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WID

WID

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Published by Sudarsan Manickam

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Published by: Sudarsan Manickam on Mar 08, 2011
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Sections

  • Human tasks
  • Types of human task
  • Human task clients
  • Human task user interfaces
  • Life cycle of a human task
  • Setting human task preferences
  • Human Task editor
  • Assign people tab: Human Task editor
  • Description tab: Human Task editor
  • Details tab: Human Task editor
  • Duration tab: Human Task editor
  • Environment tab: Human Task editor
  • Interface tab: Human Task editor
  • User interface settings tab: Human Task editor
  • The building blocks of the human task editor
  • Invocation scenarios for invocation tasks
  • Replacement variables and context variables
  • Replacement variables in people assignment criteria and task descriptions
  • Replacement variables in staff e-mails
  • Replacement variables for escalation duration expressions
  • Refactoring a human task
  • Supporting other languages
  • Assigning roles to your human task
  • Configuring the people directory
  • Defining the people assignment criteria
  • Predefined people assignment criteria
  • Customizing people assignment criteria
  • Creating queries
  • Defining substitution for absentees
  • Setting duration values for your human task
  • Using business calendars within human tasks
  • Using custom properties for human tasks
  • Creating an escalation for your human task
  • Escalations
  • Assigning people to escalations
  • Customizing an escalation e-mail notification
  • Notifying an event handler of an escalation
  • Subtasks
  • Follow-on tasks
  • Versioning human tasks
  • Setting up a user interface for your human task
  • Before you begin: Client types and prerequisites
  • Defining user interfaces for a human task
  • Generating HTML-Dojo pages or Lotus Forms for Business Space
  • Generating Lotus Forms clients
  • Generating WebSphere Portal portlets
  • Generating a Portlet
  • Generating JSF clients for your human tasks
  • Customizing clients
  • Deploying a generated client to an external runtime environment
  • Deploying the client: exporting to a deployment file
  • Deploying a generated client to a test environment
  • Deploying a generated client to WebSphere Portal Server
  • Installing a generated portlet
  • Creating Task Page Definitions
  • Adjusting the Unique Name for the Task Page
  • Using the My Task portlet to run a Human Task from the WebSphere® Portal Server
  • Testing human tasks
  • Testing people assignment criteria
  • Testing a human-centric process
  • Generating documentation of your human task
  • Programming support for human tasks
  • Extending human tasks using plug-ins
  • Limitations for human tasks
  • Customizing behavior with visual snippets
  • Visual snippets view: visual snippet editor
  • Preferences view: visual snippet editor
  • sing the visual snippet editor to write Java code
  • The building blocks of the visual snippet editor
  • Creating a custom visual snippet
  • Adding an exception to a snippet
  • Working with standard visual snippets
  • Adding a Java visual snippet
  • Using a custom visual snippet
  • Adding a link to a snippet
  • Using mapping service snippets
  • Configuring a custom event in a visual snippet
  • Business rules
  • When to use business rules
  • Building business rules: task roadmap
  • Choosing between a rule set and a decision table
  • Creating a rule group
  • Rule group editor
  • Advanced tab: business rule group editor
  • Specifying the rule logic for a rule group
  • Scheduling rules using the rule group editor
  • Customizing algorithms for date and time selection
  • Creating custom selectors
  • Using rule set names in a rule group
  • Creating a rule set
  • Rule set editor
  • Adding a variable to a rule set
  • Creating an if-then rule in the rule set editor
  • Creating an action rule in the rule set editor
  • Creating rule set templates
  • Creating a new rule from a template in the rule set editor
  • Letting a Web user override the default values in a rule set
  • Calling one rule set from another one
  • Creating a decision table
  • Decision table editor
  • Working with conditions in a decision table
  • Configuring actions in a decision table
  • Working with initialization action rules
  • Creating decision table templates
  • Using templates in your decision table
  • Editing a decision table template
  • Weak type support with business rules
  • Business rule management programming guide
  • Refactoring business rules
  • Generating documentation for your rules
  • Launching the Business Rules Manager

WID Human Task, Decision Table, Business Rules

Human tasks
A human task is, quite simply, a unit of work that involves a human. Quite often, this task requires that the human interact with other services, and thus becomes a task within a larger business goal. The WebSphere® Integration Developer tools have been designed so that users can easily compose integrative business solutions without programming skills. To this end, you can easily define a human task in an intuitive graphical programming environment called the human task editor. Before you start to use the human task editor, you need to understand these key concepts about human tasks: • An example of a human task • Presenting a task to a staff member • Escalations • Collaborating with other staff members in a human task Note: Human tasks can only be deployed to the WebSphere Process Server.

An example of a human task
Let us begin with an example of a human task. This graphic illustrates the steps involved when a staff member accepts a task.

In this example, this particular task is likely part of a much larger process which stops and waits until the staff member makes a decision. Here are some terms that you will need to understand to use the editor: Task Definition A Task Definition is a representation of the task that includes the following: • who can do the task (roles/people assignment criteria) • what needs to be done (name) • what happens when the task takes too long (escalation) • how the task will be done (input and output data)

In the runtime environment, a task definition starts as a single work item. Over time, the task definition may generate multiple work items. To-do items A to-do item is a work item that is presented to the user in the user interface. A staff member (employee) can browse all the to-do items that they have the authority to claim, and then claim it. Roles A role is a group of employees who share the same level of authority and access rights. When a task is assigned to a role, any staff member in that role group can complete the task. People assignment criteria This criteria define the members of each of the role groups.

Presenting a task to a staff member
When a human task is started, the staff member interacts with the task through a user interface in a client environment. If you take a look at the example again, you will see that you have already been exposed to a client, it just was not spelled out that way. Take a look at the example again with a few minor changes.

In this modified example, we see that all interaction between the user and the task is facilitated by a client. The task is delivered to the user through the client, and the resolution is returned in similar means. So far, both examples have shown what happens when the task can be completed without a problem. What happens when that is not possible?

Escalations
An escalation is a course of action that is begun when an expected result from a task has not been achieved within a set period of time. For instance, let us look at the same scenario again, and see what happens when it isn't properly completed.

In this example, we see that the staff member who claims the task isn't able to complete it in the specified period of time, and another staff member is alerted. Presumably, this second employee has the authority to investigate the reasons behind why the task wasn't completed and proceed accordingly. There are three possible states for which an escalation can be configured: Ready When a human task is in a ready state, it is waiting to be claimed. You can configure an escalation to trigger if it sits unclaimed for too long. Claimed If a staff member has claimed a task, but takes longer than the specified period of time to complete it, an escalation is triggered and another staff member is notified. Subtask started A subtask is an additional unit of work that is split out from a parent task. If the subtask fails to complete within a specified period of time, the parent task is escalated and indicates that it is still waiting on the subtask.

Collaborating with other staff members in a human task
Ad-hoc tasks and transferred work items are created "on-the-fly" in the runtime environment, usually because the situation that has created the need for the task did not exist when it was initially developed. You can create such tasks either from existing task definitions (collaboration and invocation tasks) or without any existing definition. You can use WebSphere Integration Developer to allow for the creation of two types of ad-hoc tasks: the subtask, the follow-on task, as well as the transferred work item. Subtasks In the runtime environment, if a person who claims a task finds that they are not able to complete it by themselves, they can delegate portions of that original task to other people in the form of subtasks. Follow-on tasks In the runtime environment, if a person who claims a task finds that they are not able to complete it, they can assign the remaining work to somebody else in the form of a follow-on task. Transferred work items

To see an example of a to-do task that you can build and run yourself. To see an example of an invocation task that you can build and run yourself.com/bpcsamp/index. restart.html. they can transfer the work item to another person or group.boulder. Inline and stand-alone human tasks . Types of human task There are four types of human tasks that you can define. In such a case. Invocation task This is where a human can "assign" a task to a service component.html. A to-do task can be implemented either stand-alone or inline. or force-complete a business process. When it is inline. Note: You will need a connection to the internet to view this example. go to http://publib. and click Human Task features > To-do ttask. go to http://publib.html.ibm. Through this. a user can start a process and define authorization for its inbound activities. terminate. To see an example of a collaboration task that you can build and run yourself.ibm. It is self-contained and implements a stand-alone human interaction without any reference or interface to another service.boulder. Administration task This type of task grants a human administrative powers such as the ability to suspend. and click Human Task features > Collaboration task. a human is invoking an automated service such as a business process.ibm. in that there is no interaction between it and any other component. An invocation task can be implemented either stand-alone or inline. or the process as a whole. Administration tasks can be set up on either an invoke activity. Collaboration task This is where a human assigns a task to another human.boulder. Note: You will need a connection to the internet to view this example. if a person who claims a task finds that they are not able to complete it. force-retry.In the runtime environment. A collaboration task is stand-alone. This type of task is only available within a business process (inline task). go to http://publib. pick or event handlers. an invocation task allows humans to invoke the operations that a business process exposes through activities such as receive. and click Human Task features > Invocation task. To-do task This is where a service component (such as a business process) assigns a task to a human as something for that person to do.com/bpcsamp/index.com/bpcsamp/index. Note: You will need a connection to the internet to view this example.

click Project > Clean. Inline task An inline task is defined within an implementation of a business process. right-click the invoke activity that originally connected to the human task component. it is called an inline task. and select Change type > Human task. 5. From the main menu. and transform it into an inline task that is implemented by a human task activity. There are various types of client that you can generate for your human task: • IBM® Lotus® Form • Business Space powered by WebSphere® • Business Process Choreographer • WebSphere Portal portlet • JavaServer Faces (JSF) client . or as a property of an invoke. delete the existing interface between the human task component and the business process. and implements human interaction as a service that can be wired to any other component of the WebSphere® Integration Developer family of tools. select New. Select the interface that was used between the original business process component and the human task component. • You want to define authorization rights on specific activities The standard method of creating an inline task is to drop a human task activity on to the canvas in the business process editor. the main reason to use an inline human tasks is because they have direct access to the process context without the need to explicitly model the required information into the input message. Changing a stand-alone task to an inline task If you would like to take an existing stand-alone task that is invoked by an invoke activity in a business process. In the business process component.You can implement a human task as part of the logic of a business process. you should model it as an inline task if any of the following conditions are present: • You need information from the process logic to run human interaction. Create a stand-alone task using the New human task wizard and then wiring the task to a business process using the assembly editor. Human task clients A human task client is a piece of software which provides an interactive link between a human task and the staff member assigned to work upon the task. it is referred to as a stand-alone task. proceed as follows: 1. receive. or on message activity. In the Details tab of the human task. When you are first planning your human task. Delete the component as well. Stand-alone task A stand-alone task exists independently of a business process. 2. When you are first planning your human task. pick. Although information from the process can also be modeled into the input for a human task. event handler. 3. 6. It can either be implemented directly in the process using a human task activity. 4. A human task client delivers task-related information to a staff member in the form of an interactive application. In the assembly editor. Define the settings for the human task. or independently of other processes. you should model it as a stand-alone task if any of the following conditions are present: • The task provides just another service • You intend to replace the stand-alone task later on and don't want to change the component to which it is wired. Otherwise. If the task is implemented within a business process. 7.

To modify the Human Task editor preferences settings.boulder. Then. Enter a name for the new People directory. you need to install additional documentation.ibm. The user interface is part of the human task client. Two different clients may provide very similar user interfaces to the staff member. Note: If this link fails. or you can create a separate client for each task. In WebSphere Integration Developer.com/dmndhelp/downloads/v6r2mx/wid/. follow these instructions: 1. Go back to the first step to open Preferences again. then expand Workbench to select Capabilities. 4. Expand the results under this repository location. In the Software Updates and Add-ons window. From the main menu. 2. Click Add. open the Resource perspective if you are not already there (click Window > Open Perspective > Other > Resource). edit or delete an existing entry. Note: Human task clients and user interfaces are not synonymous. Clients are used to customize user interfaces for your human task. Click People Directory to see the people directory settings that you can modify. b. Optional: Add a new people directory.Clients can be defined for both inline and stand-alone human tasks. The Add people directory dialog opens. although they are closely related. in the main menu. a. if you wish users in different roles to see different options for the task. select the Available Software tab. You will need to restart WebSphere Integration Developer to see the additional documentation. Provide a meaningful name since this entry will be used in other dialogs to refer to this people directory. Setting human task preferences You can use the Preferences window to modify the Human Task editor settings for the choice of people directory and assignment criteria. The user interface can be customized to your specific needs. Expand Business Integration and expand Human Task Editor. and click Install. You can select a people directory to be the default for new human tasks. Information on this topic can be found by following this link: Life cycle of human tasks or Life cycle of human tasks if you have WebSphere Process Server installed. You can generate a client manually. Click OK to close the Preferences page. Click Add Site and specify the following location: http://publib. and you will see Business Integration. A human task user interface is the interactive application that the staff member sees when they are working on a task. Note: If you do not see the Human Task Editor in the Business Integration preferences. select Window > Preferences to open the Preferences window. You can create one client for all the human tasks in a module. You must generate a client before you can define a user interface. Life cycle of a human task A human task goes through a number of stages from its start to its finish. Note: Human task user interfaces and human task clients are not synonymous. click Help > Software Updates. You can even provide multiple clients for the same task. . although they are closely related Human task user interfaces The user interface of a human task is the means by which a staff member interacts with a human task in the runtime environment. or using the client generator in the human task editor. and the staff member does not need knowledge of what client is being employed in order to interact with the human task. 3. select the documentation that you want. select Integration Developer and click Apply to enable the business integration tools. You can also add a new entry.

To modify the Human Task editor preferences settings. When you are specifying people to work on a task the assignment criteria that you are presented with are determined by this selection. the JNDI name is used to identify which staff resolution code to employ. the JNDI name is used to identify which staff resolution code to employ. Optional: Modify the name of the People directory. then expand Workbench to select Capabilities. d. Go back to the first step to open Preferences again. and you will see Business Integration. Click OK to save your preferences Setting human task preferences You can use the Preferences window to modify the Human Task editor settings for the choice of people directory and assignment criteria. Provide a meaningful name since this entry will be used in other dialogs to refer to this people directory. Enter the corresponding JNDI name for the people directory. For each choice there is a set of predefined criteria. This entry creates an association between the JNDI name and the name that you provided in the People directory field. Note: If you do not see the Human Task Editor in the Business Integration preferences. 5. You can choose your own people assignment criteria (XML file) by selecting the final radio button and using the Browse button. Expand Business Integration and expand Human Task Editor. d. For each choice there is a set of predefined criteria. When you are specifying people to work on a task the assignment criteria that you are presented with are determined by this selection. From the main menu. if you select LDAP as the people directory for your human task then when you come to assign people to that task you will be presented with the LDAP-specific assignment criteria. Select the people assignment criteria for the new people directory. This entry creates an association between the JNDI name and the name that you provided in the People directory field. select Integration Developer and click Apply to enable the business integration tools. Click Edit. Optional: Modify the corresponding JNDI name for the people directory. select Window > Preferences to open the Preferences window. a. 2. You can choose your own people assignment criteria (XML file) by selecting the final radio button and using the Browse button. Select the people assignment criteria for the new people directory. c. b. At run time. 7. At run time. if you select LDAP as the people directory for your human task then when you come to assign people to that task you will be presented with the LDAP-specific assignment criteria. For instance. The Edit people directory dialog opens.c. Select the set of people assignment criteria that are associated with this people directory. Click Apply when you are finished. Select the set of people assignment criteria that are associated with this people directory. . 6. Optional: Edit an existing people directory. For instance. follow these instructions: 1. Click OK to close the Preferences page.

For each choice there is a set of predefined criteria. Enter the corresponding JNDI name for the people directory. Click OK to save your preferences Human Task editor The human task editor is a graphical programming environment that you use to configure the interaction between a service and its associated human participants. Provide a meaningful name since this entry will be used in other dialogs to refer to this people directory. At run time. The Add people directory dialog opens. d. or between two humans. Click Add. 7. Click Apply when you are finished. b. if you select LDAP as the people directory for your human task then when you come to assign people to that task you will be presented with the LDAP-specific assignment criteria. For each choice there is a set of predefined criteria. This entry creates an association between the JNDI name and the name that you provided in the People directory field. Click People Directory to see the people directory settings that you can modify. You can select a people directory to be the default for new human tasks. the JNDI name is used to identify which staff resolution code to employ. The Human Task editor is divided into several distinct areas. Optional: Add a new people directory. the JNDI name is used to identify which staff resolution code to employ. a. Each is described below. Click Edit. Select the people assignment criteria for the new people directory. b. 4. if you select LDAP as the people directory for your human task then when you come to assign people to that task you will be presented with the LDAP-specific assignment criteria. edit or delete an existing entry. You can also add a new entry. each with its own individual use. c. You can choose your own people assignment criteria (XML file) by selecting the final radio button and using the Browse button. Select the set of people assignment criteria that are associated with this people directory.3. When you are specifying people to work on a task the assignment criteria that you are presented with are determined by this selection. . Select the people assignment criteria for the new people directory. When you are specifying people to work on a task the assignment criteria that you are presented with are determined by this selection. This entry creates an association between the JNDI name and the name that you provided in the People directory field. d. For instance. Optional: Modify the corresponding JNDI name for the people directory. At run time. The Edit people directory dialog opens. 6. Optional: Edit an existing people directory. a. c. Enter a name for the new People directory. Provide a meaningful name since this entry will be used in other dialogs to refer to this people directory. Optional: Modify the name of the People directory. Select the set of people assignment criteria that are associated with this people directory. For instance. 5. You can choose your own people assignment criteria (XML file) by selecting the final radio button and using the Browse button.

o The table shows a list of roles that users can assume when working with the task.The areas are as follows: 1. The display that you see will depend on what type of human task you are working with. Click the icon to remove the authorization role that is currently selected. you can launch the interface editor and make the necessary changes. o You cannot modify the fields in this area. The service interface area o This area shows the interface that is associated with this human task. When you click the icon. but if you click the name of the interface. you will see a list of the people assignments that you can add to this task. The people assignment area o This area shows details about the assignments of people who initiate or receive tasks. o 2. o .

Assign people tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Assign people tab of the Properties view. Environment tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Environment tab of the Properties view. Some pages display properties in tabular format. The user interface area o Use this area to add additional. client type specific information to a human task that a client can interact with in the runtime environment.3. Description tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Description tab of the Properties view. o 4. The properties view o This area displays properties that are relevant to the object that is currently selected in the editor. Details tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Details tab of the Properties view. and you can add or modify these properties by clicking the appropriate cell and then interacting with the graphical interface that appears. User interface settings tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the User interface tab of the Properties view. Properties marked with an * are mandatory. • • • • • • • Assign people tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Assign people tab of the Properties view. o The contents of the page will differ on the object chosen. o 5. you can press F1 (or Ctrl+F1 on a Linux® system) to launch a help window and click the link to be taken directly to the product documentation for more details. . Click to add a new interface to the palette and then configure it in the Details area. Duration tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Duration tab of the Properties view. The escalations area o The escalation settings define how a task should be handled when an expected result has not been achieved within a set period of time. Click on the tabs to the left of this view to toggle through the pages. In all cases. Interface tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Interface tab of the Properties view.

it must not contain spaces or invalid characters. Namespace . Unlike the display name. claim the task. See related topics for more information on replacement variables. the user will have the option of claiming the task. Parameter table Use this table to specify details like a group name and thus define the people that will be assigned by the selected criterion at runtime. Test Click Test to confirm that the people assignment criteria that you use in your human tasks will return the correct people by the people directory that you are using.People assignment criteria Choose the criteria for a query from the list. This name will be displayed to the user in the runtime environment through a user interface. Enable it in cases when your people assignment query returns a single person. You can also specify replacement variables. If you want to make changes to this value use the refactoring tool. and can be as descriptive as necessary to ensure that there is no confusion on the part of the user. Press Ctrl+Space to launch content assist. claim task automatically This check box is only available when the Potential Owners authorization role has been selected. and those that are mandatory will be marked with a "*". If only one person qualifies. See related topics for more information. Description tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Description tab of the Properties view. and use parts of the task input or output message as values for the parameters. the Names are all predefined. when all mandatory fields have a value. You can choose from a list of pre-defined people assignment criteria definitions or you can define your own. This selection determines the group of people who share the same permissions and can. When the check box is clear. This button is available for all people assignment criteria except Everybody and Nobody. and requires at least one running Process Server to be defined in Servers view. see related tasks for more information. The people assignment criteria that you see depends on the choice of people directory that you made on the human task preferences page. Display name Use this field to define a name for a newly-created task. for example. The value of the parameter can be changed by clicking into the value field and editing it. You can use content assist for some of the values if you see the icon of a light bulb appear when you click the field. It can also be translated into other languages. Name This is the name for the task template as it is known in the runtime environment. and you want this specific user to be automatically assigned the task in question.

If you want to make changes to this value. Details tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Details tab of the Properties view.Use this field to specify the namespace for this human task. use the refactoring tool. Insert Variable Click this to see a list of predefined replacement variables that can be used in this field. Folder This field shows the name of the folder in which this task resides. Description Use this field to provide a relatively short explanation of what the task does. Task level People directory .readers%'). mandatory fields are marked with a "*". When you choose a variable from the list. it will appear as a replacement variable in this field (for example: '%htm:task. Documentation Use this field to expand upon the description. A namespace is a way to further differentiate two files that may share the same name. During runtime. it will be resolved by the WebSphere Process Server and the actual value of the variable will be inserted with the placeholder. or display additional supporting material for the task. • • • • Task level Escalations Business Process Choreographer Explorer Portal client In all cases. Use refactoring to move the task to a different folder. see related tasks for more information.

or when using API event handler. description. • Replace absent users with their substitutes • Use this setting to assign the task to an alternate owner when the preferred owner is away. In cases where the increase task priority attribute is enabled on an escalation (see the Details tab for Escalations below). The runtime system will then send the event to that event handler where you can further process it according to your needs. Default language This field shows the language (based on the geographical location associated with that language) that will be used in the client. Business category Use this field to enter a name that can be used to group tasks that share similar characteristics in order to facilitate sorting. and documentation) is not available in the language requested by the user client software.Use this field to specify the people directory to be used by the people resolution for this task. the priority value will decrease by a value of one with each escalation until 0 (the highest possible priority) is reached. Calendar values are represented in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Use it when you want the task assigned to a specific owner. or to create or delete work items at runtime. • Prefer present users • Use this setting to make sure that the task can only be assigned to a user who is active. Task can be claimed when it is suspended Select this check box if you want a potential owner to be able to accept the task even when the task itself has been postponed. Event handler name This setting is used in conjunction with the event escalation notification type. Transfer task Select the Transfer task check box if you want to give users the ability to transfer work items of this task to other people. Business-relevant Select this check box if you would like to monitor this task in a runtime environment. Before this date and time. Enable subtask creation Select the Enable subtask creation check box when you want to allow the person who claims the task to be able break the task up into pieces and delegate portions of that original task to other people in the form of subtasks. even when that owner is absent. Use this field to specify the name of your event handler as installed in the runtime environment. the runtime engine cannot create instances of this task. Substitution policy Use this field to specify what should happen should the task's preferred potential owners be unavailable. and how this should take place. This language will be used if a language-sensitive element of the task (for example: display name. and have an audit trail generated. You may use any positive integer between 0 and 2147483647. Enable follow-on task creation . You can use the setting to decide whether the task can be assigned to another user. with lower numbers having a higher priority. Task priority Use this field to specify the level of importance of this task. Date (UTC) when task becomes valid Use these fields to specify the exact date and time that you would like this task to start. • No substitution • This is the default setting for the substitution policy.

You can enter the values using the spin boxes provided. then an escalation is thrown. This setting is only valid for inline to-do tasks. Give owner read access to surrounding process context data Select this check box to allow the inline to-do task owner to view surrounding business process information such as input messages. If the task is not in the state specified. the task has not yet been claimed by a user. or click the secondary radio button and enter a value that makes sense to the type of calendar (simple. You will have the three following options: • • Ended Choose this as the expected end state when you want an escalation thrown if the task is not complete by the end of the escalation period. at the end of the escalation period. Escalations Expected task state Use this field to specify the state in which the task should be when the escalation times out. • All subtasks ended • Choose this as the expected end state when you want an escalation thrown if the subtasks associated with this task have not been completed by the end of the escalation period. user-defined) that is specified in the task's Duration properties page. • Claimed • Choose this when you want an escalation raised if. . Notification type Use this list to tell the system how to deal with this escalation. Escalate after Use these fields to specify the period of time that will elapse before this task is escalated. By default this information is only disclosed to process administrators and readers. Select this check box to make the human task a child of the business process that invoked the task. or variables. Clear the check box to make the task a peer of its invoking business process. WebSphere® CRON. In this case. custom properties. Bind the life cycle to the invoking business process This field controls the autonomy of the invoked human task. the task is tied to the life cycle of the invoking business process (the parent).Select this check box when you want to allow a user who is unable to complete a claimed task to assign the remaining work to another person.

Note that an escalation receiver work item will also be created. user-defined) that is specified in the task's Duration properties page. Business Process Choreographer Explorer The settings in this table define the nature of the Java™ Server Page (JSP) that the staff member sees when they are asked to interact with a task. WebSphere CRON. you then have to specify the event handler in the Event handler name field in the task's Details properties page. You can create a new message. or select an appropriate message from the list and click Edit to make any necessary changes to it. Increase per repetition Select this if you want the priority augmented each time this escalation is repeated. Increase task priority Use this list to determine if and how this escalation's priority will change with each iteration of it. You can enter the values using the spin boxes provided. You will have three options: • • • • • • No Choose No to leave the priority unchanged. Note that an escalation receiver work item will also be created. Once you select this option. a separate field becomes active from which you can choose an appropriate e-mail message. This field is active only if the Notification type is set to E-mail.You have three options: • • Work item Choose Work item to inform the person of a task by delivering it directly to a designated person's "to do" list. If you select this option. . Increase this time only Choose this if you only want it to boost the priority in the first iteration. • E-mail • Choose E-mail to have an e-mail message that announces the escalation delivered to a staff member. or click the secondary radio button and enter a value that makes sense to the type of calendar (simple. • Event • Choose Event if you want to trigger an event handler in the runtime environment. E-mail message Use this field to select the e-mail message that will be delivered to the escalation receivers when the escalation is raised (or thrown). Repeat notification every Use these fields to specify the period of time that will elapse before the notification associated with this escalation is repeated.

Page definition When this option is used. as the name suggests. Configure the time using the spinners that are enabled when you choose this option. and then decide which role will see the JSP in the Apply to field. Portal client Use the settings on this page to configure the portal client UI element that will be associated with this human task. Task level Calendar type Use this field to specify a type of calendar that will measure the durations of this task. and use the context root field to define the runtime path to the JSP. the unique name defined above is used to lookup an instance template from which a dynamic copy is created and added to the user's navigation in portal each time a task of this type is selected in the task list. Define its name in the Unique name field. a simple arithmetic calendar. or browse to an existing one. You can then create a new JSP.Click Add to define a new JSP. the process designer can define a unique name for each human task. and Edit to make changes to existing values. The process integration in WebSphere Portal is based on "task pages" that are assigned to human tasks and displayed to the user when he selects a task in his task list. . For all tasks of the same type. When you are done. specify what fault will trigger it in the Fault field if this JSP will be shown in the event of a fault. the same static page is reused. Click JSP editor to work with the actual JSP itself. You have the three following options: • • Simple This is. The content of a task page can be defined by the portal administrator. Therefore. The template itself is not visible for the user. and select a type for it from the Type list. For task pages there are two available options: Page In this case. the unique name is used to directly lookup a page which will be displayed. select one of two kinds of JSPs in the JSP type field. Duration tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Duration tab of the Properties view. which is assigned by the portal admin later on to the portal page he would like to be shown to a user when he selects a task in his task list. In the table. click Create Portlet. Remove to delete an existing definition.

When you select it. • Business calendar • There will be more than three options in the Calendar type field if a business calendar is available. Users can not work on a task once it has expired. • On successful completion . or choose one of the following options: • • • • • Immediate In this context. The state of the task does not change when it is overdue. Use it to decide whether or not to delete the task based on its outcome. Examples of this type of calendar can be found in the Related Information section below. • Never • In this context. and holidays. the task will be deleted immediately after it is completed. the task will be deleted the moment it expires. You can enter a value that makes sense to the calendar you selected in the Calendar type field above. and will never expire. See Related Tasks for more information. this setting means that the task will not be given a due date. and point to a valid Java™ Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) location. Duration until task expires Use this field to specify the amount of time that should pass before this task reaches an end state of "Expired". Auto deletion mode This selection is not available if you choose Never on the Duration until task is deleted field. the task will not be removed from the system ever.• • WebSphere® CRON This is a built-in calendar that uses a list of term expressions representing elements of time to calculate the interval. two new fields will appear that you can use to name the calendar. Never In this context. You have the following options: • • On completion Choose this option to delete the task from the system once it is finished. You can select either of the following: • • • • • Immediate In this context. weekends. whether or not it was successfully completed. Duration until task is overdue Use this field to set the period that will elapse between the time this task is started and the time that it is expected to be completed. Duration until task is deleted Use this field to determine when the task will be removed from the system once it is complete. or choose one of the following options: • • Immediate In this context. Never In this context. • User-defined • Use this option to select a calendar other than those provided. the task will not be removed from the system ever. this setting means that the task will be considered due the moment it is assigned. A business calendar can be used to model duration values for time-sensitive aspects of your human task in order to account for such variables as regular working hours. You can enter a value that makes sense to the calendar you selected in the Calendar type field above.

Custom properties table Use the fields in this table to work with the custom properties that are defined by two fields: Name and Value.• Choose this option to only delete the task when it has been successfully completed. Calendar name This field appears when you chose the User-defined option in the Calendar type field above. Interface tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Interface tab of the Properties view. Click Add to create a new property (in which case a new window opens that lets you enter the key value pair). Use the settings on this page to select the single-operation Interface that is singularly associated with . User calendar JNDI This field appears when you choose the User-defined option in the Calendar type field above. and Edit to make changes to one. Use this field to specify the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) location for your custom calendar. Use this field to enter a name for your custom calendar. Remove to delete an existing one. Environment tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Environment tab of the Properties view.

client. or a new form within an existing web project. By default Lotus Forms saves the files in the temporary directory of the WebSphere® Process Server it is running in (to change the location where the forms are saved. and people assignment criteria define who will be member of an authorization role. you have to keep in mind that a task is assigned first and foremost to a role. IBM® Lotus Forms client Select where to store your Lotus® Forms You can store your Lotus Forms as part of your module. There are six possible roles to choose from. The building blocks of the human task editor Compose your own human task using a combination of the following building blocks • • • • People assignment roles and criteria People assignment settings User interface settings Escalation settings People assignment roles and criteria Roles and criteria interact to identify staff members according to their access rights. To customize the save options. Alternatively you can type the ContextRoot and file name directly in the respective fields. and those that appear will depend on the kind of human task that you are working with. not an individual. or at a specified web location. select Web Project to specify the web location of a form. authorization roles determine what their members are allowed to do in the runtime environment. Criteria act to further refine the list of members who can claim the work. click Browse to select an existing form in an existing web project. or click New to a create a new web project.tel. you must customize the generated client). Enable this feature to pass the complete form (including digital signatures) to the tasks that follow this one.User interface settings tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the User interface tab of the Properties view. or click New to a create a form. People assignment settings Use the staff settings to determine which roles can interact with your human task. save the Lotus Form when a task is saved or completed The generated client will save the transmitted Lotus Form after each Save or Complete request on the server. Input/Output If a Lotus Forms client is defined for a human task.form.persistence package on the generated client. click Browse to use an existing form. a people assignment criteria is a database query that retrieves a list of members from the runtime engine. Each staff member in this role group has the permissions assigned to the role as a whole.ibm. Select Module to store the form as part of the module. you must specify the form which will be displayed to the user in the Lotus Forms Client. To understand how this works.wbit. During run time. or the way the forms are stored. modify the saveForm and getForm methods in the PersistenceService class in the com. For forms stored in a web project. Officially. More specifically. and which are working in the same form. . For forms stored in the module.

User interface settings Use the User interface settings to determine how people interact with the tasks. There are three user interfaces that you can chose from: • IBM® Lotus® Forms client Select IBM Lotus Forms client to present information to the user with the Lotus Forms Client. the task is delivered to the staff member via an HTML-based web page. but cannot work on them. terminate. • Business Process Choreographer Explorer Select the Business Process Choreographer Explorer to use the standard client that is delivered with this product.• Administrators Administrators have the authority to perform upper level duties like suspend. but cannot start it. With this option. work on and complete tasks. the same employee fulfils both roles. an editor can receive the work item to review a document and add comments. only a starter can start it. but an editor is not able to finish the task. In many usage scenarios. This role can be used in situations where an employee wants to monitor as task without taking any action in it. • Potential starters Potential starters have the authority to initiate an existing instance. You can modify these values as needed. This role is only associated with an invocation task. and although a creator can create a new instance. • Editors Editors can work with the content of a task. • Portal client Select the portal client to specify a client that is executed on WebSphere® Portal Escalation settings . forceretry. • Potential owners Potential owners can claim. restart. • Potential creators Potential creators can create an instance of the human task. but cannot claim or complete it. and force-complete. The look and feel of this web page is determined by the JSP values in the User interface settings table. The starter role is subtly different from that of creator. For example. • Readers Readers are allowed to view tasks.

Use the escalation settings to specify how long to wait for a task to complete. In WebSphere Integration Developer.boulder. you must use a replacement variable. Replacement variables and context variables While working with templates in the tooling environment. and click Install. Configure the escalation settings to notify people or escalation receivers when the invoked service does not return an output or fault message in time. Configure the escalation settings to notify people or escalation receivers should nobody claim it within a specified period of time.ibm. you might want to refer to a variable that will not be resolved until the instance has been started in the runtime environment. When a task is in the running state. click Help > Software Updates. you need to install additional documentation. When you configure an escalation. Then. Configure the escalation settings to notify people or escalation receivers should the subtasks not be completed within a specified period of time. because its value is dependent upon the task context in which it is exists (or the process context for inline tasks). it has invoked the service and waits for it to complete. select the Available Software tab. • Subtask started When a task is in the waiting for subtasks state. you begin by specifying the state that the task is in when the escalation period begins (this is also known as the activation state and there are three options shown in the human task editor). • Claimed When a task is in the claimed state. you create an escalation for it by stipulating what state the task should be in at the end of a specific period of time. a person has accepted the work and should currently be working on it. This variable is known as a context variable. it is waiting to be claimed. • Running This state is only available with invocation tasks. If you want to refer to such a context variable in a template. in the main menu. There are four possible activation states: • Ready When a task is in the ready state. additional work was delegated to other people in order to complete the parent task. Invocation scenarios for invocation tasks The various ways in which tasks can be invoked is described.com/dmndhelp/downloads/v6r2mx/wid/. select the documentation that you want. You will need to restart WebSphere Integration Developer to see the additional documentation. Note: If this link fails. Configure the escalation settings to notify people or escalation receivers should the owner fail to complete the work within a specified period of time. In the Software Updates and Add-ons window. and what to do if it isn't. open the Resource perspective if you are not already there (click Window > Open Perspective > Other > Resource). . Click Add Site and specify the following location: http://publib. and which role to notify when it doesn't. Information on this topic can be found by following this link: Scenarios for invoking tasks or Scenarios for invoking tasks if you have WebSphere Process Server installed. Once you have chosen the activation state. Expand the results under this repository location.

input/output messages. then you will need to use two percent signs (“%%”) instead of one. For example. Replacement variables for escalation duration expressions The Escalate within value can also be represented by a replacement variable that refers to a variable that will get resolved in the runtime environment. including the following: • staff queries of tasks • staff queries of escalations • in the description and documentation of tasks • in the description and documentation of escalations • in notification e-mails sent by escalations. it must be escaped as specified by XML (using &#37. • Replacement variables in people assignment criteria and task descriptions When used in descriptions for people assignment criteria and human tasks. replacement variables can be used to represent context variables that will be fully resolved in the runtime environment. encapsulate it in '%' signs. To use a replacement variable in a template. • Variables can contain XPath expressions.Context variables can come from many sources.). • If you want to use a percent sign in a string within the replacement variable. In cases when you can use a replacement variable. custom properties and. The categories shown below contain specific details on which expressions can be used and when. they can originate from previous staff resolutions.). For instance %htm:task. For instance %htm:task. • If you want to use a percent sign in a string within the replacement variable. Multiple values are returned in a string array (which is represented as a comma separated list when used in an email) . • • Replacement variables in people assignment criteria and task descriptions When used in descriptions for people assignment criteria and human tasks. . • Variables can contain XPath expressions. replacement variables can be used to represent context variables that will be fully resolved in the runtime environment.originator % Note: • Using percent signs within variable names is not allowed. then you will need to use two percent signs ("%%") instead of one. replacement variables can be used to represent context variables that will be fully resolved in the runtime environment. • durations of tasks • priority of tasks • the type property (business category) of tasks • custom properties of tasks • durations of escalations • custom properties of escalations Use of replacement variables Context variables might only be available during specific periods of an instance's life cycle (a task owner is only defined once the task has been claimed) and can resolve either to single or multiple values. from the surrounding business process. If an XPath expression contains a “%” sign. They can be used in many places within the tooling environment. Replacement variables in staff e-mails When used in escalation-based staff e-mails. you will simply be able to click the associated Insert Variable button and choose something appropriate from the Replacement Variable Selection window.originator% Note: • Using percent signs within variable names is not allowed. If an XPath expression contains a "%" sign. However. in the case of inline tasks. you can also enter a replacement variable into a template directly by encapsulating it in "%" signs. it must be escaped as specified by XML (using &#37.

Stand-alone human tasks The following table lists all expressions that are available for stand-alone human tasks (i. htm:task.e. Type of variable Staff Variables htm:task.administrators htm:task.readers htm:task.displayName htm:task. they must be enclosed in '%' characters.customPropertyName value of the task's custom properties Note that only the string value of properties can be evaluated.potentialOwners htm:task. tasks that are not embedded inline in a process).owner htm:task. A list of all expressions that can be used in stand-alone human tasks.originator Expression Description the user ID of the originator of this task instance the user ID of the owner of this task instance task starter name list of task administrators list of potential task owners list of task editors list of task readers list of potential task starters list of potential creators htm:task. Table 1.Replacement variables for people assignment criteria and descriptions in human tasks can contain the contents of variables and messages. the query string will be evaluated. In addition resolved people assignment criteria of sibling inline tasks can be used from other inline tasks.potentialInstanceCreators Task variables htm:task.description htm:task.starter htm:task. For binary custom properties. or an inline human task.editors htm:task. Available expressions differ depending on whether it is a stand-alone.potentialStarters htm:task.instanceID default task display name default task description task instance id . When these expressions are used inside descriptions as well as people assignment criteria.property.

) htm:output.expectedTaskState htm:escalation. Escalation variables htm:escalation. %htm:output. A list of all expressions that can be used in stand-alone human tasks. Also see the notes below. For binary custom properties.customPropertyName default escalation description escalation's expected task state a string representation of the escalation instance id escalation receivers value of escalation's custom properties Note that only the string value of properties can be evaluated. Also see the notes below. the expressions %htm:input.) Note that task instances have no default message. In this case.xmlsoap.\input1%. <?xml version="1.w3. When using messages with multiple parts then the syntax in parenthesis has to be used.\output1% can be used to reference the defined parameters.[part][\XPath] (or htm:output. the WSDL code shown below defines a task interface comprising of an operation with one input parameter (input1) and one output parameter (output1).\XPath% or %htm.input.org/wsdl/" xmlns:xsd="http://www. When using messages with multiple parts then the syntax in parenthesis has to be used.part[\XPath]) Description data from task's input message is provided using XPath expressions (Process Server messages usually have a single part.receivers htm:escalation.description htm:escalation.[part][\XPath] (or htm:input. You can use either %htm.part[\XPath]) data from task's output message is provided using XPath expressions (Process Server messages usually have a single part.output. the query string will be evaluated. Type of variable Expression htm:input. in which case the part name does not have to be specified. in which case the part name does not have to be specified.\XPath% to refer to input or output parameters of the operation defined for a task interface.property.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <wsdl:definitions xmlns:tns="http://variables/variablesInterface" xmlns:wsdl="http://schemas.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="variablesInterface" targetNamespace="http://variables/variablesInterface"> <wsdl:types> .instanceID htm:escalation(escalationName). For example.Table 1.

Inline human tasks In addition to the expressions in the previous table. or String List. Note. Type of variable Process variables Expression wf:variable. Table 2. that the description of an inline human task is resolved by the Business Flow Manager (BFM) and must therefore be modeled to use the syntax described in the previous section. expressions like %htm:input. and %htm:input. only single-part messages are generated. %htm:output.w3. .operation1Parameters\input1%. a human task that is embedded inline in a process can also use the expressions listed in the following table for staff resolution. Currently. so it can only be used on expressions that exclude message part names.\output1% . For example.part[\XPath]% can be used to refer to input and output parameters associated with the different WSDL message parts defined for a task operation. A list of the expressions that can be use with inline human tasks.<xsd:schema targetNamespace="http://variables/variablesInterface" xmlns:tns="http://variables/variablesInterface" xmlns:xsd="http://www. and object will be replaced by what the toString() method returns.part[\XPath]%. %htm:output. In general.\input1%. the expressions %htm:input.VariableName\[part][\XPath] Description 'VariableName\[part][\XPath]' is passed to BFM to resolve the variable/expression.org/2001/XMLSchema"> <xsd:element name="operation1"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="input1" nillable="true" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> <xsd:element name="operation1Response"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="output1" nillable="true" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> </xsd:schema> </wsdl:types> <wsdl:message name="operation1RequestMsg"> <wsdl:part element="tns:operation1" name="operation1Parameters"/> </wsdl:message> <wsdl:message name="operation1ResponseMsg"> <wsdl:part element="tns:operation1Response" name="operation1Result"/> </wsdl:message> <wsdl:portType name="variablesInterface"> <wsdl:operation name="operation1"> <wsdl:input message="tns:operation1RequestMsg" name="operation1Request"/> <wsdl:output message="tns:operation1ResponseMsg" name="operation1Response"/> </wsdl:operation> </wsdl:portType> </wsdl:definitions> In addition.operation1Result\output1% are valid and equivalent to %htm:input. It is expected that XPATH will point to objects of type String.

Table 2. A list of the expressions that can be use with inline human tasks. Type of variable

Expression wf:property.customPropertyName

Description The 'customPropertyName' is passed to the BFM to resolve the custom property.

Inline staff variables

wf:process.starter

The starter of the process.

wf:process.administrators wf:process.readers wf:activity(activityName).potentialOwners

The administrators of the process. The readers of the process. The potential owners of either the current activity or the activity named in brackets The owner of the activity named in brackets The editors of either the current activity or the activity named in brackets The readers of either the current activity or the activity named in brackets

wf:activity(activityName).owner

wf:activity(activityName).editors

wf:activity(activityName).readers

Note that inline staff variables which refer to sibling activities can only be resolved if the referred activity is also an inline human task and is already started at the point in time when the staff resolution happens. As with stand-alone tasks, it is expected that XPATH will point to objects of type String, or String List. In general, and object will be replaced by what the toString() method returns.

Replacement variables in staff e-mails
When used in escalation-based staff e-mails, replacement variables can be used to represent context variables that will be fully resolved in the runtime environment. To use a replacement variable in a template, encapsulate it in '%' signs. For instance %htm:task.originator % Note: • Using percent signs within variable names is not allowed. • If you want to use a percent sign in a string within the replacement variable, then you will need to use two percent signs (“%%”) instead of one. • Variables can contain XPath expressions. If an XPath expression contains a “%” sign, it must be escaped as specified by XML (using &#37;).

Table 1. A list of all expressions that can be used in e-mails. Type of variable Staff Variables htm:task.originator

Expression

Description the user ID of the originator of this task instance the user ID of the owner of this task instance task starter name list of task administratorss list of potential task owners list of task editors list of task readers list of potential task starters list of potential creators

htm:task.owner

htm:task.starter htm:task.administratorss htm:task.potentialOwners htm:task.editors htm:task.readers htm:task.potentialStarters htm:task.potentialInstanceCreators

Task variables

htm:task.property.customPropertyName

value of the task's custom properties Note that only the string value of properties can be evaluated. For binary custom properties, the query string will be evaluated.

htm:task.displayName htm:task.description htm:task.instanceID htm:task.URLPrefix

default task display name default task description task instance id the link to the client that displays the task details that is used to construct HTTP references in emails. the link to the administrative client when a custom admin client is used (otherwise, use htm:task.URLBPCExplorer instead). the link to the Business Process Choreographer Explorer URL

htm:task.URLPrefixAdmin

htm:task.URLBPCExplorer

Table 1. A list of all expressions that can be used in e-mails. Type of variable

Expression

Description with task details

htm:input.[part][\XPath] (or htm:input.part[\XPath])

data from task's input message is provided using XPath expressions (Process Server messages usually have a single part, in which case the part name does not have to be specified. When using messages with multiple parts then the syntax in parenthesis has to be used.)

htm:output.[part][\XPath] (or htm:output.part[\XPath])

data from task's output message is provided using XPath expressions (Process Server messages usually have a single part, in which case the part name does not have to be specified. When using messages with multiple parts then the syntax in parenthesis has to be used.)

Note that task instances have no default message.

Escalation variables

htm:escalation.activationState htm:escalation.description htm:escalation.displayName htm:escalation.expectedTaskState htm:escalation.instanceID htm:escalation(escalationName).receivers htm:escalation.property.customPropertyName

escalation's activation state default escalation description escalation display name escalation's expected task state a string representation of the escalation instance id escalation receivers value of escalation's custom properties Note that only the string value of properties can be evaluated. For binary custom properties, the query string will be evaluated.

htm:escalation.receivers htm:escalation.URLPrefix

list of users who receive the escalation the link to the client that displays the escalation details used to

This resolves the custom property. or String List.URLBPCExplorer the link to the Business Process Choreographer Explorer URL with escalation details Process variables wf:variable. In general. The potential owners of either the current activity or the activity named in brackets The owner of either the activity named in brackets The editors of either the current activity or the activity named in brackets The readers of either the current activity or the activity named in brackets wf:activity(activityName). A list of all expressions that can be used in e-mails. it is expected that XPath will point to objects of type String. Note: • Using percent signs within variable names is not allowed.originator % or as shown in the screen capture below. and the variable must exist at the escalation's creation time (otherwise you will get an error and the transaction will be rolled back).starter wf:process.Table 1. then this is the time at which the escalation is evaluated the first time). and object will be replaced by what the toString() method returns. Replacement variables for escalation duration expressions The Escalate within value can also be represented by a replacement variable that refers to a variable that will get resolved in the runtime environment.readers Note: For those expressions with XPath.customPropertyName This resolves the variable and expression. Inline staff variables wf:process.owner wf:activity(activityName). This variable that is referenced must contain a time specification that is valid when the escalation is evaluated (if there are repeated escalations. The readers of the process.administrators wf:process. Type of variable Expression Description construct HTTP references in emails.potentialOwners The starter of the process. The administrators of the process. htm:escalation. encapsulate it in '%' signs. For instance %htm:task.readers wf:activity(activityName).\messagePartName[\XPathExpression] wf:property.editors wf:activity(activityName). . To use a replacement variable in a template.

potentialStarters .owner htm:task. Type of variable Staff Variables htm:task. Select the escalation object and go to the Details tab in the Properties view. Add a variable to your project that contains a string that will be passed to the human task in the input message. As the duration.If you want to use a percent sign in a string within the replacement variable.\myEscalationTime%. it must be escaped as specified by XML (using &#37. 3.\yourVariableName%.originator Expression Description the user ID of the originator of this task instance the user ID of the owner of this task instance task starter name list of task administrators list of potential task owners list of task editors list of task readers list of potential task starters htm:task.readers htm:task.editors htm:task.potentialOwners htm:task.starter htm:task.). If an XPath expression contains a “%” sign. proceed as follows: 1. enter %htm:input. and one that will contain a valid time specification at runtime. • Variables can contain XPath expressions. then you will need to use two percent signs (“%%”) instead of one. To specify the escalation time dynamically. A list of all expressions that can be used in duration expressions. in this example %htm:input. • Table 1.administrators htm:task. 2.

the link to the Business Process Choreographer Explorer URL with task details data from task's input message is provided using XPath expressions (Process Server messages usually have a single part. When using messages with multiple parts then the syntax in parenthesis has to be used.instanceID htm:task. Type of variable Expression htm:task.URLBPCExplorer htm:input. the query string will be evaluated.[part][\XPath] (or htm:input. A list of all expressions that can be used in duration expressions.URLPrefix default task display name default task description task instance id the link to the client that displays the task details that is used to construct HTTP references in e-mails.description htm:task.URLBPCExplorer instead). htm:task.) Note that task instances have no default message. in which case the part name does not have to be specified. When using messages with multiple parts then the syntax in parenthesis has to be used. use htm:task. in which case the part name does not have to be specified.property. Escalation variables htm:escalation.displayName htm:task. For binary custom properties.customPropertyName value of the task's custom properties Note that only the string value of properties can be evaluated.part[\XPath]) htm:output. the link to the administrative client when a custom admin client is used (otherwise.) htm:task.potentialInstanceCreators Description list of potential creators Task variables htm:task.[part][\XPath] (or htm:output.Table 1.part[\XPath]) data from task's output message is provided using XPath expressions (Process Server messages usually have a single part.activationState escalation's activation state .URLPrefixAdmin htm:task.

receivers htm:escalation.property. A list of all expressions that can be used in duration expressions.Table 1. For binary custom properties.\messagePartName[\XPathExpression] wf:property. The potential owners of either the current activity or the activity named in brackets The owner of either the activity named in brackets The editors of either the current activity or the activity named in brackets The readers of either the current activity or the activity named in brackets Refactoring a human task When you refactor parts of your human task.instanceID htm:escalation(escalationName).editors wf:activity(activityName).displayName htm:escalation.URLPrefix list of users who receive the escalation the link to the client that displays the escalation details used to construct HTTP references in e-mails. the link to the Business Process Choreographer Explorer URL with escalation details htm:escalation.starter wf:process.receivers htm:escalation. . The readers of the process.readers The starter of the process. This resolves the custom property.administrators wf:process.readers wf:activity(activityName). the query string will be evaluated. Type of variable Expression htm:escalation. dependencies on those parts are automatically and universally updated throughout the product as a whole. Inline staff variables wf:process.expectedTaskState htm:escalation. htm:escalation.customPropertyName This resolves the variable and expression.customPropertyName Description default escalation description escalation display name escalation's expected task state a string representation of the escalation instance id escalation receivers value of escalation's custom properties Note that only the string value of properties can be evaluated. The administrators of the process.potentialOwners wf:activity(activityName).description htm:escalation.URLBPCExplorer Process variables wf:variable.owner wf:activity(activityName).

right-click the human task. press Alt+Shift+R. you can display client-based information in multiple languages. Right-click an empty area of the human task editor. 2. proceed as follows: a. b. Once the refactoring toolbar appears. as well as the property page on which they are located: Field name Name Property page Description Description Use this option to change the name assigned to the task. A new window will appear in which you can change the property as necessary. 1. You can either do it from an appropriate field within the properties pages. To refactor using the context menu. A properties file will be exported for each locale that is currently present in the human task. Use this option to assign a new namespace to your task. Namespace Description b. Supporting other languages With the internationalization settings of the human task editor. You can use this functionality to provide text strings for the following: • Task name • Task description • Documentation • Escalations To internationalize a human task.There are two ways in which you can refactor parts of your human task. From the menu. In the Business Integration view. To refactor parts of your human task from a properties page. Use this option to move your task to a new folder or module. and select Internationalization > Export. c. proceed as follows: a. or use a context menu in the Business Integration view. Click the field that contains the property that you would like to refactor. a. The window will then display a list of the property files that will be exported. These are the names of the fields that you can change. Use this option to assign a new namespace to your task. . hover over Refactor and then choose from one of the following three options: Option Rename Move Change Namespace Description Use this option to change the name assigned to the human task. specify a file location and name for the output. proceed as follows: 1. In the Select Export Directory window.

2. b. In the Select Import Directory and Property Files. it has both receiver and originator settings. Make sure that the text is properly ASCII encoded. When you deploy this human task. The drop down list will only show those roles that are still available to be chosen. Assigning roles to your human task A role is a set of employees who share the same level of authority. Both receiver and originator Since a collaboration task is assigned to one person from another. In the Outline view. click Finish. you will be configuring the roles for the people who will be able to claim and work on this task. 3. click the icon and select one from the drop down list. c. In the Details tab of the properties area. For example. you will be configuring the roles for the people who will be able to initiate the task. a German properties file would be named TaskName_de_DE. When you are done. To change the default client locale. the user interface will display the text in the language that corresponds to the requesting systems's locale. browse to the folder where you stored the properties files and click Open. the internationalization information will be passed to the runtime environment. When you are done. proceed as follows: a. The window will then display a list of the property files that can be imported. When you have the translated properties files. For example. See above for descriptions of each. The display that you see will depend on what kind of human task you are working with. click your task to choose it as a whole. select an appropriate language from the default language field. Originator In this case. do not rename the task or any of its escalations. Launch your human task in the editor. and select Internationalization > Import. and they have to match the original source material. 4. proceed as follows: 1. Important: In the human task editor. click Finish. and the next time a template of this task is instantiated.properties. Invocation Collaboration 2. and rename each one according to the language that it represents. Have the content of each of the properties files translated. When it comes to working on tasks. Here is a list and a description of each of the roles that you will be able to work with: . To add a role to your human task. There are keys included in the properties files. there will already be a few roles selected. a. the role that the person belongs to defines their authorization. and the display for the people assignment settings will differ as such: Kind of task To-do People assignment display Receiver In this case. b. To add another role to this task. You can use native2ascii tool that is provided with the Java™ SDK to transform a text file from the platform's native encoding to ASCII.b. right-click an empty area of the human task canvas. Save your work.

Potential owners Editors Editors can work with the content of a task. Information on this topic can be found by following this link: Configuring the people directory provider or Configuring the people directory provider if you have WebSphere Process Server installed. the people resolution uses the people assignment criteria to retrieve the user IDs and other user information. but cannot start it. Expand the results under this repository location. select the documentation that you want. only a starter can start it. Potential creators can create an instance of the human task. the same employee fulfils both roles.ibm. 4. To remove an existing role. Configuring the people directory Use this task to configure the LDAP or VMM people directory provider that Business Process Choreographer uses to determine who can start a process or claim an activity or a task. for composing e-mails. but cannot work on them.boulder. At runtime. Potential owners can claim. and force-complete. Readers are allowed to view tasks. The starter role is subtly different from that of creator. Then. open the Resource perspective if you are not already there (click Window > Open Perspective > Other > Resource). Note: If this link fails. In many usage scenarios. select the Available Software tab. This role can be used in situations where an employee wants to monitor as task without taking any action in it.Table 1. use the people assignment criteria settings to specify which people should belong to the role in question. force-retry. Readers 3. work on and complete tasks. in the main menu. In WebSphere Integration Developer. In the Assign People tab of the properties area. terminate. You will need to restart WebSphere Integration Developer to see the additional documentation. Defining the people assignment criteria People assignment criteria are constructs that are used in the task model to identify sets of people that can be assigned to an instance-based authorization role.com/dmndhelp/downloads/v6r2mx/wid/. click Help > Software Updates. Available roles and their descriptions Role (icon) Administrators Description Administrators have the authority to perform higher level duties like suspend. but an editor is not able to finish the task. for example. restart. This role is only associated with an invocation task. an editor can receive the work item to review a document and add comments. . and although a creator can create a new instance. but cannot claim or complete it. For example. Potential creators Potential starters Potential starters have the authority to initiate an existing instance. select it in the table. Click Add Site and specify the following location: http://publib. and click . In the Software Updates and Add-ons window. and click Install. you need to install additional documentation.

Then. a person that is absent can be replaced by another person. This assignment can then be transferred to another person. and click Install.boulder. the Group Members people assignment criteria provides an alternative to the group assignment. Customizing people assignment criteria You can also extend the set of predefined people assignment criteria by customizing your own criteria. Group Members without Named Users supports the separation-of-duties assignment pattern.Information on this topic can be found by following this link: People assignment criteria or People assignment criteria if you have WebSphere Process Server installed. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . Expand the results under this repository location. Substitution can occur. A variant of this people assignment criteria.com/dmndhelp/downloads/v6r2mx/wid/. Note: Assigning people to a group individually can affect performance at runtime. that is. This allows you to transfer a human task from one group to another group easily. In the Software Updates and Add-ons window. You will need to restart WebSphere Integration Developer to see the additional documentation. In WebSphere Integration Developer. The Group Members people assignment criteria creates an assignment for each person individually. You can use people assignment criteria (previously known as staff verbs) in WebSphere® Integration Developer to specify people assignments in a human task. open the Resource perspective if you are not already there (click Window > Open Perspective > Other > Resource). you need to install additional documentation. Note: If this link fails. Click Add Site and specify the following location: http://publib. The parameters for the following predefined people assignment criteria are listed here: Department Members Everybody Group Group Members Group Members without Named Users Group Members without Filtered Users Group Search Manager of Employee Manager of Employee by user ID Native Query Nobody Person Search Role Members User Records by user ID User Records by user ID without Named Users Users Users by user ID Users by user ID without Named Users Consider the following when you assign people assignment criteria: • If you are working with large groups of people. • • • Predefined people assignment criteria Predefined people assignment criteria are provided for retrieving sets of users from people directories. the Group people assignment criteria works best because it handles the members of a group as a unit. These criteria are transformed during modeling and deployment into a set of queries that can be run on a people directory. people assignment criteria definitions are transformed into sets of queries that are specific to a people directory configuration. The resulting people queries are stored with the task template in the Business Process Choreographer database.ibm. Creating queries When an application is deployed. A person’s group membership is resolved when the person logs in and accesses a human task. Predefined people assignment criteria Predefined people assignment criteria are provided for retrieving sets of users from people directories. click Help > Software Updates. • To individually assign people that belong to a group to a human task. select the documentation that you want. in the main menu. select the Available Software tab. especially when assigning more than a few people to the group.

consider using the User Records by user ID people assignment criteria definition. Department Members Use this criteria to retrieve the members of a department. The department name must correspond to one of the following values: • • For virtual member manager. If you choose Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) as your provider. This criteria is supported by all of the people directory providers. Although the Users by user ID definition performs better than the User Records by user ID definition at runtime. It indicates that all authenticated users are assigned to the human task. It is supported by the LDAP. AlternativeDepartmentName 2 Optional string Everybody Use this criteria to assign every user that is authenticated by WebSphere Process Server to a task role. then criteria that are appropriate only for virtual member manager will not be displayed. While there are cases where all people in an organization can do a certain job. This criteria has no parameters. which makes it less suitable for assigning people to e-mail escalations The Everybody people assignment criteria definition is also worth considering. An additional department to which the users can belong. a distinguished name (DN) of an LDAP group IncludeNestedDepartments Mandatory boolean Specifies whether nested departments are considered in the query. and the virtual member manager people directory providers.• • • To assign a few people to a human task that do not all belong to the same group. the e-mail addresses for the user IDs specified. AlternativeDepartmentName 1 Optional string An additional department to which the users can belong. You can also use this definition when the people assignment is not statically defined during modeling. Parameter Use Type Description DepartmentName Mandatory string Department name of the users to retrieve. it provides less functionality: o It does not check if the user IDs are entered correctly o It does not retrieve. The Users by user ID people assignment criteria definition is similar to the User Records by user ID definition. this definition is particularly useful during development. but includes replacement expressions. a unique name of a virtual member manager group For LDAP. or when rapidly prototyping an application. Group . The list of people assignment criteria that you see is filtered by your choice of people directory provider. Replacement expressions can refer to custom properties or the input message of a human task. for example.

This assignment creates a group work item instead of creating user work items for every assigned user. and the user registry people directory providers. a unique name of a group entry • For LDAP. It is supported by the LDAP. the name format you use depends on which user repository is set for the application server where the task is deployed: o For the local operating system. This parameter supports replacement expressions. The group ID must correspond to one of the following values: • • • For virtual member manager. virtual member manager. a DN of a group entry • For the user registry provider. Parameter Use Type Description GroupName Mandatory string Group name of the users to retrieve. This parameter supports replacement expressions. use a group name that is supported by the local operating system o For a stand-alone custom registry. a DN of a group entry For the user registry provider. use a DN of a group entry GroupId Mandatory string Group Members Use this criteria to retrieve the members of a group. the name format you use depends on which user repository is set for the application server where the task is deployed: o For the local operating system. The group ID must correspond to one of the following values: • For virtual member manager.Use this criteria to assign a group to a task role. Parameter Use Type Description Group name of the users to retrieve. This criteria is supported by all of the people directory providers. a unique name of a group entry For LDAP. use a group name supported by the custom implementation o For a stand-alone LDAP registry. use a group name that is supported .

virtual member manager. the name format you use depends on which user repository is set for the application server where the task is deployed: o For the local operating system. AlternativeGroupName1 Optional string An additional group to which the users can belong. Parameter Use Type Description GroupName Mandatory string Group name of the users to retrieve. except for the explicitly named users. An additional group to which the users can belong. use a group name that is supported by the local operating system o For a stand-alone custom registry.Parameter Use Type Description by the local operating system For a stand-alone custom registry. AlternativeGroupName2 Optional string Group Members without Named Users Use this criteria to retrieve all of the members of a group. It is supported by the LDAP. use a DN of a group entry o o IncludeSubgroups Mandatory boolean Specifies whether nested subgroups are considered in the query. a unique name of a group entry For LDAP. This parameter supports replacement expressions. The group ID must correspond to one of the following values: • • • For virtual member manager. and the user registry people directory providers. use a group name supported by the custom implementation o For a stand-alone LDAP registry. use a group name supported by the custom implementation For a stand-alone LDAP registry. use a DN of a group entry IncludeSubgroups Mandatory boolean Specifies whether nested subgroups are . a DN of a group entry For the user registry provider.

This parameter supports replacement expression. Parameter Use Type Description GroupID Optional string The group ID of the users to retrieve. It is supported by the LDAP. in the filter. The user IDs of the users to exclude from the retrieved group members list. a unique name of a group entry For LDAP. This parameter supports replacement expressions. You can use the wildcard character. a DN of a group entry Specifies whether nested subgroups are considered in the query. Parameter Use Type Description GroupName Mandatory string Group name of the users to retrieve.Parameter Use Type Description considered in the query. and virtual member manager people directory providers. Filter value to use in the search filter. FilterAttribute Mandatory string Name of the attribute to use in the search filter. It is supported by the LDAP. FilterValue Mandatory string Group Search Use this criteria to search for a group based on attribute matches. asterisk (*). The group ID must correspond to one of the following values: • • IncludeSubgroups Mandatory boolean For virtual member manager. NamedUsers Mandatory string Group Members without Filtered Users Use this criteria to retrieve all of the members of a group except for a set of users that is defined by a search filter. IndustryType Optional string The industry type of the group to which the . and to assign the members of the group. and virtual member manager people directory providers. Type Optional string The group type of the users to retrieve.

Affiliates Optional string The affiliates of the users. It is supported by the LDAP and virtual member manager people directory providers. The employee name must correspond to one of the EmployeeName Mandatory string . Parameter Use Type Description The name of the employee whose manager is retrieved. Secretary Optional string The secretary of the users. The parent company of the users. Assistant Optional string The assistant of the users. BusinessCategory Optional string The business category of the group to which the users belong. the Group entity has properties that are equivalent to the following Group Search criteria parameters: • GS_GroupID: cn • GS_DisplayName: displayName • GS_BusinessCategory: businessCategory Manager of Employee Use this criteria to retrieve the manager of a person using the person's name.Parameter Use Type Description users belong. GeographicLocation Optional string An indication of where the users are located. BusinessType Optional string The business type of the group to which the users belong. ParentCompany Optional string For virtual member manager. DisplayName Optional string The display name of the group. Manager Optional string The manager of the users.

• • • search template: used to specify whether recursive search is done. Query Mandatory string Specifies the query. user. This parameter supports replacement expressions.Parameter Use Type Description following values: • For virtual member manager. the unique name of a person entry • For LDAP. Supported values: yes and no user template: not applicable usersOfGroup: Used to specify whether recursive search is done. The type of parameter depends on the query template. Parameter Use Type Description The login user ID of the employee whose manager is retrieved. This parameter supports replacement expressions. The type of query depends on the query template. • • • AdditionalParameter1 Mandatory where applicable string search template: a valid LDAP filter user template: a DN of a user entry usersOfGroup: a DN of a group Specifies the query. Supported values: yes and no AdditionalParameter2 Optional string Use this criteria to specify a base entry for . This must be one of the following values: search. This parameter supports replacement expressions. a DN of a person entry Manager of Employee by user ID Use this criteria to retrieve the manager of a person using the person's user ID. EmployeeUserID Mandatory string Native Query Use this criteria to define a native query based on directory-specific parameters. or usersOfGroup. For LDAP the following parameters apply: Parameter Use Type Description QueryTemplate Mandatory string The query template to use. It is supported by the LDAP and virtual member manager people directory providers.

This parameter supports replacement expressions. Mandatory depending on query template. • • • search template: either person or group user template: not applicable usersOfGroup: not applicable . If you use the default mapping XSLT files. If you use the default mapping XSLT files. this parameter is not supported. This must be one of the following values: search. Query Mandatory string Specifies the query. user. • AdditionalParameter3 Optional string a DN of a base entry Use this criteria to specify an additional parameter. AdditionalParameter4 Optional string Use this criteria to specify an additional parameter. The type of query depends on the query template. this parameter is not supported. • • • search template: a valid search expression user template: a unique name of a user entry usersOfGroup: a unique name of a group AdditionalParameter1 Mandatory where applicable string Used to specify whether performing a people or group search. If you use the default mapping XSLT files.Parameter Use Type Description searching. AdditionalParameter5 Optional string Use this criteria to specify an additional parameter. this parameter is not supported. For virtual member manager (VMM) people directory providers the following parameters apply: Parameter Use Type Description QueryTemplate Mandatory string The query template to use. or usersOfGroup.

Parameter Use Type Description AdditionalParameter2 Optional string Use this criteria to specify a base entry for searching. It is supported by the LDAP. AdditionalParameter5 Optional string Use this criteria to specify an additional parameter. Parameter Use Type Description UserID Optional string The user ID of the users to retrieve. • • • AdditionalParameter4 Optional string search template: applicable when AdditioanlParmeter1=group user template: not applicable usersOfGroup: applicable Use this criteria to specify an additional parameter. dc=com AdditionalParameter3 Optional string Used to specify whether recursive search is done. LastName Optional string The last name of the users to retrieve. FirstName Optional string The first name of the users to retrieve. . this parameter is not supported. Profile Optional string The profile of the users to retrieve. and the user registry people directory providers. Only authorization inheritance and people resolution defaults apply with this criteria. Nobody Use this criteria to deny users access to a task role. If you use the default mapping XSLT files. for example. • a unique name of a base entry. If you use the default mapping XSLT files. Person Search Use this criteria to search for people based on attribute matches. This criteria has no parameters. dc=mycomp. this parameter is not supported. virtual member manager. Supported values: true and false.

Department Optional string The department to which the users belong. the PersonAccount entity has properties that are equivalent to the following People Search criteria parameters: • PS_UserID: uid • PS_LastName: sn • PS_FirstName: givenName • PS_MiddleName: initials • PS_Email: mail • PS_DisplayName: displayName • PS_Secretary: secretary . Assistant Optional string The assistant of the users. Email Optional string The e-mail address of the users. Secretary Optional string The secretary of the users. Manager Optional string The manager of the users.Parameter Use Type Description MiddleName Optional string The middle name of the users to retrieve. Timezone Optional string The time zone in which the users are located. Phone Optional string The telephone number of the users. Fax Optional string The fax number of the users. DisplayName Optional string The display name of the users. PreferredLanguage Optional string For virtual member manager. The preferred language of the user. Gender Optional string Whether the user is male or female. Company Optional string The company to which the users belong.

for these users. Use this parameter to retrieve more than one user. It is supported by the LDAP and virtual member manager people directory providers. This criteria returns the user IDs and the e-mail information for these users. AlternativeID2 Optional string Users Records by User ID without Named Users Use this criteria to define a query for users whose user ID is known. AlternativeID1 Optional string An additional user ID. AlternativeRoleName1 Optional string An additional role name for the user. virtual member manager. and the preferred locale. the e-mail information. IncludeNestedRoles Mandatory boolean Specifies whether nested roles are considered in the query. Use this parameter to retrieve more than one user. An additional user ID. virtual member manager people directory providers. Parameter Use Type Description RoleName Mandatory string Role name of the users to retrieve. This parameter supports replacement expressions. This criteria returns the user IDs. It is supported by the LDAP. An additional role name for the user. if set. . AlternativeRoleName2 Optional string User Records by User ID Use this criteria to define a query for a user whose user ID is known. Parameter Use Type Description UserID Mandatory string The user ID of the user to retrieve.• • • • PS_Manager: manager PS_Department: departmentNumber PS_Phone: telephoneNumber PS_PreferredLanguage: preferredLanguage Role Members Use this criteria to retrieve the users associated with a role. It is supported by the LDAP. while excluding an explicitly named user ID. and user registry people directory providers.

AlternativeID2 Optional string An additional user ID. use a person name supported by the custom implementation o For a stand-alone LDAP registry. This parameter supports replacement expressions. Use this parameter to retrieve more than one user. AlternativeID1 Optional string An additional user ID. Use this parameter to retrieve more than one user. a DN of a person entry For the user registry provider. the unique name of a person entry For LDAP. the name format you use depends on which user repository is set for the application server where the task is deployed: o For the local operating system. NamedUsers Mandatory string Users Use this criteria to define a query for a user who is known by name. Use this parameter to retrieve more than one user. AlternativeName2 Optional string . It is supported by all of the people directory providers. This parameter supports replacement expressions. Use this parameter to retrieve more than one user. Parameter Use Type Description Name Mandatory string The name of the user to retrieve. use a DN of a person entry AlternativeName1 Optional string An additional user name. The user IDs of the users to exclude from the user ID list.Parameter Use Type Description UserID Mandatory string The user ID of the user to retrieve. An additional user name. use the user ID of the user to assign o For a stand-alone custom registry. • • • For virtual member manager.

Parameter Use Type Description UserID Mandatory string The user ID of the user to retrieve. NamedUsers Mandatory string Customizing people assignment criteria You can also extend the set of predefined people assignment criteria by customizing your own criteria.tel. for example. while excluding an explicitly named user ID. The user IDs of the users to exclude from the user ID list. It is supported by all of the people directory providers. Use this parameter to retrieve more than one user.ui_6. To create a customized people assignment criteria file. AlternativeID2 Optional string An additional user ID. This parameter supports replacement expressions. wpsadmin. These files must be extracted from com. Use short names to specify values.jar . AlternativeID1 Optional string An additional user ID. copy and modify one of the provided examples and then add your new version to your human task preferences. It is supported by all of the people directory providers.Users by User ID Use this criteria to define a query for a user whose user ID is known. This parameter supports replacement expressions. Use short names to specify values. for example. An additional user ID. wpsadmin. Copy one of XML files that contain the people assignment criteria definitions to a convenient location. 1. Use this parameter to retrieve more than one user.version_number.2. This criteria does not require access to a people directory.wbit. This parameter supports replacement expressions.ibm. Use this parameter to retrieve more than one user. Parameter Use Type Description UserID Mandatory string The user ID of the user to retrieve. This criteria does not require access to a people repository. Use this parameter to retrieve more than one user. AlternativeID1 Optional string An additional user ID. AlternativeID2 Optional string Users by User ID without Named Users Use this criteria to define a query for users whose user ID is known.

Restart WebSphere® Integration Developer. then the usual default user rules apply. In the copied version of the file. then the work item is assigned to that user. It is applied only to task roles that have people assignment criteria. 3. the shared_resources directory is C:\Program Files\IBM\SDP70Shared). Creating queries When an application is deployed. See related tasks for details about setting human task preferences. Then. . If an attempt is made to deploy a task template with a non-default substitution policy. substitution takes place only if none of the users that were resolved by the people assignment criteria query is present.. Substitution is refreshed if the people assignment criteria get refreshed. while specifying a people directory provider other than VMM.ibm. and click Install. When you assign people to your task you should see your new people assignment criteria as an option. you cannot change the policy. in the main menu. If a user is absent. select the documentation that you want. After the task template is deployed. Note: VMM is the repository implementation provided by the WebSphere® Application Server for its security realm ‘Federated Repositories’. In the Software Updates and Add-ons window. If any one of the group of users that were resolved is present. The same policy is applied for all of the task roles that are associated with a task template. 5. In the Into folder field select any module or folder within a module. Defining substitution for absentees The substitution feature allows a user to indicate when they will be absent so that a substitution policy can be applied. Click Add Site and specify the following location: http://publib. and if desired make it the default choice. the new file only needs to be part of the workspace to be available. However. Note: If this link fails. the first substitute who is present is used. In WebSphere Integration Developer. click Help > Software Updates. Add the new file to the workspace. From the main menu select File > Import > General > File System and then browse to the new file. for every absent user. no substitution takes place. make the necessary changes. the deployment attempt will be rejected. Prefer present users In this case. the substitution policy is applied to the results of the people resolution to determine who receives the work items instead of the absent user. A substitution policy defines how to deal with tasks and escalations that are assigned to absent users and is defined when the task template is modeled. This security realm has to be configured in WebSphere Application Server in order to make VMM available for the substitution feature. Click Finish. you need to install additional documentation. no substitute is used. Depending on the specific substitution policy. If no such substitute exists.com/dmndhelp/downloads/v6r2mx/wid/. The resulting people queries are stored with the task template in the Business Process Choreographer database. 4. Expand the results under this repository location. and the work items can be assigned to somebody else. the following actions are applied: No substitution (default): The set of users remains unchanged Replace absent users with their substitutes If the user is present.which can be found in the shared_resources/plugins directory (typically on Windows®. Information on this topic can be found at Mapping people assignment criteria to people queries or Mapping people assignment criteria to people queries if you have WebSphere Process Server installed. 2. open the Resource perspective if you are not already there (click Window > Open Perspective > Other > Resource).boulder. The substitution feature can be used in conjunction with the virtual member manager (VMM) people directory provider. Edit the human task preferences page and add a pointer to your customized XML file. You will need to restart WebSphere Integration Developer to see the additional documentation. If none of the users and none of their substitutes are present. people assignment criteria definitions are transformed into sets of queries that are specific to a people directory configuration. select the Available Software tab.

g. In WebSphere Integration Developer. Note: If this link fails. and click Install. it exhibits the same life cycle as people resolution itself. A substitution policy defines how to deal with tasks and escalations that are assigned to absent users. To set the duration values for your human task.As substitution is a processing step after people resolution. select the documentation that you want. you will have the following three options that will dictate the format your calendar entries will take: Option Description Simple This is. open the Resource perspective if you are not already there (click Window > Open Perspective > Other > Resource). as the name suggests.com/dmndhelp/downloads/v6r2mx/wid/. More information on this topic can be found by following these links: Configuring people substitution If you do not have WebSphere Process Server installed use this link: Configuring people substitution Create and activate a Virtual Member Manager (VMM) property extension repository for Business Process Choreographer to support user substitution. proceed as follows: 1. if a People Assignment Criterion is associated with that role. Expand the results under this repository location. From the Calendar type field. click the Duration tab. Use the Timeout . set to expire.boulder. if they are on sick leave. Specifying absence settings for users If you do not have WebSphere Process Server installed use this link: Specifying absence settings for users If users are prevented from working on their tasks. Then. a simple arithmetic calendar. It will indicate when a task is due. select the Available Software tab. In the Software Updates and Add-ons window. specify a substitute for the absent user's tasks. In the Properties view of the task settings. Specifying absence settings If you do not have WebSphere Process Server installed use this link: Specifying absence settings If you intend to be away from the office for a certain time. but the duration value will not trigger an escalation. you need to install additional documentation. it is carried out. Note: The duration value is separate from the escalation function in human tasks. Substitution for absentees If you do not have WebSphere Process Server installed use this link: Substitution for absentees The substitution feature allows you to specify absence settings either for yourself. 2. or set to be deleted. Click Add Site and specify the following location: http://publib. Similarly. You will need to restart WebSphere Integration Developer to see the additional documentation. or for members of the group that you administer. specify a substitute for your tasks. in the main menu. For a given task role (e. Setting duration values for your human task You can set a duration value for your human task to specify how long the task will hold before it is either due. it is refreshed if the People Assignment Criteria itself gets refreshed. click Help > Software Updates. for example.ibm. Task Potential Owners).

or choose one of the following options: o o o o o Duration until task is deleted Immediate In this context. 3. weekends. the task will be expired the moment it is started. Never In this context. User-Defined calendar Use this option to select a calendar other than those provided. See Using business calendars within human tasks for more information. Duration until task is overdue o o Duration until task expires Use this field to specify the amount of time that should pass before this task is moved to the "Expired" state. A user cannot work on an expired task. the task will not move to the expired state. The remaining fields on this page can be configured in any combination that you see fit. and point to a valid Java™ Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) location. Deletion is also dependent on . You can enter a value that makes sense to the calendar you selected in the Calendar type field above. You can use the fields to name the calendar. or "Expired". this setting means that the task will not be given a due date. Enter a value that makes sense to the calendar you selected in the Calendar type field. "Terminated". Use this field to specify the amount of time that should pass before this task is removed from the system once it has reached a completed state. Business calendar There will be more than three options in the Calendar Type field if a business calendar is available. WebSphere® CRON calendar This is a built-in calendar that uses a list of term expressions representing elements of time to calculate the interval. Examples of this type of calendar can be found in the Related Information section below. A business calendar can be used to model duration values for time-sensitive aspects of your human task in order to account for such variables as regular working hours. and according to these choices: Option Description Use this field to set the period that will elapse between the time this task is started and the time that it is expected to be completed. o Never o In this context. and holidays. "Failed". this setting means that the task will be considered due the moment it is started.Option Description Duration fields to select the amount of time that this activity should wait for an action to occur before it expires. or choose one of the following options: Immediate In this context. Completed states include: "Finished".

weekends. In the Properties view of the task settings. and would not expect a response to the task until Tuesday afternoon. Never In this context. You have the following options: On completion Choose this option to delete the task from the system once it is finished. Use this setting to configure the circumstances of the task's deletion. select the business calendar that you created or imported in Step 1.Option Description the choice you make in the Auto deletion mode field. imagine putting a human task activity in a business process. weekends. If however. the task will be deleted the moment it is completed. To use a business calendar in a human task. 3. create a business calendar or import one from WebSphere® Modeler. we had modeled this timeout duration using the business calender. Use this field to specify the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) location for your custom calendar. A period of time that does not proceed in a sequential manner is called non-contiguous. you can use a business calendar to account for such variables as regular working hours. we are saying that the tool will take into consideration the fact that a timeout duration is often affected by periods when a business may be closed. you can use a business calendar to account for such variables as regular working hours. and holidays. For example. You can enter a value that makes sense to the calendar you selected in the Calendar type field above. . or when an employee is absent. This selection is not available when Duration until task is deleted is set to Never. So. Using business calendars within human tasks When it comes to modeling duration values for time-sensitive aspects of your human task. when we say that the business calendar can be used to model non-contiguous intervals of time. • Using business calendars within human tasks When it comes to modeling duration values for time-sensitive aspects of your human task. it would be understood that the employee would be away from the office on Saturday and Sunday. refer to Business calendars. This field appears when you choise the User-defined option in the Calendar type field. whether or not it was successfully completed. For detailed instructions on how to do this. o o Calendar name User calendar JNDI This field appears when you chose the User-defined option in the Calendar type field. and holidays. Use this field to enter a name for your custom calendar. 2. then it would be expecting a response by Sunday afternoon: a time when the staff member to which it is assigned is away for the weekend. or choose one of the following options: o o o o o Auto deletion mode Immediate In this context. If you have not already done so. click the Duration tab. If an instance of this business process were to be instantiated on a Friday afternoon. the task will not be removed from the system. and then assigning it a timeout duration of two days (or 48 hours). o On successful completion o Choose this option to only delete the task when it has been successfully finished. From the Calendar Type list. proceed as follows: 1.

Although the duration value will indicate when a task is due. the escalations are executed sequentially. defined by a name attribute and a value of type string.4. Information on how to configure these fields can be found in the topic Setting duration values for your human task Using custom properties for human tasks Custom properties are used to categorize a task. 2. proceed as follows: 1. Parallel escalation With a parallel escalation. you will need to know the following ahead of time: • The state that the task is in when the escalation period begins (this is also known as the activation state). For example. it is waiting to be claimed. and can be useful for querying. it will NOT trigger an escalation. or one after the other. the escalations are in two separate paths. Each custom property has a name. configure the amount of time that this human task should wait for an action. a staff member has accepted the work and should . Creating an escalation for your human task An escalation is a notification that is sent out when an expected result from a task has not been achieved within a set period of time. When you create an escalation for your human task. knowing that the business calendar will compensate for all non-contiguous aspects of the interval of time. A task definition can contain an arbitrary number of custom properties. In such a case. For example: Name = branch. Launch your human task in the editor. Search criteria can be defined for tasks. Under Escalation settings. Using the remaining fields. the first escalation must fully complete before the next one is initiated. Configure the escalation settings to notify an authorized staff member should nobody claim it within the specified period of time. • The manner in which the notification takes place. an escalation could be used to alert a manager when a staff member is unable to complete a task by the deadline. Note: The duration value for a human task is separate from the escalation function. and are executed at the same time (or in accordance with the escalate after setting as described below). or how long you want the system to wait for the expected state to be reached before notification occurs. choose the activation state from the following three options: Option Description Ready When a task is in the ready state. Value = 3 Custom properties are defined on the Environment tab in the properties area. • The escalation period. escalations and for the dynamic people assignment via custom properties. If you are creating more than one escalation for an activation state. • The state that you want the task to be in when the escalation period ends (it is when the task is NOT in this expected state at the end of the period that the actual escalation is thrown). you have two options: Chained escalation In a chained escalation. and filtering tasks. Claimed When a task is in the claimed state. Value = Chicago Name = skill-level. To add an escalation to your human task. sorting.

configure the implementation as follows: Option Description Use this field to specify the state in which the task should be when the escalation times out. Subtask A task is in the subtask state when the owner of the parent task must delegate part of the task to other staff members. 5. b. If the subtask cannot be completed within the required amount of time. at the end of the escalation period. 3. then an escalation is thrown. o All subtasks ended o Choose this as the expected end state when you want an escalation initiated if the subtasks associated with this task have not been . A new escalation appears beside the existing one as shown in the following image. Configure the escalation settings to notify an authorized employee should the staff member fail to complete the work within the specified period of time. To create a chained escalation. select an existing escalation and click the Escalation icon. the parent task is escalated and indicates that it is still waiting on the subtask. the task has not yet been claimed by a user. proceed in one of the following two ways: a. select an the activation state.Option Description currently be working on it. In the Details page of the properties area. To add additional escalations to this activation state. You will have the three following options: Expected task state o Ended o Choose this as the expected end state when you want an escalation initiated if the task is not complete by the end of the escalation period. To create a parallel escalation. If the task is not in the state specified. o Claimed o Choose this when you want an escalation initiated if. Click the Escalation icon to create a new escalation for the chosen activation state. Configure an escalation for a subtask to make sure that it can be completed in time enough for the parent task to be finished as well. and click the Escalation icon. A new escalation appears below the selected activation state. A new escalation appears below the existing one as shown in the following image. 4.

Use these fields to specify the period of time that will elapse before the notification associated with this escalation is repeated. 2. . You will have three options: Notification type o o Work item Choose Work item to have the task delivered directly to a designated staff member's "to do" list. Increase this time only o Choose this if you only want it to boost the priority with one iteration. In the Assign People page of the properties area. you then have to specify the event handler in the Event handler name field in the task's Details properties page. a separate field will appear from which you can choose an appropriate e-mail message. specify the group of people that are notified should this escalation be executed. this setting creates a work item.Option Description completed by the end of the escalation period. You can enter the values using the spin boxes provided. Use this list to tell the system how to deal with this escalation. You will have three options: Repeat notification every Increase task priority o o o No Choose No to leave the priority unchanged. Escalate after Use these fields to specify the period of time that will elapse before this task is escalated. or click the secondary radio button and enter a value that makes sense to the type of calendar (simple. user-defined) that is specified in the task's Duration properties page. WebSphere® CRON. user-defined) that is specified in the task's Duration properties page. If you select this option. WebSphere CRON. Once you select this option. Use this list to determine if and how this escalation's priority will change with each iteration of it. o E-mail o Choose E-mail to have an e-mail message that announces the escalation delivered to a staff member. E-mail message Use this field to select the e-mail message that will be delivered to the designated staff member in the event of the escalation. You can enter the values using the spin boxes provided. and nothing else. you can define the staff group (criteria) and in so doing. You can create a new message. o Increase per repetition o Select this if you want the priority augmented each time this escalation is repeated. Since a work item is always created in an escalation. o Event o Choose Event if you want to trigger an event handler in the runtime environment. or click the secondary radio button and enter a value that makes sense to the type of calendar (simple. or select an appropriate message from the list and click Edit to make any necessary changes to it.

An instance of a task is created and. Designing an escalation When you model an escalation to be created in the human task editor. • the action that should be taken in the case of an escalation. You can use WebSphere® Integration Developer to model escalations for tasks that are in the activation states of ready. an escalation can be used to notify first and/or second line managers when a work item has lingered in a working state for too long. notification of an appropriate staff member via e-mail. For example. the creation of a work item that can be claimed by a set of users. the escalation state is changed to superfluous. If the task has reached or passed it. you could use an escalation on a work item that has been sitting unclaimed for too long to send an email to a potential owner to urge them to claim it. Life cycle of an escalation Here is a brief description of the stages that a typical escalation will go through. • Customizing an escalation e-mail notification You can use an e-mail message to notify a staff member that they have a work item in the form of an escalation. 2. then an escalation is thrown). • the state that you want the task to be in when the escalation value times out (if it is not in this state. • whether the task priority should be increased during the escalation. 3. the escalation state is changed to waiting. . • the mode of notification. the escalation state is changed 2. 1.• Escalations An escalation is a course of action that is implemented when an expected result from a task has not been achieved within a set period of time. if it has an associated escalation. When a timeout occurs. how soon. • Assigning people to escalations Use the Assign People tab of the properties area to specify the group of people that is notified should this escalation be executed. you will need the following information to complete it: • to whom the resulting work item should be assigned. and a task in either a claimed or a subtask state are escalated when the work has not been completed within the required time limit. Or. you can model an escalation for a subtask to make sure that it gets completed in plenty of time for the owner to finish the associated parent task. • Notifying an event handler of an escalation You can use customized notification event handlers within your application environment to deal with escalations in your human task model. and the system checks to see if the expected task state has been reached. When the task reaches the activation state. claimed. An escalation can result in any one of the following actions: 1. • the period of time before it should be escalated. 3. A task in a ready state is escalated when it is not claimed in time. it remains inactive until the task reaches the activation state. Or. and if so. If the expected state has not yet been reached. • whether the escalation should be performed again. notification of an event handler. Escalations An escalation is a course of action that is implemented when an expected result from a task has not been achieved within a set period of time. or subtask. all associated escalations are initialized with the starting of the Escalate within timer.

or event handler notification).ibm. This prevents escalations that are further along in the chain from timing out before the ones at the beginning. Also.com/bpcsamp/index. keep in mind that an escalation with an expected state of end. Example To see an example of a human task escalation that you can build and run yourself. in contrast to a chained escalation. Note: You will need a connection to the internet to view this example. e-mail notification. and click Human Task features > Escalation. cannot precede another escalation. This is a screen capture of an parallel escalation built on a subtask state. Chained escalations A chain of escalations is a series of escalations with the same activation state that are processed sequentially so that only one is active at any one time. and you will receive a validation error if one exists in your diagram. and one of the three possible actions occur (work item. the timer on the second escalation in a chain will not start until the first escalation has timed out. go to http://publib.boulder. The escalation is repeated according to the Repeat notification every value. The escalation's priority is increased according to the Increase task priority value. and the escalation action is invoked.4. The priority can be increased repeatedly if an auto-repeat duration is set. This is a screen capture of an escalation chain built on a ready state. 5. The wait duration for each of the escalations in a chain is cumulative. and any one of them can have an end state as the expected state. Assigning people to escalations Use the Assign People tab of the properties area to specify the group of people that is notified should this escalation be executed. Parallel escalations Parallel escalations are one or more escalations that are processed at the same time as opposed to sequentially. to escalated. Such a situation would never escalate. That is. Each of the escalations has the same activation state but. its wait duration fires independently.html. .

Note: If this link fails. To customize the e-mail message. it is necessary to configure the WebSphere® Process Server as described in Sending e-mails for escalations or Sending e-mails for escalations if you have WebSphere Process Server installed. click Help > Software Updates. in the main menu. The people assignment criteria that you see is determined by the contents of an XML file. In the Software Updates and Add-ons window. and check to see if the query will return an appropriate result. and you want this specific user to be automatically assigned the task in question. When the check box is clear. This people assignment criteria file is a definition of queries to the user repository and the staff members that are resolved by those queries. and those that are mandatory will be marked with a "*". You will need to restart WebSphere Integration Developer to see the additional documentation. select the Available Software tab. the user must actively claim the task. This button is available for all people assignment criteria except everybody and nobody. Press Ctrl+Space to launch context assist. the names are all predefined in the XML file that contains your people assignment criteria definitions.com/dmndhelp/downloads/v6r2mx/wid/. The value of the parameter can be changed by clicking into the value field and editing it. Then. See replacement variables and context variables for more information on this Customizing an escalation e-mail notification You can use an e-mail message to notify a staff member that they have a work item in the form of an escalation. Parameter table Use this table to specify details like a group name and thus define the people that will be assigned by the selected criterion at runtime. You can also specify replacement variables. proceed as follows: . See related tasks for how to change your people directory or modify the people assignment criteria. and use parts of the task input or output message as values for the parameters. You can use context assist for some of the values if you see the icon of a light bulb appear when you click the field.ibm. and requires at least one running Process Server to be defined in Servers view and all mandatory fields filled in.People assignment criteria Use this field to choose the criteria for a query that will return the group of people who share the same permissions and will receive a new work item as notification that an escalation has fired. claim task automatically This check box is only available when the Potential Owners authorization role has been selected.boulder. you need to install additional documentation. open the Resource perspective if you are not already there (click Window > Open Perspective > Other > Resource). Before you can customize the e-mail notification. Test Click Test to choose a server. Click Add Site and specify the following location: http://publib. If only one person qualifies. In WebSphere Integration Developer. select the documentation that you want. Expand the results under this repository location. Enable it in cases when your people assignment query returns a single person. and click Install.

as shown in this image: To configure the e-mail message.1. the variable will appear between "%" characters. . and click Edit. select New from the E-mail message drop down list. first select it from the E-mail message drop down list. Give the e-mail message a name and a subject. but will be replaced when it is evaluated in the runtime environment when the email is sent. To create a new e-mail message. The E-mail message field becomes active with the default message chosen automatically as shown here. Create an escalation for your human task. To make changes to an e-mail message. To insert a human task variable into the text of the subject. 4. The E-mail editor will launch. click Add Variable and select an appropriate variable from the list. In the editor. 3. In the Details page of the properties area select E-mail as the Notification type. proceed as follows: a. 2.

System. You can package the implementation class of the com. c.isEscalated()). 1.task.println("Escalation name: " + escalation.out.println("Escalation is null"). As before.getDateTimeInstance(). you can insert a human task variable by clicking Add Variable.out. Notifying an event handler of an escalation You can use customized notification event handlers within your application environment to deal with escalations in your human task model. b. Here is an example of an implementation of the escalationNotification method. c. follow these instructions. Tip: If you are composing a brand new e-mail message. To see what your e-mail message will look like when it is delivered.Notification event received: " + DateFormat. .out. Implement an event handler according to the steps below.println("Task template name: " + task. a. } else { System. System.out. This section describes how you add the notification event handler implementation class to the same application as the human task.println("Escalate within: " + escalation. To configure an event and add it to your business application model.ibm.getDurationUntilEscalated()). you can use either the NotificationEventHandlerPlugin interface. public void escalationNotification(Task task. and are unsure of how to proceed. } System.spi.println("Repeat notification every: " + escalation. Escalation escalation) { System. and hit enter.").getTaskTemplateName()).println("Task name: " + task.out. or you can put it into a dependent utility project. System.out. In the New Java Class wizard. System. take a look at the existing default message for ideas.spi.out.getDurationUntilRepeated()). choose a Package and a Name for your new Class and click Add beside the Interfaces field. Compose your message in the E-mail window in HTML language. To implement notification event handlers. and select New > Class.println("--. In the Implemented Interfaces Selection window.format( new Date(System.println("Task is null"). if(task != null) { System. In the Java™ perspective.getEventHandlerName()).out. and click Finish.. } else { System. Click the tag you want to use.out. right-click your Java module.println("Notification event received. When you enter a "<" symbol. begin typing notif until a list of matching types appear.println("Is escalated: " + task.println("Event handler name: " + task.task. if(escalation != null) { System.b.getName()). choose NotificationEventHandlerPlugin.out.getName()). a list of possible HTML code tags will appear along with a description of what that tag would be used for. System. click the Preview tab.NotificationEventHandler service provider interface (SPI) implementation class.out.ibm. or you can extend the default com.currentTimeMillis()))).NotificationEventHandlerPlugin into the same application as your human task.

ibm. then the first line of the configuration file must contain the following entry: com.task. b.task.plug-in_nameNotificationEventHandlerPlugin. c. add a line with the fully qualified class name of your implementation class: bpc.plugins. 3. 5. select the escalation. Ad-hoc collaboration . c.plugins package.samples.NotificationEventHandlerPlugin interface.plugin. Click Save. Click Finish.spi. In the META-INF/services/ directory of your JAR file. create a new folder services. if your plug-in is called HelpDeskRequest (event handler name) and it implements the com. and conforms to the Java 2 service provider interface specification. and it is in the com. 2. Click the Details tab.task.html.customer. Click Save. This configuration file provides the mechanism for identifying and loading the plug-in. and click Human Task features > Escalation. create a file with the name com. Example To see an example of an escalation that uses a customized notification event handler.} System. In the META-INF folder. Specify an escalation with a notification type Event: a.boulder. Create a service provider configuration file for the plug-in. e.com/bpcsamp/index.MyEventHandler.spi. e. d. Note: You will need a connection to the internet to view this example. The editor opens for the new file.EventHandlerNameNotificationEventHandlerPlugin Where EventHandlerName is the event handler name you have specified for your task. choose Event from the list of available options. In the File name field of the New File wizard. g.ibm. the name of the configuration file is com. In the human task editor click the Details tab. Note: This name is not the name of the implementation class. enter a name for your notification event handler.spi. Save your work. c. enter com. expand your business integration project. b. Declare a notification event handler for your task as described here: a. b. it is the name that you gave the event handler.HelpDeskRequestNotificationEventHandlerPlugin. see the Related tasks section below). where plugin_name is the name of the plug-in.ibm. f. In the Event handler name field. a.out. In the first line of the file that is neither a comment line nor a blank line.EscalationNotificationPlugin. d. Configure the escalation as needed (for help. if your plug-in class is called MyEventHandler. For example. go to http://publib. specify the fully qualified name of your plug-in class.spi.ibm. Switch to the Resource perspective. In the Navigator. For Notification type. b. In the editor.customer. Switch to the Business Integration perspective and open your task in the human task editor.ibm.task.End notification event"). For example. In the Escalation settings section.println("--. 4. Right-click the services folder and select New > File . Add your plugin to your application: a.

as well as a collaboration task. To control the creation of subtasks. terminates. Follow-on tasks In the runtime environment. Open your task in the human task editor. then users will not be able to delegate portions of this task in the . all subtasks will be as well. or expires. 2. you would use the Human Task API to define a dynamic Human Task template. Subtasks cannot be deleted unless the parent task is first deleted. usually because of new circumstances that did not exist when the task was initially developed.html. where it can be claimed by anyone in the authorized group. if a person who claims a task finds that they are not able to complete it by themselves. 3.When you create or modify a task in the user interface of the runtime environment.ibm. A subtask can be derived from an inline or stand-alone to-do task. the parent task can then be completed. then this human task definition will allow for the creation of subtasks in the runtime environment. they can delegate portions of that original task to other people in the form of subtasks.boulder. if a person who claims a task finds that they are not able to complete it. proceed as follows: 1. The staff member then initiates a subtask from an existing definition.com/bpcsamp/index. When all subtasks have entered an end state. they can assign the remaining work to somebody else in the form of a follow-on task. and can be realized either as a stand-alone invocation or a collaboration task. resumes. For an example of such an ad-hoc task. they can delegate portions of that original task to other people in the form of subtasks. and provides an input message for the subtask. and when the task is either to-do or collaboration. and configure your definition accordingly. and then start an instance of it. configure the Enable subtask creation check box according to the following choices: 2. go to http://publib. Option Description Enabled If this check box is enabled. • Subtasks In the runtime environment. The staff member claims the parent task in the runtime environment through a user interface. Such tasks can be used when the application is stand-alone. 4. if a person who claims a task finds that they are not able to complete it by themselves. Note: You will need a connection to the internet to view this example. and click Human Task features > Ad-hoc Human Task. If the parent task suspends. In the Details tab of the properties area. Ad-hoc tasks and transferred work items are created "on-the-fly" in the runtime environment. deploy this to an application server. you can dynamically define a task either as a subtask or a follow-on task. The life cycle of a subtask usually looks something like this: 1. To create a pure ad-hoc task. you can decide if the business case justifies the need for the creation of subtasks. and will remain there until all of its subtasks. as well as the transferred work item (see below). Typically. The subtask will enter the work queue. 5. • Subtasks In the runtime environment. staff members who have already claimed a task can create a subtask when they can't complete the work by themselves. Cleared If this check box is clear. The parent task enters the WAITING_FOR_SUBTASK state. You can use WebSphere® Integration Developer to allow for two types of ad-hoc tasks (the subtask and the follow-on task). are complete. When you are creating the human task definition.

configure the Enable follow-on task creation check box as follows: 2. Transferring work items . proceed as follows: 1. and in cases where there is a chain of follow-on tasks. When you are first creating the human task template.ibm.html. the first task in the chain is known as the head task. Option Description Enabled If this check box is enabled. They can also support subtasks.com/bpcsamp/index. in the main menu. as well as further follow-on tasks.com/bpcsamp/index.boulder. you need to install additional documentation. and click Install. if a person who claims a task finds that they are not able to complete it. and click Human Task features > Subtask. Then. You will need to restart WebSphere Integration Developer to see the additional documentation. Note: If this link fails. The input. Follow-on tasks In the runtime environment. In the Software Updates and Add-ons window. In the Details tab of the properties area. To control the creation of follow-on tasks. Click Add Site and specify the following location: http://publib. then users will not be able to delegate portions of this task in the from of follow-on tasks. output. click Help > Software Updates. and configure your template accordingly. Follow-on tasks can be derived from inline or stand-alone to-do tasks as well as collaboration tasks. In WebSphere Integration Developer. Example To see an example of a follow-on task that you can build and run yourself. select the Available Software tab.ibm.boulder.Option Description from of subtasks. they can assign the remaining work to somebody else in the form of a follow-on task. open the Resource perspective if you are not already there (click Window > Open Perspective > Other > Resource).ibm. The initial task that spawns the follow-on task is called the predecessor task. go to http://publib. select the documentation that you want. Note: You will need a connection to the internet to view this example. go to http://publib. Example To see an example of a subtask that you can build and run yourself. Open your task in the human task editor. and click Human Task features > Follow-on task.boulder. Expand the results under this repository location.html or .com/dmndhelp/downloads/v6r2mx/wid/. and can be realized as a collaboration or stand-alone originating task. and fault message definitions of the completed and the follow-on task must be of the same type. then this human task template will allow for the creation of follow-on tasks in the runtime environment. you can decide if the business case justifies the need for the creation of follow-on tasks. Cleared If this check box is clear.

or claimed state . In WebSphere Integration Developer. in the main menu. In the Software Updates and Add-ons window. so that multiple versions of those same tasks can co-exist in a runtime environment. • The owner of a task instance can transfer the "owner" work item to a potential owner or an administrator of the task instance. and running state. o A "starter" work item can be transferred in the expired. o A "reader" or "administrator" work items can be transferred in all but the inactive state. In the Details tab of the properties area.In the runtime environment. finished. and running state. Note: If this link fails. • The administrator of a task instance can transfer all work items to any person. then this human task template will allow for the movement or work items between staff members. finished. then users will not be able to delegate work items to other staff members. The following rules apply: • Work items assigned to "everybody" cannot be transferred. Here are some possible examples of when you would create a version of a human task: . You will need to restart WebSphere Integration Developer to see the additional documentation. Then. failed. To control the transferring of work items. o A "potential starter" work item can be transferred in the inactive state.com/dmndhelp/downloads/v6r2mx/wid/. you can decide if the business case justifies allowing work items to be transferred. o An "escalation receiver" work item can be transferred in the ready. select the Available Software tab. click Help > Software Updates. Versioning human tasks You can create new versions of your human task. • The originator of a task instance can transfer a "potential starter" work item to any person. you need to install additional documentation.boulder. select the documentation that you want. configure the Transfer task check box as follows: 2.ibm. terminated. open the Resource perspective if you are not already there (click Window > Open Perspective > Other > Resource). Cleared If this check box is clear. go to Managing work assignments or Managing work assignments if you have WebSphere Process Server installed. terminated. Expand the results under this repository location. For more information on this topic. running. When you are first creating the human task template. failed. proceed as follows: 1. Click Add Site and specify the following location: http://publib. • The starter of a task instance can transfer the "starter" work item to a potential starter or an administrator of the task instance. o A "potential owner" or "editor" work item can be transferred in the ready or claimed state. they can transfer the work item to another person or group. o A "potential starter" work item can be transferred in the inactive state. and click Install. Option Description Enabled If this check box is enabled. and configure your template accordingly. o A "starter" work item can be transferred in the expired. Open your task in the human task editor. • The originator of a task instance can transfer the "originator" work item to a potential instance creator or an administrator of the task instance. if a person who has claimed a task finds that they are not able to complete it.

you must first understand that a version of a human task is identified by the following properties: 1. but have different valid-from dates. a version is a copy of an existing task that is slightly different from the original. with late-binding the relationship between the client and the task is dynamic in that it is resolved in the runtime environment. In contrast. Specifically.• • In the likelihood that your human task will need to be modified over time. or to pick up the currently valid version of the task. different valid-from date In addition. and are allowed to run their course. Forms) For more information See the whitepaper on developerWorks® called Versioning and dynamicity with WebSphere® Process Server and the podcast called WebSphere Technical Podcast series: SOA programming model. a specific version of the task is used to create that instance. Invoking a human task When a client invokes a task. even if an older version of that task was still being used. the runtime engine could use a new version of a task that is set to become valid today. Differentiating human task versions Put simply. they must also have the same interface. In practice. and if they use late binding. You have a solution where multiple versions of the same human task must coexist. To allow for seamless introduction of new versions.com/bpcsamp/index. the currently valid version of the human task is used.ibm. the two versions must have the same name and namespace. Clients that want to use early binding must use SCA wiring. a client is hard-wired to a task in such a way as to force a continued relationship between the two of them. and set things up in the manner described in the associated topics. This is the basic concept behind early binding and late binding. it is with different valid-from dates that multiple versions of the same task are distinguished. Clients that want to use late binding can do it in one of the following ways: • Using the Business Process Choreographer APIs (generic EJB API or generic Web Services API) • Using the generated clients (JSF. it is a good idea to anticipate the need ahead of time. In other words. Part 5: Managing change in Web services components and applications Example To see an example of a versioned process that you can build and run yourself. same target namespace 3. To create a version of a human task. even if another version of the task becomes available. go to http://publib. With early binding. In addition. you will need to consider how the client interacts with the task. . and click Process modeling techinques > Versioning. it can still help you to become more familiar with the concept of versioning. Note: You will need a connection to the internet to view this example. you will need to be able to deploy new versions of the task in such a way as to ensure that existing instances remain undisturbed. To understand how this differentiation takes place. In other words. if the caller instantiates a task using early binding. it is important that you plan ahead. In such a case. Although this example is not specific to human tasks. same component name 2.boulder. that client can be configured either to choose a specific version each time. it is important to note that interface specifications of different versions need to remain the same.html. Of critical importance. Although the solution as a whole cannot be uninstalled and reinstalled. and how the task itself is set up. you will want the existing callers to be able to seamlessly pickup the newest version of the task the moment it becomes effective.

Creating a version of your human task This section explains how to create a new version of your human task whose binding may be dynamically resCreating

a version of your human task

This section explains how to create a new version of your human task whose binding may be dynamically resolved in the runtime environment. To create a new human task, you begin by creating a new module that contains a new version of your task, and install it in the same manner as the original.The runtime engine is able to recognize that the new task is actually a more recent version of the other, and will select it over the older one. These steps assume that you have already created the human task that you seek to version. 1. Make a copy of the module that contains the original version of your human task as follows:

a. b. c.
d. 2.

In the Business Integration view, right-click the module that contains the human task and select Copy. Right-click on any white-space within the same view, and select Paste. In the Copy Module window, change the module name as necessary (perhaps by adding a suffix that indicates the version), and click OK. Save the file. The new module name appears in the assembly editor.

Configure a date from which the copied human task will be valid, as follows:

a.
b.

In the Details tab of the properties area, enable Date (UTC) when task becomes valid. If this check box is clear, then a valid-from date is implicitly specified so that the task becomes valid as soon as the module is installed. Configure the calendar fields to specify the date and time when the runtime engine is allowed to create instances of this task. Click the calendar icon to choose a specific date, and then use the remaining fields to configure the precise time.

Calendar values are represented in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). 3. 4. Save your work. You can deploy this new module as you would any other module.

Example
To see an example of a versioned process that you can build and run yourself, go to http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/bpcsamp/index.html, and click Process modeling techinques > Versioning. Although this example is not specific to human tasks, it can still help you to become more familiar with the concept of versioning. Note: You will need a connection to the internet to view this example.

solved in the runtime environment.

Setting up a user interface for your human task
The human task editor provides various client types that you can use to customize a user interface through which users can interact with the tasks in the runtime environment. A client delivers task-related information to a staff member in the form of an interactive application. You can generate various types of clients for your human tasks, and use the generated clients to customize a user interface through which users can interact with the tasks in the runtime environment. Or, you can use generated clients to quickly demonstrate a human workflow, for example as a proof of concept or prototype. Using the client generator, you can generate clients for both stand-alone human tasks that exist independently of a business process, and inline human tasks that have access to the execution context a business process. You

can create one client for all the human tasks in a module, or generate one client per task. You can also generate one client for all human tasks in multiple processes or modules. You may wish to provide a choice of user interfaces or to provide clients with different functionality for different roles or simply to provide basic clients that can be re-used with a different look and feel. User interfaces for your human tasks can make use of several types of technology. The human task editor provides a User Interface section in order to add technology specific configuration settings to a human task. For some of the client technology types included by default, the corresponding property page allows the creation or selection of visualization files that match the Business Object data structure used by the human task. There are two routes to creating user interfaces for your human tasks. A human task user interface wizard can be used by selecting one or more human tasks in the Business Integration folder view. The wizard allows you to rapidly generate a variety of user interfaces. The second route is to use the human task editor. There is a section on the canvas called User Interface and you can add user interface settings to your task using the "+" button. Some of the property pages where you specify the UI settings offer the possibility to create visualization artifacts for the selected interface technology. Most situations can be arrived at using either of these two methods but there are some considerations you should make before taking either route: • If you want to create user interfaces for more than one task, the wizard is the more efficient choice, since you can create user interfaces for multiple tasks, even if they are not in the same module. • If you want to simply create a Lotus Form to directly interface with this task in this module, for example to use the form in Business Space, use the human task editor. For Lotus Forms and JSF, the wizard creates not only the generated artifacts but also stand-alone web applications that allow you to readily use the generated artifacts. • If you want to work in Business Space but do not have access to Lotus Forms, you can create an HTMLDojo user interface and use it in Business Space. • If you want to use an existing Lotus Form for your user interface you must use the human task editor and select the Lotus Form in the Properties view. Note: The structure of the Lotus Form must match the business object structure of the interface used by the human task. The simplest way to ensure this, is to create the human task using the existing Lotus Form as a template. Select File > New > from Patterns to launch the New from Pattern wizard. Using this wizard create a business process to contain the generated human tasks, create the human tasks and select the Lotus Forms, the structure of which will be used to generate the interface used by the human task. You want to use the Lotus Forms technology to visualize a human task, you have several routes to achieving this goal. One option would be to specify or generate a Lotus Form on the Lotus Forms User Interface Settings property page, (through the human task editor). In so doing, you can directly use the form in Business Space to work with the task. Another option would be to use the UI generation wizard to create a stand alone web application. The wizard checks, if a Lotus Form has been specified on the corresponding property page. If a form has already been configured, the wizard makes the generated application use it, otherwise it creates a new form.

Before you begin: Client types and prerequisites These are the types of clients that you can configure or generate for your human tasks. This topic contains useful information that you may need before you proceed to generate your client. Defining user interfaces for a human task In the Human Task editor, you can select the type of client, and configure properties such as inputs and outputs for the client. You can specify existing configurations, or define new ones. You can then generate a client. Generating HTML-Dojo pages or Lotus Forms for Business Space . Generating Lotus Forms clients Generate a client for your human task or process based on forms that you specify in the User interface settings. Generating WebSphere Portal portlets A portlet is a reusable Web module that runs on a portal server. In the human task editor, you can specify a portlet as a client. Generating JSF clients for your human tasks You can generate a client either from a module, a business process, or a human task.

• •

Customizing clients You may need to customize the user interfaces to your human tasks. Information is provided for each type of human task client. Deploying a generated client to an external runtime environment After generating your client you have several choices for how to deploy it to the runtime environment.

Before you begin: Client types and prerequisites
These are the types of clients that you can configure or generate for your human tasks. This topic contains useful information that you may need before you proceed to generate your client.

Client type

Description

Prerequisite You can create an HTML file to be used as a part of the Business Space user interface using WebSphere Integration Developer, but it can only be deployed to, and used in WebSphere Modeler Publishing Server, WebSphere Business Monitor, or WebSphere Process Server. If you intend to deploy Lotus Forms to Business Space, you will also need all the prerequisites associated with Lotus Forms, but note that you do not need the Lotus Forms Server API.

Business Space powered by WebSphere®

Business Space is a new client platform through which a user can interact with an instance of a human task in the runtime environment. You can configure the visualization of this user interface using an HTML/Dojo file or a Lotus Form. When ported into WebSphere Process Server, the information in the HTML/Dojo file or Lotus Form will appear in the Task Information Widget area of Business Space. For more information on Business Space, go to the IBM® WebSphere Business Process Management information center, and search for Business Space.

IBM Lotus® Forms

Lotus Forms allows you to easily integrate electronic forms with human tasks. You can generate a client based on forms that you specify in the User interface settings. You can deploy a Lotus Forms client directly or you can present the form as user interface in Business Space.

When you install WebSphere Integration Developer, you have the option to install Lotus Forms API, Lotus Forms Viewer, and Lotus Forms Designer. You will need Lotus Forms Server API to process a client on a server, Lotus Viewer to view a client and Lotus Designer to edit a form. See Installing optional software and documentation for information on installing these Lotus products. Important: Please note that, before you can deploy this user interface to a runtime environment, you will need to install the Lotus Forms Viewer and the Lotus Forms Server API on each machine where the client will get deployed (this includes the WebSphere Test Environments and the WebSphere Process Server). If you intend to deploy your Lotus Forms to Business Space, you will also need all the prerequisites associated with Business Space, see above. However, if

In the New HTML file window. you have the option to install the Portal Toolkit. Included in delivered with this product. You can specify existing configurations. When you install WebSphere Integration Developer. You can then generate a client.you intend to use your Lotus Forms in Business Space you do not need to have the Lotus Forms Server API installed. you can choose an existing Web Project in which to place the new . you need the Portal Toolkit. configure the client as follows: 2. This is the standard client that is No prerequisites. In order to generate portlets. The look and feel of this web page is determined by the JSP values that are specified in the User interface settings. proceed as follows: 1. Option Description Business Space powered by WebSphere® Use the Context root and HTML File fields to specify the location of the HTML file that contains the visualization of the user interface. With this WebSphere Integration Developer. Launch your human task in the editor. The JSF client is generated based on data described in the interface that the human task implements. WebSphere Portal portlet Select the page on which the portlet will be placed in the page hierarchy of IBM WebSphere Portal by setting properties in the User interface settings. 3. you can click New to create one. and does not need any input defined in the User interface settings. the task is delivered to the staff member via an HTML-based web page. client. you can generate a portlet using the portlet generator. You can modify these values as needed. you can select the type of client. useful for quickly prototyping human task processes or as a starting point for creating a custom client. Or. Business Process Choreographer explorer Defining user interfaces for a human task In the Human Task editor. Business Space uses these two fields to compose the URL from which your HTML file will be uploaded using the following format: http://localhost/<contextroot>/<pathAndFile> If no HTML file exists. In the Properties page. Under User interface settings. choose the type of client. and configure properties such as inputs and outputs for the client. To define a user interface for a human task. JavaServer Faces (JSF) client The client generator for human tasks The JSF client generator is included in generates a JSF-based web client that is WebSphere Integration Developer. or define new ones.

In the Portlet Generator Settings page. but your actions remain essentially unchanged: Click Browse to select from a list of available forms. go to the IBM® WebSphere Business Process Management information center. Note: If you want to edit a form. proceed as follows: o Provide a value for Unique Name. Note: Create Portlet will generate a portlet for this human task. or you want to create a Lotus Form that you will use outside the module then select Web project. IBM Lotus® Forms client Select whether to store your Lotus Forms as part of the current module or in a Web project. Select whether to save the Lotus Form automatically whenever the human task is saved or completed. install Lotus Forms Designer. See Installing the Designer. Specify the input and output Lotus Forms for your client. You can also create folders within the Web project to better organize your files. the task is delivered to the staff member via an HTML-based web page. o Click Create Portlet to generate a portlet for this task. you have not installed the required Portal Toolkit. if you deploy your Lotus Form to Business Space the form cannot be persisted.Option Description HTML file or press New Web Project to create a new one. the input and output forms must also be the same. In the JSP definition table. and search for Business Space. and click New folder Note: Modify the HTML file using a text or HTML editor. In the Apply . In the Properties details page. o o If no input or output forms are specified in this page. o On the JSP definition page. or Click New to generate a form based on the data used by the service interface of the human task. See Installing WebSphere Portal Version 6. Later you must create a page in the Portal Server of the same name as this unique name and place this generated portlet into it. o Select the type Page or Page definition. Business Process Choreographer explorer With this option. specify the project and select WebSphere Portal 6. To do this. Portal client Every human task must be identified by a unique name when it runs as a portlet on the WebSphere Portal Server. or one of the folders nested beneath it. select the Web project. The window has a different appearance depending on the choice of module or Web project. If the WebSphere Portal target runtime is not available in this dialog. select the JSP type. use the client generator. o Click Add. Note that this setting only applies to Lotus Forms clients. If your input and output data is identical. For more information on Business Space. but if you want to use a form that already exists outside the module.0 stub as the target runtime.0.. If you leave this field empty WebSphere Integration Developer will generate a unique name when the portlet is created. The default behavior is to save the form as part of the module. specify the input and output JSPs. If you want to generate a portlet for multiple human tasks. the client generator will use the service interface data to create the forms.

If no JSPs are specified. select the role that will see the JSP. To generate a HTML-Dojo pages or Lotus Forms interface for your human task to work in Business Space. the standard client is used. and then select the associated check boxes. Use this list to choose the human tasks for which you want to generate the client. If you are using Business Process Choreographer explorer. The User Interface Wizard for Human Tasks launches. Generating Lotus Forms clients Generate a client for your human task or process based on forms that you specify in the User interface settings. as a standard client is provided for it. and use the Context root field to define the runtime path to the JSP. right-click the human tasks for which you want to generate a userinterface. or browse to an existing one. then you will get a warning message. 5. You can then create a new JSP. Generating HTML-Dojo pages or Lotus Forms for Business Space . Click Finish 3. On the Client Generator Selection page. proceed as follows: 1. Note: o o o If the generated client is intended to be able to start a process. proceed as follows: a. 2. The JSF custom client is not included in this list because the client generator does not require any properties to be configured in order to generate the client. If you selected HTML you also need to indicate the Web project where the HTML pages will be saved.Option Description to field. Click the Browse button to see a list of Web projects. To generate a client for tasks in different modules. If the human task is not represented on your assembly diagram. Expand the tree until you find the required human tasks. select those modules in the business integration view by holding the Ctrl key while you select each one. you do not need to generate a client. o If you have WSDL faults defined in your interface. b. or you must have another initiating task on the assembly diagram wired to the process . Select HTML or Lotus Forms and indicate whether you want to overwrite existing interface settings by selecting the associated check box. you can select a Fault message JSP as the JSP type. 4. In the Business Integration view. create a new folder within an existing Web project or create a new Web project. A warning message will be shown. then this process must have a human task defined for the initial receive activities. In the Generator type field choose HTML-Dojo pages or Lotus Forms for Business Space. Next. and select Generate Human Task User Interfaces. If a humans task contains an error of any kind. generate your client. and then select the fault that will trigger it. In the resulting window you can choose from the list of Web projects. Select how to display the human task in Business Space. the task will not be listed in the wizard. 2. .

Use this list to choose the human tasks for which you want to generate the client. proceed as follows: a. but these settings have to have proper names since they are used as reference in the generated client. In the Company logo field. In the Client location area.The client generator will use the input and output forms that you specified in the human task editor. and then select the associated check boxes. click Next. A warning message will be shown. or add your own style file (CSS format). select the human tasks and use the arrow buttons to transfer them to the opposite column. Select Generated client and related processes and tasks reside on the same server (Local client view) if one server will be used to deploy both the generated client and the related processes and tasks on the same WebSphere® Process Server. refer to class .css. 2. and the related processes and tasks on another. and select Generate Human Task User Interfaces. On the Client Generator Selection page. font size and style. The background color of the banner is defined in the style sheet styles. and save it as your CSS file. b. you will need to provide the IP address of the server and the bootstrap port. . This logo will appear as a banner on the top of the generated client's web page. In the Style selection area. click Finish. the task will not be listed in the wizard. This custom CSS file must reside in a web project in your workspace.jsp of the generated client. you can choose a forms or JSP user interface for each task. You can adjust the height of your logo in the page Banner. Note: o o o If the generated client is intended to be able to start a process. d. you can choose to generate either a Lotus® form or a JSP page to render the input and output message of the human task in final client.css or styles-blue. proceed as follows: a. then this process must have a human task defined for the initial receive activities. On the IBM Lotus Forms client configuration page. 4. Select Generated client and related processes and tasks reside on different servers (Remote client view) if two or more servers will be used in the same cell. The human tasks are listed under the Forms or Java Server Pages headings. On the second IBM Lotus Forms client configuration page. In the Style field. you have two choices. In the Name of dynamic web project field. If no form is specified. you can then click Add and Browse to select your CSS file. To generate a Lotus Forms client. The best approach is to modify one of the predefined style files of a generated client (styles-IBM. you can choose from the two styles that are provided for your generated client. enter the name of the web project in which the generated client will be stored. The CSS file is located in the generated web project in WebContent\theme\styles. right-click the human tasks for which you want to generate a userinterface. If the human task is not represented on your assembly diagram. 3. 2. and your generated client will be deployed on one server. the required format is: iiop://REMOTE_SERVER_IP:BOOTSTRAP_PORT. For each task.css c. If a humans task contains an error of any kind. When you are done. then you will get a warning message. If you are using two or more servers. b. the client generator creates a form based on the service interface of the human task. or you must have another initiating task on the assembly diagram wired to the process .css). To generate a client for tasks in different modules. When you are done. If necessary. you can specify the file location of a graphic file containing a company logo. The CSS file can contain your settings regarding color. proceed as follows: 1. You can browse either to a GIF or JPEG file. select those modules in the business integration view by holding the Ctrl key while you select each one. The User Interface Wizard for Human Tasks launches. then it will automatically be shrunk to fit the space available.Banner. e. If your image has a height higher than 60 pixels. Expand the tree until you find the required human tasks. In the Generator type field choose Lotus Forms client application. In the Business Integration view.

you can specify a portlet as a client. In the human task editor. this same subdirectory needs to be created in the portlet project as well). If you refactor a human task that contains a Lotus Forms client. The generation of the portlet can take a while. If Portlet Generator is not presented as an option. To generate a new portlet proceed as follows: 1. the task will not be listed in the wizard. Important: Please note that. In other words. • Generating a Portlet The New Portlet Generator wizard will guide you through the process of creating a portlet within WebSphere Integration Developer Software Development Platform. before you can deploy this user interface to a runtime environment. all WSDL and XSD files from all modules and associated libraries that are directly or indirectly referenced by tasks that were selected during the user interface generation need to be copied to the portlet project while maintaining their directory structure (if a WSDL or XSD is in a subdirectory. and then enable the associated check boxes. b. Your next step is to deploy it to a runtime environment. The User Interface Wizard for Human Tasks launches. 2. Generating a Portlet The New Portlet Generator wizard will guide you through the process of creating a portlet within WebSphere® Integration Developer Software Development Platform. • Create a Portal Server connection. right-click the human tasks for which you want to generate a userinterface. Generating JSF clients for your human tasks . see Installing optional software and documentation. Click Finish. Generating WebSphere Portal portlets A portlet is a reusable Web module that runs on a portal server. select those modules in the business integration view by holding the Ctrl key while you select each one. Expand the tree until you find the required human tasks. proceed as follows: a. choose to install the Portal Toolkit. When the generation is finished. Now. you will have to manually copy all associated WSDL interfaces and Business Objects into the generated portlet project. To generate a client for tasks in different modules. On the Portlet Generator Settings page. Information on how to set up WebSphere Portal Server to integrate business processes on WebSphere Process Server can be found in the WebSphere Portal information center . For instructions on how to install Lotus Forms into the WebSphere Integration Developer environment. Your next step is to deploy it to a runtime environment. 3. and select Generate Human Task User Interfaces. along with a EAR. the refactoring behavior depends on the way in which the form was associated with the task. In the Generator type field choose Portlet Generator. you will see your newly created portlet project in the Business Integration view. enter a project name. ensure that you have fulfilled all the prerequisites listed in the topic Generating WebSphere Portal portlets. On the Client Generator Selection page. 4. Note: If a humans task contains an error of any kind. In the Business Integration view.Your new client will be generated. Use this list to choose the human tasks for which you want to generate the client. you will need to install the Lotus Forms Viewer and the Lotus Notes® Server API on each machine where the client will get deployed (this includes the WebSphere Test Environments and the WebSphere Process Server). When you install WebSphere Integration Developer. Prerequisite: Before you can generate a portlet in WebSphere® Integration Developer. See related links for more information. A warning message will be shown. you must do the following: • Install the Portal Toolkit.

To generate a JSF client for your human task.jsp of the generated client. and select Generate Human Task User Interfaces. In the Generator type field select JavaServer Faces client application. The User Interface Wizard for Human Tasks launches. then this process must have a human task defined for the initial receive activities.Banner. right-click the human tasks for which you want to generate a userinterface.css). click Finish. The background color of the banner is defined in the style sheet styles. The best approach is to modify a predefined style of a generated client (styles-IBM. a business process. then it will automatically be shrunk to fit the space available. In the Style area. You can browse either to a GIF or JPEG file. the task will not be listed in the wizard. When you are done. .css or stylesblue. A warning message will be shown.css. proceed as follows: a. and your generated client will be deployed on one server. you can select the custom properties (as defined in your business process) that you would like have generated with the client. The CSS file can contain your settings regarding color. 2. If a humans task contains an error of any kind. If your image has a height higher than 60 pixels. click Next. In the Style field. 3. 2. When you are done. proceed as follows: a. refer to class . For more information about customizing JSF clients. b. d. but these settings have to have proper names since they are used as reference in the generated client. You can adjust the height of your logo in the page Banner. and then select the associated check boxes. Expand the tree until you find the required human tasks. you can specify the file location of a graphic file containing a company logo. select those modules in the business integration view by holding the Ctrl key while you select each one. or add your own style file. Note: o o o If the generated client is intended to be able to start a process. Assign a name to this client in the Name of dynamic web project field. In the Company logo field. and save it in the your CSS file.You can generate a client either from a module. This custom CSS file must reside in a web project in your workspace. and the related processes and tasks on another. In the Client view area. proceed as follows: 1. The CSS file is located in the generated web project in WebContent\theme\styles. you have two choices. If the human task is not represented on your assembly diagram. e. Your new client will be generated. Customizing clients You may need to customize the user interfaces to your human tasks. On the Client Generator Selection page. On the second JSF client configuration page. Information is provided for each type of human task client. To generate a client for tasks in different modules. or a human task. you can choose from the two styles that are provided for your generated client. Choose Remote if two or more servers will be used in the same cell. Your next step is to deploy it to a runtime environment. On the JSF client configuration page.css. Use this list to choose the human tasks for which you want to generate the client. then you will get a warning message. b. In the Business Integration view. or you must have another initiating task on the assembly diagram wired to the process . This logo will appear as a banner on the top of the generated client's web page. you can then click Add and Browse to select your CSS file. Choose Local if one server will be used to deploy both the generated client and the related processes and tasks. font size and style. 4. see the white paper Understanding and enhancing the generated Java Server Faces client for human tasks. You can use custom properties as filter criteria for the "Status" list. c.

• Deploying the client: exporting to a deployment file Deploy your client to a runtime environment by exporting the client to a defined deployment file and installing that file on the runtime server. Deploying a generated client to an external runtime environment After generating your client you have several choices for how to deploy it to the runtime environment. The precise steps you need to take to customize your client depends on the type of client you have generated. business objects. Customization involve modifying the generated business object to better match the Lotus Form. The Lotus Forms information center describes in detail how to design Lotus Forms. 1. To customize a Lotus Forms client: WebSphere Integration Developer can generate a complete business process with all of the required interfaces. Although these artifacts match the forms as much as possible. Deploying a generated client to a test environment Deploy your client to a runtime environment by defining a server and then using the client-specific deployment mechanism. To customize a JSF client: There is a very detailed description of modifying JSF task clients available in the white paper Understanding and enhancing the generated Java Server Faces client for human tasks. and human tasks based on existing Lotus Forms. This is a simpler process than modifying the generated portlet. Rather than generating a Lotus Form client. Choose from one of the options described below: Parent topic: Deploying a generated client to an external runtime environment Deploying HTML-Dojo pages or Lotus Forms for Business Space To deploy a HTML-Dojo or a Lotus® Forms client to Business Space. Creating and deploying additional portlets is described in the WebSphere Portal information center for details.You have generated a client for your human task. To customize a WebSphere Portal portlet: The recommended way to customize a WebSphere Portal portlet client is to add additional portlets to the portal. perform the following steps: . Your choices for deployment depending on what sort of client your are working with. or optimizing the created interface. the next steps are to prepare the Portal Server to work with the generated portlet and to install the portlet on the portal server. More information on modifying a Lotus Forms client can be found in the white paper Integrating Lotus Forms and WebSphere Integration Developer. Deploying a generated client to WebSphere Portal Server After generating and exporting a client to run as a portlet on portal server. • • Deploying the client: exporting to a deployment file Deploy your client to a runtime environment by exporting the client to a defined deployment file and installing that file on the runtime server. you can use an existing Lotus Form. and you want to customize the user interface that your staff will see. 3. 2. you might still need to perform some modifications to make the client perform optimally.

generate a user interface for your human task. provide a Destination where your EAR will be stored and click Finish. identify the Web project and provide a Destination where your WAR will be stored and click Finish.ear is also created for your module. the ProjectNameApp. and select Export > EAR from the list. provide a Destination where your WAR will be stored and click Finish. In the WAR export window. In the Add and Remove Projects window. and contains the human tasks. and you will be able to start the client. 2. and you will be able to start the client. and click Add.1. Invoke the client. Deploying a generated client to a test environment Deploy your client to a runtime environment by defining a server and then using the client-specific deployment mechanism. Right-click the server that you intend to deploy your client to and select Add and Remove Projects from the list. select the generated Client EAR project that you created. With an external browser: . Click Finish. Deploying a JSF or a Lotus Forms client To deploy a JSF or a Lotus Forms client. In the WAR export window. proceed as follows: 1. and select Export > WAR. a. In the business integration view right-click your portlet project. then click Window > Show View > Servers. To deploy your generated client to a test environment. b. follow these instructions. In the business integration view right-click your ClientNameEAR. If this is not open yet. If you have not already done so. b. Install these two EAR files on your server. 3. 1. Export the generated client files into an EAR file as follows: 2. 3. You can start the client in either of the following ways: a. select a WAR file name. proceed as follows: 1. In addition. generate a user interface for your human task. Export the generated client files into a WAR file as follows: a. 2. and you will be able to start the client. select an ClientNameEAR name. 2. 4. 3. 5. In the EAR export window. Install the WAR file into Business Space. If you have not already done so. In the business integration view right-click the Web project in which you generated your client.ear file is generated automatically as part of the client generation. Deploying a portlet To deploy a portlet. Install this WAR file on your server. Click the Server tab in the properties view. The ClientNameEAR. 3. The files that you need to deploy to Business Space are generated automatically as part of the client generation. and select Export > WAR file from the list.

Once it is installed. To install the portlet. ii. Adjusting the Unique Name for the Task Page You have to change the unique name of the Task Page to be identical to the unique name you gave the Human task in the User Interface settings of the Human Task Editor. 3. go to: http://localhost:9080/webProjectName (the hostname and port number might vary depending on your server configuration). Using WebSphere® Integration Developer: Change to the Web perspective Open the folder with the name of your Web project. If the security is disabled. 2. Log into the portal site using an ID with sufficient access rights to install a portlet. a message appears at the top of the screen indicating a successful installation. Under Portlet Management in the navigation tree. and click Add. All potential owners can claim a task that is displayed in the My Tasks portlet to indicate that they will work on it. After the installation has completed. Installing a generated portlet Installing the generated Portlet on the WebSphere® Portal Server makes it available to portal users. If there are any problems during the process. Launch the IBM® WebSphere Portal administrative console. Deploying a generated client to WebSphere Portal Server After generating and exporting a client to run as a portlet on portal server. Creating Task Page Definitions Create the new task page definitions for each task processing Portlet. and save your changes. Select BPELib. and then open the folder WebContent. proceed as follows: 1. the next steps are to prepare the Portal Server to work with the generated portlet and to install the portlet on the portal server. Using the My Task portlet to run a Human Task from the WebSphere Portal Server The My Task portlet displays the human task instances on the portal server. Verify WAR file info and click Finish to install the WAR file. iii. 4.jsp. . Installing a generated portlet Installing the generated Portlet on the WebSphere® Portal Server makes it available to portal users. 2. go to https://localhost:9443/webProjectName. Right-click Index. Click the View Details link to examine the error log. you will then need to add the BPELib library to the generated portlet as follows: a. Go to Applications > Enterprise Applications > your_portlet_module > Libraries. i. Enter the location of the WAR file or click Browse to find the location of the file to install. click Apply. click Web Modules. 6. This allows you to claim each Portlet as a task from a list in the MyTask Portlet. c. b. and select Run > Run on Server A browser window opens. Alternatively in the Product Links portlet you can choose Administration > Portlet Management > Web Modules. This allows the MyTask Portlet to know which page it must hand off the task to.  b. If the security is enabled. Click Install. 4. an error message appears in the Manage Web Modules page. 5. 3. 1.

note your title for the next task and press the OK button. For details see the related topic: Defining user interfaces for a human task. 8. Click Search. Press Search. 2. The title Task Page Definitions will be displayed. 5. 3. 2. Click the Edit Page Layout button (this is the button with the pen symbol) for your page. 5. The My Task portlet will be displayed. Press Search. Now the list My pages and unique names displays your page with its new unique name that must be identical to the unique name you set for the Human Task in WebSphere® Integration Developer. All potential owners can claim a task that is displayed in the My Tasks portlet to indicate that they will work on it. The Portal Server automatically generated a unique name. From the Select Search Type combo box choose Title starts with and type “task” into the Search input field. Check your portlet and press OK. Click OK. 2. From the Select Search Type combo box choose Title starts with and enter the title of your portlet into the Search input field. 3. The page with the corresponding portlet opens. 5. Simply drag and drop the portlet on your page. 1. 4. 1. Clicking again on Open Portlet Palette (this is the button with the "+" symbol) closes the portlet list. Testing human tasks You can test several aspects of a human task before you deploy the task to the test environment or production server. . A list of available portlets opens. The task in the My Task portlet becomes a link when it was successfully claimed. This allows the MyTask Portlet to know which page it must hand off the task to. 7. Using the My Task portlet to run a Human Task from the WebSphere® Portal Server The My Task portlet displays the human task instances on the portal server. Type "My Tasks" in the Search field and press the Search button. Enter the unique name you defined for your human task. To find your page select "Title starts with" from the Search Type list and type your page title into the Search input field. Select the checkbox for a task and click Claim. This allows you to claim each Portlet as a task from a list in the MyTask Portlet. Adjusting the Unique Name for the Task Page You have to change the unique name of the Task Page to be identical to the unique name you gave the Human task in the User Interface settings of the Human Task Editor.Creating Task Page Definitions Create the new task page definitions for each task processing Portlet. You will place the generated Portlet on the new Task Page Definition. the "Welcome" page) click Open Portlet Palette (this is the button with the "+" symbol). Choose Administration > Portal Settings > Custom Unique Names and select Pages from the Resource type list. • Testing people assignment criteria You can test the people assignment criteria that you use in your human tasks to make sure that the correct people are returned by the people directory that you are using. Choose Administration > Portal User Interface > Manage Pages. 6. If your process with human tasks was already started on WebSphere Process Server the tasks will be displayed. From the Select Search Type combo box choose Title starts with and type “task” into the Search input field. In a later step we will adjust this unique name. Click the link Task Page Definitions Click New Page. To place the My Task portlet on one of your portal server pages (for example. 1. Press Search. 3. On the Edit Layout page press the Add portlets button. 4. Click on the task-link. 6. Type a title into the Title input field.

Browse to the project interchange file. To test your people assignment criteria. select the role that you want to test. 5. b. This topic provides instructions on how to import such a process into WebSphere Integration Developer in order to test it. click Users and Groups > Manage Groups. Run the administrative script that populates the test people directory. click Test. a. Click Submit. select it. There will be two administrative scripts. and requires at least one running Process Server to be defined in Servers view. proceed as follows: 1. Testing a human-centric process A human-centric process is one that has been designed in WebSphere® Modeler using human tasks to model a manual process. expand the new project until you see the Administrative scripts. click File > Import. For more information on how to do this. you will need to have the exported process in the form of a project interchange file. this might take some time. see Rapid testing of human-centric processes 1. In the Test People Search window. d. To import the project interchange file: In the Business integration view. If the people assignment criteria contains one or more replacement variables. Please note. In your human task. Enter some data that is appropriate to your human task or the process the task is running in. if the resulting list is too long. Browse to the script and click Run. They have a PY extension. a. 4. 2. The WebSphere Process Server will be queried. when all mandatory fields have a value. right-click the process and select Test Component. to see Groups. 3. The test user entries are created in the registry. and not to verify the result set entirely. c. This export must have clearly defined staff information that can be used to populate the test people directory. To test the process: a. select one of the running WebSphere® Process Servers. One will be to populate the people directory. The new module will appear in the Physical Resources view. This button is available for all people assignment criteria except everybody and nobody. and click Finish. This will create the test user account(s) and associated group(s). Select all of the projects in the zip. the dialog will contain an input field for each variable. click Users and Groups > Manage Users. and click OK. Right-click your server. In the Import window. To see the user(s) in the Administrative Console. Before you can begin. c. only a subset will be returned. In the Assign People tab of the properties page. and select Run administrative script.• Testing a human-centric process A human-centric process is one that has been designed in WebSphere® Modeler using human tasks to model a manual process. Testing people assignment criteria You can test the people assignment criteria that you use in your human tasks to make sure that the correct people are returned by the people directory that you are using. and the other will be to clean that registry once you've completed your testing. In the Physical Resources view. b. The purpose of the test button is to check if the query works. 2. 3. In the Assembly diagram. select Other > Project Interchange. . Similarly. and.

you need to install additional documentation. In the Software Updates and Add-ons window. Then. Information on this topic can be found by following this link: Creating plug-ins to customize human task functionality or Creating plug-ins to customize human task functionality if you have WebSphere Process Server installed. enter some test parameters. When the test server is running. and check the To-dos list.com/dmndhelp/downloads/v6r2mx/wid/. In the Events page. Extending human tasks using plug-ins Business Process Choreographer provides an event handling infrastructure for events that occur during the processing of human tasks. select the Available Software tab. To view these APIs. In WebSphere Integration Developer. and click the Continue icon. In the Software Updates and Add-ons window. open the Resource perspective if you are not already there (click Window > Open Perspective > Other > Resource). Expand the results under this . return to the Business Process Choreographer explorer. When you are done your testing. open the Resource perspective if you are not already there (click Window > Open Perspective > Other > Resource). run the administrative script that cleans the test people directory. select the Available Software tab. Then. You will need to restart WebSphere Integration Developer to see the additional documentation. including how they interact with other resources within the same project. Generating documentation of your human task If you need a synopsis of each attribute of your human tasks. c. Click Add Site and specify the following location: http://publib. Configure the Documentation Generation wizard according to the instructions in the Generating documentation topic. Programming support for human tasks Additional programming support for human tasks is available through a set of APIs. 4. click Help > Software Updates. d. and the resulting data returned is in JavaScript™ Object Notation (JSON) format. select the documentation that you want. Plug-in points are also provided so that you can adapt the functionality to your needs. You can use the service provider interfaces (SPIs) to create customized plug-ins for handling events and the processing of staff queries. The URIs are a set of REST services that access business process and task data. in the main menu. You will note that the user's To-dos list will be empty. in the main menu. and log in as a test user. and click Install. In the Business Integration view.ibm.com/dmndhelp/downloads/v6r2mx/wid/. Click Add Site and specify the following location: http://publib. A generated document can very quickly provide you with the following: • a quick understanding of a project or resource • an overview report about the details of an artifact within a complex project • the visualization of the relationships and cross references of resources within a project • a detailed report that can be printed out for certifications To create documentation for your human task. Launch the Business Process Choreographer explorer. right-click your human task and select Generate Documentation. proceed as follows: 1.b. In WebSphere Integration Developer. follow this link: Business Process Choreographer REST APIs or Business Process Choreographer REST APIs if you have WebSphere Process Server installed. you can create a report using the documentation generator. Expand the results under this repository location. select a deployment location and click Finish. 2. Business Process Choreographer provides a set of APIs that are implemented using Representational State Transfer (REST) Services. Note: If this link fails.boulder. You should now have an entry that you can complete as needed to test the process.ibm. Note: If this link fails.boulder. you need to install additional documentation. click Help > Software Updates.

use the visual snippet editor. you can use one of the three mapping service snippets provided. see http://www. Click on any of the links shown below to learn more about that topic. and click Install. You will need to restart WebSphere Integration Developer to see the additional documentation. • • • • • • • • Custom behavior . Using mapping service snippets When you want to transform data in a business object from one format to another using the visual snippet editor. Creating a custom visual snippet To create a new custom visual snippet. Refactoring a visual snippet When you refactor parts of your visual snippet.ibm. • Due to a limitation in the Business Process Choreographer tag library in WebSphere® Integration Developer. or when working with human tasks. Limitations for human tasks There are current limitations that you should be aware of when using the human task editor. Visual snippet editor The visual snippet editor is a diagrammatic programming environment that you use to graphically create and manipulate Java code. For more information. there are several ways that you can compose the expression. dependencies on those parts are automatically and universally updated throughout the product as a whole. choice and substitution group constructs out of the box. Use this tool to graphically create and manipulate snippets of Java code. The visual snippet editor displays a diagrammatic representation of the Java™ programming language. You will need to use your own custom code using the Service Data Object (SDO) API in order to work with these constructs. select the documentation that you want. • Custom behavior There are situations when a user has the opportunity to specify custom behavior within the context of one of the WebSphere® Integration Developer family of tools. Configuring a custom event in a visual snippet A custom event is a specific business-related message that can be declared in the visual snippet editor to be emitted in the runtime environment. Using inline expressions for simple equations When you are coding an expression in the visual snippet editor. follows these instructions. JSPs generated as human task clients will not be able to accomodate xsd:any. Using the visual snippet editor to write Java code When should you use the visual snippet editor to compose Java code instead of writing it yourself? The building blocks of the visual snippet editor Compose your own visual snippet using a combination of the following building blocks.wss?rs=2308&uid=swg21306783.repository location.com/support/docview. Customizing behavior with visual snippets To visually define custom behavior.

This user determines what customized activities are likely to be needed.There are situations when a user has the opportunity to specify custom behavior within the context of one of the WebSphere® Integration Developer family of tools. and you need to modify your data in a way that the available activities do not provide. There are three different kinds of implementations that you can use within the editor: Standard visual snippets These snippets have been predefined for your general use. Custom visual snippets Use this to create a snippet that captures a specific behavior. In this example. and stores them in a library. It can then be used within other snippets. These activities can be created and customized using the visual snippet editor. The second user is able to easily access and use these custom activities without having to know why and how they were created. . creates them. Business roles and customizing activities An activity is unit of work or a building block that performs a specific. you need to understand these key concepts: • An example of customized behavior • Business roles and customizing activities An example of customized behavior Perhaps you are composing a process in the process editor. As such. discrete programmatic tasks. Visual Java Snippets can also be used to invoke constructors and access fields. In such a case. Before you start to use the visual snippet editor. and stored within the existing libraries. UsiVisual snippet editor The visual snippet editor is a diagrammatic programming environment that you use to graphically create and manipulate Java™ code. The WebSphere Integration Developer family have been designed so that users can compose integrative business solutions with minimal programming skills. it is possible for activities to be created. Their implementation is fixed and cannot be viewed or modified by the user. as the following graphic illustrates: Figure 1. An example of using the library to avoid the replication of work. One example of this is the visual snippet editor that you can use to graphically compose customized behavior as snippets of Java™ code. you could use the visual snippet editor to create some customized behavior to make the process do exactly what you want it to do. Java visual snippet Use this snippet to embed a call to an arbitrary Java method directly into your diagram. the first user has extensive technical skills and a sound knowledge and background in the business in question. customized and ultimately used by several users of varying technical backgrounds.

continue moving the cursor until it becomes a plus sign again. o Your visual snippet is visually organized on the editor in groups. each with its own individual use. When the cursor becomes a crossed out circle. The visual snippet editor is divided into several distinct areas. o 2. These groups are composed of one of more items connected with links. The canvas o The canvas is the white empty area in the middle of the editor that you use it to assemble the activities to compose your visual snippet. feel comfortable and to facilitate your creativity. The palette o The palette is the shaded area to the left of the canvas that houses the objects that you click and drag onto the canvas to build your snippet. . the user. The white space is called the canvas and it's where you create your snippet from the objects that you pull from the palette to the left. and individuated on the canvas with a group bracket. The areas are as follows: 1. think of it as an exercise in how to paint. When you click and drag an activity from the palette onto the canvas. Below that is an interactive properties area that changes to display pertinent details about whatever object you currently have selected on the canvas.This editor has been designed to make you. the icon beside your cursor has a plus symbol and you can decide where you want to drop the activity. While you are designing your visual snippet.

In all cases. To launch a user-defined snippet in the editor. select the snippet. and provides prompts that you use to graphically compose your expression. and then drag it to the location in your composition where you want it to appear. o 5. Preferences view: visual snippet editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields in the preferences view of the visual snippet editor. To use one of these snippets. o Click the black horizontal arrow to collapse or expand the tray. output. . The expression builder o The expression builder is a miniature dialogue that pops up when you click on an expression. or exception. as well as any existing custom user-defined snippets . it automatically starts a group until you link to it from another one. o The run order in each group flows from left to right as shown in this image. 6. o 4. expand the appropriate category. o The list of snippets include those in the product's standard library . o o 3. o To create a new input. Outputs and Exceptions that are associated with your snippet. The tray o The tray displays the Inputs. The visual snippets view o This area shows a categorized view of all of the existing snippets that are available to you. highlight it and click the icon. o The contents of the page will differ on the selection. click the corresponding icon. simply double-click it in the Visual Snippet view. Some pages display properties in tabular format. o o If there is more than one group in the snippet. or to remove one. and you can add or modify these properties by clicking the appropriate cell and then interacting with the graphical interface that appears. The properties area o This area displays properties that are relevant to the object that is currently selected on the canvas. Click on the tabs to the left of this view to toggle through the pages. • • Visual snippets view: visual snippet editor This area shows a categorized view of all of the existing snippets that are available. Visual snippets view: visual snippet editor This area shows a categorized view of all of the existing snippets that are available.When you drop an item onto the canvas. each one is processed sequentially from top to bottom and will finish at the end of a snippet or when a return node is reached. you can press F1 to launch a help window and click the link to be taken directly to the product documentation for more details.

ng this system.The list of snippets include those in the product's standard library . as well as any existing custom user-defined snippets . expand the appropriate category. there is no reproducing the same work. . select the snippet. and then drag it to the location in your composition where you want it to appear. To launch a user-defined snippet in the editor. To use one of these snippets. simply double-click it in the Visual Snippet view. Preferences view: visual snippet editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields in the preferences view of the visual snippet editor.

and you must use the graphical editor to visually compose expressions that can then be generated into valid Java code. and custom visual snippets are generated to . and ultimately save the user a lot of typing. Output The output defines the result of the snippet composition. There can be multiple exceptions in a snippet. There can be at most one output from a snippet. There can be multiple inputs into a snippet. and the derived flag is set. The biggest advantage of the visual snippet editor for experienced users.<module>/<folder>. If you select the check box. Exceptions The exceptions indicate what fault handling may be required if the snippet cannot be completed successfully. and so therefore do not need to be kept in a CVS repository because they can be generated at any time. The data that is returned can either be in the form of a Java type. • • • • • Inputs Output Exceptions Visual snippets Links Inputs The inputs define the data that enters the snippet. If you are comfortable coding using Java. This data can either be in the form of a Java™ type. Use the Generate snippet Java files to derived folder setting to control how Java™ files that are generated for visual snippets are derived to a CVS repository. is the fact that the editor will generate a lot of code very quickly. especially for simple code. then there will be times that you may find it easier to simply type it yourself. the check box is cleared. sing the visual snippet editor to write Java code When should you use the visual snippet editor to compose Java™ code instead of writing it yourself? The answer to this is part personal choice. the files are instead generated to <module>\gen\src\<folder>. By default. then this choice is made for you. The building blocks of the visual snippet editor Compose your own visual snippet using a combination of the following building blocks. Visual snippets . and part skill level. a data type or a business object.Launch the preferences view from the main menu by clicking Window > Preferences > Business Integration > Visual Snippet Editor. a data type or a business object. If you are not familiar with the Java programming language. This flag indicates that these files are derived from other files during a build process.

• Choice control structure Use the choice control structure to create a branch in your snippet. they will appear here in the form of custom visual snippets. and pass them into the snippet.Within the context of the visual snippet editor. One will be executed when the input is 'True'. and then choose an appropriate snippet and drop it onto the canvas. There are several items that can be dropped onto the canvas from the palette. Similarly. and direct the processing according to the Boolean value of the input. • Java visual snippet Use this to embed a call to an arbitrary Java method or constructor or access a field within the context of the visual snippet. general purpose snippets that you can choose from here. • While control structure Use the while control structure to repeat the same code as long as the input value is 'True'. The code in the bottom section is run as long as the input continues to evaluate to 'True'. There are a number of items that can be added to a visual snippet: • Expression Expressions carry user-defined values. and the other when it is 'False'. a visual snippet is a unit of work that performs a specific programmatic task in order to achieve a larger programming goal. the Select a Java Visual Snippet wizard will launch. you will be prompted to choose from a categorized list of existing snippets. The final action runs regardless of whether the initial action ran successfully or caused an exception. You will embed two separate pieces of code into two separate areas of this control structure. The kinds of values are varied. control moves on to the next object in the snippet. When you click this item. • For each control structure Use the for each control structure to repeat the same code for each of the items of a list that is received as input. • Try Finally node Use the Try Finally node to attempt to perform an action ("initial action") and then to perform another action ("final action"). if you or another colleague has already created custom visual snippets on this system. The number of repetitions is determined by the value that is received as input. You will embed two separate pieces of code into two separate areas of this control structure. and the expression can also be visually composed using the inline expression builder. . and each performs a different function. The system provides a number of standard. • Repeat control structure Use the repeat control structure to iterate the same code a number of times. Browse the existing types and qualifiers. When the input evaluates to 'False'. • Standard visual snippet Use this to add a predefined snippet into the editor When you drop this snippet on the canvas.

Adding a link to a snippet Links represent data flow and direct the sequence in which the processing of the activities in your snippet occurs. • Return node Use this when you want to return a result from the snippet. If you have already created a module. and launches it in a new visual snippet editor. 1. and a name for the new snippet. and you can use them when composing your own visual snippet. follows these instructions. • • • Adding an input or an output to a snippet . Working with standard visual snippets Many types of snippets are available in the editor. In the New Custom Visual Snippet window. Using a custom visual snippet A custom visual snippet is one that contains an entire snippet within it. specify a module. This creates a snippet. 5. • • • Adding an input or an output to a snippet The input defines the data that enters the snippet. 6. and the output specifies the result.• Throw node Use this to throw an exception. Links Links your snippet occurs represent the flow of data and direct the sequence in which the processing of the nodes in Creating a custom visual snippet To create a new custom visual snippet. select it in the business integration view. and choose one that is appropriate. Expand the Category list. the folder name will change to match it. Click Finish to create your snippet. and can be used to explain and describe portions of the code to make future modifications easier. This choice will determine where your snippet will appear in the categorized list in the visual snippet view. • Comment node Use this when you want to include a note of some kind in the structure of the snippet. From the main menu. Once you choose a category. The comment is text based. 4. Adding a Java visual snippet Java visual snippets are predefined pieces of Java code that you can use in your snippet. switch to the business integration perspective. 3. click File > New > Custom Visual Snippet. 2. Adding an exception to a snippet An exception on the snippet defines what exceptions may occur during the processing of the snippet. Click on any of the following links to configure the snippet. In the workbench.

2. To create a new input or output in your snippet. proceed as follows: 1. In the tray. and the output specifies the result.The input defines the data that enters the snippet. click the plus icon ( ) to the right of either Inputs or Output. expand the category and choose the snippet that you would like to add as shown in the image. In the Description tab of the Properties area. proceed as follows: 1. a data type or a business object. Your newly created input or output appears in the tray. and you can use them when composing your own visual snippet. . In the tray. Adding an exception to a snippet An exception on the snippet defines what exceptions may occur during the processing of the snippet. In the Description tab of the Properties area. and specify an appropriate type. You can create an input or an output in the same way. and specify an appropriate type. You can choose a Java™ exception type. The visual snippets view to the left of the editor contains a categorized list of standard visual snippets that are included with the product as well as custom visual snippets that have been user-defined. Your newly created exception appears in the tray. rename it if necessary. In the Visual Snippets view. rename it if necessary. Note: You can create as many inputs as you want. 2. Working with standard visual snippets Many types of snippets are available in the editor. click the plus icon ( ) to the right of Exceptions. You can choose a Java™ type. but only a single output. Proceed as follows to add one of them to your snippet: 1. To create a new exception in your snippet.

. Specifies the value of a specific array element. Returns the value of a specific array element. a custom activity can be opened in a new editor by double-clicking it.2. Note: Standard activities are fixed and cannot be modified. Category arrays Standard visual snippet array length copy array element get array element set array element converter convert integer to string convert primitive type to string convert string to double Description Returns the number of elements in the array. A list and description of the available standard visual snippets. Makes a copy of a specific element in the array. However. Drag and drop this snippet onto the canvas. Table 1. and you can wire it up as needed. The snippet appears as an node on the canvas. Changes the value of the integer into a string. Changes the value of the string into a double. Changes the value of the primitive into a string.

and returns the difference between them in number of days. Category Standard visual snippet convert string to float convert string to integer convert string to long convert to lower case Description Changes the value of the string into a float. Returns a value that is equal to the current day of the month. Returns a value that is equal to the current date and time. Creates a date object by combining a given pattern and a date string that is in Greenwich Mean Time format. Takes a patterned date as input and transforms it into a string that is based on Greenwich Mean Time. Takes a patterned date as input and transforms it into a string. Makes all of the characters in the string into upper case characters. Determines the current date and time based on the computer's locale. Makes all of the characters in the string into lower case characters. Creates a date object by combining a given pattern and date string. Changes the value of the string into an integer. Returns a value that is equal to the current day of the year. and uses a pattern to transform it into convert to upper case date are dates equal create date from pattern create GMT date from pattern current date and time day of the month day of the week day of the year difference between two dates format date to GMT string using pattern format date to string using pattern format locale date to string using pattern . A list and description of the available standard visual snippets. Compares two separate dates. Returns true if they match. Compares two dates to see if they are the same. Changes the value of the string into a long. Returns a value that is equal to the current day of the week.Table 1.

and arranges them alphabetically. Compares two dates as input and returns true if the value of the first date is after the second date. get date pattern Returns a pattern that can be used to compose date and time formulas. and returns the index of the specified list item. Compares two dates as input and returns true if the value of the first date is before the second date. A list and description of the available standard visual snippets. Declares a business-related message that can be logged in the runtime environment. Takes an existing list and a list object as inputs. Evaluates the list and returns true if it is empty. and deletes the specified list item. Category Standard visual snippet a string. and returns the specific item that is at the index point. an index value. Takes the contents of a list. and false if it contains any elements. Clears an existing list of all elements. Takes an existing list and a new object as inputs. Takes an existing list and an index value as input. and add that new object to the end of the existing list. Returns a value that represents the number of items in the list.Table 1. Takes an existing list. and returns true if the list contains the specified object. Takes an existing list and a list object as inputs. and deletes the item that is at the specified index point. Takes an existing list and a list object as inputs. and an object as Description is date after is date before events emit BO event list add item to list clear all items from list get item at index index of item is list empty list contains item list size list to sort remove item at index remove item from list set item at index . Takes an existing list and an index value as input.

the business objects that you are working with. The advanced mapping snippet builds on the basic mapping snippet (see below). It includes similar terminals. but accepts a map of input and a map of output business objects. and three exceptions. and places the item at the given index point in the list. and returns true if the value of the first number is higher than that of the second. and returns true when either one of them is true. A list and description of the available standard visual snippets. Takes two boolean inputs. Takes two numbers as input. and returns true if the value of the first number is higher than or the same as that of the second. Takes two numbers as input. this standard visual snippet has terminals for inputs (that automatically refer to the business objects as defined in the business object map).Table 1. Use a specific mapping snippet to reference an existing business object map. Takes two numbers as input. inverse or mapping service advanced mapping basic mapping specific mapping math absolute value add divide equal to greater than greater than or equal to . Takes two numbers as input. Category Standard visual snippet Description input. If it comes in as true. Takes a boolean input and converts it to its opposite. it is changed to false and vice versa. Use a basic mapping snippet for general mappings between two business objects. and returns their quotient. Takes two numbers as input. It also provides an additional terminal for an execution context (which may be null). and returns their sum. Like the previous two options. and returns true when they themselves are both true. exceptions and for execution context Returns the absolute value of a number. and returns true if their values are the same. logic and Takes two boolean inputs. This standard visual snippet provides terminals that you can use link to the name and namespace of the map.

and creates a new participant for this relationship service. and returns the difference between them. and returns a value that is equal to the base number raised to the power of the exponent. and returns the value that is greater. role name. Takes two numbers as input. maximum minimum multiply not equal to power square root subtract numbers format number to string format number using pattern parse number for locale relationship service create participant create participant with ID deactivate participant . Takes a pattern and a number as inputs.Table 1. and disables this user without completely removing it from the system. Takes two numbers as input. Takes a relationship name. and a business object as inputs.000' or '1000' or '1 000) Takes a relationship name. Takes two numbers as input. Takes a base and an exponent value as inputs. Formats a number according to the standards of the current locale (for example either '1. and creates a new participant for this relationship service. Returns the positive square root of the number given as input. and returns their product. and a business object as inputs. and returns the value as a string. A list and description of the available standard visual snippets. Category Standard visual snippet less than Description Takes two numbers as input. and returns true if the value of the first number is different than that of the second. role name. and returns true if the value of the first number is lower than that of the second. role name. and a business object as inputs. uses them to identify a specific user. Takes a maximum fraction digit and a number as inputs. and returns the value that is lesser. and returns the value as a string. Takes two numbers as input. Takes a relationship name. Takes two numbers as input. specified instance ID.

uses them to identify a specific user. role name. and instance ID as input. and returns a relationship property. and instance ID as input. and a business object as inputs. and an instance ID as inputs.Table 1. role name. Takes the following as input: delete participant delete participant by instance foreign key lookup • • • • • • • • • • foreign key xref foreign relationship name foreign input role name DataObject business object foreign keys business object foreign output role name output business object output business object foreign keys original input business object original output business object calling context Returns a cross reference of a foreign key with the following as input: • foreign relationship name • foreign input role name • DataObject business object • foreign keys business object • foreign output role name • output business object • output business object foreign keys • original input business object • original output business object • calling context Takes a relationship name. A list and description of the available standard visual snippets. Category Standard visual snippet deactivate participant by instance Description Takes a relationship name. Returns a role property with the following as input: • relationship name • role name • property name • instance ID • business object Maintains the identity of a relationship with the following as input: • relationship name • role name • input business object get relationship property get role property maintain identity relationship . and completely removes this user from the system. role name. uses them to identify a specific user. a property name. and completely removes this user from the system. Takes a relationship name. uses them to identify a specific user. Takes a relationship name. and disables this user without completely removing it from the system.

Category Standard visual snippet Description • • • • retrieve instances retrieve participants by instance retrieve participants by relationship name retrieve participants by role name set relationship property output business object original input business object original output business object calling context Takes a relationship name. and returns a matching instance. Specifies a relationship property with the following as input: • relationship name • property name • property value • instance ID Specifies a role property with the following as input: • relationship name • role name • property name • property value • instance ID • business object Removes a relationship property as specified by following inputs: • relationship name • property name • instance ID Removes a role property as specified by following inputs: • relationship name • role name • property name • instance ID • business object Takes two business objects as input (one of them is an item. a role name. Takes a relationship name and an instance ID as inputs. set role property unset relationship property unset role property SCA services add item to soap-encoded array are BO's Equal are BO's Equal (shallow) . and returns true if their values are the same. and adds the item to the array. A shallow function looks only at that information which is on the first level of the BO. Takes a relationship name. and an instance ID as inputs. and returns all matching participants. Takes two business objects as input. and a business object as inputs. Takes two business objects as input. a role name. and the second is a soap-encoded array). If the BO contains a reference to another BO. and an instance ID as inputs. Takes a relationship name. and returns all matching participants. then that information will not be considered. A list and description of the available standard visual snippets.Table 1. and returns true if their values are the same. and returns all matching participants. a role name.

(Copies are made for business objects) Takes a namespace and a name as input. Creates a SOAP header from the following inputs: • SOAP header name • SOAP header namespace • SOAP header prefix • Business object Uses the Message selection wizard to create a specific Service Message Object body. Returns data from the business object XML Serializer Service. Uses the Data Type selection wizard to create a specific business object. Takes either a business object or a business graph as input.Table 1. If the BO contains a reference to another BO. then that information will not be copied. Takes a service name as input. Takes a Service Message Object and an XPath expression as input. and returns the part specified by XPath. Takes two lists as input. A list and description of the available standard visual snippets. and returns a new business object. Takes a Service Message Object as input and returns its body. Takes a Service Message Object as input. and duplicates it. Returns data from the business object Metadata Service. Takes a namespace and a message as input. Returns data from the business object Data Object Service. Returns data from the business object Change Summary Service. and duplicates it. Category Standard visual snippet copy BO copy BO (shallow) Description Takes either a business object or a business graph as input. and duplicates it. A shallow copy takes only that information that is on the first level of the BO. and copies the contents of the source list into the target list. and obtains a reference to the it. and creates a body for the Service Message Object. Takes a Service Message Object and an SMO body as copy list contents create BO create specific BO get BOChangeSummary Service get BODataObject Service get BOEventSummary Service get BOMetadata Service get BOXMLSerializer Service locate service SMO services copy SMO create SMO body create SOAP header create specific SMO body get SMO body get SMO part set SMO body . Returns data from the business object Event Summary Service.

Takes a text string as input. the snippet takes the log message and object as inputs.out. A list and description of the available standard visual snippets. and combines their contents into one. and prints a textual representation of it to System. and prints it to System. text equal to text equal to (ignore case) text length utility BO print to logger print BO to log print to log print to logger to text Adding a Java visual snippet Java™ visual snippets are predefined pieces of Java code that you can use in your snippet. Uses the Select Log Level wizard to specify granularity of the log. and prints a textual representation of it to System. and prints it to System. and clears all of the empty characters from it. 2.out. text append text remove whitespace from text split text Takes two string as input. and returns its length in characters. Take as text string. From the palette. To import a Java visual snippet. Takes a business object as input. and specifies its body.Table 1.out. and an end index as inputs. You can choose from the following: • Off • Severe • Warning • Info • Config • Fine • Finer • Finest • All Then. Takes an object as input. while ignoring case. Takes an object as input. and returns a textual representation of it. Takes two text strings as input and. proceed as follows: 1. click the Java visual snippet activity icon . a start index. the snippet takes the log message and business object as inputs.out. and creates a substring of the given text using the given indices. Category Standard visual snippet Description input. In the Select a Java Visual Snippet wizard. Takes a text string as input. returns true if they are both the same. Then. browse the existing types and qualifiers. choose an appropriate snippet and click OK . Takes two text strings as input and returns true if they are both the same. Uses the Select Log Level wizard to specify granularity of the log.

In the Visual Snippets view. Click where you want to drop the activity. 3. In both cases. You can either create a link automatically when your drop an object onto the canvas as described in the first step. You have successfully created a link in your snippet. Click the activity that you want to link to. and then click a valid input or output terminal of an existing activity on the canvas. When the cursor becomes a crossed out circle. 4. click the link so that it becomes highlighted. You can drop the activity into one of two places in your snippet: To drop it onto an empty area of the canvas. e. If it can take an outgoing link. Drag the cursor out over the canvas. 2. 2. You have created a custom visual snippet. Adding a link to a snippet Links represent data flow and direct the sequence in which the processing of the activities in your snippet occurs. continue moving it until it becomes a plus sign again. drag the cursor out over the canvas. Your newly created Java visual snippet will appear. 1. you will notice that the icon beside your cursor has a plus symbol when you are at a place where you are allowed to drop the activity. If it can take an incoming link. 6. Pay close attention to the Category setting in the wizard in which you are asked to specify a location for your new snippet. Drag and drop this snippet onto the canvas and wire it up as needed. drag the cursor over the appropriate activity. Create a link automatically in either of these ways: a. and drag it to a new incoming link. click the black box at the target end of the link. b. double-click it and it will appear in its own editor. expand the category where you saved your first snippet. f. It is also called a composite visual snippet. d. The link becomes a solid gray line and connects the two activities. and when you hover over a valid incoming link icon. Click the yellow circle. and will look like a plus sign with a crossed out circle beside it. Compose the visual code as necessary. The cursor will change appearance. c. and can be created as follows: 1. and drag it onto an input terminal of an existing activity on the canvas. 5. Save and close your work. The custom visual snippet appears as an activity on the canvas. The crossed out circle on your cursor will disappear when the terminal is a valid choice for a link. and a thick black line will mark the location more clearly. the triangle will be on the right edge . b. Drop an activity onto the canvas. To drop the activity into a structured activity that contains other activities. Click an Input in the tray. b. Create another snippet using the editor. If you would like to make changes to it. Create a new visual snippet in the editor. Using inline expressions for simple equations . it will have a triangle on its left edge . Move the cursor over an outgoing link until the yellow circle appears as shown in this image. the crossed out circle disappears. or Click an item in the palette. 4. Link two existing objects on the canvas as follows: a. a. To change the target activity. or link two existing objects as described in the second. Parent topic: Creating a custom visual snippet Using a custom visual snippet A custom visual snippet is one that contains an entire snippet within it.3. A yellow string is now attached to the cursor.

the snippet contains specialized code that will perform the simple equation in question. Wire the terminals as needed. In the visual snippet editor. and click OK. you can use one of the three mapping service snippets provided. 2. Note: You will only be able to select a specific mapping snippet if there is an existing business object map.When you are coding an expression in the visual snippet editor. There are three types of mapping snippets available: Basic mapping snippet Use a basic mapping snippet for general mappings between two business objects. this standard visual snippet has terminals for inputs (that automatically refer to the business objects as defined in the business object map). proceed as follows: 1. chose one of the three available options. 3. exceptions and for execution context. Specific mapping snippet Use a specific mapping snippet to reference an existing business object map. You will be able to select it in the Business Object Map Selection dialogue box. but accepts a map of input and a map of output business objects. the business objects that you are working with. This standard visual snippet provides terminals that you can use link to the name and namespace of the map. Most expressions can be represented diagrammatically in one of the following two ways: Inline expressions In this case. The finalized form appears like the one shown in this screen capture: Of these two options available to you. It includes similar terminals. In both cases. the equation is coded directly into the expression using the inline condition builder. the best practice is to use an inline expression when coding simple equations. It also provides an additional terminal for an execution context (which may be null). The finalized form appears like the one shown in this screen capture: Prebuilt expressions Prebuilt expressions can either be in the form of a Standard visual snippet or a Java™ visual snippet. Using mapping service snippets When you want to transform data in a business object from one format to another using the visual snippet editor. Like the previous two options. Refactoring a visual snippet . and three exceptions. there are several ways that you can compose the expression. click the Standard visual snippet activity icon ( ). To add one of these snippets to your diagram. Advanced mapping snippet The advanced mapping snippet builds on the basic mapping snippet. expand mapping services. In the Add a Standard Visual Snippet window.

and a dialogue opens that lists each of the events that are available to be emitted. 3. right-click the visual snippet as shown in the following screen capture. In the Visual snippet view. expand the events category. Select the event that you would like to emit and click OK. you can add it to your visual snippet as follows: 1. hover over Refactor and then choose from one of the following three options: Option Description Rename Use this option to change the name assigned to the visual snippet. Change Namespace Use this option to assign a new namespace to your visual snippet. proceed as follows: 1. Configuring a custom event in a visual snippet A custom event is a specific business-related message that can be declared in the visual snippet editor to be emitted in the runtime environment.When you refactor parts of your visual snippet. The emit event snippet appears on the canvas. and select the snippet named emit event. Once you have created your own custom event definition using the event definition editor. 2. 2. Move Use this option to move your visual snippet to a new folder or module. . Drag and drop this snippet onto the canvas. In the Visual Snippets view. dependencies on those parts are automatically and universally updated throughout the product as a whole. To refactor parts of your visual snippet. From the list.

4. Rule sets and decision tables cannot be invoked directly and may only be invoked through a rule group. Actions An action is the event that results from the evaluation of the condition. make a decision. Rule groups A rule group is the highest level implementation component of a business rule. In this example. There are two possible forms. The rule group acts as a gateway to the business rules since it is exposed as an SCA component in the runtime environment. it is different for each of the conditions that is encountered. A rule can enforce a business policy. you need to understand these key concepts about business rules: • Rule groups • Rule sets • Decision tables • Business roles in the development of business rules • Templates • Scheduling Note: Business rules can only be deployed to the WebSphere Process Server. creating and developing business rules in a graphical programming environment. Each action is uniquely bound to the condition that precedes it. Table 1. rule sets and decision tables. In the snippet editor. Business rules A business rule is a condition that must be satisfied when a business activity is being performed. If the condition is met. In this example. Using WebSphere® Integration Developer. An example of a business rule A vendor establishes the preferred status of each customer and creates a business rule to determine how much each customer is charged for the same object. you can compose integrative business solutions without programming skills. . the condition is the customer's status. create the expressions that will supply the emit event snippet with the data that is necessary to emit the event in question. Here are some basic terms that define the building blocks of each and every business rule: Conditions A condition describes a situation or state that must be in place in order for a specific action to occur. The rule group defines the interface and operation that the business rules will implement. Key concepts Before you start to use this editor. A business rule is used to quote specific prices to customers depending upon their customer status. Customer status Bronze Silver Gold $5 $4 $3 Quoted price The interaction between conditions and actions determines the form of your business rules. the action is the quotation of the price. or infer new data from existing data. Rule sets and decision tables which share a common business focus can be gathered under the umbrella of a single rule group. which are described below. the action is performed.

Customer status Bronze $5 Quoted price If-then rule If customer has bronze status then price is 5. the customer receives a bigger discount when he or she purchases more items. A business rule is used to quote specific prices to customers depending upon their customer status. For instance. However. Decision tables Another form that a business rule can take is a decision table. more than one condition decides the action.One of the most important functions of the rule group is to define a date and time range during which a specific rule set or decision table will be used. Action rules An action rule is a rule in which the action is always performed. The decision table enforces this business rule behavior through the intersection of the status (rows) and items purchased (columns). which could result in more than one action. If-then rules A rule in which if is the condition and then is the action. During the transaction. If customer has silver status then price is 4. The conditional logic is represented in a table where the rows and columns intersect to determine the appropriate action. and then is the action. and a customer that makes a purchase in all ten weeks receives an additional 10% discount voucher for future use. The discount depends on the customer's status. in this example the customer status is represented by the rows in the table. but only one action is acted on. An if-then rule set is a set of textual statements or rules where if is the condition of the rule. Like the if-then rule set. Customers who made a purchase in all ten weeks evaluate to true for both conditions and receive both incentives. several conditions may get evaluated. Rule sets A rule set is a set of business rules that are evaluated sequentially. The first example we discussed used an if-then rule set: Table 2. Each column represents a condition. each rule is evaluated sequentially. The first column shows . Only if the condition evaluates to true is the action performed. If customer has gold status then price is 3. In a decision table. and each condition that evaluates to true is acted upon. the decision table is driven by the interaction between conditions and actions. An example might be a customer loyalty scheme in which a customer that makes a purchase seven weeks out of ten receives a free gift. Silver $4 Gold $3 In the runtime environment. in a decision table. There are two kinds of rule that can be used in a rule set. and the potential amount of money that the customer spends is represented by the columns.

the integration developer uses templates to determine what details can be modified later by another business analyst and writes messages that will help that user make those modifications. you can change the bronze row to use an otherwise condition so that the customer who does not have a silver or gold status automatically receives the prices that the bronze customer typically receives. How two different roles interact in working with a business rule . Customer status Bronze Silver Gold Buys less than 20 items $5 per item $4 per item $3 per item Buys more than 20 item $4. to implement and deploy the rules that the business analyst created. The analyst applies his or her understanding of how the business works to create business policies and business rules. he pays $5 for each item.50 per item Buys more than 30 items $4 per item $3 per item $2 per item Buys more than 40 items $3. There are two main roles for working with business rules: Business analyst The business analyst needs to have no knowledge about computer programming languages to create business rules. Integration developer The integration developer uses his or her knowledge of computer programming. she pays $4 for each item. while the customer with gold status pays $3 for each item. For example. you need to create roles that indicate the different ways that different users create. a specified operation is automatically performed while data is passed to a decision table. at least according to the table. the analyst applies his or her knowledge of the business environment and uses Web-based management tools to keep the rules relevant.50 per item $1. if a customer does not have a status. Figure 1. You can also make initialization action rules into templates so that you can modify the rule at run time. Business roles in the development of business rules Because business rules are developed and maintained by several users. if the customer with silver status buys less than 20 items.50 per item Here are a few concepts that are unique to decision tables: Otherwise condition By using an otherwise condition. and anticipate situations where the conditions will not result in an action. and how those users interact while working with a business rule. Table 3. A business rule defined by a decision table. When these rules have been deployed to a server. and modify business rules.us that the results of each of intersection is the same as the if-then rule set: if the customer with bronze status buys less than 20 items. While implementing the rules. Initialization action rule By using an initialization action rule. you can plan ahead when designing your decision table.50 per item $2.50 per item $2. implement.50 per item $3.

Constraints A constraint is a restriction in a template that limits by how much a specified parameter can be modified. The "price" would be a parameter if you want to adjust your sale price to match a competitor. In order to create business rules that are dynamically modifiable at runtime the business rules must be based on templates. • Enumeration constraints • Enumeration constraints are in a list that is either numeric or textual. It is rarely feasible or cost effective to get an integration developer to make each adjustment. Parameters Parameters are the elements of the business rule that can be modified dynamically. The template uses parameters and constraints to provide dynamicity. A template defines what parts of a deployed business rule can be modified by an authorized user. Parameters and constraints define which values can be modified and by how much. your company might have to periodically adjust sale prices to match the competition's prices. you might still need to modify your prices or other properties. This is especially necessary when a business environment must be dynamic to meet everchanging business needs. There are two main types of constraints: • Range constraints • Range constraints apply to numeric parameters that are used in rules.Templates One of the responsibilities of the business analyst is to keep business rules relevant. An authorized user may adjust a parameter but the parameter must be held within a certain numerical range. For example. After deployment. Decision tables can also be made dynamically modifiable at runtime by basing the conditions or actions of the decision table on templates. For example. For example you know that your product costs 100 to manufacture so your range of prices might be between 105 and 500. The authorized user must choose from one of the options in the list. An example of a template constraining a business rule . Figure 2. the user could upgrade a customer's credit rating from "silver" to "gold".

Figure 3. or (as shown in the following example). when a special price is put into effect for one special day only. Vendor A can use a business rule template to adjust the price of the item to beat Vendor B's pricing. This functionality is important when. you can design rules and deploy them to the server so that they become active when they are needed. business analysts have to be prepared for changes to governmental tax regulations that will not go into affect until the first of the year. The constraint does not permit a lower price than the one that is currently in place. An example of how a business rule can be created for later use . for example. the constraint on the business rule template will not allow it. However.In this example. Scheduling When changes to the business rules are mandated and expected. when Vendor B tries to do something similar.

on a running server instead of hard-coded logic in your solution. and call out to a rule set whenever there is configurable data. 2. Decide which rule logic to use. or infer new data from existing data. The WebSphere® Integration Developer tools have been designed so that users can easily compose integrative business solutions without programming skills. If your decision logic analyzes a collection of data or loops over a set of data. In general. Basing rules on templates gives you more dynamicity at runtime and allows you to modify settings without involving an integration developer. the decision itself naturally takes on the form of a table the decision itself naturally takes on the form of a series of textual if-then statements. To this end. you should probably structure the decision in a sequential process. Create your chosen rule logic. 3. Decide if a business rule is an appropriate solution for your business process. Some business rules are better suited to a decision table. If you want to modify the business rule dynamically you must base your rule on a template. you should use business rules to make a decision when any of the following conditions are met: • • • you want to change the results at runtime. The rule group is the primary element of a business rule. make a decision. You are in the process of planning your business process. Building business rules: task roadmap A high-level view of the development of a business rule is presented.When to use business rules A business rule is anything that captures and implements business policies and practices. The rule group also defines date ranges during which specific rule logic applies. you can easily create and develop business rules in an intuitive graphical programming environment. A business rule is an ideal solution when you want to have flexibility to change your business process at runtime. The rule logic is either a rule set or a decision table. it provides the interface between the business process and the rule logic. 4. some to a rule set. . A rule can enforce business policy. Create a rule group. 1.

4. Click any of the topics listed below to configure your new rule group. switch to the business integration perspective. 6. The structure of the decision table works well for regularity. and click Next. 2. 1. browse to an existing interface or click New to create one. 3. In the workbench. Additionally constraints can be applied to these parameters so that the changes made with the Business Rule Manager are within acceptable ranges. but not for exception cases. click File > New > Rule Group. if this table has a large number of holes. test and deploy. each with its own function.Create templates for your rule logic. Use structure and terminology that is natural to the business environment in which these rules will be used. the decision criteria that all the rules share in common can be captured once. . Creating a rule group Create a rule group as a container for your business rules. If you notice that every rule seems to use the same decision criteria. Then. From the main menu. and then you can define the parameters for each criteria. In the select an interface window. specify a module (or create one if necessary by clicking New). Rule group editor A rule group controls the timing and implementation of business rules. then you should probably use a rule set to capture their business logic. look for the following trends in the finished product: 1. This creates a rule group. 3. A rule set is more flexible than the more structured decision table. 4. By creating a template for your rule set or decision table you can build up a library of rule logics that you can reuse in the future. If you create a new interface here. However. or where the output values are undefined. If your rules naturally take the form of a table. Create a new rule group by performing the following steps. then you should probably use a decision table. then it would be a good idea to use a decision table. Parent topic: Building business rules 5. If your rules seem to take the form of a large number of unstructured sentences. you will have to create an operation using the interface editor before you can use it in the rule group. Assemble your rule group into a business process. The template also allows you to stipulate which parameters of the rule logic can be modified by the business analyst using the Business Rule Manager. Begin by sketching out a plan for your rules on a white board or a notepad. a folder and a name for the new rule group. Choosing between a rule set and a decision table You can capture business rule logic using either a rule set or a decision table. The rule group editor is divided into several distinct areas. 2. then you should use a rule set. In this case. and launches it in a new editor. In the New Rule Group window. where some decision criteria are not applicable. Here are some suggestions for how to decide which format to use.

highlight it and click the icon. o To add new rule logic. highlight it and click the icon. The properties area o This area displays properties that are relevant to the object that is currently selected in the editor. You can visually select your date and times using the interactive calendar. Use the date and time field when you want distinct rule logics to apply during different periods. or you may have a sale which runs until noon.The areas are as follows: 1. For example you may want to offer a discount on weekends. In all cases. o To create a new interface or reference. Advanced tab: business rule group editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Advanced tab of the Properties view. 3. . 2. • Advanced tab: business rule group editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Advanced tab of the Properties view. Some pages display properties in tabular format. or create your own customized datebased selection algorithm in the Selection criteria field. you can click F1 to launch a dedicated help window. The interface area o This area displays the operations interfaces and references that you can choose from. o The contents of the page will differ on the activity or object chosen. or to remove one. click the icon. or to remove one. and you can add or modify these properties by clicking the appropriate cell and then interacting with the graphical interface that appears. The rule logic area o This area displays the possible rule logic that the operation can be routed to. Click on the tabs to the left of this view to toggle through the pages. click the icon.

a runtime exception will occur when the current condition is not covered. Specifying the rule logic for a rule group The rule logic is either a rule set or a decision table that is invoked at the designated time by the rule group. by clicking Enter Rule Logic and either select an existing rule set or decision table from the list. They are used by generated Business User clients and can be queried through an API at runtime. Click here to link to the rule logic that is still defined for the old operation. the rule logic window will appear. In the editor of your newly created rule group. If this is a new operation. click the operation that you want to associate with the rules. Link to Orphan This option will be available if you have already created an operation and deleted it. and the rule logic that you provide does not cover all the possible cases. .Use the fields on this page to add a few custom properties to a business rule group. 3. Define the Default Rule Logic. Once you have made your choice. Note: If you do not select default rule logic. and you will have the following options: Option Description Create Operation Definition Click here to launch the rule group editor and specify the rule logic yourself. then it is unlikely that there will be rule logic defined for it. To specify the rule logic for your new rule group. Custom properties represent name-value pairs of type string that can be used to store user-defined information. proceed as follows: 1. 4. or create a new one. 2.

and leave the dates empty. and either select an existing rule set or decision table from the list. it is recommended that you create two date rows in the table and leave the default rule logic undefined. First option: one rule logic for the rule group If there is only one rule logic for this rule group. click Today. or to leave either the start or end date open (perhaps you do not want it to expire). To set it to the current date. or create a new one. date based selection can be used to delegate one operation to a specific rule logic (note that overlapping rules are not supported. In the Rule Logic column. Scheduling rules using the rule group editor The rule group editor can be used to schedule the running of a specific rule for a specific date and time. click the appropriate calendar icon. icon. To set a start or end date. Create your rule logic (you can create as many as necessary) by clicking the plus icon ( ) beside the Scheduled Rule Logic label. In the rule logic area of the rule group editor. click Enter Rule Logic to create a new rule. create a new Scheduled Rule Logic by clicking the Date fields will appear showing the current date.5. and some suggestions on what to do. Use the interactive calendar to choose a date as shown in this image. and only one can be called at a time). To select start and end dates for a rule. or select an existing one. proceed as follows: 1. Second option: two rule logics If there are two rule logics one of which represents the current behavior and the other one the future behavior of the rule group. Here are some suggestions that are based on the number and nature of the available rule logic. The date selection data is composed of a set of rule logic rows and one default rule logic. In a rule group. Standards for date and time selection in a rule group There are a number of ways you can configure your rule group. it is recommended that you select it in the default rule logic. Here are some possible options. 4. then click No Date. 2. . 3.

Option Description Current® date Choose this to use the inline interactive calendar to select the dates graphically. scheduling is based on the Current date.date object. which is occasionally overridden for short durations. create a new Scheduled Rule Logic by clicking the Date fields will appear with the current date. it is recommended that you use the default rule logic for the standard behavior and create a date range for each of the short term behavior rule logics. In the rule logic area of the rule group editor. By default.util. 2. You will then have the following choices: icon. Customizing algorithms for date and time selection When you want to specialize the date and time selection criteria. Java Choose this to use the visual snippet editor to graphically compose your own Java code . • A date returned from a Java™ expression • A date stored in an attribute of the incoming business object. then the system will create a Java snippet that will return a current java. To change this. In the Selection Criteria field. You can configure a rule group to work with the following: • A date as specified using the tooling. click Current date. you can create your own custom algorithm.Third option: standard behavior If there is some standard behavior for the rule group. If you choose this. proceed as follows: 1.

S". The possible selection criteria include: the location of the customer. This is the class that will make the decision about which component to select. The decision is driven by selection criteria that you can customize to your needs.ibm. XPath Choose this to specify an XPath to a xsd:datetime (java. You can use the provided selectors for many circumstances. 3. e. right click the selector and click Show Files. This opens the Physical Resources view. and choose SelectionAlgorithm in the Matching types field when it appears. Enter "com. Selectors provide a simple way for you to filter the business logic in different directions depending on input criteria. Choose one of the target WebSphere Process Server components as the Default Rule Logic. In the Source Folder field browse to the current module folder. which displays the generated files for the project.wbiserver. Find the line of code: <Selector>com.customselectors" in the Package field.date to the selector component. Click OK. The parameter can either be a stand-alone. Create the components that will be the target of the selector after the selection has been made. Edit the code of the new selector to replace the default Java class with your custom code. particularly those involving date-dependent discounts. Creating custom selectors Selectors can be used to determine dynamically. c. Click the Add button. b. Enter an appropriate name for the Java class.util. Click Finish. between two or more possible invocations.ibm. Right-click the filename. and return a java.wbiservers. d. Open the New Java Class wizard. a. h. Any WebSphere® Process Server component can be used as the outcome of the selector choice. The process of creating a custom selector is described briefly below. Create a CustomSelector Java™ class. a. 1. and select Open With > Text Editor.date) parameter. Select your Module in the Business Integration view. These components should all share an interface. Save and close the new selector. c.GenericSelector</Selector > and replace it with . In other situations you will need to define your own custom selector. 2. In the Business Integration view. 4.ibm. at runtime. more in depth information about creating custom selectors can be found in related links.util.sel file. In the Choose interfaces field of the Implemented interfaces selection panel type "com. for example "CustomSelector". b. Open the Implemented interfaces selection panel.selection. a.Option Description that will obtain a date and a time. c. f. Apply the same interface to the new selector that you used for the target components.selection. or it can be embedded within a Business Object. Create a new selector component. b. Augment the generated code with new code that will provide the new custom selection logic. whether you are currently offering any discounts or if the customer is making a sufficiently large purchase to qualify for financing. rightclick and select New > Other > Java > Class and then click Next.common. You need as many components as you will have possible outcomes. g.common.

The project is ready to build and test. Table 1. Label Default July 1 to August 31 getDefaultDiscountRate getHolidayDiscountRate Name Creating a rule set This topic provides instructions on how to create a new rule set. Save and close the selector file. .com/getHolidayDiscountRate If you do this.d. To avoid confusion.customselectors. These could be placed in different folders. with different namespaces. suppose you have one rule set to calculate the default discount rate. and there will not be any confusion. A situation where using the same rule set name might be confusing. it is more difficult to see that there are actually two different rule logics. <Selector>com.com/default/getDiscountRate • http://www.ibm. so the references may appear identical in both the tooling and the Web environments. In the workbench. 5. which maps a set of date ranges to a rule set or decision table. you should give each rule set a more descriptive name. the names will be unambiguous. and another to calculate the discount rate during a holiday period.yourNamespace. Add the selector and all of the target components to the assembly diagram. and click Next. Label Default July 1 to August 31 getDiscountRate getDiscountRate Name To avoid this problem. click File > New > Rule Set. Table 2. In the New Rule Set window.yourNamespace. Using rule set names in a rule group Each operation in a rule group contains a rule logic table.com/holiday/getDiscountRate If you reference these rule sets within a single operation. For instance. 2. it is always a good practice to use rule set and decision table names which are unique within the operation. specify a module (or create one if necessary by clicking New).com/getDefaultDiscountRate • http://www. a folder and a name for the new rule set. as follows: • http://www.yourNamespace. switch to the business integration perspective.CustomSelector</Selector> where CustomSelector is the name you gave to your Java class. 3. as shown here: • http://www. 1. If the same name is used twice. A situation where the rule set names makes sense.yourNamespace. only the local name for the rule set is shown. From the main menu.

This creates a rule set. and launches it in a new editor.In the select an interface and operation window. In a rule set. the rule is presented in a tabular format that you can edit as needed. a business rule takes the form of an interaction between one condition and one action. Rule set editor A rule set captures decision-making business logic in the form of a series of if-then statements. The editor is divided into several distinct areas. . If necessary. 4. or click New to create one. 5. use the drop down lists to select a different interface and operation. In the rule set editor. browse to an existing rule group. Click any of the topics listed below to configure your new rule set. Click Finish. each with its own individual use as shown here.

The variables area . 2. The interface area o This area displays the interface that is currently being referenced by the rule set.The individual areas of the rule set editor The areas of the rule set editor are as follows: 1.

The rules area o Use this area to graphically compose your if-then rule sets. 5. or to remove one. and you can add or modify these properties by clicking the appropriate cell and then interacting with the graphical interface that appears. 4. In all cases. A new variable will appear in the Name column. This area displays the variables that are being used by the rule set to store its data. . o The contents of the page will differ on the activity or object chosen. Creates a new template for an action rule. To create an additional variable. Working with the rule set editor This editor gives you complete control over the configuration of your rule sets. proceed as follows: 1. Click on the tabs to the left of this view to toggle through the pages. The templates area o Use this area to graphically compose templates for a rule set. The properties area o This area displays properties that are relevant to the object that is currently selected in the editor. 6. click the plus icon ( ). highlight it and click the icon. o The previous screen capture shows a single if-then template (c) that is ready to be configured. Creates a template based on the current rule. Creates a new action rule. The first is an ifthen rule (a). Follow the links in the Related tasks section below to learn how to do any of the following: • Working with variables • Create an if-then or an action rules • Convert a rule into a template • Create a rule that is based on a template Adding a variable to a rule set Variables store the data that are used by a rule set. . Some pages display properties in tabular format. you can type F1 to launch a dedicated help window.3. Description Creates a rule that is based on an existing template. In the Variables settings area. 7. To create a new variable. The rules area toolbar o The icons in the rules area toolbar perform the following functions: o o Icon Creates a new if-then rule. o The previous screen capture shows two rules in this area ready to be defined. The templates area toolbar o The icons in the templates area toolbar perform the following functions: Icon Description Creates a new template for an if-then rule. and the second is a rule that is based on a template (b). The template on which this rule is based is shown in the Templates section below. click the icon.

3. You will also be able to choose from the XSD wildcards of xsd:any. Creating an if-then rule in the rule set editor An if-then rule determines what action to run according to the condition of the incoming message. xsd:anyType. Set the action as follows: . click the Add If-then rule icon ( ). You have successfully created a variable. In the data type popup window. 4. Compose the condition as follows: a. In the Type column. 2. In the If row. You can either choose an existing template which will then prompt you for a value. click Condition. write a sentence that will describe the rule to another user. In the rule set editor. Use the choices in the window to build your condition. A new rule appears as shown in this image.2. 3. In the Presentation row. click Select Type. proceed as follows: 1. or xsd:anySimpletype Data type Choose one of the pre-defined data types from the list. A pop up window appears as shown in this image: b. you have the following options: Option Description New Use this to select or create a business object. To create an if-then rule in the rule set editor. Browse Use this to browse the Data type selection wizard for a data type. or you can compose it yourself by clicking the appropriate operators and values in sequence.

write a sentence that will describe the rule to another user. This template can then be used to create new instances of the same rule using different parameters. A new rule appears as shown in this image. click the Add Action rule icon ( ). In the Then row. or you can set it yourself by choosing from one of the other options. 2. In the Then row. As earlier. A pop up window appears as shown in this image: b. In the Presentation row. Creating an action rule in the rule set editor An action rule determines what action to run no matter what the incoming message is. . A pop up window appears as shown in this image: b. 3. In the rule set editor. Creating rule set templates Use a rule set template to define the implementation and parameters for an if-then or action rule. or you can set it yourself by choosing from one of the other options. You can either choose an existing template which will then prompt you for a value. click Action. Set the action as follows: a. use the choices in the window to set the action.a. proceed as follows: 1. click Action. You can create templates for both if-then and action rules in the same way. To create an action rule in the rule set editor. You can either choose an existing template which will then prompt you for a value. Use the choices in the window to set the action.

c. 3. You can either choose an existing template which will then prompt you for a value. write a sentence that will describe the rule to another user. 1. A pop up window appears as shown in this image: b. The parameters of the rule can be modified within certain constraints. To specify an upper and a lower limit for a numerical parameter. and then choose a parameter from the list. A new parameter will appear. In the If row. a. click Select Type. the runtime user of a rule using this template will be able to modify the parameter only in accordance with that constraint. To insert a parameter that the user can make changes to.Business rules based on templates are dynamically modifiable in the runtime environment. click Range.) or Add Action template ( ) icon . click Enumeration. The Value is the actual setting. In the Parameters row. In the Presentation row. and add items to the Enumeration Items table in the Constraint tab in the properties view. 5. In the Type column. To specify a list of choices. A list showing the available choices will appear. Compose the condition as follows: 4. click either the Add If-then template ( . Set the action as follows: a. In the Then row. and then use the choices in the window to build your expression. d. Note: If you apply a constraint to a parameter. e. click None under the Constraint column. or you can compose it yourself by clicking the appropriate operators and values in sequence. A pop up window appears as shown in this image: . and select an appropriate choice from the list. A new template appears as shown in this image (note that the window is slightly different for the action template). a. create a new parameter as follows: Click the icon. and Presentation is how it is displayed in an actual rule. To add a restriction on how the parameter can be configured. Base your rule on a template if you want to give your business analyst the ability to modify the parameters of a rule without involving the integration developer. click the triangular icon to launch a menu. Use the choices in the window to build your condition. 2. In the rule set editor. click Action. click Condition. b.

2. 4.b. 3. In the rule set editor. and by making changes to the parameters within the constraints specified. ). From the list. Now you are ready to create a rule based on it in the rule set editor. The parameters of the rule can be modified within certain constraints. In this way. you may enter a value directly. there are often situations where you want to allow a Web user to override the default output value as programmed. Convert the rule set into a template. you can create a similar rule without having to redefine the implementation. proceed as follows: 1. To allow a default value to be changed by a Web user. Creating a new rule from a template in the rule set editor Rules can be created from existing templates. indicating that it should be used after the default rule. In the Presentation row. Letting a Web user override the default values in a rule set In a rule set. use the following approach. To use a template to create a new rule in the rule set editor. a menu will appear showing your available options. Use the choices in the window to set the action. Add a sentence to the template web presentation indicating that the default value should be overridden by creating another rule after the default rule. If there is an enumeration constraint in effect. To capture this in a rule set. Base your rule on a template if you want to give your business analyst the ability to modify the parameters of a rule without involving the integration developer. 5. A new rule appears as shown in this image. Otherwise. but these comments should help the web user avoid mistakes. Create a few templates which capture the criteria when the default should be overridden. Create a rule set which sets the default value for the output. Business rules based on templates are dynamically modifiable in the runtime environment. proceed as follows: 1. click the Add Template rule icon ( available templates. Structuring an ordered rule set for modification . click the appropriate template. with a parameter for the default value. There are currently no first class mechanisms to control rule order or creation. define the parameters by clicking Enter Value. You have successfully created a template for an if-then or an action rule. Add a sentence to the web presentation for each of these. You have successfully created a rule based on a template. A drop down list appears showing all 2. 3.

That being said. In rulesetA. and then copy those changes to the runtime system. In this pattern. If possible. make one decision. 2. you cannot call one rule set from another directly. so that it is easier for the web user to make changes to it. Add a comment to the rule set which describes the general structure of the rule set. there may be a tight dependency between the rules and their order of processing. Keep the rule set simple. It may look like this: • • • • Rule 1: primeRate = 5 Rule 2: if amount < 1000 rate = primeRate. the rule set above would be more robust if rules 2 through 4 had the following form: o if amount >= min and amount < max rate = primeRate + someValue This rule could also be converted into a template which has plug-gable values for each parameter in yellow. given the loan amount. In the New Decision Table window. you can only call out to operations which exist in another component. then you should order the special case rules in ascending or descending order. Put rulesetA in rulegroupA. Rule 3: if amount >= 1000 rate = primeRate + 1 Rule 4: if amount >= 5000 rate = primeRate + 2 In this situation. Here are some suggestions on how to plan for possible changes to an ordered rule set. a folder and a name for the new decision table. The best practice is to make the modifications in the tooling environment. click File > New > Decision Table. you can take these precautions to avoid error: 1. In the workbench. 3. the behavior of the rule set will change significantly if you reorder the rules. switch to the business integration perspective. Creating a decision table This topic provides instructions on how to create a new decision table. For instance suppose you have a rule set which calculates the interest rate for a loan. 2. it is more likely that new rules will be added using a template in the web client. 4. and click Next. Put rulesetB in rulegroupB. 3. If it is difficult to create mutually exclusive rules. To work around this. 1. If not.In some rule sets. specify a module (or create one if necessary by clicking New). test them. we suggest you assign the default value at the start. Calling one rule set from another one Currently. they may be able to position the new rule correctly. add an invoke rule and select the rulesetB operation in the rulegroupB reference. Caution should be taken to make sure that the new rule is inserted correctly in the rule set. and then put the special case rules later. not many. and the logic must be correct before you publish the changes. and indicating that the template should be placed before or after them. If the web user is skilled. This is the nature of sequential execution. Caution should be taken when you reorder these rules in the web client. 5. 3. You can do this by referencing existing rules in the rule set. 4. This gives the web user a pattern which is easy to follow. 5. Here is how you would set it up: 1. For instance. For instance. Add comments to each template which clearly describe where the template instance should be located within the rule set. separate the rule sets into two distinct rule groups. 2. and then invoke one from the other. 6. In the assembly editor. Structure your special case rules so that they are mutually independent. From the main menu. Use the default pattern. limit the actual decision count in the rule set to one. Your web users will come to learn this pattern. and may even break. In other words. Create a reference in rulegroupA with the same interface as rulegroupB. . wire rulegroupB to the reference in rulegroupA. suppose you want rulesetA to call rulesetB.

in a decision table. 6. 7. or click New to create one. each with its own individual use as shown here. use the settings to determine how the decision table will appear in the editor. The editor is divided into several distinct areas. The conditional logic is represented as a table where the rows and columns intersect to determine the appropriate action. In the decision table editor. a business rule that takes the form of a decision table is driven by the interaction between conditions and actions. . 5. If you want to configure the layout of the decision table. The main difference being that. click Next. use the drop down lists to select a different interface and operation. In the Decision Table layout window. Click Finish.In the select an interface and operation window. 4. browse to an existing rule group. the rule is presented in a tabular format that you can edit as needed. If necessary. the action is decided by more than one condition. This creates a decision table. Decision table editor A decision table captures multi-conditional decision-making business logic in tabular format. Like the rule set. Click any of the topics listed below to configure your new decision table. and launches it in a new editor. The preview shows what the table will look like.

o . This is done so that the business process that calls this decision table can continue to work with the original values. and the credit rating is 5. as well as the inputs and outputs that you can use in the decision table. The intersection of the values that are passed into each of these two conditions specify the action (section 7) that will determine the customer's interest rate.0f. the customer's credit rating. The light grey conditions area of the table (section 6) shows the multiple conditions that will interact to determine the customer's interest rate. When this business rule executes. and the column on the left. The row along the top represents the customer's salary. then they will receive the lowest interest rate of 5. The individual areas of the decision table The areas of the decision table are as follows: 1. if a customer's salary is greater than 500. For example. the initialization action rule (in section 2) begins by taking the input values and assigning them to the output values. The interface area o This area displays the interface that is currently being referenced.The decision table in this screen capture is an example of how an interest rate for a mortgage can be calculated by considering both a customer's salary and credit rating.

Some pages display properties in tabular format. In all cases. Use this area of the decision table to define the actions that will fire when the conditions intersect. and you can add or modify these properties by clicking the appropriate cell and then interacting with the graphical interface that appears. The decision table tool bar o Use the icons in the decision table tool bar to perform the following functions: Icon Add a new condition Add a new condition value Add a new action Change the orientation of the condition (this will not impact the runtime execution). 4. The conditions area o The conditions area appears in light grey. The properties area o This area displays properties that are relevant to the object that is currently selected in the editor. 8. 7. Working with the decision table editor This editor gives you complete control over the configuration of your decision table. you can type F1 to launch a dedicated help window. o The contents of the page will differ on the activity or object chosen. Use this area of the decision table to define the multiple conditions that will evaluate the incoming inputs in order to fire a corresponding action.2. The Table area o This area displays the table that shows the conditions and the actions that make up this business rule. The Initialize area o Use this area to configure an initialization action rule (an operation that will take place when data first enters a decision table). The actions area o The actions area appears to the right and below the conditions area (in this particular configuration of the decision table layout). o 3. Click on the tabs to the left of this view to toggle through the pages. Create a template for one of the expressions in this table Description 6. as well as create a template for one. o 5. Follow the links in the Related tasks section below to learn how to do any of the following: • Add a condition or a condition value • Add an action • Add an initialization action rule • Using an otherwise condition . The initialize tool bar o Use the icons in the Initialize tool bar to perform the following functions: Icon Add an initialization action rule Description Create a template from this action rule.

and two cells for the action values. and each column in it will have additional cells as shown in this image: . click on any cell in the conditions row. If you want to further refine the potential values for each condition. and there is one cell for a term to reference an output for the action. A new row will appear below the current one. any incoming term that matches one of the condition values in the top row fires a corresponding action as defined in the second row. Configure the values for each of the existing conditions by clicking Enter Value. This default decision table is shown in this image: • • Change the layout of your decision table Work with templates In this layout. The top row represents the conditions. 3. You can either enter a value directly in the cell. To add a new value. and add new ones to your decision table as follows: 1. or make your choice from the popup window that appears. If necessary. and click the Add a new condition value icon ( ). A new column will appear as shown in this image: 4. and two cells for the condition values that the input will be evaluated against. and choosing and/or composing an appropriate expression from the popup window. Configuring actions in a decision table An action is an operation that is executed when the appropriate conditions are met. Specify the incoming variable for this condition by clicking Enter Term in the top row. and there is one cell for a term to reference an input for the condition. Configure the existing conditions. The bottom row represents the actions. you can add a new condition by clicking the Add a new condition icon. you can further configure the terms with the inline condition builder. This default decision table is shown in this image: . a basic decision table is created with two rows and three columns. The new condition term will appear in the cell as shown in this image: 2. Configure this condition as you did the previous ones. By default.Working with conditions in a decision table A condition is an evaluation of the incoming message that looks for a specific value. a basic decision table is created with two rows and three columns. By default.

if the business object has attributes that are also business objects. b. Specify the outgoing variable for this action by clicking Enter Term in the bottom row. Configure this action as you did the previous ones. then you can create those business objects (and this can be recursive if they in turn contain even more business objects). and choosing and/or composing an appropriate expression from the popup window. ) icon. To further qualify the actions. and click the Add a new action icon ( ). Configure the values for each of the existing actions by clicking Enter Value. Initialization action rules can also be made into templates so that they can be modified in the runtime environment. Typically. and add new ones to your decision table as follows: 1. click the Add an initialization action rule ( Assign a name to your new initialization action rule in the name field. click on any cell in the actions row. A new column will appear as shown in this image: . If necessary. More importantly. proceed as follows: a. to set the initial value of the business objects attribute. To do this. or make your choice from the popup window that appears. any incoming term that matches one of the condition values in the top row fires a corresponding action as defined in the second row. To create an initialization action rule. For instance. You can either enter a value directly in the cell. Configure the existing actions. The finished table will look something like this image: 3. In the decision table editor. an initialization action rule is used for the following reasons: • To set an initial value.In this layout. 1. Working with initialization action rules An initialization action rule automatically performs an operation of some kind when data is first being passed to a decision table. The new condition term will appear in the cell as shown in this image (note that the condition values have already been defined in this example): 2. For example. to copy one or more input business object(s) to one or more output business object(s). you can further configure the terms with the inline condition builder." • To initialize an output business object. . you can add a new action row.

c.

d.
2.

In the Presentation field, enter a sentence that will describe what this initialization rule does to a Web user. In the Action field, use the inline condition builder to define the operation that will take place.

To create a template for the initialization action rule, proceed as follows: a. In the decision table editor, click one of the cells in the Initialize area. Click the Convert Rule or Table cell to Template ( ) icon. The rule area changes slightly. Click anywhere in the Initialize area, and the template editor will appear in the General tab of the properties area. Configure the template according to the instructions in Creating decision table templates.

b. c. d.

Using an otherwise condition
An otherwise condition is used in a decision table for situations when the specified conditions will not be met. The otherwise condition cause a rule to fire when no other evaluation can be resolved. Configure an otherwise condition as follows: 1. Configure your decision table so that at least two of your conditions have been defined. 2. Right-click a conditions cell, and select Add Condition Otherwise from the list as shown in this screen capture.

A new value appears on the condition called Otherwise as shown in this screen capture. It will always be the last value shown, and only one otherwise is allowed per condition.

Note: You cannot make a template from the otherwise condition.

Using an otherwise condition
An otherwise condition is used in a decision table for situations when the specified conditions will not be met. The otherwise condition cause a rule to fire when no other evaluation can be resolved. Configure an otherwise condition as follows: 1. Configure your decision table so that at least two of your conditions have been defined. 2. Right-click a conditions cell, and select Add Condition Otherwise from the list as shown in this screen capture.

A new value appears on the condition called Otherwise as shown in this screen capture. It will always be the last value shown, and only one otherwise is allowed per condition.

Note: You cannot make a template from the otherwise condition.

Creating decision table templates
Use a template to define the implementation and parameters for either a condition or an action value in a decision table. This template can then be used to create new cells with the same format, but with different parameter values. Decision tables, in which the conditions or actions are based on templates are dynamically modifiable in the runtime environment. Base the conditions or actions of a decision table on a template if you want to give your business analyst the ability to modify the runtime behavior of the decision table without involving the integration developer. To create a template for one of the values in your decision table, proceed as follows:

1.

In the decision table editor, choose a cell and click the Converts an expression of a decision table cell into a template ( ) icon . If you are working with an existing value in the table, then the system will examine the expression and convert all literal values into parameters. The value appears in a small square to indicate that it is a template, and a new template appears as in the General tab of the properties area shown in this image:

2.

In the Parameters row, you can create a new parameter as follows:

a. b. c. d.

e.

Click the icon. A new parameter will appear. In the Type column, click Select Type, and select an appropriate choice from the list. To add a restriction on how the parameter can be configured, click None under the Constraint column. A list showing the available choices will appear. To specify an upper and a lower limit for the constraint, click Range, and then use the choices in the window to build your expression. You can either choose an existing template which will then prompt you for a value, or you can compose it yourself by clicking the appropriate operators and values in sequence. Alternatively, to specify a list of choices, click Enumeration, and add an item to the Enumeration Items table in the Constraint tab in the properties view. The Value is the actual setting, and Presentation is how it is displayed in an actual rule.

3.

In the Presentation row, write a sentence that will appear in the cell. To insert a parameter that the user can make changes to, click the triangular icon to launch a menu, and then choose a parameter from the list. If you want to make changes to this value's implementation, click the first cell in the Expression row, and use the choices in the pop up window to build a new expression.

4.

Business rules support of weak types for basic mapping Input type any any Output type Supported Yes. in which the conditions or actions are based on templates are dynamically modifiable in the runtime environment. Click on the General tab in the properties area. No No anyAttribute anyType . Decision tables. Table 1. click Templates. Such wildcards can represent a placeholder for any of the following: • an arbitrary simple type (xs:anySimpleType) • an arbitrary complexType (xs:anyComplexType) • an arbitrary type (simple or complex. The template will appear to the right of the list. click on a cell for either an action or a condition value. proceed as follows: 1. proceed as follows: 1. Restrictions: • • No local variables in a rule set can be of weak type. To use an existing template in your decision table. Base the conditions or actions of a decision table on a template if you want to give your business analyst the ability to modify the runtime behavior of the decision table without involving the integration developer. To make changes to an existing template. 2. you can create a similar expression without having to redefine the implementation. click None. and the template itself will appear in the properties area. 3. click the template you want to edit. All existing open elements are deleted from the source and the source open elements are added to the end of the closed elements. In the first cell of the Active Template table. You cannot use weak types in computations or comparisons. Make your changes as needed. 2. called 'xs:anyType') • an arbitrary element (xs:any) For more advanced mapping and expressions involving weak types or attributes use other components such as interfaces or business objects maps. Editing a decision table template This topic provides instructions on how to make changes to an existing templates. 3. In the decision table. From the Value Templates list. The cell in the decision table will change and display the template's presentation sentence. and choose an existing template from the list. and by making changes to the parameters within the constraints specified. In this way. Weak type support with business rules Business object definitions can have XSD wildcards that can be used in business rules logic.Using templates in your decision table The individual cells of your decision table can be populated with an existing template for the value. In the properties area of your decision table.

for example a string. Yes. Business rules support of weak types for basic mapping Input type Output type Supported anySimpleType Concrete complex type Concrete simple type anyAttribute any anyAttribute anyType anySimpleType Concrete complex type Concrete simple type anyType anyType any anyAttribute anySimpleType No No No No Yes. Yes. All of the attributes are removed and replaced.Table 1. Assignment allowed. Assignment allowed if data is of a compatible type. No No Yes. Concrete complex type Concrete simple type AnySimpleType anySimpleType any anyAttribute Yes. Assignment allowed if data is of a compatible type. No No . Assignment allowed. No No No No Yes. Assignment allowed if data is a simple type.

Note: If this link fails. Note: For this link to work.ibm.boulder. click Help > Software Updates. you will need to have an active connection to the internet. Business rules support of weak types for basic mapping Input type Output type anyType Concrete simple type Concrete complex type Concrete simple type any Supported Yes. in the main menu. See Business rule management or Business rule management if you have WebSphere Process Server installed. Click Add Site and specify the following location: http://publib. No Yes No anyAttribute anyType anySimpleType Concrete complex type any No Yes. In WebSphere Integration Developer. Assignment allowed. No Business rule management programming guide The Business rule management programming guide explains the programming model for business rules management classes. and click Install. select the documentation that you want. The programming guide is reproduced in the WebSphere® Process Server documentation if you prefer the information center format. You will need to restart WebSphere Integration Developer to see the additional documentation. Assignment allowed. open the Resource perspective if you are not already there (click Window > Open Perspective > Other > Resource). Yes. Choosing the correct template parameter values . Expand the results under this repository location. you need to install additional documentation. and provides examples on how to use the different classes. Assignment allowed. No anyAttribute anyType anySimpleType No Yes.com/dmndhelp/downloads/v6r2mx/wid/. select the Available Software tab.Table 1. In the Software Updates and Add-ons window. To download the programming guide. Then. follow this link: Business rule management programming guide. as well as Project Interface and EAR files that contain examples. Assignment allowed.

2. you must manually remove the 'f' delimiter from all float values in the Web client before you can save the new version. In the business rules manager. a value for a float template parameter must take the form '99. A generated document can very quickly provide you with the following: • a quick understanding of a project or resource • an overview report about a complex project • the visualization of the relationships and cross references of resources within a project • a detailed report that can be printed out for certifications . right-click the business rule. you can create a customized report using the documentation generator. This inconsistency does not affect rule set or decision table processing. where 9 is any number. and executed without error. and 'f' is a float delimiter. WebSphere® Integration Developer and WebSphere Process Server use a different syntax for template parameter values.99f'. the rule can be deployed to the WebSphere Process Server server. Move Use this option to move your rule to a new folder or module. In this case. If you view or edit the rule set or decision table in the Web client. including how they interact with other resources within the same project. If the 'f' delimiter is not used in WebSphere Integration Developer. Change Namespace Use this option to assign a new namespace to your rule. From the drop-down menu. dependencies on those parts are automatically and universally updated throughout the product as a whole. the value for a float template parameter must take the form '9. Refactoring business rules When you refactor parts of your business rules. hover over Refactor and then choose from one of the following three options: Option Description Rename Use this option to change the name assigned to the rule. This inconsistency is only a problem if you want to modify the rules and save the new version to the WebSphere Process Server server. In WebSphere Integration Developer. In the Business Integration view. a validation error will be added for any float value which includes the 'f' delimiter. a validation error is added to the rule set.9'. please understand the following.To make sure that you don't have any syntax inconsistencies with template parameters in the runtime environment. Generating documentation for your rules If you need a high level synopsis of your business rules. proceed as follows: 1. but will make it more awkward to edit some business rules in the business rules manager. If the float value is syntactically correct. To refactor parts of your business rules.

Launching the Business Rules Manager The Business Rules Manager is a Web client that allows dynamic control of parameter values in template based rules that are deployed to the Websphere Process Server. open the Resource perspective if you are not already there (click Window > Open Perspective > Other > Resource). See the WebSphere® Process Server documentation for a more complete set of instructions on the business rules manager or business rules manager if you have WebSphere Process Server installed. If global security is enabled. follow these steps to login. The business rules manager Initial page opens. 4. and click Install. rule set. The Initial page opens with the existing rule books listed in the Navigation Area. click Help > Software Updates. In the Business Integration view. Working with business calendars . 1. Expand the results under this repository location.To create a report for your business rules. If the global security is not enabled. Then. See Configuring server security for the business rules manager for more information. Switch to the server view. or decision table and select Generate Documentation.com/dmndhelp/downloads/v6r2mx/wid/. Right-click the server and select Launch > Business Rules Manager. Note: URLs may vary according to the environment. 5. Click Add Site and specify the following location: http://publib. You can now make changes to any business rule listed.ibm. Before you begin Make sure that both the server and client are configured correctly. In WebSphere Integration Developer. Click Login. select the Available Software tab. the Rule books page opens when business rules manager is accessed. type your User ID. Start your server. Note: If this link fails. 2. In the Software Updates and Add-ons window. Configure the Documentation Generation wizard according to the instructions in the Generating documentation topic.boulder. Type your Password 6. At the Login page. you need to install additional documentation. See Considerations for installing the business rules manager for more information. proceed as follows: 1. in the main menu. 2. right-click either your rule group. The default URLs for accessing the business rules manager are: • https://hostname:9443/br (if security is enabled) • http://hostname:9080/br (if security is not enabled) where hostname is the name of the host. You will need to restart WebSphere Integration Developer to see the additional documentation. Note: The Login page opens only when you have enabled global security on the server. select the documentation that you want. 3.

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