TREATMENT & CONDITIONING

PURPOSE Used to convert radioactive waste materials into suitable form for its subsequent management. The PRINCIPAL AIMS are to:  Minimize the volume.  Reduce potential hazard. Methodology Incineration: Segregated combustible waste is incinerated in kiln at 1000 degree Celsius Treatment and filtration of gases Resulting waste is conditioned prior to disposal. Compaction Cementation Provides the means to immobilize waste on solid and other material Vitrification Prevent reaction or degradation of waste for extended period of time Combine waste with molten glass, harden to form new solid. 

MANAGEMNENT PRINCIPALS 1. Delay and decay
2. Dilute and disperse 3. Concentrate and contain

DISPOSAL METHODS
A. For LLW
1. Near surface disposal 2. ocean dumping a. Improved shallow land burial b. Above Grade Vault (simplified)

c. Below Grade Vault (simplified)

e. Earth Mounded Concrete Bunker (simplified)

f. Modular concrete canister disposal g. AUGURED hole h. Combination of Concrete canister/concrete vault

B. For HLW
1.Geological disposal 2.Space disposal 3. Transmutation 1 Geological disposal
‡ Isolate High-level nuclear waste ± Waste Package ± Engineered Seals ± Natural Bedrock

Advantages Entirely passive disposal Minimal human intrusion Flexibility and convenience Practical and feasible with current technology ‡ Waste recovery

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2. Space disposal ‡ Removes the waste from the biosphere entirely ‡ High risk of space vehicle failure ‡ High energy cost of space launch ‡ Relatively limited volume per launch ‡ High cost 3 Transmutation Transformation of one element into another. Transmutes long half life highly radioactive element into shorter half life, less radioactive waste METHODS: A) Fast consumer reactors B) Hybrid reactors

Other disposal method
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Deep borehole Rock melting In ice sheets Direct injection Sub sea bed disposal

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