Modern Quantum .Mechanics ...

Solutions Manual
11 Sakurai
Late, University of California, Los Angeles

. San Fu Tuan, Editor'
University of Hawaii. Manoa

THE BENJAMIN/CUMMINGS:':: '0"'BLISHING COMPANY, INC. Menlo Park, California- Reading, Massachusetts _ Don Mills, Ontario" Wokingham .•U. K. - Amsterdam- Sydney' .... Singapore • Tokyo" Mexico City • Bogota - Santiago -San Juan

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_.,. Cupyrighl e 1985 by Addis0I1.Wcslcy Publishing Co .. TIJeAdvanced J5() OrKIge Pa.rkway.. Re 'tIw()orJ City. CA 94065 Book Program.

All riglus reserved. No ll:1rl this puhlication may be reproduced. stored in lit retrieval syslcm. or lransmiued. in any rorm or by any means. eleclronic, mechanical. pholncnpying. rccording. OT otherwise". without the priur wriuen permission uf the pub1isher. Prinled in the United States or America. Published simulla'ncou.o:!y in Canada.

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ISBN 0-8053-7502-3

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4 5 6 7 MQ 95949392

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Contents
1 Fundamental Concepts
2 Quantum Dynamics 3 Theory of Angular Momentum

4 5 6 7

Symmetry in Quantum Mechanics Approximation Methods Identical Particles Scattering Theory

1 18 45 69 104 109

63

-La X y )B 2) is ( (a +1a )B*2 x Since B*B = CO'S 2 y -a z.thout.! x z exo(-icr z d}/2)J= . that is determinant 1 .i. ~[ 1 at201k . = _I~I../2 + sin2 ~/2 =1. (b) ao ~(Xll [Xijl + X2Z)>> 'and wh~le ak can be explicitly evaluated froID ~ X 21 ).B}D 2. treat) = ao + [a2_0t' atakat) tr(X) because = 0.A}OB :: 2a o .. = 26 l.a exp(-!o .j . Za k (where Hence a we have = tr(~(o. then exp(ia Z ~/2)a..aj + a.~(-X21 with:X::: i. 1. 2.z tr(ckx).. then exp(±icr.. (a.a"») '~ J . _ ~ 2• 1+1 loss A generality. s*a .A}B../2 + 1sin .". 2 + ax 2 +'a Y'2) det [exp(l" ~/2).CDAB .)j ABeD . a Z ::: ~' cr(O'kX} =<.)~ J' = treE ./2) 'z ++ I a z B *B ~ (a . and if B is defined to be B = coi . . . (a):\ + {C.n~/2) =l 10 z sin ~/2.a. aa +aa +O'a "" xx yy zz az ( a +La ax -1ay \ Y -a ) x " z dec T. TIle result is "r :z ~(X12 + + 3.Chapter 1..C. a k ~ !../2. ..a) of .J )..B) cADa _ CADB _ (DAB ~ A{C. o ~ tr(X)...ABeD + ACBO _ ACBD _< ACDB + ACDS + AC(O.C{D. (a z.2.' Next used evaluate tr(ukX) tr(e. cos ¢/2 ! choose n:llong positive z-direetion.J.. 1 = [AB.

.. 'III: -+ Ia'>".yt!{t.::'ere 10. '• (b) => '<2:~lXY!an> 0:: <Xta'I'i[a"> <ytxt a.>} J jc:> <aI. + iSin1:)\ . Next ue note . z.throllgh a:igle '$ in x -y plane. <ar!XYja'>.a si. r.><131 a a c t.:a COsll + a sinlj\...:r a'. where Therefore = set.r. Iali>. relahel a" ::r a'. la><ela"><a"l=a «a'Ic:><a"jB>*). -is1n$) -_a z ) ·hence 4. 'ar" la'><a"l x -£..y) . <x'la'>·<>::" . exp(if(a)]la>.) I c> + ••••••• ) I a> .. ~r(rn '" tr(YX)...a" [ <a'j'Xla"><a"J'YLa'> .. (a) closure a' z -== a • at :. closure property of the.....2 Modern Qua~tum Mechanics _ Solutions invariant onder specified a' operation.a' ~ a cos¢..rr> . about z+axd s .. <. <a'lx!> -. [f (A) J 2 -I. <Oi. . [ henc.(by " 'by pr-opert. -.[if(A)]la> = (1 . x If' <. <a"lyla'><a' !Xla"> re<>.t"la'><a' I.'. This is a zx x Y" Y Y X counter-clock:lo'ise Note tr(XY) es rotat."Ia'> 5. . '= ( o_a z a'-iO) .'>"" la'><a' Hence <~ttl.¢..ion.c:-c:-angement) aII <a"jYX]a">.. a' .x y \ a'+ia' x ':I -a .. a - [.if (A) + If(a) that _ [f~~)l '2 2! '" •• ~. (e) ~ (1 Take-exp.y)ta'ja">'" <a'l[(xy)t]tla">::: Therefore (Xl') t =. eOtl!pl~te has been used. (a) = ~. t:exp [if (c) a {Ic. a~r:a" . exp[if(A)] where asSume Ala> a ala>.- Since a" is a dummy summation -va~1able. I " z {a x -1a y )(cosc . la><BI "" [<a(1)!a><a(j)/B>*}..

> a) • then AI:+» of =: 7. Ia.> is a .1 11> + 1.>J. I' for a. eigenvalues. : <-la><+ls! =: . B~). =z a"1.. . Hence 8/ t> a"~a (a I ~a") (A-an) 1£..j. . ja> isz = M/2> =: 1+. al = However under the a j =: condit:.1") (a I -a") ><a" 1.> O.Ia'> I. .:> =: " ~ ~. (1 1) . .) i> and 1. ". (A-a')/t. a.. AI j > . 0 <-10.I~>.product over all therefore opet'cltor. ( / 1> + l r> J "a f'1/!> and lIP> or /i>+ / j> is also an eigenket IE. . (a) Let E: ria">} and Ala'> = a'la' Ir. Hence· IT.. s~ate' vee tor 1 but / i> + is of form' lw: where '" ~~[Ii> + /. "'. Then since~. a.( <+I'a><+/ B.j) matrix eie'ment. its. AI~> =(1/12)[.ion that a [ (1/12') Ii> and Ii- are degenerate A. Hence /C:><$/ 1 __ .' a J'/ j >'.Modern Quantum Mechanics expression. . are real p-umbers if A is Hermitian. and = la'><a'I(> must " sa~isfy'y. I0><-/ . The operator therefore projects out of ket. J r. 1//2 '. .Is> '" K/Z>··= ~~(1+> + i->l.>.h. " a .lj>J clearly a" 1. # a. la'> Component. J from (Le.1>. I a' I ~>.1'-. The normalized Hence Given AI i> Ij> J '" a.11>. is a state vector distinct 10/>.><-/6> . "." II (..s. '(b) Solutions J inside '" square bracket is the fsx =: (i. (A a')II'. '(A-a') is the null a (b) a"1a' n (A-a") (a'-a") =: .

8..is1nSsina)b + cosS a .> + !-><-I(>. Choose ia lal2 + 1bl2 . sin8cosa Sx + sinSsina Sy + cosS S. For case (0) a +:z '" (S +¥/2)/'6. 'W'e obtain by e1emellta. ' Also due to z ." . sinScosa.~.. .epresentations of S1 in 'terms of linear products. b. ..l~ we find . "Together v1th the normzlizati6n condition a ""cos(S/2)e sinB e-i~ 19 " a and b • sin(S/2)e . Let.a (sinecosa.'lal a 2 + jbl2 ~ I (normalization).>1+> of and 1(> <~I(>I-> 1(> to I~> states. 9_ .O.<-1-> • 1...:.12(1+><+\-1: -> x <-I) e .ry calculation 9. and . " "" n1 x + ny 1 n z: k.. ea .eosB b .::. From equation (la) ~e have • hence e i(a -8 ) i(1 b a -e . then nX ".~ (I-cos B) ...a.n = completeness property of the ket space Is. cesS and S. This verifies "(a) above.+> - al+> + bl-> where. 1M -z<-I+><-I + I-><+!>. o •. <+1-> .--=-__..+> ou 2) l's .~..n".b.> .a.1-><-1)] " (sinecos~ ..is in Ss ina. ~nerefore the relation S~nIS. the. and 6± are the proje~tion Hence operators e+IE.n:!:i</2 ""e have {S~ .a')·i:!:> ..!! eb .!hileket a I~>' '"' !+><+If..~(1+> x I-><+1).. -(S' -i4/2)/.. <+\£.• a :: ~. -I... ny • sinBsina.) a .{ z and S_ • ¥" ':1. O Hence using the explicit col!!binations of bra-ket r..ormality property is <+1+> . +> <-I + leads to :- [taking 5y & advantag e of explicit representations S~ . n z + ... SZ ~ ~(I+><+I . <-1+> ... The arthon.

Hc... + 12><21) 12><21>.Modern Qu'antu!I1ec.an be explicitly as vd.s..n '"'~ nxCj+><-1 + 1-><+1> + ~ 0y(-11+> x The analogy <-1+11-><+1> + ~ 0z<I+><+I-I-><-I). llj/z> 11. X '" (:~) X The eigenvalues (H ). . Because the identity· I remains the same under any change of basiS.hanics .\:::-l2a + ~(Hll -' Hn)'( 11>' x Rewrite <11 - H as H = ~(Hll + H22)( 11. heoce X = xl z : {±12 1 =12 _ i ) and = O. . Compare nov [prob Lem 9 above].h. where the three operator t ertas on r.0) and <2j = (0.1) !2> 12) A'" l:2a . This leads by normalization Thus eigenvectors and. is: (l</2)n x -I> R1r . and '(1 determined from secular equation det (H. Not~ that ~(Hll + H22) is simply t~~ "center of' gravity"of operator ~(Hll the cvo levels. 0 and corresponding where eigenkets a~e obtained and from are eigenvectors x are 'corresponding eigenvalues to X = ±l:2a..AI) l)xl. sz.Solutions M 5 10.eigenvalues are 11> l~l> :::.1) X . Let 11> '" (. behave r.. + H12 (11)<:21 + like !2><11).tten using outer product H=a of matrices C J.). S. ". :: 11> Iz (2 (12+1)12> + 12) . and Sx respectively. H = a(11)'''11''- 12><21 + ji><21' + 12><11).1). We ignore the with the spin ~ problem + H22) term for the Dloment. 12> ~ (~) • <11 = (1.<1!. h(2 - + (12 .

is ~ T . O. .· analogous So ooe of the energy e Lgenke t s is cos(B/2) to tan-1(nx/nz)' is 11> . tan-1[ 2H12 CHll-P..1 +'51n(6/2) 12> given by B .. we get B~ 0 or a very reasonable result.ZZ) The other energy eigenket can be w-ritten down by the orthogonali::. to this * by comparing with the spin ~ problem: ~ eigen~alu~ H/2. fl' _~ _ r y (0 1)(COs(y/2») = 2 x> - cS >2 W2/4 (K2/4)sin2y (KZ/4)cos2y.AfdlI'I!Ij£W <w .'and reaSOn- able for y ..+> is easily -+ -1-' Y'I= "2[n. 'The 'energy eige:walues can But they. r A_ W14411 .ng 6->-S+"1T) -si:1(e/2) . Hence «5 x-<5 x » > . _ . Answers are entirely to QZ).. 2 'ri .can also be obtained ~ 2 2 2 (~nx) + (~nz) = H..+> = cos(y/2) 1+> + sin('t/2) 1-> =(COS(r!2») 51n(y/Z) +¥/2.n n.. ~ere S..2(cosZ' sin2) 1 0 sinCy/Z) 2 .. far y ='ff/2(along OX).. ~nz where -+ l..ue in our case .lel and anti-parallel.y requirement (or by Le t t i.t.1f (paral. s be obtained by diaganalizing 11> + cos(B/Z) Iz>. seen thac the e Lganket.. '" <5 (b) x : <sx> (cos(y/2)) of getti~g +¥/2 when S x is measurea 1s-2~(1. For = 0. the eigenva1... + Hi z]\ is ' \.+> and In. Thus (a) probability l+sioy "" --2.~ny -+ a (a=~).Ie l!JUs. (HU -Hn) 2 the center of gravity energy./4 so by analogy add. of Sx belonging' to eigenvalue (i ) . '"'-sin).is (11. till s The final ansvar 4(HU +H2Z) :t [~(Hli -H2Z) 2 where ± is the analogue H12 of parallel rr. 12.s(Hu-Hn).1) __n ( 'f /2) 12 I \ c{ . + H~2 )~~ (anti-patallel) spin direction to n.. 2.

n) cos(s/2)1+> + sin(B/2-) 1-> with a = O.:---------_. hence {A. O. Yes! uses completeness and or thcno rmal.b"j·CAB-BA)la'b'><a' .· + cos~sin~(I+><-1 + I-><+!) + s~n2(d/2)1-><~I}I+><+1 Sz "" -'fa/2 beam. eigenvectors are +1.e.r.Lcy .... Proof [A._-_.) tor M(+) . and the total ~ M(-)M(+. .. and intensity 1s ~. 1+><+1. Choosjng the S~·~iagonal basis. 14.n)M(+) = 1-><-I{cos2(S/2)i+><+1 = cos~sin~!-><+I. ".. hence . 1s expressed by the oper acor = 1+. ~. is norma- 2 2 lized to unity.n!.b"· . . E la" b"~<a" '. . b'j" An alternative but (AB-BA)la'.n> M(+. is thus cos (a/2)sin (S/2) final beam. the firsc measurement The second measurement =- corie~ponds to the operaM(+. rr/2... is no degeneracy. of 3x) matrix representation and eigenvectors 0 1 0) 010 A = (1/12) ( 101 ' can be obtained by solving decCA 2 2 2 ~Il = 0 and normalized. Therefore The final measurement measurem~nt ~ corresponds to the operator M(-J = 1-><-1. where I+. (a) The eigenvalues 2 = -~/2 i.n><+.Solutions 7 13.• Bl= a' t b' a".'b'>= O. '. O._-_ .Hodern Quantum Mechanics ._ _. (b) These are the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of Jx = for a spin 1 particle.of {ja'. set B . 1. when the Sz t: The intensity of the final measurement To maximize S z ~/2 beam surviving tnefirst "" (sin S)/4._-----_. .b'>}. -1 and the where [A-U [x = 0 and xl +x2+x3 = .. ..al . " .. The eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors are respectively There ~ 15.. .b'> = (a'b'-b'a')la'". along OX.

'..4..B} but <2 .-O.. so . hence euergy eigenNote bov~ver tb.(10:" +.... <a"!B!a'> mus~ vanish . R n In>. then <a"IBls1:> eigeoke. This implies .. and this is clearly impossible. . B] {n> ""'0 i. O.J> .1 n> viz.'1!.) This is salved io this case.s':. 0 necessarily. Hence a' B!a'.Iltaneous eiotr:er genkets are possible (or both) t7.2. 0.> . <a. (3. ~ln> ...b'> 10.1s proof faUs Land.a!:ictl.ke.. AE+BA '" O.Blla:. I n> defined by H 1-:.}."IA1lla·:> + <£. degenerate.. ell as <1/' .' is unfque. a2Q1.... if + V(r). Basically ve set. n H{Ir.. ~ degener&cy eigenstate = E CA.ru-. states are...4. in (1.u I possible because form a compl~te s Lnc e orthonormal (A. of operators implies En is _the eigenvalues: of One or the A and B a re zero. I as . m1. 0 "~ [~~ or E.b''> .. simultaneous of A and B.Q.l - (a'b' + b'a')la.B] thar: set.56) -<ela>/<sIS>"in"_«al+ )*<61).'is when aIT+a' . In general hence a"+a' fo!' a" • e1ge. or b' but 'I'hu~ nontrivia.. of A and B uould appear to be possible. Nov [ApH} an energy .L 1 ? D.b"M {laf. . .57) of text. 2 For B . • O. so energy eige¥tates is for S-state are usually degenerate _<2£+1 fold'degener. ~In> '" 0 or <1 2... 16. L both commute..r acy _assUlIIption and !i...mt-O> ..> fo. The "trivialu'case. O.P 12m .In».b'>" • O... only one energy - vhen given.ln>.!. 1 210. (a"+a')<a"!B!a':> a.!n» n ~ 1. x . 0 because an ~e:-~ [A.1th eigenvalue to [Al!~] I The non-aeg- cne.a'.. In> is L eigenket ". A inequality" not be degeneracy 18. Then [A.acy) .0) where L%.b'>'" or a' cost • b' that ' '" a'!at.. and obtain Schvan .b'>.b'> si. hence there need and (1.... at the (AB+BA)la'.. The except10n (t-O.nket 1- a'.O. vith 'X% H and (L _ .~ 10..t . it is not possible to have a." 0 must eqtJ. in general. <a"!V •• Bl!a'> ...Bl!a'.b'>} "'0."!BA!.. 'But note and simultaneous Ala'.b'la'.> i!3 arbicrat"y. are given e hence ~Azlu> . {A.ls>j ~ O. hold as .-ise A2~ln> then implies ~! n> is proportional that: ..>'" all n> '" O.Iu.e . a211l>~ But .b'> '" O.

-lid (a... Therefore <+I(~S )21+> . O.. we may express <xlIAxla> fdx"<'-x'11"><x"lu1a> normalization <xlix"> • Jdx"o(x'-x·1)x"<x"[a> 6(x'-x") is chosen..50) we knOIoi that t.<8> &nd MIa..4 <I+><+I+}-><-I)..Bla>.>" fl tl we have <x'l..4. .." ".C1Il (1.-- 1(1).>12. '2 <+Is x 1+> y _._. It is and <aIrA.A..<p> where p . x 1~ Take"!a> .<0.l." .*<aIABABla> . O.At1a>12 2 '. A<x'IApla> an imaginar:.<al(AB)2!a> that while ItI<aj[A.-zc-I+><-I+I-><+I>..x .> • )..1 [A.•59). J: .~. ~2 x <1+'><+1+1-><-1>.'>} dently is a complete set of base kets. 1<~>xn U~e next explicit expression <x"la> ...· An elemeo:tary calculation Leads to [A. ~ /4...fdx"~(xt-xtl)<x><x"la> where For 6p • P . <+1(65 )21+> .4.....A)2Ia><o. Therefore..Solutions 9 (b) The generalized where according uncertainty 'relation (1.1 x [6A.lan>'<~"lsxlat><&'la>-i. 2 4<1' I in above integral forms for <x'I6xIa. &3 equaI lity in the generalized (c) uncertainty relation Sinc.4.Blia> also evident the --2l...apla'> . --' .l<a{a'>12<A'ISxla'> Since S .4 . therefore for A imaginary from (1. • Fr.6Blla>.<x"la> ax 2 <p'>fdx"f5(x'-x )<x !a>..> - <0.- .>12.l.'Modern guantUtll Mechanic:! ."12.. ~2(1+><-I+l-><+1>t evi- s2 .(21fd) .AB1. 2 is' «AA) >«A3) 2 2 > ~1<A. (1..Blla>!2 <al{AA.>··u • [t.--'-.121<01(68)2Io. co (1.6B]ja..) It '"6.<a!eBt.Itl< .---'~--.'2 ve have 5y .59) . hence .<x>. 2 Hence <x'!Apla>'" fdx"6(x'-xf1) for (-t.. l2 <+ls21+> .e Ax . Choose next A to be purely imaginary. clea~ that <aISxla>- . .1otl that <al(6..s.. and' <x I lAp -Ja: exp[ (x"-<x» .~"' . .Blla.--.63) we have recognit.t1ven.B}lol + JcI<{6A. {la. ~2/4 t+> .> (A. ..ABIa..B) <0..O.<a. fdx"<x'lx"><x"!6p!a> x -iK~x.<xllla>.l(A8)2Ia> 1. and <+Is y.. <xllAxla> were· A . be readily shown that . -il\~x~ and <x"lpla. ----. 1.1(68)210.(l.6 '2" 3) 1<6AAs>1 <'11. . -.1+> thea <+ls21+> .> .O! ..> We. 4 . number. ~2/4 and <+ls' x 1+> x <+15x 1+>· 22' . hence it:can y Also from Sy .A • A - and 6B • B .AB}>1 . find . here.

< 2 Z'"' conditions . ~ I~ ~ .. or 2 linear That! combination that maximizes uncertainty relation is ei_'If/4!_>. and r.Sy ]1-> = <-[iMS z [-> ". 'I J - J.x '"'1. + e Lc s~n281 -> ~t follows for B ~ n/2 and a = o we have and z x = !2~(1+> +j-». .. 2 2 4 ' 2 2 . .where < Is real 1. I (liSx) 2 t 2 a 2 '. for The generdlized uncertainty relation is there- fore verified the equality C05 case.13 z x ~+> == !~«+I+<-I)[~(I+><+I-I-><-I)"]!!.:(I+>+I->)' 2. [Sx· both sides of generalized uncertainty re16tion being zero.-. Than elementary y yield I (6S. -"""""'---------------------------~---- . thereEor~ <5 .+Is Is .+1 (6S }21S .t violate uncertainty proved in Problem tor e irr/4 cancels 19(a) above.i'I~ z ana c hu s <+1 x [Sx.n 2S}. y.5 I ~ i~S • xy hence . is =~ Hence is a minimum. or ~ 1 +>.. . ~.4.. 20.+> <5 x Z e i ~> .. <~ The product . Agai~ <-I[S x .2..) 2 1 > \Ii 2 [1-4(12 (I-a 2 ) x '4 coslS] and < 1(6S < )2i > = I *2(1_4aZ(l_a2)sinZS).Sy]I->j.1 S ~ y j -> "" 0 while ? <_15 x1_> 2 ~ <_[S2[_> y = M2/4.+> = 0 and <5 '+1(65 )2[5 '+><5 '+1(6S )~IS .' Hence explicitly again we have <-'jU1S }ZI-><-[(6S )Zl-> x y = ltlc-I(Sx. . x x x Again [5 .+> Simple calculatiQn.:e. the the maximum f' value ~4/16 is re~ched ""hen (12 product has beer./2 = MI.h.. -> case.+> - Is x'. . O.+> = O. == 0 if 'We use systematicallY'orthonormality <:t:!:!:> .+> == y.. (I-a )1 • and ! :.s.5yJI+> = i~<+lszl+> ~ 1M2/2. 1 = 0.s lead to <8 :+15 2 xx Is x x' '+15 x Is x '. For the e h/4j . T<:!:ke normalized the and I C11 . no violation.] CI. oecomcs 16[1-20.+>IZ. . Xaxirnum''ftrrsin 28 is when S clear that ct:1. <5 [Note explicit <5 x . <~I+> . and <-IS x ! -> = <. (b) from In..' 2 > = -I-P1-4a (I-a )+4(1 (l-~ ) s i.:: linear combination! calculations > := al+> + (l-a2)'1eiBI_>. 1. ]+> does no.+ls. >< '2 (lIS ) y = 1 \(4. x .+> = ltl<5 >+1 z" x' x x' x' y x" x' Syllsx..J{4/16 = iH(~M/2) = -iK~/2. ""e note that the phase fac- out in the scalar product... ~4 2 22 rr/4.

t. potentia:_ The' \lave ')r.ble when "~ aad taking for e beccnaes .~ 1( n Tl/2ma • t.I2a2/.980 cm/sec::2• \Ie have thia' number is very insensitive ------------------' .o: • .. t f -1i:7i{ t '. definiteness +t1\/(2m[gL 3 ll::i)..~ti. xsin 2 (nlfX/a)d.al box"L '-OOS . t Nov 6xAp .< (6. 11 the rigid vall A.2.~·vr r' i gld vall ..1. . ct1c. . 'Ill - 100 gil. t • l"be unc::ertainty »c (8+b)!. . I." . a:_ .t1cea. 1&1 lfe have r an d p2 .is 1DL 2e/dt2 2d • mg6L.': z.f. small angle a departure fro":... ow/lOO-:: 20. ..<1.2. i Q'a ' . Displacement We have b(. • La • do and aCt) • ae 19JL:. • <p > - 2 <p> 2 potent._.. _1.lanc::ed on ..-...1/0 2 2 l{2 2 Y I-zenT) a ..4) of Appendix ".tr~/(~[gL3)~).Mil ve can rf\a11:ed for Cz.atates 'r(x) • -IfTi the sin(nlrX/a).l'2 impl~e3 a • 1a a1D. relaU. and g .-) (-)!?.~ a "':--. .ly Use L- 10 oa.. <x 2 .:.v......<x> <p .' _f dt . a 'l'he displacement So set x . 2..al. Sf • ae~'.)(a lax 2 > . for Assume tha~ of length the ice other ground pick state ~-:: for exc~ted ~ to a mass states 0>1. eq..4 aU-' J.Jf.~. - ~~(oT)2 a <p> Therefore )(2 2 • a 2 fa 0 n'II"X)(a .2 2 <x > • - a 6a ba x.- 2 [(nu) /6 .!-)]. the .x) sin{-..Qu at Ap a l.nd.>- 2 2 2 . a . uocertainty product "2 • 0• 2 82 > .r/ a sin (nr.J:x!'.al.1].r~'.jern 21.s.1t..x (tax) (.> - <x> • <..(A. packet).as large a- ef ..IaIgL'(a-b) 18 AxAp .>1 are ../g)... 2 J '"" .s1on..: l. \ 1 3]~ InBf +'il::~!·· f• 3. . fixed the torque anrf_ee.-2 (l/6 >«top) .:?· . r.u.3) 'are a. . 19]L(a-b)t& .· ..h./1 ..- .· 0-1 18 ground state 0...er tUe .-~. This is QuantUl1l Mechanics ..2S 1n2 ( n~x/.So1utions c.. -.:·.. small and b as vaot for as posdble.. (A. -r. 2 + }(/(2m{gL3)l::i). -diJDcr.1a1%ed b -0 by making .::: and eoergyeigec. excited etates. D-1. . ::'.:) • ' vn er e: p..cs oO.. .S (on)d.:. (actuaUy irreleas ~ »I-':. to a light For 1s equ1val~.. point • attached bard rod L the end of wh1ch of pick . .J:_ . and solution taO with (best 'b2 tJ. 3 ••••• Next note 22 2 ... ·~)dx <i: :') .oa .

.and there In this new set u (1"1. U 2 2 ::It 1 we have bU '" bUr and 1 O. u. and corresponding u = (j). Therefore we choose 2 2 . u. Fo r nondegenaca te A3 . i where Bu '"liu l. (A-b)2(Hb) == O.1ard tnatrb::multiplication " (ab AB::::: 0 0 0) 0 iab -iab 0 "" EA. together with [A. the degenerate gonal 1 to u • hence 1 "'b. -b. we get dc..3). But u~ must be ortho- o.. hence o [A.to m and Sf' 23.t(B-AIl '" D. of B.2. Let 1.B1 = (c) The eigenvectors eous eigenvectors eigenvector~ 1 are (eigenkets) of B. therefore == -~. i-1. '" i.. '" I.2. and the normalized 2 u • HD "3 '~~<I2>+iJ3> ). where 12> • . again u 3 u1 must be or thogonal to u ~ 2 = 0 and relation iu 3 3 ~ -u can be satisfied Z 3 by choosing 3 3. (a) The characteristic leads to Hence A~ ±b and A=b is ~ two-fold degenerate eigenvalue. = 1• u 2 3 To- gether with ~ormaliz3tion = ~{Oh<l i we have 2>-i! 3» • '1"12 evidently Au =au .= _au3 .3.B] = O... we have bui "" 0 than For. For any reasonable equation value.. be eigenvalues l. gives 0 (b) Straightfor. For A1=b. Au3 . yield simultan- of A'and B. t f ~ 3 sec.-au. 3 m and 13> - m 1 u and u ."-Au 2 .

e.-> corresponds the "" Tr/2.i:b. . a rotation X-exis -n/2. (a) Therotacion . ( ..J J {Jc>}. e.~:. Take . ~~d.->.. ~. '". = b. :24. but 19. . 5 II z 1s not necessary 24 above. then rake another basis '/e.i 22 trans- between z diagonal basis and S = U j r> x diagonal basis.) (1/12. o..<c'lb'><b'I)A( ' S. and U2"2 == -1/12. 2- ~C. 9 and <c"jb"> i/12 '" -<:c' Ib"> are imaginary. 1s real. Take the = cases of problem and Ie'> <= S >' .) '" is i/12.+>.='II. ~I!b'><brlc'>. "" on a two-component For clockwise spinor can be about: as exp [-ia.. )(I+» 1-> while 1/12 U 2l zzi/l2. we have 6 = -~ I 2.Solutions' 13 eigenvalue O. Fr ora problems we have Isx.!t4)1 C05 -a of Operator acting n s~n2 [c.. to axis of quantizat • Let 0. ion in 1/12) ~ Isy. x representation to eigenkets of S z = 24(1+io 1 y as base kets.rhile .B formation Now Isx . U12 U22 than evidently Uu "" U12 :. y Ib ' > I b' for and <b" c "> be real. hence exp[-io.naI2I through 1:. Le. Is x . Hence <c ' !b'> = 1/12 = <c"lb'>.r. S 'is transformed into [This can be seen by noting char. and for \:.2. i.f.c. I . rotate by angle -~/2 about .. if {Ie>} than transformation <c"IS I 25. Given hence <b'!A!b"> H is S is Z y basis while {J~} is S z basis. B =Tf/2 in -x direction. ~ Quantum Mechanics A. Z [c '> "" b I.Modern is CYo fold-degeneracy·w.. Q= 26.p+I-». Jb"><b"lc'>..1> . <b ' A b">. the Is. i..rritte:1 matrix -+.x-axis. ! +.e. <c"lb'><b'js b" . y wh il e 1 b"» '"(~) !_> i+> S Y !c"> = ( -1//2 Le..<c'lb'><b"/c"> .p' =.+> .. 1:.. .. hence matrix Is S )c' "-> = ~~(!+>-l-» u = ("11 "12) be U2l !.<b"lc">lb"» that <c ' Here .n6/2J --~ Z (b) If we transform from base kets in 5 ). x <c' JAlc >= It ( t.

x *' -Q {'r'sin(qr'/ll)F(r')drl . ~ 1 -+ p'> ...-:' Ii.m...lI...a(ll.<b"!f(A}la'><a'lb'..(r)lr> . but ax/apx'..-')ei(p +.h. the a' basis to the b' basis.at -p )...r(r).Ca - Soiu t10ns • U11l+> + ~121~> ~ li<&IS~.. x Identify \. X . while Isx.+>or ..>'is an element f(a'..) [X.->.-. ve gee that U ~an indeed oe expressed as U. (b) The matrix element <pI! F(r) 1-+ • Jdr'F(r') x <p"1-. ~: ~: 12 x .(r)!:c.l.>.<b"la'><a'Jb'>- where <a'lb'> (likewise <billa'» of the transformation mat'd. Ip'> - (l/(21t}(}3/21ei <p"IFa)\p'> .'><. r\b(r»<a(r}l...e' thege. (s.' 0.->!b> ~lb(r» <bls X Ta. ~orrespond- x ' ing eigenvalue 29.exp(ip a/Vt) Ix'>..F(px)]cl S dFnpX' -a exp(::'p a/~).. 211'~ ve have <p"jF(r)jp"'> '" 28. -sexp(ip at&) Ix'> • and t.x from. r ' ~I 27. 1.than utr> .£bnmtXiXj~' . .(a. UJ.... (a) ~e assume that G(p) and F(x) can be expressed as a power series G(p) g . .tanmlPiPjPk ' F(x) .2dr'F(rt)etqr'Cos9/lt \pl_p"l.-> - u211+> + u221-> a t<bjS%..:1. (x '-a)( exp(ip a/~ll Xl:.~. Hence x.oeral fons U • Ilb{r}><a(r)!. 1 d(cosS) (r. necn.i.exp(ipxa/M)]lxt> • exp(1Pxa/lllx'>. I: n m' t.>· Note that <~. ve have {x.. Integrate out the cose integraelon our.b . <a. t!)is implies tl."".+>la> \lith a.i~h <a\S .. !'lout: L U \{UeU I. P. (i/(21r}()3]/d~'F(.. vith.) Matrix'element' <b"if(A)\b'> '"' i. This e1genva1tte equation implies x " x that exp(ip a/Vt)lx'> is an eigenstate of coordinate operator x..k.eXp(ip a/Vt)xl·x'> .F(P'lt)]c.hence x ~x x x] exp (1p a/~)-I x I » . n lD L o. hen~e [x..r -+It 1'1& Suppose Fa) is spherically symmetric .)3 vhere q - _i q.. (x'-a). than (choosing ~-axis along p '-pit) <p"IF(r)lp'!to "'(2~.' Ip.~ (b) No. . x (c) Using (b). ..s.~.' or \b> vith Ib(r» and <a.

..p].tity . 1 2 but frOID I . r [xl . we find by elementary calculation' .>·substituting (dx'+ + hence T (d..p2].ax . U{(':'U1/){)exp(-ip.21. a>. {xI" PiP/'k] n III 1. +1 [. J. <~>t~an$ 1a ted .... exp(-lp. . 2' 2 by . (dx') + iX.. <a.'... ' .Pi] and [Pt" xlxj~l 1'0-1 =.p lei" . iKaG/ap 2 .dx . once ..T(l)] . ~e We find t <x> -+- <alrt d" (ih')... 15 An.1TCi)la. ..... i take . .p Ca) (xi. [x2. [.... fur [x IP ] 16 evaluated 10 the classi~l limit via (x.p}. eleme. at -+- ~ ~ exp(1kx' 'IT 122 - Xl /2d ). 0 or pT(~r) in problem -1 .p)p + ..r(~I)} as we did Nov -' <i> + ! . .. The classical -·4xp.' ...T(~')] .. 1)(<lr(1)/3P1 . .> . -2iKx...CI) [xi.T(t)lla>" exp r es s Lon <ajrt<+)!...A]BC lationship3 + A(X1"B]C + (AB)[x1. <P>translated t+ .t T(r).'.. 1* i ' Since 2 ~ '2 2) cl' .pp1 + p[x .. 30... for G(p) and F(x} ve get at.. • i~ I i .. Given .. order quan.!/i<) Pi <alrt(!)[xi. (b) Noting . <p>. 0-1 0 .Modern Quantuo Mechanics .Solutions n-l Pl'lc.. t form... 2i\<xp + 2Up~ (x .p} 2 2 ax2a 2 ax2a 2 -_ ~ ax <lP.T(~') 10.lTtTx1Ia>. TCdx')p.2x(2p) 3p ~ • 2xp. ~ induction. (dx') T(dx')x in small . -ni)(x 0-1 can be easllyproved 1 Qathe~tical [xi.. <alrtXiTla> <xi > translated. and.G(p)] (b) . d~1 or ~r(~') study 1 + r(d~')~... we have [x .. dx 1 to first .d. la> is a general state ket. hence ~ .T(i)) 1<1> . +) It. r .. trans ate • <air + t..? ]QH • ip(x.. Bence <x> .<alT C4x')pT(dx')x I translated Hence <p> Use of <xlla> ..ni}{x1 Xj~' Where the re- o .that <xi> • <a. therefore .l({x. • j!ii<Pl n III m1 (use [x ' 1 ABCl • (xi.. t.. ni){P1 and (P1'x ] l Using the series and [P1''F(x)] ..x') dx I '" dx. ++ we Uod.!1l0 .<xi> + 1". P. d -+ trans 1 ' ed . nd~')p. dX'.x·2) . (a) [P..1 ~ut we'~note that <alrt(t)(xi.. + <x> ..-ij{Hldx ".. and.1. 80 (-x:p2] . • -.. . ... [x ..lx'11a> where.. i • .B. + Usiag pT(dxl) .ntary'calculatiou··Ylelds· .

<0 I p>p<p..~ ping (b) La. and <p_> [~k/dTI ~ 1~ exp(-x' 2 Id 2 )dx' ~ ~kd~~ =~ I Xk.2 t« ) [x Id . iy.' fdp"<p'l lp"><p"Ia. (a) To prove (d/Kn4:)[.2 4· -k 2 .= !X"<:p'lx'><x' = [1/(2~y.. /2d 2 2 + I{ k 22 • again drop- terms integrand.. .)J/dx'x'e-~x But 6(p'_p") (1/(2lTy.O{p'-PIl)<p" 1('1> = 'iK~pt<p' la>..{Zk2..{2J• The'expectat1on'value <p> using momen:um ~ == ){'1 >f.l to +00 Change dropping variable the odd q = p-~k.. __ .~p. + K/rr .JZd3 <p'lxla> = (1) i4 ...2 2 d I~ Jdq..X • • • (.: lId 2 . and 2 ' iritegration contribution Similarly' <p >=/ and changing 2 +:0 _<I> (d/Krr)p exp[-(p-. p -p ") Iy" .. (q+~k)exp[-q ~ i- . we have <p2> ~ (d/«n~)f~(q2+2. -i-ce exp{-x in 2 . ~xp[~l rr Space wave function <p> is then' a>dp we have <p> = L. )o{2 odd <pIa> dT[ '" .The odd == term of integrand vanishes. let us note that Ipll>dx' !' <p ' !x!p"> '" I~P' jxlxl~<xllp'''>dx' .<p'la>.{k) to q "" p-fik 4: 2 . hence <p'lxlp">· .. (d/~rr)/ _.{kq+ft2k2)exp[_q2d2/~2]dq .> x = -----------------------_ . - = 33.)]ldx'e-l. 22 d /K ]dp p2 '" q2 2 v'ariable (hence + 2q){k + j(2k2). p .{J...2ikxld 2' [dx '" i!.05(P'-p")' Express now <:p'lxla> = Jdp"ii\tp.. I • (' P -P ") IV fl. (p-Mk)2d2/2.{2k2JdJ '" K2J2dZ + .

= fdP'<Blp'>i~~p. the fdp'~a(P')iK~. .. p'!p'>. a.E>.{exp(ix=/~)p + [Po [P.:> + ':exp(ix::/H)/p'> . pip'. (E/IOexp -ii1 [1x2/ii.ta (pi). .:> '" exp[ix.. Now ke t !p'.:/K)p'!p'> Hence /p'.() l '" -i.::> = p(exp(ix2/K])!p'> and .Mod~rn Quantum Mechanics . momentum wich eigenvalue p'. operator and x is the generator of momentum " .TIlen pip'> .(p' + ::)exp(ix2/Hl!p'> of ~ with eigenvalue p' is eigenket tranSlation +:: and operator exp(ix=/~) transla- is momentum tions...::/Kl!p'>.Solutions For (ii~ 17 ~e perform an analogous procedure. To see Is this..p . .. ~rite <Bixin> fdp'<slp'><p'lxla>.) So pip' ...<p'IQ> = (b) Consider conside. .. exp(ix..::>= • ~ (pi + Eljp'. momentum eigenket and than exp(ix::/~)J}lpl> if yes what is the value? this lec's operate vith P. eigemket . exp(ix2/.. .~ .(a(exp[ix2/XD/ax ..

isy '" -wS y .. <0.... sinB x + cosS z.)H12t/~ + IC212Ri2t2/~2 + !c212 ~ Ic112 + jc212 in general. .. t a =0 [o . conservation. Sinr:e unitar1ty is important is for probability violated. and S. .. we U(t. sq... The Hamiltonian is obviously not'Hermitian.. D H22 = 0 for simplicity.(itH12/¥)!1> Hence the probability'for bability for <21](c1ll> being + c2!2» elll> + c212> . and in fact servation 3... U(t. ' t la._-.to=O) It> <21 = even "for a :::"nite Now the most general Ctll> + e2l2>.( .(HH12/l{) initial state. probability con- is violated! t At time '" Q.. --~ . '" -wS y + 'iwS x x == ilJl(5x:+i51) z '" Hence S -iw(S x + y' is y and Sx e-~w +. the particle can go 2. PhYSically. This means val.motion (Sx' S) z -wS Y are: s x_. (l/HD [S • H] = (w/iiO [Sy' 5z) '" +WSx y O. S (t) ~ S (0)... ... probability ICtl2 . hence Hn For the time where U is ac- But HZ = = 0 fo~ n > 1.iwS x S. set Hil evolution operator tually not unitary. state 1 but not from state 1 to state 2. .e intertime.. is ~!: -itH/)(N)N O O.. ---."" 2: a..---.. and S .C:.2 Im(clc.. as usual. x S (t) y = S (O)coswt + Sx(O)sinwt. t ..(t) : z x -is) so (5 ±is) y t ~ (S ±is) x y t=o y and we have finally z S (O)CDswt ..~ . illustrate this point.Sy(O)sinwt.~ t IS ~(Sina ax +cosB O'z)' The eigenvalue equation at 18 "" 0 s·~I~> "" ~l~> whet'e !1jJ> "" ( :) leads to" . ' .~---~. tim. At a later have f1 .... Because H is not Hermoperator is not. A n "" .. that we get. Hamiltonian H '" wSz' The Heisenberg a qu a t Lons of ... and the prois faund in 11> is ICl-(itHlZ/~)C212 But the total being £pund in 12> is Ic212. 11> <2j1> <21 = 1 ...----.apter 2 1. t 0 =0> .-". Lt Lan the time evolution unitary. to=O) .. from state 2 to. t 0 =0: c>. <0.(itH12/~)c211>. HI (w/i\() 5 .....robability' conservation To. S= y (l/iiO(Sx:. ve suspect that p. t 0 =0....

.l) and in' is equal probability 1Sx'+> (i.sln6cosZwt.:0:::: = * K/Z state is 0lCt1 <I/I(t)15 (2 +B 2+AB (2iwt A e B*(t»~(O x IIJI(t».~). =0 (a) The time de~endenc. B(O)e+iwt• (1) above. Yet Sx )0 ..both being ~.:0 .e of ~(r. 'We have ~itten A(O) = A and B(O) '" ~ = B).) -iw (A(t») -8 (c) is go v er ned by H!\jI> ii. 0.e. 1 l)(A(t»)= 0 B(t) + S*(t)A(t» = (i\/2).e..z(1+sinScas2wt). f A(t») = a/ac[A(c) \S(t) where +iwB(c) w = gs1...<a/atlljl> or (2) .:.. a {'at ..1BB/2iL ::: alae [B(t) This leads to t'WD equations -iwA(t) J and Compare with 1.~a.2) .. Is. in case (ii) -a~a:l "" ~(l+cos2wt)- = cos2wt for in while < s 6 ".Modern Quantum ~Iechanics . Hence probability of finding the elec+ e-21wt]) .L -:. t These answers hence there are eminently sensible of being < s mce found n is along the z-:axis a~a. ~'(A*(t)B(t:) tron in Sx (0) 'x < 5 . (i) .Solutions lq acOsS + bsinB .lB/2) 0 Z B is that under ccns fde rat Iou .-> (i. Ct~al = _~ and < x Sx . thus ACe) = A(O)e-iwt and BCt) . (c) In case !3-+e. 'a.= a.a . ' (A*(t). ::: (g Si. and a normalized eigenstate of form (1) .~0 > -+' ~(cos2wt . we have (l+cosB) ~ 12 ~ Je-iwt :::: ) '(3) ( [sin6/2~(1+cosa)~Je+iwt .. The Hamil tonian H ::: -t 5'.

. spin-wise be reasonable for An electron pointed 1~ the z-direction.. of x ] . PZ12m. ve have <a"lxRxla">- tt a <a"lxRla '><a Ixla"> . . i "'(l/i}{)(::t..0 as the cLa s sLc'a ana..Rl steps. state.therefore x ] v.t.t. {H.(p(O)/n)t. So pet) Hence Evidently pl/2mJ time.>!i + V(stL· (E .. I <a" 'xl a > I 2 ... p/m.9v(i)1.x]. :. xi{?i' Vex)] .. x ] .~. O. First . ea ..2/m. 1l< (p2/m -1.l<a"lx!a.. requirements.1.p.l/m. (1/2mH~'p. )ill 4. '": (l/2m) v(st)] + [xi' . : Hence <[~·P.... an energy ·Ia">... Hla"> . .. (1) becomes (2a) (20) Noy using closure property.x1.. eigenket Take the value £IN.x(O)] ..-p2/2m [~·P..-i.. are entirely and pet) For B • T/2 (1. ork in terms of initial out. .(l/2m) [1 (xlIP!. I Equation a (2b) becomes a a r.... H] .logue 'JOuld also l.e. i:j«(Xi.reasonable n along OX)~ at twO e~al . x(O) -{.. pl/2m] ..2m• and 'W'ecompute V(i)] (3) through . independent and < Sx > .. ve have (1) <a lltxxl.Pj]PjP1 + Pj[Xi..t/m .(t/m)[x(O).20 Modere quantum Mechanics . p(O)] l"'/. x] .. ..<a" 1 . -v. t .">-l<a"lxHxla >i-<a"lxxHlll"> Use next . _y. x(t) in the Heisenberg picture..Pj]Pi) + ti Xi(Pi! V(~)J (112m) i~j CUioijPli Hl> . tl [[B.p/m.Solutions . i.-En) e _2. {....Ea. ."'P (1'!(o1j)Pi) j + t1 xi<-U(3V/C'Ixi) .mile and P "(l/U<)(p. + . Ea "Ia"> and <a"IH . + [.2] the folloying V(~)] '! 6.'rJ..r. {p2/2m expectation ff voo ..j [:t. . V(l)]pi) • (112m) 1~j {xi. p(O) and is of x(t) .PjPjlP"1 + - 1::1. Let it ..P'.p.• + S. {x(t)..

1l1d/dtlljl(t» . Le .• Next we compute [x(t)]2 Because <x(O» ee ' = = [x(0)}2 + (t/~)[x(O)p(O)+p(O}x(O)] + (t2/m2)[p(O)]2.p:> (using Heisenberg equat Lon of motion analogue for is x" is").<x(O» = peO) wave <p (0) packet > p (0) • From problem 18 (b) of Chapter 1. It is then evident :::: O.• E (with . (a) :::: c(~x)2>t=O: calculated using This agrees expansion H "" la'>6<a lt of wave packet [ + I. Ap(O) t"'O_> where I number. H~isenberg·picture. (i) E'" +6 and ~2 (-i) for IIjI(t)~ .e... the expectation value of X'p for a stationary . dicit - <x'p> . evident s Ince <alIBla'> - c(~x)2>t=O + (t2/m2)«6P)2>t=O with B.!h-Iem Quantuni Mechanics . (b) As a function of time we write (~~~n· )and HIl/J(t» .a">o<a'i <a'IH[all> [H - ::: a (~ - ~) as is <a'·'IH la"> "" D.. while <a"IHla'> c "" 6. <x(t» <t=olx(t)!t=O> ~ 0 be~ause <xeO» ~ <p(O» '" o and x Ct ) = x(O) + (p(O)/. corresponding eigenkets ! 1jI>" (~ Obviously ~) (:) ~2 ~:to (:) for .. <x. ii( dldt <i. The cond t t ion for quantum mechanical = 0. state o-f the· vir ial theorem state is independent 7" To compute of «~x) 2 > ~ <x2 > hence - <x> 2 '" first note that ket is fixed in the.cs . i. t.> and the secuThe lar equation is det E1J . hence 6x '"x(O) .m)t from problem 4 above . satisfy 0.Solutions 21 = iF( «p/. and IAIZ + [BIZ ~ 1 (normalization).. So «6X)2>t:::: that c(x(O)p(O) ~ p(O)x(O»> 2 D = (l/A)<X(O)x(O» + (l/i*)<xZ(O» - <t=O!(x(o)2It=>o> + (t2/m2)<t=O!(p(o»Zlt=O> (~2t2/4m2«6x)2>t=O)' wave mechanf.. Now HI~> ~ EI".. the minimum uncertainty A is a purely imaginary e a c Ls f Les x(O) I t=O> <x >t .to are the energy (~) ) eigenvalues.9v(x»1 . ~ A(O) while tp <p(O» ~ 0.. E'" -6 are appropriate eigenket so- lutians.>/m ".

. Ica"!y(t»12 (c) We need to evaluate is sin2 wt: ... ) describes an eigenstate of a spino'!:' time. E<Ll£> and 6<LIE> 1. o J 0.miltonian.. the simple harmonic :.1/12.'t) '" iJ{dB(t)/dt. swt.!e. So Iw(t) > = coswt)t.Solutions reads (~ ~)(~~~~)= (~~~~). + IL> ). and <R I E> <RIE> :: -<L/E> = <L! F. Ja>= IR>~Rla> state vector . have e + IL><Lla> e -iHt/~ =: la.> ::.s(~ ~) '" Jx evolution of J for a spin ~ system if 6 '" '1.>-I ~E» • {lJ ~. c> .~2(IR> t=t =0>.or i~d/dt oSet) i}(dA(t)/d:: and :. + A2s inwt. ~ow due to normalization 6 '"tE (these define than the condit~on tiolO I<RIE>j2 +1<LIE>!2 sy s t:em eigenvalues). from (1) we have . '=0.therefore From part (a) e -iH't/'\II!a>: e -iHt/ii «R! a> I R> +<L I c> I L» = = ~2 <R 1 a>: -iHt/~ But e-iHt/}{I:!:E> (j +E>+I-E» herice + J2 <L 1 a> e-iHtf1( 1+E.. A2 '" O. we have Take = EeRIE>... "" ~2 ( I R> . It evident B2 = la'> '" 1~(t=O). ~o=O. ~ 6/M. o . have Due to the linear IL> and IR> .::. ~o.1).nwt H '" the . I. .:t..I-E».= EIE> therefore 6(IL><RI + jR><LI)IE> = EIE> or 6(IL><RIE::' + !R><L!E» independence of ::: E(!R:><R!E> + IL><LI£». t> is =: such that and = la. = 62 : E20r level 6= +E. ~'.!. HjE>. 10> The evolution of IR> ~2(I+E> + I-E» IL> ~2(I+E> . (a) z Let the normal ized energy eigenkets be vritten as IE> . we 6<RjE> .. <alii == (0. t l" (D) Suppose at t=O.. I+E> -IL». C and from normalization 1.22 ~!odern QU<lntum Mechanics . hen>:e in 11iJ(t» (_) 1 ~ (co. take '" 1//2 and I-E> =. ~ (~) ( Slnw h~nce • Al . for 6. Evit.ltions t h w :::: ioli ~. =: -E.. Sl. !R::'<RE> + I IL><L IE>. e+i6t/~I±E>. initially in state and hence 9...cly here probability (d) = The H"./2.. B(r ) is = B1COSwt: + B2sinwt that are.

isin6t/\{jL> and <LI a. to=O. Next "" aR(O)]R> + ~(O)IL> the normalization hence aRCO) . of (2) "back to the {IR>.I >cos6t/M. t> t>. than from (3) we have <Lla> = 0 of It> as a function of '" 1 (normalization). 801utions of the coupled (~2/~2)~. jo.::.L(t)!L> and using H "" 6(IL><Rl+!R><Ll).to=O.is corresponds ce [a.h. ' t> . equation leads to coupled equations iMdoR(t)/dt ~ ll. t> cost.ible gives with 0 '" -i<Llo> of and B .:.time and the state vector obeys i~ d/dtla.L(t)]+ 0L(t)=AcoS6t/* +Bsinll. hence (4) far and ~ (t) the coefficients It> and.. = sin2~t/~.=OO.. c> -isinll.0L(t) and i~d~(t)/dt '" 6a (t) R where aRCt) "" <R!aJto~O.. with to=O <a.IL>} basis. Write the SchrCld1nger :: 0R(t)IR>'+ (l.1 give • Solution ~ (t) of (5) is poss. Solutions 23 I a...>. -i<Rl. t> and ~Ct) equati. la>~ jR> with certainty.1<RI 0>5inot/iO I L> (3) at t=O. ~eplacing H • H !1><2! 1Z .ons can be obtained hence by noting = <L!o Ito~O.~bJern Quantum Mechanics. . e~iHt/KI a~ ~ (2) Rearrange r..c>]2 t> = H!a.s. we have la.<R[a>iR> + <L!a>]L> '"A . in _ Cd) I~ the SchrBdinger picture the base kets IR> and IL> remain stationary . (c) Suppose and <Ria> time. The transition ~rObabilitY is 1<11o•to=0. t Iii jR> ... t>. R> in (3) of (b). C <RIa> aud ~(O) I • condition at t.t/~. o . We need the development = th. to"'O.t/\{.1<Llo>5i06[/")IR> . that d2/dt2(aR. aR{t)=Ccos6t/~ +DsinAt/~ At t '" (4) I 010> .<Lla>.L(t) '"0. = to~O. t> =«Rla>cos6t/K +( <L..to=O. I (e) The la~k of Hcrmiticity here is same as in problem 2. 'to =0.to=O" t!a t 0 =0' t> .

/y.lL><R!)«R!C1>IR>+ is hence probabilicy is found in IL> 2 I <L I c> - (itli/iO <R c> I 12 and ir: IR> I <R! a> 12... . (1/i*) [x~ E] . At xS(O) t Dynamical variables ....(H.....ture. po] ) + •. ·ar:.poJJl = p _(t2w2)p o ~ 0- -tmw2x + t3mw4xo 0 3! ~ ••••• PaCt) 3 Pocoswt . -. 1. \L><R! even fer a finite time interval.cs ...Po' (2.IL><p._-- .24 Harlem Quantum Mechz./m._ ~. e iHt l'ip oe -iHt!}!.(t) n = Using . The relationship bet.-d. a later for being The initial state is <~la>!R> <Lla>IL». the Heisenberg een and Schr8dinger pictures is x...Il)sinwt. Po (with PS(t) If = ps(O) and we note the time-independence of 'dynamical variables in the Schrodinger picture... H is time independent. + <Lln>tL>. We find again Hn '" 0 for 0>1... (a) In toe Heisenberg pic.dU(t. itf::.mwxosinwt. + (i3t3/3!~3)[H. x coswt +(p 0 0 !tIl'. -. '?o 3'p~/2m 'p(t) = Pocoswt - which give H s p2(t)/2m +~ mw2x2(t) + ~ mw2x~.---. ' Also.. (b) At t:=O..La to r .Solutions by H -= c.-------:. one knows x..(H. c~Cide. H '" p2/2m (itM}{)<Rla>1 + t<Rla>12".---.-. (l/i¥) [~~ H] ~ -mw2x. This imp plies A x= D -w2x and p = ~2p ~ with tne initial conditions x(O) ~ Xo and p(O) ~ Po ~ ~(O) po/m.. the general state vectors for both pictures are equal: !a>!{= [a>s . x and p obey the Heisenberg equatio!ls of motion: dp/dt .. I<Lla>12 + I<Rla>12.. --..to"'O) a 1 . at time t 1o1e have (1 . +~ m:/x2 for che one dimens-ional simple harmonic the operators osc Ll....3. Thus probability is violated._ .2xo' Th e so 1ut i ons are x (t ) _ ~~xosinwt xocoswt + ( /mw )siowt.50). poj + (121.e. x and pare time-dependent in the Heisenberg picture. 0..48) .___:__::--~:-- _..(t) n '" eiRtIYlxse-iHt/~ with Xs ~ Xo and PH(t) • ~iHt/~pse-iHt/~ with Ps . dx/dt . thus ~(O) ::0 ~he Heisenberg and Schr8dinger pictures (with _~ Xo xS(t) • xS(O» and PR(O) u PS(O) ".(2.. but cou- I<Llo> servation 10.it6/~.I.and pOCO) .2/2 !\{2)~H2 [H.3. Po ~ (it/}{) [H.

to: cDC e) ! a> ". to ~(O)ln>.o. R!a..t>e.R] .t/tllII n> which ..w have <x" lu> . are ti.. x(O) '"' A while -A.se k.. ~ (0) e and (b) t -1w(n+'1)C......t .a> - 10>. o.Modern guantu.Mechanics !a. accsct .<OIe.lo.. I Since 12.o~t . b aseetsk • . CaD. UI..:.I2x2. <r. (17 . lo.) [x .. <x II e -ipal~ Ca) The \lave: function 11 take. X(O)COSIMt + state vector <. Since: eipa1i£lx Henc~ I> '" !x'-a>(henee <x'·!e-ipafl{ • <x'-a!>..independent t~ IIh t> S ('We have t .> ttl c n (0) e .t>I1" la..~..Q i....ger .. t-O> .the pictures Schr8d. t""-O. . H1 -.. p(O).l B .t .·erg. .lJI.::: a> "" 1i~:-x~ exp [-. 'lJe obtain . whUe e:ip(o)a/lip(O)e-iP(O)afl{ . -!1U -(l/i\{)[p.~ ne. eip (0) a/¥:x (0) e -ip (O)a/lf. and t 25 e. e - iR~NIa.1nger by (a) cn (t)time state vector.n...t". .me -1. 11 • For p/m. be determined • t. <n~tlo..te Ia .e ·) " -iw(n-M)t . Encn(O)jo.. <xl-aIO:. elp (0) afi([x(O) .. l1li)3·.x(t» 111>..Seoce xCt)'" x + "'.e. Solutions i.t> S as .e.t>s Remarks...e cures) Wecaa z e cas Als.. wile At trO... p 1 cture .· cn(t) p Lc tura W"ich ba.t> S . <0 leiP (0) a"'£ x(O)co~t+(p :for <x(t» (0) !rw) sinwt 1e-ipa/¥.hr6dio.O> . b. Ac....me-depende!1t~ t h ee R i'" se:ll.o> .e . '" 0. (x 1':'a) 2/2x~) • \. Sc..s fo·rm.::c:(0) r . wh~ch 'is Cu(t) the equain the fc:::. 0>.o..' cn(O)e-1w(n¥s)t.1P""/)(:.(t)~-1pafl{{. en.1wC·+l-<' n t i.e-ip(O) all1] + e -ip (0) al'ii. t .ceswt+Bwcoswt to i(O) . e iB.. <x(t» .t>S . (tW2/21)i)(-2:U<x1 2x.. t> - A<n!e-iRt/)\!a. <x I I.....1senberg pl~t~re '" <a!x(t)!a>. <o\x(O) \0> '" <ojp(O) \0>·..10o. and solution leads + BsilllAt. tiro U(a/3t!a..z».-lpa/lito> at: t.t-O> I .he Sc:.dth en (t) . t.eiaenbe.. &I and thus p(O) (p(O)/l3!I)einwt.. '!" At..rg picture OUT x(t) . (1/il()(mw2/2)[p~x2] is:x(t) . a a ne-climeos andp 10nal SHO po ten t ia.<allt(t) Ill> 'lIenee .:Il..t:>H .. . (O .. Thus in the H.x(O) + a. )\w (~) ~. henc e i .O... 111 problem D.brBdinger <~. P 2 12m + ~ 1l¥.~ t>S .o.. . for 'C>O ve have We note that in t-he Re.ts In> independent..t!n> is t h ua de p e ndea t • • us edS -nich is ependen in beth p i.e..!a ..

(b) The ground state wave function is
<x

flo>

::

'IT -

'1j;

X

-~

o

axp [-

-

X'

2x

2 21
o
1

The p robab Ll.Lt of finding y

10.>

in the. ground state is cxp[-{(x'-a)2+x'2}/2x~]
fot
t>O.

p :: f<alx'><x'lo>dx'=(l/w~xO)L:
P Ls time

ex' = e-a2/2x~

independent

and ~"ence does not. change

13.

(a) From the
x ""

given in'formation. W'e can W'!'ite

fl72mw

(a+a7)',

P ::: i ~mw/2

(at -a)

(1)

xjn>

=

~/Zmw(;nln-l>+/n+l!n+l»

and pin>

=

i/~mw/2(/~+1Irt+l>-~ln-l». and Min> ~ nln> while

Remember also that ata = N where N is number operator <min> =0 .
<ml
tnn

Therefore <mlxln>

=

~/2~Jmw(~o m.n-...+In+10m,n +1)' likewise ,

pi

n>

=

(mwi}2) 12~/mw{ In+16 ,

m,n

+l-rna m,nby using

1)'
(1)

Computation of

<1:11 (x,p}

In> ""

<mlxpln>

+- <mjpxln>

is obtained

and <mIx :: 1i'/2tllW(/~<m-ll+/m+l<m+ll) (sign

as well as <m!p::: -ilUmw72(/m+l~m+ll-lJi<m-11)

change comes from complex is then straight)om-l.n+l)' For

conjuga;:':'onwhen passing
~orwar'd

to dual space].

The, calculation

'leading to <m.i{x.p} In> ""-i){(ln(m+l) 0m+l ,n_l-fm(n+l

<mlx2In>

= =

<mjxxln>,

try evaluate the scalar product <mix and xln>. the answer m.n- 2+(2n+1)0 m,n +/(n+1) (n+2) 5m, n+2}' . Likewise

is <mlx2In>

= (~/2mw){in(n-l)o

<mlpZln>
answer

<mjppln> and we evaluate the scalar product <ml? and pin>, the

Ls <ml p21 n> '" - \!.nlWZ Un(n-l)

a m,n- 2-(2n+1) 5m,n +/(n+1) (n+2)
+ Vex) :::2/Zm ~ p
= ~w(n~)

0, n+2}.
m,

(b) Viri;U
::: <xdv/dx>.
mw2xZ•

theorem states <p'zim> .. <;t·9'V>, hence in one dimenvon For the SHO, H = pZ/2m
=:

we have <pZ/rp

mw2x~ therefore xdV/dx
.....

No ... <p2/m:>

!<nlp2In> m

.. ~W2(2n+l) .

hile <xdV/dx>

= IOCIj2<x2>

=_2Irt!l(20+1)

rnw2;(

=

~!.IJ(n~). Therefore the viria1 theorem is verified.
L • ,

14.

(a)

<x'ip'>

,..(21T~)-~el.P x

'111

i'I

o r <p'lx'>

:: (2lT\i)-~e-~p

!

.,

X I /1.1
(1,

hence

<p'lxla>

--_

..

_."

Mocern Quantum Mechanics - Solutions

27

~ fdx'<p'lxlx'><x'la> ifD/ap'[(21T'lO-'ie-iP'x'/}{1
= i}O/ap
I

~ Idx' x'<p'!x'><x'!a>.

Note that explicitly
Hence

we have

=

x'<p'Jx':>.

<p'lxlll>

Dfdx'i!(a/dp,«'p'lx'><x'la»
and' integration
can be

<p ' a> where 'we assume

I

that:. differentiation

interchanged.
(0)

For H ."" p2/2m + ~ mw2x2•

the

s ca re

vector

I "s

.satisfies

in Schr/jdinger

picture

(1)
In

the mowentum

representation.

we have (2)

and thus (3) .,where in
(3) we have used

identity <p'lxxi >S'" i\!ta/ap'
-

<P'JxJ

>

S

'" _~2a2

ap 2 <pll
l

>$'

For the SHO problem there 1s a complete syuunetrybetween
energy eigenfunctions in -momentum (po :
srzt: r~mw)

x and p.
_p2/2p2
0

So the
Hn(p/po)

space mus't, be of the form e
e-x2/2X~,

up to normalization
in position

in analogy_with

Hn(~/~o)

srr+ (xo ~ ,~/mw)

space.
:::>

From (2.3.45a). we have x(t)

x(O)coswt

+ (p(O)/TrtIl)sinLtlt. x(t)x(O) '" and

[x:(O)]2coswt;:. (p(O)x(O)IIllW)sinwt. state is
f~om. (2.3.30) C~t) ~ <x'lo>

Simple harlllOnicosci1.lator (SHO) ground
~(xI/Xo)Zl. xo'"

= (l/Tf!z:x~)exp(-

-/Y1/rrtU.-

Th~n

<olx(t)x(O)lo> + (p(O)x(O)/mw)sinwtllxlT><x1110>
dx' dxdx'

. '" Jf<O!x,'><x'j[CxCO»Zcoswc
'"' f<O\x'><x' The term
IO>xl2coswt

+ (,

inwt/mw)<olp(O)x(O)

10>.

<O! p CO)x (0) 10> vanishes
in

(c. f. _problem 13 with m"'Ul!>'Q by explicit ,or Hence C(t) 1s given by

evaluation

Ix'>

representation).

C(t) = coswt_Z(x'2/Tf~o)exp[-(x:/Xo)2]

dx' - (~/2mw)coswt.

28

Hodern

Quantum
Let

Mechanics

- Solutions

16.

(a.)

linurcombi.n..a.tion

be !a>"

alO>

+ hI1>.

Then <x> - (a'f:<O!+b:l«ll)x(alo>

+b!l»
13
\ole

or
have

x

~ a*a<Olx!O> - los

+ a*b<O!xj1>
m,n-

+ b*aellxIO> + b*b<llxll>.
l+ln+16

From p:~ble~

emjxln> or <x> -

12'/.l~(lDo

b2a.(zilTJ:LJ
be real

*

'
1:5:

hK/!IX.ICa,*b+bfta).
such that.

,
- 1.

m,

0+1)"

hence

'

ex> ... a bh'i.IT:IJJ"';-

*

2

'Without 106s of generality
then

choose. .!l,b to
Maximum

and nOrcla11zed

a2+b2

<x>"_ r'z~7~alf=i{l.

of ex> then requires dex>/da

... 0 or a • +1/12 and likewise b •

+1//2.

Bence

<x'max - ~/2K/mw aodup. to a common phase la>. ~2(IO>+!l».
(b) The state '" U(t.to)'Q~to> vector ~ere in Schr8dinger U(t.t.o)

representation

evolves

for

t>O as

Ia..to;

t>

'" e-iH(t-Co)/){

and H - pl/2m + ~ ~2:t2

1s indzb~t: since

pendent. of tilne.
{In>}

Taking io...o, we have la,t> .. e-1.Ht/){(IO>+ll»//2s

are energy eigenkets \lith energy eigenvalues

En ..

l<w(~.

ve vrite la.:~> the SchrSdinger

_ (e-iwt/2!O> + e-3~wt/211»/!2
picture. (i) l~ tneSchr8d1nger picture

as the s~ate vector far c>O ~

<a ttl x Ic:. t>

.,. ~(eiwt/2<O

I+e3:iJJl.t/2<11 )x(e -:it.Ilt/21 O>+e-3iwt./2,1> )

.. 1:1 «Ojxlo>+e-1kJt<olxll>+ei(llt<ljxIO>+<llxll»'
~ ~ (e-iwt (ii) 'hence

~/2H/~

+ eiwt ~{2~7mw) ~{2K7~ coswt. m

In the. Rein>auberg picture

11:1> .. <[0>+11»/12,
.

x(t)

... x(O)coswt+ P~)Sinwt,

<x> '" <c:(x(t)la> - ~{coS(a)t<oix(O)lo>
m:ll'

+ s~t<olp(O)lO>
p

+ C05(4t.<olx(o)

11>

+ .

s1!lwt:

alp

,

(0) 1'1>

+ c.oS{JJt<llx(O) 10> + si.ru.Jt IIp(O) 10>, + coswt:<llx(O)! 1> + 'nil
The evalu.atio~ of <nlx(D)

sinwt
IrW

ellp(O)'\l>}.

1m>

and <n!p(O)

1m>

have been

given

1n problem 13, and give for <c:!x(t)la> - ~(~»a (c) We evaluate «6x)2>t
< (Ax)2>

~ ~'2K/~co~t

~s in (1).
nere

in the Schrodinger p'icture
'

for definiteness.

.. <x,2; - <X,.2 t

e. First Yle note f rc:.a ~ ~ 0> by noting that e 10> =n.1.12/.'/a e\02-4ac)/4a exp[-k2<0!x21o>/2j.An+1(/n+1/1(0+1)!)ln>..rbx+c).l:.? cas".. = (rnLJ/-:dol) z .e. I' +e -'ll..on we fi. A*~ Aat _1112 ).x:-jO:. <O!x2jO> fore <x2> = ~/2mw. There- <:l.. this .. 18.. r-r IX>=e t >.12/2 n=o. __ ob Lem 13 that .!n=o arA> But (n+1)!/(n+1):: _ n=o !'l. 10>= e .. (1) The r.. exp[-k2ft/4I1lUl). If we.o()...12/2 hence (a!)kID> n~lX co and a(a')~IO>= 2 ik! alk~ =!kik:lk-l>. == Ik!!k> a wekooT. hence (An/.t> = = ~(2f{/m:u) :: .!..-r) I>.. Use again the expression for 2 <m\x In> from p r ob Leu 13. i.1:.>+<lj:< 2I = \1:»....\(/0:..nd -lxI2. .J.~~0dern Quantum Mechanics . -h i:".e . r (Xn+1//nT) in> '" >."<1jJo(x) dx where ¢o'Cx) (lJla)hIO~ exp[-m.J .. r r orn f (b' . mw picture../ 2 _" I 1TI... 1 that (at)kln> "" l(n+l)(n+2) • .).ed :: /. rk o <0 in the Schr~dinger I e Lkx I 0> == '" _Z ~~ (x) eik. we have indeed alA~ =~IA> with ).J . ..t!.dx can be eva Luat. (2) contributesQY orthonormality of states only when n-m == O.t 12-.e-lxI2/2 e ~at! 'f In>.. _i.•. by noting Now explicitly that. <ole n~oA In>/1iiT number. <oleikxlo> (ax2. i..s.. ~llxZll> = 3~/2rnwt <0Ix211> and = <1\x210> = O.)la. In>/tn! CD n. in general a complex => For normalizaCi.:.. Hence -IAI2/2 with r n=o ).n/n!)(at)nlo>.*aco n ' e <ole' e. (a) but Take alA> =: exp(-!·. '" e(1) Thus aIA>= e n !OlnTln-l> n! = e-l. (n+k)ln+k> '-1>. => e-IA! <01 [ 2 n=o E (XnllOT)().r <0Ix2Io> = i\!Zm:u. than 17..t- <x > = . of is >.al)u/n! 10> t _IAI2/z Xa l e 10>.e. «~x)2> ~(1-cos2wt/2). !'<:Je ikx-1Jli.*a)m/m! In> • m=o hence (2) but alIlln>'" In(n~1) ••••• (n-1It'l-1)!n-m>.Solutions 29 .Jx2/2\(].h.2] a exp[Xa'] 10> os exp[-iAI2/2] a'i: f'FO (}.JX2/~ • therefore exp[-k2<ol:x2jo>/1] dx ..:...1.1 i2.

.. !.. Therefore

IA>

is

a normalized ,, <x>'- •

coherent

state.

(b) «b:)
So <x> co

2 '2 ,. '" <x ,. -

X"

' t IitlztrlLl,)(a,+a).

tlhere alA>

""I.\.>

and <.\lai"

Wi

<AiA!~

<"Ixl).> ..
hence

,l'M2mw«l.{(a+af)!A».

rli/2DX1l(l.H."').'

and <x>2 a(;{/2..ak.J)().2+

1.*2+2AA*) .. (~/2mw)(~+A*)2. N~
+a2+2ata+ll.

x2 .. xx .. (~/2mw}(at2+a~aat+atal (~/2mw)(at2 s
O{f2!1l£l1)[ (J,*+1.)2+l}.
m

<x2> - O!./2l::!r..l)().*2+l.2+21.*A+l]

Like. ....se i

<p>2

u

-(~mw/2)[A*-1.12 and <p~
- <p2> - <p>2. ~/2, 2 e-j>..1 /2 e0"0

- (~mw/2)[1-(A*_A)2J,sing p u
and «6x)2> - ~/2mw

1~(at-a).

lienee «6p)2> (c) Write Therefore

~nd «8x)2>~(6p)2>_ ~2/4. hence fen)
,'" e

I).>""

1: . C)..°/rnf)
2n In!

In> -

n=o

'f

f(n)ln>.

-IAI2/2(>..n)

..,..., • rn.~

if (n) 12 P(>"'.n)

t J.12111

and is a po~sson. dis tribu tion

Nov r(n+l) ... !, n
taL'1ed by ncting .. In that In' f Cr.-H) :" ,0. fience operator
(11)

The. caxi.mu=

value is oh-

12 ... - p, i2
or

+

oln!

1)..121-

lnr (n+L) , and nt:.aX; here v

;01n I

f (n), 1 2
:1,.

1.1.12 - -k1nr

The 13tter

equation defines

for larg~

an

Inr(n+l)

'" ~~.~ n.

nmax

I ).1 2. •
1

(d) The translation

-ip1./}{ e Iwere

p is momentum.opr:::rator' and ! just , e

the

displace.mene dist.aaee.

can be rew-ritcen as
f

-ip.t/l(' t/TJJlJl/2'1.(a -a) e -e -1«_12) .. e ~
Note e-lla~ .. 2~alO> d (llXIl/2il.)[at

-e

f./ml/2~at-I..Irru./Z~a t

.a]1/1JX1l72~a ,e

e.

-!/~/2Rl 1Hence

-~(-t2)(tnwi2\O(at.al e f -1.~~ t/trJ.JJ/2iLa -1./T!XJJ/2~a e .. e e.

..

10:>; because a 10> "" O.

e-ipt./}(lo>
CUe have used her~

.. e.-IAI

2

/2 eAatlo>,
A+B

' .... here A .. .t~72.}{"A ~ 4[A~BJ '

the identity e

-eee

• true for

any pair

of opera-

tors A and B that commute
(1951).]

vitb [A.S]. e.f. R. 3. Clauber,

Phys. Rev. 84. 399

M'"

IPS ilWb4-A;IA~

.J

,stkJ .

.42

$

I

M.M, "

J. 3!Jk€

$j

#4*

.. ,,3

.;4

q

~odernguaQtum. 19.
'o;"eknoW" th.a,.t ra!"a!]
t

Mechanics

- Solutions

31

... 1 and [3+.a_1 - "2 (4+8+3+a_ ... 3+&_(a+3+t.. t

... Ia+,a_l."

t

.

0 (since
t t

'. o6cillat.o"[s
.

are 1nde) ..

. pendeot),then

[32:.J+] ... 8;-3_4+3_

Xl

t

t

t. t 8_a:_3+4_
tt

". 8+a_3+a-t:+ ) ....

a+8....8._&_
t

t.

t

H2

2" (a+3+£;+3_
t

tt

t

t

1) + a_8_a+,,_

HZ

2

t' (3+3+

... 8...a ...... 8+4++ 1 [Jz."...1... (J_ • )

t

+ 4_4_)3+&_
4CHi

t

"':2

HZ
2

([a_,8 2·

t·. t ...] + 1)3+8_ ...

H2.
"2

2" (2)a+8 ...... MJ+.

t

Similarly

.... 2 2· J ... J

x + J y + J z ... J +J ... -\(.1 z + J z is such that
2 3' KJz ... Jz ... [J+J_.Jz] J+3_ - )iJz
2 . 2

.... 2 .2 (J ,J ] ... J+J J - ~J . z: .... z. Z

+

J.)

.,
.l.

- JzJ+J_+ Explic.itly

... [.T+.JzlJ_

.
)(2

+ J+(J_,Jzl
t

~. -}U+J ...
t

+

}(J+J_ ... O. t

+ Jz '" H 8+3_8_8+

tt

... 2" (a+3+

-a_a ... i£2

...)
t

+ 4"

HZ

(a~a+a+a+
t

~

... (8+8+3+3,..
tt

t t tt 3+a+3 ...3_ ... a_4_a+;;.+

t t 2. t t + 8_&_o5_a) ... )( 3+3+(1+8._8._)

2:

(a+3+

-aa)
.. t

+'4
.

)(2

_t t t t· -':3+a+3 3_ +3_a_3_3_) ...

... 2: 3+3+(1+3_8_ + ~

j{Z

t

t

3+3+) +

t

)(2 t

i

a_a_{l~

a_a_) ...

~2
"2

N(N/2 + 1).
x;>O, .• obeys. the same dHferex;.tial howe.ver" the only acceptable The.refore, equation solutions as tbe. two-s.1ded barare ·those
t.hat vanish

20.

In the region monic oscillator; a.t the. orig1n~ oscUlato~
SHOvave

the. eigenvalues' are those of the ordinary .harmonic· of odd parity. Now the
pari.ty

belonging

... ·",ave functions ~b

of the

fun.ctions a.lteruates Hence.,

nt.h increasi.n.g

U'I st3rtingrlth

all evell-par1ty

ground 5t.a.te~

.E .. (4a+3)lW/2

• (4n+3)KIkImiZ - 3K.,Ik"f;/2 for
11..

w:tth nmO,l,Z

..

(a) Cround stat.e energy
(b)

0 ..

From (2.3.31).
"'0 ::

<x I ··1;>• '1 Hence tl

I

1 2d.· l(r-' 2 f2HXo (x' -xo dx t) (1/1t I'Xo) e.xp [-4 (x ' /7:.0) 1

(... r e rhe

/){/D.!l).

(2/12 x~/211"1()xlexp[~(x'h::o)2]

and. <x2> •

'2\...

Now,

~n (x) ~ A n sin (nvX/L). n _ 1.2.3 •••••.

PIX,t)d. - ',lx,.)!2dx H., t)

1•• he pr~'bilit.
Yo

that

the pa.t'el

••••••

ili

the "ave f~nc tio.

... y be found b. tvee.

and x+dx.

th.ref or. 1n 0

f or the p.rtiele to be 'x.c tly at x - LIZ for t-O. Hx. 0) _ 2 - 1 ~ia normali;ation.
u
Tho o1go "alue.

4,

(x-LIZ) wi>

corresponding

to

.0 (x)

are E. -

and by the expansion Postulate
~(x.t) -

02•

2K212mL 2.

0•

1,2.3

b

Cne-!Ent/~Vn(X).
n

the tranSition amplitude: c
Co - ~ Hence c.

is then given by

(

n-l

.:lx)tCx,O)dx n

£L AoSlnlo.x/L)6('_L/2)dx
n
-

n

"(-1 )L-A

.

(for n Odd)- and c

a

(fo~ e even).

l'lterefa.n

('elac,

(

probabilities
t(x.t)

are p -

Ie n /2

-_ JA /20 n

D.O

dd. aad (2)

reads (USing (3»

,tadd A:e~C-1Cn2.2/L2)~t/2~J.i'(.r./L) to (x) in (1). A. -

(-l)~

""'ere in tact

far normalized i.

I27L

(inde!'endent of a);

22.
'f;

Our 'SchrHdinger equatiou

1-¥.2/a.'dZ+/WcZ- _
Intenate

"'I'd+
o

_ -E9 (1.e.
-t

£>0 hence

-E<O i. 'Ole have a!:ate ........87). bound -to 0,

above equation_f,.".

to

+e, 'Del let

,
i

For XFO.

(1)

(2)

_Vo

Substitute these solut10 •• 10to (1). "e have (_H2/Z~' .. 0 ot' E. "~m/2K2.
This 1••• Un!QU'.a1ue!on.

(-C2'OEIH2, ~ -C2'OE/K , ~J _
2
nOeXC!t•• 'oOuad
'ol

states

3:

Et>.. The sketch of energy eigenfunction specified by E looks as follow I I I . a (mA/~2)~p[-mAlxII/M21.5. 1 "/x . (a) classically (E > V) E-- allowed I classically . 1 or 2A2[X2/2mAJ ~(x._ .~turning I l f~rbidden (V > E) .. are:Classically allowed region: classically forbidden Aside fro~ normalization. the wave functions 1 ~ e :t (ilK) . t ion I 2A 2 b exp [ -2m). highly 1amped for large x I'·· ---.. J I I / ..:.O) I..{Z 'V (x • t=O) • <10 ). .t) = (mA/X2}~(m/2~i~t)~_Z exp[-mAlxrl/~2]exp[i(x-x')2m/2XC]dxl where we have used ~(x'.2m2/K4 in our notation..15). . The' energy spectrum is continuous.x I )dx' (E -AX) region: e -(11M) IX IZm(Axl-E)dx' E)l1 (Ax- These expressions are not valid near Xzxl ....EI.~Iodern Quantum Mechanics . :. x we have fio( 2 J dx .x'...Solutions 33 expected.7) and (2.5. /... (classical turning point) .___ I faster oscillation I I Xl . where 2m. is then = Aexp [ -mAl:It IlK 2 J • = The normal iia . we have = _z dx'~(xr...O)K(x. Using the result of problem 22.t>O) 1 and hence A = (mA/~-)~....!zm(E-). .\ (classical turning E point).! ... From (2.

E\II :0 -IEIIJI (bound states).e Z(L) = 0 if and only if kL Vanishing = 1.z) (a) = .) .z) of variables.2 •. is complex.9.. . = L unless .2 - 2m em· IE I tv.. -- .. The electron is confined to the interior of a hollow cyli~drical shell. hence Z(z) ~ 0...CPa. ik and Z (z) = 2Eisinkz. at 0 Since 0. K = 10.9. where using coordinates (o. IjJ (0.e. the method of separation IjJ{p.tion d2 .z) = $(o. 0) = . R(x) '" AJ (x) + BNm (x) satisfies Bessel equa. and with x = KP.x-E) +(l/iorxl2". 2 the Schrl::Jdinger equation inates + -.0) :: O·implies No~ ~ will not vanish at z so wr i t e a .CAx--E)dx' e Region II: 1 (E-AX) '" are:- 25.L) = 0 in cylindrical coord- Inside the cylindrical shell. "''O'-''<1111CS - So Lu t i o n s (b) The most important are: ch arig e is that the energy spectrum is now d Ls c.a.lxl cylindrical III 1-' 1 R· eg10n • --~~~~ (>.2<0..Tr (i is non zero integer).Z-a~2 Using 1 ::1 + ~J d2$ .r e t e . to of solution = 0a and P = Pb leads .(o. e . and the wave functions I II M'~ V"'i-.e.(Ob. '" R(p)Q(8)Z(z) and are the energy eigenfunctions where m is an integer (to preserve single-valued . 1<' is also imaginary.a. .. ~ R + 1_dR + (l-m2 Ix 2)R = 0 tix'" x dx Impose next the boundary conditions. z) the boundary conditions . thenc. E=-F.

and hence a (1) ~' .'!odern ~nd eliminat!ng . ~ with f r So to find .. ZmeE/}(2 . . ~o . t he nth root of the transcendental equation Jm(k.~ Vf (With WxA _'" -S .3 •. c A.= 1. where Az I = " -+ "1'''' dr'·Aer'.k2 . theiefore N (Ko )] (Kp ) ~ O.. a gauge and = Ap= ~ .c .~ A24.• 0. Stoke' s theorem closed contour inside .0).:: eieeBP..' be determined = o'd81§ fC?t) = 8 1o p'd8 G/P' Ga.".'. lll. = R(p)eiB8Q(6)Z(Z)..2... and ~ reads ~"(8) "_ 2i6~' + (m2_62)~ 2'" '" The separated equation p d (pdR/dp) R dp +1~ ~ de2 _ 2~B ~ Q de + p2(k2+2mE/j(2) '" O. the forms the same (a) of problem but ""'itha different separation to for Rep). d. Now a2 ~ _~2 m a bm E . 2m ~ solution with ~ d -A. . ("2/2me)[K2 + ~2~2/L21 _ if we' write a ) '_ \:-. shell. O{2/2m~)[k2 ron + (~:r/L)21 r ' m== 2._l2~2/L2 K ...' ~ ~ E~ • or the gauge-invariant _+ief/Kc~ -e terms e ~ an :p e-+ )~ !_(~Q . o.2Q(8). as in part Now Q!I(e) + for R e iseQ(a).t) -+ then multiply Let us choose by phase +ief/'f.2 . using. we can have (b) In the case form field free with A 0) -+ re~ion ~= between 0 and - D <pcp a b of cylindrical. Aa = (G/p)8 with G a constant. .cylindrical = that f (~xA) • d'S ..2.. Cd) abov~ ('-'iti' (-iftV)2/2m E-" ~._ Quantum :'!echanics . A = 0 and field coupling factor in which (APO). We have Bp 11' = 21\'G. Again k as in part yn (a) we have 1(2 "" ZmeE/)!.:nnPb)Nm{kmnt>a) - E_ ~~.. we find the solution fer. 1 •2.So lutions ':JJ AlB W~ h~ve J m (Kob)N (~O iI1 = <2 + 2mlEi/~2.2-rr2/L2r writing o . shell..:: hence D.. G can is a Then d..t).r../2~Cw eiBa~ 1jI' It is evident that the solution Except for Q(6) = (by symmetry) is of form 1jI' of R(p) and Z(z) are constant O. d! 'where C f 2. .n . and ~' z eie6G/~c~.

t) • exp[1Cl2am because S is linearly so TCt) • -at + const and XCx) • 12an x + const.~[~::~ If 11" ]( + 1". Thus to ... a2S/ax2. and the vave function . then and 1n the presence ~ O.t) a· X (x) . .1.NO.~~)] and H .. • • exp[iS(x.. ~p2B a a2 m integer.rn l. .:!:Z....2m 'x + V(X}~B i*[~:~~J simplifies ~hich Vex). where H·~ . sense... -2me [k yn 2 + ~ /t 2 2 J where Y is not necessarily energy to be unchanged .) 2 + Vex) • _ aSlat and this For Vex) _ 0 we have 2m /3x) 2 • _ as/at and 1 caS seek a solu t10n of separable fer".0.. (1) 0 in . state are influe.."lU\.•••. O.(~:.) (~:!Nl+ .:!::3 •. (1) reduces 1 to 2m(as/3.I<. Hence Our procedure works x -a')/~J.. Rovever if we require the ground state of B.e..!1. From (2.. . dependent . 2 ±m • eBp2/ZKc where 26.C2 a2 • i~a.CkOlPb)JO(kOlPa)' while forn 2 2 with JoCkOlPb)NoCkOl"a) }(2 . on x (i.t) • (-1*/2111)(" 2* v" _ Cv" H J... 2) e..{uantUl1! Mechanics _ Solt. .nced by Beven of B~O case is 2 .16)..iK[~~~ 2 + Vex).. a plane wave wave function. :tm.. (t) • Then 2m( ax/ ax) 2 • T ~1 is the Hamilton-Jacobi equation.. ehough ehe e1ec tron never "touches" E101 = ~rkOl ~2· + ~ /L J "". ~NHc/e. the flux j (x.x/at = n(a constant)..4.:tiol'ls where kyn is the nth root of transcendental equation (k 0) yn a o~ J (k Y yn Pb)N y (k yn a p) . *± 0) ..' ..N Ck Y· p)J yn b y ene cgy e igenvalues the magnetic (c) The ground field. .2 ~m 2 a an· integer. N . S (x . a Eground . '(x./at.t)/~J -(~2/2m)r fK(~.

O. p . dp .z 12m/a du. -+ K(x".6» U ~ a' E a .) = 2r.to) d~' exp ] 2}{(t-t '" dp. p28/2m. exp[-eE . where J>O means J h~~ the same direction that in the direction of increasing 1<0 means J has the opposite direction to e$(i. From (2. 28. E a .) ~ E.~ 1 '" ip'(x"·-x') J.x-x P(Ea.m.e.2ro.. j>O as e~ if ~~>O (i.~lodern Quantum Mechanics .CO)= (m.4.\t-toJ )" exp!.} 2}{"t.. " ellrsin8 - 1 a aql and thus 7" J $) vanishes that while ~ for mf. (with periodic = L ~2 "IT k = L ~2 lii~ ..X'.-) IT l.f.)2/21/( Jl. hence Z = a· E.. x "..$olutions 37 for a hydrogen In spherical atom is ~ ~oordinates: +hence 3" = (mJmrsin6)1'P1-~9' ~ .)( im ( x"-x o 2 2 ) ] _!"'dE. (1. /2mf{] m ~ im(x"-x ') 2 "" {2li~i(t-t )} exp[ o 2~(t-t 0 ) 1 is hence we have established (2. 12m/a u . dar 2 08 2L -p2e!2m exp[-~2 [dp -(p) e dp.]/z =- -z ~ 1 az o~ .t.ii. The three dimensional generaLization evidently .exp{-i(t-toH.] -+ (L/211"'6) p a 1 -- boundary condition). . of decreaSing ~).t. can be written - completion as the following 1m(xll-x.. m b "-11"" .2(t-t) . after t. dp 'exp[)t of the sq~are m(x"-x') (t-to) - ip...co)' p'(x"-x')2m (t-t )} o = 1- -i(t-CC>[p' 2tN("'- J2 + Then with C '" p'-m(x"-x')/(t-to)' K(xll. in the direction we have K(x". o Let u2 .'·.. and J<O if mt<O.. (L/n)\) lEIe-p2e/ZmdP.1~) rne expo~ent -~ (p' 2 t.peEa .exp[-6E r a For a particle in a one dimensional box a . 0 ~ [0 (-+n-+.. 0].l/Z. hence the ground state energy a (c.)2 2*(t . then Z . .e.x'. 5. 'IoIe have I) = 2r. '" O.16).5. For mt.) ~ exp[-BEa.l .

Modern Quantum Mechanics .n-l) Where terms of order ~c and (Ax)2At have been neglected.r!ld t e sea energy for a particle in a 'one dimension.5.2xnxn_1 . 30. classical ( Lagrangian for a SHa is L '" ~ .~-. (1) (b) The transition amplitude obtained from (1) is (2) From (2. R .t n1'. For a finite time interval lit - n 1 and 6.5.p[ .26) [l <x - t nIx n.:£ .al "box" is -Z 1 dZ dB lit - 1 (LJ~)(mJZ1Tt)!.n-l) ..x . K(p".to> pit '" ~.l x.and (2.i' -+ <p" t <p" Iexp [-iRt/}{~ Ia '><a' ! exp[ +ii1to/f(1Ip'>~ I <p" • tip' •to>.(t-to)/'rl} a . <pIT \a '>. Up to order (6t)2.p2/2m. hence ground state energy • kT/2.<a '!p'>exp[ -1E .~ ~2x2.. hence t 14.6c·!{(x -x )2/At2' .wAtt (X.t. t.Solutions The grot.to) '" f dt (~nIX o t -t -~ tIrJ. an entirely reasonable result). ) we expect .t.5. .2xnXo.).)6 -3/2 '" 1/26.u721Tii(sin(WAt:)ey. ~lassical " 2 For a free particle.2 22 31.x . .p".• P t> The. Analogous to ( 2.18) .-l} 1•... . we have s1n(w6t) ..to' 1:.. .'t action 1s S(t.tl)o .. a +11 -1>.~i(Xn+Xn-l) } nn n2 0 ~-l 2 S(n.. x -x 1" we have S(n. (L/ii).m/21T (4. a) The.~_l)cos(w6t) .26 ) for K ( x .x n-lot n-1) n {imw/2V-sin(wtot)}{ (x~+X~_l)eos(wAt) (3) l~.<p ""I exp[ -~]to2t I a '><a Iexp[lp 2'to/2~] ' mi2 .. '1>- K(x Il . I. (Note in thermodynamics B '" 11k!.

E. On describe the claSSical limit for (1) (which has a "ell-ordered the Other hand. 'he classical limit of (2) is sWeh that as Mis ~ small '. Finkels tein 0) (1973). the Probi<bility amplitude (2) tube bet~eea "1'1 aad "2t2 enClosing.h~nger tr'nsfor~tiDn o.tion prinCiPle States that 'he ~lloWing func'ion . to exponent inStead of a sum oVer paths). is to cOllsider first the operator Hamilton-Jacobi equation .!44j Ihe correSPonding FeY_a is exp ress ion for ex2 e21 "1t • 1 r c. e~t21~tl' condition determines the ..'he claSSical path.s of a given quantum meChanical ta- in gOing iroQ initial State Xltl to f4 na1 "- state Xt 2 2' P.also a term v[ ~e S. . in ter.

. limit..Solutions .~AC!.~...!.l!vBD.2. like be. of w~l is S..6. as we ccrap ar'e the Hence we are 'concerned with ·the phase changes a'SD -+2 andb~AG' and thei.tl(vBD-vAC) ! I .. '• .. L. r/..ailUne aga. that TIi" Pi-"'-Ai!c _.e. t) ~ .ial energy and potential energy is constant.. .e..• C'. ""e l' (i... '.l/)!.2k 2 . Fig. difference.2Sino]~. but the difference diffe. Le.6.)'0 2... t -+ .. ..U:l'.. Le t us ex.?:nics ....mgl'. p..5 of text.. wil/vAC while along ED MBD - PBDt1/K .~ _"_ -.Lon ::z diffet:ence is A~I:I mvAC ... ACt A~AC ...number of individual steps in going from xltl xztz)· 33.166) x ..in .../1/:':. 1(. (1) and (2) become equal provided they both are modulated 07- by the factor LIN (N ~'total ..renee in p. (3) of that the final Since (and limit is wZ1 sat~sfi~s . PACl'. const1 f BD '" (2/lU)~[tl1V~c/2. ) + (3).. Finkelstein H(-. gtl2.• • where&_.:~.... whe!'e PAC ~ mvAC' we have v PRD =II1VBD..ft...2 where PAC" 34.25). 1 == (i){e/c) !A~BD ....~.fore the gravity-induced phase change associated cancel AB and also with CD are pr esent.Thus in tion of all possible the classical pat!ls as in the Feynman path integral case (2).r picture)... --_ . (cof. the sum of the kinetic '"E. hence (r . '" r/'K -<LIt) .. ' <lw alAnt "" which O. ith a tirne-indepen<!ent potent. (til.. arises from a variation it isse-an state similar to t.. the proLJ.Jlj] E:. IjJ (r..at. K '" Also r '" vt.LjkBk' we note. and [from pZ/2m + mgz . but the effe·cts alternative paths. correspondence.~o Modern Quantum Mech.)i (k' :::r e r-w c) cfi p =e i (...he SchrCldlnge. .t ) "". p/2m + mgz in height between level BD and level AC implies a slight As a result Along there is an ac:cumulati. amplitude (1) approaches the consider.. .. - -.. Take the plane wave... .'\'.on of phase differences '" . {TIi. ~.. ...bility the. or due to 1(' Because we are concerned . ' sino) /.X (1973). -ex!».•. .r' difference. p. (a) To verify (2. of phase The accumul.•.. ith 1.

HV2i(1*) in (1).:)} .~v~ it ] - e ..6. dA/dt • al/at + ~A.- lat • ~-L 229" • 2m ¥* .). (2.. c .. ... ."./dt + aA13t. + V..9·J 35.../ c) dt . Mechanics _.. -e9...) III ° - e ...22) e .2 A ill .c 71 ~I. To verify -+ (2. e1. + le)(l:~)* !tIC + ezt22 V + +~} 2 2m.. a'* -(~ * a~/at + Va~* /at)~ -1t<+ . Fe.r.ITjJ ..Pjl. hence explicitly dp/dt - T .). hence d x/dt ii[p.... Tak.. x ':t is - ':t .. . p2/2m * .*A·V./3t . -to -(P-e.a (because of gauge invariance this 1s nolos3 1ty)~ Voj - 2~[~*(92w)-~(92'*)1 - :CC. .3) Froill(2) and (3) ~ .. (1l<e.6.-e[Pi.• .... m c Now dp/dt.-) C 1a A ..-e~..Solutions 41 -eAj/c] .. .../c)'1j:C\. ve may eliminate V·-V2 result is + H:-). :r "" -e (vq. -+ T ~'A aA or sy..*} the (. . + +(r). hence setting F.7 ye have dx/dt .)etc x (9XA)].IS x dx/dt }] and hence To verify ilp/at + "Q. e"" + Cat + -[ dx/dt -:.1 d:. • ..xmtetrizadon this' can be (2. then R• (p-eA/c)2/2m. + ~(dd~·1.c 7\ 12 • A.*·t.. Let us work of general- Coulomb gauge we find 9·A ...0 (the continuity equation) with j .!eX(lo~). HI. {-\\22v2. Thus dd(p-4/c) t d. SchrBdinger (1) This can be simplified further by using the t1me-dependent III equation (2) i)£a.j .·-i){ilF/dxi• FroQ problem 29 of Chapte~ 1 we bdve (Pi' A(~) .Q.~IIII (V*9"... Now (p-eA/c. 1 let us note that from.. .. 2'" 2 • -(dp/dt .-ap/at. + ~(:~'A) and By .R] d"i:/dt_ ~ cat .Aj!c] .27).-i){"4l.)2 - p2 - {2t°P . + II1C eZA2* • + 2m2t:2 .27).(p-eA/c)/m.. with H • (p_eA/c)2 + ...Modern Quantum..-aA/dt).e have [J!1. ' vritten (1-) as dIl/dt • e[~ + tc<dx/dt -:to 1.e Ho .6.e[At!c. ien can De written as j}( h 2im[~ *+ v~ :to .

ie\(aA x c /ax . then [x.p ... gauge 9·1 '"0. Compare Eq. where n = 0. (a) (p -eA I e x x ie\(B/c.. .(l) ~ith the one-dimensional simple harmonic oscillator 2 HSHO . w "leal/me.~(Bxr).../ay) I = ieKB/c. A. (just like [x. (b) From -cIT Hence . we have H <:: H _ eBLz e2B2 ? + s=z(x~y 2mc o mc Hence we are led to the correct netic moment Zeeman effect expression for the interaction There of the orbital mag- (e/2~c)twith the magnetic contribution. ••••••• . proportional field B. it is suggestive that ~e define X. A ] .rr y J "" ieKB/c. + n IIDJ 22 x /2 So evidently of (1). p y -eA y leJ . Thus in Coulomb 2 ). the subst1tutio~ (Note: (2) we know E = Kw(n~).1. = y len.A] + c c ~~ A2.Solutio~$ ~p.) still add translational Pz' kinetic. So the final answer ~....~2k2/2m + KleB!(n~). the relation c tn x .. P for ~hich immediately commutation IZm..2.~[p x' c (IT • IT x y y 1 + ~[p y c. are continuous.._. ~ along z .p] . energy in the z-direction..direction. and ~e note that 40 _. Un . is Ek . = h 36.n The eigenvalues me Mk. The Hamiltonian then reads (1) ~here p z is same as IT because z A z "" O.p can be ~ritten as -....n x ] irl..aA.42 Modern Quantum Mechanics . .. -I- t.p • ~'(rxp) B . we the same We must of get the energy relations eigenvalues Yo 11 and X satisfy x as p and for the harmonic oscillator r problem. is also the quadratic contributes to to B2Cx2+y2) in H which the "diamagnetic susceptibility1! X appearing A as an energy I shift = -7 4 XB2.

Choose next B T ~ m~ll*). and is the time in which the part:'cle.Modern Q\.. 2 1't'1!2 for B B where 2 is turned on in a region (dr.Solutions 43 Consider the paths CD and <%l • and the tva vave functions *1 and = O.1'JJ1 above) of length length in a time T given 'I 1. is related to Now +'2b Furt. Vd~. (1) ..l Le t us focus our at ten tion on pa th @. ){2/2mi(2. 2c regions 2 ~~ H' '"P 12m + ~n~O'B for 2b region -e~/2mc.: rnJ.!antum Mechanics . ye find a. we find Be z (and remind exp[-(. the neutrons 'Will cross the above by = tIt and p ../T . Hamil tonian H '"" where ~= 1 Ho = p2/2m for 2a. If 1/1 B '" O. the external B-field the is acting on 1s Therefore T = m~k/~. No'. Then 1j12=ei°tPl since by symmetry jtP 12=.iT/f{){l\2/2m1{2 + gnll.nd lP2d : e-iH C t/}{-i41 W e 2a .:.'!}]' Noting that p 2 12m = .2a' W2d (wave function screen @) is given where t is the time of transit exp'[-iH'T/iiJ that c along CD from 2b to 2d..hermore iPZa via at the time evolution via path op~rator -viz: by ¢2b =e-iHT/1I\j..

Il""l:\!:>i4>tl.produces g wo the = n _m. (1) and (2) We see that ~xima no "effect" on phase in region 4a to 2b). 1 41%£ -:. From Eqs.IS IN Ii_. 1.. therefore occur for 4 •• (3) 34t:z bAt 4.e.OSit 2'(:.l)._~B/V\_1 z ~ For path· @we r. .1 6 .lJ see )l2 (1 \ a -1 G)h'O 1d whe re "ld is "ave func t10n at Screen via pa tn <D and t is the time 0 f tr. (2) from Ib to 1d...A change in B.

'[/a. ::1 is normalized.\=+1) and 1 (i) (fot" 1 we have S'ow 5 J aJ 2 A=-1).7) and (3. . hence [0' -A!J~ ~ 0 ala = I.-. sin~ = 2aol-.a)(a . ~/Z $+ (and Sy$_ = -~/2 ~_).o+iaJ ~al-a2 it is evident that det(A " det[A(A) (b) t -1 -] = t 2222 l/det(A ) '" 1/(a +a +a +a ).10).a) . tion is The general situa- rep=esented by an electron in sPin-s~ate (~). Roots' of secular equation are !1....... Thus det U ~ olZ3 t -1 detA det(A) '" I. (:) .: -a3/1~1.. 2 * = 8 [1-ZIm(a8 )] if(~) 2. y ~~ay and we know that Sy1P+ ..) (for .Chapter J 1.. -i(A=+l).I ny :: -a/lal. 72 + 1812 '" hence 1( 72-~ ....:::.3. Also from no~11zation 1/1 .A' '" t.. hence the probability that electron will be found in ~+ with eigenvalue +K/Z when Sy 1s measured is 1<lp)Syl(:»! 2 =. The secular equation equation leads to [0 -AI1~ y is det(~y-~I) = O.2)/a. + Now since A z:: ( a. -+- -1 >... therefore U is unitary.. 45 . ~ and nz . therefore U is unimodular . t-l ) = Compare with (3. t 0 1. Ij+ ~ ala = +i(A=-I).I A(At)-l • than UUt = A(At)-IA-IAt a 2 2 ZA 2 a +al+aZ+a3 ~ t ::z Likewise U U '"1. K 2 (7z) l+ia+SI 1 'z 2 n. A(AA )-!. (a) Write U as U '" (a 0 + 10' .'.3. we rind angle and axis of rotation appropriate for U as co4 OIl (a! . where eigenfunction ~ . nx '" -~l/I. ia. y satisfies = O.. .

we have 8--<-0. ~'1 (i) is E+ +AYt2/4 not thereThe expect- fore an eigenvector ation value can to.1 O. and I00> a 1. 'ire diagonal. Hence IJI+ := (~) (b) Ai-D.Solutions The coup Led r epr esen cat.{!s.n .. 42 42 2 We are interested t . (e-) x_ (e+) h ence a.m> = ~ls. we have for s = 1 (spin 1 par- .Lcn 3. 11-1>= I-->..m±l>. eB/mc F 0 we have' 8= /2. s2Is.A¥2(l de t [(H)-E.8) leads to normalized s~n2 . has: Ill> '" 1++>.. So we are interested in the piece of Hamilt- The eigenvalue E+ equation is OOlf! =0 E1j.r here E satisfies ..40 :"lodern Quantum Mechanics .m>.cA~2." 2eB/mc. . "" .. and S z. S x Using ladder operations S+ . s1n for E+ and $_ .t.m> and S z 15. + However the spin function of syswhich corresponds to tem is xie the - )x~e') 1+->= ~4110> ~4IOO> *+ :0 with E+ = +eB~/mc In as the respective case eB/mc4{l.. = where tane We have =1p= ~(AM2)±~[ (A¥h 2+4(eB){/mc/l~ (~) • + 2/cos8). S +1S . eigenvector and eigenvalue.Al{. 2~(+->_ 1_"4 -+» "'hile 81. unc ti on a f th e system g:i.2/4• corresponding Our spin function 1 +-) ..m> = [s(s+l)-m(m±l)]~. S ': y -is y where s+_ls. For W+::: (8) ~ the eigenvalue equation cos- .82 ::: -51-52)/2.!. so in which 52.. f~r and ~ . 'f a. be computed by noting that = <+-IHI+-> = ~[<l~IHIIO> + <ooIRllo> + <lO!Hloo>'+ <ooIHloo>] 4.Venby x+ . for E_ 6 -cosZ '11' eigenvectors (a) In the Case A-+D... hence t +eB~/mc and ~_::: =1/12 (1//2 ) and *+ = (i~:1) for E+ = for E_ : _ eB~/mc.m> X a s(s+1)~2Is. he +- contri- bucion arising£rom onian 110> and 100>.\2/4 _ 3A)(2/4] =_ J. (~l) for E_ = -3A¥.. 110> c ~4(I+-> + 1-+».. Choose a representa. (S .tion ~[A." z (.n th e spxn .a definite energy eigenvalue..!.

(3.· In terms of Euler ang- ..KIJ S 0 = 1\(/IZ {K2.. 2 -} [KZ/IZ' Kll'l{.I) = S (54 z.y.1.+' Substitute K and H into . ~J' (b) 'S2"" 2'rf' S (5 zz 'l!.KZ ./I 3 {K '1' K} 3' dK /d 1 t = 12 - 1J {K K} d 21 1) 2' 3 • an Z - 11 ar 1y d 2.. . hence dKi/dt = reduces to !i~i ~ = Ii~i' Then the Heisenberg equation (i.Modern Quantum Mechanics -Solutions cide) 47 5= x (a) )I. . rotation angle dc. The Heisenberg equation DE motion is dK/dt ::~(H..that is the Euler's equation 6.'li.f.X2I) [° ~~ ~ a J axis S (5 . KI.. => -? i ..I) (5 .3) .K := v.:.j...7) II (E:)U (c) .S.[KZ. (Ij-Ik)wjwk of motion. this equation. + 'l!..KI) = 2 system of axis)..2. of 1.ID [K. since same quantity S x 15 considered with quantization instead of S • z 5..z 0-1 01 -J{r~ ~ I~0-1 ..This resul t is phyxx sically reasonable.U -(f:)U (~) x y y ~ =...I1.. O.-i~K3 (true for a rotating we have O~.-+ .\it) = xx x S (S2 ." • and since r} 1... .!I). i. IJ' 0 z 5 ~ ~~ [ i O-i • s ~ y Z ai0 z . K1l.1: .. then U must satisfy for infinitesimal -1.-1 K} 21311 3"1' The correspondencel~mit gives KiKj = KjKi and K1 = Iiwi. :.. 1..k cyclic permutation of motion for K.y~z axes respectively. KZ../I2..XZI) = (~3/212)x[Ol where (01 is the null matrix.It(K 'K /. If U ~epresents the rotation with Euler ang~es a..e 1G 3• E: = 2 U (0: ) z and represent infinitesimal rotation~ around x.K3} and similarly SJ. 2~[ 010 1 + 0 1 0I "'t. we have ZaK/dt K[K1/l1+"'-Z!I2+K3/I3' Klel+K2e2+K3e3]' i 2- ••2 2 Take the Now first comp-onent for definiteness. e have 2dK1/dt = ~[K~/I'2+K./I3. K1] := -V.I) (S ... ..

etc.+sin-e ia/2 <+ . + 1-><+1) Ia> <aI S)a> ~ ~<a I (1+><-1 = .2 a.. . - _1 So U AKU -.-y) /2 -e .e a- i(~+Y) /2 (1) cos but this is equivalent to (c.8. [Gi." =t ~iAt is the connecting equation between unrotated operators and operators ~fter rotation. of Tay 1or series in U (£)U (£)-U (£)U (e) £: = U z (c ) .. A i are unrotate d operators~hile U -~U are operators under rotation. hence <ml~ln> transforms like a vector.f.Solutions Ie rotation Ux(E) = e-iG3rr/2eiG2EeiG3w/2.noaern Quantum Mechanics . /21 a +> + sinie -10. i.y)". 12SJ.9) . <mIA_lln>'" -1<.ni . From U ~~U '" Ak .Jj] = iEijkGko Compare with commutation relatior.Y) (c. ->. Tr v<~) (0./2. t ~.1.{ B e -{cos-e -ia/2 <.. J 1/)(' = i~eijk!k' ve find 7.G3] iGI and [G).GjJ (Ji.3. iG3• and similarly (G2.1. But this is the same as vec toz transformation v: .9) corresponding is equivalent 2COS~ c 1(-1>.n a "__ (cos~ (-in in:z:sine~ (-in -n )sinx y e )2 a (~) (2) +n ) a1n-2 xy A cos z + ~nzsin2 e to rotation about some axis n through an angle e'..'") e.21) -i(a-y) V (k) 2 (a.s for J.B. is such that cosZ .p = iG2.. 2 x y y x Ex- pan d e iG1E • e iG2£ • and e iG)C in terms.GIl ...:and compare coefficients of # 2 2 on both sides. thence = 2co~~cos(a~) or e• 2cos-l[cos~cos(aiY)] 9. e SJ.9) - (o:. where ve have used (3. to V(~) Since V (r.e.) (il... S We are given that V(~)(a.tAi' we obtain for matrix elements E lL q<mjA t -1<_ i In>.. 2 B .niB) .3.:: III a cosZe 10.8.2.B.19).·viz:Gi . E i K ~iVi' 8. (a) A general state in spin ~ system can be Yritten as (suitably normalized) Ia> Then <Sx> .Y)" e ( -i(a+y) /2 iCo.). (~.f. (3. obtaioed The operators _1 after rotation are just c0mbinations of unrotated operators..-'.. 22" 2 I I] Ia> . we have Tr V(ls.45» V oo (.

Solving Eqs. (1)-(4).• t 100 !UtCt..13» I.lo.t )p(t )Uf(t. d= ~[1-2[S ]/~J.la 1 ~ •• t ><ai.t ~ 0 : U(t.t a o )la .Solutions Similarly 49 .Modern i'I 8 -ia/2 .8) at time t. bc.e. the .t a 0 !)x ut(t. From (3.2(t a ) == pCt 0 ).t )p2(t 0 a )Ut(t. -(b-c) 2 2(b+c) (1) (2) (3) (5 ] "" !i Trf(a b)(l z 2 " c d 0-1 0)] ""-(a-d) 2 )'i and the no~alization Tr p "" condition is: (4) 1 or (a+d) ~ 1.9) form we see that the det1sity matrix of an ensetnble of spin 1 systems has .t ) :. If we know hence x >.l. 0 t=O we have a pure ensemble (hence p (3.Tr{(~ 2 b)(O-i) i0] i~ . the density pet) "" ~ w.4..nc and b <$ specify a we not the magnitude of y >.• ~ t 0 >~ then a ) [c ... z nx y nx y z 10. <$ > we can obtain Sand need to know sign COSa.t )pet )Ut(t. U(t. c= 5[[5 J+i[S 11.t )p(t 0 )Ut(t.4.. (5 x y ] = 2: Tr[(~ . ~ 1 ~ 1 operator p(c) reads In the Schr8dinger picture lai. 11.t ) a idempotent = Uet.t }p(t )Ut(t.• ~ t ><a . z <Sz> = and <S ~ y to but know =- ~2sinBsina. (b) Let p "" (: d ) be the density matrix in the S We have i{ Z basis. }{ ~)(~~)] "" d [S J .0Ze cosie J <$ = B 2s~n COSt.t ).t ) o 0 0 = pet) and is also idempotent hence we have a pure ensemble at time t also. B +io/2 B +io/2 + sl.U(t.i ".t )U(t. z(cosz:e 51nie ~cosa 2 However «5 y » Quantum Mechanics j{. e -ia/2 :. The ensemble average of an operator 0 is [0] ""Tr[pO]. .t> p{:::) '" Li w. But coo = U(t. (a) Take (3.t ) (b) At.tl.4.sign of s i.t ) a 00· 0 0 o 2 (z ) = D(c.t><o. 2 (r) = U(t.t )(Liw.~[{S 1-i[5 11. we obtain for elements of the density matrix a=~[l+[S 1/~]. .

Solutions 2.e. e.- for being in states !' other than = j=m. hovevs r the.2 '= !<j.2. Alternative Calculate To order !j. [SxJ• of [SyJ.m=J . by c 2j I Z. [S S 1> r S2 I. is given by URU . and 1.. y 3) [S S J. [S s 1.m=j!URlj.m=j>l2 = found 1 .{in the amplitude) (i/'n)Jyc!j.z ] ere related acterize 12.5.m..f are real. e a. Evidently +Ij.m=j> state gets populated. However 1 (3 . If we knov [s x y' parameters (S y are needed to characterize need five more independen~ [S2]. Tr p '" and b.m=j>'= <J >.11).MO<1er-n (Jl. = !t<j.. = .m.. 9 independent variables.Iantum ctec. where from J Y Y = _~(J2+J2_J +- +- J -J J -+ J.m""j> Probability = (1 . i.~. Rotated to measurement of 'dipole mo~ents the particles and to completely char- a spin state 1 system we need-the five compQnents of the quadrupole tenso~.. z x' !S z J. Looking 1 at the matrix .m=jIURlj. extra coad tPhysically [5 t Lcris are not independent (Sz~.m=J .e '-''2 complex. have a+d+f the density quan t Lz Le s .m=j> :: !j.m=j-l>. The UR!j.5.4.:j>.iJyelK - (J~h2 /2f{2 .J2 (3. state is reduced So the answer (f or our pro- elements we have . !"Ie x They are: [S S 1.).40) y «J the expectation values 2 of J • J . yz r szSx J of may not be real. ) lj .hanics. P= where since ( \ c* e* f b* d b C. J.d. yz yx Note (over [5 S J. is amplitude for being found in the original state We must evaluate ve have.m=jlJ J =1 2j"~2/4 •. X.Y. J.39) and' Y )2>. and only 8 independent matrix. So <j. Y J.!"ijf. x 1.m~j> Hence (2j~2/2~24)£2 + probability to order f.m'='j> - solution: the probabilit~ amplitude only m=j-l . probability fer being found in the original ·blem) is 13.:j> ¥'1II\j. Y = (J -J )/2i +- 0 and from (3..

to ies sphericai basis representation.. ... the infinitesimal rotation finite rotation can be obtained from compounding .~-[(OinCij .0jiCtn)) = == ~2(OuOjn .Solutions (G1.°1jOtn) . ._G this unit. This the J's and G's are related via a rotation in the group space. j (j""l).eijkC-iitek1. of the rotation group (irreducible)..j and kare he indices) is the rov and column G3 = i)l.. re..~.~ (tmi1£mnj- 2 emjtemnil . t.\. 1..ary matrix transforms the Cartesian space representation gular momentum operator. + (G -AI)?. Lie algebra (and they both form. \1 00 000 (0 -1 0) and eigenvectors and the eigenvalues are obtained from' equation The eigenvalues .Gjltn" 51 !CiGtGjGiltn II (Gt)lm(Cj)mn - (Gj)lm(Gt)mn. a group). Since the G's and JIS satisfy the s~ they are just different representations Therefore.. r 0 -1 i o 12 i -lc3-AII = O.. = . to iD ..ijk .(OjnOt1 .rl) i){E:.~inOjl) ~ j\2£kij'ktn =- i'ri. A is a root of here can be readily seen to be ~=O. U GiU ~here U is made up of the eigenvectors t o f G3• The explicit form of G3 (from (CiJjk = -i~(..)" n ...:0 3 and orthonormal eigenvectors .£jimeimn1 ? 2 = . = 2~ 1 Hence U = 2~ 1 (1 0) 0 • of the an- ar. Le.~ [£itm£jmn ..Modern Quantum Mechanics .) "k(Gl.

oo-rdinates. + iJ SO J2 .. and in Bta~e mL • -1 is P-1 ... ' ~ ~ . ..e. 2-: -1+) + 3c. (1)). c_'lIj..J_ljt:l> ve have' on the other hand <jm!J+J_ljm>2 m • Ic_l2.. cos~ :!: 1sio.)V2"+ VCr) . (a ) Since Y 11 «sin6e it: is evident that iofl •Y 1-1 . while the Schr8dinger equation (_1l2/2m.. of and then' use the fact the \movefunction.. Z {j (j+l) j(.... Yhile using So J+J __ 32_J2+*J ? (j(j+l)_m2+myY. the eigenfunct:ion is t} a Nov our 't(~) .. .'t 1. 9/11 ..1 is !l .. the SchrBdinger equatand therefore . ~(x) -+ 15. into Schr8d1nger e<tuation.~) rZ and the fact thatF(e •• ) is a linear (2) in (2) we have used (346a28) of spherical to harmonics cotObin.. v(.Solutions 14.m-l> (or J_lfIjm . - (b) 'Let us vrite sine· e (it.c_lj.! ae) . l/lla (e) The proc~dure for finding function is the potential V(r) is firs.' 0 state for particle is 9/(9+1+1) . V VB i2ar(r dr' + r2[S'i'neae(sin i 1 a e4.. 1.1/11. lej+m) C-m+l) Thus J_!jm> .+ 1 a 2~ S:!.Po' Similarly the probabilities to be: found in the state =t . + sine3in~'+ 3cos9). sin6e is an -H • YIO c cose. + J+J - . ~ [ ~ 1_(r23R) or ar ar where _ 1(1+1)R(r)lF(e. Henee for 1'.osG (1) The probability 0 for the partic. 0 2 and by convention ..~J • :t (b) we have on the one hand <jmIJ+. .52 Hcde~n quantum Hech~nics .. ion leads _~2 1 a -(-2 -(r 2m r 3r 23R 2 -) . ER(r).( 2 - (j+m) (j-tlri-l)K.m-l)' i..~ .leto be found in the m1. Rewrite the 'W2Ive function in sp-he-rical c.." ~ • .- tion (c..2. E"..rica1 coordinates 2 13 2.. -~ ~.J2 2: yx J -1J J + J2 • J2 + J2 -i(J J -J J ) xy y ~ y "Y)'X.!:J!. while of +i~ e. ~' .. _ + m].a.-.th 1." In spbe.R(r)F(S..) eigenfunction t2 vi.n2@d~Z 1 . -.f ...t to substitute that the ~&Ve..+). rf(r) (sinecoa.-ZR} 3r r + V(r)R(r). \Ie choose c: le_1 2.

L2llm> z = m-~2. Similarly <L y :> . In the classical corresterms of the corresponding expec- +2 2 2 2 .-·cot9(i/Z)e iiJI/2 (sinS] ::e-i.2 = ~H2(t(1+1)-m2) + ~~2(t(t+l)_m2) + = i(t+l)~ = <L >.+l)-m(tn+l)} 2 Similarly 2 <Ly> "" <tmi-~(L+L+ .m) while <hdL+L+I.m> :: c_(1.lll> :: c:.L_L+ + L_L_) I £.'1 gives -i"... )\2 c+(£.{2. = c+(t.6.$/2f(8) (-i~e cotO~t)y~. ~{c:(t.) + c+O .Jm.39) "" 'r\(.Soluti.t.tlt...m)} = 4{2._(.-.m> '" 0 since <tmltm'> :: 6mm .ssical· t219. .s . we solve for Y~. Y~J_~(e.m>.5. U/2 r-. = ~2 III 2 11m>. 1 -i and from (3.$). another ar- angular IOOmenr-..~(e.~) form y~.l(t+l)~ and <L > .m.m+l)} 2 {1(1+1)-m}..$) ~ O.trolL y Itm> :... x =< <lml4_(L++L .Hodern Quantum Mechanics VCr) .(t. . Since (c.: that y~. pondence L '"' .f. Hence <Lx> <.+l)-m(m-l)+1(f.)Ilm> .Ill)lt..m)c_(t.> • Semicla.ml1(CL+L+ + L+L_ + L_L+ + L_ L_) !. (b) From 0 ~ ~ e.!1>. The answer is Y~.ons S3 = E .2.~(6.40) L.+1)-m(ro:!:l»)'1lt.5.m-l) + . against e -iip/2 (sine)./2(sinaJ-~cose .cotOi~]~ and we may deduce as usual. '" 1t£c_.~)~ e' ~S1ne from L+Y~.. (a) Apply L - to Yl1 ~. and L_L+I.13» L:t = -i){e!1$[::l:i.2.2.m=l> = 2"(L+-L_).> c+(i. + L + L expresses itself L x y z tation values.m+l)!f._~(e..\21(1+1) 11m> . .m> 2.: <f._~ Comparing gumant.~ in and obtain solution for fee) a: i from defining differential equation.m>: l«tml interpretation: We know z (L+L_+L_L+) 11m> that = <L..(2.m> "" 0 since states of different m values are orthogonal.!iLy' 'We have Lx .~ /mr 2 2 )(2 1 d2 + 2m rR dr2(rR) (3) From Lt ""Lx. Now <L. -~ (a) and (b) lead to contradictory half integer t for orbital.2.L+L_ .m)c_(1. 22 m~ in and indeed <L2> + <L2> + <L2> x y z 2-).m-l)ltlll> <.l!.m> But L+L_I !l. results.tmJL_L_I. O._~(e. ~(L++L_) and Ly and (3.m)c+(t.:X = 2 ~<imIL+L_ + L_L+!im> '. .: .(. (3.9) ~ e a rrrrz: rrrrz: [-ias(e i4>/2 ~s1n6) . So this is .tm>. "2 2 2 Thus <L > .m. Hence <L2.

1 j2"'1..m • t.Ij.1> - Ij.m-2> .O) From table for ~-2 m' .j2-1. .5.mere The nOtrVl!:.46) and (3.m'Ix.. ~od~~ ~Jant~rn: Hech4nics . 20. Than (I)ean be i. asin S.m "±1. : !(~cos O It 22 B-1) \2.51» for finding 11. 2. & t4iJbu:.o add angular mo~nta': jl .!..m} elgenkets in terms of ljlj2. m !l. (3.m-I>.... elements of i:::!: are from.m2-!'1. 1++> and \->.e.m'>D(~)(R) mm is given ..£.m2..Solutions From (3.~.n_>" 'n+n_IU+-l.(J1_ GJ .m' IK+I j ~m> "'/(j+m+l) (j-m+l)6 j ...1 to form :J. l4!j-2.. i(u++l) (0_+1) In~r+l. Ij-2~m-2>" The simplest statec like'lo7ise Ij-2._ EB J2.l.6.. K_lny.40 a .tI?l> .40) method we have J _ . J1. ..S'rBO) 12 .a. 19.Ij. is unity as (c.e. Appendix A).~m2~' are jl-l. 1 for oz Using the ladder operator convenience) fr01!1 (3.mIIV(R)!i:.6. t?.:'!:!: 2eos Ssin 8. raising and lowering_ opf!rators for j '" (!'t++n_)/2 .n_+l>.4 lab U• -. K+ln.m So the probability '> - ~ E.. and 10+"0_> + . (2) 1 . t.12_)!jl . Ex- press all nine {j. (c.0 states... we have V(R)j.. m'-±2: is easy to check that the totalprobab1l1ty (summed over mt) expected. 1210+> + 12{+o>. (n++n_)/Z and m'" T:rrittenas (n+-n_)/2. We are •. i' . ..I(j+m) (j-m+l) ~-1.1. Here K+ = a+8_. K_ are the... mt .! «l""O.by vhere m ~ 0 initially..pn_> tt a+a_" Rence in the Sch~~nger scheme (1) 1'1!- . E. So J_!jl:!2.. the probabilities are 322 .j+I !Sm'.54 18. K+.n_-l:. i.i MPUt£1k= £.m> ·{(j+m)(j-m)~jl j .nishing o++tl_ corresponds matrix <j' to the total nUI!l:berof spin ~ "particles"... 1 (4v/2!+l)~'(eD8.and j2 .and (setting.\· J_lj .m • (3) <j'.moo2' Le.6. Let j .m> .m'> lV~.f.K_.tc> . 3 I.= 1«5.48)..m>.1.and..m:'><1.

No~ J_ij02._. ing next to the two sides = 1-+» and similarly 11-1> i~(:o->- we have 110> ~ hq. have = (4~/2t+l)1 So I y 0 o (e==S.5. 1 2 1j02 .ld(j)(B)/2m ~ m'coss. Finally we may write !j. and recogni- J0 j 7 (R)J Z OCR) Ijm'>:: ."1:..52) d(~) = COS! [ sin2 S"" (3) For m' => l:i case. -10+». i. Since <21111 > ~ 0 by orthogonality. r to be real we have and 0. ~<jm' n == T61~ we . therefore states.B.real.~odern Quantum Mechanics . With normalizaChoosApply- 1 a 12+ J Ib 12 c we have a+b cO.111=0> :: that d~~3(B) ~~ = (1-1-> _ /00> + 1-+».m=O> and jj=2.5. .<jru' n m--J lot (R)J z !jm><jml-O(R) (1) We Similarly since only q' == 0 contributes.O.). (a) I).alization lul + !e1 + hl == 1 and Orthogonality to jj=l. 161 j~2 .( 121-0>+212/ 0->+212)-0>+121 1+-.m==-1>= Ij~2.l0.s.Also + 1+0') I 0 1-+' + 2! 00' m=Q>=: J_i j=2.. 1-0». ~ mE_j[<jm!V(R)[jm'> 12 ID..m=-O>.~=O)m' = m'cosS. we have m=-J.m=O> = al+-·> + sloo> + yl-+>.y by 2 2 2 nor-...moO' Hence [ h(10+' . B. q O(l~*(R)T(~) oq q (3. h.m~1' 0 h(I(}!-' 55 + I-Kl') . (2) finally from (1) and (2). '" Recall (3.5.50) <jm!VCa=:o.m=-1> = For the j=1 t ion i~(I-o>+[o-». 0 (J _ (l) J _) ..moQ' 0 ~"( 1-+'+21 0'+1+-.Y=O)!jrnl.m~1' + ~ I6lj-2. we have from (3. ChOOSing 21. 0 0-». (from <J'mJ/OCR)IJ·m'> where VtCR)J OCR) ".e.Solutions Ij~2.22a» have [jmf> zing that Jz is a first rank tensor with q~O. determine a.:. we can write Ill> '" ~4.([+O> respectively. 1'lIIIl' i Check for j=~. ~j . let us recognize that Ill> ::alO+> +bl+O> c 1. ing out" phase convention J1_ EllJ2_ to be.51) Z I j:==0.

1 y. for j=l y • on.. (3. (4) = <jm'IV(R)J.4~) we derive easily <jm <joo' IJy I jm> "" ~i[ {j (j+l)-m(m+l) '1j .h.m> (3. k 00=-) 1 .h.1) (a) We have y = 2i(J+ .Solutio~s 2e l. (b) From (3. l.J_)..6. Hence V(R)J. i BJ· Y I' Jm .5...h.s(-sin2) 82 . for m' of (3). Now -~ case.s.0.h.5.2 (3cos26 . at - .n) ! + m=o~ E sIll in power series (-iJ allO 2m+l pta. e-iJ Y.1 e jr m=>-j <' Jm: 'I 2 • e -i8J Y J z Jm > <Jm e iSJ Y Jm >= 1" I '1"' <' I I e -i8J y J2 i8J Y I"Jm Jm ze I> . we find J2 z = !(J2 + y(2» 3 0 .. of (3) = ~cos 2 + (-~)sin 2~ 2S 4cosB ~ r.vt(R) = ~jZ + Therefore (4) can be recast k'o k' J • as ~V(R)y~2)V~R) with V(L\.i SJy)tn > <)00. z using the spherical (ir~educiJ2 ble) tensor language. > ~ .h.s. = (J I~) y and (J 1~)2n = (J 1~)2 where m and n are -iJ ..s: of (3). of (3) "" !. j 22.5. O1=-J Hence Lm 2 \d(j)C6)12J m'm3 = !'('+1) J + !<"m'!V(2)(332_j2)I'm'> 3J 00 zJ· . D* . (-~)cos 2: "" -4cosB "" r. m--~-J"m Jm ~ 2.m'IJ y for m and ro' =-·+1. .ed in and j=l one finds th~ matrix form for !j=l.51). only k'=O contributes and V(2) (from (3. we note d~~~(B) ~ OO=-J = <jm'le-iBJyljrn>.amine t~e rotational properties of . y elK = [ By .51). (b) Unlike the j=~ case. with ~=l. I" .5.-1 as clepict.54).53). and in fact ve have (J /~)2m+l positive integers. .s.m+l>-/j (j+l)-m(m-l) <jm' I j •m-l> J and therefore <j:l. of (5).50). _-----z. and (3.~ere 12 is a scalar under rota- tion and y~2) is a spherical tensor of rank 2. _g h a j i a _- 3M .)y~2)Vt(R)::: '~_2D~~~Y~~).s.LY [J(j=1)12 Y y is independent _ y of _ and J(j=l).m21 d (j ) (Q) p m'm !2 = - < . expansion of the exponential e n=o ' <-iJy8/H)2n (2.5.Vt(R)!jm'> If ~e eX. (~+1)Sin26 + J 01.rn Quantum Mechanics 28. 1· then using (3.m2!d(j)(S)!2::: ootm 1"("+1) + J 3 J 1 k'=-2 ~ 3 <J'm'IV(2)y(Z)I '00'> 00 (5) In the last term on r. I e .

1(J 1~)s1ua • y (c) Insert the 3x3 matrix form for Jy from (a). "11/2 and --.1+c.li->] J.x . -sin6/fi.5.0: . The same is true for slx because there 1s no preferred spatial direction. where 1s (3.<(1282 T 21 jlDIl.57).% yield equal probabilities for sl.£. . A must obtain -~/2.282""2! j"~ I Ct1f\ y 1> (1) tr.'I 0-1 (2n) ! . 25. Ls: q d(l)V(l) qq 1 q' •~ C~OSB -125106 nsin6 . .-2~[1+-> .. (a) Since B Dlakes no measurement there are equal probabll1t1e.!2~rIi+> . . n20nnt&jj'&IlQ" therefore j.1£11 Y1>· <0. No~ therefore a1zi-I-+>} • 2 r~s p1c~ed the second piece of • vhich is ~ (ll) Since we kno-".~~dern Quantum Mechanics _ 1 +. 2cosS i1») l-cos:)(VVel) -l:2s108 v~l) 0 • (V(ll" l-cosa /i'sinS . ( "8)2n( l)n Solutions III 57 -i(J ''It) y m·o t ( +6 )2oH· ..3) Su because x ~s. [sl (-l!/2)tr we cannot. ] . . (J 1'/1.s. ~i-+>..c'osa . .1y .I-+>J. (3. into the exponent131 of part (b) above. ve fin~ dU-1)(8) .... (J .osi3 v~l)' ) hl (1) v_ • ... 1+Cos8 2 sine/Ii vhich 23.><j~ that J. e -iJ y ~/}i I 1+cos8 sinB/1i l-cosS 2 1..)l(l-eosS) . For S tot.)2 r + ."/2.~/2.9. .that B1zY- -1-+>. . i.. (b) New B measures s2% . predict .e.(3.p 0 and li-> .8 for measuring 51: to be ~/2 and -~/2.lj'm'n" . 8% (1) Since S1% + 8 2% • O.15). j ~j ' . (-1) (2m+l) : ...54). We viI! represent states as in (3.e loh.5. o·f (1) 1s TJe note <jmnIJ.7.n n2vJwn(Q262Y2)vJm:(Ct161Yl)·· (Solution courtesy of Professor Thomas Fulton) 24.as itL . IJ'm tn' ><j 'm'n' 10.

. .-. Ql q2 (3 ) . rotations from the transformation properties x.h..._ .2q>u(1)v(1) . about the y-axis.- __ ...~-+.l tensors of rank kl and k2 respectively. _..(1)".QlQ2Iklk2. • x + Therefore x + vii)! = V cosB..x yz (b) For kl = k2 ::: I. V U(l)V(l) ) -1 1 .Q2 we have T(2)= Q <11iQlQ211l. . __ ..y. Vi x = V cosS + V sinS. k "".. we have xyz -cosS V x 112 V x iV y lIZ - sinS z -sinB cosj3 V + cosS V (2) x 112 ..~21~COSB V == -(V'+iV')//2 x y and v(l) t x 112 - sinB 1/2 V(l) 0 I =: VI z ::: -sinS V z =(V'-iV')/12 xy ~osB V x /12 .....iV Y lIZ + sinB.27) X(k1) and Z (k2) are in-educible ql ' q2 Then r(k)= q spherica..cis to V V' ::: Y • V z V Y -iv y + Vi z V = Z V z cosS ..z (a) Let us take (3...z T(l) -1 = T(l) 0 4[-(U x -iU y )V z + (V -iV )U J x y z - \[0 x v y 2 - UV] y :x: ~ (2) T1(1) = ~[-(U +iU)V + (V +iV )U J ' x yz ..'.. of of V (1) .h. are just the expectations hich.-"-~.the r.10...~..z x..-. "'_'_J • .iV y 112 + sioB V z 1/2 y-axis But a rotation through a~gle B about le.... q L [<klk2.Qlq2111.V .."!!~ .Solutions Rewrite r.... _._~..2..... 11(_u(l)v(l) -10 + u(1)y(1» o -1 • T(l) 0 "" 2~ 1 !: (u(l)v(l)_ -1 and... ~e have In terms of U x·..h.. is a spherical hence T(l).---.. under 26... ~. x z ... 1: [<ll...y. of (2) indeed gives r. Er Ql..s.Iuantum Mechanics .nUUC'Ln i.lq>U (1)V (1) ql q2 ql qz --1 2~ (1) From (1) • we have .V x sinS..z 112. where Thus.V ).V. 'in terms of (V ..y.kq>x(kl)ZCk2) ql Q2' ql q2 For our problem kl (irreducible) tensor of rank k.s.s.. •• ~ . = k Z Z k _ 1.

ZX Y (4) T(2) . T2i) . y T (2)".. .k.31). a central. u2i)v~~). ~(U -1U )(V -iV ).t. x.~[(U -iU)V -2 x y x y -1 xy + U (V -1V )1.____(_(U -iU )(V +1V ) + 4DzV .u(l)v(l) ~l +1 • ri2) V X.'. <1l.Y."71 fol'U three components of a spherical teDsor rank 1.m> or 1+L' .. unless ='cm+q..3) <11:mZ. are eigenstatea s1.Solutions 59 'I~i) .:. the ·In~t.I.L'.:1(U I x +iU)V yz + U (V 4X +iV)l.(-lr!.(xtiy) 2.. force potent1.m>.lJI'1l. (2) I tl·~ 1. T~2) • ~~(U~i)vii) +' 2U~1)v.l. ..10. we find Mechanics .ln..' • .tor).'<o. l o 2/6 x y x y .~. . <~l.% aad + u~l)v:.n1> -- 121. from (1). _R(1) and p p we have -<n'. -l.L"m'IR~l)ln.l'm'><n'l'l '( R (1''. ..m'IR(l)ln..1)+ ..' m' 2 'J !R<. indepelldent of : and a I.. + - -- (1) 1 the "double barn matrix element is.j .y. and r?) In terms of U .m> .L. > <0.l it r'll.m.. bave <n'.1. r(2) .t!m'IR~l)1 Furt.(U +1U )(V -tv }J.' • Since.» '. 0 unless lD. •• H 1 f.L'. ~(Ul~)v~l)+ u~l)v~~».m> Again. £' - It~ll. x Y x 'J T (2) . . 'We selection rule frOM (1).therefore <n" • . • a (.z .a..1'm.~qltl."lD.~odern ~antum FroM (3).. ve have <n' • ! r .z> and Rence tJp!ll~1. 1j_(U z X +iu Y )(V +iV X Y ) (Remark: (3) is similar ouies) to Y~ -mimz <11imlIll2111j2m>~1~2 for spherical har&- 21.l. 0 :t where of .t. ~(?~i)v~l) U~~)V2~».hermore.m'l a(l)lu.~e have % T(2). (a) According R(1) !l to (3. ml'> m 2> sa < 11 j 111. . the Wigner-Eckart: theorem for our probl~ and R(1) .. Co:bioe with Clebsch-Gordan (-1)lC-1)1...odd.Oltl..':>~~ . reads <u' where • l' I 111 I '(1) IRq" In t t OIl> .lil<t111j1'ml> m+q and it "IL2:11.> U-1R(l)U ..l:c:e"We are dealing vith of Up (parity opera.II.J ' I R~~) 3 O.

.c~"".m>u q <tl.m 'I same to ken use of ~-E theorem -2) a. 11(....... 2 (~\:I:! 16'!i' - (3% 2 -!' 2 we have I 2y.I. • • t. We have thus the selection rule . L'/(2L71)3/4~(21i+l)<11. ~' .'+1)-:I: L<f. .. equality 28..rt (a). .- ~.L'. Ro! (r)~(e. (6) <n'.L. Ia r2 ). ry .'t(21.mq!£"m':> ' ~ • • 'vhe~e q . :J'"e nev wave function <o.j. .j •J ~• Nov apply the 1l1gne~ECJpr< th. (r) .j..15 r bote that yO .tv-2 ~'l+2) 2 r -.' We have (l) R_.( ~t r. _ j> • (IT) 8~ • ~x to .._.10..m a spherical (irreducible) tensor of rank 2.1... m ' 1 Z +2 15 Y:2 "" (32r) ~~2-l2!2ixy) • .~lpO...2 the e.m> .. -:> -r. Also note from (5) ~e have atoQce the ratio !1.--. ~ .. 1 r2T}~ .I..-t ". .vhere 1'.OOltl.m' I(x 2-y 2) I.. (5) _ -3 (21..'.!IO> n· .+1)1.loOO/..r n'llol..17).: . (J.1. ! .m'la(1)jn...) CR (2) 'I.. 2 u It!l!.jOlj2._ . n...'.. • . _-. t· 0 ~ 'II _! 1J 0 ! ""n! .2 r.... 'I.2."."15 " . ~) .1O.omqIL'm'> (4"13)~ n . 31) • Q = er16~)~<j2.j '16. .J .tf•Ill'/R(l)/n.. v X (4) ' <n . .m' satisfy (b) selection rule (2).j..~.jj><ajllrly21Iaj> '5 +1 lij (1) By the <a.J'i'! Y----(" J')d 3-... First Qe <c oj . I.) .. fR '" ' u' £ ' (r) vm '~_".1o!10><tl. z . (a) (3) where £~ Frotr:l(3.._.. . .. hence .m' I..q vhic:h is identical to pa.m-j> leads r 2( Y 2 + Y2 i I on e<c .

.52).m' .52) + 8(5+2 + 52) z -. (3) Ilr~2I1aj> of (1) ·!.Solutlon3 61 .S ~1S_ ~d + - - _ x y x {S+. (3) ZIJB o o -3A ZI:3B 0 . we hav'.Modern guantu= Hechan1c$ .:.~ ) Ism> + 8(5+ + 2 B/(s-m) 2 ~2 . a ~ray 2)o)· 5-3/2 as From (1) we note that Hint. -3/2 basis" (a+ra+2) " 2 Is. 21315 -3A 0 a 0 0 0 ){2..jmt><aj! Substitu~e <oj . 8s(s-1)}{Z z eQ {( 2 I _3 + ax2)0 -.--=-=--:---~=---~~ (s+m+l) (s-lIl-l) (s-(m-2}) 1/2. ~'(S+ _~(S2 + 52 _ (S+. 2(52 .j-Z\j2..tI1' a 3/2. e/81f!15(2j+l)<j2.lom>" D on states of definite la~m> where A(lSz . - + 2 S + 2 {S .S } . D (1) 4s(s-1)j{2(a·-+ eQ 2/ dZ )0 and :& ..4"" Ism>+ .-l»(s+m-l) In the m.S }) and S +y z Tnus 2 2 2 R .-1/2 in . In expression for Hi nt.t Hint. }(21s~m-2>..5 }) with 5+ ..--=---. Ir 2 Yzllaj_>. 2 S_)Ism> 2I 3Am}( 22 1SAl\ . into 2s(s-1»){2 +(d2~) az2 S2] 0 Z eq _ 2 {(a-4I) rxz -.written 3A H~' • ~nt. we can write nt. I 2 2 we recognize that S . (2. A Hi were = A(3SZ ..uto (2).... Ism>.ur+Z> (2) + B/(s+m. ~(S2 0 + + 52 - '+ 2(5'2 _ 52)} +(3-:~) {2 rs -5::)-5+-5) z 2 72 W 0 4 Using v2¢ = 0. acts fo110ws:Hint..)(s-(m.• form as the aatri. block and m. 29.._---. using (2) can be -.

. The for each 2xZ eigenvalues eigenstates (~.) can be determined matrix block as (4) Hence 1/2 for m.£5i£....~ J \._ .m' = we have a/a1·= The energy 2I3BI3/2." . we see that ~!~2 ~ ±(12B2 + 9A2)~ ~2 are the f. . o-fold (Sa) and (Sb). '_" . namely there exist:.m' .:- £ £JAm L SCi "--~-Z:--'[-. i '\' ..1 /' o' \ V'JV. •.-_... 3/2.-3/2> Note from + (A_! -3A) 13/2.-3/2 basis.1 . there Exists corresponding to each value degeneracy.. \ C"J~''1' .. l = (A+-3A)/2I3s. '.or both m. a t . .. \0 .iSS ii_$2i! . \. Z _.. -1/2 we have oZ/a (A±+3A)/2.££S & 1 kZ12 . . two states of A(A+ and A_).I3B. __.. .~.m' .- i .. ' : :La.. 1/2. -1/2 and m.. ) .-1/2~ (Sa) (5".. eigenstates while are for m.:~" . - If 1)0. j' "_ ~ .-..J) + (A! + 3A) 13/2..m' ~ 3/2.u~agonalizing energy each block of (3). ..+1/2>.. .3/2> 2I3BI3/2..

in other .I-i+>. possibilities is(9_i~!1! • 9.(~2~2/2~2)j~l' n~j where n gers.72.I+-+>.2.. lx~ • 8..~3 thus the ij =- energy for particle 1 i? E(i) .of them has an equal chance to be 2. For energy El• we have only ~ spatial wave function.:1 .2.. functions. est ill ~2'!T2 ? ...•.l niJ·• the lowest energy state is the state .lZ~2w2/2mL2 . 2..6~2~2/mL2 and again the' E• Z 15~2~2/2mL2and the number of for spatial wave function 1s 1. Therefore El.. • and the num..(2 .a 2mLZ(2 +t+·······+1) = 2mLt 8 times The third lo. while ot~ers equal to 1.j ~ 1. they 1+++>.?2 2mLZ(2-T.2rr~ ~ 2mL = E(1\E(2)+E(3) i .2 spin-~ particles system. (a) Assume these ....I-+->..-~1~)""!""'1""! w 1m!. because all indices are 1. and 1--->..+1+ •.lon we have 23 8 spin wave functions.2. we have total energy Eparticle while j refers to the three 4 32th 2mL2 1~l' j~l nij vhe~e i refe'rs to the i dimensional degeneracy space index. distinct spatial wave function is "'(""1~2'.2 2 2• 2mL are non-zero inte:.particles can be distinguished.. 12'. So in short El has 36x8 • degeneracy 288. E2 has degeneracy 9x8 . and the total energy for the system is E Obviously E=~ 1 9".. Evidently So the number of distinct 9' for E3 we have {9-2)!2! .j:. 'ri.3 a~e such that each . all indices nij = 1. +1) ~ 1 times Degeneracy. onian operator H Since the three particles d~ not interact.. while E3 has degeneracy (b) For'four non-identical ~2T...36 distinct a spatial .I--+>.9~ 63 12! 22 2 .. For energy E2. E3 . we have 9 spatial wave funct Lons . they are nonords identical particles.I+t->. The reason is that the nine indices (nij) vith i.3) canb~separated.. and ith ~2w2 2 l2~2rr2 Toe second lowest energy will be EZ .I+-->. energy . so the Hamilt~2+2 ~2~i ~2~2 + V(l.Chapter 4 1.. be E3:. ave are In addit.

Tdi'(~) (d) • + + +. -BAla:b'>' or ..O. hand. 0.)n~(~) V(nt. energy levels have degeneracies est E2• and 16x66 ~ 1056 for £3' 2." ~) does not commute with 0 (0. {p.onaround y-axis.P and B" is usually' n. commute.Tdl!(~) ..n.~(-x) while Tdn~(x).)n~(~) since *(~) and They commute..64 Hod~rn Quantu~ Mechanics --Solutions ber of distinct s?a..JI.. hence momentum eigenstate state.V(n.b'... etc..Td'. - O.1++-->.~ On the other v(.. 3.. Suppose it 1s possible..')'(. (I(_~f) Hence (n.. than . (a) T~(~) so 16xl'.... a (1) (a) For 1=0.66. O hand..). case This is easily seen by taldng the around x-axis does not commute n- x. than there exist.' - Y .1+++->.1 • 0 or b'.".)} .lave function is (l2-2)!2! .O.. here . e know the rotation ""ieh the ro~a1:i. They [Td'.'b' . 1++++>.' • ¢I').(~') where So ~f • tJ(ii...rd] .... Hence the three lo. rrV(6.. n~(x) ..Tci rr*(~).-bla' ..T<ttl -~C-k!+d!). {A.e . 16 spin wave funct:ions 12 : At the same ti::ne. "Since ~(~) arbitrary.-0. ..V(d.*(-XTa).V(rld!+d) is and rdTdIH~) • T~r~(rld') we have' rTd'.AB+BA . only j~~ (upper sign) is possible.)~(-~) is arbitrary.b'> AB!a'. n-1+ pn· -pl.s lat. thua. 16x12 _ 192 for .:+d) while nrd'¥(~) . not parity eigensrate.1++-+>.]"'(x) . nV(a•• )*(~) .>.n} • 0 [because .)~.. so from (1) we have (2) . v(-1'). On the other O(fi. have 24 ..t1al \.. :If A . (c) T! and n do not commute.O.B} . except for pI - . such that -+ ve have [n.... 4.16 for El. H~~)~ Td.(-~-d. (b) V (.

totation.. we see that m must be ~.2.m 1.j._ ..AI" .l. <n' . Rni. am' IV In. 3 .S..Solutions (b) 65 ( coss Sina.. -- .Modern Quantum Mechanics .. 5..2.". ---- .j. So it is pseudoThis means first scalar.. •..m vhere yj.function and for low Z. Take lO\ler sLgn in (1)"hence j . NO\l since 6 (x) is scalar.IJ~ -r Y1=1 Conclusion: unchanged Apart from -r. .~ can be written as R " yj. Compare with yj.m..m is So the spin angular .j.~~.m with t changed (1=0 + 1=1) and j. order perturbation theory we have C _ <n .1O) (3) .1 .m both (e) The result obtained in (b) is ~ot surprising:.' • j .t..•• --~ !It" '" . and we note 1=0 and 1=1 have opposite parity....m'IVln nLj 1 .."'. "Ie get from Eqo(2)o y{.. ! V In. j~'1. in (1). ---- . SO and mo But under space inversion S·~is S. .m>.must be 1. 2. hence j by is scalar (spherical tentheorem it cannot change Wigner-Eckart odd..j . i..t same) and m\"'lll. j I't is DlOre difficult • .aence on j.~ sor of rank 0) under..~t:onnects even parity \lith odd parity.j has no depeo.En1t'j' I From elementary (1) \lhere I' = !!l (note however I~il~2 is impossible' because j must remain the to evaluate <n'. j . m> becomes ~~-. The wave function for In. r . j •m>· m· n'l'j'm' Enij .j'. V must connect t odd with 1 even but cannot change j. . so the ent~re V is pseudo scalar. Sop 1s invariant under rotations but change s sign under parity.

'. (b) From (3.momentum la> • for !p..x . V.. p'><-p' sip'') I a>* 111 I_pI» OJ'a have vhere <-p'la>* is the momentum space wave function for momentum space wave funetion for the' time reversed Alternat.m ".. • is the .os_a/2 e-1y/2 (1) 0 . <I>(p')=l(Z....52) with C1=Y. e to la> (using -+ 4" o 1 a> = fd 3 p' I -p'><p' I a>-Ie = .ut) = -+ ei(-P.59) and (4.p.y P .t.-. (a) The plane -f>o wave is $(~. .>.(r)y{:"'t'!!.ics Solutions (6(3)(. _. hence 1jI*(i..- •• '_4 .s.j.. ~ for contributions to Cn'2.x +..--.-- • -- ..-+ -+ I'd.)S..66 Hodern Quantum'Mechan.. ..x/¥ can be complex without violating time reversal it is degenerate 8. x/l'< fd3p' ihvariance. !n. we have x+(n) . .(-ilf~)+(-i'.. ._.. vanish02s unless Rn't'j. -ip.4.-t) e-i\."i[)J2 fd x'e )!. Rntj(r) is finite at th~ origin..<p...{~)'-. ..x/V--wt).-+..Lcu t fon La is the two component eigenspinor·with 7.m> to-obce In non-vanishing impl1-E!st hat '. +sinS/2 e+i. So ~*(-p') is the 1 ~ 3 -ip. In momentum space .:nent on the wave function to th~ left.6(3)(~)} (2) >S Afd3x Rn't'J. / ~ave e1p..A. 1 (1) + sinS/2 e-iy/2 (0\ thus -ioZx+(n)=cosia * a 1)' S -.ive ala>.. t. proved -).'j'm' ..{/2 (0) .!l_2 (0 -1)(0) . 6... = cosB/2 e 1'(/2 e2 iY_ (0 -1\/'\ 1 0)\0) c a. fd 3p' I. 3 +...*(+') [_ 1 ]-2 fd3x'eiP. (a) is the spin direction reversed.*(+xl). 't' Tinus .> where <p'la> ..--.aae because with e . /\l "·I.. of text.. +SinZe 101 »r x+(n) *. H.. 10.. . in (4.(r) or $1 function.4._ of a p l. method: The momentum space wave function state..) Apply': space '.x wh en camp 1ex eon j ugate d t b ecomes ...2.. the matrix This.x!i<-wt) and is a plane wave with momentum direction reversed (-p).J'emust have • =r os' or P.t') _ ei(p.J'aveunction f la>....._+. cosie iy (0) +s1niae -iy2_(-1) But by explicit 8 2 -1 ...-' ~~. .. ~ +1._.: m (r)Y J "'-'" n!j' 1 •R -l- where (-iWV) in the second Because of o(3)(~) term of (2) operates ele.. (2-n}{) _ +.60) (b) The wave function .

(j ) m .. ala>- eO(R)!j..) .-m> - <j. for <j ..O(R)(12m)lj..momentum space 'Ja..j. 1:1"1.. (b) Consider (-l)mv~~...0 imt'11es invariance.m>1 -+ ee-ij.... <j.~IIlF1.(-1) two m' D * (j" "\ I m .22) and (3.t. ere \ole h have used (3. ceed vith 10..-Ill "V .6.m> .. (-l)OV(R)IJ.m <nll. 3 If ~a(~) .ne/~a-lelj.m> _ 12mlj.4.m>*" complex .-m < le!J. under Let l~> be e an energy ~1genke~.<j. For j. but i • (-i).-1D..t.t »)* =e : -1c5[ * ()( . a. •e -16 .D(R)] reversal But eje-1• as follows: ~Ia> . ~ -e -16 <a 1. + ... By the non degenerate assumption ala> .. -m (R)· . iJ.. v* (x ") e is th'e position space wave function operator than (a._m>. (_l)m'D*~j) (R) or -m· (R) ..-m'l l the matrix But .V*O) (R). here -We have used .m> - (.m> F1m(r) than <iIGla> 1... . ) ~a e -10 1.vefunction .m> behaves [e.ee-1J.... P • _1_ 3/2 (fd3x' (2ftK) .6..eH<~la> J'" <xla> -e -16 *( . under time vhere 9. "7 .73) vith .4 •.e with (4.78)._IIl(R).....111 _ III E" (-1) m" 6 -m .. 2. a )1 .3t.m J (R) also conjugation).~ iilteger Remarks: The above discussion 1s for j integer._mtl aV(R)lj.<~Ia> Dl:m X - <~ll. time reversed .)..) * Y for' tia:le:ev~t'sed state ~It(_p') r e-1p'.. O(R)elj..g the -111 I expressions m • III . ' Under time reversal reversal.'.m> t. Comparir. ( a" -1 If.~) • and thus ~ (-... (_-.I~> - 1a> where 6 1s real. ?.aV(R)IJ.-m'ISV(R)!j (_l)m-m'V{j~ -Ill I (-1)mv(j~ .4.m>...111 r ) 1Il.ne/Klj. -+ +. 1'l • we need to pro- +1 to obtain [ consistency H...m Ftm(r)~(e. have e mt .=> .-<a I~I a~. 2 (e) From part (a) we have aiel> - (-l)mo(R)lj. Hence ala> 1s also an eigenkec 've have of H with same energy i6 as Ia>. ~ a> Lla>e 15 ..-m> or elj.<a 1 e~a -l la> u 1 -<a.m>. Consider <al~la> ..-m> element .. -J and a changes -1.. is ."l)tnv(R) Ij..ttI>.23). then -P... r e I .1">·<j..IIl"!V(R) (remember S contains . (4..m><llmla> ~ l... 7 time. p . therefore .m>..~te.a.ve (4..m It (R) ..~> -v(R)alj.. than Hela>-aa!a>-ES!a>."m'!eD(R)lj."0 and we ha. FLmr *( )[vm( l. . hence V(R)elj.) Let be 'ehe time reversal I a> • DCR) [j ...x·/}("*(~')1 for .m>.. Hence ~- <altla>- O.

11.-m (r) : Hamil tonian. ~~(11.. aI1._ . Since from (4.0>• 1 + h<ll. Here sx (~/rz)(~ ~ ~)\. e[~(ll.. Hence Ramilt- invariant under time revl'!'t"sal. -1 .-S) y 1 ( • ASS 2] B[aSxe asxe onian is -1 .-1».2~(ll...-1». sas-1 ._m(r)(-lrnr~(-et.(~ !).78) a!j.)( . (-l)D:llj..38).6. .. ...ali%ed is of form.1> + 11. s 0i 0 A 0 B\ Z ..-'Cl>.. . . 0 lOY that needs s• (VtII2)(~-~-~).-1»] .. where we have.1> . and (1.AS2 + S (52 . 1:(2 ( 0·0 BOA 0) t.0>.-1»] _ 1> . y .-1».)l.S are real. ~e h~ve er~~(ll. x· y This Pt'ob!em is simi- lar to problem 29 in Chapter 3.1> (1.e- lO {.8%» RThe "bLock ' matrix values of Hare E -.-1». VL .m> .1> + 11. ofl 0 and the eigenvectors are" (in" terms ~~<ll. Assume that H 1s Hermitian than A. .. _ .o be diagon.11.usecl (3. ~2(A±B).(1.. Compare the coefficient of Y~(6a~) for the two forms of ~a(..":n F:. for a spin-one sys tem is H . ' --_ ..GSya -"! -sse -LJ. % a-1es a-1 +" % • R.m' 'r) ~ <_l)me-iop* 1.l> + 11..) we have F 11.:::. .t.(~ g 0 0-1 g)'.0>.4.. and r( A (-s%)2 +!~-sx)2 . Hence eigen8.S2).

.•. 2m d2rv Le t x I = x+b/1IlW • than above equaC'ion can be reduced 22 .1/x2 -+.1:.2 .2Which is exactly the Same as the percurbation result in (a).-#--..Jk Ik> = /k (0) >+ g r nr In(o)>v () -nkE 0 _ E(o) k n . 2.) 2 • For low~st energy with E I .1.Chapter 5 1.' .1.. + ..1.43» ~E = - r l<nloxlo>[2 n E -E nOn = _b2 r/<nlxIO>12 n E -2 0 • lNhere En .••.2 ~){w + ~E z 2 the energy shift.' •.2.f.g 2 tk~k ( ) 2 + O{g ) n~ (E(O)_E 0 ) k n 69. d• 2m This is again a SHOequation = (E(O) .J.(w - b 2 /ZfIXJJ-2 • (b) The Schr~dinger Z equation for this problem 1s -X dx2 + (~lD'. j<klk(O»12 /<k/k>J2 • 1." 2m d w "2WW x 't' = E(o). hence E (0) = "Kw ..42) and (5. 2 to -X dx72. + 02 I 2!lUI. 2(..44) ~ith k ++ n and A +g.'Y that is 2 _~2 dxr2 + ~2x....•.• we have Using orthonormality <k/k> and a of Ik(o» and In(o» 1 + g2 4'~kI2( )2 nflt(~O)_EnO ) +•. •• . Now <n x 0> II io -b /2"".b 2/2".J7) just <OlbxjO> = O. (5. E: (0) value E' = "K'..: (n+~) Xt. we have .. The second order ~orreccion for the ertergy 1s (c.1. (a) The first order correction is via (5. From (5.bx)1Ir "" E(o)ljI... + t2/2mW2)•. +L-.r. and the energy of the ground state becomes E(o) ~..(b/mw2) 2]. IV 12 J ---"'.

xysin wx/L sin TI1L dxcly .IV 3...~L • i. there is deger.-.LS~ (2) 2 2". n Solvi~g the Schrodicger equation for the unperturbed system.. and '(Je1 ~rc1ted state.L 4 ~L b 1. '<lith corresponding 1 ': zeroth order energy eigenfunctions I~ j" t~ • ~ L-. 2 . 'We need to constl0lct the perturbation mAt-rix by evaluating <~ (1 ) \ e' 1 vll ~(1 ) > . b • ±l/ficmd Hence energy shifts for the first excited state are 2 45 (n'4+45/81)). Lg~~ • ~ith the first order energy shift of • )'L /4.4 .1..eracy and the pertllrbati.2 2 (w -4 /81HL 4y4 : 0.onin general lift the degeoeracy.."lY just ~G ... _- .. (1) IZ/LI27L sin~x/L ainwy/L ~ i:iO~~3i~ or (lel . get a • . we can easily find They a~e ~G - the energy eigenfunctions...-. '0 xysinZtrx/L sin 21rY IL dxdy • 2 2 ~l.~.. 4"2 rL e1 L0 rt.1/12. "..2 '2 2/ 2 (0) ).281L and 4...... is Ls~in---c- 2 ~x 2wy sin--t TV for the first So obviously the zeroth order eigenfunction for the ground state 2 '!fx.e... -....( for ground state. ~E For the first excited state.

the first ex- cited states are doubly degenerate.'..:!:o~. and wave func- (x)~~_(y) vbere ~ 7 tions for one dimensional SHO.l2xy.rate perturba- 2 tion theory by diagonalizing V ~ omw xy. respectively. ) xy 2~t 2~. (x)and V (y) are individually wave funcD.[!5~ in the .st-lying 5 ta.. same method as proble:a 3 above. . 6.. (0.6(1) • ~.tes are (n J 0.0> ntb energy E co 1W (no and first order shift) and first excited states ~(llO>+IOl» with E ~ (2+612)~ ~(IIO>-I01» (c) with E ~ (2-612)~. Y :: (x-y)ll2. In the (1. Now ~2(x2+y2)/2 + 0 .tively. nxn. Evidently (1. (0 10) . x Y.)Caa and ~(IIO>-IOl» state witb to(l) __ l..2( 0 X1oJ'Ol) 0 }iy \ xOIY10 and hence behaves like ax.0) and (0. + n +~). by ooe un Lc .~ 2 [(l+o)(x+y)2/2 + (14)(x-y}2/21• So 2 ·2 Let us rota- te coorcii:... (a) State vector ror energy eigenstate tion is given by ~ nx 1s characterized by Inx tU y >.ates by 45 Z than X :: (x+y)//2 2 "-2 2 .igenkets ~(IIO>+lol» with .PX/2m + py/2m + m[~ (1+6)]X /2 + m[~ (1-&)]1 /2 and is effectively again a tva dimeu$1onal sao with ~ replaced by 1. of degeoe.x n.' The three lowe.Solutions 71 respec. For the first: excit.1) basis V .O> • a because in <olxIO> (and <olyIO» nx (u·) must ch~ge 'f .ed states ve use the formalism. <Ol!r. since <O. (b) The first order energy shift is clearly zero for the ground state (0. So to summ. H .Hodern quantum Mechanics .arue ve have gt'~nd 10.0).. The energy for the isotropic tvo d~ensional osfor one dimensional oscillators.1) with energies ~.e. . 4.ojxyjo. cillator is just the sum of the energies E i.0).y =~ (n +~. we get %eroth or- der energy e.

ue have H If: H+ o ~E1ll4) 22 X • P 12m x 2 '~'l" + ~\. by .:: E~w/2r2.3.2• s leg... 2 <k\x Io> 2 cloko + c2ck1.... 1 So our task is to evaluate <k!x jO> ~!n>- or ~c. Hatching solutions and deri- vatives at each boundary we have Asink sb .n ) 2 exact energy ~w(2-6/2) + 0(6 ). the results are x y EO (0..l/l+6 + ~}(. T(. k s =12111&1v.21». the same as in (b). . c1 CIIIW /2 -r.2.. (II) -~x.. . Csink ab • -DsL~hca and .he ground !..1K72~ + a..mere because 'We assume V "0 »E. Explicit evaluation .. All of Vhichsatisfy Schr8dinger's equa~ons and the appro- priate boundary conditions.a 1c.. i 1> .2 .: <klx2Io>.x 21 0> M 2 2)(fi cmw £mw'/2 ~ ------2~ 2 r..IZ/2rrol. II: s a:.+a./2mB a 1't.. • hence V ko '" <k!V!O>Since <kI1E:mW2X2Io> from - . -2- 2 c1 '" 'ri.he s)'1l!mI!tric" +Csin(ka(x-a-b)). The Hamil con Lan for the. a Ie: .oe have e. 2 .._ ~72mw!1> >:: uhile (IM2mw)2(a V and V + c I2>.h-6 is There is therefore no change x y in energy • if only terms linear in 6 The exact energy for (n .otate ~~t. 0 -ssao 2• )1'1-. J - cYtw/4 and V20 . as divided into three regions: (I) -a-b<x<-s. 12> 2 22M. CluJ 22 Y. then xlO> . ~Emw I <2.JJ.(V .12m. (2..E.. Con~lder our symmetric rectangular double-well po~eutia1.. a./2rtJ1.mw and c c ~ 2 (remembering that (at /12) Thus V00 C 2 .3.t)ll>'" CLiO> . TJe have t.24}" x : IK/Zmw(3 + at) vhere z and at satisfy (aIO> + atIO» So Vko c: c_\n-l> and atln> x2Io>'" sad only c+\n+l>. ~.1).Y) system. 5. 6. similarly for (n ... sys!: em is 2 Ignoring 0(6 ) cont~ibut10ns. .l/1-6 • ~ + 0(6 2 ).n ) ~ (1.. + 0(62)..Solutions (X. ~E:mw <o! x to> 2 a from (2.0) is ~w/1+6(1~) + ~t. Y. s . }\w(2+6/2) The exact energy for t. letting 0: "+ -6. of c 1 00 20 are relevant to ()ur discussion. and (III) a<x<a+b.72 Modern Quantum' Mechanics . C .Bcosh~a.12m(V -E a ) 1'1.. "". are kept.

.O.0> in the !n.0.1_2_IE!.s : £ a. n~m EIOO-Entm (t:::l.t.::.m'l)ez(ll. and the perturbed ground state ket 11..lz~ln~t.m'><n'.?m .0> + nlm ~ !EI(-e)<n.~odern Quantum Mechanics . and (5.s _~ k a.e have = _2eI ~ 1_<-=1.m case) (1) [ -eIEI<nf..En.O> E100 .m[zlloo>ln~m» E100 ...o. » Ea. (1) Since Vo particle (III) .ouble well potent 1al discussed in Here V= -ezIEI..m> notation are" relc:ted by 11. 68) we have for the energy shift order of the ground state- computed to second . and (1) can be rewritten (k b-l1') /k s s = = -co t hxa I K I (k b-rr) 3 I ka =- t anhxa/x . section 2).m=O in·our used the fact that clOO!zllOO> = O.m> ~" "" " ElDD ..1.mlz[1. Therefore we have the eigenvalue s =- cothKa/~ • tank b/k a a =- tanh~a/K./2. expectation value of ez «1.0>' = [ 1. ac tual1y Hlus Chapter 4.'m' + nf.t. e expect the energy levels to be approximately those of a (1) in a box (one dimenSional.here . with infinite walls) in regions and Hence "caok as a.:_O.1. K2ITZ Ea .E. n i m .1...O!:ln'. Ck acosk a 0 conditions tank b/k 5 3 73 +OKcoshKa. and Ea ::: )\ ka12m 22 22 :=0 )\ it (b+t 2 anhxa/x ). 7.s b -rr.Es = ~{(l+tanhlCa/Kb) t rate s -2 -2 (l+coth~a/Kb)}.Balm Take where EIOO and Enim.t'..:)..s ) a tanE a. (2) From (2) we have ks 22 are Es = )\ k/2m So 6E = b+co~hKaIK ' ka = b+ta:hKalK • and the lo.-:.0. (Note the method used he re .0._> .m.Solutions Ak s cosk sb = -B~sinh~a..0.0..s b c tan(n+£ a.0>1 and unperturbed ground state ket 11.63).. the symme t ric d.f. Also from (5.J." z:m-(b+cothlCa/l::) ~211'2 ...0\+ .67).t'.0..0... lying staces est -? . (5..<-e)IEI<l.0>!n.. are unperturbed energies (actually independent of m).~n'f.s' .

m-O> 1 -1 III behaves like Y1 .. (It> e_I~> e+ + 1+>e. we note that jj=9/2.t"1. z + first note (s(e )_S(e »Itriolet.. im."O>.2p degeneracy).. (c) From (3..:-1/2.lt>ei. (~}{ .m:o.7..t-O. i: l'1 1 . where a 1s the sa. 1 tensor (k"'l.m-O> z z .z.64). binding.. since Pz . (28/9). (5.t .m-O!zln=2.3. - (0) <n:z2.. "" ~l~[lt>e·I~> e+ 2~ - I"':>e_It> e+1 . _ S2 _ $2) __ ~'2.2 ~~Z-1/2) y '..t 0.sM) ){lsinglet (~}{»~(I':'>·e.Solutions I ~ ~ ~a 1+1 E Hence from appears 8.31» To eV41uate <sing1et.!"'l. is represented by 4> y j=4¥ '1.J . 2.m-a!xln". (e) Ground state of "2 molecule! For nhomopolarOf mmetric.H] we get <Pz> . I- II -- 1· 2 >_ ~(S2 tot.IK{z.Y1 • so value must change...(3/4)~2 _ ~~2 • 1 2 4 lJhere expectation value of <52 > gives zero for a spin singlet. O. 7/2 1=4 ""(1/19) (14+7/2+1. cOolll-O> 2. state.{./'It )( but EZlO . the space l'art is syThus <5 S I: 1-. gene racy" (25 .h in 6· 4ol"E12 of (2)~. 24i4 .(~)K)~(lr>e-I~>e+)'+ - -{- .t-O.!m¥/(21+1) (c.f. tot..me c:r.) mK - <5 > yith S % Z . y7l2+1/2 ·1"'4 .(s(e )_S(e »~2 z Z - + ")-.EZOO ~ 0 by "accidental de- (E210-EZOO)<n"Z.m-7/2.74 Kodern Qua:":tuIII Mechanics 2 . (a) • ~ ~ _2e2 t l<lOOlzln!m>1 -nlm E -E 100 ntm dipole moment 2 (2) \ j 1! J i (1) •• e have induced aiEl. hence spin part is in singlet state.If>e~\ r" «-!. ~ hence <L z > B (/S/9)23K + (1119) Use <L > :l.q"'tl)and <n. 'IoIhic.m.O\pz!n .4-7/2-. because x is rank.'...m=O\(s(e z )_ See »!triP1et. O>.L"l.. (Alternative method: for j • (d) L:!:~..m-O>.

. ljin(x.m=+l>.m=-1>1 with states whose "" (-1) angular dependence are spherical (1) (b) tJe are dealing time reversal: harmonics.l=1.ma l W1t . . Ca) <n.y) "" sinen lTx/a)sin(n Try/a) z ma X y x y (1) where Thus the three lowest st-ates correspond to x n y are non-zero integers. and by eigen- of variables.-m 19. xy•x•Y J n have El = u22. So t~e perturbation connects ~ = +1.dn between matrix m fr2R~1 rZdr = +1 to m = -1 and m -1 to m = +1 respectively.l=l. I type of non vanishing V-matrix elements are of fo~ I = AJSi~2a~~i¢e+2i.sin28eti.) or (2/a)sin(~)sin(2lTY) a a a a and hence . under Therefore (1) evidently go into itself (up to a phase or sign) time reversal. we can easily find the energy and eigenfunctions E n 11211'2 2 2 .:z[!n.replaced is H • where o H o =< _ by a. n IT . 2 3cos2? The = L Sln 2 .h ~ (x. LO. n =n =1.y) -= (l/a)sin(21TX)sin(2!Z.d evidently perturbation 1 che "correct" is zeroth order energy eigenstates that diagonalize the Z!. 2 a ( e 2 i41+ e -2i¢) 12 . Hence perturbation ar.2 7S 9. n =2 respectively. -+ Y1 m m* ~.l=1.Solutions .m=:tl> factor = -!n.n =2 n:1 and n =1 n =2' and n =2.O>. I hence 0In. For (a) the Hamiltonian using values the method of the unperturbed of separation 'rI. This problem is rather similar to problem system 3 above with L. In.~odern Quantum ~echanics ..:.~2 2m + V. and from (1) we x'y' x y .0!vln.1=l. E2 = 5~2rr2/2ma2 with ~2(x.m=+l>1.i=l. L s~n ~ "..m-~1.=l.222 x -y Z 2 : r sin S(cos $ - SLn 9) m = = !l with 2 .m=!1. Under Y2.z.:7(n + n ).y) 1 = (2/a)sin(~)s1n(~) a a and nondegenerate.

if ..251a El-------~-~-------·--unperturbed11..76 Modern Quantum M~chanics .---. E~al.2 as given above.l.~ therefore E . £2 E2--__. in otherwords proportional = For (U) liE) "" (~)2>.~--~ .. levels perturbed levels (a) The energy eigenvalues E1 and E2 are found from secular equation E~-E \ )..a.l.. o (E1+Eo)/2 + 2 -.n (--) • 2TTX a sin (--) a 2rry and non-- degenerate.2 1 \oTeloT'tite c !j.2 O.tl.)dxdy 00 a a ltAa2• energy shifts for degenerate state.28). £2 are given from problem 3 as nEil) = 0..r------. (b) For (1) the first order energy shift the energy shift is linear = <3!...251a ~ E2+ 0...Solutions ( 2 / a) S l.Xa == O. Note also that this problem'is completely analogous +-+ to problem 11 of Chapter 1.2).E?)' \_E?" _-----Ei:o . hence to ).2aJ. ee E1 is AEI '"!t..~ -.. E~ +-+ H22t .2 To find the eigenfunctions..22.2=(~1.a2 ...2h2-."'xy!3> is liEn = cnlVlln> ~ l<nlxyln> ~ A.2 and thus up to normalization wiLh E1. a JaJa xSin2(2n-x)ysin2(21TY..L~--------- + O.a2 and nEil) ~ ...22Aa • while that for ncndegene.ra unperturbe.6 =~El. H~ = E1fI-gives + /.a 2 Z E1 + 0. t~en ~-EOYZI4 12 + ).. .-..28). ' . d levels n 2 2 (iii) n The enE' n ergy level diagrams for look as follows: (E ) and perturbed levels E 2 +nE n £] ----------'--:---------:. 25). e make the substitution E~ HI1. The in ..E3 0: £) + O...

E~ 0 0 0 linear combinat1. 1Z.EO "d and . we have if E~ = EO. so first ot'der energy pe::- theory..Solutions 77 form and ~~ ~ is HiZ" Hence an al~~rnative ~ay to parametrize W1. in agreement ~ith perturbation (c) Now suppose E~ ~ E~ results o (2) 0 El + 61 ' and EZ + llZ (2) = EO... Since the perturb- ation term is proportional to ax.2 "'deb with (e)... e kno". Here second order to (2) 2 shifts are "" Iv2112 E~-E~ 01:.. <1>2 $1' i..6) AA 0' shifts vanish in time-independent = VZ2 .ons of degenerate = (':) states. right a.ular equation method.0.2 in normalized I~l :: (cos ~) 2 sin ~ (b) For H as given..oee VII tu=bation 6(2) 1 0 . agrees From <a). we diagonalize the perturbed Hamiltonian ma- . H hp.Modern quantum Mechanics ..e.. Using the sec.1. V = ( 0 ).-order.. . and we must go to second. Then H - EO(~ ~) +AA(~ ~). Wz . (EO~ 0) E~ . that the eigenfunctions ay are Note '1 :::II ¢l o 1 + 412. than E1.2 .

nd 2P~ levels of hydrogen. where E2 5 +<sle£zl$>+o <p le£zI5> E~ <sle£zjp> +<pjee:zlp> ) (1) <5 P is the Lamb shift. which agrees with the exact solution 2bove where we 13.E1 The non-degenerate bence energy levels are E1+A1. We have here a degenerate I (1966) (see p. e.e. reads Al. our Hamiltonian can be reas ( presented H :. (EI-A)«E~-\)(E2-A) The secu lar equation reads -lbIZ) + a«\-E1)a*) = 0. for de- two level subspace (E1 twice and E2).e2fT: + ee:z.nt- In terns of the 2S~ a. and E~ .42). where e£z is the perturbation pote. A is one solution. and the other (E1+E2)\ + E1E2 _!a!2 -lbl2 = 0. hence theory the energy shifts are given by to second order in degenerate perturbation i. Use degenerate perturbation theory a la Gottfried tails). Evidently E1 .Solutions trix to obtain the exact energy eigenvalues. =: p2/2m . E 2 are the unperturbed energies for 2<: and ~ . 397. translated 2 2 2/(E -E ) and A "" la1 +1b1 _.78 Hedern ~Jantum Mechanics . i. second order perturbation'results are unjustified because degeneracy is ~ot removed to first order. -12 J E2..~~al 2I(E1-£2)' 62 =Ibl theory (5. The Hamiltonian is H ial. El+~2'and E2+63 respectively.1. A+ = £1 + Formally non-desenerate second order perturbation into our notation.

we can use perturbation .. is small..m> = 0 under time reversal lnvariance .s'> ::::~ ~.Solutions <s 1eez. Hence liE S = -liE P ~ [(6/2)2+3e2£2a21~ ~ -2(1 + 6e 2222a /6 ] for eta £.84» it imposes the restriction that expectation value <x> (hence <x> as a special case) vanishes when taken with respect of to eigenstates of j. (4. field -+ . (1) be- comes (2) We diagonalize E• 2 this (2) to obtain eigenvalues A. 0. and ((o/2) 2222\ +3e c a )~ lJe£a o (1 + 02 24e e: ao 2 2 2) for ee:ao »0. o »6 Note for eeao « 6 the shift from E.. s"S For example jj.Le.m> yet our problem need not be parity remains true that .r·yji~.a o for m = ~~. .~ cs!eez!p> . we have <sle£. f. Assuming i.e.m. is linear in E.EP 2 2 = gives ~ ~ • E2 +6/2 ~ [(5/2)2 + je 2 <:: 2 a 2-~ J o (3) =< The energy shift from the mean EZ+6/2 is ±[(6/2)2+3e2E:2a~1~. E: -+ E= £k. electric dipole moment. <plle~z!. ~hile e~<sltlp>.s> 79 '" Us- is evident (from parity selection rule) that ~ ~p!~(Zlp> .. (c.4.zlp> +l3e£. so the potential . eigenkets. where we recognize that ES . is ex- = +e£. tQo [=1 : cPle£z]s> = cosBdn.myj~~. while for eca the dominant shift ::> w"heteas parity of our res tric ts < s ec Z s > places I I < pi ee zip> :::: tme rever sal invariance O.64). Nevertheless -+- Hamiltonian no similar restriction. and could be c IS1> + c p~Ip1>' it <j .ml~1 j .'~odern Quantum Mechanics 2Pl respectively. 14.r '"reEcOSa. Let the electric pressed as V be in z-direction. no . a 000 «6. It .. +6 is quadratic in e. Hence ing (3.7.

AS' Ago on Al and AS' So for t"'O. A3 12/3. wave functions are ~322. e. <311jvI32l>. <31-1Iv[32-1>. (12/3 t 1P 320 _ 11/31j!300)' Here our notation is A1·· . A.6) and Rnt(r) = evaluation leads to _ 27£a e/2 o a (A. As=l.. 'We can choose three They are A1=1. r~O. A3b+C.e. and secular equation is r3[r2_a2)2[r2_b2_c2] ~ o i.0. VI3DO>. r=±(b2+c2)~. no information for AI' A3. i.less mt~m~. Ai = combinations == 0 (i#s). i. and we have non-va~ishinb matrix element~ <321Jvj 311>. <3101 matr~ <30olvI3l0>./2/3tP320 .0 I V 1300> a I e. m =Z. ·1j!32-2: Ai = a (i1-3. <310Ivj320>. 1=1'+1 or 1=£'-1. remembering As a first step let us calculate these non-vanishing that ~n. 6E".l.1. (1) gives AZ=A4=A6=A7=Ae =0. r=ta. 6 To summarize: For r=O."'O r (2m +l)::: 9). b ::: 913. . Diagonalizing tion the (9x9) V-matrix ( 2 Dl£. 0 (1) A7 AS Ag where a ::: 27/2..£.5.by <320Iv!310>.e./l/31.jJ300' (2) . elements.A9 = 0./132-2.AS correspond to t=Z. Ai"'"O(i~l).m R[liY~i 'Where Y~ is given by (A.-1.5. i.. we have the lnatrix equat (with eigenvalues A= eca r) ar0 aar a0a r aa 000 0 0 r o a a o o o 000 0 rOO aa00ar 0b o0 0b aa o 00 0 0a 00 00 0a 0c 0 r a A3 AZ Al 00a 0a0r 0 000 (\ c a a oar a A4 A5 A6 . c = 916. 1j!3ZZ. Substitute r=O into Eq. e.O. <32-1IvIJl-l>. A9 "" -/1/'$.J). Straigh:forward <321IVI3l1>=<311IvI321>=~32-1IvI31_1>=<31_1IvI32_1>= <320IvI3l0> <310 =<310jvI320>= =< 300 V 1310>= -91:3£a e -916£<1.-2. 9).

al to: b r ~ R o~d R dV Ukr n~ '0 It' 2 dr := - f ~ 0 R oR n~ n 1~ N .r ::: there are selection For Amt=O the matrix rules governing elements which matrix elements of V are non-zero.e.. i. A7= -1/1:2. ~ A9 == =- 27e€ao/2. wave functions {l i~(W32-l+1jt3l-l) (4) Finally.1/I6.Solutions 81 r=a. A ~ !9Ige£ao' we find Al=AS=A2=A4=A6= For r~+9/9i A3~1/16.nish unless tot"':!:l. A9=1/i3. r==-a.. r is a vector operator The radial contribution .. A . we find froQ Eq. 1 ~!jI310+ ~ljJ300] (5) 1 and for r=-9I9.' .A6=1/12.r~-(b +c ) J ~E. wave function is {6~~J20+ 2~W310+ 3~~300J (6) -r+ . -+ 111 1S..e.:tl.proport1on. i..-9tgeEao. of Y1 are needed. The Coulomb field of the nucleus written -r A tten as: c. . for r=±(b2+c2)~ Aa=O.E where u e may be = u eo. 1s .. 1 2~(1P321+rp311) -27ecao/2. Le. 3 A7=1/fi. this integral vanLshes for n=n'.e.Modern Quantum Mechanics . = ±919. . A4=Aa=O or A2zA6=O. liE = A4=Aa=1/12. For electric dipole V = -~ e . i. For and conn- lImt=±l.-1.dr . since a These v8. One may verify that for 1. 2 2~ . This is expected ects states of different parity. 61 is also :!:l. M A9=1/1l.e.AScO• A3~A7= 0 and ei~~er A2.(l) A1. i. ~E == 27e£ao/2j wave functions (3) For r= -a = -27/2.

)(3) R30R41dr 6 = Z1 ~ (-e)(3) IR in the Js state of Na would be : (using (5. (1) (1) by u I }{21d(u. (3) But lim u(r) = 0.. the following expression ~ o. But from the above.)2 2tD 2dr .!.. <J> (2) I = Z-u E 2' I0 . z z '= 4 ~ ['OR R drC '!f)'1 -1 0 4n r+lr2f-!/-:!(2)\osex(2)\osedCCOSS)d<fJ -e 0 30 41 3 4n 4n = Z 1~~ .Hodern Quantum Mechanics .0 therefore order. and lim u(r) "" 0..du/dr. for <3s/vI4p> Using eigenstates is true for hi % of L2. (4) .nd 3p. 'O M 2 ""dV 2 .5. 3d and 4p etc. . 52. let ~(r) equation and u(r) )0(2 d2u = cu(r)/r where the usual radial Schr8dinger satisfies V(r)u (c. We 60.s)) 2m Multiply dr7 ~ = Eu (for t~o S-states). therefore (3) gives 2 .2 ~o dr~ dr =: O.18» So the second (loweSt) lI3s order shift 16. As usual. (=. we have on 2 "" .f.cJO> !!!.--(u') + ~(uVu)1 0 -~r ~d dr 4m a 0r . both sides. we have + Id(uVu) 2dr - - 2' 1 ~ dV 2 "" 2' E d(uZ) dr Integrate (2) from 0 to . (a) This is the cen tr al force problem wi th spherically W(r) satisfies symme ric t po '<0 t ial V(r) . perturbation V on the energy 1evols and simi_ are seen in second larly Hixings will OCcur between 3s and 4p States between 4s .L(ul)21 00 4m 0 '. (A. L . 5 .2.Solutions The ground knew that state of Nd has n=J the effects (degeneracy of this n 2·=9).

sotropic harmonic oscillator also.7»).6.4..N (4T)k/ r e dr .2/me2)3/2 the ~round state (from (A.Me and 2 2 ao .a dp/2. 22 . 'Hence rE:!ation (5) is verified.chanics . 2)x Z o 0 0 a 0 . 0~ 2 2r2 _a r2 2 6 .s 83 fro~ u(r) . hence o 0.)/c + ryf(r)/c. 6 2 m e r dr(4v) ..r~(r)/Ct ve get u'(r) • ~(.2Ia!/2 21(y. and therefore (5) (b) For the hydrogen atom VCr) have RIO (n) • (2/ a 3/2) e -p/2 o ' ~O(O) I a -e 2 Ir ao. where at _ the right hand Thu~ (4) gives side functions are well behaved and must va~1sb as r+-.~ -9 a 0 e dr J o and since dr .N (2v)K Im~ -Thus (p. (a) Iv(O)J Rotate the systeril such a way that the zl_ax1.)(Imee is the Bohr radius • 2e3~J/2/M3.5) we see that H (') . 12 _ N 66 (0).Solution.lilt 6 <dV/dr> .2 :2 2 -a.N (4w)k--. 22 22 % X000 (x)~NH (ax)e~ x • Y000 (Y)·NR (ay)e~ Y ..4 . 'ltlhlle Ii .• So. (A.6..e24wf- "0 1 2R2 ()d r2 r 10 r c-- 4~e2. <~V/dr~ .2r2 <dV!dr> .4. we have <dV/dr> _ 8~e2/a2 a Q m Therefore ~<dV/dr> ~ IRIO(0) For is 0 [2.N o 21111(0)[2 for the three dimensional-i.d for 'p _ where a 27:1 a 0 (c s f .00 6 +.~kr 2 • the gro~nd state xyz ~n -n 20.N0--000(ax)H (Qy)B (az)[krJe rH dxdydz_ 2 _ N6• while' <dV/dr> z N6 f~krx From (A.s in is along the maguetic field . the three dimension~ harmonic Osc~ator VCr) . and ~- .I.(O).X 000 (~)y (y}Z (z) 13 such that _ . Z000 R (az)e~ (Z)-N vhe::e N S4(a/'1I) ~~ o and a· I (mk/l< 2 ) It.3 -a 6 1. and wave function.J)').Modern Quantum Me.

t')2). we may expand 2 for B » C to get· (4) (3) E = At(t+l)~ + Bm'~ + 2B~m' + .m' Use next Ly ~ l_( . "e w treat than ~ AL2 + BL z as the unperturbed Hamiltonian.•.) Z m tt -ro ~O.(~/Z. 8 (1) .' It m> r esp.m.m'> = V(~/2.:jICLyl!~m> + C\. now Y2 So <J.. 2 Z a: (x-iy) • hence Y2 satisfies 6mt"".ll'.'I'i~lt.41). and -2~at=i''''.:m. ~e then have H .2.t2..Z.m Hence to second order in perturbatio~ .±2. Consider next 0 =xy.) and (3.e.m 1.L_ becomes (3) From the exact solution (1)..mtIL].O.:t2 ss .lm~ 2 I (YZ-Y-2) I tm2.AL2+(B2+c2)~LzT ~here in the 'y-z plane the dog1e e We'then have eigenkets It m'~ wi-' .:Ct_ _ E(2)""A$2g_(t+l)+Bm)( + ~l'..m> = f lt.5.6m~ . Summary: 6ms ro~ .! j 1 because of parity conservation.mt> must satisfy 6m!= mt.6. be t· e en .-2. eigenvalues E{o) and eigenkets are AI\2q. hence 6i~O..Solutions B. lues E == At (t+l)t{ Z + '(BZ+e2) 'K ~m vhere H o ~n eigenva_ It.-m. ively. Now 3z -r 2 Z N'otr! that the opera~ (3cos 6-1) ~ Y2' +Z. c2 the second-order perturbed energy re- pr~duces the exact solution for m'~..'i~ = 16£.£.(Actually we have also the constraint 2. When B» and CL y C. conservation.ms> 22 where 0 '"3z -r. (b) We consider <n'ilm. 0) rom ..r. Hence in ~his approximation (B » C).o)lt. as the p er ur ation. xy.6f.>12 #t.'m~!oln£..8.=o 11m s tl remains forbidden by parity m'-m "Q.m.H1)+Bmi\ and t.= O.n are different from those for dipole radia.r.."O. Zi~L+.E.84 Modern Quantum Mechanics .. ~mt 2.l<t'.- t t • • t . HO!Jeve!' 2 2 0 hence <£. (H. Summary: rules = t Remarks: The above selectio.?".m>V m"--.0).> Z ·2 « !+tl~ 2 ~ (x+iy) • Y. 61.rns = 0. t b unperturbed'. :!:2. Oz and Oz' 1s given by tane • c/E..m (2) E(o)Y_ E(o} (Z) t'...

A]• -1~q.e a 12m c . ~BYt is spin independent for 2 the ground 2 2 state. O.!1. we work out the quadratic Zeeman effect with the belp o·fvector ~oteQt1al A .:H• 61.th atomic number Z~ .... e e?s2(.~) • !t(s212 _ (B'. .Il for all atomic the energy electron the n-l ground state afan atom.. w:1.l. the negative o e 222 sign is because the induced dipole moment bas opposite sign for diamagnetism.Utonia. Then t. >.Modern guantum Mechanicm .!• 0 or l. and in this simple case~ ~..Utonian v1l1 be 1" e-r2 .(B)t..for gauge uniform magnetic. Now by s)'lllQetry <x +y > . surprising instance 3z2_r2 relates to quadrupole radiation.Jl (see (5.25» is e2A2/2m.t ..0 and noted that A So ve ~3t 2 ~ 2 2 the perturbation evaluate ..)..".~BX.p. 19.).. ~3 (a /2) 54!..)2) .ll- tum 1aO (S-state).r?ry2)/SIII. n 85 since for . O.~agt.'A) c and .. "Which is not.-xp... e g2 For zero aogular IIIOme. r. the total Er. field B ~ Bo e z: (we notice i . -2·· p2 eR 22 2 2 2 2 .Ze =e mec z: 0 e r -eB te't'm V + let cL: e + e2B2 2 2 Sill (r sin IJ).am.2• ~(Bx-. ~2·.p I {p.. ao 0 Renee am:' X . .-(p 2m e 'W'ith the perturbation ~2(x2+y2) o .l • O.:lBx. z .Solutions tions which require 6m8 Ot6tn1.. The perturbation Bam.3. 18. e . 22 <x +s :> (hence okay to ignore spin). 2 Ay • !.! for particle ~a. Us- ing the Lorent: t:Omentum v. III tben - p..: ~(!x. \Ie have L .~2 + e B (x +r )/8m c . ~BoLz' 1.mere we have used' Ax .. In this problem. E: . 3<r' > because 2 <x > _ <y > '" relacive to tbe 2 2 <z > and <x +y +z > ...-0.0. <r So the inteBral to be evaluated o &~ound-state of hydrogen atom is 4Tf(1/wa3)e-2r/ao r2r2dr . c... Lz .9xA).

g.rnQuantum Mechanics .~1) (2) 0 where N :: 6.mt~ 0 Avogadro t s number).7 change ~3B21 -: 23. ich h . vhere the term . acoei<=. - KIm ee is the electron artd CL .. 2 a So H .~2B2/2m ..-(-28) 2m -- ~2 in numerator i~ the contribution frgm the first ceriv~- tive c at x=O. - + ~2/4a2.-... .. " .7«:JB2 • e0 is N 6K.88xlO-6c:m3/m. is going to be ':n N 6E__(1) o tie • m -0 .. 1.. 2K2S/2m _ ~2/2a3 ~w(2{2 1 + rz ~ --2--' ){ rz 4) w • vhere (}{w/2) the true anergy.ole vhic:h is ·calculation. For one mole of helium the energy :nole (the 11um~ o ~e.. 2 0 Compton wavelength is the fine -= ¥.... at- electron in (1) with effective 1 atomic Z ..Solutions . th Th~ e.--"'--~-------=~f-+--e--~2~~I-x~I~------------------- (_K2/2m)/~e-Blxld22 e-s1x1dx +'f+-e-2elxl(~2x2/2)dx . 2" el~t-O (2Z)2~ e 0 Z:1... Thus the magnetic: susceptibility per mole of he- XRe. dx iJ:l fairly good agree- ment with our per-curnation 20.ture NalJ' for omic the hel ium B tom the resul t would be (vice number cha t we obtained for at'..t Expressed in -In: He a then B2 "(3) (4) The experimental result is -1.86 Mod(". in .7: 6~1) . . radius e2/y.. and . 11137 struc. '2-5/16 .2/m e2 ~ e·s cona t anz .1 s..022x1023. .Bohr f( e.( 2 and 0 or B mwl(2~~ is rz: Hence (H)min D272 ~+ l!¥IJ oR/as -0 1%1(/12)( 4mw implies .c .

081.Solutions 2' 87 and The equation d ~/dx 2 2 + (. + 1 a J.10>.~ as -d ~/dx ~ i.6. to exact value 1./2mw a ) \ becomes .17) c (t)~l up to first order.. a (E1-EO)/~ From (5. i (w -w) t CUI -w) 0 ( 1) - = -(Fa I 2. 20 3.. than = ( < 01 ei'w t/2 0 + c 1<< 1 11 e J'iw a t/Z) +w)t '10> e-iw 0t/2 x~ iw t 0 1< = c1(t)<1 Ix IO>e iw0 t + c1 ( t)~O Ix Il>e -iw 0 t F = _(_ )I<l!xlo>! 2 [eo 2~ -i(w (w +w) a e iw t 0 -e +e i(w a -w)t ( W ~ o -iw -w ) a t -e -iw t 0 J + coco . 2 +Ixl<+>"'.. Let us compute x in the SchrHdinger ex>S picture. So the true A must be lower than 1. can be wdtten a equation later. we see that Here Vet) =Foxcoswt.4 .-Ixl)~ ::.Modern Quantum Mechanics 21.019 for such a crude trial function..\. here = (complex conjugate) o (2) v e have used (1) and the constancy of F (2) in arrivins at' (2). H~ than m . . c 3/J 2a (3/03)(-2) + \ (1) = 0 implies = 0 at a ~ 241/3 = 2X31/3. and)" < 3/4x32/3 + 2x31/3/4 = 1.081 which 1s not bad compared normalization 22. O!. Note of '4J is taken care of via and we set wlo~ <w' tp> in denominator =WD· of (1).. There f ore from (5.p H 1/1> <IJ< 1fi> .\.2) • we have 2a+2a4/12 3 = -2 + a 2. Since <11. 3. while F c1(t) a (-i/M)~O lt e <1 x O>e iCwo+w) (w +w)· t I! lw 10 t' e [e iwt"+ e-lwt' ldt' .0<1 Ix o I0> ( -1 a .\.~ hence worry is like Schr~dinger about normalization dljJ/dx with K2/2m Let us set c=l and -1 for O<x<a == { +1 for -a<x<O <IjII!j1> = 21a (a-x) 2dx 0 = x Hence dA/da ~ <.

<x>S· • ~at2 is the classical . is no longer order the nth excited state 13 (3) eiL.(En-Eo).nishing (E2-El)J~)· Thus there is a finite probability to find the oscillator . from (5. -tIt 0 ing from rest.l) (t) large t. .lnot'vno(t')dt' However Vno (e I) .. and' W . second order (4) give. a "" i .e V 21 and V 10 axe Ilon-va.6.F -l -o-t III Z coswt . 21 in its (W I • second excited scace E2.Solutions <x~ S .n-+. w. Nevertheless for ~lle <n'\xln>-1K72mw(/Qo +(n+lo. (-l/n){. and n~2.cosw t) 22:>.. 1 cil. the perturbation again. This Is reasonable since 011. 10 :: (El-E )/¥.r~ctilinear motion startbreaks down for w ~ woo ". . we have -dV/dx .-v X e -tIT ...17). -tit o o hence V .1).s a non-vanishing contribution.-1 Thus to . "0 . where ~no .t.". we see to first . .17) C.. . for sufficiently (b) Take... (5. we know that <2Ixll> ml:2(~/2mw)~ n _" <11:10> -1.(-i/~)[e{iw _l/~)]<llxlo>Fo _Renee -2t/T w2 ' -(2coswt)e -tiT (1) Note that as t -+. and the argument can be pursued to even higher order • • I .88 Hodem Quantum Mechanics . 0 (2) (t) 12 is independent of e . 'While O ..Fe.wo w (3) Thie is more or less "'hat you expect classically.K/2mw~ n ..co se 2 o t :: • Treating-F o 1m as a classical uniform acceleration a... c(o)(t) c(l)(t) 1 .- III !O(coswt . (a) Again For a force F(c) .~ g 12[1+e + (1/1)2 lIr 12ot/2tD1d).0.Fe. hoyever procedure 23. sinc. factor would contain multiplicative <nlxIO> vhich vanishes for Q~2•.6. 0 (-i/~)fte1wtle-t'/Tdt'<1Ixlo>F iwt-t/t 1 .

t)!O> and from = (2.us write !o.• are ignored. atl1> =1212>.5.6./2mw}e-klt/2!O> (Remark: higher for the system 112A .6. (.1(liT -Ziw) 2 3 order terms like A • A ••.~odern terms 24.:: (-i/}{)6t(~/2t!1:ll) (1) Co '" x are relevant = 2:IlW(e to our discussion. 11> A general state is + c2(t:~exp[-iE~o)tJ'eil = cl(t)exp[-iEiO)tJ~l 12> .4) and (5. <nIH'(x.h1ch for _ tIt »1. all> = 10>.3. .. Only the fol1o~ing coeffic~l) . C~O). (~) and 12> "" (i)..:l. .. and n We see that if n # C or n ~ 2.1).'/ii. . we . 25. (1) ~ext we note that ~ Ae-t!~nlx2IO> have :x: 2 (2) <n!H'(x.17). '" 6 have c(O)(t) no • c(l)(t) n (-i/~)b eon -iCE -E )t. thus x 2 lo> = (r\!2row)[jO>+1212>1.) So the probability _ to be transmitted Pz - _ 2m w (lIT Z2 1A!2 2 +4w ) 2 I to the second excited state is {l+ lA]2.24).. c~O)=o. ..2 22+ 4mw ~ 2 In W 22 !A12 (4ul 2 +lh ) 2 J. the state becomes [see (5.Solutions 89 higher order excited so from (5. c(l)(t) of (1) vanishes cients Aet I because <njx2!0> vanishes in (2). (4) The["e is no probability for transition to other states such as 11> .13>.. I. . ACOSWtJ E(o) '"" + V(t) H 0 2 (a) tet.t> 11> .1)1 !.jJ> '" [1 _ LA.. C The initial n is 10>. we Io> '" ~O{jmw)(a+a+)(a+a+)IO>: Since -aiD> '" 0.. dt' iA -t/.t')!O>dt'.. and corresponding state Quantum-Mechanics states. e-i5wt/Z-IZ> (3) 2nt. gives After a long time duration of perturbation. a+IO> jl>.

(me. The ground state energy E ~ o "added is -F(t)x.)).i (w sln(wZ1+w)t 2 probability ° .-----.p(i(w -w1t')]dt' ~e i ('Jl "" _ ~l ~t exp[iw21t']coswt' == C-i/'t."h and hence "" (EZ(o).e-2W~ _~ ---~ -. a breakdow-rl of the approximation 26.n +1) for n~O.6. 1i{/2mw tribution I ~/2lDW (n/~)e Since <1Ixlo> . theory. -w) t 12 (w 21 21 21 -w) s1n(w21-w)t/2]. and cZ(O) "" O. Perturbation potential scheme. but we via time-dependent perturbation Take (5.. see tonao t w _w + we Z1 in our perturbation expression = ing denominators for Ic~l)(t)IZ above.~ .n- I 1 + /0+16 .17)..( 21 ~-w) t /2 (w 4[exp(itw21+w]t' +w) = (-~)[e \\ • . I 21.~------~-------- . are told to proceed be solved exactly.19) of text..Solutions Now this problem can with cl(O) : 1.90 Modern Quantum Mechanics . with no contribution as It I = The pole a~-t=+iT gives -w"'(" through the merhod of reSidues.. =: 4~w and From the first e. is IC1(1)C-)12 -_n2m2~o2w. ------ ----. we have (for c~l)(t) n~2) dt' + ey. • " n .xcited state has ene::gy E1 \1w(l+'~)where =w. • Probability fer being f oun d i n f1 t h erst exc i te d state. n ."l(o)/t.i. " Now Ic~1)(t)12 is the transition = which becomes ICZ(1)Ct)j2 (b) 51-'nce w21 ~: ~_ II x Z + Sin (W (w 2 n -w) Zl-w)t/2 2 0 wou Id correspon d to van~s.6.. (5.nJ=l.everything ~n F_t M/2 together (2) i =~ mw ~ e (IT) -w-r.. Since w>O~ ye from semicon= in upper half t-plane +~.. c1 (1) () m we have putting . we have (1) The integral r may be evaluated close contour circle using complex (Im(e»O) varlable theory.17) - (5.6. .

(Ef-Ei) as superposition as well of harmonic Iii.f o r experts". thaI.Solutions 91 "Challenge turned .fuidx x only one frequency eiWfi is identical to the case where cOmtlonellt(tlmonochroma- . This the oscillator can be visualized to be in the ground state all the time.e .-the tcavelling the particle gets excited can ·give up energy Ef-E1. it is re. ' fact that 6(x-ct') = !6(x/C-t') c we have = (-iA/~C)f+=dX<flx><xli>eiwfix/c -.J--:i:)'rl) is adiabati. Schrgdinger equation at each ti~e.ao 'I e-iwfito und. so that that. frequency is relevant. The fann of Ic(1)12 shows part of the harmonic perturbation with the "right" as expected from energy conservation..hat the space integral IU. Note t. x I c 2 h dx] with wfi . If the perturbation (as in the t».ui (x)e '" Ie (1) (t. and using jump as long as the external (5.6. you can solve state. only that just to state If>.n t exea ting phase f ac tor as to ~ -=. problem the time-independent for the ground can also be attacked lI semiclassically. of (b) 6(x-ct) pulse ~an be regarded perturbation form eiwx/ce-iwt with w:>O (absorption) pulse as w<O (emission).Modern Quantum Mechanics . and then turned off very slowly case). This (related sudden 27. )\w "" Our result in (a) shows. 1.) rI I 2 :: ~212 A * for finding system in state If> is given 1w .asonab l.cally quantum This means change there is no slowly..' Yes.17). invariant". and t~. The action integral that very ~pdq to (n-. c(l)(t) o parameters (a) Again from = (-i/~)ft<fIV(t')li>eiWfi(t'-to)dt'. is because the only effect of the applied force·(uniform very r~ow change in the equilibrium in space) is just a instant of point of the oscillator. by So probability L"uf(x). 1 W is on very slo~ly.

. eE/t{). for singlet are • . 2'11'_1 d(cose) .. + bation is <200!z!lOQ::> .. B Z 3e /Sa ~ (vith a 0 0 3 ~ 2 2 /me ). ~m .C. ve have for the only non vanishis (see (5.a by parity. and 6inglet~ and eigenvalues E_ 6 for triplet {-3t.Solution9 tic vave") is preseot.l to a aph- 2p transition which is nlloved. 1{ (Ill +lh. is when 6m ..ve have (4) ~2 2 1<210IzI100>1 (w2 + l/T2) 0 6~r 2drR21Ylrcose~oYo0 - were <210{%1100> .92 Modero Quantum Mechanics .17» amplitude Therefore to this first order ve have selection ..+1 ~15/2 '- 35 ao' and III - (E2 -E1 )/~ ps 29. e(l)(t) . the only Is (first) order. erical tensor of rank 1.rule 61. to chis .ce the matrix element of per turLikevise. 28.6. First we observe that = { 1/4 for triplet -3/4 for single..1)(-1w .t Therefore eigenkets of H are triplet. To fira t cr de r Ls +25 t:ransition is forbidden sin. (l) can be rewritten as . energy V a:-eE ze -tiT for t>O.O. (2) we have Ic(1)(t)12 After a long time Ic(1)(~)12 t e2i.I<210~zllO~>12[1+e.210Iz!lOO>(e[iCaJ-lltlt _C_i 2 (w + lIT?) probability ::II By simple integration.-Ztlt_2e-t/"t'(coswt)1. ) (3) » _~ .lIt) (2) From. 'With potential ing transition o since z is proportioua.(essentially set t + ~).1.

t larly for the dual corresponding c-+ (t) (1) == - ~(1+3)/Z i6.0>e-i6t/~ '. 22 t "term.have iwt iw (0 ye -iI.t>1 1 . 2 Probability for 1-+> 1s 4c.!.~cos(4c.OI' <-+-1.OI and simi(DC) kees.t/M.i:)(t) = (-i/i'I)6t<+-1~2 Sl·SZ!+->dt'. "" 1 + t. .t>12 theory o.Ls.52 connects only states of the same m Probability for with exact treatment values. (a) From (5.Solutions 93 !+..= ~~d.O!.. + IO.f ..c/K' + e 3iC. also gi.t/.5. 0 becaus~ -H- 51..I<--lo.t>1 7.'2 \{2 .. Hence c~~) (t) :: '. ! <+-10.hannel problem we . Led I-+-> validity is quesl:ionable when t » KIt:.O>e+3i6t/~) So where !1.i! 2 _ e3i6t:MjZ =< = == ~ + ~c')s(4tt/..17) for a two c.t/}{) 1<--++la..1.i~t(1_3)/Z -== ia .&lt e 1w21t ye e 12t)(C1) a c. since lowest order expansion in gives a poor approximation to the exact answer.t/K ~ . c2.0> = state. this does not quite agree (0) because c~2) interfering with c. t:. ' (2) Hence validity of first order perturbation for (2) theory ·for I+-> is never' sat..> ~~(!1.. = e(l)(t) ..O (1) 1<-+lo.0> . (1) .. is a singlet l~. and I2 = ~e I I -lc.t>12 obviously ~le-iC.~~<O.0» .0> is a 'triplet lIFO state and 10.01 + ~~<O. = +10. 30.r> .t == ' -i2c. ere h time 11.t>!2 =.S21+->dr:' where we note that <+-1 == ~~<1. Note that c(1)(t) tot. es t:.0> For a later ~~(ll. (b) Use first order perturbation • c.0> = ~~( 1-+->+1-+» t> and 10.t/'11.1<-+-la. 2 ' .t "t- '2 2 Note expansion of exact results from (1) gives 2 1 1662t2 2 1<-+-lo.)(t)= (-=i)~t<-+14g2 ~1...Modern Quantum Mechanics (a) At t=O.2 which agrees with exact treatment up to O(~).: ~~( 1+->-1-+». 22 t I+-> is !1+i6t/*1 "t- 2 /K2.

tnan (10) given by (B).'74 M.a 1- Ic2(t)j2 use (S.. let us (b) Perturbation . 1.. (4) Since cZeO) • 0.17) •.. we must have"from (2) c2(t) a: e-i(w-U)Zl)t/2sin{(y2/112 + '(1Il-uJ21/14J~t} that i}(c 2 (6) Rence Again ft:am (1) I we have s:bice c1 (0) . <:2 t and ( ) .joe • 4 21 1 z (7) (8) (9) and using (7) it is ea~y to verify that IC1(t)1 with IC2(t~1 2 2 . 2 -1(w-w21)t/2 s)( in{['i +(tLI-w )2 !.. iXr~ /~ 2 2 +(1Il-W21) 14J x.straightforward to see from (3) that Bence for instance .oaern Qu~ntum Mechanics - SOlUtiOl~S (2) :lnto (1) t ve have upon simplification (3) It is .. approach.6.. ~ .o "'y. ! t .{t} '.

-&. Whenw.. '" V.as a quao. - Vi nm m = . It+ dt"e1wmitnt: 11 rtd te iw n~ .rat. we see that y2 in denominator "I (a~ well as However.Modern Qua~tum Mechanics .E. V where Il is small.e 'It t to be slowly time-depEmdent. Th-at Ic(2}(t)12 n h • ~c d . if the perturbation is'assumed V .+0 eiwnit -1 nl..E.is (L): I c2 .... epen d ence . the rapid oscillating term does give some non-vanishing contribu!.t+2nt n1. + (i/rt)t (2) 1 which is linea= in time when wni+ O. On the other hand.-i~~)(E -E. urn V rn~ ...36) will be rapidly oscillating probability. [ nm m~ mE E. the perturbation result 'h W1t is justifiable. n 1. 1.. and gives no contribution to the transition (5.6.ion.: (1) the y~ 2S in th~ radical sign) is missing in the perturbation expression.c 12 -I c (0)12 = 1 -1 -.. V. -in~ III 1.e.36).. + c iw . V V. &.. we have c l = 0 '11·(1) ~i'lcl so I' 1 .Solutions 95 5in2 [_(IJJ-vJ21) 2 t 1 (12) Compare (1~) with exact result (8).t + '2 = iw i't+2nt ~V c En-Ei-2in~ .. I (t dt 'e i "'mnt nt I r + 11 e l -n I . ~21> ( since If :2 can excee d·un~ty even _ 0) • - sma 11 y.6.2 rt m l:: V nm ml.. the first term above (in (1) is exactly the first term in (5. 1 E n ..6..-2in~) a. _ 2inn 1.-w21i »2hln. E n . then the second term in Eq. Howeve r . which grows linearly in time: C With V. • (5. WeE m-E. (1) w~en n~. the second term has a coefficient 1 Lm w . the perturbation potential V is constant in time. As for c1. long.. m E -E -in~ m :!.36) becomes Vent tit ( 2) n (t) '" (~) .

Solu~ions on time is not disturbing (c.. '" ---. (2) w~ = ~4n+->+I-+>J ~ ¢~l = !--> ~~ = ~~(l+->-I-+>l Th e unperturbed energy ..pute the.first we see ments of V between degener~te states are all vanishingJ using non-degenerate order corrections that there (5.. mec Hence usi ng (3) t we h ave ...36) is realizable since the total transition rate r +n (t) . Our Hamil t onLan 1s (1) The four unperturbed states of positronium are (triplet) (singlet).96 Hodeen Quantam Mechanics . Hence a non vanishing contribution to the t rans LtLon from the second term in (5..O = ~2[2-3/4-3/41o/il..ollvl'''o> ~d.ence Ho~~l. l+n' dt a n 32. (t) = ~ crlc(a)12). z '"~1 states vith the S z is no mixing of the S the ::a p states. ~2t h' Ho = .. \ 2 2 (Sl+SZj :-S~..S~]. E(o) ::: 3AK2/4 (Singlet state).. .. t is defined to be (3) r.. C~2/2)x a [O-3/4-3/4]11Jo::: -3M2 -4- 1¥0 0 energy LeveLs are (3) ::: 2/4 ~ (triplet state). Because the matrix elethere 1s no problem about We next com.. perturbation theory in this case. Using are given by (4) vher e <1i.S2 = A[.ol·s ...L (5. to the unperturbed states.. .. h. i levels must be determ~ne d .......°> = 0 't' ~ eB tl.6. o mec 1 1 z _ S2 Z 1. AS1...6.1.26) and subsequent probability discussion).. . while Ho!P~.O So unperturbed = ~ willa. a therefore the first order energy level shifts are zero.... 53a).

direction to orient To determine which with j=x. the term [1+4(eB/llIecAf{)2]~ay be approx~mated m cAli) 2 1+2(eB/m e " in the" exact expression for energy. Ei.5Jb). 0 = O.:v=tl) = theory A:ia2/4. E1(m=O) =. =-~ [3+4(eB/mec~) '(7) ]. (12) 'We see that by orthonormality of 1fI~ states ~ <Xo! (SIx-S 2. 2.-1 ~+l) lx ~l ._ S2j) between Xl and Xo will be examined.o ia 0 u. $ ) .~ £1+4(eB/lIlecAl{)21• 2 Eo Assuming by t~('\ f.Solutions (5) 97 Also from (S.lX From (:LO) and (12).x) x .) e where w is the angular frequency of the energy difference. were t:he general Z~('J? + a.S2x )~o .\II 0 't are <l.. 2x2~[ 1*>-1->].1.~ld B to be weak.L 0 11 and Xc Z~(~o+ .s . liE o we have ~El == = (eS\'I")2(_I/AK2).S~ )$1 x . S2xlPo0 \i 1 . as (8) (b) We may write this new time dependent perturbation a' iwt V I (r ) e mec (SIB' . (9) ~o (S .z :.52B.y.i.Mod'ern Quantum Mechanic. . than we see that exac c ex- pression for the m =a energy levels yields the second order results found above.2~(. me e (6) Therefore to second order in perturbation 2 E1(. )( than from (2) = SlxiJio '2 lCr'1t 1 I-->. mr: e (eB~)2(1/Al\2).S forms of mixture bet'Ween the t'Wo m=oO states.I++>]. Let use S x [1+><-1 hence + 1-><+1] o '" representation.Yl ' t (10) also (11) and thus (51 . H' the matrix elements of Xl :: (Slj 0 .

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