spirit and Matter. O the son of Kunti.iyagarbha.. This Praknti all effects spoken of because greater than and as the It source and nourishing energy of is all Its modifications. the Prak. the is . My 7i>omh'. the material cause of as great Maya made up beings. I who am possessed of of two potencies (Saktis). i. rise and karma to (action). the Supreme Lord. in that I place the thence.

the Great Of these forms. they cannot therefore . XIV. Accordingly. activity. The gunas bind the soul. cattle. as opposed to the substance in it is which said to inhere. namely. are the gu»as ? How do they bind — The answer gu«as. Tamas (darkness) — thus are the gu?. They Born are said to Kshetrajna because they come into being with Kshelrajj^a as the basis of their existence. Forms such as the bodies which are the condensed aggregations of several parts and limbs. the gu«as here meant are so called because. ) which passes through I. the indestructible. and a gumn — of an attribute and a substance — is [meant here. : men. all Brahman ( Praknti . states of matter is the cause and the Isvara. — A. : [Dis. the Kshetrajwa. and they bind bind fast ^5 it weve the Kshetraj«a. as they are only forms of avidya or nescience . of the Lord's Maya.as named. tuents of the Praknti and are the bases of all . '= No separate existence of a gwia. am in the the Father.: 342 THE bhagavad-gIta. — technical term. attribute or quality. born of Prakriti. such as the Devas. Rajas. bind fast in body the embodied. the Pitns. — these O the mighty-armed. such as colour. they bind fast as it * These Gunas are the primary substances consti- be said to be qualities inhering in these substances. It Sattva (goodness). Rajas ( vigour. passion ' ) and is Gu7/a ' a does not mean a property. Wombs beasts. ? What follows 5. Sattva. the author of impregnation of the seed womb. Tamas. like the attributes of substances. they are ever dependent on another.

in the 343 Self. t ' Sattva binds the Self : by making in I am happy ' — it binds j. the indestructible is That the knees." to happiness is This attachment an illusion . spoken of ate those modifications of the because . Self : Mighty-armed shown in xiii. How then. because so pure as to perfectly mirror the They make all it appear that the Self Spiritual Bliss. 31. Him by causing Him think Him attachmakes ment ject. and it has * Him who body — A. and healthy. which.-.] THE THREE GUNAS. with powerful arms reaching down to the indestructible has been (Objection) : — It has been said that the embodied one is not said tainted (xiii. It Him think. An attribute of the object cannot indeed belong to the subject. It is — A. 31). it is avidya. stiiinUss. as . binds by attachment happiness and by attachment to knowledge. ' they bind him as weve./as. it is able to able to Sattva in which . : thus defined Of is these. lucid sinless one. is it here that the gu«as bind him (Ansiifcy) : — We have met this objection by adding it * as it were ' . " Happiness has accrued to me.— A.4-6.^ The nature and functions Of these three gu. and therefore lucid and healthy. (happiness). to happiness by bringing about a union of the sub- (the Self.) with the object. Sattva. to O It is stainless like a pebble-stone. S undergoes In . healthy. Sattva 6. from its stainless- ncss. the changes that take place The happiness and knowledge here them.\ ward oil all veiling lucid. on ? the contrary. f identities himself with the rellect it is Consciousness . is of the gunas.f were body the embodied"'' one.-Itman's inherent happiness and consciousness are nianifested.

'— . action. the if it — not of the Self for were an attribute of the in Self. 7. the object. coloring &c. XIV.A 344 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. Attachment knowledge arises the same way that attachment_to happiness arises. — thiyst after what attained. who were in is from . the embodied one by attachment to action. attachment. causes Him.t. 6) are all attributes (matter). passion. thou Rajas (to be) of the nature of . ' rom its mention here along with happiness. Rajas is of the nature of passion. — between the object and the subject. visible It binds fast the embodied Self what has been by attachment to Iw making Him attached to actions productive of •'- and invisible results * Though the self is not the agent. it — that all Sattva causes the Self to be attached as is were to happiness free which not His own.i. feel to be engrossed as it it happiness causes to happy as ness. cannot be to an attachment and cannot be a bondage. Know fast.' meant here must be an attribute of the anta/jKshetra (matter). were Him who does not possess the happi- Similarly. Sattva i' binds the Self by attachment to ' knowledge. (th e soul) lik e a piece of red_ chalk. the source of thirst and attachment it binds O son of Kunti. an tion Thus it is through avidya alone which forms attribute (dharma) of the Self as the non-discrimina. Rajas makes Him act with the idea I am ' the doer. of the Object. Know it to be that from which has not been arise thirst and attachment. it kara«a — of . all [DiS. ' knowled. ' been said by the Lord that ' the qualities from of Kshetra ' desire to courage ' (xiii. attachment or mental adherence to attained.

third gu»a. when . .: 6-IO. it binds fast. the non. 345 8. viz. asserting itself.] THE THREE GUNAS. do they act mutual concord or is their effects simultaneously.— A. each in is: Similarly. then gives rise to its such as husbandry. own effect. so Tamas. O Tamas. veil. But. while Tamas.nt limes. over Sattva and Rajas. wisdom. enshrouding wisto heedlessness. guwas produce the : effects described ? — The answer follows over Rajas and Sattva arises. The nation.. Rajas to ac- tion. dom. in its turn. attaches. predominating Rajas. gu7ja of Rajas increases. 44 . predominating over both Rajas and Tamas. to The mutual action of the gunas. above •' When do the 10. when the gu«a in action called Uo they produce cast. Bharata.. caused by Sattva and attaches one to heedlessness. Similarly. predominating over both Sattva it and Tamas. e. embodied beings by heedindolence and sloth. deluding lessness. causes delusion or non-d iscrimi Bharata.performance of necessary duties. know thou Tamas all to be born of un. O Bharata. Again the action of the gu«as follows 9. by its very nature as a covers the judgment i. over Sattva and Tamas and Tamas . Sattva produces its own knowledge and happiness. contrar}-. is briefly described as Sattva attaches to happiness. then.the effect. When Sattva increases. * The quastion . on the Tamas. or at diflerits discord ?— The answer each that they act ac turn? In the former diflcrent times.

Desir e : thirst after all things n genera l. may be known that Sattva characteristic is The marks of predominant Rajas are these : 12. How What 11. inertness. the covering of wisdom. Greed : O : lord of the Bharatas. — these arise when to appropriate th e in general. 13. illumination (prakasa). When the light of ledge thus springs up. and error. etc.— 346' THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. Rajas.i. is When at all these gates in this body i. is the characteristic is a particular gu«a mark by which to know when predominant ? The answer follows — : When is at every gate in it this body there shoots up wisdom-light. arise — these when Tamas is predominant. thi. activity. i characteristic m arks seen when Rajas s Darkness. unrest. desire. /AH ways . then it Sattva and produces own eftects. : A ctivity a ction att achm ent &c. knowledge. the senses such as hearing are for the Self the galeof perception. XIV.e. Unrest giving ve n t to joy i . a desire pro perty of a nothe r. by that mark predominant. These are the predominant. there arises what the called light. O descendant of Kuru. predominating over both its [DiS. heedlessness. of buddhi. is — then of we have knowit wliat called knowledge (j. Tanias increases. the undertaking of works.'/ana). then that Sattva may be known predominant. presence of anta/^-kara/^a. is to know when a particular guna predominant. Greed. Rajas is predomi- nant. .

who cattle are attached to The irrational: and the like. (agamas). he is born among Tamas. they say. Meeting death born in the in Rajas.UNAS. devoid of impurities. then he attains to the spot- regions* of the knowers of the Highest. d}-ing in he If is wombs of the irrational. one : The embodied the Self. is — even due that to is caused by attachment and desire and all the This is taught as follows : If the is embodied one meets death when Sattva less predominant.: 10-161 THE THUrCE : r. . is he meets death when Rajas predominant. darkness. born those attached to action and. he action. Extreme inactivity. Rajas * The Brahma-loka and the like. 347 Inertness : Darkness absence of discrimination. result obtained after death. Whatever guwas. t '• t-. They : S. TIic Highest : the Mahat and the like principles (Tattvas). 14.ittvic tlie wise. is vSattis vic t and pure while the fruit of Rajas the fruit of action. Here follows a summary precedmg verses 16. good action. and ignorance Good action : is Tamas. snch as may arise from as wo arc told in the scriptures Rajas and Tamas. Life after death as governed by the is fi^unas. is among men. — A. of what has been taught in the The fruit of . . the result of Heedlessness and error are also the efTects of darkness. 15. — A. pain. whore Rajas and Tamas never predominate. brought about by Sattva.

Moreover. as this section treats of actions. means Rajasic fruit of action. c. arises from the gu«as From . the effect should be consonant with the cause. The functions gunas summed ? up. [DiS. — — Realisation of the Self beyond the gunas leads to immortality. and From Sattva : also ignorance. And what 1 7. . Rajasic actions only pain.348 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. 18. is The . . when under the influence of the — of the Purusha's birth in the wombs the attachment which the creatures — illusory know- ledo^e that bads him to identify himself i.e. heedlessness and error and greed arise from Rajas from Tamas.a. has for objects of experience. which is Rajasic for. they will be born in the wombs of cattle and the like creatures.m will be born in the region of the Devas or the like. It has been briefly taught in the preceding discourse that the cause of sawsara of high is and low Purusha. When Sattva asserts itself. the lowest gu«a will go down. action. Sattva arises wisdom. Those who follow the course of Sattva-gu. who follow in the course of the lowest gu7. with Praknti.. Tamas means Tamasic a-dharma or of the sin. go downwards. Those who follow Sattva go upwards the Rajasic remain in the middle and the Tamasic. . The Rajasic will The Tamasic those who follow the dwell among men course of Tamas. XIV. i. for the gu«as which assume .

then he attains to e.) : nature of the gU7ms.. he attains to Him who higher My being. delusion. senses and sense-objects. ' When into a man is enlightened and realises that there is no agent other than the gu»as which transform themselves the it is bodies. while still alive.l6-20. the riot Lord says : When the seer beholds an agent other is than the gu.. t _j^ The three gunas are the constituents .of Nlaya. comes manifest. 20. described at length here (xiv. miserable. with that moksha accrues from ig. Having crossed beyond these three guHas. their functions. and attains the immortal. pain and — the attachment which makes him the feel " I am happy. deluded.. The wise man crosses. the upadhi. seeing ' that All is Vasudeva. he becomes Vasudeva./as and knows than the gu?ias.] THE THREE CTNAS.j g." 5. Now. and are the source ^^ ^.-A. which are the source of the body.. beyond the f three gu/zas which constitute the upadhi of ]\Iaya and the * Then his identity i with Brah man be~" rx»u -ji. right knowledge. all about the cause a view to teach bondage rooted in illusion. their functions. decay and pain. when he sees Him who being : distinct from the guwas. when he is sees that the guj/as that in all all their modifications constitute the agent in actions . death. the embodied one is freed from birth. how they bind by their functions. The same thing has been et. the destination of the persons enslaved by the functions of the gunas of .'**' Now the Lord proceeds to teach how he attains to it. 349 the forms of pleasure. scq. who is the Witness of the gu«as and of I\Iy i.

as. is [DiS. he hates not. XIV. He is emancipated. is he known has crossed beyond those three his conduct. man) crosses beyond the gu7?as and attains to immortality while still alive. The marks of a liberated soul.. seed out of which the body while still evolved. Light of is the effect of Sattva. He does not h:ite these when present.?as ? who What is and how does he pass beyond those ? three gunas Having been thus asked by Arjuna as to what are the characteristic marks of one who has crossed beyond the guwas and as to the means of crossing the gu. : Light and activity and delusion present. : By what marks. the Lord First as to the proceeds to answer the two questions. |2^u. and attains to attains to immortality way he My being. there has arisen in me the Rajasic activity which painful. activity of Rajas. alive. from : birth. nor longs for O Pan^ava. and delusion Tamas. O Lord. Arjuna found an occasion for a question and asked it When was said that (the wise : Arjuna said 21. It is only in the absence of right : knowledge that a man I hates them thus ' I have now a Tamasic idea by which am deluded is . death. in this decay and pain.350 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. question ' by what marks ' is he known : who has crossed beyond the gu«as? listen to what follows said The Blessed Lord 22. when they clearly present themselves as objects of consciousnes. them absent. and urged on by this Rajas I have fallen from .

question.. ? Now conduct 23. thinking that gu//as act. The Self-knowing sawnyasin. to whom the dear and the nndear are alike. to whom censure and praise are same .Kis ^Moreover. who dwells in the Self. he not long after who has risen abovethe gu»as does things which have disappeared. binds me by way me and causing attachment to happiness. 331 20-25. who is a man of wisdom. it serves as a mark for the individuajjiimself. and the Sattvic gu»a. and painful is this fall is from my true nature .] my true nature. which of ascribing discrimination to luminous. immutability of the Self./as does not thus hate them when they present themselves to his consciousness. .' But the man who has risen above the gu. firm and moves not Her to whom pain and pleasure are alike. as . Unlike a man of Sattva (or Rajas or Tamas) who which longs first for the Sattvic (or Rajasic or Tamasic) states presented themselves to his consiousness and then disappeared. inclines to neither party. to whom a clod of earth and stone and gold are alike. The conduct in life of the to the Liberated one. it This is a mark which alone others cannot perceive. is not moved is by gu. This path is Self-knowledge. who. t — A. * '' like a neutral man who and does treads firmly the path f by which hlnisolf as the doer of actions This is to illustrate how the Self- knower.— A. 24. seated as a neutral. who. can be perceived by himself no man indeed can perceive the hatred or the desire itself to which presents another man's consciousness. — THE THREE GUNAS. follows the answer risen what is his who has above the gu«as &>' He . in virtue of his knowledge of the ceases to regard not eiigage in any action.

. gunas. 24. so . indifter- and the aspirant for Self-knowledge of attaining These attributes. Thus thinking. except those which are necessary for the bare maintenance of the body.as transforming themselves into the body. does not pertain him — A. have to be But. when .the means it. he remains unshaken. There is another reading which makes this part mean " thus thinking. pro- ductive of visible and invisible results. honour and disgrace. is * This action the continuation ot a action to acquired with special eflort prior attainment of Self-knowledge to the mere semblance + of which. he is said to have crossed beyond in The same — the gu«as. XIV. made clearer by what next : the gu. 23. 25. Moreover. is calm. as but when they may be perceived by marks indicating t that the devotee has above the gu«as. they form risen in his nature. He renounces actions. he does not swerve from the follows state of discrimination. such as should therefore cultivate these virtues.'''" Who dwells in the — Self: who 25. e. Though neutral from their own to be some appear and to others as if . on the rise of Self-knowledge. Devotion to the Lord leads to liberation. : unaffected. he acts. senses and sense-objects. rise [DiS. he (vidya) knows. they were on the side of friends or on the side of foes but this man appears all same to friends foes. The attributes described in xiv.. abandoning all undertakings. i. he remains in his own true nature. long as they are to be achieved by effort are firmly ingrained himself. the same towards friends and enemies. he seeks to above the guwas This is . form a rule of laid conduct down for the sawmyasin who seeks moksha. as they are the ence to the various modifications and functions of .. The same standpoint. 352 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. act and react upon each other.

the niind from external virtue of form part and parcel of his nature and serve as marks of liberation which he from the non-Self. can it be sof ? — Listen For I am the abode of Brahman. for becoming Brahman. of Unity Atman.] THE THREE GUNAS. or even a man of works (karmin). the to constantly becomes a J ivanmukta (one still Gjd Bhakti-Yoga moans who is liberated while all living in the contemplate Him by completely withall body. Me with unfaiUng Devotion of Love. is ) ""'" Thus enlightened. ? how can the suge be himself niunion with the Supreme.''' in devotion to discriminative knowledge. Dharma of Jilana-Yoga or wisdomthe devotion who is the unfailing Bliss. : How 27. ^"^ In "'- °'^'"^ ^^^"' '^"''^^•cdge. who is the Eternal Dharma. can perceive for himself-A. he.. To Brahman 45 . e. — this Bhakti-Yoga being indeed of the Lord. is Supreme . — the in Pratyagatman. the result of the Grace and Mercy — he crosses is fit beyond the three gu/ias i.e. crossing beyond those three gunas.) the attributes mentioned here drawing objects. Supreme Bliss. mentioned above and for becoming Brahman. i. c. the aspirant Because I. the Immortal and the Immutable. the Eternal Dharma. next to answer the question ' 353 ' The Lord proceeds How does one pass beyond these three gu«as 26. he still * Bhakti-Yoga ( that Supreme Love to becomes Brahman while — A. who in the heart of serves Me — the Isvara.25-27. ? And he who is fitted serves. i. the Bliss Immortal. A all sa/«nyasin (yati). in Me. in For.. in the Pratyagatman. with a never-failing Bhakti-Yoga. Self (Paramatman) who immortal and immutable who is attainable by the . the Bliss. c. the true Inner Self. and the unfailing abides Brahrnan. for moksha. Narayawa — dwelling beings. '^ endued with alive. Parama-preman which leads comservo t T i.

Sakti potentiality.Devotion. and am it therefore Brahman Himself. am the abode of the Conditioned Brahman. for . there- by Right Knowledge one sees that the Pratyagatman the very Supreme Self. who is Immortal and Indestructible. the Unconditioned and the Unutterable. It is this truth which has been is declared in the preceding verse in the words " he for fitted becoming Brahman. XlV- Immortal fore is — am the abode of the Supreme Self. [DiS. —through to He has to manifest Himself as Isvara or the Lord of the universe. I am also the abode of the Eternal Dharma ' of Wisdom. Self. " The meaning It is of the passage may be explained as follows: the power through His Isvara-5akti.354 THE BHAGAVAD-GiTA. and the abode of the unfailing Bliss born of that Devotion. who eilone can be spoken of by any such word as Brahman. and so on. verse may also be explained as follows : By Brahman. energy — cannot — power.' — I. r^^>S>^ . —that I Brahman shews His grace His devotees.' is here meant the Conditioned Brahman. am only that power or S'akti in manifestation. in be distinct from the one whom The ' inheres.

dependent on all living beings are ) Me for the their actions. through the attainment of knowledge. For. THE SUPREME SPIRIT. much more Self. therefore those who serve Me with Bhakti-Yoga (Devotion of Love) cross beyond the gu»as by My Grace. so those who rightly understand the real nature of the \\'herefore the Lord proceeds in the present discourse to teach the real nature of the Self.— A.] antecedent of all eflects. "subtle in point of time.— A. as He is is * Sai/isara represented as a tree becut is : to cause S it can oft lilce a tree.: FIFTEENTH DISCOURSE. said They speak its of the indestructible Asvattha and branches below. As Brahman with Maya lity is f or the unmanifested potentia- subtle in point of time. is fit for attaining the knowledge of the real nature of the Lord." the Cause because how Brahman Brahman is Brahman who Kii/astha (immutable) He the invariable cannot by Himself be Ibe cause. he alone who free from all attachment. The Tree Because fruits of ( of 5amsara. as is l)e He This is is the Cause shew |. and the wise for the fruit of their knowledge. whose leaves are the metres. though unasked by Arjuna. . and no other person. and attain liberation (moksha) . The Blessed Lord 1. First he describes the nature of sawsara or mundane existence to by a is figurative representation as a tree* in all order produce vairagya or absence of attachment.— A. He who knows it knows having root above the Vedas.

for. it is In the Pura//a also " said : The root from which is the Eternal Tree of Brahman"-^= It has sprung the Avyakta."-A. sslf. The Mahat. all pleasure and pain Its fruits affording livelihood to And this is the resort f of is Brahman (the Highest the Tree Self). XV. above. the Ahawkara ( Egoism ). dharmaand a-dharma creatures. owing avidya. Brahman and in indeed Brahman Himto cannot be cut except by knowledge.that. as He is great. It is said to ba eternal because nothing else. the Tanmatras (the Elemental Essences).. —A. the sense-apertures Its hollows. trunk is Buddhi. this Asvattha eternal. . none comes back from there again. by Brahit basis in It is man. led." They speak of the illusory sawsara as a tree rooted above. The One above is the root of this Tree of Sa. c.—This portion is interpreted to mean " Brahman is the resort of this Himself in the form of : univcrse. these extend its * etc. governed.-A. guided." (Kai'ha-Up. Having cut asunder and of with mighty "sword knowledge j and then attained to the Bliss of the Self. presided Tree of sawsara verse has its . 3-2-1). this infinite uni- over. the sense-objects Its leaves and branches. eternal. the Unmanifested. its which says: therefore said to have The Sruti " is With root above and branches below. is He is spoken of as the One root above.»sara. and downwards whence the Tree is said to have branches below. Its fair blossoms. has Its developed by the strength of the same (Avyakta). the great elements Its boughs. the Tree occupied. [DiS. They call this tree Asvattha because ' ' i. this manifests t It is in this Tree of si»jsara that Brahman abides.2c6 is THE BHAGAVAD-GlTA. are its branches as it were. . and that Highest Self the (the essence) of split that Tree of Brahman. The knowledge " I am Brahman.

/sara. it rests. its is He who knows It is therefore omni- — This its to extol the knowledge of the Tree of Saw?- sara and Root. 357 it same even till tomorrow. follows of this another figurative representation of the Tree of Sa. He who knows is Tree of Sa. Just as the leaves of a tree serve protect the tree. the metres Vedas such as Rik. so Sa. like leaves..] THE SUPREME SPIRIT. Below and above are its branches spread. From man down him up • The to the unmoving objects below.«sara. \'a. known. for.«sara. 1-2. they is say that this Tree of sawsara as is is eternal .nd S-kman protect {^chhad' to cover) the Tree to of Sa.?as. as do the Vedas treating of '"' serve to protect the Tree of ( dharma and merit ) and a-dharma the (demerit). Sawsara and scient. sa>. Teaching-of the \'edas.«sara and of the its Root as described above a knower else. ritualistic sections of the they protect defects. Now members 2. and from abode of Brahma. the Creator of the Unito Veda of the soul . nourished by the gu. because it undergoes destruction every moment. sense-objects its buds and below in the world of man stretch forth the roots ending in action. with their causes fruits. Indeed nothing not even an remains to be known beyond this Tree of Root. .}us a. iota.. on a continuous series of births which The without beginning or end and is thus eternal. well of Tree ( Sawsara ) is further qualified thus : The metres they ) chhandases are its leaves as it were ( .isara by treat of the path of ascent and descent concealing its — A. are so called because. The illusion (Maya) will not abide the of sa/«sara having existed in time without beginning.

. . whatever regions are attained as the suitable reward knowledge and action. each varying according to the character of knowledge or of action. verse. as were. Its form is not perceived as such here. it The sense- objects such as sound are the buds. the latent impressions (vasanas) of the feelings of attachment fruits of ac- and aversion. which were caused by the are These "•'' roots spread in this world like of man up below —below the regions of Devas and the dharma and a-dharma. the linga-sariras of men these feeUngs of attachment and aversion are constantly present. It is — and give is rise to acts of these acts springing on the up-springing of those vasanas.— A.. man.358 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. as leading to acts of dharma or a-dharma: viz. Then That Goal should be sought in for.— A. and now will be mentioned the secondary roots as it were (of the universe). etc. of — — . And 3. c. neither origin nor its end nor its existence. it is while in the hu- especially. Those roots are spread especially in the world of while here. that one is ut to action. Rajas and Tamas. 4. that men concern themselves with actionf. Having the cut asunder this firm-rooted Asvattha with strong sword of dispassion. sprouting from the branches of the physical and other bodies which The Highest Root of the are the result of actions. [DiS. tions. its as to the Tree of Sawsara just described. if i. XV. as well- known to all. which form their material basis (upadana). they are the spreadthey are nourished ing branches as it were of that Tree and fattened by the gunas of Sattva. — Tree of Sawsdra has been mentioned already. T That is man body engage in to say. Cut the Tree and seek the Goal.

sa. Strong : — strengthened by a resolute bent of mind towards the Supreme Self and sharpened again and again on the whetstone of the practice of true discrimination. sorting to renunciation through practice So it is possible of indiflerence. Those who have reached Goal never return ? to sawsara. and that that the Saiiisara. T In the absence of knowledge. constantly kept it is One may suppose one to cut it asunder by means of knowledge. a mirage.e. a gandharva-nagaya (an imaginary city in the sky) produced by a juggler's art appears. . 359 whither having gone none return again. Neither has this it a beginning Its nobody knows i.' existence its origin and the end is perceived by nobody. and to the world. Goal /.Hsara has no end. the Lord says that the Tree of Sawisara described above.] THE SUPREME SPIRIT. He is to be who is spoken of as the sought for by way of seeking refuge for Tree of up as it is by attachment etc. vasa- not even possible for one to cut it nas (latent tendencies acquired past) in the asunder. * no endt. appears and dis- has therefore no : finality. should be inferred to a very strong effort to uproot it. though not perceived through and works give rise to one another.m beyond that Tree. has no beginning and is not liable Co destruction in itself. Then of this the aspirant should seek and know the abode that Goal to I Vish." It . form as such is ed by nobody here for it is very much Hke it a dream. .. To remove this idea. to wealth. — How : is be sought after in — It is sought after thus " seek refuge Him. Dispassion freedom from attachment to children. Cut asundey : uprooted the Tree of sa7«sara with for its seed. inasmuch as illusion. refuge in forth the " I seek that Primeval Purusha whence streamed perceiv- Ancient Current. our sense-organs. .\..— 2-4. — . " c. It has proceeded from nature between the : point. by action and reaction Samsara is firmrooted and one should therefore put forth . — A." Its As such : as described above. indeed. by re- be as described above from the teachings of the sastra (scripture). the Primeval Purusha.

360
in

THE bhagavad-gIta
?

[Dis.

XV.

Him.— Who is this Purusha — It is that Purusha from whom the emanation of the Tree of illusory Saw^sara streamed
as illusory sights (maya) issue from out of a

forth, just

juggler.

The Path

to the Goal.

What
5.

sort of persons reach that

Goal

?

— Listen

:

Free from pride and delusion, with the
having

evil

of attachment conquered, ever dwelling in the Self,
their

desires

completely turned away,
of opposites

liberated from the

pairs

known

as

pleasure and pain, the undeluded reach that Goal
Eternal.
Dwelling,
etc.
:

constantly engaged

in the

contemplation
etc
:

of the nature of the

Supreme

Self.

Theiy

desires,

they

become sa/;myasins, all desires having fled without leaving any taint behind. That described above.
:

The Goal
That Goal
6.
is

is

the Lord's Glorious Being.
:

again specified thus

That, the sun illumines not, nor the moon,
fire
;

That is having gone none
nor

My Supreme
return.

Abode, to which

The
Abode

sun, though possessed of the

power

of illumining

all,

does not illumine that Abode, the Abode of Light.
to

That
is

which having gone none

return,

and which the
the

sun and other (luminous bodies) do not illumine,

Highest Abode of Vish/m.

Jiva
It

is

a ray of the Lord.
return.' But,

has been said

'to

which having gone none

as everybody knows, going ultimately leads to returning,

5-7.]

THE SUPREME

SPIRIT.

361.

union to disunion.
returning of those

How
is

can

it

be said that there
?

is

no
;

who have

reached that Abode
:

— Listen

how

that
7.

may

be

thus explained

A

ray of Myself, the eternal Jiva in the world

of Jivas, attracts the senses,

with manas the sixth,

abiding in Prakriti.

'An

integral

portion of Myself

— of
;

the

Supreme

Self, of

Naraya»a,

is

the eternal Jiva (individual soul) in sawsara,

manifesting himself in every one as the doer and enjoyer.

He

is

like the

sun reflected

in
;

water

the reflected

sun

is

but a portion of the real sun
the reflected

and on the removal of water sun returns to the original sun and remains as

that very sun.

— Or,

it is

like the

akasa

(space) in the jar,
jar.

which
the jar

is is

limited

by the upadhi

of the
infinite

This akasa

of

but a portion of the
latter

akasa and becomes
is

one with the

on the destruction of the jar which
;

the cause of limitation

then

it

returns no more.

/

Thus
is

the

statement " to which having gone none return
explicable.
[Objection)
:

"

quite

— How can there be a portion of the Supreme
parts
?

</•

Self

who has no

If

He

has parts.

He

would be

liable

to destruction
[Anstiiey)
it is
it

on the separation of parts.
is

:

— Our theory
it

not open to this objection

;

for,
;

only a portion limited by the upadhi set up by avidya
a portion a.s

is

were

,

an iniagmary portion.

This truth
'•'

was established

at length in the thirteenth discourse.

*

I

t

lijs

been shewn ther e
is

tliat,

as a

Paramfttman, that he
the

is

identical

witji

matter of fact, Jiva

not a portion of

Supreme

Self.

— A.
46


362

THE BHAGAVAD-GITA.

[DiS.

XV.
it.

How How
he leave

Jiva dwells in the body and departs from
does the Jiva or individual Soul,
live in the

who
?

is

only an

imaginary portion of Myself,
it
?"''

world

Or how does
(five)

— Listen

:

He

draws round himself the
c,
in

senses, such as hearing, with the manas, the sixth sense

those six senses which abide in the Prakriti,
respective seats such as the orifice of the ear.

i.

their

When
8.

(

does he draw them round himself)

?

When
it,

the Lord acquires a body, and

when

He

leaves

He

takes these and goes, as the wind

takes scents from their seats.

When
and the

the Jiva, the lord of the aggregate of the
is

body

rest,

to leave the

body, then

(he

draws round
these

himself the senses and the manas).

When he leaves a former
taking

body and enters another, he does so, (five) senses with the manas the sixth wind takes with
it

— the

— with

him

as the

the scents of flowers.
?

What
g.

then are those (senses)

The

ear, the eye

and the smell,

and the touch, the taste using these and the manas, he

enjoys the sense-objects.

Using the manas along with each sense separately, the
Dweller
in the

body enjoys the sense-objects such as sound.
visible only to the eye of

The
10.
is

Self

is

knowledge.

Him who
who
the

departs, stays

and enjoys, who
;

conjoined with guwas, the deluded perceive not
possess the eye of knowledge.
Self,

they see,
* i.e., if Jiva' is
is it

Supreme

how

as departing from this world ?^A.

that he is spoken of as a sai/'sarin, or

7-11.]

THE SITPRKMR

SPIRIT.

3^J3

/Him who
and other
/.

thus dwells In the body,

once acquired,

who stays in the objects, who is always
all

who leaves the body body, who perceives sound
in association

I

with gu«as,
pain
not

e.,

whom

dispositions of

mind

— such as pleasure,
the

delusion

— invariably
They do
in various

accompany,

deluded
in

do

recognise.

not see

Him, though

this

way He

comes quite within the range
deluded

of their vision, because they are

ways, their minds being forcibly attracted
;>'"
1

by the enjoyment of objects seen and unseen. Ah such is human perversity. Thus does the Lord regret. But those


I

<-y

O

whose wisdom-eye

has been
i.e.,

opened by an authoritative
possess the power of dis-

source of knowledge,

who
Him.

crimination, do recognise

No self-knowledge without Yoga.

A

few, however,
II.

Those who

strive,

perceive

Him

dwelling in
self,

endued with Yoga, the self; though striving,

those of unrefined

devoid of wisdom, perceive

Him
Him,

not.
strive, well

Those who
recognise

balanced

in

their mind,

behold
:

the Self, dwelling in their

own mind

(buddhi)

they
to

Him,

" This

I

am.

"

But though

striving

know Him by means of proper authorities such as the scriptures (sastra), men of unrefined self whose self (mind)

has not been regenerated by austerity
gation of the senses,
Though A tman
most
scc
is

(tapas)

and subjutheir
evil

who have
+

not abandoned

nearest ar\d (faQVcfore
still,

The wisdom-eye here spoken

of refers
reflec-

easily perceivable,

all

Him, because

of

their

do not complete

to the scriptures (sastra), Raided

by

tion

and reason (nyayanugcihita), which
to

subservience (o sense-objects.— A,

form a means

knowledge.— A,

;

364

THE BHAGAVAD-GITA.

[DiS.

XV.

ways, whose pride has not been subdued,
not."

— behold

Him

Immanence

of the Lord,

(i)

as

the all-illumining

Light of Consciousness.

That Goal
as
fire

(the

Supreme

Self)

which even such luminaries
all,

and sun, the illuminators of
sa7;/sara

do not illumine

which having reached, the seekers of moksha never return
towards
;

of

which the Jivas (individual souls) are
in
is

only parts manifesting themselves

conformity to the
but a portion of

upadhis, as the akasa (space) in a jar
the all-pervading akasa,

— with a
and the

view to show that that
real basis
{i. e.,

Goal
all

is

the essence of

all

object) of
to

experience, the

give a brief
12.

Lord proceeds in the next four verses summary of His manifestations.
light

That

which residing
light

in

the sun
is

illu-

mines the whole world, that which

in the

moon

and

in the fire,

that

do thou know to be

Mine.
Light
Or,
'
:

splendour. Mine
'

:

Vish;Ri's.

light

may

be understood to mean the light of

consciousness (chaitanya).
{Objection)
alike, in the
:

— The

light

of

consciousness exists in
:

all

moving and unmoving objects then why
'

this

qualification of light as

residing in the sun,

'

etc.

?

[Answer)
*

:

— This objection does not apply here
realised the distinction

;

for,

the

A mere

siudy of scriptures, aided by

between the per-

reason and reflection, will not be of much
avail to

manent and

the impermanent, the real

those whose minds

are

still

and the unreal.

— A,

impure and who therefore have not yet


11-13]
qualification

:

THE SUPREME

SPIRIT.

365
the
is

may

be explained on the ground that
the sun,

better manifestation (of consciousness in

etc.)

due to a higher proportion of Sattva. In the sun and other bodies (mentioned here) the Sattva is very brilliant and
luminous
ness
is
;

wherefore

it

is in

better

manifested.
is
it

them that the light of consciousnot Hence the qualification
;

that the light

a specific attribute

of

those bodies only.

To

illustrate

by an example from ordinary experience
not reflected in a wall, in a piece of
is

A

man's face
;

is

wood

or

the like

but the same face

reflected

in

a

mirror in a mirror

greater or less degree of clearness, according as the
is

more

or less transparent.
(2)

As the all-sustaining

Life.

Moreover,
13.

Penetrating the earth
;

I

support

all

beings

by (My) Energy

and having become the watery
herbs.
It
is

moon
Energy
desires

I

nourish
:

all

(ojas)

the energy of the Isvara.
It

devoid of

and passions.

permeates the earth for support-

ing the world.

does not

fall

Held by that energy, the massive earth down and is not shattered to pieces. So it is
:

chanted as follows
"

Whereby

the vast heaven and the earth are firmly the earth firm."— (Taittiriya-Saw/hita,

held. " "
4-1-8).

He held

Thus do I, penetrating the Earth, support the moving and unmoving objects. Moreover, becoming the savoury moon,
I

nourish

all

the herbs germinating on the Earth, such

as

rice
is

and wheat, and make them savoury.
all

Soma

(the

moon)

the repository of

savours.

It

is

indeed the savoury

:

366

THE bhagavad-gIta.
that nourishes
all

[Dis.

XV,

moon
them.
(3)

herbs by infusing savours into

As the Digestive

Fire in all living: organisms.

Moreover,
14.

Abiding

in

the body of living beings as

Vaisvanara, associated * with Prana and Apana,
I

digest the four-fold food.
:

Vaisvciiiara

the hve abiding in

the

stomach, as said

in

the sruti

" This

fire is

Vaisvanara, which
is

is

within

man and
5-9-1-)

by which
Fourfold food
tion, that

this food
:

digested. "

(Bri.

Up.

the food which has to be eaten by masticaout, the food

which has to be sucked

which has
is

to

be eaten by devouring,

and that which

eaten by

licking.

He who

regards that the eater

is

the

Vaisvanara Fire,
(moon), and that
is

that the food eaten

by Fire

is

the

Soma
f

thus the^^two together form
free

Fire-Soma (Agni-shomau),

from

all taint of

impurity in food,

(4)

As the

Self in the hearts of all.

Moreover,
15.

And

I

am

seated in the hearts of

all

:

from
loss
I
;

Me

are

it is I

memory, knowledge, as well as their who r/.n to be known by all the Vedas,

am
of

Kindled by Prana.
+

— A.
is

form of eater and eaten Agni and

is

made up
by

Incidentally the Lord teaches here that

Soma
bad

is

untouched

evil

he who at the time of eating contemplates
that the

arising from

food.

— A.

whole universe which

in the

:

13-16.]

.

THE SUPREME

SPIRIT.

367

indeed the author of the Vedanta as well as the

knower of the Vedas.
I

dwell in the hearts (buddhi) of
Self.'''

all

sentient

beings as
all

their

Wherefore from

Me f

,

the Self of

sentient

memory, knowledge, I as well as their loss. Just as knowledge and memory occur in righteous persons as a
beings, are
result of their

good deeds (pu7;yakarma«i),

so, as

a result of

their sins, loss of
I,

the

memory and knowledge occurs in the sinful. Supreme Self, am to be known in all the Vedas. It is 1
in regular

who

cause the Teaching of the Vedanta (Upanishads) to be
succession, and
It is I

handed down

who know

the Vedic Teaching.

The Lord beyond the perishable and the
imperishable universe.

From

XV.

12, et seq

a.

summary has been given

of the

glories of Naraya//a, the Blessed Lord, as manifested through

superior upadhis.j

Now,

in the following verses, the

Lord

proceeds to determine the true nature of the same (Blessed
Lord),
all

who

is

pure and unlimited, being quite distinct from

perishable (kshara) and imperishable (akshara) upadhis.

First, then, the

Lord arranges

all

that

is

taught

in

the
three

preceding as well as in the succeeding discourses in

groups and says
16.

There are these two beings
good

in

the

world.

*

I

am

the witness of

all

that

is

;

Memory

of

and
t

evil in their

hearts.— A.

the past births,

what was experienced in and knowledge of things

Who am

the wire-puller (Siitra-dhar.i)

transcending the ordinary limits of space,
time, and visible nature,— A.
g

standing
universe,
t

behind the

machine
over

of
all

the
ac-

who

presides

Such as the sun.— A.

ions.— A.


368

THE BHAGAVAD-GlTA.
:

[DiS.

XV.

the perishable and the imperishable

the perishable
is

comprises

all

creatures

;

the immutable

called

the imperishable.
In sawisara, there are two categories,
in

we

see,
'

arranged
' '•'

two separate groups
is

of beings, spoken of as

purushas
;

The one group
other
first

consists of the perishable

(kshara)

and the

the imperishable

(akshara)

—the

contrary of the

viz.,

the Maya-5akti, the Illusion-Power of the Lord,
the perishable being

the

germ from which
all

takes

its

birth,

the seat of

the latent impressions (sawskaras) of desires,

actions, etc., pertaining to the

numerous mortal

creatures.

As

to

what the two beings (Purushas) comprise, the Lord
:

Himself says
verse

The

perishable comprises the whole uni;

of changing

forms
(

the

imperishable
)

is

what

is

known
'

as

immutable
like a

ku/astha
Or,
'

— that
'

immovable
kufastha
'

heap.
that

kuz^a

which remains means illusion, and
itself

means
it

which manifests

in various
is

forms of illusion and deception.
endless
f,
is

As

the seed of sawsara

said to be imperishable.

Distinct from these two,
able,

—the perishable and the imperishevils of the

—and untainted by the
is

two upadhis of the
intelligent

perishable and imperishable, eternal, pure,
free

and

by nature
17.

the Highest Spirit.

But distinct is the Highest Spirit spoken of as the Supreme Self, the indestructible Lord who penetrates and sustains the three worlds.
* They
are spoken of as 'purushas'
are the
Spirit.
f

In the absence of Brahma-j)!ana ihe

because they

upadhis of the
(A)

seed does not perish— (A).

Purusha, the one

l6-l8.]

THE SUPREME
is

SPIRIT.

369
two.

But/the Highest Spirit

quite distinct from the

He

is

the

Supreme

Self.

He is Supreme

as compared with

the other selves set up by avidya, such as the physical

body

;

and

He

is

the Self as constituting the unfailing Inner
all

known as the Supreme Self in the Vedantas (Upanishads). / The Highest Spirit is further specified thus He is the Eternal Omniscient Lord, Narayana, who penetrates by His Vital Energy
Consciousness of
beings.
is

He
:

therefore

(Bala-Sakti)

''

the three worlds

— the
(

Earth
)

(

Bhu/i

),

the

Mid-region (BhuvaA) and Heaven

Suva/;

— and

supports

them by His mere existence

in

them.
is

'Purushottama,' the Highest Spirit,
of the

a well-known

name

Lord described above. Now the Lord, while showing, by a declaration of the etymology of the word, that the name is significant, shows what He really is, " I am the
unsurpassed Lord."
18.

Because
in the

I

transcend the perishable and
in the

even higher than the imperishable, therefore

am am I

known
Because

world and

Veda

as 'Purushot-

tama,' the Highest Spirit.
I

transcend the perishable, the Tree of illusory
I

sawsara called Asvattha, because
sawsara, because

am

higher than even

the imperishable which constitutes the seed of that Tree of

the illusory
perishable

and

in the

am thus superior to the and the imperishable, I am known in the world Veda as the Highest Spirit devotees know Me
I
:

as such, and

the poets, too, incorporate this

name

in

their

poems and other works.

'

Bala' me.-ins enersy. the energy of

and

'

sakti

'

means

Miya which

lies

Consciousness or seutiency (chaitanya),

therein.— A.

47

worships Me * with whole being. himself. but the whole teaching of the is it here embodied (the Asvattha) and it has been said that Veda he who knows ' who am to but not k now ing this science as taught above wise a man becomes wise. : O Me He. as himself or as belonging to . Though alone is the whole of the Gita is called Science (5astra). [DlS. — •k Never looking upon the physical etc. He has accomplished all knows the Veda (xii. A knowledge in of the true nature of the imparted this discourse. knowing Bharata. a man ) becomes wise. — A. The Glory of Self-knowledge. O Bharata and his duties are accomplished. 15)..' the Lord as above his whole being : specified. has been summed up . He who. body. all. the Highest his Spirit. ( O sinless one . for the purpose of it.* thus knows Me. Not the teaching ' of the Gita-Sastra only.: 370 THE BMAGAVAD-GITA. Now the Lord speaks of the fruit accruing to him who realises the Self as described above : ig. yet from the context it appears that the fifteenth discourse here spoken of as the Science. extolling In fact the whole teaching of the Gita-Sastra in this discourse. On — otherduties. on knowing all this. i). he. — Lord having been a knowledge which leads to moksha. undeluded. Knows : that I am With with his whole thought devoted exclusively to the Self of all. — it is now extolled as follows Thus. 20. this most Secret Science has been taught by Me. XV. and that It is I be known by all the Vedas' ( xv.

of all duties. O Bharata. . son are comprehended saying of wisdom" ( iv./a by attaming to this does the twice-born become the accomplisher -wise" (xii. " This the fulfilment of the birth. and not other- 93). especially for a for. that is say. And it has been said of P/'itha without exception. you are a happy man.: I g-20.] THE SUPREME SPIRIT 371 Whatever duty a brahmawa that duty has been done of superior birth has to do. Since you have heard from Me this truth about the Supreme Being. in O ). 33 And here is the Manu is . all when to the real truth about the Lord " All is known . brihina. by no other means can a man's duty have been accomplished. actions.

The sixteenth discourse proceeds to them at length. in actions and spoken of in XV. the nature of the Gods. namely. Spiritual disposition. and that of the describe Rakshasas. said : Fearlessnesst. abandonment the like.. and the other two with a view to their rejection. Of these the nature of the Gods (Daivi Accordingly Praknti) leads to liberation from samskra.isara.* The Blessed Lord I. 2 as and Tamasic natures. . uprightness Purity of heart : (scriptures). self-restraint and worship. men according to the karma of their previous births. (vasanas) Lsbowing themselves out —A. and those of the Asuras and the Rakshasas lead to bondage.SIXTEENTH DISCOURSE. SPIRITUALITY AND MATERIALISM. the nature of the Gods will be described with a view] to its acceptance. cies They are the tenden- t Devout observance of scriptural pre- cepts without doubting. such as the Self. manifested the secondary roots of sa>. that of the Asuras. as taught * These Rajasic. purity oi the antaA-kara7/a (sattva).e. i. study of one's own austerity. in are respectively the Sattvic. falsehood and transacting in all transactions that is to say. In the ninth discourse were indicated three kinds of nature (prakriti) belongin*:^ to sentient beings. steadfastness .— A. Knowledge consists under- standing the nature of things. . in knowledge and Yoga alms-giving. dissimulation. . in of deception. business in perfect honesty. purity of heart.

and steadfastness knowledge and Yoga forms the Daivi or Sattvic nature by pre-eminence. and other penances. 373 (Acharya). by concentrat^ion (onein pointedness) through the subjugation of the senses.. * nature of the disciples in that particular path. etc to study of the i?ig-Veda and the like with a view results (adrishfa).a (internal sense. are here can be found in Jnnna-Yogins only.ittvic men. Worship : including the fire-worship (agni- hotra) and the like enjoined in the sruti. the rest being nevertheless classed among S.. and Karma-Yogins. or Jnana-Yoga. 2. manas) being mentioned in the next verse. truth. absence of fickleness. in the Scripture (sastra) and by the Teacher Yoga consists of one's making what has been thus learnt an object own direct perception. renunciation. absence of calumny. Truth : speaking of things as they are. as also the worship of the Gods (Deva-yajna) and : the like enjoined in the smriti. gentleness. Harmlessness : abstaining from injury to sentient beings. This in fearlessness. absence of anger. some unseen Austerity will be : bodily mortifiin cation sequel. .— 1-2. wanting in the first The though three of the attributes mentioned three attributes. Whatever attributes among those (mentioned in xvi. without giving utteris ance to what * Karma. Absence of latter. Alms-giving \ distributing food Self-control : and the like as far as lies in one's power. I — — 3) can possibly pertain to the disciples they constitute the Sattvic treading a particular path. purity of heart. common to Jxtina-Yogins . Study. Moreover. which Uprightness : mentioned the this should be a constant attitude. uncovetousness. Harmlessness. modesty. com- passion to creatures.Yoga first unpleasant or what The is false. serenity.] SPIRITUALITY AND MATERIALISM. viz. the subjugation of external senses that of the antaA-kara.

[DiS. when beaten is or reviled. — are found in one born for a divine who is worthy of the powers happiness in store. for whom there is Materialistic disposition. These ' — from who is 'fearlessness' to ' absence of pride lot. in freedom from impurities such as deception and passion. XVI. of the two sorts.374 anger : THE BHAGAVAD-GtTA suppression of anger arising (lit. i. not brightness of the skin. the other consisting in the taintlessness of mind and heart. : . O Bharata. We have explaixTcd absence of anger to mean suppression of anger when it arises. absence of hatred. Thus forgiveness and 'absence of anger' Tejas ' : ' ' ' ' should be distinguished from each other. Uncovetousness unaflfectedness of the fickle- when contact with their objects. Moreover. state of Fortitude : that mind (anta/j-kara»a) which removes the exhaustion of the body and senses when they droop down. means energy. and upheld by which the body and senses no longer get dejected. : Absence of hatred absence of a desire to injure others. Energy. since Serenity : 'alms-giving' has already been mentioned.. Here nature : follows a description of the demoniac (asuric) . the external and the internal Purity the one being accomplished by means of earths and water.. absence of pride. i. Absence of not to speak or move hands and legs in vain. forgiveness. fortitude. Renunciation: 'tyaga' giving up) thus explained. Compassion : to creatures to those in senses ness : suffering. quillity of tran: mind in (anta/!-kara?m).e. Forgiveness unaflfectedness when beaten or reviled.. Pride : consists in supposing oneself worthy of a high honor.e. of the Devas. purity. these belong to one born for a divine * lot. 3.

wealth.] SPIRITUALITY AND MATERIALISM. O are means what is created with the two kinds Creation: created. O Partha. e. or of in the divine nature occur mind of Arjuna : what has been art said. 4. grieve not thou in born for a divine thou hast happiness prospect. for a demoniac to lot. high connection. effects of the two natures are spoken is of as follows : The divine nature deemed for liberation. and ignorance. i. the divine and the demoniac. seeing question as " ? Am " I possessed of demoniac nature. thou art born Liberation : for a divine lot. (asuric) nature leads to an unfailing bondage.2-6. The demoniac some such on hearing . the divine and the . belong to one who is born. . arrogance and anger as also insolence. The 5. in speech . materialists. The men who of nature.e. from the bondage of sawsara. — Now. the Lord again says lot. There are two creations of beings in this world. Grieve not. The 6. of the ugly as handsome.. 375 self-conceit. and so does the fiendish (Rakshasic) nature. g. The divine has been described at length Partha. Ostentation. hear from Me. Ignorance misconception of duties and the like. Results of the two dispositions. Arrogance: Insolence : pride of learning. the demoniac for bondage. O Paw^ava. of a birth. of the demoniac. man : of low birth as one of high and so on. Ostentation: pretending be righteous. to speak of the blind as having eyes. etc.

do the thou hear and understand described at length by demoniac nature to be Me in the sequel here in order that you may avoid it. 8. said The purpose is of repeating again what has been already stated thus: — The i. ' [DiS. avoidance is possible. acts they They do know what evil. without a Lord. XVI. nor from what acts they should Not only do they not know action and inaction. Devas and Asuras. without a basis. "the universe lust is unreal. should perform to achieve the end of man. for. what else . brought about by . — to the its very end — as is an attribute of some living men ." 376 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. They say. are here spoken of as the said in the sruti. wanting in purity and good conduct. men know truth is neither purity nor in good conduct nor found not them.' Every being in other of the two this (Bn. it recognised in the visible. The demoniac of the discourse nature will be described. therefore. divine has been declared at length. the divine and the demoniac. materialist's view of the world. It is demoniac. x-3-i)- world is included in the one or the creations.' there is neither purity nor good conduct nor Indeed. born of mutual ? union. only when 7. who are hypocrites abstain to avert ' and liars The Moreover. but not the demoniac. ' two creations. the demons are persons who are truth in them. Neither action nor inaction do the demoniac .' Verily there are two classes of Prajapati's creatures. beginning with xvi. Up.

of the universe. they work with unholy crisy. so this unreal. sensual enjoyment assured that that * t is t . The whole universe is. life as guided by materialism. What ? can be the cause of the universe There is no other cause whatever. Filled with insatiable desires. It is caused by the mutual union of impulse of else man and woman under the brought about only by lust. no invisible cause. lost all Ruined souls : having Their chances of goinj to the is higher worlds. moreover. they without a Lord. holding unwholesome views through eielusion.A 6-1 1. Universe is. itself intellect small. " As \vc are unreal. Holding '^ this these ruined souls of small intellect. her world. therefore. the is thins is th^ happiness of ano. ficfcc as deeds it : concerns intent on only with sense-objects. 10. dharma and a-dharma. of 377 These demons whole universe its basis. of fierce deeds. Sensual enjoyment : supreme no such — 48 source of happiness there . lust. rise as th^ enomies of the world for its destruction. is men say. pride resolve 11. that sexual passion living creatures. the sole cause of all Men's g. no such thing as karma. World : Sentient beings is — A." This is the view of the materialists is (Lokayatikas). view. Neither are dharinaand a-dharma There exists no Isvara ruling the universe accord- ing to say. Of injuring others. . with death. Beset with immense cares tlieir all ending only highest aim. full of hypo- and arrogance.] SPIRITUALITY AND MATERIALISM.

'' [DiS. I am a lord. say Devadatta by name. false bound by wealth of) a for hundred sensual unjust bands of means hopes.37^ THE BHAGAVAD-GiTA. expressed as follows : This I to-da}' has . I am successful. they unjust to secure b}^ means hoards of wealth sensual enjoy- ment. 12. strong and healthy. is Their aspiration 13. By by robbing other men's wealth. Sensual enjoyment Enjoyment of sense-objects such as sound. and I others also shall slay. * as to iho iho innuiiKTable objects of desire. this desire shall attain this mine. for They secure enjoyment. shall bs known be a man of " That enemy has been I slain by me. given strive for over to lust and wrath. this in coming year I wealth to also shall be mine. They are attracted here and there. That unconquerable enemy. XVI. means and preserviii»^ . enjoy. not : (performing acts dharma. They are convinced of tliat this sensual enjoyment is the highest end man. been gained by is me . The immeasurable care of accjuirins. Round by hundreds of bands of hope. and thereby wealth. : They give themselves up to care. 14. The materialist's aspirations. A. and this wealth also shall be In future : mine the in future.

I is none equal I to me any — How — ? I am am enjoy. a snare. into a foul hell. stubborn. Many is a fancy it such as those described above. will will Thus deluded by unwisdom. is Delusion envelope. without regard to ordinance. Even in this respect none equal to sacrificial me. else I is will sacrifice. as of the nature of an enclosure or gratification . " equal to rejoice. They are addicted to sensual fall and with sins thus accumulated they as Vaitara/a. they perform sacrifices in name with hypocrisy. entangled in the snare of delusion. blessed with children and grandchildren I I am no ordinary man. 15. am successful in . 5 sacrificial rites. addicted to the gratification of lust. such The materialist 17. they Well-born : fall into a foul hell. born in a family learned in the scriptures for is seven generations. alone strong and healthy." 16. am me ? I rich I and well-born. Self-honored : good qualities . I will surpass I others even in respect of will give (money) to actors and obtain a high : delight. Self-honored. I Who give. every way. Bewildered by many a fancy.11-17] SPIRITCaLITY AND MATERIALISM. rites. ? There a lord. I 379 slay. has been slain by me. filled with the pride and intoxication of wealth. Esteeming themselves as possessed of all they are not esteemed as such by the . and others also shall What in can these poor men do respect.

XVI. These cruel evil-doers of men. something unpleasant. other great vices. lust. worst fall. The materialist's neglect of Divine 18. abiding in They are given over to and Moreover. the Isvara. and passion. Me is to transgress My commands. power. they hate Me.iti. and seeking : Haughtiness . when this arises one transgresses the Anger: at these path of virtue kara//a. [DiS. This egotism what is called and with it is the hardest thing (to overcome). the source of all perversities (doshas). They perform sacrifices without regard to the in parts and obhgations enjoined the scriptural ordinances. several THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. these malicious people hate their own and other's bodies. haughtiness. I hurl these for ever in the worlds into the wombs These : of the demons only. : Me in /Egotism they esteem themselves very high really possess for qualities falsely which they avidyii and for those which they is attribute to themselves. their own and other bodies as the Witness of their thoughts and actions. The ig. it is a peculiar vice seated in the anta/tpassion. — (A) w . materialist's haters. of all evil lust actsV Power: accomto humiliate panied others. To hate are malicious. * Worst : because they are guilty of unrighteous tha tlje Not caring /svara's to know and follow commands as embodied in Sruti and the Sm. Given over to egotism. Commandments.380 righteous. and anger. Lust: sexual and the like. .''' They jealous of the virtue of those who tread the right path. the enemies of the right path and haters of the righteous.

By * The meaning on nature. Me. Worlds : paths of sa/wsara passing through demons: many a hell. birth after birth. lions 20. ae the whole is this. Therefore. of the whole demoniac (asuric) in its three forms. of Hell to be avoided. the whole asuric nature becomes avoided. in only Tcimasic wombs and pass into lower and lower states. destructive of the self LUST. 21. try and shake oil make him —A. pass into a condi- lower than that. and the Entering into demoniac wombs. Me. The meaning. Triple : is this. The gate to Ml : the gate leading to hell (naraka). entirely dependant on others. is inimical to all human progress.1 SPIRITUALITY AND MATERIALISM. one should abandon. the is whole variety of . Wombs of the wombs like. The while he is yet a free agent. WRATH. tion still O son of Kunti. and which is the source of all evil. These deluded creatures are born.17-21. the tion into a condi- which is still : lower (than they are in at present). 'without ever attaining to the right path taught by The three Gates Here follows a summary nature in which. they fall Without ever reaching Me. livara.' * is. therefore. while he has tsuric leading to a series of not yet passed into a birth which would evils. Without is reaching Mc Certainly there no room whatever even for the supposition that they will ever reach therefore. of the most cruel beings such as tigers. these three. the gate to hell. in birth after birth. without ever reaching Me. comprehended which be- ing avoided. though endless. asuric nature. the deluded ones. . and greed. it A nian should. 381 deeds (a-dharma).

perfection.. ruinous to the lust.: 382 THE BHaCAVAD-gItA. nor the Scriptural ordinance : not Supreme Goal. will act for the good of the self. giving us know : what ought Perfection : to be done and what ought not to be done. to the Gates O son of Kunti. and the observance of what good. in these only otherwise. nor happiness. let every one abandon these three wrath and gyeed. (as the case may be). neglecting the scriptural ordinattains ance. Here follows the 22. does good and thereby reaches the Supreme Goal. He who is released from lust. fitness for attaining the end of man. not 23. self. Let the Law guide thy life. [DiS. Happiness in this world. on the There- authority of the scriptures fore. praise of this is abandonment A man who self. released from these. the three gates to darkness. because of the absence of that by which obstructed he has not heitherto so By so doing he even attains moksha. the self is ruined. for merely entering i. e. He who. . at the gate. wrath and greed acted. acts under the impulse of desire. Supreme Goal : Svarga or Moksha. The scripture (sflstra) is the authority on which all this is renunciation of asuric nature. One would engage (silstra). is fit no human end whatever. XVI. of the the command Veda to in the form of injunctions and prohibitions. are based. Since this gate is . : to darkness leading to hell (naraka) which is full of pain and delusion.

" is fit referring to the stage where the disciple for Karma.] SPIRITUAITY AND MATERIALISM. Therefore. ture-hiw. the Scripture. thou oughtest to know and perform thy duty laid down in the scrip1)^ done. 383 24. the scripture is thy authority in deciding as to what ought to be done and what ought not to Now. r*^ ^ ^^ .Yoga. Authority: scripture source of knowledge.21-24. thou shalt not act so and so.Laiv : The itself is Law. which says " thou shalt act so Noiv : and so.

set them aside and worship the Gods. seeing who do know the scriptures. because of the — they cannot indeed be meant that qualification they are ' endued with faith '. &c. THE THREEFOLD FAITH. etc. do or do not — A. unaware of the procedure down in the scriptures. the sruti and the smriti. 24) : having given Arjuna an occasion for a question. faith. i. but " faithful. faith ir The Lord has described and the future believe in their teachings. thinking that there some- — on observing the conduct of the learned. Xow Arjuna lots of astikas nastikas. endued with faith. of persons who. setting aside the ordinance of the scripture. contrary to those injunctions. Those. or specified. theirs IVJioso : — what faith ? is Is it Sattva.. of believers proceeds believers to ask as to the fate of the not and unbelievers. he said Arjuna said I. The Lord's words (xvi. on the other hand. while knowing the scriptural injunctions about the worship of the Gods. The ignorant. endued with thing beyond. while knowing the injunctions of the scripture. or Rajas. here. set them aside. : Whoso ? worship. with the eye of the scriptures.. c.— SEVENTEENTH DISCOURSE. worship the Gods and the laid like. who. We cannot suppose that those men are endued with who. . Tamas not exactly It must refer to is those who.

worship of the Yakshas and : the Rakshasas. the sawskara latent tendency made up acts of the self. Therefore is only the persons of the other class described to. Tamasic faith is worship of the Pretas and the Pisachas. or Rajas.reproductive impressions of the Adharma in — which were Kdjasic : —good in and bad. which an effect of Tamas. Rajasic. Dharma and Sattvic is : done the past births and which faith manifested themselves at the time of death. in 385 the worship of without caring for them^^ and engage the Gods which it is not in accordance with the injunctions.— 49 . Do thou hear of Faith. : It is born of the individual nature (svabhava) or i. Seeing that such a general question cannot be answered without reference to the several particular aspects of Blessed Lord said it. : Arjuna's question to may be Gods.. it. * Ami who nre therefore to be classed among demons (asuras). the worship of the Gods (Davas) which faith in the is an effect of Sattva. said : Threefold is that faith born of the individual nature of the embodied. the The Blessed Lord 2. which in the an effect of Rajas. or Tainas The three kinds of Faith. Do thou understand the threefold faith which is going to be described..: A 1-2. of which thou hast asked. e. above that are here referred thus stated etc. Is the worship offered by them ? the based in Sattva. as shewn in the preceding discourse. is of three sorts. — Sattvic.] THE THREEFOLD TAITH. and Tamasic.

etc. to this threefold Faith. How Those men who practise terrific austerities not enjoined by the scripture. peglqcted their proper duties. The man is. : Hosts of Bhutas as also the seven iNIatnkas. endued with the strength of lust and 5. answer granting had been on earth as brahniaiias. while they thjse beings. So : in accordance with that So the Sattvic its faitli or the hke has to be inferred from characteristic effects. the worship of the Gods or the like. determined through in Now only a thousand is Sattvic and devoted to the worship of the Gods. . — the Pretas and the hosts of Bhutas. XVIl As 3.'iyii-dehas (rcrial all such as Nairrita. (Sattva) : I the antaA- Each kara/ia : every being. Man : Jiva. when worshippsd. namely. given to hypocrisy and egotism. passion if . The Lord says : 4 Sattvic men worship the . O Bharata. Gods . Pretas : Rakshasas such as bodies). Yakshas : : after death. the Yakshas'^ and the Rakshasas sic '' the others.. Nature with specific tendencies or sawskara. Kubora. faith. Sattvic and other devotions have been their respective effects. We may understand that thoss who. laid Thus. made up of his | as a man's livinpf its faith so is he. Men of Rajasic and Tamasic Faiths. and who. sawsiirin. while the Rajasic and ? Tamasic creatures form the majority. — Tama- men.386 THE bhagaVad-gita. The faith of each is in accordance with his is nature. [Dis. faith . Rajasic. the prayers of the devotees by their respective desires— A. Gods : such as the Vasus. by a general principle down one in the scripture. attainpri V.

passion and strength. is : 7. . Tamasic men respectively. This : that which is going to be described Their : of food (ahara). austerity and Do thou hear of this. This is a word of advice to Arjuna.' THREIil'OI. so that you may avoid them. Now will be shown what sort of food viz. their distinction. is three- fold. Me : Naraya. Worship. . — which is divided into three classes.are in .D FAITH 387 in 0. — and Mc who dwell in the body may also with- know thou : these to be of demoniac resolves. all the elements the body fools they . as also worship.— 3-7'] THE Weakening. etc..' Elements organs. To v/eaken Mc to neglect My in Know thou that they are demoniac (asuric) their resolves. that which is savoury and oleaginous. Rajasic and and so on — is dear to the Sattvic. teaching. larly. so that a Sattva or of Rajas or of tiality man may know that he is one of Tamas as indicated by his own par- for one or another particular class of food the oleaginous —^such as Simiof the savoury and — and then give up the Rajasic and Tamasic food and resort to Sattvic one. : Endued. The food also which is dear to each gift. the Witness is of their thoughts and deeds. etc preted to : This portion of the text ' be inter- mean possessed of lust./a. Each : Every living being that eats. Terrific causing pain to himself and toother living beings. Austerity and Gift. the object of the like threefold division here made sacrifice and the to according to the Sattva and other gu»as show how a man may find out and give up the Rajasic and Tamasic ones and resort exclusively to the The Lord says Sattvic ones. Threefold Food.

with a hxed resolve merely worship. dry and burning.. the same. joy are dear to the Sattvic. [DiS. fatty. which one night has passed. ^ubstmiiial : which can last long body. Impure : left after a unfit for offering. ' Yatayama ' ' (///. in the mind they should . g. hfe. bitter. substantial and agreeable. causing pain. Tamasic. is 10. The three kinds of Worship : Now 11. excessively &c. the next word tautology ago) ' . tasteless. The food which refuse stale. of Food. enjoined in that by the Law. with all. XVII The three kinds 8. and cheerfulness. to avoid gatarasa (tasteless) means for. The foods that are bitter. saline. Stale : and impure. Oleaginous in the : oily.. thus.388 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. is putrid and rotten. f. strength. grief and disease.' Rotten: the cooked food Refuse : over meal. ' powerless. pungent. the three sorts of worship will be described That worship desiring is Sattvic which as is offered men no fruit. which are savoury and oleaginous. The foods which increase energy. ?. excessively hot. cooked three hours meaning 'powerless' is thus explained. sour. health. dear to the Half-cooked. are liked by the Rajasic. exces- sively hot. Excessively: should be construed.

in which the body etc. That whicli is offered. Thc}' declare that worship to be Tamasic is which food gifts. — purity. — the doer. Austerity in Speech.. Gifts prescribed fees (to priests). : that which is accomplished by the chief of all e. Physical Austerity. as also causes no excitement and is pleasant and beneficial. 12. The body. ness. continence. the factors of action. in which no distributed. mci'cly 389 duty !i(. 15.s That they should worship : t'. and also the practice of sacred recitation. 15. are said to form the austerity of speech. O best of the Bha- ratas. is straightforward- Jibstinence from injur}- are termed the bodily austerity. is contrary to the ordinances. Devoid of inantras : : with hymns defective in utterance and accent..iat their in the mere performance of the worship itself. bodily austerity i. The speech which true. .8-15-] THK THREEFOLD FAITH. the twice-born. knovv13. and which : devoid of Distributed to brahma>vas. with a view to reward and for ostentation. Now 14. is which is devoid of mantras and faith. — of which the Lord will speak in xviii. it to be a Rajasic worship. teachers and wise men. the three kinds of austerity will be described : Worshipping the and Gods. that no personal end has to be achieved by that means.

&c. that causes no excitement.. though causing no pain. such as in the. the speech which. e. self-control. is agreeable and good. study (the Vedas) and practise yoga. in which speech . and thus the here put for the the austerity practised specially i. nature. or three of the other attributes cannot form the austerity of speech.e. or three of the other attributes cannot form the austerity of is speech . silence. Serenity of mind. XVII. So. is two or not true.— A. good-heartedness. That speech addressed is i.iin to living [DiS. Pleasant auJ beneficial having respectively to do with 'Speech' is the seen * and the unseen. p. excite- specified by the attributes of causing no ment ' and so on. not pleasant . two or three of the other rity of attributes cannot form the austeis speech. though true. Good-heartedness : the state of mind which may be is inferred from Silence its : effects. though beneficial. forms the austerity of speech tranquil. i6. an agreeable speech which wanting in one. in regard to speech. and not beneficial — cannot form the austerity of speech is so. even silence speech necessarily effect is preceded by a control of thought. purity of — this is called the mental austerity. in one. which. Mental Austerity. and sacred recitation : will do thee good. wanting in one. two. this as for example. is An invariable combination of all these to others attributes here meant. plays the leading part. Hi. then that ? — What my forms the austerity — The speech that Be is true. brightness of the face. that speech which. " son. c. : beings." Practice of according to ordinances.— 390 Excitcmcni : THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. ' . three of the other atttributes devoid of one. wanting two. so.

Thi'Ci'fold : having respectively to do with the three seats : — body. and other gu//as.] THE THREEFOLD FAITH. This threefold austerity. — A. Unstable as productive * Balanced t in minrl : unaffected in .— I5-18. desiring no fruit. 39I cause. to be Rajasic. — as practised by men.. unstable and uncertain. With faith believing in the existence of things (taught in the scriptures. honour ship. and mind. viz.na. vocal show that the foregoing austerity. 18. The three kinds of Austerity according: to to Qunas. adoring and feeding. of a transient effect. practised by de- vout * men with utmost faith. for mere . The Lord proceeds bodily. Sclf-conivol : a general silence it (control of the mind. show. speech. &c. is divided into classes according to Sattva 17. Wovship : : the wash- ing of feet. of making a reverential salutation.' the act of rising to greet. With no shicere belief. . Good reception : in such words as Honouy : ' Here is a good brah- ma.) That austerity which and with hypocrisyt. and mental. they call Sattvic. the control of thought. I control of thought mitiiyc : so far as of Piwity of Honesty purpose in dealings with other people. is and wor- said to be of this t world. of great austerities. is practised with the object of gaining good reception. fruit success and failure— A. This tlie is to be distinguished from (mauna) which means [concerns speech. Yielding only hi this World— A.

etc to Given to one.e. in that place and in time. that is declared to : At a wrong place and time at a placa which is not sacred and which is associated with mlechchhas (Non-aryans). no : such Sa/«- Place Kurukshetra &c. That austerity which is is practised out of a foolish notion. gift 22. : to one from return is whom. &=€ : hoping that he (the donee) or time the service.. that the gift will secure for himself some (novv^) unseen reward. The to that is given at a wrong place or time. THE bhagavad-gIta. unworthy persons. XVII. or looking for the fruit. or for the purpose of ruining another. [Dis. with self-torture. etc.— 392 19. it That gift which one is given — knowing to be a duty to give — to : who does no service. Time kranti (passage of the sun from one Zodiacal sign to another). : as learned in the six sciences (angas) &c. of Gift. and to a worthy person. declared to be Tamasic. without respect or be Tamasic. though expected. with insult. with unholy things and the like. or able to return the good. gift is held Sattvic. The three kinds Now 20. which is not marked with any such speciality as the sun's passage from one zodiacal sign to another. And that gift which is given with a view to a return of the good. and at a time which is not auspicious i. will in With a return view. . the threefold nature of gift will be described. Worthy 21. or reluctantly. that gift is held to be Rajasic. one who cannot return the good.

brahmanas and the Vedas Brahman. are the acts of sacrifice various acts of gift and austerity and the performed by the seekers of moksha. &c. 'Veda. 24. &c.: by the This said in praise of (the triple) designation. be made agreeable speech..] THE THREEFOLD FAITH.. " Om. Tat.' are the acts of sacrifice. Acts of 25. gold. + + . is and the Taught : sacrifices. By that were created of oldt the. without the washing of gift or without worship. Acts gUts oi laud. &c. sacrifice : acts in the form of sacrifice. 23. &c.. a sacrificial rite or the like it When is + At the bcf. following instructions are given with a view to per- fecting sacrifices. — A. though the [und place. austerities. as enjoined always begun by the students of Brahman]:. ' without aiming at the fruits. r. : 393 Without respect feet. etc. the utterance of one of the three desig- — A. in the scriptures. With of gift ir ' Tat ' : with the utterance of ' Tat '..I19-24. Brahman . in the Vedanta by the knowers triple designation. gifts. With ' Tat.. and austerity. Therefore.1here means . of By that etc. which is a designation of \ Brahman. with the utterance of gift '0. nations.. The fruits : oi sacnhce. in proper time How The to perfect the defective acts. 1 50 .'— A.'inning of creation by the found defective. : iJnwoythy pcisons [without such as fools or rogues. Sat ": this has been taught to be the triple designation of Brahman*.f. will be perfected on Prajapati.

tadarthiyam karma may be interpreted to mean action for the sake of the Lord whose triple designation is the subject of treatment here. The use the use of 26. gift to make them perfect. and even action ' in connection with these Sdcrijicc : called Sat. gift Spoken of by the learned. . Or. gift and austerity. austerity ' and gift is also Sat is ' . XVII. Devotion to spoken of as sacrifice. lipplied to a man whose conduct is not only relatively good. to illustrate This is only per- properly is applicable real. he never ' exists. even such of them as are not of the Sattvic class and are imperfect. £7. or to an is ever. how: absolutely Auspicious. ' and austerity. of ' ' [DiS. reality Om ' ' and of ' Tat ' has been explained. ' Similarly. and so O Partha. and of goodness Sat ' .' designation of the It is Brahman. to Brahman who how to imperfectly applied also to a son is formed acts of who is unreal or the only relatively real. 'real' which not auspicious or which is Thus alone the word is ' Sat meaning only relatively auspicious. this is man is one of good conduct who word not Sat.. the word act. viz. sf the Absolute. is used in the sense of an auspicious In expressing the reality of an object which for is unreal — as in example. These acts of sacrifice.— / 394 THE BHAGAVAD-GiTA. and is on is may be further explained thus A when born is said to come into son existence. word Sat.' app:icableto Brahman who is properly absolutely and austerity the designation of Brahman may be applied— as enjoined here— with a view sacrifice. From the stand-point. * It — turn out to be Sattvic Good good or act and perfect ones. the employed. : Now Sat is given as follows ' The word ' Sat ' is used in the sense of also. ' These : sacrifice. also used with reference to the act of marriage and the like*.' : the act of sacrifice. the birth of a son who is unreal — and is ' expressing that a so.

perfect these acts become when done in full therefore. gift and austerity. Given : to the brahma«as. or Tamasic. — There are who. be classed as Sattvic. without . and austerity are found Tat.25-28. they may be perfected by uttering the three ' designations of Brahman. ' ' and ' Sat. The teaching [ of the discourse summed thus up. faith. The teaching of this discourse devotees. nauf^ht it is though costing much . : Deed : such as adoration and outside It is obeisance. they should engage the study of scriptures and in the subsequent stages of investigation into the nature attain a direct perception of Brahman. trouble. may be summed according up . 28. Om. and it whatever austerity is is practised. 395 designation of applying to them with the triple Brahman. ' With in their reason (buddhi) thus purified. and resorting exclusively to Sattvic ones. faith. gift. Rajasic. to the nature of their may These should cultivate pure Sattva by avoiding Rajasic and Tamasic kinds of food. though ignorant of the and who. or done. Works without Because faith. ] . When their acts of worship. it is of no use here as despised by the wise nor can produce any effect hereafter. all faith are fruitless. Whatever ' is sacrificed. ' defective. Thereby they Truth and are finally liberated. scriptures. are yet endued with faith.' O Partha it is naught here or hereafter. of ^A. ^sat as they are quite the path : by which I (the Isvara) may it be reached. called asat. given.] THE THREEFOLD faith FAITH. worship.

Verily. however. Wherefore.inyasa ' O Mighty-armed. severally. Samnyasa * ' and ' Tyaga distinguished. with a view to determining them. Kesin was an Asura whom is the Lord. as also the whole of the Vedic Doctrine. who desired to know of them.' : Tydga : term Hydga"./myasa ' and ' tyaga ' have been used here their in the preceding discourses. CONCLUSION. slew.EIGHTEENTH DISCOURSE. ' Samnydsa: the connotation of the term the connotation of the saiiiiiydsa. I desire to ' know the truth. the son of Vasudeva. as also of tyaga'. asks to ' know and ' only the distinction in iydga\ meaning between samnyasa' Arjuna said I. O Slayer of Kesin. however. and the Lord therefore addressed as 'Kesi-nishudana. connotations. the Lord addresses Arjuna.' the Slayer of Kesin. Severally as distin- guished from each other. by way summing up. the whole of the doctrine taught to be found in in the preceding discourses is this discourse. O Hrishikesa. the doctrine of the whole of the Gita- Sastra. ' In the of present discourse the Lord proceeds to teach. Arjuna. not being clearly distinguished. The words and there ' sa. as follows : . : Of ' sa/.

the meaning of the words ' sawnyasa far ' tyaga ' is in is any way one and the same so . in the opinion of the Lord.] CONCLUSION.»nyasa . . since. the uitya /.^A. : [Amii'er) — No such objection may be raised here. of sacrifice ) abandonment works (such as the Asvamedha. as the are general idea concerned. A few sages understand by of kdmya-karmani. ordinary and extra-ordinary duties. in contravention to the accepted usage. are said to produce no How of ? is it is that the like abandoning of their fruits is here spoken It speaking of the abandoning of a barren woman's son.— 1-2. to be the re- nouncement of interested works the abandonment of the fruits of all works. the learned declare. ordinary fruits. (Objection) : — The nitya and naimittiha works. fruits that works that are performed. the two words convey the same general idea with some distinction. of interested The abandonment ment and works and the abandonto of fruits (of works) being intended be ovpressed ' (by the two words). Horse' saw/nyasa ' the acccompanied ' with a desire for ' fruits. and — e. is ' tyaga '. 397 said ' : The Blessed Lord J. The of learned declare that fruits of all tyaga means abandonment the naimittiha. ahmidonment They ' not quite so distinct in ' meaning as the words jar ' and cloth '*.. of the may accrue to the performer. and extra-ordinary duties. oidinary and occasional duties To explain the two words as meaning distinct things two altogether would be As explained here. namely. Sages understand ' sa.

myasins who have risen (above all worldly concerns). and with reference to them that these divergent views are held. indeed..Yoga). but not with reference to the jfiana-nish^has (wisdom-devotees).. all it is up as As an this may .3g8 THE BHAGAVAD-GiTA. of persons {viz. action should be are fit given an evil evil. Those persons who have been in iii.Yogins it is that form the subject of discussion here . philosophers. following the declare that all doctrine of the San- etc. It is and austerity ought not the Karma. Karma 3 are not spoken of in . : even by those who for Karma. That action should be abandoned .. fruits. [DiS. With regard to the same class those who are fit for Karma.Yoga. while others that acts of sacrifice. (declare) some philosophers declare be given up. raised this above the path of connection. works) have no connection whatever with those the will Lord teaches are who are not sa. produce their own where. gift and austerity should not Some khyas. gift say that the acts of to be abandoned. XVIII. while teaching that all sawmyasins alone (those alone who have renounced also that those fruits of the desire for the fruits of fruits.«nytisins have to reap the ordinary works which they bound to perform. be interpreted to mean either that Karma of should be given up as involving evil since the cause bondage or that it should be given up like passion and other such evil tendencies. others sacrifice. ^ Should the ignorant perform works or not? 3. 12. as an evil. as He will show in xviii. the sa.

And the the sawnyasin proper has been distinguished — by " Lord.. when man who has transcended gu«as is silent. the devotees of in iii. Therefore only the other class of persons v/ho are qualified for ignorant of the true nature of the Self and are works.— 2-3] CONCLUSION. 8). steady-minded.. they abandon to works because they see that action pertains think ' gu^^as and I do nothing at all ' (v. since desire. anything. &c. Wherefore they do not abandon action of bodily trouble in the Self. they could ever perceive action in the then it would be possible imagine their abandoning of In fact. homeless. 399 are qualified for (Objection) : — Just as the persons who works form the subject of discussion here in the section where the whole doctrine of the sastra is summed up. — 18). know the truth renounce it is works has been described &c. How those men who in v. may also form the subject of discussion here. — 3. because of the : inconceivability of their abandoning of duty from delusion or on account of pain. . If and pain. to Neither do they perceive action Self. though their path has already been specified also the Sankhyas. obligatory works from delusion. — as i6 one " renouncing undertakings. who content with (xii. pain. so wisdom.. 13. (To explain) The Sankhyas (men of knowledge) perceive in the Self no pain whatever arising from bodily trouble. of bodily trouble is — it is only these that are censured as Tamasic and (tyagins) in Rajasic relinquishers order to praise the abandoning of the ers of fruits of action resorted to by the follow- works who do defining the all not know the Self. and in whose case the supposition fear of the abandon- ing of duty from delusion or for possible. (Ausicey) : — No. are said to be the attributes of Kshetra for fear or matter.

(Answey) : — No. that pre-eminent renunciation of [Objection): works. and do not therefore form the subject of the alternative views set forth here. Reality. . is the sawnyasa proper that spoken of in this connection. Thus. therefore follow the several paths previously so passage here referred to goes to praise the abanof the fruits of action. other hand. because the passage referred to as a is statement of the reason only intended to praise (some- thing else enjoined). those who see the Supreme have only to follow the path of knowledge. Tamasic and Rajasic (abandoning of works) but not the sawnyasa all proper. XVIII. the ignorant of the Self and who could not spoken of. the [Dis. at all acting nor causing to act. the embodied one rests happily in the nine-gated city. is spoken of as sawnyasa in contradistinction to the . is 11 states the why only renunciation of action is an impossibility. not the sa. fruits It is only the abandoning of the of its being of works that. " (v. by reason Sattvic. And so we . who are the devotees of wisdom. reason it — Since all xviii. 12) is only a praise of the abansince it donment of the fruits of works. and self- controlled. neither 13). Just as the passage " on abandonment peace closely follows " (xii. is is addressed to Arjuna who also./myasins. that are referred to here.400 THE bhagavad-gIta. It is donment nouncing not possible for any one to point out an exception to the proposition " Reall actions by thought. Wherefore these alternative views regarding sawnyasa and tyaga concern On the those persons only for whom works are intended. 50). And it is Lord will hereafter describe (his devotion) as " that supreme consummation of knowledge " (xviii. accompanied with the renunciation of all works and they have nothing else to do. the Sankhyas.

three kinds it is : Tamasic. and austerity are the purifiers of the The three sorts of action should be performed. what other than Myself.) words ' tyaga ' and ' abandonment denoted by the sawnyasa is possible in the case of ' him alone who does not know the Self and for whom works are intended. Learn from Me the truth about this aban. is able to learn teach the real truth about the subject. Of Because in the sastras. . alternatives of abandonment and renunciation : referred Abandommnt (tyaga) here. Do thou learn from My words the truth as to the to. of O best of men. that the ignorant should perform works. The Lord's decree Now. implying that is Lord has used this single word the meaning of tyaga and sawnyasa the ' ' ' one and the same.] CONCLUSIOK. 21 and at the commencement is of the third discourse. for. 4. gift quite necessary . What 5. it is : Practice of worship. Wherefore. wise. is the decree then ? — The Lord says gift. and austerity should not be given up worship.' y^. has been declared to be three kinds. they 51 . &c. — therefore no one. while commenting 401 established this proposition on ii. Declared : hard to know the fact that the threefold (Tamasic. is from Me My — the Lord's — decree as to the real teaching of the sastra. O best of the Bharatas abandonment. &c. not in the case of him who sees the Supreme — Reality. donment. as to these divergent views. verily.

' ' Learn from for . related to the immediate subject of liberation. (than the acts of worship. /. [DiS. it been stated that worship. 4. O setting aside attachment and the fruits 6. desire cause purity in the wise. it is better to construe the passage as of the present section. Therefore in the words " even those that the Lord teaches even those works . should be performed " cannot be a fresh proposition .." ment and the actions " etc. c\:c is My lirm and highest belief. : the acts of worship. performed. etc. for fruits. c. But others explain no fruits. Those actions. and as a reason it. son of Pritha. their setting aside attachment them and abandoning A proposition was started in the words. . it is : Since obligatory (nitya) actions bear aside attach- not right to speak of " setting fruits. XVIII. the case of one wl'o has an attachment for the and a desire for their The words even ' those' cannot certainly refer to actions other etc). this. in those who have no The obligatory works should be performed without attachment. "Even those actions for.. But even those actions should be performed. The word "even" by a seeker in implies that these actions should be performed though they form the cause of bondage actions fruits. 4) .|0:2 THE BHAGAVAD-GiTA. gift and austerity. to be purifiers. should be for which have been said fruits. are the purifiers so that the Words " even those actions should be performed this is My firm and highest belief" form a mere conclusion of the proposition started in xviii. Me has the truth about this (xviii.

ii. even h'lmya or interested works. wise " (xviii. is Whatever act one may abanion because it painful. it since is admitted to be a purifier in the case of an ignorant man.] CONCLUSION.5-8. inasmuch as these have been despised as constituting an inferior path to be the cause of (ii. he practises . where an occasion to engage actions " interested works ? " Even these cannot refer to interested (kamya) works. to secure objects 403 of desire which are intended — /. looking upon th. gift and austerity are the seeker of liberation purifiers of the To a is who would in give up even the obligatory works. Tamasic and Rajasic renunciations of works. Verily. bondage (iii. from fear of bodily trouble. Moreover. gift and austerity. 8. ix. 45. even obligatory actions are productive of in the words " worship. Therefore. To it hold that a duty a is is obligatory abandon to involves self-contradiction. ignorance Not proper and then and to : is declared to be Tamasic. bound to perform works. 20.em as the cause of bondage. c. It is to say so . as opposed to nitya or obligatory works — should be wrong performed . how much more then the obligatory acts of worship. for. inasmuch as ignorance Tamas. Therefore for a seeker of liberation who is ignorant and is (therefore) 7. 5). 49) and decisively declared 9. and are too far removed from the present section. 21). this sort of abandonment is due to ignorance is said be Tamasic. it has been declared here that fruits. the is duty abandonment of an obligatory not proper the abandonment thereof from .

[Dis. in Renunciation works is Sattvic. or fruits for the doer in the form of self-regeneraoff by way of warding pratyavaya or the is sin of non-performance. 4. though of obligatory fruits works are not declared works. ? What says 9. .). all attachment {Objection) and of the It is fruits of. : Abaiidoniiif^ etc. the fruits. " Hence appropriateness of the words " abandoning attachment and fruits. the obligatory when performed. obligatory — ' the ^threefold ' abandonment of works — referred to as sawnyasa (xviii. then is the StUtvic abandonment — The O Lord Whatever obligatory work it is done. which is He does not obtain all the fruit of the renunciation of actions accompanied with wisdom. moksha.: : 404 Rajasic fruit THE bhagavad-gIta. no and he shall obtain whatever of abandonment. abandonment. These words fruits. Arjuna. do produce their tion. the Rajasic and Tamasic (sorts of abandonment of works) have been treated of. 7) — that forms the subject Out of the three. XVIII. But even this supposition prevented the by the the words " abandoning " for. merely because ought to be done. as we deemed said. in the Scripture. That abandonment : the abandoning of works. fruit. abandoning attachment and also the is that abandonment Lord form. &c. How is it that the abandonment of attachof the present section (xviii. of the have the authority which declares that obligatory (nitya) works produce : Or thus the — An ignorant man may even suppose that. to be Sattvic.

Now..S-IO. with a view to teach how the man whose inner sense has been purified by the performance of obligatory works and who is prepared to acquire the Self-knowledge. the Lord proceeds as follows : . of worhs. unsoiled by desire of ) for results and regenerated by (the performance obligatory works. fit When pure and tranquil.] CONCLUSION. In fact the abandonment of as of desire for the fruits works and the abandonment in so far do agree as they alike imply abandonment. the object of this section fruits praise (the abandonment of the of works. the inner sense is for contemplation of the Self. and the third {Ans7iri') : or " the six — No such objection can be raised here is to . becomes pure. " Three brahma^as have come of .-kara«a).Yoga) per- forms obligatory works without attachment and without a longing for results. sorts of the Accordingly. his inner sense (anta/. being alike compared with the abandonment of by comparing the two abandonments). two of them are proficient in is sha^angas a Kshatriya auxiHary sciences. may gradually attain to jn4na-nish/ha or devotion in knowledge. i. by despising the two Riljasic desire abandonment as and Tamasic abandonments. //'/u7s 405 merit and of the It is works is spoken of as the third? something Hke saying. e. works. for. both abandonments. to renunciation of all When the man who is qualified for (Karma. the abandonment of for the fniits of the works is praised as being the Sattvic abandonment to be Sattvic' in the words ' that abandonment is deemed From renunciation in works works.

he remains within out acting or causing to act he attains devotion wisdom. — When does he hate no ? When not attached to a good one — When he permeated with Sattva. As he gifted with is permeated with Sattva. which causes a discriminative knowledge of the Self and the not-Self. the interested action. pervaded by Sattva and possessed of wisdom. for it He it cherishes leads to no attachment by way of thinking that moksha by said ? purifying the heart and thereby to devotion in knowledge. Evil action : the Kamya-karma. which becomes the cause of sawsara by producing a body. That to say. conducing to is knowledge and and who. . he becomes Self. He does not hate 07it: evil action. able . XVIII. Yoga) practises when a man who is qualified (for KarmaKarma. He hates not evil action. his doubts cut asunder. tlie is conviction that to nature alone the is means of attaining the Highest and that there is no other means. thinking " of what avail is it?" Goorf nitya-karma. [DiS. wisdom. abandoned attachment evil action is action and he fruit. . THE BHAGAVAD-GtTA. desire for — Of whom to ( this — Of him who has having its abandoned attachment and desire. nor is he attached to a good one. with knowledge of his As he becomes is possessed of wisdom. obligatory action. — he who has abandoned. immut- he renounces action in thought . as is devoid of birth or any other change of condition.Yoga in the manner described above in v and thereby becomes gradually refined kara^a). then he the self (anta/j- knows himself all to be that Self who. performs obligatory works ? nityais karma). doubt caused by avidya abide in the true cut asunder by of the Self Bliss.406 10.

. firmly believes that he is is the agent of himself the agent. so that his duty lies only in perform- ing prescribed works by abandoning their fruits. etc.Yoga described above has been taught verse. abandonment of is works impossible. on the other hand. To impress this point. i. An embodied being: a body-wearer. the purpose of in this i. applied to This — the title " abandoner. — for him all who is thus qualified for Karma. e. the abandonment of all actions is possible for him alone who. not yet disabused of the notion that the Self action." — him for courtesy's sake.Yoga. When an man who is qualified for action performs obligatory is works. the Lord proceeds thus II. For the unenHghtened man. who. Accordingly. abandoning merely the desire for the fruits of his actions. c. he attains freedom from action. 407 Thus. — not in abandoning those works. he who identifies himself with the body. who U-^ wears a body by way of identifying himself with it. No man it of discrimination can be called a body-wearer.21. man does not concern himself actions) as So. the Karma. Verily.: lO-II.) that such a their agent. . the meaning is : it is not possible for an ignorant ignorant man to abandon actions completely. it is not possible for an embodied .] CONCLUSION. for has been pointed out (in (ii. Renunciation of fruits is alone possible for the ignorant. he said to be an abandoner (tyagin) though he is is a performer of works. - being to abandon actions completely is he who to abandons the fruits of actions verily said be an abandoner.

and mixed. These three sorts accrue after death to to non-abandoners. . those who perforin works Without desire for their fruits will necessarily reap. the fruits of their respective actions— A.' two renunciations benefit ? after death. e. Effects of the body-wearer. . : brought forth by the operation of various external It is a doing of avidya . the Paramahawsa-Parivrajakas. XVIII i. Evil : : such as hell (naraka). strictly so called but never engaged exclusively in the path of knowledge(jfiana-nish^ha) and belonging to the highest order of sawnyasins. the animal kingdom. that : word some- 'phala. Fruit factors. good. implies something Action vanishes. is not a does not regard the body as the Self. the followers Karma-yoga. ' [DiS. etc. after death. what abandonment 12. Indeed.. of the the unenlightened.408 realising the THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. exclusive devotion to Right Knowledge cannot but destory avidya and other seeds of sawsara. is the which accrues : from the of all actions The threefold fruit — The Lord says of action. a complete abandonment of all works is * That is to say. Accordingly. but never to abandoners. thing unsubstantial. — evil. to all appearance. —accrues after death to non-abandoners. (karma) Dharma and A: dharma. Supreme Reality. in Mixed Good and to to evil mixed together of fruits one . Now. Innermost Self ' by its very etymology. it is like the glamour cast the by a juggler's in the artj'very delusive. fruit. inhering. Good such as the Devas. the humanity. '' abandoners (sawnyasins) not to the real sawnyasins.

Lea/n : this exhortation intended to secure steady attention on the what follows. 13.: 12-14. the fifth and the 52 among these . It is qualified by the epithet " knta-anta the end of action. but. and the several functions of various Divinity also. him alone who has attained to Right Knowinasmuch as he sees that action and its accessories results are all ascribed to the Self and its by avidyd. In the words "taught in the Sankhya. which imparts Self-knowledge.' The seat and actor and the various organs. as well as to indicate the difference (in the view which is going to be presented) as to the nature of those things. that which puts ii.] CONCLUSION. The when v'erses 46. for the unenlightened man identifying action. the end of action. know thou from Me. the knowledge of the Self arises is ' so that the Vedanta. its himself with the body. These : O mighty-armed. This truth. an end to action (karma). 409 possible for ledge. the Lord proceeds to teach verses in the following Factors in the production of an act. as they are things that part of the hearer to ought to be known." the Lord praises them. sorts. Sankhya in : the Vedanta (the Upanishads) which all the things that have to be known all are expound". and iv. 14. . These live factors in the accomplishment of all action. is in the Sankhya which the end of which are going is to be mentioned. ed. etc. 33 teach that all action ceases . sories. as taught action. . which constitute agent and accesis complete abandonment of action not possible..

are necessary (a distinction factors in every action. taught in the sastra. [DiS. or In the performance of every action. 14). hearing. since but the effects of the past dharma and a-dharma. in Of various sorts number. Right opposite : The what is opposed to dharma and opposed of twinkling life to sastra. Functions : of the air (vayu). &c. speech or mind {Answer): — This objection cannot be — body. Whatever action a man does by the body. e. character of the upadhi with which it may be associated. Divinity : such as the Aditya and other Gods their by whose aid the eye and other organs discharge functions. : such twelve as outbreathing and inbreathing. (xviii. actions \ . hatred. the causes of every action. not opposed to dharma. {Objection) — The body.: — THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. knowledge and the like i. 410 The seat : XVIII. the seat of Adov: the enjoyer. which form mere concomitants of All are subordinate to the activity of that one. by which to the . while seeing. right or the opposite. : perceiv^e sound. life.. V body which is the seat of desire. misery. speech and mind. — the act and the are which are the necessary conditions of the expression "the right or denoted by they are Its causes : the opposite". urged against us. The various organs such as the sense of hearing. partaking of the their manifestation. happiness. are its : causes. one of the three speech or mind— has a more prominent share than the and other activities. these five 15. in actions) in the Why do you speak of words " whatever action a man does by the body. whether enjoined forbidden. " ? etc. Even those actions. like. rest.

Now case: is this shows the reason v/hy the person here referred to of perverted intelligence. which is really accomplished by those five causes. The agency 16. Why does he regard them so ? — For. yet he does not see . — his understanding (buddhi) has not been trained in the Vedanta. iieing speech and mind. or mind. that man of perverted gence sees not. Though seeing. such being the case. one of them more prominent than the five Hence no gainsaying of action of the assertion that all the (xviii. looks upon the pure Self as the . of the Self is an illusion. looks on the pure intelli- Self as the agent. verily. has not been trained in the principles of reasoning. in virtue of his ignorance. while maintaining of untrained understanding of the disembodied Self. Such being the case every action being accomplished by the five causes described above.14-1^5] CONCLUSION. continually leading and death. of fruition. are the causes 14). he who. agent. therefore see the truth about the therefore a of perverted direction. is Self and He is intelligence. Even he who. has not been trained by the existence a master's teaching. rest. — his intelligence takes a to birth wrong vicious. or speech. Now. Nozv : with reference to what : we are speaking of. is a man man he does not action. 411 are thus classed into three groups and are spoken of as per- formed by body. the fruit of an Even enjoyed at the time action is through the instrumentaHty of body. as untrained in understanding. identifies the the five causes and looks upon the pure Self as the agent of the action. said to be a man The unenlightened Self with one.

thereby shall go to naraka kills (hell). (the truth)." all is He is he sees rightly. 2-1-2). am pure and immutais )le whose antaA-kara/za fbuddhi). like a moons. . and well-trained the soimd principles of reasoning. does not repent thus I " have done wise. this. though he these living creatures. in well-trained by a master's instructions. I am which the witness of their am without breath. regards himself as running (the l»earcrs) that run. vehicle. then is : the wise man that sees — Thf answer follows He who is is free from egotistic notion. I action.an who. notion these that 'I is free from the egotistic thus: It is am the agent. rightly ? Who 17. he commits no act of killing. pure. which is an : upft. kills whose mind not tainted. Sec. he does not " involves a self-contradiction.dhi I of the Self.idected eye sees many one who regards that the moon moves when seated is the clouds arc in motion. he is He whose mind has been well trained the scriptures. without is mind. Up. is (Ohjfctwn): — I'vven supposing that this that intended all as a mere praise.412 THE diiagavad-gItA. or like man whuse //wrm-. the statement kill " though he kills these creatures. not tainted. or like a m.' He thinks five— the body. [Dis.. ascribed to the Self through all ' avidyA — that arc the causes of actions. I in a when it the others I^cflllsntlon of the non n^cncy of the Self leads to tfie effects of nil ahHoUition from work*. not 1. higher than the Indestructible I Supreme " ble. he kills not. in these creatures. (Mnm/. nor he bound by the fruit of a-dharma as an effect of that act. — though he not l)f)und. XVI II.

\|>licul»lv- ((%<'d«/«) . JlU»ul•^H>i^l. . *' Up ^5) ** wum^ht Unly. is uot Ot>|H>iKlput w\ mtothfi. — Thi)4 wntwUion {ht» w«([«»»mb)«> tor. iu*i hp kilU not. t l»u»uut(\bl«>. thp Sollf J-Muji. vS:^\.>uiuH rtlso is we 1!$ ui»y t>stnl>li*ih 'trtiut'. Ami iuu«uit<\l>ility i| i't quitted ^f'vidintt tv> ((ll» i^s tuu^ht l>y th(c> yruti. I Ia>i\I sitys. tW thp i«!!»tt\«ct». * of ul»^v)UUt^ tmUh houiul. l»y kua^uj*" (IIL ^7) i *' though ^Iwt^Um^ th«) <MUt4? thiuj^ *' iit h«? iU'tJ* uot" (\iii. lip \vIk> U'okji ) w» th«? |HUt> SpU ilw n^fut. S*»lt' Hut thc'tf civu ihj cv. i\uU Imc* thu« couj^.. Kc k not. uuU .will. \v. thp iwlrtttnl anulitiou Ixpiu^ p • woul Hii* |)urt» ' jtimply it>tV>ri» to th<\t ^mtutwl a><uUtiou.1 CONCLUJSION. S«>U'. VVlmt i^* !<ul>)w(. )>n«t'<.i. it>. iiy untv»rt>.>ujuuctio« ot ihunut»(>lf ttuythiu^ w httt!!»o<L>vt»t\ mul Ho rhu!<» tbt' V uuu>t tlKn«rtW<? ivet wniumii^Lm with jmtuiul to th«> rtuothpt. taught tietiouH iu iu Ht\> tht> swuvls. riu-' S-U if^jf mi it> anijiuuUwu tl>p wUU puiv ' the iu Knly. it lms< i» Uhi« ovf V auU uuelmu»if<U>Ui" I owr (ii. It uitKlit»t«>>» tt» wpu\ SpU It movpjt u>t it wtMtV without 4<i 7). mul i«»t\wJK Iu th<:> OttA itJMpH. tu cluvugv> crtn nU>ur> Ci*« Ihk%)0»o tht> th((> wuMu with iu with otUpr>s.'f'*»7. siuMti. 3it)« ^xt Ami ^^Iho t^u^ht iu tho i)a!mig<9» it \\\<o nutl Huch «* [\in.>u»«hI H^t'Ut.' vi\j>Uuuv7U ttU>vv. Hy »«*«>tv. thus: -That thf uu pulily iuuuu.\y^. thvi tf^>. 4»} I thinking ' I «uu the kiU^n tl><> ' l>y »U«?utitym^ Uk* Sell '* wiUi tho tvuU physkivl Knly. tt!4 • uuplU^lby tUt* uw Ij* v>t' wuul asj * . tlunigl* \\<> kills .* . ThiK hath quUtf t>.v\ u> \\\ wuivuuHiuu with Knly. (^^'w<^*' ." fiotit tUo . tt^ttin . \vt> ^^mwt anumvp Uim vS.

egotistic feeling Thus in absence the it of embodied existence. fore. 21) briefly taught that to a wise man it. fruit sawmyasins is renounce all avidya-generated and therefore right to say that the threefold of action " evil. having stated in 20 as the in the reason theretor the immutability of the Self. to Even be admitted that the Self is subject change." with a view to sum up of the the teaching of the sastra. does not accrue to the sawnyasins is and the further conclusion also is inevitable that quite the the lot of others. and mixed" reverse (xviii. And what is attributed to the Self by avidya can- not really pertain to of-pearl tion) in Him. action. (i.. any changes that may take place in y the body. nor is he slain" 19). can never be attributed to the agency of the Indeed. if it table.414 THE bhagavad-gIta. there is no need for works. . or (to take another illustrathe same way that surface and dirt ascribed by cannot really pertain children through ignorance to akasa to akiisa. Having started this proposition in (ii. To show that this essence . having beginning of the sastra (ii. c. is the royal road is undisputed). 12J. XVIII. nor he bound. the it and having introduced the the subject here and there in middle and expatiated upon in the Lord now concludes is words that the the wise man " kills not. &c. belong to them only. words " he slays ii. not. the action of one cannot go to another that has not done it. [Dis. it is Whereegotism but right to say that in the absence of and is of all taint in the mind. not to the Self. &c. Accordingly. This teaching of the Gita- s^stra has been concluded here.. the wise man the neither kills nor bound. He should of the Self. good . only be subject to a change of His own the actions body. in the same way that the mothercannot become silver.

partak- ing of the nature of the upadhi. all action. the end. done . should 415 be investigated and it of the whole Vedic Teaching understood by wise men of trained intelligence. &c. Simito all larly the object objects in : general. The agent he who sets the organs going. (causes of acthree classes tion). objects of knowledge. &c. in has been in expounded by us here and there accordance with the Scripture several sections (sastra) and reason. The end : that which is sought that : which is reached through action by the agent. The impulses to action. is The organ that by which something (intelligence). knowledge kmuni refers to in general. when there is a conjunction of The actions accomplished by —knowledge.. the object known. mind. will be mentioned the impulses Knowledge. the action. the knower.17-18. &c. . — by the body.. and the internal organs being buddhi for. (form) the threefold impulse to action the organ. the external organs being the organ of hearing. performance of action with a view to possible avoid a thing or to obtain another and so on the three. triad This forms the threefold impulse to Indeed. partaking of the nature (in of the upadhi which he works).] CONCLUSION. all &c. In these three all . a creature of avidya. to action : Now iS. form the threefold basis of Knowledge : any knowledge. l^ . the five into is only etc. to action in general. The hioivey the experiencer. body. —are this traceable to the interplay of the organ. and : is taught in the second part of the verse. — and grouped according to their respective seats — speech. agent.

kinds only.— 4l6 action inheres. Hear thou duly Action is (ka. the several factors of action. —This imply the ab- sence of distinctions other than that caused by the gu/^as. is — Even Kapilas it science of gu»as certainly an authority their experiencer so far as con- cerns the gu-'ias and or (bhoktn). Though truth. action. the Lord now : ceeds to teach the threefold distinction of each. supreme the oneness of non-duality of Brahman. what is sought to be attained by means Agent : the performer of acts./as. of action. and they are therefore said form the threefold basis of action. concerning knowledge and the rest. the followers Kapila are of acknowledged authority in the exposition of the functions of the gu. The Impulses are threefold according Inasmuch as the fruit. Gunas : such as Sattva. according to the distinction in guwas. to XVIII. . according to the three distinct gu. Sattva. and their science is therefore accepted here as an authori- ty as serving to extrol the teaching which follows. 'karma' here means action (kriya). to the gunas. Hear. and pro- are all made up of the gu. restriction is intended They to are of three kinds only. is The science of the gunas here re- ferred to Kapila's system of philosophy. still they are opposed to us as regards the viz.Tc ma.. &=€ : Pay attention to the teaching which follows here. Rajas and Tamas ig. Knowledge and said in and the agent.. THE PHAGAVAD-GITA [DiS. as well as their various distinctions caused by different gu»as. It not used in the technical sense of the word denoting the object of an action.ias and of their products. are the science of the guwas to be of three action. Hence no inconsistency.as.) : of them.

] CONCLUSION. differentia- tion. sees in all the creatures various entities of distinct that knowledge know thou as Rajasic. By differentiation : regarding them as different in different bodies. Indestructible its : which can. Sattvic Knowledge. the Self. 4I7 as I describe them duly. Entities : Selfs. 21.l8-22. That Reality. : This should be since interpreted to mean by which one sees. But that knowledge which. down to the sthavara or unmoving objects. Rajasic Knowledge. Reality (Bhava) the one Self.' knowledge cannot be an agent. Here follows the 20. according to the science. not be exhausted either in itself or in properties Ku^a- stha or immutable. All beings: from Avyakta. Tamasic Knowledge. according to reason. and therefore they cannot directly bring about the cessation of sawsara. is not different in different bodies . ' Which sees. Know thou this direct and right perception of the non-dual Self as Sattvic. But that which clings to one i single sing effect 53 . — that knowledge know thou as : Sattvic. like the akasa. the Self admits of no division. the separated. The dualistic fallacious systems of philosophy are Rajasic and Tamasic. threefold character of knowledge : That by which a man sees the one Indesinseparate in tructible Reality in all beings. &c. or the unmanifested matter. 22. by kinds.

which is free from attachment. and narrow. because is found only Tamasic beings possessing no faculty of discrimination. area. An action which is ordained. in Tamasic knowledge prehensive. costing much * trouble. [DiS. The threefold nature of action is next described : 23. . hatred by one not desirous of the is that action Ordained Obligatory (nitya). were all. it knowledge in said to be Tamasic. as being of the of that body . made.. dwelling etc. read Ksha\ The Jains. It is not an action done by one impelled by love or hatred. and that there (soul). 24. : is done without love or fruit. stone or piece of wood f This knowledge is not founded on reason and does not perceive things as they are. such as the body or an external thinking ' — as though is is all-com' this is body in the Self ' or that is God'. is it is narrow. having no real is object. ing for But the action which is done by one longpleasures or done by the egotistic. engrossed idol one single it effect. which declared to be Sattvic. as extending over a limited or as producing very small results. The material of which the image is panakas. it is Because This not founded on reason. that is declared to be Tamasic. and the Isvara is regarded (by some) to be the mere . body is regarded by size the naked 5rama7?akas". XVIII- without reason.— 4l8 as if it THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. Some MSS. Rajasic Action. 5attvic Action. the Jiva for example. that is declared ito be Rajasic. nothing higher than that.

not given to egotism.22-26. declared to be Tamasic. in success and failure. Loss : Loss of power and of wealth accruing from the Injury : action done. sion. cannot even be imagined to long the fruit ot an action or to do an action costing is much trouble." as being egotistic.. 419 : Pleasures : The Egotistic egotism). ignorant of the the Self doers. that is injury. 25. without regarding the ability. not as dis- tinguished from one Self who is has reaHsed the true nature of the but in (who is absokiteiy free from as distin- guished from one who free (a from pride. The and action which is undertaken from deluconsequence. as fruits of action. Now agents : the Lord proceeds to treat of the distinction among Free from attachment. i. endued with firmness and vigour. Even and is the doer of a Sattvic action egotistic . he who absolutely without egotism. loss. a is Rajasic and Tiimasic srotriya . one who has for lised the Self. only from this class distinguished of persons that the doer of a Rajasic action Tamasic Action. Sattvic Agent. the sense in which an ordinary srotriya of the devotee of the Vedic Religion) For. an agent is said to be Sattvic. ability to to living beings. unaffected 26. Ability : one's own complete the work.a.e. much more so are In common parlance.] CONCLUSION.'. the Self said to be free from egotism It is who is ignorant of we say " He is a is modest (unegotistic) brahma. . rea- world is is expected to be free from egotism.

XAIII.. mariy by the o^ tlie ssistxaiv not by desire for tbefinoots. -iEDBKat oc the : Ths. to act 321:^^ beesa iffiipellled a. Gmtiy . S& Uasffjz^ vas^uxjstf ^js xrak ot d>e actkn done.|SO THi: BSAGaTJLD-GfKL.

the path of sawnyasa. O Partha. the path of action as taught (nivntti) : the sastra. about to be taught fully distinctively (by Me). according as they are enjoined or prohibited : the scriptural or social ethics. What. — human and his tour of conquest through the four quarters of the earth. Qualities : Gu.— 26-30. fear and absence of fear.. Sattvic Intellect. actions pro- ducing visible or invisible results. ' As in ' action ( pravritti ' ) and ' inaction ' (nivntti) ' occur connection with bondage' (bandha) and liberation' (moksha). the cause of fear and cause of fearlessness. so D//a. 421 Intellect and Firmness are threefold according to ^unas. That which knows action and inaction. such as Sattva. the Fear etc. they have been interpreted to action and done : mean the paths of renunciation (karma and sawmyasa).w/{/'rtjj'^ : is going to be the conqueror of wealth. of Action (pravntti): the cause bondage.?as.] CONCLUSION. bondage and libera30. The and threefold division of intellect and Dha- firmness according to qualities. tion. hear thou. The what first half of the verse contains in an aphoristic form taught. the cause of liberation. in the karmaInaction marga. O nanjaj'a. divine. relies the necessity for doing or not doing — by one who on the sastra — at particular places by and times.. that intellect is Sattvic. material and — much durmg wealth. what ought to be done and what ought not to be done. . Arjuna is called because he acquired spiritual. 29.

performance or the non-performacts. Bondage and libemiion is : with their causes. Dharma is what is ordained in the scriptures and a-dharma is what is prohibited in them. and also what ought to be done and what ought not to be done.. Intellect. It O Partha. [DiS.-A. That by which one wrongly understands dharma and a-dharma. is Rajasic. is The firmness which ever accompanied by Yoga. all takes quite a perverted view of things to be known. O Partha. enveloped in darkness. 5attvic 33.3o). XVIII.. the forms described ahready (xviii.. W : : Tamasic 32. hat. Dharma and a-dharma here spoken ance of the Hence no tautology. 20-22) is differ- which actions assume after their performance till their eflects become perceptible. whereas intellect what functions or is undergoes change of state. and by which the activities of thought. That which. together either visible or invisible. is Tamasic. —A. (xviii. sees adharma as dharma and all things perverted. of * This (jnana) is to show how the knowledge whose threefold nature has been of refer to the ' apurva ' i.t was mentioned already. to t)j. that intellect. Knowledge a v^itti or is function or state of intellect (buddhi). that intellect. Firmness. Rajasic Intellect.e.422 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA.e ent from the intellect (buddhi) threefold nature t whose whereas karya and a-karya refer is here described.t Wrongly in opposition to what is determined by all (authorities). * Even firmness (dhriti) only a particular function or state of intellect. done the same th3. 31. .

desirous occasion. Held fast restrained from rushing into ways which are opposed to the Yoga sastra. fear. That with which a stupid man does not give up sleep. (dharma or pleasure or wealth) occupies firmness of such a person is the Rajasic. O Partha. is Tamasic. ed and is when a person is firmly convinced at heart to that dharma. to But the firmness with which one holds its fast dharma and pleasures and wealth. Rajasic Firmness. depression and lust. are life-breaths fast. . of life-breaths and sense-organs.30-35-] CONCLUSION. 423 Partha. It is only Avhen they are restrained by firmness (of into the intellect) that they do not rush ways which are is this : opposed to the sastra. one can restrain these by that firmness only which is ever accompanied by samadhi. : samadhi or concentration of mind. is O held such a firmness : Sattvic. — A. grief. that firmness. that 35. one cannot invariably restrain them. centration of mind in the Brahman. Tamasic Firmness. by con- That firmness. pleasure and wealth ought always be secur- desirous of the fruit of each whenever that one his attention. and sense-organs. The meaning of the passage He who. Rajasic. sensual gratification By mere in The * stupid is man holds high activities to say. : Dharma &c. restrains the * activities of thought(manas). by unflinching firmness. is of the fruit of each on O Partha. 34. firmness. restrains them by Yoga. which is not so accompanied by samadhi.

nectar.ja or. [DiS. or anta/iSelf. born of the purity of one's own buddhi kara. has been described. have. of vairagya or to worldly objects. with the the bhashya does made the whole verse appear to be a description of the threefold pleasure —Tr. : to external objects. of the pleasure is like dhyana and samadhi. of the threefold pleasure. And now hear from Me. 37. it Like poison at Jirst : on its first occurrence is attended with pain as it is preceded by much trouble in the acquisition indifference of juana or spiritual knowledge. be resorted to..: -24 THE BHAGAVAD-GiTA. born of the purity of one's own mind. following Anandagiri. like nectar at the end. cessation or alleviation. the pleasure * Sattvic. etc . That which is like poison at is first. Sattvic Pleasure. XVIII. O lord of the Bharatas. The threefold division of actions and of the several factors (karakas) concerned in action. Here follows the threefold division of pleasure of actions which is the effect 36. such as Sridhara and construed. that pleasure declared to be Sattvic. etc. At the end. born of the perfectly clear knowledge of the is Being so born. . frequency. by the wise. Though Madhusudana. arising from mature knowledge Declared : and indifference Born. as things that ought always to Pleasure is threefold according to gunas. not The second half of this verse is make I it clear how it should bp construed by other commentators. esteem and never gives up lasciviousness. Hear : Pay steady The end : Practice : familiarity. to the end of pain"^. He regards sleep. next verse. in which one delights by practice and surely comes attention to.

Tamasic Pleasure. and. that can be these three gu«as born of Prakriti. wisdom. Being : from animate or inanimate. that declared to be Rajasic. is and heedlessness. as an effect thereof. first Hke the end Hke poison. 425 38. that pleasure Tamasic.: 35-41] CONCLUSION. No man Here subject 40. the it (sensual) pleasure proves to be like poison. 39. concludes the present follows the verse which There is no being on earth. In the sequel : declared to be after the termination. instruments of and results. first and in the sequel delusive of the arising from sleep. made up of the gu«as (Sattva. manifested as action. On cavth among men. indolence. 54 . sawsara. In the end like poison : after indulgence. The whole action. or again in free v/ heaven among the Devas. wealth and energy . That pleasure which arises from the contact at is of the sense-organ with nectar. is The pleasure which at self. or god is free from gunas. and because it leads to a-dharma. : Gunas : such as Sattva. Rajas. The sequel sums up the whole Doctrine. Rajasic Pleasure. because leads to deterioration in strength. intellect. vigour. colour. to hell (naraka). in the object.

/zsara and Tamas). Now. Of Brahma7ias and Kshatriyas and Vaisyas. has also i. as everything made up the three gu7.as of the Praknti that duties — such and — are assigned to the Brahma. is which should be followed by those who seek to attain the highest end of man. and up by avidya. et been figuratively represented as a It tree. to sum up view to smntis and with a show what the exact teaching of the Vedas and the the whole teaching of the Gita-sastra. 5udras are separated from others tioned together in are of one birth — who are all menof one compound word— because 5udras the and are debarred from the study : Vedas. commenced. the duties are divided according to the qualities born of nature.to nature. distinguished from those pertaining to the other By what standard ? —-According to the qualities is (gu?ias) born of nature. etc.zas. O Parantapa. — the its evil has been thus described as well as root. 4). after " (xv. accordance with as serenity the gu?.2as. 3.. with a view. Divided the duties are allotted to each class. the It is in ^ Maya made up the like of the three gu. . as also of Sudras.as. seq. 41 onward. it is with a view to show how cessation can be brought about. — it is with this view that is the next section. Duties of the four castes ordained according. a cessation of the cause of sa/wsara cannot be its brought about. in xv.— ^26 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. from xviii. set [DiS./sara asunder Vv-ith the strong sword of non-attachment. Nature (svabhava) the Isvara's Praknti. of It XVIII. respectively. sa. 41. has also been said that after having cut the tree of sa. further. is "then That Goal should be sought this it From of may follow that. as classes.

being subordinate to the former the source of the Vaisya's nature is Rajas and Tamas. to explain in another 427 source of the Brrih. cause namely. Or of way is : The niawa's nature (svabhava) is the gu//a of Sattva the source latter the Kshatriya's nature Rajas and Sattva. the .— A. How be said that they are divided according to the ? Sattva and other gu/zas [Answer) : — There too. the characteristic features of their nature serenity. Vasana) in living beings acquired in the past by them and this births. and which lead to those duties as — The duties of Brahmauas. latter being subordinate to is the former the source of the Sudra's nature Tamas and For. .i or secondary cause. their which are brought natural effects. Rajas and Tamas. '' such as serenity. means that it is a kind of specific cause. being impossible '/ for the gu«as to manifest themselves without a cause. is The The in assertion that nature (Sawskara. as are Rajas. activity.— 41. the . we see. to S:c. opposed to the Upadana-karana or Prakriti. Or is to interpret yet in another way : — Nature (svabhava) itself in its the tendency (Sa/ziskara. such as serenity of the gu. (Objection) : into manifestation by their respective natural tendencies. and dullness respectively. and manifesting yield it the : present birth by way of being ready to is effects nature the source of thegu»as. lordliness. the duties material — any such objection.ias) duties. Vasana) the cause (of the gu. Ximitta-karan.ias. is no room here are for By * as the sastra. are assigned to the four classes accordance with the guz/as of Sattva.] CONCLUSION. are enjoined by the sastra and are assigned then can it them by the sastra.. the latter being subordinate to the former.

austerity. / Not flying : from battle : not turning away from the foes. born of nature. Born of means the same here as in the latter portion of xviii. purity. natuve : xvii. cattle-rearing. fortitude. 14. : mentioned above plained. generosity and lordliness are the duties of the Fortitude : Kshatrij'as. has also been said that they What 42. of duties which present themselves quite unexpectedly and demand ready action. And of the . and so on. that by which upheld one not subject to dePromptness : pression under any circumstances whatever. not flying from battle. 43. and also uprightness. 16). born of nature. I. such as Sattva. Bravery. &c. Wherefore by the it is said it that duties are assigned according to gunas. Aiisteyity: ( physical austerity. and 'self-restraint' have already been explained 2). 15. to Lordliness exercise of ruling power over those who are be ruled. [DiS. Ploughing. and trade are the duties of the Vaisyas. faith. the performing. only in accordance their respective gu-vas. 44. with assigned to the Brahma//as. — these are the duties ma7zas.. Ptirity already ex- Faith this : in the teaching of the scriptures. but not independently of them. of the Brah- wisdom. though are assigned sastra. promptness. self-restraint. knowledge. 'Serenity' (xvi. born is of nature. 41. XVIII.^28 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. without confusion. then are those duties ? — The answer follows : Serenity. forgiveness. boldness.

Each to his oivn duty is : as ordained according to his nature. to Svarga as their natural : result. Perfection (sa. new cause -'• the following result accrues 45.e. conduct. It is. — Can this perfection be + ed directly by the mere performance of one's That is. own duty leads to perfection. . Devoted each . as stated in the smritis. that do thou hear. span of and intelligence. immediate Moksha. 2-2-2. wealth. for the sake faction' in the sense of absolute perfection i. reap the fruits of their actions after death. And Pura/^a also are specified the different results and worlds which the several castes and But. ( possessed of comparatively superior learning.Yoga). when rightly performed.. 3 ). the duty of the Sudra. results. to attain Moksha by works —A. to his own duty.«siddhi) which consists in the qualified for the devotion of all their body and senses being knowledge (juana-nish^ha) after attain? impurities have been washed away by the per- formance of one's own duty. but the sake of Moksha. respectively enjoined on the several castes. perfection how one. own dutyf understands ' when not the same for duties are of their The questioner per- performed. and families. " in the Apastamba-Dharmasutra. life. —A. devoted to man attains one's own duty. such as the following to his "Men of several castes and orders. duties. happiness dharma. impossible alone. is 4I-45'] 429 nature of service nature. and then by the residual (karma) attain castes to births in superior countries. each devoted respective duties. attains success. from the operation of a orders attain.: — CONCLUSION. born of Devotion to one's These lead. (for Man : he who : qualified Karma. of course.

he who does the duty ordained sin. 48. His proper duty: each according to his caste.430 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. according to his 'O own nature incurs no to One ought not It abandon one's own duty. Such being the 47. perfection. . : the Ruler within. —by worshipman attains or ping Him ' proper duty. O son of Kunti. for The duty born with faulty. in so far Worship- man attains perfec- only as he becomes qualified for the devotion of knowledge (juana-nishfha). one Just as a poisonous substance does not injure the worm born in that substance. though one ought not to abandon for. Doing the duty ordained according incurs no sin. that the duty of another brings on fear. XVIII. Him from whom is is the evolution of (all) beings. case. No. tion. [DiS. t^ian the duty of another well performed. — How then — Learn how ? it can be attained : 46. ping the Lord by performing his duty. therefore. ' Pravntti ( in the text ) may mean either evolution activity. he has been said that who does the duty ordained according to his nature incurs no sin like a worm born even in poison. Beings living creatures. is Better one's own duty (though) destitute of merits. and it proceeds from the Isvara. as described above. by whom all this with his pervaded. the Antaryamin. oneself. so. to nature. and that he who does not know the Self cannot indeed remain Wherefore. all . a moment without doing action.

he a . Is entire renunciation of action possible ? let (Now. of the three gu/. one's . the duty born with himself. it is not right to do neglect of the duty enjoined in the sruti another's duty. AH nndevtakings whatever the duties are. of what good place. abandoning called his own duty. or is it because some sin f accrues from the abandoning of the duty born with oneself? {Question) (Ansicer) self : — Now.: 46-48.— A. Though what is is man may perform another's duty. then would follow that there can be nothing but merit in renouncing it entirely. not free from fault since it is and another's duty brings on fear.— A.] CONXLUSION. therefore he ought not abandon action (karma). by context. 431 as fire undertakings are surrounded with with smoke. Born with Faulty : oneself: born with the very birth of man. of entire us enquire) : Is it because of the impossibility that no one ought to re) abandonment ( of action nounce one's own nature-born duty.'" And to not possible for any man who does not know the Self to give up action entirely. evil. — In the first is this enquiry ? if the duty born with one- ought not to be abandoned (merely) because of the it impossibility of renouncing action entirely. The sin ( pratyavaya) arising from the . * f Therefore. own is as well as other's duties the reason here assigned that they are all made up of the three gu«as. as obligatory. is as everything : composed for.as.

But according comes into to the followers of Ka/^ada. theory is Wherefore contrary to the Lord's teaching. — How do you know For. * Inasmuch as it that the soul undergoes change in its — A. acts. their and the existent becomes non-existent. when is it does not it is then it is actionless. ' there can be no existence of the i6) and so on. the five Skandhas of the Buddhists. 432 XVIII. with the potentiality (of the activity) in it. the non-existent existence. arises. is Objection ) — Yes .: — THE BHAGAVAD-GITA [DiS. Buddhistic and Vaiseshika ( theories. possible to renounce : action entirely. : {Objection) — How can would imply it be objected to if it agrees with very nature. And ) there this peculiarity in this theory is neither is the thing (soul) ever mobile. — Is the soul (Purusha) ? like gu. The Sankhya. . this theory ? What objection there to Refutation of the Vaiseshika theory. the Lord has said non-existent (ii. an entire renun- is impossible. that it is ? contrary to the Lord's teaching. Such being the case. is action itself the actor (soul). nor ( action itself the actor the soul . then active . and as such forms the actor. undergoing destruction every ciation of action moment ? In either case. is — Thus say the followers of Ka/!ada. [Answer) : —There ' is certainly this objection.fas of the like Sankhyas Or." : Now there it is is also a third theory — When the thing (soul) act. but it is a permanent fixed substance. wherein action which was non-existent before and wherein action which has been existent ceases while the substance remains pure (actionless). but an entire renunciation always mobile not the possible.

48. -kiira/zas). it case)that a non-entity born and needs a cause does If not apply to other non-entities.mka (an aggregate of is two atoms) or other substance before its absolutely for non-existent production. though {Ansivcr) : may be opposed : to the Lord's teaching — We reply is ? This view certainly objectionable. In that case . that again becomes non-existent. then it we can understand effect. dental. when they (the followers of Kaz/ada) a dvya/mka or such other substance is say that eflect. and v/hat is existent will become non-existent that non-entity becomes an entity and an entity becomes non-entity. such as a rabbit's horn. the non-existent should become existent and the existent should become non-existent. — of the material. inasmuch as there can be no certainty that the existent will continue to be existent existent. and it if. because it is opposed to all evidence. produced as an 55 . Now. — How — If a dvya. and the non-existent will continue to be non- Moreover.] CONCLUSION. it that when far is to be produced as an its needs a cause so merely as regards if manifestation. and that it becomes an entity by the action of the ( ) must be that a non-entity abhava which is to threefold cause. a pot or the of the like. not possible to hold the present for. remaining a time after it production. is is (samavayi-asamavayi-nimitta (in . be nature of an entity. which is to be produced (as an effect). then follows what was non-existent becomes existent. Moreover. then nobody can in be certain as to anything whatsoever matters of evidence and things ascertainable by evidence. it 433 ? reason. it the non-material or acci- and the efiicient causes. it become an entity (bhava) is like a rabbit's horn before becoming an entity.

such as dvya. as connected with its [DiS. Non-existence of one. Here they may be can have a cause of asked to explain its how the non-existent own. to substances. the potter's stick and wheel.e. because they are not supposed to exist prior to this relation. in operation of atoms its cause. that are said causes.mkas. e. it Having been non-existent before production. (thus)related. . no such thing can be admitted son. connected with existence. that rela- cause tion tion. —the ultimate it — and with i. they have to admit that the non-existent (pot) becomes : related (to the cause). (Ansmey) may be related by samavaya or in intimate relation (to the cause). cannot indeed think of a thing which can cause the birth of a barren woman's son or his relation to anything {Objection) — The Vaiseshikas do not hold that the nonIt is existent is related to anything. ( the case of a barren woman's to — If we are to hold that ) the antecedent non-existence like pragabhava but of a pot or the becomes related son. when inseparably connect- ed with the cause.. virtue of the becomes. for.: 434 they speak of it THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. intimate or inseparable relait is When i. the cause. becomes existent. Neither do they hold that clay assumes by itself the form of a pot. not the barren woman's notwithstanding that both are alike nonit is entities (abhava). be intimately related to their (Answer): — No. — The Vaiseshikas do not argue that a pot or the like exists prior to the action of the potter. It is (Objection) — not it opposed to reason to hold that.. : — Not so. XVIII. Wherefore. We else. by the known as samavaya. necessary to show how one non-entity can be distinguished from the other. cause and as existent. as the only other alternative. though non-existent.

48. non-existence after destruction (pradhvaw/sabhava). a becomes cloth existent. &c. As the Pari»ama (transformation) theory of the SA. can become (an existent effect) and so on. — for pot is becomes a all becomes a cloth. non-existence after destruceffect ) can never become ( an existent and so on.. but that such is not the case with regard to the non-existence after destruction (pradhvawsabhava) of the same pot. all. {Ansiver): instance. out any definite distinction the absence of a distinction. viz. It is unreasonable to hold that other nonas existences (abhavas). differ even that theory does not from the theory of the . non-existence of existence ( pragabhiiva ). a the existent pot.nkhyas. the pot-shreds which are it when thus related can very well be spoken of as being produced and so on. — nobody can point In among it is these in themselves. 435 antecedent non- non-existence of two.. {Objection) : —We — Then do not hold that the non-existent be- comes the existent. Refutation of the Parinama-Vada. like the theory that non-existent becomes existent. opposed to evidence. such as that of dvya?aika and the like substances. unreasonable to hold that only the antecedent non-existence of a pot becomes a pot through the action of a potter. too. mutual non-existence (anyonyabhava) absolute non-existence (atyantabhava). though it is an abhava or non-existent quite as much as non-existence after destruction or absolute non-existence. that to a cause of its ent.] CONCLUSION. whereas antecedent non-existence alone. that it becomes related exist- own. such tion. This. though both alike are non-existent.

5). and has therefore been said that no ignorant renounce action entirely even for a other hand. of Vai^eshikas. the Self able to renounce inasmuch as avidya has been expelled by vidya or wisdom for. there remains this theory. or as things It is up it by avidya. as so tion. the only other alternative. man (avidvan) can moment (iii. Inasmuch as properties postulates the production non-existent before. stage. where all the impossibility of renouncing action entirely ? [Ansivey): is the property or attribute of the set ^ gu. On the is who knows . we have also to etc. be they regarded as real things. there can be no residue left of what . imagined variously. of an effect. ascribed to the Self through avidya. existent or For the same reason. their explanation that effect is Even admitting by manifestation or into disappearance (an said to is if come all existence or undergo destruction). destruction many things undergoing produclike and the like changes. that the One Existence. the theory to evidence. the same opposed the as may be found we enquire whether manifestation and disappearance are previously non-existent. are only different states of the cause itself. XVIII. is'. the sole Reality. is — Then. he action entirely.. condemn that theory which says that production. — Action the Self being immutable. The Lord's theory As of illusion. as well as their destruction. by avidya.as. it [DiS. The enlightened alone can renounce action {Objection): entirely.. the consciousness of the existent the consciousness of all being constant and the rest being inconstant.436 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. This doctrine of the Lord has been stated (sat) 16. an actor on the in ii.

case. all actions have fled from him. he by renunciation attains the supreme state of freedom from action. He whose from has whose reason (buddhi. He whose reason is not attached anywhere. known as j«ana-nish/h. wife. is left 437 of the second is ascribed by avidya. self (antaZ. eye.] CONCLUSION. whom desire for the body. and the Self.48-49.! life. the naishkarmyasiddhi. v. even after the removal of statements reasonable. by sawnyasa.\. the contained in 13. Indeed. brought under his own control. 46 are quite Perfection in Karma-Yoga leads to absolute Perfection. to absolute freedom from action (naishkarmyasiddhi). is it known is as the state of absolute freedom from action and a siddhi or pev^QCtiony^Naishkarmyasiddhi may also mean . as the fruit thereof. — a person of who knows the Self attains to the supreme perfection. 45. for this sort and for pleasures fled.-kara»a) is anta/^-karaz/a) is free from attachment to sons. ledge of the unity of the actionless In virtue of his know(nishkriya) Brahman This . and other objects of attachment. tion in the — perfecteach as form of absolute freedom from action.Yoga nish/ha. Such being the xviii. no residue created by the false moon vision of the ////u'm-atTected timira. It has been said that the perfection reached by means of consists in Karma. from whom desire has fled. the becoming . qualified it is for j?/ana- Path of Wisdom and with a view to describe. whose self is subdued. — that the Lord now proceeds to follows : 49.

. a firm unswerving stand knowledge of the pure Self. /and so says the Lord state is attained in V. 50. perfection (as described above 46) by performing his duty (as taught above) in the service of the Lord. Brahman. /This by sa?. — it Is to be described at length in brief. the Supreme That process. — that supreme consummation of knowledge.myasa or right knowledge. or better still. (siddhi) of naishkavjiiya. [DiS. 13. in the i. attained tbe Lord proceeds to teach how a man who. It is one remains as the actionless supreme as tinguished from the perfection attainable by it is the state of immediate liberation Karma. the state in Self. knowledge. e. O son of Kunti. XVIII.438 the attainment THE BHAGAVAD-GiTA. by the renunciation of all actions for which one is prepared by his right knowledge. that do thou learn from Me. — Now. as his a result of the Grace of the Lord worshipped through Reference to this (perfection) serves as a prelude to follows. The perfection he has already attained consists in the body for devotion to and the senses being prepared duty. having in xviii. ? — No. the way it to the attainment of j/zana-nish/ha. has come by the discriminative knowledge of the Self. will be described only . can attain the perfection known as naishhavmya or absolute treedom from action. by which he attains Self. do thou understand with certainty from my speech. How he who in has attained perfection reaches brief Brahman. what — What to is ? that perfection is to which that reference forms a prelude — It the process of jnana- nish^ha.Yoga (sadyo-mukti). says the Lord. which dis. or devotion knowledge.

It is the consummation of Brahmajnana (knowledge ot Brahman). and (ascertainable) by nyciya or reasoning (upon the scriptural texts). and the nature of the Self ii. is de- of questions that is and answers is intended to the consummation of know- fined here in 20 and in the Upanishads. and it can also be ascertained by rea- end as spoken of here. nowhere admitted that the an object of cognition or has a form. words " how he reaches Brahman. (Question) — Of what nature the consummation of (Answey) : : Brahma-juana {Answey) : ? — Of the same nature : as Atmajuana or Self- knowledge. jnana is not different from Self-know- ." Consummation (nish/'ha) means perfection. Brahmaa well-defined soning describe upon scriptural texts. is.—A.49-50'] CONCLUSION. Is (Objection) : Self-knowledge possible at all ? — Knowledge or cognition But it is (juana) is of the Self form of is its object. {Question) (Anszi-ey) {Question) {Answey) the : — Of what nature the Self-knowledge — Of the same nature as the — Of what nature the Self — Of the nature described by the Lord and is ? : Self. which him as "devoid of attachment and immutable "." the final or highest stage. 439 Absolute perfection is the consummation of Self-knowledge. The show ledge following discussion in the form ledge. What the attainment of Brahman — referred the to in the Lord proceeds to specify in the words " that supreme consummation of knowledge. * {Question) : — Consummation of what is ? — Of Brahma-juana or knowledge of Brahman. ? : is in passages of the Upanishads.

When is the Self said to be neither of the it form of a sub- stance nor of an attribute. of the form of that object. how can there be a cognition Self? Indeed. :— Do not think extremely pure. 3-15). is And it has been said that the Self formless. all cognition. 3-14-2) Self-luminous' (Bn. wrong to speak of a cognition of the form of the Self. Up. as taught ' in the scrip- tural passages. it is extremely ) and extremely etc. ' Up. Up. Form ' is specifically ' denied. and the physical body again puts on a semblance .Sve. as the can put on the semblance of that aspect of the Self manifested as consciousness. 3-8) Luminous in form' (Chha.: — . 3-15). it the Self subtle.. And Buddhi is reason being as pure. can be shown that clear. 440 (Answev) THE BHAGAVAD-GlTA. [DiS. 4-20) sound and touch Ka^ha-Up. Such being the case. whatever be its of the is object. of the nature of darkness is would follow that the Self and the preventing of ' : this idea the aim of the descriptions such as ' In colour like Self being is the sun. 4-3-9)(Objection) : — No is . nor can any (. ( so . — The Self has a form. XVIII. those passages are intended to remove is the idea that the Self of the nature of darkness (Tamas). . one see Him with the eye " Up. which Manas puts on a semblance of Buddhi. Self. the sense-organs put on a semblance of Manas. for. Neither the Self an object of cognition. Without Wherefore it is . If both the Self and the cognition thereof be the constant meditation of Self-knowledge to formless. the described as formless (Kaifha-Up. as taught in passages like the " following : "His form " ( stands not in (our) ken. how is or the consummation thereof be attained ? The (Ansti'ei') Self reveals Himself in Pure Reason. ' In colour like the sun ' (Sve.

There are a few something within even beyond the Buddhi. Self is illusory identification of each with the its . inasmuch as it is invariably comprehended in association with objects of perception which are the set up by avidya. 56 . 441 of Wherefore upon the mere physical body as the yatikas (materialists) common people look Self. a property of the senses sciousness is others again of argue that con- a property is who hold that there viz. And the Lokais who argue that consciousness a property of the physical body declare that the Soul is identical Purusha or with the physical body endued with conconsciousness is sciousness. Similarly. no external evidence(to prove it inasmuch as to is admitted that they are self-cognized.. with the Self. hold that there ideas require is Buddhistic Idealists.'ans. the Avyakta (the Unmanifested) also called the Avyakrita (the UudifTerentiated). and it is knowledge of the necessary is — What then is necessary ? — W'hat it is is the mere elimination of the not-Self associated like . — names. in the form of Avidya. Accordingly. all forms and the but unnecessary to try and teach what the consciousness of the Self is like. others argue that . Buddhi.— A.5o] CONCLUSION. wearing a semblance of the consciousness of the Self therefore unnecessary to impart directly a Self. and they say that the Avyaknta from Buddhi down to is the Self.''' Everywhere. and that these their existence). is Therefore/we have only to eliminate what falsely ascribed j Brahman by avidya we have . the Vijfianavadins. to make no more effort to 1 * Those who study and contemplate upou the Cause of the universe regard the Antaryimin.. the sense-or. the cause of the physical body. nothing real except ideas. the Avyakiita endued With cousciousness as the Self.

Though thus quite self-evident. quite near. [Dis. the knowledge of Brah- man to is said to be immediately 2. ^ True. difficult to know. . etc.. x\ccordingly. so easily knowable. acquire a knowledge of Brahman as He is quite self-evident.) comprehended and unopposed dharma. as though He were a separate thing. But to those whose reason (Buddhi) has turned away from external phenomena. nothing else so blissful. whose intellect in quite engrossed the external objects of senses. who — have secured the grace of the Guru and attained the serenity of the self (manas)./ — of our external perception. e.— 442 ' THE bhagavad-gIta. and the Lord also has declared the same in ii. quite impossible to perceiver reality of the dual —the and the perceived Self. those who are differently it situated. . to those Brahman appears — to the unen- whose reason (Buddhi) is carried away by the differentiated phenomena of names and forms created by avidya as unknown. there is nothing. fix. and that thereis Devotion of Right Knowledge impossible of attainment. not been for trained in the right sources of knowledge. and who have But. who have been believe in duly the initiated. very remote. as that reason (Buddhi) cannot grasp the the He is formless. easily knowable.. XVIII. it is unattainable to those who have not been pro- perly initiated into the traditional knowledge by the I Gurus the (the Great Ones). Some fore conceited philosophers hold Self. who have not learned and is studied (teachings of the) Vedanta. Self. because they perceive no reality other than the consciousness of the And we have the reverse shewn is in the preceding sections that this — not the truth. is [i. and forming the very lightened. so well-known. and quite so near as Brahman.).

It all is. since an object of knowledge is apprehended through cognition.] CONCLUSION. no need an external evidence by which is know one's own body. it cannot be maintained that cognition is a thing which one seeks to know./ana) is formless known by immediate perception must admit is that. For^ is the Self is not a thing unknown all anybody at any time. possible to imagine they are for the benefit physical body or the like which has no is it consciousness nor possible to imagine that pleasure is is for pleasure's sake and pain for pain's is sake. undertakings intended for the benefit It is of oneself would have no meaning. indeed. the Self- knowledge which just as there to is the aim of for endeavour.50. not a thing to be reached or got rid of or acquired. 443 of 69. that not. Thus the clear those who to can Self Atma-juana-nish^ha (devotion knowledge) is easy of attainment. * All action enjoined in the sniti as is knowledget Fjde. . Vedanta-SutrasIII. who to even nearer than the body. so there no need for is an external evidence by which to know it is the Self that. cognition quite as immediately known as pleasure or the like. discriminate. — If cognition were unknown. moreover.* Wherefore. Wherefore it is only a ressation of the perception the difTerentiated forms uf the external world to a firm grasp of the real that can lead nature of the to Self.^ Cognition and the Cogniser are self-revealed- Those and is also not who hold that cognition (j. iv' intended only a means to Self- 26-27— A. Moreover. If the Self be quite unknown. of the .

it is needed only to prevent Therefore. objects. XVIII. controlling the with firmness. is the cogniser self-revealed. ( A handoning ) : as we should understand from all the context all superfluous luxuries. and therefore. — A. as an would be a thing which has cognition is sought after just for object of sought after. But the fact is otherwise. easily The Path to Absolute Perfection. know- something that does not already an act enjoined in by ledge of in all the Sruti. and * With means of a view to bring into existence exist t A continuous current of the . Just as. attain- us from regarding the not. is Devotion to Knowledge (j/jana-nish^ha) able. self Endued with a pure reason. the aggregate of the body and the senses. also. Reason (buddhi) the determining faculty. . example. Therefore Self) that it is not for the hioidedge (of Brahman or the any effort"'' is needed .444 it THE bhagavad-gIta. of How Listen : is this consummation knowledgel to be attained? 51. a man seeks to reach by cognition the cognisable object such as a pot.Self as the Self. so also would he have to seek to reach cognition by means of another cognition. : Pun Self &>€. Wherefore cognition is self-revealed. abandoning sound and other . and laying aside love and hatred from illusion (maya). Brahman the reason merging Brahman through the elimination of alien attributes ascribed to _^. Him. objects except those only which are necessary for the bare maintenance of the body. to be [Dis. : : free from doubt and misThe conception.

&c. : ever accustomed to resort to such se- questred spots as a jungle. Self. free from the notion of " mine." for becom- ing Brahman. This devotee of wisdom should also restrain his speech. With all the senses thus quieted. INIoreover. : Egotism identifying the Self with the body. and Yoga or concentration of the mind on the else. the sandbank of a river. enmity. Dispassion absence of desire for visible and invisible objects. 50-53-] CONCLUSION. endued with dispassion Resorting. This should be a constant attitude of the mind. but not the physical or any other strength natural. its the latter being : abandonment is not possible. nity of thought Eating but little : as conducive to the sere- by keeping off sleep and such other evils. Having abandoned egotism. in always engaged meditation and concentration. Arrogance which . strength. for 445 those objects laying aside love and hatred even which appear necessary for the maintenance of the body. little. 53. : etc. he is fit ance. property. Resorting to a sequestered spot. the mountain-cave. Strength: that strength which is combined with passion and : desire. Then. 52. body and mind. (s^c. desire. eating but speech and body and mind subdued. arrogand peaceful.. he should always and devoutly practise Dhyanaov meditation upon the nature of the Self. Ahuays : this implies that he has to do nothing no viantrajapa (repetition of chants or mystic formulae).

of serene all self. THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. he becomes arrogant.sa-Parivrajaka.— 446 : — [DiS. regard even the bodily exultation and care.. he is from all passions of the of mind and the belongings as is may own . In this way. has reached He who Brahman and It is attained self-serenity does not grieve regarding his failure to accomplish object or regarding his wants. life He : does not as his. he transgresses 1-13-4). XVIII.. he attains supreme devotion to Me. as said " in the sninti When a man exults. : though a man senses. and when he becomes Property arrogant." mean " he : neither grieves nor Treating all beings alike he regards the pleasure . so much external necessary for bodily sustenance and for the observance of his duties (dharma) but even this the aspirant abandons . a sawmyasin of the fourth or highest order. follows the State of exultation and leads to the transgression of dharma. he becomes a Paramaha. i. 54. e. — Another reading makes the passage exults. he neither grieves alike \ treating beings . free dharma " (Apastamba-Dharmasutra. an not indeed possible to suppose that he 1 who knows Brahman can have a longing for any object unattained/ therefore the words "he neither grieves nor desires " is tantamount to saying that such is the nature of the man who has become Brahman.. nor desires. Becoming Brahman. The consummation of Knowledge attained by Devotion. Peaceful of free is from fit Such a devotee wisdom to become Brahman.

he knows that I am devoid of all the differences caused by the upadhis. that I am the Supreme Purusha. all 447 and pain of not creatures equally with his own.. .— 53-55'] CONCLUSION. in vii. pure and. — spoken of i6. \ Thus knowing Me he enters into Myself immed- lately after attaining It is knowledge. there nothing as the effected by knowledge other than itself. kinds vis. (Objection) : — The statement that "by the supreme devotion of knowledge he knows Me. — devotee to wisdom attains highest devotion to Me. in truth. that I am like imto akasa. is the is act of entering to be ? — It is ( the knowledge itself ) for. fearless. ' the one Consciousness (Chaitanya).." involves a contradiction. that himself). Then. He knows who I am. — — the fourth or the highest of the four the Devotion of Knowledge. unborn. simple. {i. By Devotion he knows Me in and who I am then. they would affect them just as they affect is — It all. truth. meant here that he sees the identity of the Self in Such a as this will be mentioned in the next verse. undecaying. . — What then . not meant here that the act of knowing and the act of entering are two distinct acts. deathless. in what he truth. also know Me as Kshetra- 2).e. knowing Me 55. by the Devotion of KnowledgQf he knows Me as I am in the divers manifestations caused by upadhis. he knows Me to be non-dual. Lord has taught. forthwith enters into Me. undying. " Do thou j»a." (xiii. the Supreme Lord. By Bhakti. of devotion.

for. and immediatly after16). as the 17).Thus there contradiction involved in the statement that tion of no "by the Devo" Knowledge (the aspirant knows) Me. no repeis tition of the knowledge. generated by the teachings of the Scriptures and the master under conditions favourable ripening of that knowledge viz. XVIII. is referred to (vii.). . et and purity of mind. distressed./a disappears altogether. &c. . then the knowledge is said to have attained supreme consummation." involves a contradiction. the state- ment that devotion to knows Me.. humility seq. with that of the aspirant knows the By this supreme devotion the Lord as He is. — and accom_panied with the renunciation of all works which are associated with the idea of distinctions such as the agent and other factors of action. How arises —Thus in : when the knowledge of a Certain object alone the knower the knower. ^ This jnana-nish^ha (Devotion of Knowledge) of Devotion. {Answer) : — This objection does not apply (nishi'ha)" here'. (vii. / When the knowledge of the unity of the individual Self (Kshetraj«a) and the Supreme Self to the rise (Paramatman). " he necessary. not by knowledge. culminates in a firm conviction by one's own experience.— 448 THE BHAGAVAD-GiTA ? [DiS. by a repetition of knowledge. . Supreme or fourth kind Bhakti — supreme as compared with J the remaining three kinds of Devotion. then and then knows that object no devotion to that knowledge. Therefore. 7.. but by knowledge. is 4 wards all consciousness of difference between the Isvara and the Kshetraj. and other attributes (xiii. the word " devotion by all means that the its rise knowledge aided the favourable conditions of and development and freed from obstacles culminates in a firm conviction by one's own experience.

" Here.— 55. passages of similar import (such as v. : The scriptural texts are such as the following Knowing It. Then alone can tures viz. meant sections as for. " Renuncidtion excels.] — CONCLUSION." this "Having abandoned Vedas. " Renounce dharma and a-dharma. they occur in the which specially treat of renunciation. arthavddas. and 57 . Nor can be held that they are (not mere explanatory or incidental remarks obligatory injunctions) . cannot be held that these it passages are meaningless. i. 2-23-13).'-(BH." " Sa7/myasa is the renunciation of actions." — (Apastamba-Dharmasiitra. on. Up. 449 Renunciation of all works is necessary for absolute perfection.y the well-ascertained teacliing of all scrip- the Upanishads. 12) occur. "Wherefore they say that renunciation is excellent among these austerities. And the Devotion of Knowledge nish^hn) consists in an intent effo rt to e stablish a c ontinuou s current of the idea of the Inner Self (Pratyagatman) . 3-5-9). they renounce and lead a mendicant life. is Moreover . | c. sea should not indeed travel in the opposite direction. etc. to go to the (juana." — (Yajiliki-Up. world and the next. by the same road that the man who wishes western sea chooses. in And so the Gitii It also./(renunciation of works necessary) because 1 Moksha consists in the realisation of the immutability of He who wishes to reach the eastern one's own Inner Self. Itihasas. {Ibid. 79). 78). Pura«as and Snintis — enjoining " retirement have a meaning.

there would be a conflict that devotion were to be conis like joined with ritual (karma). the Yoga extolled here.. The perfection accruing as the fruit of that in Bhakti-Yoga which consists worshipping the duties qualifies the aspirant for Lord through one's own the Devotion of Knowledge this which culminates of in moksha.m by the Grace of the Lord. the faith that not works. which going towards the western sea. his whoso seeks refuge self Me. — My Grace he reaches I the eternal undecaying Abode. finally leads to salvation.''' All actions : pro- i. [ ing Me Supreme. if [DiS. — obtain able by the Lord's — but .A 450 THE BHAGAVAD-GiTA. the Hence the conclusion that ) Devotion of Knowledge all (jnana-nishi^ha should be practised by renouncing action. is This Bhakti-Yoga. section which sums up the teaching of the firmly impress that teaching. Devotion to the Lord by works enjoined. by 56. faith. regardthy heart in Me. Devotion to the Lord. It is a firm conviction of philosophers that the difference between the two is as wide as that between a mountain and a mustard seed. in sastra. Vasudeva. Wherefore. with centred Me. do thou ever Mentally * e. with a view to Doing continually taking refuge in Me. : with discriminative knowledge alone Grace. the Lord. 57. XVIII. Mentally resigning as the all deeds to Me. reaches the eternal Abode of Vish. resorting to mental confix centration. all actions whatsoever. Doing whole all actions including even the prohibited in in actions.

451 ducing visible and invisible results. thy nature as a Kshatriya do so. though against thy will. 61.c : resorting to the Buddlii-Yogd (samahita-buddhitva. My Grace. thou shalt do. the cause of sawsara. do thou dedicate all thy actions to Regarding his regarding Me. cross over but if from ego- tism thou wilt not hear (Me). that which from delu60. then thou shalt be ruined. why obey the dictates of another" If. : Me : the Lord. thy resolve . sion thou likest not to do. resolvest. If Egotism : the idea that thou art a thou wilt not abide by my advice. nature will constrain thee. Also because. " should 59. 55-fii-] CONCLUSION. Bound (as thou art}. indulging egotism. O son of Kunti. thou shalt perish. Fixing thy heart in Me. by thy own nature-born act. firm faith) as thy sole refuge. &c. Difficulties : the impassable obstacles arising from(avidya). thou thinkest vain is ' I will not fight.. Resorting. Neither shouldst thou think. learned man. \'asudeva. . For. mentioned above : (xviii. taught in ix. As Me. Tkinhst. : such as prowess. The Lord dwells in the hearts of all beings.mindedness.. steady. as the highest goal self whole centred in Me. 58. thou shalt. Against thy mil in subjection to some external force. Nature-born 43). 27.' this. will constrain thee to Vain : for. I I am ? independent . by all difficulties . &.

Vishjai's —^Supreme 63.Yoga. antaA-karana. most secret of therefore will My word supreme. XVIII. e. Then. thou supreme peace and Eternal Abode. dolls ' mounted on a machine. by attain to His Grace. My i. it all more secret than all reflect. By Maya: by causing with ' Whirling' should be construed dwells. Him for refuge with all thy being. Naraya/za. Fly unto . : [DiS. secret. wooden illusion.' 62.) the Ruler. again going to say : Listen to what 64. ' The word causes all " arjuna " used in the sense of pure ' in the i?ig-Veda. Me : the Omniscient Lord. : the Sastra. All everything that has been taught. if) O Maya all beings (as mounted on The Lord in the {isYSLva. the teaching declared above. I am Hear thou again all . Thus has wisdom. is Devotion to the Lord in the Secret of success Karma. Seek thou that Lord as thy sole Refuge with thy whole being for relief from the distress of shalt obtain sa. ' He as if being understood — mounted on machines. that is been declared to thee by Me..— 452 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. obtain O Bharata by His Grace shall thou supreme peace (and) the eternal resting place. whirling by a machine. . of a pure Arjitna: pure internal is self. the because thou art My firm friend. thou over and act as thou It : pleasest. thee what is I tell good.«sara. Arjuna." (6-9-1). " The dark day and like the if beings to revolve as — //^//i ' day.

the highest of attaining knowledge. seek Me all as thy sole Refuge sins . all I righteous deeds. one should look to the Lord as the highest and sole Refuge. will liberate thee from do thou not grieve. thou art ever beloved of I thou for My Me . . shalt reach (for) worship Me. is it ? What 65.. — The Lord says: Thou . and end — thou shalt come to Me. Myself. do thee either from fear or from hope of reward firm friend. and being convinced that a necessary result of devotion to the Lord. This last is. the means indeed. Abandoning . as taught tas (Upanishads) in the essential portions of all the Vedan- 66.: — CONCLUSION.] Again not art tell : thou^'h it has been more than once declared. The truth do I declare to thee thou art dear to Me. the Lord now proceeds to speak of the Right Knowledge. Myself: thus acting i. Fix thy thought on Me. of all kinds of good. — 453 I 6 1 -66. *Kiving taught the Devotion of in conclusion that the supreme secret of Karma. do homage to Me. this Thus.Yoga. e. The meaning moksha is In this matter of the verse is I make : a solemn promise. is the regarding of the Lord as the sole Refuge. and this reason shall tell thee of the supreme good. deeds Righteous (dharma) : including unrighteous deeds . knowing that the Lord's declarations are true. the fruit of the Devotion of KarmaYoga. be devoted to Me. TJioii shalt reach looking up to Vasudeva alone as thy aim. means. Right Knowledge and Renunciation.

by manifesting Myself already said here. ^^^hence this doubt It ? (nis-sreyasa) Is or both together? has been said " Knowing which one (xiii.e. from all bonds of dharma and a-dharma. the Self of all. all since naishkarmya or freedom from intended to be taught here. [DiS. ^So it has been destroy the darkness born of ignorance in their by the self. and " Do thou also perform ." luminous lamp of wisdom. /Seek " : Me : as thy sole Refuge : in the belief " I myself is am that else tsvara . dwelling the same in diW. What is the means to the Highest or Works? determined Bliss." i. — Knowledge as the ? What % it has been in this GitS.-sristra means of attaining the Highest Bliss Knowledge (Jfiana)." So. II. also." Me alom the isvara... " I as thy own Self.) Wherefore do thou not grieve. forthwith enters into Me" (xiii. the passage means " renouncing all works. do thou understand that there thou art firm naught except Me. 12). Such passages (ii. Abandon dharma and a-dharma.. Here may be cited : such passages of the sruti and the smnti as the following " Not he attain who has not abstained from evil deed. abiding (x. 55) : these is and other pass- ages teach that the Highest Bliss attained by mere is knowledge. I shall liberate all sins.— 454 (a-dharma) action is THE BHAGAVAD-GlTA. again as " Thy concern with action alone" 47). attains the Imhe mortal" and " Then knowing Me in truth."— (Ka^ha-Up. or Works (Karma). thee from When in this faith. can 1-2-24) It. XVIII.

66. avidya has been active in time without a beginning. the Eternal Reality not produced either by knowledge or by works. not an effect to to be accomplished by it. the The remover of this avidya is knowledge I of the Self arising in the following form./ (in — The word is " alone " the opening line of this paragraph) : intended to exclude the two other alternatives neither by works alone. Wherefore. alone is the means to it the Highest for. viz. as removing the notion of variety." (iv. ? What means the good of this enquiry at It is this. nor by works and knowledge conjoined together.. I am the agent I do this act for such and such a result :" in this form. actionless. for such a the notion of knowledge removes variety which causes one to engage in action. Avidya is the perception of variety involving actions. works is (juite Since it has been taught that both knowledge and works are obligatory. culminates in liberation (kaivalya). the Highest Bliss action. factors of action. teach that performance obligatory. of 455 action. is the Highest Bliss attained. in the Self. there whether also the two conjoined may arise may not all a doubt as constitute to the means to the is Highest Bliss. and the ends of actions. " Mine is action . moreover. devoid of results". /Pure Self-knowledge Bliss . It is always present . free. "Here am. 15). is Sinc e. to determine which one of them forms the is to the is Highest Bliss. works cannot be the means is Indeed. is Self = Knowledge alone the means to the Highest Bliss. . the subject very wide and worth investigating.] CONCLUSION. a non -agent.

just as — They may be conjoined. &c. XVIII. as soon as the light of the lamp removes the darkis ness which caused the error. Wherefore. — they cannot the same time) operate in another act productive of another result different from severance or the other kindling of a fire . is it culmi- nates in emancipation. in freeing the various mistaken notions of serpent. the rope for a serpent. emancipation being the result of knowledge.. too. So. (the devotee of knowledge) cannot desire the . as regards the Self-knowledge. in the no longer mistaken the rope from The result of illumination culminates indeed emancipation of the rope. by removing avidya. which then cease altogether. which a visible result. etc. for. Now.. the act of eating and the acts of fire-worship (agnihotra). — We know the its from experience that knowledge in which removes as darkness of avidya culminates result . . emancipation for instance. when the agent and other factors of action are fire. {Answer) : — No . — they cannot at the same act about another productive of a result other than the emancipation of the Self. [DiS.— 456 {Objection) : THE BHAGAVAD-GiTA. Knowledge cannot be conjoined with Works. even the pure knowledge serves no purpose ! [Answer) : — Not so for. so when the agent and factors of action are con- cerned in the act of knowledge-devotion (juana-nish^ha). whereof alike the result time operate to bring is visible. the Devotion of {Objection) : Knowledge cannot be conjoined with works. ('at operating in the act of cutting or in the act of churning — each act also producing a visible result. in the case of a rope (mistaken for a serpent). are conjoined. —Then.

emanci- pation requires the aid of works for. So its result also when knowledge to do an act is leading to emancipation as has been attained. wrong to say that emancipation is attained by knowledge alone for. by neglect of . Indeed. there can be no hope of attaining at all. since moksha is not to be attained by works. (Objection) : — No. [Conntev-objection) : — Thus. then. darkness cannot is remove darkness. a s removing avid ya. knowledge alone Highest Bliss. Therefore. by neglect of the nitya-karma or obligatory works enjoined in the sruti. nor will he desire for Therefore.-works are not the means Highest Bliss. Neither is it a conjunction of knowledge and works to Nor can be held that knowledge which leads . 457 an all-spreading flood result of works. — When there is of water close by nobody would ever think of constructing wells and tanks to any purpose. He who in engaged an act by which he hopes to ac(pire a whole kingdom it. {To explain) : — It is . moksha 58 .] CONCLUSION. / the means Refutation of the theory that salvation is attained by works alone. possible. knowledge to the is opposed to work s.66. iiitya or obligatory works one incurs pation is sin (pratya%'aya) and kaivalya or emanci- eternal. etc. will not certainly for engage in an act which can at best secure cherish a to the him a piece of land. a man incurs sin which leads him to hell. For. no- body would ever desire any other result or seek by which to obtain that other result.

which have not yet begun heaven and others extinguished. like may. for we argue that the fruits of those works are reaped in the in the form of the trouble and pain involved Or. effects The works which have begun it their being exhausted by the enjoyment of their fruits. no obnoxious and when the bodies are generated. the I emancipation of the Self i. [Answer): follows that emancipation — No. for the sruti says that there : exists no other road to moksha than knowledge alone. and no new works being undertaken. e. in- — There is no room for any such objection. and because their effects have not been enjoyed. by 2i\o\di\ng\hek(imya-kavmaot interested acts no desirable generated . no more causes . The Sruti says. is attained without any effort. the nitya-karma act. by avoiding the prohibited body either is acts. 3-8). present body perishes on the exhaustion of the fruits of the works which have given ' rise to the body. [Dis. one " Knowing Him crosses beyond death there exists no other road to the Abode" is (5vet.: — THE bhagavad-gIta. have not been to hell. their effects. performance of the nitya-karma. asmuch is as mokshais eternal. then exist which can generate another body and^vhen attachment and other passions are expunged from the heart. 458 {Rejoindev) XVIII. the priiyaschitta or expiatory serve to destroy past sins. [Rejoinder): — No . . ^ acts done in {Countey-ohjection) — Those of the to the past innumerable births. The sin of omission (pratyavaya) avoided by the observance of the nitya-karma or obliga- tory works . and of which some lead so on. further. that moksha as impossible for .. the realisation by the Self of His own true nature : — is attained without any effort. Up.

apart from itself. the mere circumstance of a man being alive forming a ground for its necessary performance. Refutation of the theory that the Nitya leads to no future births. sufficient We say. it is impossible for those deeds to yield to which have not yet begun work out their . the akasa Hke leather ' 6 — 20). the nitya-karma bears no distinct because the sruti speaks nowhere of its fruits. as to the contention As painful in itself. Because the sruti says that the its result. and as these cannot be exhausted without gen- crating another body.?ya) deeds which have not yet begun effects possible . the good deeds (pu«ya-karma) which have not yet begun their effects cannot be said to have been exhausted. their fruits no . nityn-karma produces merit (pu«ya) as and because the smriti says that.] CONCLUSION. inasmuch as to destruction of love and hatred and acts of merit delusion whicli lead and demerit cannot be effected except by means of Self-knowledge. moksha is not possible. Karma Now. the several castes and orders attain to a is high immeasurable happiness.' one attains emancipation by know - Moreover. the nityakarma is itself the fruit of sinful deeds committed in the : past fruit. men And to compress Pura. by performing their proper duties. Just as the existence of sins is which have not begun their effects possible.nc the tradition also says that ledge. 459 the unwise man as it is impossible for {Ibid. the exhaustion of works not possible.66. so also the existence of their good is (pu. Neither is it possible to generate no new merit and de- merit (dharma and adharma in this body). for. .

for the enjoyment of heaven (svarga). it is like. whereas you say that .460 effects. alone the but not the pain of carrying stones on the head or the Besides. in the XVIII. to suppose that their mere trouble and pain involved in the observance of the nitya-karma would lead to the further supposition which it is impossible to hold that the sufferconsist in — — ing inflicted by the pairs of opposites. the pain involved nitya-karma cannot answer to in the performance variety of of the that suffering (which should result from the variety) of acts of sin. deeds done in — not begun to bear fruit is possible . Neither can in the [DiS. : {To explain) — It is wrong to say that the fruits of the sinful in deeds committed in the past births are reaped of the trouble the form and pain involved in the performance of the nitya-karma. (in- there be any variety pain volved performance of the nitya-karma). and that the trouble and pain is involved in the observance of the nitya-karma effect of past sins. diseases and the like. of the deeds We cannot indeed understand for how the fruit at which did not sprout up fruition the time of death can be reaped in the birth caused by another set of deeds. While effects many acts of sin productive of as many distinct kinds of suffering may the possibly exist. there would be nothing unreasonsupposition that infernal able in the in the suffering is possible (fire- very birth that has been generated by Agnihotva the sacrifice) for enjoyment of the fruit thereof /. irrelevant to say that the trouble and pain involved in the observance of the nitya-karma constitutes tlie past.— How ? It has been urged that no extinction of the past sin which has the result of the sinful. Otherwise. has no cause of its own..f. Moreover. THE BHAGAVAD-GITA.

the pain of the expiatory act be the effect the very sinful act which forms its occasion. the sinful deeds which have begun their effects can be extinguished by merely undergoing the effects so produced.. in it would follow that the trouble nitya-karma the effect and pain involved that very state of the performance of the is occasioned by the man's being alive. prayaschitta or expiatory act. &c. It would then also follow that the enjoining of the nitya-karma has no purpose to serve for. Moreover. the nitya-karma cannot be. 461 the fruit of the deed which has begun to bear fruit — not the reaped fruit of the deed which has not begun to bear fruit — is in the form of the trouble and pain involved If. as enjoined on a man on the mere ground of his being alive. on the other hand. enjoined certain act of sin having been of that sinful act. not the of fruit on the other hand. committed. . Again. then there is no ground for the specification that the mere trouble and pain involved in the observance of the nitya- karma are the fruits (of those sinful deeds which have not begun to produce their effects). An expiatory act. the nitya-karma and prayaschitta being alike necessitated by the particular occasions respectively.] CONCLUSION. If. in the if pain be the result of the nitya-karma enjoined that pain may it is arise from the trouble involved itself observance of the nitya-karma : as from any other active exercise that it is therefore unreasonable to suppose the result of another action. in the observance of the nitya-karma. you mean that the whole sin committed in the past has begun to bear fruit. the effect in the any more than a of sins committed by reason of a is past. being alive which of has occasioned the necessity . in the sruti.66. . then.

it is committed to infer. when the kamya-agnihotra nitya-agnihotra is performed. in th. is would follo^. The opponent is is also guilty of inconsistency. the of th . that because no mentio made in the sruti of the is nitya-karma's results and becaus the injunction thereof otherwise inexplicable. is not a distinct act from th effect nitya-agnihotra. and inconsistent to hold at the same time that the nitya-karm produces no fruits of its own. When reapin therefoi once admitted that through the performance of thenityj fruit of karma the forms another deed is reaped. that the latter also past. The injunctio being otherwise inexplicable. Such being the wrong on th" ground of consistency is (arthapatti). is Moreover. we should even infer that th nitya-karma is productive of results distinct from the pai in its and trouble involved performance. as included in that self-same act fruit of the and therefore th kamya-agnihotra should become exhausted wit inaJ the trouble and pain involved in the nitya-agnihotra. XVIIj' in Moreover. much as the kamya-agnihotra If. and no special reason being found as to the performance of wh th' nitya-karma alone should constitute the result of sins con mitted in the in the past. this it is itself the fruit of the nitya-karma. the troub and pain involved is in the performance of the nitya-karrr the result of sins committed in the past. but not the trouble and pain it involve performance of the kamya-karma. the trouble and pain involved the pe) [ormance of a nitya-agnihotm (five-worship done as a dutj and a kdmya-agnihotva (fire-worship the trouble and pain involved in done with a motivf being equal. neously.462 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. th also said to have been performed simult? . on the other hand. the result of sins case. [DiS.

even though 3 svarga or the like. —A. its fruits iiiya-karma. then no effort would be it ade with a view to attain an unseen result. is Furthermore. superior to the former in any of the subsidiary parts or the mode of performance. of its amya-agnihotra be something len it would follow that the trouble and pain . whereas performed as a kamya-karma the self-same although the latter roduces a superior result lere is 5t . If this latter were 'oductive of immediate results. yields sible future in the in- not intended for the removal of sins and therefore Self-knowledge alone. * Knowledge and Works are meant total for distinct classes of aspirants. distinct. conduces to that end. so long as it is held that in the case of all gnihotra or the like I — despite the absence of the nature of the act — the fruits of the act its distinction when per- rmed hen as a nitya-karma are reaped in the form of the mere act ouble and pain involved in performance. knowledge alone can cause like tlie it is destruction of . In point of fact.asonable to contend that the nitya-karma does not lead to isults in the unseen future. it by way of taking the de- must be admitted. . perit irmance must also be distinct pposed to ivolved istinct but it is not so. Wherefore it is in no way . productive of immediate results or an act which is enjoined prohibited by the sastra innot be productive of immediate result. 463 such as svarga. — such as svarga— merely because act is a longing for its results.5] CONCLUSION. for is facts. Dticause the nitya-karma. of The Paths So*. an action which rohibited (in the sruti) nt is neither enjoined nor . the trouble and pain is in the performance of the nitya-karma not from that of the kamya-karma. tee to the regions of Pitris and the like.

they resort only to one of the several paths mentioned order.avidya and and has desire) constitute the seed of all action. causes is (xviii. 3. iii. who are followers of works. .Yoga pertains to the ignorant and that Jwana-nish^ha Vide 21 or knowledge-devotion all . 8. For. . From the last verse here quoted should be men who are devoted to action cannot approach the Lord. 21. good or deeds caused by avidya —not kama the performance (nescience it of the nitya-karma. of action. (i. The triple result fruit. siv. Accordingly been declared that Karma. And therefore. 22-26. the sawmyasins of the fourth or highest order) who have obtained refuge in the unity of the Self and the Divine Being. 10. 28 13 . ig. 13-20. they cultivate are their path of mentioned m xii. all works generated by the 14). 18 it . — A. the are devoted to the Undefinable attributes. does not accrue to those five who have renounced such as the body knowledge. 12) — such as the evil. who are engaged higher devotion of who have known the true nature of the Lord. accom- panied with renunciation of ii. good and mixed — (xviii. rendering service to the Lord. X.— 464 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA evil [DiS. who follow the path of * Vide xiii. 22 . sv 3-5. But it does accrue to others who are ignorant. to the wise. ix. notwithstanding that ignorant men. 7-11. and dis- knowledge is also described in the three courses commencing with the (thirteenth) discourse on the Kshetra'". who know in the that the Self one and non-agent. are most deinferred that ignorant vout. works pertains v. But as regards those who and the Indestructible. XVIII. 6-1 1) in their descending abandoning the fruits them being that which consists in of action. vii. the lowest of (xii. to the Paramaha/zzsa-Parivrajakas c. 26.

must be gau»a. 465 the works. as the Self only a gau/za-pratyaya or a figuratively it is expressed notion {Answcy) : not an illusion (mithya). who are not sawnyasins. and kamya and rites. man would in undertake to perform the nitya-karma. it can be proved.. {Answer) : — Not so I for. is only known to be a source of evil. {Objection) etc. it is — So long as . (AnsKxy) : — No . is really done by the agency of the not-Self. as no doubt alone. we see that a man engages an act thinking " do" the act. regarding of the aggregate of the body. Thus should we assign paths of duty taught in the Gita-sastra.66. 59 . but it concerns the ignorant act of brahmanicide. too. other evil — his concern nitya. karmas. prohibited in the sastra. taught in the sastra Just as the . all works comprising all the constant sacrificial occasional duties as well as interested concern only him {Objection) : who is ignorant (of the Self).] CONCLUSION.).. in it being otherwise inexplicable — so e.-hich. then its effects. as in the is case of brahmanicide (brahmahatya). all — It cannot be proved that action is caused by avidya. is committed by him who is ignorant and influenced by passion and tendencies. being of the nature of (of the motion. :— The is . all naimittika. it is not likely that any etc. for. — The nitya-karma which. i. etc. v. also. Action {Objection) : is a creature of Avidya. — Not so . must have been figuratively spoken of. body. not known that the Self is distinct from the body.

— Not for. —the being understood. no act done by a gau. only between the two is not perceived. in —which are things belonging for instance. {To explain the ansivey) not lead to a real effect sign of similarity extol . our words should be understood sense. such "Devadatta merely to a lion" and " the student is fire" extol the subjects. done by the bodily aggregate Self. : [DiS. actually experiences the evil effects of an illusory Furthermore./a (figurative) lion or fire can become an act done of by a real lion or fire.. so. would not be regarded as an act done in reality by the by the real subject of the notion " I. if the bodily aggregate be figuratively spoken the act of as the Self. — is merely intended to expressions as are intended the subject. but no effect of the in virtue existence of a real lion or of a real accomplished of that figurative expression or idea. one notion. other thing one the student is no So also. — as when the distinction when a pillar is mis- taken for a man. a figurative the as when. as the Self. {To explain the objection) of the body. On the other hand." Indeed." the present certainly no mithya- pratyaya or illusory notion. is For example. addressing the father sruti says " thyself art he parlance. when it is figuratively spoken of as some knows that Devadatta is no lion and that fire. etc. one knows what the subject in reality is . A gau. Neither is any purpose whatever . — When we speak of the aggregate to the Self.ia-pratyaya can- a figurative expression. Devadatta and the student. we say case there It is is life. XVIII. In common In who is spoken of as thy son. lion because of their respective resemblance to the in and fire point of fierceness and yellomshness fire is .— 466 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. that we have an : instance of illusion.'' " this cow is my very too.

.. so also in the last previous birth and in the birth previous to that. sa. and that the cow. and then sa. think rather that the act of the (bodily) aggregate mine. sion." as regards the theory that the Self actually does And act. — we say that such proceed from illusion. is an aspect of avidya. is . of avidya distinct . &c. etc. he lion. &c. fire he never regards an act of a lion or the present case. is caused by avidya and it with- out a beginning." i. not the real Self's. an — his memory. than that " I am the mine is the action. are distinct . desire action. lion or fire served 467 an actual it by fierceness or yellowishness. of Wherefore attained follows that the final cessation to sawsara is through devotion all knowledge accompanied with renunciation of works.] CONCLUSION... Just as in this birth dharma and a-dharma and &c.sara. thus praised knows that he is not a he is not So. c. memory. an aspect that he is for. of fire as his. desire and effort proceed from impressions produced by the experience of desirable and undesirable effects of actions set up by illuIn fact. Thus we are to infer is past and future. and so on.66..«sara necessarily — The identifying is of the Self vvith the aggregate of the body. Moreover. being merely intended to extol (the subject). to when avidyil ceases. to affection the experience of their fruits are due to the identifying of the Self with the aggregate of the body.. Because attachment to the body therefore. nobody in the world who knows from a cow. the bodily aggreSelf). the body also must cease ceases. in gate were figuratively spoken of as the one would "is not agent. that who (if. and is effort forming causes of because they not the case. and that aversion and so on. be.

The spoken of body and the senses and the as the Self. the senses. no real purposes of the true Self can be accomplished. being really not-Self. By what is only figuratively spoken of as the Self. from him. and they cease It is be regarded as the Self when illusion disappears. for. they are regarded as by illusion. lion No real purposes. etc. the — No. they are selfs set up by avidya. only children. {AnsTx'cr) : — viz." it is a gau7/a-pratyaya. of a real figur- and a real fire can be achieved by what are only lion atively spoken of as a : and fire. for want of knowledge.. the purposes of the Self can certainly be achieved by what are figuratively body. who.468 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. etc. " I tall.. any more than the son can eat for the father. On selfs for. [DiS. body. in the the branchless trunk of a tree same way that one mistakes for a man. they are regarded as the Self to so long as there is illusion. to the son being " thyself art he who is spoken of as thy son. like are not figuratively the other hand." and thus regard the aggregate of the as the Self. {Ohjedion) — Since the scriptural ordinances are of undisin the puted authority transcendental matters. those that " I who can from the discriminate and understand am distinct .. for instance. spoken of as the father himself in the As sruti. for want of discrimination. Only an ignorant identifies man the Self with the aggregate of the body. I am am yellowish. think. because of their relation as the generator and the offspring. and spoken of as the Self so on. regards them as himself. XVIII. a figuratively expressed notion. but not he who — knows the truth by discrimination. On the other hand. the ignorant people.

not possible to suppose that the notion of " in connection Wherefore I it " which arises with the aggregate of the body.?a-pratyaya. difTerent meansruti a ing from the apparent one for. fire is A hundred . This notion of identity because it does not exist in the absence of is therefore — illusion It is — caused by illusion when similarity . as to the mutual relation of things as in an authority means to ends. in of matters lying beyond is bounds in human knowledge. but not . and Devadatta. we would still suppose that intends . it is such as pratyaksha or immediate perception. lies is sruti is intended as an authority only for knowing what beyond the range of human knowledge. and which is evidently due to illusion.. inas- much 5ruti as sruti an authority the in transcendental matters. And is as regards the appeal made to the authority we say that no such appeal should be made.. perceived by an authority only of matters not of means ordinary instruments knowledge. but not — that those two things may be figuratively spoken of in in word as identical or so regarded when similarity and difference are not perceived.. &c. may declare that cold or that it is dark still they possess no authority in the matter. is etc. and it is not a gau. of 5ruti. ' 469 aggregate of the body.'' &c.e.] CONCLUSION. or between a student and thought. its authority cannot other- wise be maintained . we should in no way attach to meaning which declaration. only and difference are distinctly seen lion between two things — as between a fire. declare that it If sruti should at all fire is cold or that quite a it is dark. srutis only a figurative idea. is opposed to other authorities or to its own .— 66. matters lying within the range of pratyaksha indeed. i. do not identify themselves with the aggregate of the body.

removed when which the true nature of the Self known from the sruti teaches Brahmavidya true Self be ever . true. [Objection) : — If the sruti which treats of works sliould be sruti no authority.470 THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. — A. (Answer) : which teaches Brahmavidya. for. removed in any way by anything whatsoknowledge of the Self is necessarily associated the absence of avidya)like the knowledge with its result(?. create an the aspiration to the Innermost still it is Though means is is mithya or illusory. sruti . moreover. the be no authority. but not so can this knowledge of the ever : for. would follow that ( when when he works ) ceases to be an agent* the sruti which treats of would prove false. . XVIII. for.s still true in the matter of Brahma -vidya.. does not drive us to the conclusion the sruti teaching works proves useless first .. can — Not so .. because the end true. is that fire hot and luminous. as in the case oF the arthavadas or * I. e. of [DiS. e. too. Our that theory. on the cessation of avidya. etc. The theory the {Ohjedion) : Avidya does not militate against authority of Karma-Kanda. by restraining the natural activities one by one and therefresh by gradually inducing to and higher reach activities. there can arise no notion that can is remove (Brahmavidya). it serves Self. — The notion that the Self is is identi- cal with the aggregate of the body. {Answer): No. a — As to man it does an action only he is subject illusion. for.

Similarly of an commander army acts by mere word.. independently of Brahinavidya— A.. we may in ordinary affairs. A king. . yajamana or sacrificer. before the attain- ment of Self-knowledge). Refutation of the theory of the Self's agency by mere presence. directly. or To take another example priests are : the acts of the ritviks officiating supposed to belong to the body. And we find that the king and the commander are connected with the results of the act. This by his itself constitutes the real agency of the Self. etc. though himself not acting. the Self does act by mere presence.66. acts of the we may hold. by the inasmuch as their : results accrue to the loadstone or To take yet another example since the real act. e.' and so on. are done Self. «. AiwtJur theory runs as follows : — Though not directly engaged in action. ». just as pratyakshaor sense-percep- tion caused by attachment to the body is held to be authori- tative prior to (the attainment of) Self-knowledge.— Or. So the Self. for it would be Sdkshdt. magnet makes a piece of iron revolve. and he is the said to be victorious or defeated. we have to tell him thereby his hair will grow. agency may rest with what is not actually engaged in an so also in the case of the Self. in virtue of his mere presence. And even or a that when we have to induce a child lunatic to drink milk or the like.. for instance. is said to fight w'hen soldiers fight. 471 explanatory statements subsidiary to a main injunction.] CONCLUSION. : And {]Ve reply) ' — It is not right to say so . even argue that the sruti treating of works in itself'' is an authority under other circumstances {i.

accruing from success and Wherefore. tantamount which does not act karaka or an agent. {The opponent says): — Yes. are direct agents also. Wherefore agency can by mere presence merely a gau«a or figurative agency. we as should understand that to speak. the king In the first place. which consists in one be- ing actually engaged in the act. The theory But its of Avidya concluded. fruits them wages. is may be personally engaged in fighting. On the contrary.. were not found in the of such agents as the king case and the sacrificer. too. {We reply) : — No . Such being the no real action is case. amounts to a If real agency. And no agency any other evil of . as the case of dreams and the juggler's art or enjoy ership or (may a). By a gau/m or figurative it is agent performed. even the connection with results only be gau/^a or unreal. is man not actually engaged. to illusion as all this becomes explicable when traced in cause. He a direct agent as causing others to fight. an agent when he figure of speech. karaka or we agency may be of various kinds. XVIII. find that the king. etc. (as in- stanced above). for. is a real agent as offering the main oblation and as giving presents. as in the case of a magnet causing a piece of iron to revolve. &c. as paying and also as reaping the defeat. we do some find the king and the sacrificer actually engaged is in acts. makes the actionless Self a real doer and enjoyer.. is -a. by courtesy. Therefore quite unreason- able to say that the activity of the body.472 THE bhagavad-gitA. then we might suppose that even agency by mere presence constitutes real agency. of a The sacrificer. to saying that that [Dis.

the Lord proceeds now to state the rule as to the handing down of the instruction. Qualification for instruction in the Qita Doctrine. Therefor© we conclude that Right Knowledge conduces to absolute cessation of sawsara. renders One who speaks ill of Me he who looks upon Me. VS. and who in his ignorance full of austerities : * •' Susrusba " literally means one who ' desires t 60 . in Having concluded the whole doctrine of the Gita-sastra this discourse. may be. 473 states th in ^ sort is experienced in sleep. This (which has been taught) to thee is never to be taught to one ties. who is devoid of austeri- nor to one who is not devoted. Never under no cir- cumstances whatever.66-67. should not be declared to him as he who. the illusion of sa?«sara is Wherefore notion due solely to an illusory and is not absolutely real. Not devoted without devo- tion to the Guru and to the It Deva. devoted and no service.sudeva. the destruction of sawsara. This sastra has been taught to you by for Me : : for your good. 67.] CONCLUSION. nor to one who ill does not do service. as an ordinary man. is samadhi and similar which there a break in the continuity of the illusory notions identifying the Self with the body. etc. and having also briefly and conclusively impress it stated the doctrine especially here at the end to the more firmly.* nor to one who speaks of Me.

as it a has been elsewhere said that a it should be taught " either to man of austerities. or to man of austerities who is devoted and renders attri- an intelligent man possessed of the two butes . Teach establish by teaching both the text itself and the : . or to an intelligent man. should not be taught to him who is jealous of the Lord. and who renders man of austeriservice. that ill By is implication we him should understand the sastra is to be taught to who ties. and the sastra should not be taught to him. does not speak of the Lord. who who is devoted." it should be declared to a service. it should not be taught to a man of austerities or to an intelligent It man if he is not devoted and does not render service. Now. XVIII' be Me I guilty of self-adulation and does not like to that am the Isvara. though he may be possessed of all attributes. It Supreme because it conduces to the Highest Bliss. is not fit . He.474 declares told THE BHAGAVAD-GiTA. It should be taught to one who is devoted and renders service to the Guru. The merit of teaching the Doctrine. : This Supreme Secret the Secret Doctrine taught above in the form of a dialogue between is Kesava and Arjuna. to state Now the Lord proceeds what : fruits will accrue to him who hands down the 68. instruction He who come with supreme devotion to Me will teach this Supreme Secret to doubtless to My devotees. shall Me. [DiS. too. This is the rule as to how the sastra should be handed down.

Shall be in future time. On 70. will we may produce an effect equal to that of wisdom-sacrifice like. upamsn or a prayer uttered indnasa or a prayer offered with the mind. viz. I deem. it is meant that by devotion alone one becomes worthy of being taught thesastra. And he who him will study this sacred dialogue of ours. regard this passage as revealing what the real effect (of the act enjoined here) is. I 475 it have established of ' it by teaching to thee. such a teacher go to the Lord.. there any 69. Thus the Gita-5astra extolled as a jnana-yajna. the Supreme Teacher. a low voice. By repetition devotion ' here. present generation. that the act Or. dearer service to Me than he nor shall there be another on earth dearer to Nor. I shall this work which is in the form of a dialogue. : &c. as CONCLUSION.67-70.] doctrine. : There is none the He : the man who hands down the earth : sastra. jniina-yajna is The is or wisdom-sacrifice comes under the head of nuinasa and therefore the highest. Of the four kinds of sacrifice such as vidhi or in Japa or a loud prayer. Nor is among men who does . will the fruit of this act. in this world. ritual. Me in than he. he will be liberated. the Parama-Guru. — How should he teach service to it ? — In As the faith to that he is thus doing the Eternal Lord. by the sacrifice Dialogue : have been worshipped by of wisdom. of the contemplation of a Devata or the .

XVIII. with an attentive mind Has the delusion of ignorance been destroyed. The merit The of hearing the Doctrine. have you heard it : without distraction and understood Delusion is of ignorance that absence of discrimination which caused by ignorance ? and which is natural. is benefit accruing to the hearer stated as follows : 71. The Lord now asks with a desire to know whether sastra. [Dis. the latter be found to have not understood that it And this is is the duty of the teacher to try again to show make the to to pupil understand the teaching his object. might make the pupil if understand the teaching by some other means. : Liberated The righteous those who have per- formed Agnihotra or such other sacrifices. Has it been heard by thee. Has your delusion been destroyed all Its destruction is the object of this exertion on your .476 THE bhagavad-gIta. attain to the happy worlds of the righteous. ? O Partha. even he. who understands the doctrine. the the pupil has understood or not the teaching of the object of the question being that He it. It : O Dhananjaya? Heard ? : what I have told thee. And the man also who hears. The Lord assured by Arjuna of the of his grasp Teaching. liberated. so he Even he : : much more from sin. full of faith shall and free from malice. and enable him attain 72.

: will Thy word. 7). what grief? " (Isa. 7-1-3. order : to connect with the main narrative.71-74-1 CONCLUSION. all Recognition of the true nature When this recognition is obtained. the destruction of delusion and the attainment of a recognition (ChhcX. ties grieve " and then speaks of the loosening of all of Self-knowledge. hard to cross like the ocean. ing the Self. — This questioning and answering about the destruction of delusion shows conclusively of the what the purpose of a knowledge of the teaching is. Up. : Thus have I heard this wonderful dialogue . 477 part to hear the sastra and of the exertion on My part as the teacher. I have naught to teaching'. the whole evil of saw/sara. in do. 2-2-8) and " To him who sees unity. then the ties of the heart be loosened. Up. whole 5astra namely. I O do Achyuta. cause of the / : Delusion born of ajuana or ignorance. Sanjaya goes on Sanjaya said 74. Arjuna said "j^. Now. what delusion is there. am with doubts gone. by means There are also scriptural passages such as " The tie of the heart is broken " (Mwid.' Sanjaya extols the Lord and His The teaching of the it sPistra is over. : who will have sought Thy Grace. 26-2) I So the sruti begins with the words " Not knowof the Self. Up. Thy Grace. / am fiym in Thy command. of the Self. Do thy word: Arjuna means to say " Through Thy : Grace I have achieved the end of life . and I have gained I recognition through firm. : Destroyed is delusion.

[Dis. remembering every moment this wonderful and holy dialogue between Kesava and Arjuna. established. Through the gtace 0} Vydsa : by obtaining from him the Yoga it : divya-chakshus or divine vision. 75. every great moment is the most my wonder. Avork is called leads to Yoga. the the Lord of Yoga. the Himself: it. there fortune. the Universal Form. I wherever victory. 77. Through the grace of Vyasa have I heard this Supreme and most secret Yoga direct from Krishna.478 THE bhagavad-gIta. prosperity and polity are deem. Fovm : Visvarupa. Wherever is Krishna. is 78. O king . archer. the Lord of Yoga. : King : Dhntarash^ra. Arjuna. Or. and I rejoice again and again. . the Yoga because word may mean Yoga itself. And remembering wonderful Form of Hari. O I king. Himself declaring it. it is not through mere tradition that I have heard 76. rejoice again and again. Not to dilate much. which makes the hair stand on end. XVIII. Holy as the mere hearing of it destroys sin. between Vasudeva and the high-souled Partha. this dialogue .

There : Archer : W\e\dmg the bow called the : on the side of the Pa«iavas. The Lord of Yoga 479 : Wherever is : He the Lord of all Yogas. increase of fortune. Him. .75-78] CONCLUSION. FINIS. since the seed of all Yoga comes Prosperity forth from Ghtd\\2i. on that side on which.

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