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INTRODUCTION

A Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is commonly

raised poultry specie in the Philippines. It is considered

as a backyard activity among farmers and gained remarkable

importance in the past year as a vital component in food

sustainability and income to farmers in the Philippines. A

broiler is a type of chicken that is specifically raised

for meat production because of their fast growing rate,

high feed conversion ratio, and low level of activity. Such

production efficiency is particularly beneficial to

developing countries like Philippines, that leads the

declining poultry prices and increasing incomes have been

attributed to increases in per capita poultry consumption,

which is sensitive to both price and income changes. And

this significant of broiler production and consumption has

important implication to the global trading of meat as well

as feeds and related inputs. (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/broiler)

Philippine poultry is also a backyard enterprises form

into a large farming operation. Broiler and egg production

are progressive nowadays, although its growth is hampered

by a lot of problems. The increase costs of feedstuffs also


cause rapid increase in cost of poultry products. Hence

there is an urgent need to look for alternative feedstuffs

to caution the rising cost of poultry feeding.

Acacia (Samanea saman L.), is abundant in Philippines

growing tree as shade of animals. It is a lofty canopied

tree with a large symmetrical crown. Acacia leaf contains

22.62 cp content.

Ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) is found

throughout the Philippines in the settled areas at low and

medium altitudes. It’s locally gregarious an abundant. It

was introduced from tropical America and I now pantropic in

distribution.

Leguminous fodder species are generally unsuitable for

silage making because of their high buffering capacity.

Some have leaves that shatter very easily upon drying,

rendering them also unsuitable for hay making. But a

considerable amount of leaves, particularly those from

hedgerows in alley cropping and those left behind from

firewood/charcoal production, can be conveniently prepared

into leaf meals and serve as a high-protein feed source. It

contains 21% crude protein, 18% crude fiber, 8.4 ash, and

6.5 ether extract.

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Malunggay, known scientifically as Moringa oleifera

Lamk, is one of the world's most useful plants. It is used

as food, effective flocculant or water treatment,

antibiotic, source of oil, and coagulant for turbid waters.

One hundred grams or 1 cup of cooked malunggay leaves

contain 3.1 g. protein, 0.6 g. fiber, 96 mg calcium, 29 mg

phosphorus, 1.7 mg iron, 2,820 mg ß-carotene, 0.07 mg

thiamin, 0.14 mg riboflavin, 1.1 mg niacin, and 53 mg

ascorbic acid or vitamin C. The antioxidant activity of

malunggay is about 71%, with µ-tocopherol (vitamin E)

equivalent of 45.

Objective of the Study

The goal of the study is to evaluate the growth

performance of Cobb broiler using three leaf meals added to

commercial ration.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study is limited on the effects of acacia seed on

feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion efficiency,

mortality, and income over feed and chick cost fed of Cobb

broiler.

Time and Place of the Study


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The study has been conducted from November to December

at the poultry project of the College of Agriculture,

Mindanao State University, Fatima Campus, General Santos

City.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

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The dominant meat chicken today is a cross between the

fast-growing female White Plymouth Rock chicken, and the

deep-breasted male Cornish chicken. While the predominant

egg type in the United States today is the White Leghorn

chicken. Turkeys have been similarly standardized. Because

of their lower cost and lower fat content, chicken and

turkey are increasingly popular protein sources with

American consumers, rivalling pork and even beef in per

capita consumption.

(http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/poultry.aspx)

Poultry diets are composed primarily of a mixture of

several feedstuffs such as cereal grains, soybean meal,

animal by-product meals, fats, and vitamin and mineral

premixes. These feedstuffs, together with water, provide

the energy and nutrients that are essential for the bird's

growth, reproduction, and health, namely proteins and amino

acids, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, and vitamins. The

energy necessary for maintaining the bird's general

metabolism and for producing meat and eggs is provided by

the energy-yielding dietary components, primarily

carbohydrates and fats, but also protein. Poultry diets

also can include certain constituents not classified as

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nutrients, such as xanthophyll’s (that pigment and impart

desired color to poultry products), the "unidentified

growth factors" claimed to be in some natural ingredients,

and antimicrobial agents (benefits of which may include

improvement of growth and efficiency of feed utilization).

(http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=2114&page=R1).

According to Enminger (1972) stated that nutrient,

chemical substances found in feed materials are needed by

the birds in definite amount with qualities varying

according to the kind of birds and purpose for which it is

being feed.

The amount required nutrient in poultry ration must be

adjusted in relation in order to ensure that the birds

consume the right amount of the needed nutrients. The

concentration must be increased in high – energy diet

because the birds will eat less of the ration per day. High

energy ration usually result in higher efficiency in

converting feed into meat and egg as compared to low energy

ration (Gillepie 1997).

Acacia is a lofty canopied tree with a large

symmetrical crown. An advantageous shade tree as the

fernlike leaflets closes up at night, permitting rain to

fall through to the grass beneath. Acacia Leaf contains


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22.1% of crude protein, 39.1% of dry matter, 29.4% crude

fiber, 6% ash, 7% ether extract, 1.42% Calcium, and .21%

Phosphorus

(http://www.fao.org/ag/aga/agap/frg/afris/Data/280.HTM).

Ipil-ipil is found throughout the Philippines in the

settled areas at low and medium altitudes. It is locally

gregarious an abundant. It was introduced from tropical

America and I now pantropic in distribution.

This is a small tree, 2 to 6 meters high. The leaves

are compound, 15 to 25 centimeters long, with hairy

rachises. The pinnae are 8 to 16, and 5 to 8 centimeters

long. The leaflets are 20 to 30, linear-oblong, and 7 to 12

millimeters in length. The heads are solitary, at the axils

of the leaves, long-peduncled, globose, and 2 to 5

centimeters in diameter, with many white flowers. The pods

are thin, flat, strap-shaped, 12 to 18 centimeters long,

and 1.4 to 2 centimeters wide, each containing from 15 to

25 elliptic, compressed, shining, brown seeds.

Ipil-ipil is popularly known in the Philippines for

firewood and is useful also in reforestration work. It is

also much used as a cover crop and is a good exterminator

of “kogon”. The bark produces brown dye. In some provinces

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the seeds are used as a substitute for coffee. The seeds

are also used in making bags, etc.

The leaves are injurious to horses that eat them. They

are said to cause falling of hair from their manes and

tails. Cattle and goats do not seem to be affected.

Brill reports that the raw seeds contain fat 8.68

percent, crude fiber 22.59 percent, and nitrogen-free

material other than fiber 9.78 percent, nitrogen 6.42

percent, and traces of sucrose, water 14.8 percent and ash

4.2 percent.

In the Philippines the plant is utilized very little

as medicine. The roasted seeds are used as an emollient.

Guerrero reports that the roots in decoction are used as an

emmenagogue. Standley and Christy cite Grosourdy, who

states that a decoction of the bark and roots is a powerful

emmenagogue, and is used in the West Indies for procuring

abortion.

(http://www.bpi.da.gov.ph/Publications/mp/html/i/ipil-html).

The "Moringa" tree is grown mainly in semi-arid,

tropical, and subtropical areas, corresponding in the

United States to USDA hardiness zones 9 and 10. While it

grows best in dry sandy soil, it tolerates poor soil,

including coastal areas. It is a fast-growing, drought-

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resistant tree that is native to the southern foothills of

the Himalayas in northwestern India. Reports that it grows

wild in the Middle East or Africa are completely

unsubstantiated. Today it is widely cultivated in Africa,

Central and South America, Sri Lanka, India, Mexico,

Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines. It is considered

one of the world’s most useful trees, as almost every part

of the Moringa tree can be used for food or has some other

beneficial property. In the tropics, it is used as forage

for livestock, and in many countries, Moringa micronutrient

liquid, a natural anthelmintic (kills parasites) and

adjuvant (to aid or enhance another drug) is used as a

metabolic conditioner to aid against endemic diseases in

developing countries.

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moringa_oleifera).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

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Materials to be Used

The materials used in the study were as follows; Ipil-

ipil Leaf, Malunggay Leaf, Acacia Leaf, 36 day-old broiler

chicks, broiler houses used as brooder and grower, Bmeg

chick booster crumble, feeding and watering troughs, empty

feed sacks (used as curtain), old newspaper matting, bulbs

(50 watts), electric wires, weighing scale, water, record

notebook, ball Pen.

Experimental Design and Treatments

The experiment is laid out in Completely Randomized

Design (CRD) with three treatments replicated three times.

The level of different leaf meals is 5% in the feed ration

is the treatments of the study.

T1 – 5% Acacia Leaf Meal

T2 – 5% Ipil-ipil leaf Meal

T3 – 5% Malunggay Leaf Meal

Preparation of Three Leaf Meals

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Acacia Leaf, Ipil-ipil leaf, and Malunggay Leaves were

collected and washed separately. Then dried thoroughly

prior to grinding. The ground leaves were added to Bmeg

crumble ration at 5% level corresponding to the treatments.

Preparation of Experimental Rations

The three experimental rations prepared constituted

the treatments of the study. The first ration (T1) contains

.5 kg of Acacia Leaf Meal in a 10kg Bmeg chick booster

crumble. While the second ration (T2) contains .5 kg of

Ipil-ipil Leaf Meal in a 10 kg of Bmeg chick booster

crumble and the third ration (T3) contains .5 kg of

Malunggay Leaf Meal in a 10 kg of Bmeg chick booster

crumble and were stored and labelled in a separate

containers.

Preparation of Brooder House

The broiler house were 6 x 8 sq. foot and divided

according to design of the experiment. Each division

representing a replication were provided with separate

waterer, and feeder. A 50-watt bulb were strategically

installed to allow the uniform distribution of heat and

light. The Poultry house and other equipment used in this

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experiment were cleaned thoroughly and were disinfected

using creoline solution.

Selection of Experimental Birds

Thirty-six healthy and vigorous day old Cobb broiler

chick which do not show any abnormalities selected for this

study. They purchased from reputable agriculture supply

store in General Santos City.

Brooding Management

The experimental birds were brooded for 21 days. The

brooding house were provided with curtains made of empty

sack to minimize the heat outflow and to maintain the

desired temperature at 32°C. The floor were covered with

several layers of old newspapers to help maintain

temperature and also serve as feeders during the first 5

days of brooding.

Growing Management

After 3 weeks of brooding the experimental birds were

assigned to their respective experimental lots. A light

were provided at night to allow the birds to continue

eating on adlibitum basis.

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Feeding Management

The day-old chicks were given a booster crumble feed

containing 24% CP. The feeds were made available in paper

mat during the first 5 days, and then the feeds were made

available in feeders. The same rations were offered to the

birds at 7:00 AM, 12 PM, and 4: PM. Fresh and clean water

is available at all time.

Immediately after 3 weeks of brooding the rations were

given to the birds.

Health and Sanitation Management

Cleanliness were strictly observed all throughout the

experimental period. All feeders and waterers were cleaned

thoroughly before any new feed and water rations were

given. Manure and waste were gathered and disposed properly

and daily to avoid odor and flies infestation.

Data to be Gathered

1) Feed Consumption (kg) – All the feeds that has been

given to the experimental birds were weighed and recorded.

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The amount of feed left on the feeder were weighed and

deducted from the amount offered from the previous day. The

difference between the two is the amount of feed consumed.

2) Weight Gain (kg) – The weight gained of the birds

were determined by deducting the initial weight from the

final weight of the birds at the end of the experimental

period.

3) Feed Conversion ratio (kg) – Is a measure of the

efficiency of the birds in convert feed mass to the body

weight. This were determined by dividing the total feed

consumption by the total live weight gain.

4) Mortality (%) – The mortality rate of the birds

were determined by dividing the recorded deaths all

throughout the experimental period by the number of live

birds at the start of the study.

5) Income Over Feed and Chick Cost (P) – This were

computed by subtracting the total cost of feeds consumed

throughout the experimental period and the chick from the

value of the live birds at the end of the study.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Feed Consumption

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The data on feed consumption of Cobb Broilers fed with

rations partially substituted with ipil-ipil, malunggay,

and acacia leaf meal is shown in table 1. Birds in T3 (5%

acacia leaf meal) had the highest feed consumption of 2.64,

followed by T1 (5% ipil-ipil leaf meal) that obtain an

average total feed consumption of 2.56g, and T2 (5%

malunggay leaf meal) with 2.52 kg.

(Gous 2007)suggested that it is not possible to

optimize feeding programs successfully since the

composition of the food offered has a very important effect

on voluntary food intake. (Fisher 1986) Appetite is

dependent on the nutrient requirements of the animal and

the contents of those nutrients in the feed and hence,

responses in feed intake.

It was found out in the studies of (Burnham et al.,

1982) that feeds with higher in protein and energy content

had reduced the feed intake,

However analysis of variance among treatment means

showed no significant difference statistically significant.

Table 1. Feed consumption (kg/bird) of Cobb Broilers as


affected by substituting part of the Bmeg chick
booster crumble with Three Different Leaf Meals.

Treatments (%) Feed Consumptionns (kg)

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5% - ILM 2.56
5% - MLM 2.52
5% - ALM 2.64

CV = 4.4
ns = not significant

Total Weight Gain

Table 2. Presents the average weight gains of Cobb

Broilers in response to the partial substitution of the Bmeg

chick booster crumble with both 5% of ipil-ipil leaf meal,

malunggay leaf meal, and acacia leaf meal.

It appeared that 5% ipil-ipil leaf meal in Bmeg chick

booster crumble improved their weight gain in broiler

chickens, it attained the weight which is the heaviest of

(1.78kg). On the other hand birds fed with acacia follows

having 1.76kg and the lowest weight were those bird fed

with malunggay leaf meal with 1.72kg.

However, the difference in treatment means was not

significant statistically (Appendix Table 2b).

Table 2. Total weight gain (kg/bird) of Cobb Broilers


affected by substituting part of the Bmeg chick
booster crumble with Three Different Leaf Meals.

TREATMENTS (%) LIVE WEIGHTGAINns (kg)


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5% ILM 1.78
5% MLM 1.72
5% ALM 1.76

CV = 0.16%
ns = not significant

Feed Conversion Ratio

The efficiency of the birds in converting feed into

body weight gain using ration with either 5% ipil-ipil leaf

meal Malunggay leaf meal, and acacia leaf meal is

represented in table 3.

Birds in T1 could be considered as the most efficient

among treatments tested, these birds required the less

amount of feed (1.44) per unit live weight gain. On the

other hand those in T2 needed more feed (1.46), for every

unit of weight gain while those in T3 required the most

amount of feed (1.5), to produce one unit of weight gain.

However, no significant difference among treatment

(Appendix Table 3b).

Table 3. Feed conversion ratio of Cobb Broiler as affected


by substituting part of the Bmeg chick booster
crumble with Three Different Leaf Meals.

TREATMENTS(%) FEED CONVERSION RATIOns (kg)

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5% ILM 1.44
5% MLM 1.46
5% ALM 1.5

CV = 0.2125
ns = not significant

Mortality
No mortality is recorded during the whole duration of the

study. This has been due to the proper selection of

experimental chicks, and sanitation and disease control.

Income Over Feed Chick Cost

Income over feed and chick cost of Cobb Broilers as

affect by substituting part of the Bmeg chick booster crumbles

with 5% Ipil-ipil, 5% Malunggay, and 5% Acacia Leaf Meals

is presented in table 4.

The highest profit of (Php) 56.4 was observed in

birds fed with 5% Ipil-ipil Leaf meal followed by those

with 5% Malunggay Leaf Meal (Php) 49.85. the lowest IOFCC,

was obtained from birds with 5% Acacia Leaf Meal in the

ration with (Php) 44.56.

Table 4. Income over feed and chick cost (Php) of Cobb


Broilers as affected by substituting part of the

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Bmeg chick booster crumble with Three Different Leaf
Meals.

TREATMENT SALE VALUE OF LIVE BIRD FEED & CHICKCOST IOFCC


% (Php) (Php) (Php)

5% ILM 163.8 107.4 56.4


5% MLM 158.4 108.55 49.85
5% ALM 162 117.44 44.56

Assumption:
Selling price of Broilers - Php 90/kg live weight
Cost of Broiler mash - Php 28.5/kg feeds
Cost of Ipil-ipil - Php 31.25/kg
Cost of Malunggay Leaf - Php 31.25/kg
Cost of Acacia Leaf - Php 62.5/kg
Cost of Multivitamins - Php 5.75/bird
Cost of Chicks - Php 23/bird

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

A study on “The Growth Performance of Cobb Broilers


Fed with Three Different Leaf Meals (ILM, MLM, ALM),” was

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conducted at the College of Agriculture Poultry Project –
Mindanao State University from November 29 to December 3,
2010 to evaluate and ompare in terms of fed consumption,
weight gain, feed conversion ratio and income over feed and
chick cost of Cobb Broilers.

The Study is laid out in Completely Randomized Design

(CRD) with three treatment replicated three times. The

treatments used were 5% Ipil-ipil Leaf Meal + 95% booster

crumble (T1), 5% Malunggay Leaf Meal + 95% booster crumble

(T2), 5% Acacia Leaf Meal + 95% booster crumble(T3). Four

birds were assigned at random to each replication.

The results of the study were as follows:

Feed Consumption of Cobb Broilers with Malunggay Leaf

meal (T2) is the lowest (2.52kg) compared to those in Ipil-

ipil Leaf Meal (T1), Acacia Leaf Meal (T3) with (2.53kg)

and (2.64kg) respectively.

The heaviest weight gain was obtained by birds in T1

(1.78kg) treated with 5% of Ipil-ipil Leaf Meal, lower but

comparable gains were observed in Malunggay Leaf Meal (T2),

Acacia Leaf Meal (T3), with 1.72kg, and 1.76kg of weight

gain respectively.

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The highest weight gain were the most efficient

converters of feed per unit of body weight gain and were

also those gave the most economic return.

LITERATURE CITED

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FRONDA, F.M 1972. Poultry science and production.
Manila. Agriculture and Industry. 79 pp
CARD, L.E. and M.C. NESHEIM. 1972. Poultry
production.11th Lea and Febiger,Philadelphia, 381 pp.
CULLISON and LOWREY. 1987. “Feeds and Feeding”. 4th ed.
Prentice Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 183 Pp.
http://blogtext.org/LateBloomer/article/22393.html
http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/t0632e/T0632E08.htm
http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?
record_id=2114&page=R1
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acacia.html
www.stuartxchange.org/Acacia.html
http://www.thepoultrysite.com/articles/685/environment
al-factors-to-control-when-brooding-chicks
http://www.trc.zootechnie.fr/node/282

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