Separate Telangana Movement: Territorial Versus Democratic
The paper deals with the Separate Telangana Movement: the issues and the concerns that are involved in it. It concentrates on the brief history of Andhra Pradesh in general and Telangana region in particular. It tries to analyze reasons for the movement and also deals with the three phases of the movement that includes political, economical, cultural and social scenario of the region starting from the 1940s till 2009. The study intends to study societal activism, Dalit perspective and the political developments. It also deals with the response of the government towards the Telangana movement. Study intended to interview the scholars, academicians, artists, activists, students to comprehend and justify the given objectives effectively. The study also tries to understand the Telangana Movement and try asses either people of the Telangana need merely geographical or territorial separate Telangana state or democratic Telangana state. Indian political system is witnesses the complex, critical and complicated social system. It also witnesses the different regions with varied cultures, geographical conditions and developmental scenario. India is passing through the combination of both the traditional and modernity. State is gradually withdrawing its responsibilities from the welfare responsibilities. It resulted in the spurt in people’s movement since two decades. It is well know fact that in Indian system there are many issues involved. For instance, the political fragmentation and linguistic regional insulation; hierarchical social division institutionalized inequality, cultural-ethnic diversity and social intolerance were the basic characteristics of traditional India. These multiple dimensions had shaped the nature and type of social movements. The nationalist ideology subsumed the divergent social movements encompassing into Indian liberation movement. All the spiritual national leaders participated in the national movement irrespective of their caste and culture without selfishness and personal interests but it is argued that positive outlook is lacking in post-independence India. The Nationalist spirit withered away very soon. Negative aspects like the denial of access to productive resources, social discrimination, and
patriarchal values became a common phenomenon. Hence it resulted in emergence of social movements continued and revived. 1 It is well known fact that the outcomes of a movement could be seen in terms of social, political and economic change, some times structural and non-structural. However, the state has the power to formulate new public policies or to modify the existing public policies within the constitutional framework in response to the demands of different social movements. Thus, social movements through the state and its actions initiate and determine public policy. Ultimately the social movements are the result of the failure of policies. The movements also work against the discrimination on all the grounds i.e. caste, creed, gender and untouchability. The movements also strive for the access of decent earnings, education and health to all that are the main components of human development. The emergence or recurrence of social movements can be explained in terms of the failure of the state at different levels of the policy cycle.2 These movements emerged around the issues of caste, class, region, and language. The different types of movements: women, Dalit, tribal, agrarian, farmers, regional movement, identity and human rights movements exist based on the socio-economic characteristics of the participants. All these are aimed at acquiring due spaces for different sections of populations and the regions that had denied systematically in the economy, political and in the development process. Andhra Pradesh political scenario is not an exception to this phenomenon. The movements are an attempt to negotiate with the state, market and civil society.3 Impact of the other people’s movements in Andhra Pradesh: The state of Andhra Pradesh has a distinct place in the history of social movements in India. Andhra Pradesh was almost a laboratory for international institutions or experimenting with economic reforms. The State also witnessed the movements against
Ghanshyam Shah, Social Movements and The State, Sage Publications, New Delhi, 2002. Ibid. 3 Ibid.
the reforms. Against the reforms, different social groups are participated/still participating in the movements down the line ranging from the extreme left to autonomous groups. It also witnessed anti liquor movement, movement against the globalization, separate Telangana movement, Naxalite movement, and so on. Especially Telangana now stands on the verge of another movement for liberation from aliens and for participatory democracy. The demand for small states are considered as a demand for the responsible and participatory politics. The Telangana movement of 1969 was the first Indian struggle for economic and cultural autonomy. The movement going on now has added a demand for social emancipation. This is as it should be. The whole world is moving towards liberation from racism, sexism and casteism. The Telangana has stood in the vanguard of such movements for the last fifty years and awaits correct leadership. The Dalit and tribal movements in the state were the first in the country in demanding reservation within reservation among Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs). The violation of civil rights ensured by the constitution especially in Andhra Pradesh where the presence of radical left parties resulted in frequent infringement of civil rights resulted in the civil rights movement. The recent resurgence of the movement for land indicated the renewed demand for the distribution of land to the landless. The long survival of the movement for a separate Telangana is an indicator of the many regional identity movements in the country.4 Brief history and politics of Telangana Region: To understand the relevance of Telangana movement study intends to emphasize its historical background of the region. The Andhra Pradesh of today is a state of twentythree districts which corresponds fairly accurately to the area in which Telugu language and culture are dominant. The state is divided into three well-defined sub-regions: the Delta, Rayalaseema and Telangana. For most administrative purposes the Delta and Rayalaseema are treated as one. The Delta, well irrigated and fertile, is the most prosperous and wealthy of three sub regions; Telangana region relatively backward
Human Development Report-2007, Andhra Pradesh, Centre for Economic and Social Studies (CESS), Vidhya Graphics, Hyderabad, 2008, pp.19-21.
economically. Rayalaseema is a dry, infertile area, subject to frequent droughts and famine. Telangana is one among the three regions of Andhra Pradesh, which consist of ten districts including Hyderabad which is the capital city of the State of AndraPradesh. During the pre- independence period Telangana was part of the Hyderabad State. The princely State of Hyderabad was under the control of Nizam rule, which consisted of three linguistic regions Marathi, Kannada and Telugu. Telangana was the Telugu speaking region of Hyderabad. Telangana region is located in the western part of Andhra Pradesh. Earlier Asaf Jahis ruled the State of Hyderabad. It came out of the ruins of Bahamani and Qutub Shahi kingdoms and formed a polygonal tract occupying the centre of Deccan Plateau. The Nizam’s State comprised three linguistic regions, viz. Telangana, Marathwada and Karnataka. For the purpose of Administration the entire State was divided into four Subas i.e. Warangal and Medak (Telangana) Aurangabad (Marathwada) and Gulbarga (Karnataka). The Telangana region that formed a part of the Nizam’s Dominion represented the unique Deccan culture. Even though India got independence in 1947, the Hyderabad state did not get freedom at that time. They remained unfree till the year 1948. After police action under the leadership of Sardar Vallabai Patel, the state was merged with the Indian union. In the year 1956 the regions was merged with Andhra region (it was a part of Madras presidency) based on language i.e. Telugu.5 The jagirdars system of landholdings seems to have stood in the way of agricultural development: “ though endowed with fairly good rainfall averaging 35.2 inches annually, the poor soil and the rugged country seem to present a handicap to intensive agricultural development. Besides, the agrarian conditions under the Jagirdar system in the olden days did not seem to have provided adequate incentives to the ryot to attempt any intensive cultivation. In the early years of present century the Nizam’s government constructed a major irrigation scheme based on the Nizamsagar dam, thereby making Nizamabad the most prosperous district in Telangana district. The rule of the Nizams was autocratic and the official language, both in politics and education, was Urdu. The people of Telangana were effectively insulted from the Telugu renaissance and both their language and their
Tajuddin, Md, Role of State and NGOs in issues of Food Security: A Case Study Of DDS, Medak District, , unpublished Diassertation, Centre for Regional Studies, University of Hyderabad, 2004, pp.5-6.
The people of Telangana were late in becoming politically mobilized. only to banned shortly after by Hyderabad State Congress was formed. thwarted both by the landlords and the Nizam’s State in the preceding years. by force. None of these events seemed to attract or involve the people of Telangana to any great extent. and Telangana. especially in comparison with Andhra elite.culture came under strong Islamic and Urdu influences. Its rich peasantry. finding themselves at loggerheads with each other only after the setting up of Andhra Pradesh in 1953. It was not until 1938 that a Hyderabad state was formed. there was a serious dislocation of power owing to the accession. Within the Hyderabad Congress there were three provincial Congress Committees. its not so enthusiastic identification with communist party had blunted its edge in the post-police action period. more importantly by its separation from trading activity. its initial participation in the peasant movement. into the farme work of Indian bourgeois state and the restruturisation Telangana countryside through methods of repressive domination between 1948 – 52. particularly the Kammas and Reddis. But nevertheless Brahmin dominance was gradually challenged by the rising non-Brahmin castes. who tended initially to support the Justice Party and the Andhra Movement. one for each of the three lingistic areas of Karnataka. and the Indian National Congress was cautious about extending the national struggle to the princely states. and the neither the masses nor the elite were involved in the movement for the setting up of Andhra Pradesh. The legitimacy of the political elite of Telangana was very weak by all standards. and until 1951 was the Hyderabad Congress merged with the Indian Congress. Popular participation in politics was actively discouraged. not much surplus generating rural rich. Telangana was part of Hyderabad state during this period. Marthwada. nor was any attempt made to
. This had been ininitially led by Telugu Brahmins who were predominance in the administration in the legal and educational system of the existing Madras Presidency. only to banned shortly after by the Nizam. The collapse of Nizam’s tiny but powerful bureaucracy and its replacement by the local bureaucracy in the subsequent years had left with little scope for a coalition between itself. the weak political elite and the not so expansive.
mobilize them politically. which went into and were still going into same activity. Telangana played no part in the agitation which resulted in the setting up of the state of Andhra Pradesh in 1953. The highly commercialized rice. known as the Northern Circars. They are not even the horizontal political mobilized group based on the caste which has been so characteristic of linguistic politics. The Circars became the most prosperous part of the Telugu country and the rice-bowl of Andhra enjoying the benefits of a stable and enlightened administration. composed of Telugu districts formerly in Madras. mulkis feared exploitation at the hands of their fellows in Andhra. The four coastal districts. its trade and industries based on these agroproduce were not separate ventures but enterprises highly interconnected and owned and operated by one and the same class of people. cross the Hyderabad state. Centered in the coastal districts they were
. They were only marginalized affected by the Telugu renaissance. a kind of bastion against linguistic feelings. here again the people of Hyderabad acted mainly as spectators. there was a certain amount of public feeling against the division of the state on a linguistic basis: on June 16. Aware of their backwardness. a motion in the Hyderabad Legislative Assembly for the dismemberment of the state was defeated by 79 votes to 63. The combination of commercialized agri-produce and trading of the same had brought realized surplus. After the police action Hyderabad remained as a separate political entity. the Andhra region’s agrarian bourgeoisie with rural petty-bourgeoiseise is its ally had very much come into their own as factors of decisive importance. The non-Brahmin movement did not spread to Telangana or politicize the people because Brahmins had never been as dominant under a Muslim Nizam as they became in neighbouring parts of British India. Between 1946-1956. The national leadership of Congress seemed to flirt with the idea that Hyderabad might be retained as a multilingual state. Congress. was very slow to involve the people of the Princely states in the national struggle. especially since 1953 when Andhra State was carved out as their exclusive zone of operation. 1952. presumably because their rather Urduized and unliterary Telugu was despised by the people of the Circars. sugarcane. tobacco. developed rapidly under British administration and particularly from the Krishna and Godavari rivers for agriculture. Indeed.
It was because of their composition Telangana has become. sacrifices and even loss of lives and its past was attributed to suit political interests of those who established their power over Vishalandhra. Separate Andhra state fitted not only with their political ambition but also their psychological make-up. Telangana subsequently lost its identity and had to satisfy with history of their struggles. These new ideas of development versus backwardness were spread by this generation of political class. The origins of this class were a highly self. the initial rise of individuals as leaders depended on the castes consciousness. numerical strength of the caste and the degree of social hegemony. Political parties. Reddys and Brahmins as communities organized in Telangana and Andhra regions promoted their leadership. matured bourgeois mindset and politics of the Andhra political intelligentsia. Telangana movement means the movement of service caste.an ever-expanding rural rich and the political elite in the region that emerged during this phase.conscious. nomads. in popular perception.
Caste and Cultural Composition of three regions: Telangana has been primarily a territory of adivasis and nomads. and pastoral communities. Telangana was made up of their history their life and their culture. pastoral and service castes. came under the control of the castes. The bureaucratic elite had also forged a link with these political elite sharing the same commitment to regional ideology. The modernizing castes produced the individuals of their castes as leaders and they in turn hegemonized the political parties. a symbol of people’s rebellion. (35-36) Real strength of this change however lay not just in the sphere of production alone but in intellectual ideological wisdom. in such scenario. activated group that forged a regional ideological solidarity through Andhra and Visalandhra projects. sacrifices were appropriated by the leaders of Andhra type. Their valor. The Kammas. artisans and leather workers. The Reddy community in
. To know more about the nature of political class. artisans.
transformed as close knit communities with harmonized characteristics identified themselves with regions of their influence. pastoral and feudal life shaped
. There is a tendency for traditional Reddy caste ties and factual conflicts to disregard the sub regional boundaries. Rayalaseema and Andhra. In Telangana the Reddy’s are predominant. land reforms and abolition of feudalism were products of the modern educated intelligentsia that virtually brought the militant communities under their control. and further the regions came to be known in the name of castes – Andhra as Kamma region and Telangana as Reddy region. forest.Hyderabad and homogenized Kamma peasant community in Andhra regions pushed many of their caste men as their leaders. The presence of caste structures differs from Andhra as the geography varies largely from one another. The castes. The socio-cultural space of Telangana is different from that of Andhra. Brahmins as protagonists of literary culture occupied intellectual and cultural forums for Andhrisation of Telugus remained as men of letters however their overriding intellectual positions were severely challenged by the Kammas and Reddys. There are no fundamental differences on the issue of caste between the three sub regions. 6 When new power structure was constituted during 1947 to 1956 for the formation of Hyderabad/Vishalandhra state the landed gentry of Telangana and peasant entrepreneurs of Andhra vied each other with contempt but joined together against the lower castes. in fact. The historical tragedy was the castes as organs of social/political entities were strengthened. Kamma concentrated in the Delta districts sometimes known as Kamma Rastra. Modern ideologies of linguistic state. although there are certainly interesting minor differences in caste configuration between Telangana. Political parties that worked with such fashionable programmes and agendas were resulted in organizations of the educated intelligentsia who recruited people into it to obey their leadership. The same castes tend to have a horizontal spread throughout the state. while the Reddy’s are heavily centered in Rayalaseema. The principal castes in the three sub regions are the same. Hilly. They could turn the fighting communities into followers and carriers of their agendas.
It was at the level of bureaucratic elite that the subordinate of Telangana’s officials at the apex was carried out through change of rules of service. Telangana therefore has a separate political history of two centuries. Andhra has a long history of unity. no bureaucracy functions without a hierarchically organized. Most of it came under British rule. the mulki rules were flouted to bring in more Andhra employees. it is historical necessary for the people of Telangana to demand
Demand for Telangana state took place when Andhra Pradesh has formed separate state in 1950s. but in the middle of eighteenth century it was broken up. Discrimination was abetted by a system of spoils. A process so started does not stop at that and acquires a momentum of its own.e. but Telangana remained under India rule as part of the territories of the Nizam of Hyderabad. economic and political which resulted in demanding of a separate Telangana state. numerically bigger.professional castes and consequent consciousness of the Telangana as against that of Andhra whose peasant/caste ethic of exploitation was determined by the coastal plains and colonial rule. There is a widespread feeling that aspirations of Telangana people were undermined in all spheres.7 Hence. However. The politico-bureaucratic elite could immediately be seen to be divided on two levels. The mulki rules were not applicable to upper strata. The elite structures of Andhra parties and lobbies proceeded to subordinate their Telangana counterparts taking advantage of their weakness and inexperience in bourgeois mode of arrangements. which in the case of Telangana bypassed even the qualified Telangana people. Nothing in the State Reorganization Act nor in the Gentlemen’ s Agreement could present this.
. i. the dominant Andhra segment and the subordinate Telangana section. These two paradigmatically different structures (Telangana and Andhra) were brought together in 1956. The merger that came about took place at the level of political and administrative arrangements. lower administrative functionaries. cultural. or linguistic factors. which was practiced with impunity by the Andhra political elite with a lot more audacity than in the initial stages. social. If sub regional distinctiveness cannot often be traced to caste. it is clear that a history of division goes far to create sub-regional feelings within a broad cultural region. not as a solution to Telangana’s many problems but as a contribution to the requirements of the Andhra rich and their allies. After an initial hesitation.
Separate Telangana Movement: The Issues: In the separate Telangana movement. the sentiment of People of the region. The people of Telangana also feel that they looked down their culture and language by the Andhra region and reduced their status as second citizens in the name of language in their own homeland. women. This movement has many dimensions. Many scholars argue that it has been neglected by the government in developmental activities. political. artists. it is not just the question of development. revolutionary groups. Tribals.for the separate statehood for the overall development that includes self-rule and selfrespect as Amartya Sen argued. Hence it is argued. the new educational institutions needed for the new system being opened only in the late 1950s. 2006. linguistic.8 Historical Reasons for Separate Telangana Statehood Movement: The newly-created State had more resources now. students and teacher associations. All political parties have its own agenda and stand on the demand of Telangana separate state. would now want that it be provided with conditions to increase surplus. The expansion of education brought more qualified people from Andhra into Telangana. The period ending with the mid-sixties. industry. agriculture. Consensus on Telangana State: Facts. backwardness. in which there was relative political stability. But the Andhra rich farmers who had secured assurances from its coalitional partners.
. Tenancy reforms resulted in the increase small8
Jayashankar.Social. cultural. economic. Telangana’s qualified men and women were slow to come in. Mallepalli Rajyam Memorial Trust. coincided with the expansion of infrastructure for wider internal market and compulsory procurement of food grains by the government. namely the politico-administrative elite. In fact. They might have stopped coming Telangana if the government intervened to increase the rural incomes and promote the potential rich. Public works brought in contractors and transporters from Andhra. people from several walks of life are involved: intellectuals. Hyderabad. but it includes the self-respect of people.
Centre for Telangana Studies. which dominated by Andhra component was a crucial input in favour of Andhra rural rich. Disparities were created and protected by the Andhra ruling elite that served as a mechanism in perpetuating this process. The irrigation and engineering bureaucracy. Telangana people were fooled and treated like subordinates. 1997.10 Author critically assess that the Andhra leadership still continuing all the ill treatment meted out to them by the Tamil ruling class in the old Madras Presidency and transferred the injury to the people of Telangana. the peripheral nature of Telangana’s economy was reinforced by the government’s cutting down of size and outlay of Telangana irrigation projects and by increasing the supply of water from Telangana to Andhra region by floating legal norms and arrangements( Nagarjunasagar. coal and electriclty being the primary targets of such transfer. the systematic transfer of resources through the governmental net work had started. Telangana: Dimensions of Underdevelopment. The Andhra political elites were instrumental in realizing this negative aspiration by scuttling all the attempts of the Telangana subordinate elite through a tight network of lobby system. But it was not merely a collective psychological problem but was the lust for power and money of the feudal classes of the Andhra area (Kammas. 38-39
Ibid. The monetary siphoning continued to priority areas in coastal Andhra. Pochampadu). want a competitive section from Telangana that would spoil its attempt to perpheralise Telangana into small-commodity producing peasantry. totally losing their self-respect. Vishweshwer P.9 37-38 Harinath argues the sustained pressure and combined activity of Andhra ruling coalition concentrated its efforts to bring more water from Telangana area for bigger surpluses. Telangana: the Peripheralisation. very few agrarian rich could acquire meaningful surplus. Soon they lost most of their lands too as a result of Naxalite movement while Reddys of
Harinath P. The Andhra agrarian rich did not. Andhra region as an advantaged area began to take shape now. pp. from the beginning. water. Thus. Telangana was slowely but surely turned from a periphery into a colony by the middle of the sixties.L. Reddys and Brahmins). Telangana was paying more taxes in the form of higher agricultural tax rates and excise tax. pp. Besides being converted into a peripheral backward area. Increased irrigation facilities were the only way that could have brought prosperity to sections of Telangana peasantry. Colonization and Marginalization of a region ( in edited) Simhadri P & Rao.scale production. 38-39
The consequence of this is the ‘internal colonization’. the insistence on the formation of Andhra Pradesh was itself with the intention of taking control of Telangana resources.11 (7-8) It is also argued that the root of the aspirations for (Sub) regional autonomy in India is the fact of uneven development. as the experience of the last four decades shows. It is a totally casteist system too. Though the trajectory of capitalist transformation
Op. which by galvanizing the resources-mater and cultural – ideological at their command have furthered their hegemony over the backward areas and the increasingly impoverished subaltern castes/classes. Yet a character from this class betrayed the great peoples’ movement for Telangana of 1968-1972. Wholesale exploitation of Telangana resources for the benefit of the Andhra area is accompanied by attacks on the way of life of Telangana people. (7) Scholars argue the Naxalite movement itself was a product of the betrayal of the 1968-1972 movement as also tardy implementation of land reforms by the Coastal area –Rayalaseema feudal coalition. Evidence of this is the dominant presence of the ‘outsiders’/settlers in all sectors of social life in the backward areas. In fact. including the backward regions. It is absurd to say that there is no feudalism in Andhra area. A marauding capitalism has been superimposed on a casteist and feudal society. Uneven development is both historically determined and politically enforced process.Rayalaseema continued to hold on to their lands and despotic power inspite of land reforms. It is a vindication of their dominance that the upper caste/class leadership of the advanced regions and has for this reason not only displayed indifference to the problems of the backward areas but in fact actively professed ‘integration’. Uneven development is multi-dimensional-economic. Further. society and politics of the states.
. social. political and cultural dimensions seen in their inter-relationship. They subjected Telangana feudals to every type of humiliation imaginable. the Left with economistic class reductionism sought to reduce the question of uneven development almost exclusively to the logic of capitalist development.cit.(52) Large linguistic states. All the contradictions of the Andhra area are sought to be resolved by involving oppressed sections into a wholesale exploitation of Telangana. have strengthened the grip of dominant caste/classes of the advanced regions over the economy.
It has its own history since independence.L. Centre for Telangana Studies. The agitation was popularly known as the Mulki Movement. I Phase: 1948 – 1956 When India got independence in 1947. in which regional unevenness and injustice is structured yet it cannot simply be equated with nor can it be understood solely in terms of nationality defined principally in terms of language. The demand for separate Telangana State had its roots from the Mulki Movement. 1997.12 A Demand for Separate State and Comparison of Different Phases: The issue of separate State is not a new phenomenon. On 13 September 1948 the Government of India launched Police Action on Hyderabad. at the time Hyderabad State was under the control of Nizam Ruler Meer Usman Ali Khan. pp. K. Later it was integrate with the Telugu speaking Andhra region. Vishweshwer P. Though this movement was not articulated by political groups until the question of state Reorganization became a reality Sate Reorganization Commission:
Srinivasulu. But it led to agitation against non mulkis (outsiders) in August. Telangana: Dimensions of Underdevelopment. After the Police Action. The Thesis on the Question of Small States. By 17 September 1948 Police Action was completed and Union Government integrates Nizam State into Indian Union. in Simhadri P & Rao. officials were brought from costal district of Andhra to Hyderabad State for “Administrative convenience”. After the general election of 1952 the first popular ministry headed by B. Ramakrishna Rao took charge of the Hyderabad State. The students from the Telangana region actively participated in the movement which was suppressed by the authorities.forms the context. which was a part of Madras Presidency until 1953. 1952.53
. The 1952 agitation is significant because it shaped the attitude of the people towards the issue of State Reorganization. however if we look at the demand for a separate State of Telangana into three distinct phases form 1948 to the present.
It was subscribed to by the leaders of both Andhra and Telangana. economic development and educational facilities. All these lead to the agitation called Telangana Agitation within the region of Telangana. if the Chief Minister is from Andhra. the idea of separate State was dropped and formed a single State called. 1956).After the formation of Andhra State in October 1953. headed by Fazal Ali. 1953 the State Reorganization Commission was set up by the Government of India. This agreement cleared the way for the formation of the single State of Andhra Pradesh on November 1956. II PHASE 1968 – 1973: Telangana Agitation The failure of Gentlemen’s Agreement and some other reasons were made path towards the rise of Telangana agitation. By February 1956. And also Telangana people felt that Gentlemen’s Agreement violated all the safeguards of the Telangana region. in a way underwritten by the Central Government embodied certain safeguards to the people of Telangana with regard to employment.M. All these leads to a massive revolt of the people of the region in 1968 – 1969 demanding separate statehood for Telangana region from the State of Andhra Pradesh. Several political parties in the state have
.P. of A. On Oct 22. One of the conditions of the agreement was. Deputy Chief Minister should be from Telangana. This Commission recommended that the Telugu speaking people of Hyderabad State should have separate State by the name of Telangana. refused to name any Telangana Minister as Deputy C.Andhra Pradesh comprising of Andhra and Telangana by Gentlemen’s Agreement (20 Feb.M. the demand for the creation of other linguistic states acquire prominent place. But this agreement was violated in 1956 itself when Neelam Sanjiva Reddy became the first C. Telangana people thought that there was an imbalance between the two regions had been neglected in many aspects. The employment problem and the delaying in implementation of the Mulki rules were the main aspects that being neglected by the governments since the formation of single state and only very little was done to set right this imbalance. This agitation took a violent turn in certain areas of the region because unfortunately on 20 January 1969 police opened fire on the agitating students at Hyderabad leads to so many deaths.
also been actively involved in the agitation. It created new prosperity in the core area. Telangana agitation of 1968-69 comes in the background of these developments in Andhra Pradesh. Andhra Pradesh witnessed another agitation. The agitation was the outcome of the Supreme Court’s judgment on what was known as the “Mulki Rules”. The second half of 1960s brought in a change situation through application of Green Revolution techniques. 40
. resigned his position to make room for a Telanganite to become the Chief Minister and few days later P. Due to the concentration of Green Revolution’s means of production taken from Telangana area. turned into capitalist farmers and the most profit-oriented class. Narasimha Rao. d) building dams. Under these internal colonial conditions. of Andhra Pradesh. In order to achieve a separate Andhra State they started an agitation popularly known as the Jai Andhra movement. agricultural market price is determined by the price of production of capitalist agriculture that accumulated by the Andhra region elites. In September 1971 Bramananda Reddy who was the C. The fall in employment opportunities and flouting of mulki rules brought into sharp focus the underdeveloped region’s plight.V. This time in the Andhra region. the efficiency and labour productivity of these farms was greater than backward ones in Telangana. All of them were in Andhra.V. The people of the Andhra region who wants the immediate abolition of the Mulki rules were taken back.Narasimha Rao became first Chief Minister from Telangana. Every aspect of these measures was rigorously developed and provided to the already commercialized rich farmers. Later a separate organization known as Telangana Praja Samiti was formed under the Chairmanship of Channa Reddy in 1969 later it was turned as a political party. who as a result. b) development of infrastructure. Sensing the changed mood of the people the central Government held discussions with leaders of both regions and evolved what is
Ibid.M. 13 During the Chief Ministership of P. p. c) expanding irrigation. e) providing seed farms and fertilizer and f) giving greater access to credit and other material and financial inputs and f) giving greater access to credit and other material and financial inputs. People of Andhra region felt that their dignity and honor could be safe guarded only in a separate state of their own. and technology in the Andhra capitalist farms.
George Fernandez addresses the concluding session. Ghanpur. Soon “Ma Telangana” was launched. Jayashankar. group and public meetings have been held at Godavarikhani. Khamma. (12) Stirrings of a new movement could be clearly seen in Warangal on 1st November 1996 at the Telangana Praja Samithi convention attended by more than five thousand delegates from all parts of Telangana. The Bhongir conference and the public meeting proved to be a turning point. Rayalaseema and Telangana.known as the Six Point Formula in 1973. The Bhongir conference was addressed among others by Kaloji Naran Rao. Surendra Mohan inaugurated the conference and Justice Madava Reddy addressed the gathering. Dr. (13) There was a meeting on 29. unknown persons threatened Gaddar
. In 1992 the Kakatiya Unit of Telangana Students Front was formed. L. With the result of Six Point Formula. Nizamabad. Kachiguda. the State was divided into seven zones within the framework of three regions. 1986 some activists decided to form ‘Telangana Information Trust’. Karimnagar.30 December 1997 at Waranagal. Siddipet. III PHASE: 1990 onwards In the decade of 1990s once again separate Telangana movement had started by the few individuals and organizations. namely Coastal Andhra. the old city of Hyderabad and Bhongir. undaunted by betrayals. Prof. Aler. Telangana Students Front and Telangana Liberation Students Organization were launched in Osmania University. Around 1991 two organizations. The Hyderabad convention was held on 1st December 1996 and after that a series of conferences. Before the movement was held. treating the capital city as a separate entity. Vishweshwara Rao and others. Nalgonda. Twice every year large numbers gathered at the Martyrs Memorials in Secundrabad and Hyderabad and paid tributes to martyrs. There were many ups and downs in the movement but the movement continued. which was closed down after sevn months due to financial troubles. P. In January. Gaddar and people’s poet Kaloji was also participated. Jangaon. Abolition of mulki rules and Telangana Regional Committee and establishment of a Central University at Hyderabad were the important points of the formula. A national seminar on small states was held in landscape Gardens and Tagore Auditorium in August 1993. More than a thousand people had gathered at its inaugural function at Basant Talkies.
strengthen and deepen the democracy. Hence. importance of local gods and goddess and explained how their culture and
Varavara Rao. artists and intellectuals. These developments brought new life into separate Telangana movement by the year 2000. Through which they are expecting inclusive. p. it is essential to pressurize the state through people’s movements. But Gaddar participated and written a song called “nee Patanai vastunnanammo maa ammalara. Veshala Aikya Sangatana. Congress party MLA’s from Telangana region. employment to the Telangana youth. women. supported the separate Telangana State and formed a Telangana Congress Legislators Forum. teacher. But the BJP could not create separate Telangana State because of the opposition from its coalition partners. The Telangana movement once again became the essential phenomenon in Indian politics after the formation of Telangana Rastra Samiti in 2001 by K. Chandra Shekar Rao in 2001 with the single agenda of a creating separate Telangana State with Hydarebad as its capital. It argued that Telangana is excluded from all sorts of developments and opportunities in political power that made them dream of Telangana as a separate state. He has taken up the protests and demonstrations against the TDP government for the implementations of the 610 GO.4. Kaloji sad in his speech those who are threatened Gaddar. There were three lakh people were participated in the meeting.Nee padalaku vandalammo maa ammalara”.14 The emotions and forces generate by the movement were not strong enough. 16.that if he participates in the movement. But in 1990’s once again the issue of separate state rises up when Bharathiya Janatha Party promised for separate Telangana State if they came to power. Exclusion means not merely social and economic marginalization of the sections but also the regions. Chandrasekara Rao on the issue of Telangana.
. let them kill him and Gaddar if they have dare enough to kill them.08. Telugu Desam Party. however a demand for separate statehood was continuing. a new party called Telangana Rashtra Samiti (TRS) was formed by K. construction of irrigation projects through which party demand separate Telangana state with the support of the youth. Andhra Jyothi. employees.12. they will kill on the stage itself with the help of bomb blast. In another development. He campaigned all over the Telangana and explained the backwardness of Telangana and its culture.
for Assembly and Parliamentary Elections. Deputy Chief Minister for Minorities. With the result. TRS won the byeelection to Karimnagar Parliamentary Constituency which is considered by many as a referendum on Telengana State with a record margin. culture was undermined and betrayed by the leaders of the Andhra region. The political formulations have changed. Narendra formed the party and named as Telangana Sadana Samti and participated in the local body elections and Hyderabad municipal election –2001 but could not gain the people’s support. But in before the general elections. film actress turned politician formed the Telangana Talli Party for the cause of separate Telangana State. TRS held training classes for the students and the youth to explain the reasons for separate state. Congress Party and TRS had an electoral alliance in Telangana region with the promise of separate Telangana State. there was a debate once again on the Telangana.language being undermined by the leaders of Andhra from all the political parties. hence he merged his party with the TRS. later A. Then. they explained how their language. In December 2006. later Ms. one section of the people argued. chief ministership for Dalits. all the MPs and MPs who were elected on TRS party symbol resigned to their membership and went for the bye-elections but they lost the elections. In these classes. After the bey-elections. Nava Telangana Party. With this pressure. TRS promised employment to the youth. she joined the TRS and contested from the Medak Lok Sabha and won the elections. there was a lot of pressure on congress High Command for
. In 2004. Then. TDP also agreed to bifurcate the Andhra Pradesh and supported Telangana state demand.e. Along with the political parties. artists are active in the movement. TRS joined the Coalition government in 2004 and was successful in making separate Telangana State as a part of the Common Minimum Programme (CMP) of the Coalition government. Vijayashanti. Once again. Congress came to power in the State and formed Coalition government in the Centre. Devenadar Goud along with Peddi Reddy were come out from Telugu Desam Party and formed a new party i. people of Telangana doesn’t want separate statehood as TRS lost the half of their setting seats. In September 2006 TRS withdrew support for the Congress led coalition government at the Centre on the grounds of indecision in the government and the delivery of its electoral promise to create Telangana.
Rajashekar Reddy is saying that it would not be possible for UPA government to concede to the demand for separate Telengana before the next elections since there was no consensus among the coalition constituents on the issue and that the congress could take a decision only if it is able to secure a majority and form the government at the centre on its own. Comparison of different Phases: If we compare the different phases. too are bifurcate. K. He said this is not a fight between two races. Formation of a political party called Telangana Praja Samiti. and Maharashtra together have 90 LokSabha seats. From the Congress point of view. A.creating a separate State. and Bihar have slipped out of hands of the party almost two decades ago. they are demanding a restoration of Telangana State which existed already once.P. Mulki Moment.P. State Reorganization Commission and Gentleman’s Agreement and in the second phase followed by Telangana Agitation later it leads to Jai Telangana Moment. Jai Andhra Moment and Six Point Formula. So bifurcation of A.P. Y. first phase ended with “Gentleman’s Agreement” and formed A.S. VenkataSwamy lead the Telangana group said there would be no compromise on their stand.P. State
. would reduce the capacity of the Congress to garner sizable number of seats because regional and sub.R. If we look at similarities between the first two phases.P. On the other hand a section of Congress leaders are supporting Telangana within the party those who are from Telangana region. Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh are two major States which can make the party’s fortune to wrest or retain power at the Centre. G. We will continue the agitation till the UPA Government concedes the demand for separate State.P. If Maharashtra and A.C. there were four important issues took place in first two phases like Police Action.regional parties may gain upper hand in the bifurcated portions. CWC member and senior M. During the time of campaign. this may prove to be politically disastrous for the Congress. So Dr. since both U. addressed a seminar on Small States held at University of Hyderabad by saying that TRS is not for repeat of 1969 violence and the party wants the State to be bifurcated peacefully.
P to acknowledge the issue of separate Telangana. In the first phase. Formation of Separate Telangana Movement: Political Developments: Telangana is today a hot issue and something no party can ignore to address. Narasimha Rao was elected as the first C. if look at in the third phase some national parties as well as regional parties participating in Telangana moment. Once again the movement got enormous support from all sections of the region when TRS emerged as a strong political force. If we look at three phases the second phase was turned so violent. All the politics are about the “appropriate time and the art of its interpretation. And the establishment of a Central University in Telangana Region was a greater achievement of this phase. a strong feeling has taken roots among the people of this region.P. Telangana Rastra Samithi had a political alliance and controversial understanding on the demand of separate state during the recent (2004) elections that dethroned Telugu Desam does not require any additional emphasis to point out the importance of the demand for separate state. including the minorities that gross injustice has been done to them and their region despite the assurances trotted out by the successive regimes to fully abide by the Gentleman’s Agreement. Mulki rules and Six Point Formula etc. Congress-I. from Telangana Region and second was Andhra people got satisfied by abolition of Mulki rules.M. It is necessary to accept these facts to acknowledge that demand for the separate state has a history and people support. They contested in the local body elections and won majority seats-2002.V. Initially TRS was not considered as a political party for sometime but later it decided to work as a political group but later they converted it into a political party. It has become imperative for every political party worth the name in A. Telangana movement is playing a vital role in Indian politics since 1960s. One was P.and the latter one also ended with “Six Point Formula” and it avoided the bifurcation of the State. This response clearly reflected the aspirations of the people in favour of separate Telangana
. only the leaders from both regions within the Congress party represented Gentlemen’s Agreement whereas in the second phase students from Hyderabad and all over the region participated very actively. however there were two outcomes to the people of the two regions. However from the last five decades since the formation of A.
it supported the Telangana State demand. It has its own reasons for not to support the smaller states but in before 2009 general elections. This development gave the rise movement for separate state and new political party that Telangana Rastra Samithi formed by K. etc. Since 1960s. the Congress party has been making use of the sentiment for Telangana and getting political mileage out of the Telangana demand. But it did not stand on its stand and say did not get full majority in Lok Sabha. This once again made the people of Telangana region demand for the separate statehood. Marri Chenna Reddy mobilized public support in favour of separate Telangana.
. Illegal diversion of water resources has reached it peak during the present Congress regime. Chandrasekhar Rao in the year of 2001 and won good number of seats in local body elections that made the Congress party to have an alliance with the TRS in the year of 2004 general elections. The pet projects of present regime namely Pothireddypadu. BSP. Pulichintala will turn Telangana into desert. The leadership in Andhra Pradesh also has been pursuing policies detrimental to the interest of the region. It is also very important to understand the development that neglected in the Telangana region during the Telugu Desam Party’s regime. Smt Indira Gandhi tried her level best to cool down the movement by offering minor development programmes. The Telugu Desam leadership made Telangana a laboratory for the policies prescribed by the World Bank which resulted in neglect of agriculture in the region and caused migration of Telangana people from villages to towns. The process of globalization also added to that additional. BJP. All the political parties: Congress-I. BJP support the bifurcation of Andhra as it is in favour of smaller states. BJP promised the separate states by promising “one vote-two states”. Dr. cities and in many cases to places outside the country. Emergence of Telangana Rastra Samithi and Electoral Politics: In 1999 Lok Sabha general elections. have taken a stand in favour on the demand of Telangana but TDP is not in a favour of Telangana state initially till 2008. TRS emerged on the issue of Telangana. RJD. His party won eleven Lok Sabha seats. 1960s. People of Telangana region thought that Andhra educated youth robbing the employment opportunities of local youth.state.
Ironically. has now kept the issue in cold storage due to electoral compulsions as its ally and the ruling party. The fact that the Congress high command has now agreed to appoint a Telangana Regional Coordination Committee after persistently rejecting the demand of the Congress Forum for Telangana (CFT) for a separate Pradesh Congress Committee (PCC) for Telangana could be seen as a clear acknowledgement of its importance in the ensuing elections. The MPs who were elected on the plank of separate Telangana at that time joined the Congress later and the movement eventually petered out. Both the political parties campaigned together
. which revived the issue of smaller States and brought back the Telangana factor into focus by adopting the `one vote. TRS Politics: In 2004 general elections-Congress party had a coalition with TRS whose main objective was separate statehood for the Telangana. The sentiment might remain stronger if TRS went alone and might get diluted if an accord was reached between the TRS and the Congress. the TDP. With the fledgling Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) emerging as a strong force in some of the Telangana districts this time. the issue of statehood for Telangana has come to occupy the centre stage of electoral politics in Andhra Pradesh and is likely to have a significant impact on the prospects of major political parties in the Assembly elections. Agreeing that the Telangana issue would have some impact in the elections. two States' resolution at Kakinada in 1998. has rejected the demand for bifurcating the State and has decided to seek the mandate for a united Andhra Pradesh.Separate Telangana Movement: Second Phase: After a gap of more than 30 years. Senior Congress leader and CWC member. the BJP. It was in 1971 that the Telangana Praja Samithi (TPS) had bagged 11 of the 14 Lok Sabha seats in the region in the wake of a prolonged agitation led by Marri Channa Reddy during 1969-70 for a separate State. Ghulam Nabi Azad. during the "Prajahita'' bus tour of Telangana has sought to assure people by saying that the Congress respected their sentiments. Political observers feel that the Congress is not coming out openly in support of a separate State as it might affect its chances in Andhra. he observed.
Even in the presidential address Dr. It may be recalled that the Congress party in Andhra Pradesh had an electoral understand with Telangana Rastra Samithi (TRS) and won the 2004 Assembly and Lok sabha elections. However. The committee despite receiving letters of support from many political parties favouring statehood for Telangana has not submitted its report to the government as on today for the reasons best known to it. Both the leaders of TRS joined the union cabinet. Many parties in UPE and non UPE believe that smaller states meet people’s aspirations in terms of access to the administrative apparatus as well as developmental needs. Congress party said. which won 11 seats out of 14 parliament seats. One of the public meetings. 2004 elections reaffirm the historic mandate of 1971 elections given by the Telangana people to Telanagna Praja Samithi (TPS). President of India mentioned about the Telangana separate statehood. UPE agreed to include the issue in Telangana in the UPE Common Minimum Programme. UPE has constituted a committee with Pranab Mukargee as a chairman to arrive at the consensus on separate Telangana State. President. After the formation of the Union government. As part of the electoral understanding the Congress party promised statehood for Telangana. This was also reiterated by the President of India in his joint address to parliament and it was also included in the Common Minimum Programme of the UPA Government. as there was no other party which was supporting the Telangana state. Narendra to join the union cabinet without assuring Telangana separate state on the pressure from the TRS. “Her party was for separate Telangana state and respects the sentiments of people”. Sonia Gandhi invited K. Chandrasekar Rao and A. Abdul Kalam. It believed that smaller states would enhance the power of the anti-social and anti state activities. The people believed.in Telangana region in favour of their candidates. The Telugu Desam Party clearly said in their election manifesto that they do not support the smaller states as it leads to disintegration of the state. strangely the Congress Party chose to appoint Pranab Mukarjee committee which has become synonymous with delay and indecision. They reached thumping majority in both the Lok Sabha and the Assembly elections and formed the governments at both the state and the central levels. Ms. The Congress Party however has been saying that CPM is opposed to formation of Telangana State and that UPA government survives on the
. Ms Sonia Gandhi.
. development of the region would be effected by the mutual acrimony. many civil society organizations have been actively participating in the movement towards creating separate Telangana and have been working with commitment to spread awareness about the injustices meted out to the people of Telangana about the violations of Constitutional guarantees. Hyderabad. The movement would lose the human angle if the migrants were targeted. He attended the round table discussion on smaller states organized by the Academic Staff CollegeUniversity of Hyderabad on 4th Feb 2008. Nava Telangana Praja Party and other Civil Society Associations on 22-10-2008.C. However having survived the no-confidence motion in Parliament recently without the support of CPM there are no hurdles for introduce a bill in the ensuing parliament session. Major political parties in the State except Congress have acknowledged the democratic desire of the Telangana people and have passed resolutions to this effect. To demand formation of Telanagna State. Moreover.
. to introduce a bill in Lok Sabha for creating State of Telangana. He emphasized development is the civic right of people and separate state is their birthright. He emphasized that TRS party has a political agenda to solve the problem of Naxalism after the formation of separate Telangana state. the congress party. There. time has come for the UPA government and its major constituent. denial and deprivation of Telangana of their legitimate share in resources and political process is possible only when Telangana people have a state of their own.
Memorandum submitted to UPA Chair Person. People of Telangana strongly feel that an end to the plunder of resources. Telangana people are of the view that Congress has exploited the democratic aspirations of people of Telangana for mere electoral gains and that it has no respect for the overwhelming expression of people articulated through electoral process. Besides. particularly. He emphasized that separatist movement was not an ethnic struggle targeted at people of coastal districts. unjust exploitation of Telangana resources for the development of coastal Andhra and denial of legitimate share of political power.. It is only by having political power in their hands the people of Telangana will be able to script their destiny.support extended by the CPM. he said. People demanding the separate state had no right to disturb the lives of people hailing from the coastal districts who had settled down in the region.15 K.R tried to convince the academicians from all over the country.
agitation may go beyond their hands. He also said it would not take one day to whip up the tensions and repeat the turbulent period at the peak of the separate Telangana agitation in 1969. He demanded for resignation of congress M. If this takes place.16 On 7th Feb 2008. MPs and MLCs from the Telangana Rastra Samithi resigned to their posts and went for the elections. MPs and MLCs of the region. But the leaders of the movement did not have a negative approach. twelve percentage of reservations for them. if congress party delay the issue. Jayasankar requested the people of Telangana not to involve any kind of violent activities as YSR. KCR participated in relay hunger strike at Indira Park. Chandrasekhar Rao also promised. distribute the three acres of land with irrigation facilities and loan will be given for a year without any interest and birth and death anniversary of tribal leaders will celebrate officially. K. MLAs. S. Y. Rajasekara Reddy as the violent.S. Thousands of people were participated in the strike. 2008
. Hyderabad. He suggested Congress leaders not to praise him for their political interests. K. Congress party would be the responsible for that. He claimed YSR is the main constraint to separate Telangana.
Vaartha. His party will setup the idols of Sevalal maharaj and Komaram Bhim who are the spiritual and political leaderers of Tribals. Telangana Rastra Samithi gave a call for one-day relay hunger strike all over the region of Telangana.12. If Telangana state comes in true. He emphasized. as people of Telangana wound not forgive them.Development was no substitute for self-respect and self-administration.e. He whispered Y. people would not keep silence. Congress Party would respect the sentiment of the people for the separate Telangana state and the formation of separate state is possible only with Congress Party. As a form of protest.As. During the elections campaign all political parties except CPI (M) directly or indirectly supported the cause of Telangana state. Development in real terms mean’t increase in purchasing power of people. 12. Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh trying to provoke the people to involve in violent activities. all tandas will be recognized as panchayats. That had not happened in the last decades.L. his government would take the steps to develop on all grounds. Rajasekara Reddy said in his public meetings his party i.
During the last Assembly sessions and Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh announced in the Assembly that government is not opposed to separate Telangana state.J. however. Chiranjeevi said his party was for a ’social’ Telangana where the social justice would be rendered to the under-privileged castes.A government. B. The party is trying to launch campaigns in all over the region to protest the delay in the formation of Telangana state by the U. but it was pushed into backwardness by canny politicians. He said Telangana was not a backward region. the demand for separate statehood for Telangana has been dominating the State’s Politics for over 50 years. Mr.S.P. Chiranjeevi announced his support for the formation of a separate State. Sonia Gandhi has said in the public meeting that Congress Party is not opposed to Separate Telangana State in principle but she argues that Congress Party thinks there is a need to consider the sentiments of other regions.A’s and Three M. Telangana Rashtra Samiti is strengthening up for the big battle ahead for separate statehood for the Telangana region. However.T.P. also making sounds on this issue of separate statehood. settlers in Hyderabad and the problems of Hyderabad Muslims. Now T.R.General elections and electoral Politics: During the election campaign.Ps. Telugu Desam Party also faced the trouble with Mr. in case Telangana state is formed.S is banking on the Telangana Sentiment and Sympathy over “sacrifice” to stage a comeback. made it clear that his party would not ‘exploit’ the Telangana sentiment for political gains. Sixteen M. He.C’s.
.Y.L. on the other hand the Chief Minister Dr.P and C.On the Other hand with the resignations of its Four M.Chandrababu Naidu not to ignore the Telangana Sentiment.L. However. Rajashekar Reddy is relying on the development plank to resolve the situation. there would be no stopping for him in Telangana as well as in all other regions of the State.
2009. it is in no mood to take a decision on the controversial statehood issue in the near future. Devender Goud and Mr.I. Kadiyam Srihari pressurized Mr. the Congress making sounds in its own way that.
has said that it has no objection to formation of a Telangana state. But the same Congress party. also says that the erstwhile Telugu Desam Party (TDP) Government completely neglected irrigation projects in the region that were
.taken up in coastal Andhra would be stopped in the event of the TDP coming to power because of TRS objection to both the schemes on the ground that Telangana would be starved of water if the gigantic projects come up. Congress president Sonia Gandhi had promised to accord top priority to the issue. No opposition party joined the committee as they argued that government constituted the committee only for the political opportunism. in its election manifesto.His party could respect the sentiments of the people of Telangana. what Sonia Gandhi said at an election rally at Bhongir in Telangana: “If at all there is a party which can deliver Telangana.TRS alliance. Compare this with what the Chief Minister had said in a written statement in the Assembly in its last session of Assembly: “Telangana issue is close to my heart and we are committed to addressing the demand. The Congress. The TDP. which reversed its traditional stand to support Telangana demand last year. Rajasekhar Rao during the election campaign in Telangana.” Or. for that matter. People should not trust the TDP. and Y. it will initiate measures for carving out a separate state. The second. During the election campaign. and perhaps more important task. In contrast to his commitment that announced in the Assembly. had said that it had no reservations on the formation of separate Telangana state and in principle they are not opposed to Separate Telangana State. A vote for the Telugu Desam Party would mean that people of Rayalaseema and coastal Andhra regions will have to live like foreigners in Hyderabad because the party has aligned with the Telangana Rashtra Samithi which is wedded to the creation of a separate state. Chief Minister has constituted the Cabinet Sub Committee to study the problems of other regions and the security of Muslims in Hyderabad city. but it is required to study the problems of several sections of the state and the regions while forming the separate Telangana State before the elections. is to drive home the point that the two major irrigation projects – Polavaram and Pulichintala. YSR. said that the settlers from coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema in Telangana will become foreigners if a separate Telangana state is formed as Telangana Rastra Samithi is part of the Maha Kootami (Grand Alliance) in a public meeting at Nandyal in Kurnool district of Rayalaseema region. it is the Congress.” Further. has pledged that if voted to power.
18 The Telugu Desam Party's (TDP) decision to support the demand for separate statehood for Andhra Pradesh's Telangana region has brought the issue back to the centrestage and is likely to put pressure on the ruling Congress party to take a similar stand ahead of the elections scheduled to be held in five months. The party's strength in the assembly came down drastically to 45. The fact that the TDP was forced to reverse its 26-year-old ideological plank of unified Andhra Pradesh proves how significant the issue has become in the run up to the simultaneous polls to state assembly and Lok Sabha. others are nearing completion. and two Communist parties. While some of these projects have been completed. with the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government failing to take any concrete step for formation of Telangana. Thus. The TDP is the first major political party with state-wide presence to take a clear stand in favour of the six-decade old demand for separate Telangana state. the TRS pulled out of the coalition and accused Congress of once again betraying the people of Telangana.000 crore has been spent on irrigation projects in the region.. fighting for separate Telangana. The electoral understanding with TRS was based on the Congress' assurance to help achieve the separate state. Express News Service
. The party not only lost power to the Congress party but was nearly wiped out from Telangana. It termed the formation of a three-member committee led by Pranab Mukherjee to look into the
Separate Telangana will be safe haven for Naxals: YSR
YSR shocks Telangana 17 April 2009. His government undertook irrigation projects and other rural developmental activities in a focused manner. the situation is different now then earlier.17 he also cautioned the people of Andhra and Rayalaseema that supporting the TDP meant endorsing the demand for a separate state of Telangana at the expense of the interests of the people in Andhra and Rayalaseema regions. over Rs 10. In the last three-and-a-half years. The Congress had then fought elections in alliance with Telangana Rashtra Samiti (TRS). triggering the demand for a separate state. However. The TDP had fought the 2004 elections on the plank of united Andhra Pradesh.witnessing severe drought.
They argue that the statehood for the Telangana region was also a democratic solution to the problems of the region as the region was pushed down in all spheres in spite of rich natural resources. Its senior leader T Devender Goud.demand as a delaying tactic. They strongly believe that effective weapon to mobilize the people with cultural activities. In Telangana movement. With TDP reversing its stand. quit to float Nava Telangana Praja Party (NTPP) to bolster the movement for a separate state. There are many civil society associations are direct or indirectly supporting the Telangana movement. Hyderabad / Indo-
Asian News Service
. pressure is likely to mount on the Congress to take a clear stand on the issue. it is only the Congress party whose stand on the issue remains ambiguous. seen as number two in the party. The party was under attack for holding talks with TDP for electoral alliance without the latter supporting a separate state. CCC has taken the initiation to bring the revolutionary
Telangana back in centrestage of AP politics. The TDP also witnessed desertions on the issue more recently. One among these organizations was Committee of Concerned Citizens (CCC). As the Praja Rajyam Party (PRP) floated recently by Chiranjeevi has also hinted at a proTelangana stand. It consists of intellectuals. Fri-Oct 10. 2008. administrators.19 Political Activism in Separate Telangana Movement: There are two kinds of participation in democratic states that plays a vital role in democratic countries: representative politics and civil societal activism. The revolutionary parties are also support the cause. academicians and human rights activists have been raising their voice in favour of separate statehood for Telangana. APCLC and Human Rights Forum and revolutionary groups all support the cause. Many intellectuals. The Congress state unit left the issue to party president Sonia Gandhi for a final decision. one could see civil society organizations and political parties working for the cause irrespective of their identities and ideologies. Interestingly. it was TDP leader K Chandrasekhara Rao who quit the party in 2001 to form TRS and revive the Telangana movement. writers and human rights activists.
common people are not living with peaceful as daily the encounters are taking place between the common people. In their agenda there was separate Telangana state. working for the cause of Telangana. The Union and State governments claim that if separate Telangana State would form. Telangana Vidyavantula Vedika (Forum for Telangana Educationists) under the leadership of G. political parties from the Telangana region are started talking about the Telangana Talli and argues in the name of Telugu Talli (mother of Andhra Pradesh) leaders from Andhra neglected the region of Telangana in all the development activities. they started rewriting of their culture. Moreover. Hence he argues peace in region is possible only in the separate Telangana separate state. the revolutionary groups demanded the distribution of land and the separate Telangana state in the first phase of talks. Hence. In the process of peace talks. obviously it will impact on national security.groups for the peace talks with Government of Andhra Pradesh and succeeded to bringing them for the peace talks. In supporting the concept of Telangana Talli. This one of the reasons. it is democratic demand and in fact it has been articulated by the general people itself but not by the leaders though it is fact that political
. Many associations are demand the construction of irrigation projects that can cater the needs of Telangana and a comprehensive land distribution programme should be undertaken in the state with special focus on Telangana. political developments etc. But the peace talks were failed. they are delaying the issue. G. Though the concept of Telangana Talli (mother of Telangana) was earlier but once again all the organizations. Kodandaram. There were no second round talks between the government and Maoists. Telangana History Forum also argues that the history of Telangana is undermined and interpreted it as in favour of Andhra. TRS installed the idols of Telangana Talli (mother of Telangana) all the over the region. it would fulfill the aspirations of the people. artists. police and Maoist groups. Haragopal argues that in the region of Telangana. It resulted in migration from this region to Arab countries and main cities of India. But the scholars who are working on democracy and movements argue that it is not at all impact on the national integrity but they say by formulating the separate statehood. there is a possibility of strengthen the Naxalite problem in the state and Telangana will become a tool of the Naxalites is stale.
East and West Godavari districts (Andhra Pradesh). which section would enjoy the political power? The question of rights is involved in it. Ambedkar argued for the separate electorates for Dalits. Srikakulam. This is an ill informed alibi if not an irresponsible allegation. they are enjoying the privileges remained privileges i. excluded sections are striving to get justice in separate state and they believe it leads to inclusive politics. If Telangana gets separate state. Separate Telangana Movement: Dalit Perspective: Dr. It is not enough to get the political power. Bihar and almost everywhere. Naxalites are also in the coastal region of Vishakapatnam. There is also demand come from backward classes that what kind of Telangana they require. Orissa. it argues feudal social legacy dominancy will continue. either geographical or democratic Telangana. economy and political spheres. Dalit scholars and human rights activists argue that as few elite classes who are socially dominated. in the post-Telangana Dalits will continue to suffer. Hence. As all these groups believe that after the formation Andhra Pradesh.leaders from the same region hijacked the movement and made use of the movement for their self interests and try to fulfill their political opportunities. the formation of separate Telangana state would weaken the monopoly of the dominant castes and pave the way for the majority sections of the population to take over the state power that was long denied to them. Naxalism came from West Bengal and is very much part of our contemporary national ethos.e. It is also argue that Naxalism did not take birth in Telangana and Naxalism of the Telangana region was led and guided by the Andhra comrades for a long time. By participating in the separate Telangana movement. Chhattisgarh. It is strange that we find people suddenly becoming shortsighted to associate Naxalism with only Telangana. region of Telangana is undermined in all the spheres and argue that only separate Telangana state is the solution as they rule their state by their own. The formation of smaller states could be seen from the Ambedkarite perspectives.
. They also argue this argument has no credence as the Naxalite problem is not confined to Telangana alone in the State or in the country.
They argue that demanding merely the irrigation projects to Telangana is not enough. rights and people’s movements. A third section of Dalit group support and actively participate in Telangana movement. Since Ms. dalits would also grow strong like other elite sections to be able to bargain the political power in post Telangana. instead of securing and giving the land rights to the tribals. These complexities have to be understood in the context of democracy. Mayavati (BSP) became the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh in 2007 Uttar Pradesh Assembly general elections based on the concept of Sarvajan Samaj. Madava Rao (former IAS office). if separate state forms. Then. It is held that Dalits should get mobilize. Another section of Dalit scholars also argue that they don’t want Telangana to be a separate state but they want to live with self-respect and dignity and rights should be protected and respected. These political developments obviously impact on Telangana movement as Dalit activists are mobilizing the Dalit youth in support of BSP. the Dalits started asserting their rights and demand the share in political power. it had an impact on the politics of other parts of the country including Andhra Pradesh partially. Hence. They argue. financial support to the dalits to cultivate the land. BC and Brahmins who are economically and politically weak. unite and lead a Dalit movement parallel to the Telangana movement. moral and economic and they may lose the support from the same communities from the others regions of Andhra pradesh. the concepts like Dalit Bahujan and Sarva Samaj. as it benefits the elite farmers. Sarvjana Sammelan under the leadership of Ramachandra Rao (senior Advocate) K. Though the concept of Dalit Bahujan was there from 1990s.They are demanding distribution of land. In politics of Andhra pradesh-2007. Tribals groups argue that they live in the forest and they depend for their livelihood on the forest and its products but governments are engaged in degradation of forest and selling of the lands to the industrialists and mafia groups. It is supporting Telangana movement and agreed to support in the formation of Telangana state if they could come to power in Central. but all these groups tried to strengthen the unity among them against the few elite classes.
. ST. dominant castes may get weaken in terms of political. Sarwajan Samaj means unity of SC. It would encourage new leadership from Dalit community.
Ms. All these groups are critical about the tactics and power politics of K. Genera. he tried to create awareness among the people on the need of separate state.CPI (M) Stand on Telangana Issue. These developments have to be understood in the context of new politics and rights perspective.20 A high-powered committee should be formed to undertake a comprehensive study of the imbalanced development among different regions and districts.com/2007/01/22/stories/2007012212000400.
. http://www. During his peace march he advocated for a separate state through peaceful movement. Given the caste-ridden and unrepresentative character of the Indian society. Vijayashanthi demanded a crash Programme to be adopted to improve educational facilities in the identified backward mandals in region. all artists especially from ST/ST/OBC communities formed an Aikya Cultural front and Bellaiah Naik formed a Telangana Sangarshana Samiti and started pada yatra. Under the leadership of Gaddar. There should be strict implementation of GO No. Unless the majority sections of population find representation at all levels of power structures. She also argued for special measures to be adopted to improve the economic and social position of the dalits. Chandrasekar Rao (TRS) and they are campaigning for the cause of Telangana state by their own way. These developments
Vijayashanti. His main slogan was “the people’s Telangana and democratic Telangana”. No personal agenda.To take his views to the people. girijans (tribal people) and minorities. India cannot be termed as a democratic state. he argued that only a few sections are enjoying all sorts of rights. A development index for each mandal should be developed on this basis and comprehensive plans to be prepared.21 Apart from these demands she demand for the Separate Telangana State. There are disparities arousing between the elite class and Dalit and OBCs in Telangana movement.hindu. 610 and rectification of past distortions and special funds to be earmarked for the development of backward areas in every budget and a separate mechanism to be created to oversee the implementation of the special plans for the backward areas. Secretary.htm Press release by Prakash Karat. Gaddar began a 400-km ‘padayatra’ or walkathon or cultural peace march from Manuguru in Khammam district for the cause of separate Telangana. These recent developments indicate that there are contradictions and complexities in the movements. During the peace march. secure right over their land and water. It could weaken the movements.
They were highly scrutinized and their activities got extremely suspicious by the governments. Out of the movement. K. land. 21
. Narendra. they forget the movement. Most of them have migrated from the Andhra and gradually owned the land for their survival and existence in Hyderabad city. awards and political power. he says. etc. p. M. It also in juncture. Waheed. Result was Muslims in Hyderabad lost their livelihood and became helpless. Pooru Telanagan .. it is the
M. Chenna Reddy. After getting all the benefits. the dominance of Andhra elite and propertied class got increased in Hyderabad in particular and in the region of Telangana in general. Pradeep Haglave. could be seen in separate Telangana state movement. politically. Thereafter all the professions of Muslims in Hyderabad systematically have shifted to Andhraits. Wheed. socially and culturally respected. ‘Telanganaloo Tellavarani Muslimla Batukulum’. majority of the leaders enjoyed the political power.D. Even they are politically marginalized.22 They should get their share in political power based their population in separate Telangana state. argue that Muslims shall be realize their problems could be solved in the separate Telangana state.D.indicate that the movement of Telangana taking new shape in Indian politics to pressurize the governments: Union and State. Hyderabad. Over a period of time Small business. In this regard. Chandrasekhar Rao. argues in the history of movements. etc. industries. It is the responsibility of political parties and civil society organizations to give moral support and confident to Muslims that they will live the separate Telangana state peacefully and they would develop economically. Dec 2007. they get rewards. culturally apprehensive. Like many political leaders. employment. political leaders and political parties make use of the movements for their self interest. hence he argues. They shall be encouraged and mobilized to participate in the Telangana movement in particular and social movement in general. shifted to Andhra migrants. This experience. After 2001 attacks on World Bank at Washington highly had an impact on Hyderabad Muslims particular and Muslims in Telangana region in general. After the formation of Andhra Pradesh. it is an important to understand the political scenario of Muslims in region of Telangana.
N. delivered a lecture in 4th state meetings at Karimnagar. Chairman. 72. Poru Telangana p. Hanumantha Rao. students and youth to lead the movement till they get separate statehood. intellectuals. they would not have initiated a diversionary move like the constitution of the Second States' Reorganization Commission (SRC).htm new imperatives
. However. The post-liberalization also witnessed the rural distress that brought into sharp focus the rise in regional disparities in development.24
Head of the department. A disquieting feature of the current political scene in Andhra Pradesh is that those still interested in the integrated State refuse to learn the lessons from the since the agitation for a separate Telangana in the decade of 1960s. the policies initiated by the charismatic leaders could not be sustained for long as the absence of commitment among their successors. It has now engulfed farmers. Their credibility with the common people of Telangana was primarily responsible for sweeping the statehood issue under the carpet of development for quite some time.T. and the social sectors.H. in the present circumstances of widespread discontent. Otherwise. the first SRC had recommended the formation of Telangana as a separate State in response to the simmering discontent in the region. Centre for Economic and Social Studies. The new SRC.com/2007/01/08/stories/2007010801931000. Fifty years ago.responsibility of the artists. poets. youth. Telanganaloo Samskruthoodyhamam Modalaindi. Centre for Ambedkar Studues. The period following the demise of these leaders witnessed a major shift in socio-economic policies. rural development. source: http://www. The movement of the late 1960s petered out not just because of the opportunism displayed by the leaders of the movement or due to the repressive measures of the state. Hyderabad. This phase also witnessed the negligence of agriculture. is most likely to endorse the recommendation of the first SRC. Rama Rao was another charismatic leader with a pro-poor and gendersensitive agenda who virtually took the place of Indira Gandhi in Andhra Pradesh during 1980s. It was in the early 1970s that Indira Gandhi's slogan of `Garibi Hatao' caught the imagination of the poor throughout the country. as is often made out. 24 C. Mumbai University.hindu. and women on a much lager scale.23 The separate Telangana Movement: Response of the Government: The demand for separation is far more widespread now than in 1969 when the agitation for a separate Telangana was first launched.
The reason for the opposition of people of Telangana to join Visalandhra (metamorphosed to Andhra Pradesh) was fear of neglect and injustice in the enlarged state and the reason for their refusal to continue in the present state is the actual experience of becoming victims of neglect and injustice. As a cumulative effect of all these developments. The demand of the people of this region for a separate state is not a new development. the natural. Even a judgment given by the Supreme Court of India in favour of employees of Telangana region was void by an Act of Parliament. It was voiced much before the formation of Andhra Pradesh and continues to be raised even thereafter. reiterating their demand for a separate state. suffering. The region has a distinct geo-cultural identity and its merger with Andhra State in the year 1956 was in utter disregard of recommendations of Fazal Ali commission which went into the issue of
. The people of Telangana have been demanding a State of their own from the days of State’s Re-Organization following independence in the year 1947. poverty. There has been extensive scale of emigration from the region. starvation. Subsequent assurances given in the form of an All Party Accord. Eight Point Formula. the Telangana region continues to remain backward in every sphere of activity inspite of the fact that the region is rich in resource endowment. The balance sheet of development in the region has left a legacy of horrible spectrum of pain. The conspicuous isolation and neglect of Telangana can be evidenced by the fact that so far in the history of Andhra Pradesh not even a single person from the region could adorn the office the Advocate General of the High Court of the Andhra Pradesh. But none of them has been honoured. stigma and struggle.The merger of Telangana with Andhra became possible because of a series of promises made and guarantees given. penury. Even the minimum and legitimate aspirations of the people of the region have not been fulfilled. The result was a massive revolt of the people of the region in 1968-1969. Five Point Formula and Six Point Formula met with the same fate. The people of Telangana are once again restive. mineral and human resources of the region have been exploited for the benefit of outsiders. The Gentlemen’s agreement that was an assurance of fair play given to the people of Telangana was scuttled the very same day on which the state was born.
However it is a historical fact that these safeguards were observed in breach. The story of deception did not end here. The commission toured extensively in the State and received representations in lakhs and interviewed thousands of people and finally recommended that language alone cannot be basis for formation of a state. However brushing aside these recommendations the then leaders of Congress with grandiose designs and imperialistic outlook merged the state of Hyderabad with the State of Andhra. The co-existence has never been based on trust. In the considered opinion of the Commission the Telangana region has a distinct geo-cultural identity and the merger with Andhra State will be to the disadvantage of the Telangana people. equality and respect as the history of relationship between the two regions since 1956 shows. It is pertinent to recall the famous statement of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru at the Nizamabad meeting soon after a decision was taken to merge the state of Hyderabad with the State of Andhra. The Congress leadership was guided by language criterion as basis for re-organizing States in India. Many perverted interpretations were given to the definition of local candidate. He said that the merger of two regions was like a marriage between an innocent girl (Telangana) and a naughty boy that it was a marriage on trial and if it does not last they could part ways. The formula divided the State irrationally into six zones fore purposes of education and employment and a new concept of ‘local candidate’ was invented in place of ‘mulki’. History is also witness to the unbridled exploitation of resources of the region such as river waters and coal for the development of coastal Andhra region. When these injustices were snowballing into a potential discontent and
.States Reorganization set up under the State Re-Organization Act. This is once again a gross dilution of guarantees that were given at the time merger in the year 1956. revenue generated in the region to be spent for the development of the region and equitable share in the political power and so on. As a result many local youth were deprived of employment opportunities. The merger was conditional inasmuch as the people of Telangana were offered many safeguards such as local jobs for local people. The apprehensions expressed and cautions issued by Fazal Ali proved prophetic. Denial of employment and educational opportunities to the youth of Telangana resulted in the famous 1969 Telangana agitation which took away lives of 370 young men and women.
privatization. Telangana Movement: The Demand for a State. It took many more years for the State leadership to get the matter examined and a committee headed by Mr. These were all happened just because of pressure by the people’s movements and demanding for the separate statehood.A Historical Perspective: Source: http://www. human rights activists.org/Papers/Article10.O. During 1990s. The report is in fact an indictment and censure of the government.610 but withdrew them in the wake of strong protest by the Employees Association. students and youth to asses the people’s movement in general and separate Telangana movement in particular. the study intended to interview the artists. liberalization and globalization effected Indian economy in general Andhra Pradesh. Hence this prepared the artists to participate in the Telangana movement actively and with lot of commitment towards the movement. Girglani.were threatening to take the shape of an agitation the Andhra leadership once again doused the ire of the people and blunted the discontent by issuing G. Telangana militant struggle and Naxalite movement that had an impact on them.25 Perceptions of Respondents on People’s Movements: As the study focuses on people’s movements to asses the democracy in general and Indian democracy in particular. singers. companies/industries gained the momentum enormously. The handicrafts got marginalized. especially Telangana in particular. Jayasankar. The committee in its voluminous report exposed the violations in job appointments and transfer of employees.pdf
. a retired Civil servant was appointed. Both the governments behaving like facilitators between the people and the multinational companies instead of taking the initiative for the welfare of people. academicians. Epuri Somanna argue the people of Telangana have the long history of Peasants struggle.Os to implement G. Telangana movement aroused once again as the global market.610 directing that the six point formula shall be implemented in letter and spirit.telangana. However the report has not stirred the conscience of the Government. The sections which
K. However this was not to happen.O. The government tried to hide its embarrassment by issuing more G. ruptured and lakhs of people lost their employment as most of the private institutions.
protested against the global institutions and against the governments. In the history of Telangana from the beginning. political parties and political society had resisted the privatization. political administration and the history. The people of believe that separate Telangana state is only the solution for all these problems. the Telangana region are completely dissimilar from that of Andhra region. setting up of idols of Telangana Talli became the strategy of Telanagna Rastra Samithi. artist and activist in Telangana Separate State movement. The common people must feel that they would be secure in the separate state. to create the feeling of Telangana sentiment. They could able to propagate the issue of Telangana to the people effectively. folk culture.2008 39
. He also argued that. This phenomenon had an indirect impact on Telangana people. He argues that Telangana State should be formed and it has to be socially responsible. committed to the Telangana movement. Individuals. so that they could explain effectively about the history of Telanagna. Samakka and Sarakka deities. Backward classes and hail from the rural background and few of them are from elite classes. all the political parties are trying to use the traditional symbols like idols of Telangana Talli. interviewed on 12. its culture. awareness. Tribal.. This is the way through which they mobilize people to pressurize the governments: state and central to formulate separate statehood for the Telangana sub-region. Most of them are ideologically strong. adivasis and minorities. socio-economic conditions of Dalits. etc.12. martyrs of Telangana movement and the symbol of Komaram Bhim.are effected from the process of globalization.26 Khasim said in terms geography. Hence. he has got attracted towards the Telangana movement as he feels that it is democratic movement which is widely supported by the civil and political society. institutions. write the songs in local language which people speak and sing those songs in a simple language and try to send the message to the people effectively. Moharam (Peerulu). Generally artists take the issues and articulate it. culture. politically effective. He assumed most of the artists and activists who are working at the grassroots level are from the Dalit. songs and writings had played a
Eppuri Somanna. Andhra Pradesh is not exemption from this phenomenon. As he comes from the humble and Dalit background. and economically helpful.
ideologically committed and had come forward and taken part in the movement. Abids-Hyderabad. Indira Gandi in the decade of 1970s. Though they were all treated as the dacoits by the rulers. Meera Saheb fought against the fraud. They had even created the political consciousness. This leadership was politically strong. The writers. cultural exploitation. All these historical factors made present generation to take part in the movement. They fought against the social. he says. but they struggled on behalf of the poor and marginalized. They participated in the movement even before Russian revolution-1917. There were people’s movements like Naxalite movement though started at Naxalbari and Srikakulam district but was successfully worked in the Telangana
Khasim. Satya Murthy had supported the movement. Revolutionary Writers Association. communists. Peasants struggle. Apart from that they took active part in the welfare of common people like construction of streams like Panagallu stream in Mahaboob Nagar district.27 In the decade 1960s. There are organizations called Raitu Kooli Seva Sangam. The poor people treated them as their own leaders. gave scope for the in formation of political parties. The cultural organization called Jana Natya Mandali went to the villages and explained the unlawful acts of Smt. writers and youth associations. militant farmer’s movement and armed struggle.major role and the ideology of Communism influenced the people enormously. Seetarama Murthy and Kondapally Seetaramaiah and K. Oriented College. feudal system and struggled for the welfare of people. Their continuous struggle. and other mass movements gave the scope for the emergence of political organizations. Farmers of Telangana were more active and aware of the political issues. political. Lecturer in Telugu at Telugu Sahitya Academy. separate Telangana Movement has created the political awareness among the people in the region.L. identity and gender movements. activists and artists are influenced not merely by political. economical. but by the revolutionary movements. The personalities like Sarvail Papanna. Though these movements were apolitical but had an impact on the people.G. Naxalite movement. Chaitanya Samaykya.
. Many revolutionary leaders like M. and exploitation. For instance Telanagna Sadana Samithi. The revolutionary parties during the same decade supported the movement indirectly. interviewed on 16th December 2008.
That indicates that in Telangana. artists from Telangana have started participating in the movements as they were motivated particularly by the writers and the people’s movements. Karamched incident where Dalits were being killed. unlike in Andhra region where atrocities like Psundur massacre. fraud. He also argues that Dalits are more aware politically in the region of Telangana as there were not many atrocities on Dalits in the region. as they were not much motivated politically. Marxist and other revolutionary movements in the region. In separate Telangana state. education and other employment aspects as he feels that it may again cheat the Telangana people. land issues. They campaigned against the anti people policies that effected the common people’s daily livelihood. though there was feudalism and vetti (forced labour) there was not much killings and atrocities on Dalits. people need democratic Telangana but not merely a territorial Telangana state. government could not give the opportunity to the private agencies like health. It is the responsibility of the State to distribute the land to the landless along with the irrigation facilitates and fertilizes to the farmers and develops the state industrially. he argues. Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward classes. To provide all these welfare facilities. Separate state should make the people as the responsible citizens.. culture and education.e. atrocities on Dalits and emergency i. the free education has to be given until the higher education. the inhuman step imposed by Smt. But after 1980s leaders and activists.region. Peasant.28 In separate Telangana State movement initially the activists and the leaders from the elite class were participated but there was no much leadership or activists from Dalits and tribes and Adivasis. It was possible because of Naxalite. In terms of economy. He also mentioned clearly regarding social justice in separate Telangana state. to implement these Programmes. getting merely state will not give benefits to Scheduled Castes. but state should provide all the facilities to live comfortable and meaningful life. people from Telangana were not much developed and awareness
Ibid. their women being raped. Indira Gandhi.
. Irrigation projects and the employment opportunities have to be provided. handicrafts have to be encouraged and provide the employment opportunities to the qualified youth. government sector has to play the major role. They conducted the surveys on political issues and policies and explained the people about the exploitation.
and many songs that have been playing a major role in the movement. there are many artists participating with the clear ideology and in a democratic way. politically. Vimal. Kakatiya University recognized and felicitated him with the doctorate award in the year of 2007. And there are also other prominent writers and singers like Maa Bhoomi Sandhya. Andesree is illiterate and he belongs to bonded labour family but he has written many songs. Pommante Poovendera Pora Voo Valasa Dora. he said in the first phase (1960s) of Telangana movement. ever since the formation of Andhra Pradesh..
. the cultural movement also became the part of Telangana movement. another reputed writer and singer Goreti Venkanna wrote many songs which created enormous awareness among the people and had an impact on their lives. there were not many artists and writers in the movement. the rulers from Andhra region dominated Telangana. Hundreds of artists.. Andesree. writers have emerged and creative writings have come up and inspired songs are written by the artists. linguistically.. culturally and economically. Regarding the cultural awareness in Telangana region. They also try to create the democratic culture. Because of this movement.Arunodaya Kalakaroola Samakhya.was lesser than those other regions in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Many activists were being killed unlike the second phase of movement. It is important to explain that Dr. The movement was also not much ideologically sound and also without proper political strategy and lot of violence involved in it. This indicates that people’s movements not merely creates awareness among the people and struggle for the justice but also movement creates the people who are ideologically strong. mentally prepare for the sacrifice and maximum extent try to live with meaningful life. Hence. People who are part of the movement are generally democrats and hence they struggle against the inhuman and anti democratic activities in the state and society. Rasamai Balakrishna etc. Songs like Palle Kannru Karchindoo Kanipinchani Kotraloo… Talli Bandhiai Pooendo. One of the songs is “Jai Telangana…. History of Telangana also produced the artists like Goreti Venkanna and Dr. Because of these reasons. 29
Ibid. Jai Jai Telangana” which considered as a prayer song in Telangana movement. And Eddaram Veedipoote Boomibaddalaitunda….
natural resources. writers. He also mentioned that Telangana movement was not started by the political parties like Telangana Rastra Samiti but it was started by the intellectuals.. the system of landlordism should be eliminated and feudalistic nature of the rulers should be blocked. But the twice. Name of the programme was “Rachha Banda”. In the year of 1998. When these problems would get solved. Social justice to Dalit. based on their population should be done. democratically strong from Telangana region. In separate Telangana state. investment industries which have to be taken back from the ruling class and feudal lords. Gaddar agues that people of Telangana don’t want the geographical Telangana but they want people’s Telangana and democratic Telangana. Muslims should be given reservations. the movement was hijacked by the political parties like Telangana Sadana Samithi (1970s) and Telangana Rastra Simiti (2001). Telanagna Jana Sabaha started its campaign from village to village. In separate Telanagna state. equal distribution of wages to the both men and women. Small scale
. Telangana Jana Sabha argued that the issue of Telanagana demand is a democratic demand and represent the spirit of democracy.O. minority. With these demands. caste oppresstion and humiliation. land should be given to the landless people. it is argued that people’s movements always strive for the deepening of democracy. people should also fight against the social evils like untouchability. There are factories. Then only the majority people will get all advantages including the political power. surplus land has to be distributed to the landless. history of Telanagna has to be protected. students and those who are ideologically committed. The other demands like oppose the globalization and stop barrowing the money from international agencies and technology from foreign countries. All these sections together should fight for the separate Telangana state which is possible only by the people’s movements. establishment of corporate colleges have to be stopped in the region. employment opportunities have to be provided to the Telangana youth. All these cultural and political developments made the separate Telangana movement more active but not the political parties. The property should be distributed to the poor and disadvantaged people.Based on these findings. poor people could be developed. They also demanded for the implementation 610 G. the problem of irrigation water and drinking water has to be solved.
Dalits in the region should feel that their concerns are respected. Thereafter. Government may not know all the problems that the people are facing. first of all one has to create the awareness among the people especially among Dalits. Hyderabad. the cause and consequences have to be analyzed. It says “unless one: he or she democratizes. Hence the people’s movement plays a vital role in articulating the problems. Some times the movements in democratic manner and some times beyond the democratic way.industries have to be started. language. He argues that upper caste people came forward first and took Dalits with them to strengthen the movement. The demand only gets fulfilled when the common people participate in the movement. have a humane concern. Tribals and Adivasis. If your own leader becomes corrupt. he cautioned that it is people that have to watch all sorts of developments: whether negative and positive. Haragopal says that. To pressurize and to represent the problems of the people to government. right to work should be respected. one
Gaddar. then. few individuals/ associations those who are capable. what is the alternative. mobilize the people and hold a protest movements. polity and economy. As the people of Telangana argue they are fighting against Andhra dominance on Telangana resources. if the same dominance continues from own leadership and own governments.30 Muthaiah argues constitution does not act on its own.31 G. he argues that separate Telangana is necessary and it should be formed as a separate statehood but only with the social justice. one cannot democratize the society”. but they never struggled for the upliftment of Dalits. Then. Based on this statement he argues that in the separate Telangana state. why the aspirations of people for separate Telangana are not fulfilled. He argues before attaining the separate Telangana state. culture. Most of the leaders from the upper strata participate in the movement from the region only for the self-interest and their political survival. after the formation of the state. There should a strong movement against the landlordism. Osmania University. interviewed on
. Government should prepare a common agenda for Dalit empowerment. he argues. and self employment has to be provided to the educated youth. feudalism and also against the caste suppression. in the Department of Political Science. Lecture at Telangana Diary-2009 inauguration meeting at Ravindra Bharati. He also mentioned the Ambedkar’s words. untouchability. Professor. Hence.
32 Devender Goud argued that every movement should run with the people’s active participation without which it cannot succeed. requests. He says his party: Nava Telangana Party would go together with the movements as well as representative politics. delivered a lecture in inaugural meeting of Telangana Dairy-2009. This kind of strategy will not help the movement. he argues that the students. employment. Nava Telangana Praja Party. students. youth and employees and poor people’ participation is required in the movement to protect and promote the democratic spirit. 9. Chakali Ilaimma Pranganam. In the history of Andhra Pradesh. University of Hyderabad and Human Rights activist. He also argues that Telangana Rastra Samithi as a part of its strategy. School of Social Science. youth. Twice they went for by-elections where they failed to win. alliances.08. He emphasized that in a society like India. If once again it happens. therefore it is the responsibility of the people. lot of corruption and nepotism.08. feudal character of leadership and atrocities on Dalits have taken place. He believes that these sections work with enormous commitment and also without any political motives. Now a days. Osmania University. youth. He said that Telangana movement since 2001 has not much participation of above mentioned sections. Telangana Vidyarthi Sadassu. Half of the candidates have lost elections.has to question. people should respond through people’s movements. movements are lacking the humane grounds as the leaders who are leading the movement becoming selfish and they also work for their own political benefits. Dalits. coalitions and joined UPA Government and enjoyed the power for two years and later resigned for their minister positions both at the Union and State cabinets.
President. rather only political parties played a vital role. Hence. has mostly depended on lobbying. He says that all the problems like farmers. As they always think about alliances and coalitions only to capture the power: like how many seats that they demand for their party. employees and civil and political society to see that it should not happened in separate Telangana state. peoples movements could play a vital role in strengthening of democracy and fight against the dominance of all forms. women and student etc should come under the Telangana problem and mobilize all the sections into the movement and struggle for the separate statehood.33
political and culturally and they are also aware of the rights as they had decent education during the British period. and the problems of handicrafts. corruption. the rich class in Telangana region will not going to get any support from others. parties. if Telangana state formulate.35
Ibid.that is a democratic Telangana but not territorial Telangana. In Andhra region where Dalits are very strong in terms of social economic. like land and political power is under the control of Reddy community and other elite castes. civil and political organizations to create confidence among them for bright future after the formation of separate Telangana state. workers. farmers. He argues. students. Every problem should be consider as Telangana problem: Dalits. unemployment and practice of untouchability. Dalits and other marginalized sections would enjoy all the privileges without any dominance from the upper caste landlords because at present in Telangana region. population of weaker sections in the region is high and they are more aware and conscious about political and cultural issues as there exists heavily influence from Maoists influence. Apart from this. they are exploiting more the Dalits.Telangana Rastra Samithi has never strived for the mobilization of the youth and students. He also argues that demand should not confine only to the separate Statehood but should beyond the Statehood. property. poor people’s. political parties and demand for the separate statehood. landlordism.
. They also get additional political and economic support from the other regions in Andhra Pradesh. On the issue of Telangana demand. Telangana peasant struggle and Telangana movement.34 Bellaiah Naik expresses that in separate Telangana state. With that power. politics of representation has failed. President. It is the responsibility of leaders. Hence anti Telangana parties have been making use of this drawback and striving for the denial of Telangana state. Then the movement shall create awareness among them and make them to participate in the movement. interviewed at Hyderabad on 12th December 2008. whereas Dalits will get additional political and economic support. Hence it is the responsibility of people’s movement to awake the government. Telangana Sangarshana Samithi.
it was the victory of the Telangana movement. etc. Telangana sambaralu.K. artists. There was even no substantive developmental agenda in separate State. Naxalite movement and left movements. Against the Telangana Movement. Narsimha Rao became the first chief minister from Telangana for Andhra Pradesh in the year of 1973. Being that because of Peasants struggle. Jai Andhra movement was launched. All the problems will get solved in the separate statehood. They demanded implementation of the mulki rules. business. which had direct impact on Dalits.R.O to study the employment problem. The globalization had also shown an impact on the Telangana region. Tribals. and six point formula. spend the budget for the development of Telangana region by the state government through the income. Because of the movement N. backward classes and minorities. In Telangana region. oppression. After some years there was no movement for Telangana State. issued the 610 G. Dalits and other marginalized sections are conscious and there were not many atrocities and humiliations on Dalits. Though movement was strong but confined to the few elite leadership. In the first phase of the movement there was not much participation of artists and writers. it is not necessary to see the exploitation alone. He said. They even demanded for the employment for the Telangana youth. Telangana movement is not merely political and economic movement but it also movement against the cultural dominance. Kodandaram said in 1960s initially Telangana movement was started by the OBC.T. Against the separate Telangana movement. there was Jai Andhra movement. So. Though there was the feudal system in Telangana but it was well fought by the several movements that have been mentioned earlier.V. employment. descent and dignified life. Hence the political parties like TRS started installing the idols of Talli Telangana (mother of Telangana).
. celebrating Batakamma festival. He also said. movement for self-respect. leaders and bureaucrats) occupied all the resources like land. students who were attracted by the left wing politics. After the formation of TSS. exploitation and domination is involved by the Andhra leadership (few elite castes. hence he argues that only solution to these problems is the separate statehood to the Telangana region. the cultural aspect also involved in it. five point. moharam festival. revenue and taxes coming from the Telangana.. There was also no scientific agenda and strategy in the movement. And P. movement became political. Result was gentle men’s agreement. It continued till the formation of Telangana Sadana Samithi.
Telugu Desam Party opposed the smaller states. Telugu Desam Party has withdrew his earlier proposal that was against the formation of the Telangana state and had sent another letter in support of Telangana state to the committee. Hence. Pranab Mukarjee has said when the TDP wrote a letter to the committee. as a chairman of the committee said no consensuses have come up for the formation of the separate Telangana state. CPI (M) and other opposed the proposal brought by the Congress party.
. After the formation of UPA government. At last.
Pranab Mukarjee said on the demand of separate Telangana State.the earlier handicrafts are not to be found now and youth does not have the employment. But the before the 2009 general elections. Pranab Mukarjee also said Congress party thought of solve the by constituting of Second Reorganization Committee (SRC) but the parties like Telangana Rastra Samithi. they constituted a Committee with the chairmanship of Pranab Mukarjee on the demand of Telanagana State. globalization is also one of the reasons for the emergence of separate Telangana once again. There are other political Parties like CPI (M). Committee has stopped working on the issue. The many parties wrote the letters in support of the formation of separate state to the committee. The committee had written the letters to all the political parties in the country. on this demand committee has no got consensus in favour of separate State for Telangana region.