Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

The emerging global concern for environmental protection, particularly for the sustainable development of human societies, is now being echoed in all corners. Moreover, the concern today is not limited to just the immediate and obvious but transcends several other boundaries in time, space and perception. The perception of the oceans being just global dump yards is steadily being replaced by a viewpoint that considers them as integral features of the biosphere. Particular attention is also being given to the crucial interface of the land and ocean because of its characteristic properties that are slowly being understood. These are also the areas for intense commercial activities such as anchorages and recreation. Ship-breaking is an activity that is presently confined only to a few locales in the world. Consequently, few attempts have been made to understand the effects of this specialised type of activity, especially in terms of its effects on the specific ecosystem functions. Ship-breaking activity provides scrap salvage from the ships to a significant proportion of the scrap users. Re-rollable and melting scrap is an important raw material for several products of iron and steel industry. Ship-breaking is, thus, essentially based on recycling of resources. Even if we leave aside - for the time being - the significance of this industry as an important source of raw material for steel products, its relevance for conservation of natural resources need no overemphasis.

availability of labour supply at competitive wage rates and policies of Governments of ship-breaking countries, besides some most favourable natural attributes available at specific sites countries for the growth of ship-breaking. It is significant to note that three important factors caused flight of ship-breaking from the USA and the UK in favour of less industrialised countries like Spain, Italy and Turkey during the sixties and seventies. They were: l l rise in wages for labour, increased global availability of steel scrap at competitive prices, and

l the issues raised by ecologists regarding pollutants contained in ships brought for breaking. Similarly, Japan abandoned ship-breaking when the higher wage rates in Japan rendered this activity non-competitive as against the nearby countries of Pacific Asia. Some of the East Asian countries like Taiwan and South Korea could improve their share in ship-breaking, following the withdrawal of the USA, the UK and Japan, due to sufficiently low wage costs. Pakistan also entered into ship-breaking with an added advantage of natural beaching of ships along Gadani site, besides availabilities of workers there at low wage rates. Later, Taiwan lost its share in the global tonnage of ship-breaking with the disappearance in 1983 of the cartel, which Taiwanese ship-breakers had formed for buying ships at bargain rates. South Korean ship-breakers' major attraction was ultra large and very large crude oil carriers [ULCCs and VLCCs]. But the availability of such vessels got drastically reduced during the eighties, which made South Korea disinterested in ship-breaking. It would be seen from the Table 1.1 and Table 1.2 that, ultimately, India, Bangladesh, China and Pakistan emerged as the four major ship-breaking countries in the early nineties accounting for around 92 percent of the total tonnage broken.

Though the origin of the idea of ship-breaking may be traced to 'forced' ship-breaking undertaken by the USA and the UK during the Second World War, its recent growth is phenomenal and is largely the result of conditions in the steel industry,


Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

TABLE 1.1 Overall summary of gross tonnage broken by major ship-breaking countries (1990-1995)
Country Bangladesh China India Pakistan Sub-total Other Countries Total 1990 0.2 0.1 1.1 0.0 1.4 0.4 1.8 1991 0.5 0.2 0.8 0.4 1.9 0.5 2.4 1992 1.2 2.2 2.0 0.7 6.1 0.5 6.6 1993 1.4 5.5 1.9 0.9 10.0 0.7 10.7 1994 2.1 2.8 2.8 2.2 9.9 0.5 10.4 1995 2.5 0.8 2.8 1.7 7.8 0.7 8.5

TABLE 1.2 Percentage share in the world total
Country Bangladesh China India Pakistan Sub-total Other Countries Total 1990 11.11 05.56 61.11 77.78 22.22 100.00 1991 20.83 08.33 33.33 16.67 79.17 20.83 100.00 1992 18.18 33.33 30.30 10.61 92.42 07.58 100.00 1993 13.08 54.21 27.75 08.41 93.45 06.54 100.00 1994 20.19 26.92 26.92 21.15 95.19 04.81 100.00 1995 29.41 09.41 32.94 20.00 91.76 08.24 100.00

(Source: Lloyds Register Statistics)

Though China enjoyed the top-ranking position in ship-breaking during the years 1992, 1993 and 1994, the country lost its share drastically in 1995. China has found it possible now to produce cheaper steel through routes other than ship-breaking and, therefore, has reduced its ship-breaking activity. China being a centrally planned, totalitarian country, could implement the sudden policy change. It was believed earlier that when the limited demand for ship-scrap is satisfied in the domestic steel markets of Bangladesh and Pakistan, India would have to face competition in ship-breaking only from the side of China. But now, when China is almost out of the picture, India is facing competition mostly from Bangladesh for three reasons, viz.,


wage rates are competitively low in Bangladesh; limited availability of getting steel through the alternative routes in that country and prices of ship-scrap in the domestic market in Bangladesh is relatively high.

l l

The above analysis suggests that ship-breaking activity is greatly influenced by a number of factors which have made this industry prone to global locational shifts. Starting from the USA, the UK and Japan, this industry changed its location in favour of Mediterranean region and then moved to East and South Asian Countries. The Industry pushed China to the top in the early nineties and immediately thereafter reversed the situation. Factors affecting ship-breaking have given it a


5 India's gross tonnage [MT.462 0. This further suggests that growth of ship-breaking cannot be left entirely to market forces.690 0.636 1.] 5.67 33.13 01.800 Percentage share of India in the world tonnage 00. Gujarat roller-coaster characteristic.76 26.24 27.08 09.92 32.524 0.3: Gross tonnage broken in World and in India during 1975-1995 Year Global gross tonnage [MT.58 05.] 0.047 0.50 01.1 6.7 6.03 00. The industry experienced fluctuation .092 0.3).010 0.143 0.7 10.96 02.0 5.074 0.87 03.20 60.4 6.5 1.10 01.013 0.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.460 1.1 10.13 14. 1.8 22.8 17.0 7.not only of the roller-coaster type but also of the leap and crawling type during the period of 1975-1995 (Fig 1.800 2.063 0.900 2.6 16.6 6.71 01.2 THE INDIAN PERSPECTIVE A sharp contrast between growth of ship-breaking in India vis-à-vis that of the world is evident from 100 Percentage share 20 Metric ton Global Gross Tonnage % share India 80 60 40 20 10 0 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 0 Fig 1.800 2.000 1.12 02.6 10.1 Gross tonnage of ship broken in the World and share of India TABLE 1.2 20.680 1.94 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 (Source: Lloyds Register Statistics and Kamdar 1997) 3 .3 12.1 6.8 2. if a country intends to continue reaping the gains typical of this industry.33 30.20 00. when its growth is examined in the form of tonnage broken over time.313 0.1 and Table 1.4 8.30 03.3 13.30 17.303 0.0 2.090 0.

This tends to reduce interest costs in producing steel-scrap. The most economical route for production of such items is through the re-rolling mills which demands ship-scrap as a raw material. This is considered to be the most favourable attribute when shipbreaking activity is undertaken through beaching method. which is in a position to supply steel scrap and its products . following two important questions: First. Re-rolling mills utilise steel-scrap salvaged from ship-breaking through a labour intensive process. India has a vast and growing market for steel. This gives a clear advantage to India's ship-breaking industry as electricity here has been suffering from severe supply side constraints. particularly for the long steel and light structures . and second.1. India took a quantum jump. The approach upto anchorage is silt-free and anchorage is located at a short distance. however. why was India trailing far behind as compared to other shipbreaking countries and failed to improve its share in the global tonnage till middle of the eighties. A group of ship-breakers remained very active during the search process and after making a personal visit.particularly on energy costs. except India. This is suggestive of a very important fact that factors affecting growth of ship-breaking in India are not entirely the same which decided growth of this Industry elsewhere. In this method.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. This site in the Gulf of Khambhat and its anchorage are the protected areas during monsoon and allows ship-breaking during rainy months also. fishing. India was just exclusive ship-breaking site which earned number one status for India as a ship-breaking country in the world.used mostly in the construction industry. On behalf of the Gujarat Government.3 and Fig 1.particularly long steel and light structures . The re-rolling sector of India has accumulated high idle capacity which allows this sector to immediately respond to changes in market-demand for long products and light structures. Whereas. The production of steel enjoys a cost-advantage in the re-rolling sector as compared to the alternative routes. interest and energy costs. during the current decade? The answer to these two questions lies in the development of Alang Ship-breaking yard . The coast of Alang is gently sloping and has a long dry approach area which facilitates reaching upto vessel. uses relatively less amount of capital per unit of output. what helped India in achieving number one status as a ship-breaking country. the closest competitor of the re-rolling sector is the Electric Arc Furnace [EAF] route which consumes more electricity and is burdened by high tariffs. the vessel bows forward during high tide and with the help of fully propelling power of engine the vessel is beached. does not answer the l l l l 4 . salt-works or aquaculture. l The production of steel scrap in ship-breaking does not use motive power .with the highest cost advantage in the domestic market through concomitant development of ship-breaking and re-rolling sectors wherein cost-optimality is achieved through the lower wage. The seabed at Alang dries up very quickly during the ebb period and allows easy accessibility for all kinds of material handling equipments. when world ship-breaking lost its momentum. the Gujarat Maritime Board made an intensive survey and identified the coastline near Alang as the most suitable site for developing ship-breaking activity. Further the Alang-Sosiya area is free from any other claims for competitive uses like merchant shipping. The silt-free beach condition of Alang helps ships in maintaining a stable position throughout the process of ship-breaking. For the production of steel in India. Gujarat Table 1. When the global shipbreaking was doing exceedingly well during the period from 1982 through 1986.particularly electricity. There may be hardly any country in the world. during the subsequent period after 1987. the group endorsed selection of this site for the following reasons: l The site falls within a distinct high tide zone where the highest tide rises high upto 10 to 11 meters. The above analysis. l Ship-breaking being labour intensive and capital saving.

the dispersal of pollutants in the off-shore zones. Gujarat This yard. The study. and a ready market. the interactions between neighbouring areas and the long-term consequences. 1. reported in subsequent chapters. thus focuses on the three major areas of concern. the study also helps in the identification of areas for fresh intervention that will lead to 1. The Gujarat Ecological Society (GES) has actually conducted this study under the aegis of GEC. Specific recommendations were to be made for regulating and streamlining the activities so as to cause minimum damage to the natural environment. 5 km from the shoreline. therefore. may be considered as reliably indicative and not absolutely conclusive in final analysis. The compaction and contamination of sediments in the littoral zone. In addition. viz. and concentration of human population on the fragile on-shore zones are some of them. over 1. The ship-breaking yard has developed at Alang primarily for reasons such as large tidal amplitude. the nature of operation itself has its own ecological hazards. the development of infrastructure. form the basis of this study. However. The study also attempted an understanding of the local ecosystem dynamics necessary for evolving a practical strategy for the upgradation of landscape. These are serious issues and are now viewed with concern at all levels since these processes are slow but lead to irreversible damage to the ecosystems. conservation of biological diversity and betterment of the human population that is concerned with this industry. therefore.2 Aims and objectives 5 . evaluated in the context of the macro-ecological setting taking into account the complex inter-relationships between different sets of natural parameters. tankers and even oilrigs.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. established in 1983. It is with a view to formulating an alternative development plan for the region that is ecologically sound and to devise methods for proper regulation of activities that the Gujarat Maritime Board (GMB) approached the Gujarat Ecology Commission (GEC) to conduct a study. The geological setting. atmospheric features and their relation with the native biota. This study seeks to analyse ship-breaking activity from an ecological point of view. particularly fragile and sensitive ecotones such as the littoral and coastal zones. geomorphological dynamics.1 Background Gujarat Maritime Board is the overall custodian for the world's largest ship-breaking yard located at Alang. In operation since 1982. at present there are 183 ship-breaking berths that are leased out to private entrepreneurs. developed slowly in the initial period because of limited availability of foreign exchange for the purchase of ships for breaking till close of 1980s. the intertidal region and the offshore region.. availability of cheap labour.3. 1.3 Approach A holistic approach was adopted replacing the traditional sectoral approach.500 vessels have been scrapped in this yard. Since most of the study components could not be based on repeated samples testing over a long period of time to determine various ecological parameters. The study helps to identify current activities that are causes for concern. develop options and suggest methods for restoration and improvement. the bioaccumulation and biomagnification of pollutants in the tissue of marine biota. The industry made a smart progress in the current decade under more liberalised economic policies and improvement in the foreign exchange reserves. Since ship-breaking activity is confined to the interface of two major ecosystems and this necessitates a broad understanding of both the systems with particular reference to the dynamics at the interface.3. including warships. landscape development.3 ABOUT THIS STUDY 1. about 50 km south of Bhavnagar in Saurashstra. Gujarat. Stretching over 10 km of the coastline. The entire activity was.3. areas between the ship breaking yards and human settlements (township). The study results. the onshores.

Seven major groups were constituted for detailed study of the regional geology and geomorphology. MS University of Baroda and professional groups. if any.3. Subramanian. Bhavnagar University. a knowledgeable person is required to provide guidance and leadership to this team in order to ensure quality. Comprehensive review meetings were held with all the team members at periodical intervals to obtain a first-hand feedback of the progress. Identification of the project leader: A person with long-standing experience in the field of marine ecology and coastal environment was identified as the Senior Expert and Coordinator for this study. Following his advise. Detailed work plans were prepared by these teams after extensive discussions. Moreover. The views. A mid-term report was prepared in December by each of the groups to present the first findings to the GMB. 3. vegetation. Monitoring: The progress of different groups was reported every fortnight. hydrobiological features of the offshore zone. discussed threadbare by specific working groups and suitable modifications were made (Annex 1. In this day-long workshop. obtain cooperation of different agencies and eliminate bottlenecks. MS University of Baroda and Calcutta University respectively. Individual discussions were held with the team members for incorporating the suggestions made by the reviewers. The scope of work. 5. Some of the major steps in the process undertaken were as follows: 1. of Gujarat were perceived as major qualifications for undertaking such an assignment. 6. the draft of which was sent out for comments. Constitution of the project team: Persons from different institutions and universities of the State were identified at the outset for carrying out specific tasks. 1. physico-chemical features of the littoral zone. 6 . along with the time-frame.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.1). winter and pre-monsoon. He was mainly expected to co-ordinate with various study groups. pathogens and microbes and socioeconomic features of the local human population. the different work plans were presented. findings and difficulties. Planning workshop: A high-level planning workshop was organised for obtaining the benefit of knowledge and experience of several national level experts. analysis of samples and flow of funds. the heavy metal contents were re-analysed at GSFC Science 2. The offshore team provided reports after each round of sampling. once during the post-monsoon. Reporting: Monthly progress reports were obtained from each of the groups providing details of the field trips undertaken. review the work done and propose suitable measures for strengthening the study. V.4 Methodology (components and scope) A study of this kind requires a multidisciplinary team of a high standard. Prof. Mid-course measures for strengthening the study: Some of the more critical aspects of the study. accumulation of oil and hydrocarbons and structure of benthic communities were studied separately through specialists from Jawaharlal Nehru University. uniformity and comparability amongst the sectoral studies. Gujarat ecologically sustainable development of the region. biota of the littoral zone. Efforts were made to facilitate field operations. former Dean of the School of Environmental Sciences. The team members of these groups belonged to Saurashtra University. The final report was prepared in April. His exposure at Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI) and UK and administrative experience in the Fisheries department of the Govt. JNU (New Delhi) was also invited to visit the site. opinions and criticism of eminent experts are essential on critical issues. such as heavy metal pollution. for each team was finalised in consultation with the members themselves. 4.

It also provides target-specific communication packages that may be relevant in implementing the proposed plan. Chapter 8 specifically investigates the status of heavy metals in water and sediments of both intertidal and offshore zones. in general. Finally.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. health and hygiene. Volume II provides a set of the final reports presented by the different teams. Chapter 4 delves into the details of the geoenvironmental features and specifically deals with geology. in particular. Similarly. Gujarat Centre and at JNU with the help of the sophisticated equipment. and biota. conclusions derived and the management plan proposed. at regional scale. A communication package was also prepared for different target groups in the region. broad conclusions drawn and alternative management plans were derived (Annex 1. and biota that mainly includes phytoplanktons and benthic fauna. Draft final report: The main report consists of two parts . drainage and coastal deposits with a context to ASSBY.5 Chapter scheme The following chapter provides an overview of the ecological features of the study area. Once the context is established. 7.its physico-chemical features. 1. 7 . geomorphology.Volume I presents the integrated analytical report of the work done.. Chapter 3 provides details of the ship-breaking activity at ASSBY. Development of the management plan: The entire data collected during this exercise was presented in another workshop. a health camp was organised for an assessment of the status of health and hygiene in the region and an indicative area development plan was prepared.2). vegetation pattern in and around ASSBY area is presented in chapter 5 and includes a detailed study of the vegetation in the coastal belt with a view to understand the human impact. Specific attempt has been made to understand the structure of microbes directly related with the oil pollution. and of ASSBY. Chapter 10 provides a management plan for integrating environmental and social concerns into the development of ASSBY. This data was discussed.3.its major features and processes involved. An overall photo-documentation was also attempted. attended again by senior and eminent experts of the country. 8. Chapter 6 provides the ecological features of the intertidal zones . Chapter 7 presents the ecological features of offshore zone and specifically highlights the physio-chemical characteristics of water and sediments. Chapter 9 provides information on the socio-economic aspects of the local population including their living and working conditions. the socio-economic survey was intensified to obtain a larger sample size. social security schemes etc. Following this.

the coast shows a striking change in stratigraphy and lithology.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. The arenaceous sands of beach and dunes occurring to the north of Shetrunji river are unique in Saurashtra. This reflects different processes of depositional environments of the sediments on the two sides of river. From Bhavnagar ASSBY can be approached through the Bhavnagar-Veraval State highway no. ASSBY thus. The mean maximum temperature during summer is about 40ºC and mean minimum temperature during winter is around 12ºC. The nearest all weather port.2. shallow dugwells of 17 to 20 m depths are encountered which are situated within the Miliolite Formation which provides suitable aquifer conditions and hence forms a good source rock for water supply.3 Hydrogeology In the study area. 2. However. The region comes under the monsoonal influence during June-September receiving over 100 cm of rainfall during this period. the district headquarters (Plate 2. There are large variations in rainfall from north to south and on the western and eastern coast of the gulf (Fig. the groundwater behaviour in the limestone areas covered by the Miliolites south of 8 . 2. North-eastward of Gopnath. on crossing the Shetrunji river.2). airport and railway station is Bhavnagar. thus. Southwesterly wind blows during summer and monsoon months. The ship-breaking yard at Alang is located at approximately 21º 24' N and 72º 12' E along the Western side of gulf of Khambhat at a distance of about 50 Km from Bhavnagar. During winter the wind blows from the north. The majority of aquifers are unconfined and located within the veneer of weathered and fractured basaltic flows.2 Geological setting The Saurashtra coastal plains show a well developed Cenozoic sequence comprising Deccan Trap and Laterite overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary sediments. Around Gopnath the Tertiary-Quaternary rocks show a width of about 10 km. experiences semi-arid to dry subhumid tropical climate with precipitation about 2.1 Climate The climate of the region in general is hot and humid except during winter between December and February. The Saurashtra side tends to be hotter during summer months and receives relatively low rainfall as compared to the Gujarat mainland. that includes beach and dune sands. can be reached from the Alang as well as from the Sosiya side. These two faults are of considerable significance and appear to have controlled the Quaternary depositional history and geomorphic characteristics of the Gopnath-Bhavnagar coastal segment.1). The area is accessible from mainland by air. are reflected by the diversity of Tertiary and Quaternary lithostratigraphic units. Gujarat 2 STUDY AREA 2. a variety of aquifer systems. 2. the effectiveness of the S-W wind is very much inhibited with the gulf. An approach road of 10-12 km connects Trapaj and ASSBY. in Talaja block. road and railways (Fig. mudflats. alluvium and soils shows striking differences between the northern and southern sides of the river Shetrunji.2. almost 2 to 3 km only. and to its west. 2.2 REGIONAL SETUP 2.2. The study area. mostly phreatic in nature. Ganapathi (1981) has shown a NW-SE fault along the Shetrunji river and an E-W fault along the Kalubhar river. and are the sole representative of the Holocene clastics.6 via Trapaj which is at a distance of 40 Km from Bhavnagar. The rocks of different stratigraphic ages occur quite close to shoreline. An alternative route for reaching the ASSBY site from the Sosiya side is almost ready. On account of the long Saurashtra Peninsular landmass.1). Around Gopnath. The basaltic rocks come quite close to the shoreline. The Recent and Sub-Recent deposits.1 LOCATION 570 mm and average 32 rainy days a year (Choksi 1989).

Gujarat Plate 2.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. Gulf of Khambhat 9 .1 IRS image of the Bhavnagar-Gopnath segment.

Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. Gujarat Fig 2. 10 .1 Location map of the study area.

Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

Fig 2.2 Rainfall in Gujarat


Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

Fig 2.3 Location of Gulf vis-a-vis continental shelf


Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

Shetrunji river is prone to serious salinity hazards due to sea water encroachment in the freshwater aquifers.

2.2.4 Oceanographic features
The gulf of Khambhat is located in the broadest part of the continental shelf (Fig 2.3). The gulf marks a unique site which comes under strong tidal influence. Whereas the various depositional features along the different segments of the gulf coast, as well as the offshore sand and mud deposits are typical of a tide dominated coastal waters, its offshore areas present a complex picture of sediment input, transport and deposition. The gulf, along with its deposits like mud banks, shoals and under-water ridges reveal a high tide domination, strong tidal current, low wave energy together with other variables like coastal physiography, tidal currents, fluvial sediment influx and riverine input. The tidal amplitude near Bhavnagar jetty is 12 m and equally high tides are known to occur in the areas around Dholera and Khambhat. Apart from large changes in the water level, tides also generate very strong currents. These tidal currents have been responsible for most of the depositional and erosional features in the gulf. The gulf, by and large, forms an area of low wave energy. Waves are generated generally by winds and the geographic location of the gulf and its configuration is such that the gulf waters do not come under the direct influence of wind generated waves. It is observed that the south-westerly winds generate relatively high amplitude waves in the open sea (outside the gulf mouth), but they reach the gulf coast after considerable refraction, thereby losing most of their energy.

2.2.5 Vegetation
Various authors who have described the vegetation of the area consider it as shrub savanna and scattered shrubs under Acacia-Capparis Series. On the coastal side the area had rich mangrove forest till 1960s which have now degraded considerably. Most of these descriptions of vegetation are based on the extensive surveys conducted in 1960s or earlier.


This has made Alang the world's largest shipbreaking yard. The break-up of these plots is given below: Plot size 120 x 50 m 80 x 45 m 50 x 45 m 30 x 45 m Total Number 10 24 56 93 183 The above plots are developed along 8-10 km long coastal strip and are provided with a service road which carries heavy traffic. The coast-line of peninsular Saurashtra is 900 km long and 22 ports out of the 42 medium and small ports of Gujarat.1 Numbers and LTD of ship broken at ASSBY 14 . be described more meaningfully as a "basket case" area of Bhavnagar Sihor sub-region. oxygen-manufacturing and LPG plants within Alang-Bhavnagar-Sihor triangle. In the subsequent period. The ASSBY may. In post 1983 period and more particularly in post 1991 era of liberal economic policy. 1000000 LDT 3. This road is quite busy. Bhavnagar and its neighbouring town Sihor. are located on this coast. Saurashtra has remained an outward looking maritime region since long and hence does not confirm a case of peripheral region .2 PRESENT STATUS The existing site of ASSBY is comprised of 183 plots of different sizes. with its first rolling mill established in 1945. the ASSBY has elevated the economic status of Bhavnagar area and has become a leader in the world of shipbreaking activity.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. thus. Bhavnagar had already started re-rolling of the railway scrap. before Independence. With the development of Shipbreaking Yard at Alang the economy of Bhavnagar received a fresh impetus. Gujarat 3 ALANG SOSIYA SHIPBREAKING YARD (ASSBY) 3. So far as manufacturing of steel is concerned. Even during the colonial period. witnessed proliferation of re-rolling mills. The ASSBY has reinforced growth of downstream industries like re-rolling.very much dependent on its mainland counterpart. Rerolling mills of Bhavnagar and Sihor however were backed very much by the easy and cheaper supply of steel salvaged from the ships 10000000 LDT No.1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE broken at Alang Shipbreaking Yard. Bhavnagar (now a coastal district of Gujarat along the gulf of Khambhat) was one of the enlightened and economically prosperous princely State of Kathiawar (the erstwhile name of Saurashtra). Alang is favoured with a 10 Km dry belt endowed with the above attributes. More than 500 service sector establishments have 400 300 Numbers 200 100 10000 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 0 100000 Fig 3.

17 3.53 11.0025 2. ASSBY were of three major types. of ships beached 5 51 42 84 61 38 48 82 104 86 137 175 301 183 280 1677 LDT (in lakhs) 0. viz..24 - 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97* Total * Projected for March 1997 administrative blocks of Gujarat Maritime Board.44 3. Thereafter.30 2.20 2.77 5.94 112. a couple of public sanitary blocks. Average life of ship is considered between 20-25 years and ships having more than 25 years of age are considered not seaworthy and constitute supply for breaking.1 gives an account of the growth of shipbreaking at Alang since its inception.2 4436. 42 79 11 132 57 189 % Share 22.2 Source: GMB Office.22 41. a police station. Table 3.84 30.54 4.1 4699.00 17.53 25. Bhavnagar.45 2. Table 3.8 Ship Type Tankers Cargo Carriers Bulk Carriers Sub-total [1to3] Others Total Source: The Gujarat Ship-breakers Association.80 05.00 Tonnage per ship 31710.47 09. The first ship was beached at Alang on February 13. Tankers.4 9138. at Alang has grown and attained a place of pride in the world ship-breaking industry.69 17. Table 3.3 gives an account of ships of more than Type of Ships broken at ASSBY during 1995 Nos.62 9. on the other side of the ship-breaking plots.28 5.13 19.56 21.59 2.5 45285. shipbreaking.95 2.43 12.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. a Red-cross dispensary.15 17.70 7.82 69.53 100.1 and Fig.1 Year LDT broken at ASSBY since its inception No. which cater to the daily needs of the ASSBY people.40 25.59 90.00 Tonnes 1331838 721914 487977 2541729 267883 2809612 % Share 47. Built-up infrastructure of the ASSBY includes two bridges on the service road.56 3.51 5. an overhead tank for water supply and the Analysis of data concerning economic sustainability of ship-breaking in general and of ASSBY in particular suggests the following outcome: l Table 3.73 4.16 100.2 shows very clearly that almost 70 percent of total vessels and 90 percent of the total LDT broken during 1995 at ASSBY Table 3. 3. Cargo Carriers and Bulk Carriers.14 5. 15 .75 Two year's Moving Average 1. 1983.7 49984.53 5. Gujarat mushroomed along the service road.73 12. a bank branch.50 3.

of Ships having mor than 25 years of Age 1840 587 7523 9950 4373 14323 GRT Total GRT 5775530 7811765 15955919 29543214 2571288 32114502 Percentage in 18.7 92. The second item in the cost structure is the cost of cutting.4 Costing (based on thumb-rules) per LDT at ASSBY SN 1. Tankers. l Table 3.0 Source: Lloyds Register Statistics (1995) possibility that the present structure of competition in the market remains the same and India is in a position to claim its share. considering them as available in the global market for breaking. the country may very well go upto breaking 4 million LDT per year. Items Purchase of ship [ @ $165 LDT. and that there are no supply side constraints. The nodal agency [GMB] earns half of the amount of the total wage bill paid to more than 30. Bulk Carriers. 3.0 24. wages constitute 25 percent share (Table 3. Granting the LDT. Profit Rs. 37.3 Global availability of ships and tonnage for breaking by ship type Ship Type Tankers Cargo Carriers Bulk Carriers Sub-Total Others Total No. l The largest cost component in shipbreaking is the ship itself.50] Duty [Custom & Excise ] Cutting Cost [i] LPG O2 [ii] Wages [iii] Interest [iv] Delivery & Beaching [v] Overhead Sub-total 4.0 8. In this regard.000 workers. 11 million tonnes supply may be taken as available for breaking. Total [1-3] Average Selling Price Average App. 5. Gujarat 25 years of age. More than double of the amount of entire wage bill is remitted by ship-breaking industry to the Government treasury in the form of custom and excise duty. It is evident that both in terms of number and tonnage.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. The current buying price of ship is around $ 165 per which stands quite competitive. India's share in the total LDT broken is approximately 33 percent. Currently. In GRT terms approximately 32 million tonnes and in LDT terms (considering 1/3 of GRT as LDT). The ship prices are determined by global market position of ships offered for demolition.0 100. conversion @ Rs. 6. there are no supply side constraints in near future.4). India may continue enjoying the current purchase price of ships [$ 165 per LDT] Table 3. and Cargo Carriers contribute 92 percent share in the total supply. (per LDT) 6154 738 500 300 200 150 50 1200 8092 8200 100 16 . Granting the fact that India has emerged as a dominant shipbreaking country. The industry has a history of buying ships even at a rate of $220 per LDT.3 49. 2.

shackles. Removing of electrical and navigational equipments. After the removal of electrical and other miscellaneous items. marine surveyors and the buyer inspect the vessel. oxygen and LPG cylinders scattered all over (Plate 3. with associated machineries.1 Products of ship breaking l Dismantling and removing diesel generators. agents. Normally the process of breaking a ship of 4000-8000 LDT takes 3-5 months. with the help of professional crew. and on-shore zones. masts and derricks. pumps etc. Bunker oil from the engine bottom is removed after dismantling the engine. Ships procured for demolition usually carry different types of organic and inorganic materials some of which pollute the marine environment if not controlled during dismantling. l l l 3. The material 17 . As the size and weight of the vessel is reduced. Finally. and transferring these smaller blocks to the desired destination. Simultaneously. loose cables.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. Either the ships' engines are used or else a tug is employed to move the vessels to their final resting positions. The general appearance of a yard is that of a junkyard with metal pieces and. The major equipments used in beaching of a ship and pulling the large blocks of steel are: l 10-15 tonnes' capacity winches generally with 100 HP automotive diesel engine (Plate 3. The essentials for de-welding the ships are LPG and oxygen gas. engine and the propeller. These dismantled pieces are pulled on to the shore with the help of winches during the low tide. These operations include: l Pumping out of ballast water. when personnel from customs department. Gujarat 3. The undersurface of the hull of these ships are dragged over the rocky substrate upto its final resting position through a process known as "forced beaching". broken. Material removed from the ship consists of a variety of items usually expected in a ship. window and doorframes etc. boilers. and equipments for personal protection. Big blocks are cut into plates weighing 2-5 tonne in the plots (Plate 3.3 MODUS OPERANDI The total ship-breaking activities encompass offshore. These mainly include the removal of super-structures and cutting of the ship's hull. The big pieces are generally near the tidal area and smaller ones are on-shore. The major ship-breaking processes are accomplished at the littoral zone. fire-fighting equipments. the hull bottom is cut and pulled to the shore. 10-20 tonnes' capacity mobile crawler crane 20 tonnes' derricks generally reclaimed from vessels. Dismantling and removing of furniture. This is accomplished. the vessel is cut vertically by oxygen-LPG torches into big blocks.3). machinery spares etc. Removing of some of the winches. littoral. it is hauled closer to the shoreline by winches during the high tide. The offshore processing starts with the arrival of a ship at Alang anchorage. at appropriate plots in the intertidal zone. and final purchasing process is completed if the ship conforms with the purchase deal.3. Small pieces of rusted. relevant permission is sought from GMB and excise and customs department for beaching of the vessel.1). fuel oil and lubricants. nylon and steel ropes. lifeboat. ladders.2) and are transported out. air compressor. LDO and lubricants. These blocks are of the sizes/weight of about 10 tonnes which drop onto the beach on either side of the vessel. deformed steel are sold as scrap. l l Activities in the on-shore zone mainly comprise of cutting the big blocks into smaller transportable pieces.

Crude oil tanks of oil tankers and oil/bulk/ore carriers contain considerable amount of oil sludge. bulk of these oils are pumped out from the tanks and the residual oil in the bottom layers are removed by manual scraping and are transported to the shore for sale. Gujarat that is released during ship-breaking include: l l Oil Fuel and lubricants Oil sludge in oil tankers and oil/bulk/ore carriers Solid wastes such as glass wool. l l l The oil bunker/tank of the ship is located either under the engine room or in bottom hold of the ship. plywood.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. thermocole. 18 . It is also necessary to remove this oil from the tanks before they are cut into smaller blocks. timber Heavy metals and other chemical constituents of paints and coatings Remnants of toxic chemicals in the cargo compartments. As the marine bunker oil and the diesel oil have a high market value.

2 Large Blocks being cut into small blocks 19 . Gujarat Plate 3.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.

Gujarat Plate 3.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.3 A view of Alang-Sosiya ship-breaking yard 20 .

1969) (Fig.2). which are under the continuous influence of ocean dynamics. A large part of the gulf coast does not show any significant outcrops of the Tertiary rocks but their subsurface presence. The N-S Saurashtra coast marks the site of major lineament (Western Cambay Basin Boundary Fault). Table 4. a few exposed Tertiaries occur on the Saurashtra side of the gulf.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. Special physical features. stratigraphy and lithology have been reported by the ONGC (Chandra and Chowdhary.1). namely.1 shows the stratigraphy of the Bhavnagar-Ghogha coastal segment. The Figure also shows the structural framework of the area based on the works of ONGC. a special attempt has been made to study the geoenvironmental conditions of the area in depth. he has invoked a smaller N-S fault in between Ghogha and Piram (Fig. This holds true even more in the coastal regions.2 Tertiary-Quaternary stratigraphic sequence around Gopnath-Methla area Alluvium and Mudflats Miliolite Formation Gaj Formation Laterites Deccan Traps Holocene Pleistocene Lower Miocene Palaeocene Cretaceous-Eocene 21 .1.1. as the configuration and evolution of the gulf of Khambhat is a reflection of the various major and minor faults of the Cambay basin. strong energy condition. Table 4.2 Stratigraphy The Gulf of Khambhat and its environs comprise mostly of Cenozoic (younger than 65 million years) depositional sequences. on local as well as regional environment. following broadly the course of the Kalubhar river. Islam (1986) and Sridhar (1995). Ganapathi (1981) has given details of the stratigraphy of the Saurashtra Coastal Block. and are dominantly marine. a pre-requisite for sound developmental planning. The Tertiary rocks (marine sedimentatires) rest unconformably over the Deccan Trap volcanic rocks and constitute the Cambay Basin. movement of water across the gulf. Ganapathi has also shown a NW-SE dislocation along Shetrunji river (Shetrunji Fault). While examining the fault running east of Piram Island. Structural framework of the coastal segment provides a combination of numerous regional faults related to the Cambay Basin. Keeping this in view. which Ganapathi (1981) has referred to as Ghogha-Sanand Fault. therefore. 4. high tidal amplitude. The Saurashtra coastal plains show a well developed sequence comprising Tertiary and Quaternary sediments overlying older Deccan Trap 4. large quantity of suspended sediments and littoral zone with rocky as well as soft substratum create an array of area specific yet unique coastal conditions. Gujarat 4 GEOENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES Geo-environment of any area decides the longevity of mega-developmental projects. An understanding of various parameters of geoenvironment is. Geological formations under coastal erosion form provenance for sediments of littoral and offshore region and determine the composition of these sediments. Ganapathi (1981).1 Structural setup The tectonics of the Saurashtra coast (GopnathBhavnagar segment) have strongly influenced the coastal geomorphic evolution. 4. 4. and E-W Kalubhar Fault. especially in the coastal areas. However.1 GEOLOGY 4. while studying the overall influence of ship-breaking activities at Alang.

Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.1 Structural setup of Gulf of Khambhat 22 . Gujarat Fig 4.

Gujarat Fig 4.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.2 Geology around Alang 23 .

Gujarat and Laterite. These two faults are of considerable significance and appear to have controlled the Quaternary depositional history and geomorphic characteristics of the Gopnath-Bhavnagar coastal segment. and yellowish brown hard laterites with clay pockets Variety of basaltic lava. brown. Table 4.2) Tertiary-Quaternary stratigraphic sequence is encountered around Gopnath-Methla. Ganapathi (1981) has shown a NW-SE fault along the Shetrunji river and an E-W fault along the Kalubhar river.1 Stratigraphy of the Bhavnagar-Ghogha coastal segment ERA PERIOD AGE Holocene ___________ Pleistocene to Early Holocene FORMATION Recent deposits _________________ Lakhanka Formation LITHOLOGY Alluvium. grits and argillaceous sandstones with intercalations of clays ___Unconformity_____ Unconformity ____ ME SO ZO IC ___________ Cretaceous _____ ___________ Palaeocene Lateritic rocks __Deccan Trap__ Unstratified red. Around Gopnath the Tertiary-Quaternary rocks show a width of about 10 km. basal conglomerates and argillaceous sandstones with cross lamination ______________________ Fossiliferous conglomerates.Pliocene Unconformity Piram Beds ______________________ Hard and well cemented fossiliferous conglomerates with alternation of sandstones and claystones ______________________ ___________ Disconformity Bhumbli Conglomerate Member Lower Miocene Ratanpur Clay Member Grey and yellow coloured clays and marls with gypsum layers. felsite and rhyolite with dolerite dykes (Source: Merh 1997) 24 .Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. The Cenozoic rocks of different stratigraphic ages occur quite close to shoreline. At the base. Beach and Dune ______________________ Soft friable ferruginous sandstones and sands with layers rich in agate pebbles and intercalations of grey coloured clays Q U A T C E N O Z T O I C E R T I A R Y E R N A R Y ___________ Mio. The following (Table 4.

However. The basaltic rocks come almost 2 to 3 km close to the shoreline. on crossing the Shetrunji river. The average depth of dugwells is of the order of 12-15 m. but this gets saline in the premonsoon months. The arenaceous sands of beach and dunes occurring to the north of Shetrunji river are unique in Saurashtra. rock for water supply. mostly phreatic in nature. Here the demand of sweet water is being met through surface ponds and shallow dugwells.1. Laterites and Gaj rocks are exposed along the coastline itself. the groundwater behaviour in the miliolites limestone in coastal areas is prone to serious salinity hazards due to seawater ingress in the freshwater aquifers. shallow dugwells of 17 to 20 m depth are encountered which are situated within the Miliolite Formation. where the beach and dune materials are essentially arenaceous and consist of fine to medium grained sands. Near the upper tidal limit. and availability of sweet water is very restricted. The water tables in aquifers from Shetrunji river northwards to Ghogha show a marked difference in their nature between that of the coastline and of the backshore areas. that includes beach and dune sands.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. The water at greater depth is saline as is seen 4. Generally. Such type of wells are observed in the villages Kuda. Miliolite provides suitable aquifer conditions and hence forms a good source Table 4. A broad and continuous well developed beach is seen in this part. chalcedony. and the average depth of sweet water availability is only 5 m. On the other hand.3 Stratigraphic sequences N-E of Gopnath coastal segment Mudflats. In the Deccan Trap country the majority of aquifers are of unconfined nature and located within the veneer of weathered and fractured basaltic flows. are reflected by the diversity of Tertiary 25 . Ratanpur and Alang where the average depth of sweet water phreatic aquifer is from 7 to 10 m. though a good development of dune complex is seen from north of Hathab Bungalow to Kuda village and also near the village Alang. Beaches & Dunes Lakhanka Formation Piram Beds Gaj Formation Laterites Deccan Traps Holocene Pleistocene to Holocene Mid-Pliocene Lower Miocene Palaeocene Cretaceous-Eocene (Source: Merh 1997) The Recent and Sub-Recent deposits. Calcareous facies (Miliolites) changes over to a non-carbonate facies (Lakhanka Formation). and hence hold sweet water. the Ghogha-Bhavnagar coast shows a striking change in stratigraphy and lithology (Table 4. The coastal area of Ghogha and Bhavnagar has got its own distinct hydrological conditions. the beach material becomes of shingle size and is made up of rounded to sub-rounded fragments of quartz. inland coastal areas the wells are free from influence of sea water ingress. This reflects different processes of depositional environments of the sediments on the two sides of river.3). and are the sole representative of the Holocene clastics. South of Shetrunji the TDS content is low.3 Hydrogeology Groundwater in coastal area is mostly saline. agate and basalt and Gaj rocks. and Quaternary lithostratigraphic units in the study area. Gujarat Northeastward of Gopnath. mudflats and alluvium soils show striking differences between the northern and southern sides of the river Shetrunji. A variety of aquifer systems. which is used even in small scale irrigation. Alang is situated on the northern side of the river Shetrunji. The former consists of accumulated sweet water in the coastal sands and in the underlying Gaj Beds. and to its west. Dune ridges are rather discontinuous.

00 08.50 16.60 09. Table 4.80 10.00 05.00 19.00 15.60 02.70 20.70 03.00 12.20 07.50 05.50 16.50 Miliolite Methla Jhanjmer Pithalpur Gopnath Fluvio-marine sediments Saltanpur Dakana Lilivav Kathva Alang Mithivirdi Hathab Badi Kuda Kuda 09.70 12.00 11.00 04.00 04.00 09.00 19.00 12.00 09.00 04. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Aquifer Formation Village Name Total Depth [m] 07.20 04.40 04.00 11.80 09.00 Water Level [m] Pre Post 06.50 17.90 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Deccan Trap Sandstone Dunal Sand Deccan Trap Dunal Sands Sandstone Nava Ratanpur Ghogha Deccan Trap Thoradi Budhel Trap covered by fluvio-marine sediments Deccan Trap Akvada 20 Karnej 35. Gujarat from a well at village Akhvada where brackish water is encountered at 7 m depth (Table 4.00 04.80 03.50 20.00 17.00 03.4).00 13.00 09.00 20.45 02.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.00 09.60 01.00 02.00 10.60 15.00 07.00 04.4 Hydrogeological Conditions in the coastal segments Well No.00 29.50 15.50 18.00 07.00 18.00 05.00 17.20 01.40 (Source: Merh 1997) 26 .40 02.50 06.50 07.50 08.

Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

There are no significant data available on the chemistry of the groundwater. The chemical quality of ground water is dominantly influenced by seawater ingression and inherent salinity of marine formations, and percentile variation of various dissolved constituents provides a good indication of the overall quality of the groundwater (Table 4.5; Islam 1986). In the area between Shetrunji and Kalubhar rivers, the groundwater is saline and the TDS ranges between 474 and 3374 ppm. Sodium dominates over all other cations. Bicarbonate and chloride dominate over all other anions.

are small, shallow and never exceed more than 50 km in length. Though most of the streams and rivers of the study area are ephemeral, their drainage patterns show considerable diversity (Fig. 4.3). The breaks in the lower reaches of the river profiles, linear extension of the high order channels, and the emergence of new small independent streams all along the coast, and the deflection of the river courses also suggest change in sea level. Most of the streams follow straight courses, some have deflections at various angles either due to joint intersection or due to

Table 4.5 Chemical quality of Ground water
Sam. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Depth [m] 06.50 18.50 16.00 12.00 07.20 04.00 13.50 16.00 15.00 19.00 08.00 10.00 03.00 09.00 04.00 05.00 09.00 07.00 04.00 TDS [ppm] 2669 474 645 1225 1905 2541 943 657 645 478 2990 790 1110 1153 1003 3118 854 1238 3374 Na 1100 160 180 130 270 560 125 50 90 65 500 80 220 315 235 535 95 270 560 Cations [ppm] K 42 3 1 2 39 35 1 2 3 5 3 2 42 1 2 4 1 9 8 Ca 73 1 6 109 120 67 95 14 31 27 69 2 23 11 9 70 7 8 93 Mg 91 11 2 48 79 64 106 62 51 21 35 31 53 52 38 108 35 34 201 CO3 30 7 30 60 15 120 45 30 HCO3 488 442 442 153 198 885 290 259 229 198 610 381 503 702 290 275 244 473 580 Anions [ppm] Cl 540 670 465 603 735 845 358 248 355 952 1100 465 867 1166 1228 1242 177 355 348 SO4 238 85 68 56 346 620 256 44 262 96 242 43 398 567 64 620 76 148 284 pH 7.5 7.7 7.6 6.9 7.1 7.7 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.3 7.1 7.8 7.6 7.7 7.7 7.4 7.5 7.7 7.3

(Source: Merh 1997)



strandline change which reveals structural control on the stream course. The lowermost reaches of the stream courses are rather wide and curved though not meandering. The beds are full of sediments of different sizes. Deposition being dominant, the beds do not show any worthwhile erosional feature. The ratio of width to depth is quite high in comparison to the upper and the middle segments of the streams.

4.2.1 Drainage
The coastline between Bhavnagar and Gopnath (Shetrunji River) forms a narrow NNE-SSW trending coastal plain backed by low hill ridges. Several small rivers and seasonal streams, cut across the plains and meet the gulf barring the river Shetrunji. These streams and rivers, however,


Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

Fig 4.3 Drainage Pattern around Alang


Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

The only perennial stream in the study area is the river Shetrunji which originates from the Gir range, about 150 km away, and enters the coastal plains with final stage of growth, draining basaltic rocks throughout its course. Near its mouth it forms an estuarine delta. The characteristics of other streams are given in Table 4.6.

4.2.2 Landform
The geomorphic attributes of the study area, especially the landforms and the drainage patterns, reveal interesting combinations of erosional and depositional processes that operated during the Cenozoic Era over a coastal terrain that was subjected to frequent sea level changes. The structural features of the trappean rocks - faulting and jointing, contributed a major share in evolving the landforms and drainage. The shapes, configuration and slopes of the erosional landforms are all dependent on the factors enumerated above. The various river courses and their tributaries too show close relationship with the faulting and jointing of the trap rocks. Saurashtra coastal plains
The landscape of the coastal plains of southeastern Saurashtra peninsula of which the study area forms an important segment, has preserved within it, imprints of the various weathering and denudational agencies of more than one generation (Fig 4.4). The coast typically marks area of uplift during the Quaternary period and the landscape is youthful. The various sub-aerial processes include weathering, mass wasting, fluvial erosion and sediment transport and formation of flood plains and terraces. The hinterland landforms, i.e., the rocky fringe and the coastal plains that lie behind the shoreline, are both erosional and depositional.


4 Coastal landforms around Alang 30 .Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. Gujarat Fig 4.

On the north of river Shetrunji the Khokhra range trends N-S with steep eastern slope.6 Characteristics of the stream longitudinal Profiles Name of the stream AdhewadaMalesari Nadi Stream.200 160 7 Concave 0.0063 Bagad Nadi 38.0037 slope Roshia Nadi 13.600 280 7 Concave 0.0077 One break at with one 5km from break source is due to local fault Bhadrod 26.00582 Nadi Longdi Nadi 14.0051 area are due to Nadi slope rejuvenation.5 km from source is due to Ramadasi 12. abutting rather abruptly against the coastal plain.0056 Tansa fault.m Nature of Gradient Remarks length Km Max Min the profile 21.500 240 12 Concave 0.0039 slope All along the coastline between Bhavnagar and Gopnath the interior flank is made up of trappean hilly terrain comprising conical and flat-topped hills and ridges. Evidences of 31 .200 80 8 Gentle 0.700 140 8 Concave 0. and the foothill slopes show a pronounced accumulation of products of mass wasting.0058 Malesari Nadi Slope Koliyak24. Nadi with one IInd and IIIrd break breaks at 17. One break at 8. dissected by small streams. Gujarat Table 4. dominantly products of fluvial processes. South of Shetrunji river these hills and ridges form the eastward extension of the Gir Range.0057 High Concavity near source might be due to steep slope Bhumbhli12. the area is characterised by undulating rolling topography.500 85 12 Gentle 0.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.100 60 7 Very Gentle 0.500 80 10 Concave 0. A erosion product of a jointed basalt flow country dotted with dykes.8 km from source due to rejuvenation/se a regression Manari Nadi 20.0093 There are three Malesari Nadi with three breaks. 1st break breaks at 2. The coastal plains nearer the shoreline provide a good example of assorted depositional landforms of Tertiary and Quaternary periods. Altitude.4 and 19 km from source Mithivirdi 14. and merges with the coastal plain at southeast.500 140 18 Concave 0.600 60 7 Very Gentle 0.

The particle size is dominated by coarse to fine sand (Table 4.73 2. The rivers like Shetrunji. and (c) abandoned channels. Beyond this river. the beach has developed. the tidal waters of the gulf. The river Shetrunji and Malesari group of streams have cut their own flood plains and their channels are flanked on both sides by hanging terraces. It has been observed that the major bulk of tidal mud in all parts of the gulf coast is made up of silt size particles. The various terraces represent successive flood plains of the past and reveal a sequence of depositional and erosional events of the Quaternary times. Point bars and islands in the riverbeds are the other interesting depositional features. Bhadrod Nadi and Talgharda Nadi show abandoned channels in their lower courses. It has also been observed that the larger particles (sand + silt) are dropped at the high water line during flood tide and the finer sediments are carried back during ebb tide.2.009 -0.3 Coastal deposits 4.2. The area also shows good examples of valley fill deposition caused by the impounding of the river water due to transgression of sea. dimension and lithological characteristics.85 0.84 2. Vatrej-Malesari Nadi. and almost 60% at Methla.07 0. These are the products of deposition due to velocity variation of the stream flow.41 -0.3. The upper terrace level has been recorded at the heights ranging from 8 to 10 m. South of Shetrunji river.1 Tidal flat deposits Tidal mudflats which constitute.2 Beach deposits Compared to the extensive development of tidal mud deposits.3. 4.7). Beaches first appear near Ghogha and extend southward upto Shetrunji river mouth. In this report samples from 19 locations have been included. Gujarat prolonged history of deposition followed by some erosion are distinctly recorded in the area just behind the actual shoreline and the various landforms recognised are (a) terraces and flood plains. and sand accumulations occur almost continuously from Gopnath to Methla and beyond.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. the lower ones occur at 2 to 4 m above the riverbed. The sand fractions are always less than 6%. Quartz is the dominant noncarbonate constituent. one above the other. mainly foraminiferal tests and molluscan shell fragments. the regression that followed resulted into vertical downcutting and carving of cliffy terraces.35 Skewness -0. forming a narrow more or less continuous stretch. that of sandy beaches is rather subordinate and restricted.96 2. The tidal muds thus fall within the `clayey silt' to `silt' category. (b) point bars and bar islands.59 2. by far the most extensive deposits appear to be the product of strong tidal currents operating within the gulf. and are rich in carbonate content because of Table 4.63 Standard deviation 0.2.81 0. which could be related with sea-level changes. their proportion varying from 60 to 75%. The carbonate content is 30 to 37% at Ghogha. while clay fraction varies from 15% to 30%.01 -0. the beach sands increase in bulk. Islam (1986) endeavoured to provide a bird's-eyeview of the nature of sediment load deposited by their richness in bioclastic grains.62 0.7 Statistical parameters of beach sands Sample Location Methla Gopnath Alang Kuda Hathab Piram Mean in phi scale 2.77 (Source: Merh 1997) 4.58 0.42 0. 32 .34 2.44 0. most of the terraces are paired.

the coastline between Bhavnagar and Mahuva has been gaining land. The indented shoreline from 33 . A beach extends all along the coast from Kuda to Mathawada.3. Good example of this wave-cut platform is seen near Ghogha village. While the platform is mostly devoid of any vegetation. Across the Shetrunji river towards Gopnath and further west. but their relative proportions vary from segment to segment depending on the nature and intensity of the two processes. But there are certain landforms like ancient marine terraces also. processes of marine erosion predominate.4 Shoreline between Ghogha and Mathawada From Ghogha to Kuda. The erosional features are restricted to the lower part of the foreshore and are marked by wave-cut platforms. Here we describe in brief the characteristics of the GhoghaMathawada section to which our study area belongs. overall effect is that of a progressive regression with resulting emergence of new land. related to an earlier period when erosional processes were effective along this part of the shoreline.500 metre. with small proportions of shell material and rock fragments etc. chalcedony. The intertidal platform which makes an erosional feature of wave action is seen as a very seaward sloping rocky plane. which forms the northern extremity of the area shows geomorphic features related to various depositional processes operating at the present time. Shetrunji delta is made up of a number of depositional landforms formed due to the interaction of fluvial and marine processes under conditions of fluctuating sea level and perhaps tectonism. On the basis of different morphological features.3 Shoreline morphology The shoreline of the coast between Bhavnagar and Gopnath provides an interesting assemblage of erosional and depositional features. The beach along the GhoghaMathawada consists mostly of depositional landform mainly beach and dune ridge complex. Its width varies from 25 to 200 m. the shoreline dominates in erosional landforms. 4. and then takes a turn to south-west. Towards Ghogha. agate. The beach material is derived from the intertidal rocky platform. the shoreline can be subdivided into following discrete sedimentation zones: a) b) c) d) Bhavnagar-Ghogha (Estuarine) Ghogha-Mathawada (Beach) Shetrunji Delta (Estuarine) Gopnath-Mahuva (Dune and Cliff) Ghogha towards Mahuva is marked by submerged and dissected aeolianites (Miliolite). The beach slopes very gently southwards. the beach almost tapers out Each segment of the shoreline exhibits both erosional and depositional features. The foreshore features mainly comprise of wavecut platform. beach and mudflat. Gujarat 4. related to tectonic and eustatic factors. The well-developed beach and dune ridge complex evidently point to the dominance of depositional processes.2. the coast extends almost south-east. Bhavnagar-Ghogha section. The beach material varies in size from very fine sand to very coarse pebbly gravels and is made up of quartz. Width of this zone varies from 500 to 1.2. and on account of the irregularity in the shoreline configuration. The platform is covered by a thin veneer of tidal mud all along its length which gets washed out during monsoon. and further southwards it is made up of laterite and Lakhanka rocks. From Ghogha upto one km south of Hathab Bungalow the platform is of Gaj rocks. This part shows several interesting foreshore and backshore features. is flanked by backshore dunes. On the whole.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. the Gaj rocks support some shrub growth. though the berm line dividing the two is not well defined.3. Between the Kuda guesthouse and Ghogha. the beach is dissected by the Ratanpur Creek. and runs straight upto Mathawada. narrow at the south and broad at the north. material brought by the rivers from inland areas and sediments brought to the gulf waters by the Mainland Gujarat rivers and transported by longshore drift. the nature of sediments and their transport and sedimentary history. The berm line is not at-all well defined and the beach abruptly abuts against the coastal dune ridge. Landward the beach.

3.3. The open shelf located outside the gulf forms a part of the continental shelf. Its height varies from 3 to 20 m. The gulf can be divided into three parts from the bathymetric point of view. and three diverging channels in the southern portion just outside the mouth of the gulf. The bottom topography here comprises N-S extending banks and underwater shoals with intervening shallow channels which are only 10 to 12 m deep. This geomorphic feature provides an excellent evidence of a past higher strandline.2 Tides and tidal currents The gulf forms an area of highest tides along the west coast. a maximum height of 27 m is recorded. and is marked by a typical dunal topography. and studies have shown that these coastal dune ridges belong to two generations. broader and has varied floor topography. Behind these coastal dunes.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.3 OFF-SHORE: THE GULF OF KHAMBHAT 4. The inner gulf is very shallow. 4. and selective deposition of sediment load by tidal currents. Outer gulf (between Ghogha Dahaj and Gopnath-Surat E-W line) and open shelf outside the gulf (south of the GopnathSurat E-W line upto Daman). 4. the sand particles being carried further N-N-W. The outer gulf is deeper. The dunes are all unconsolidated. They are: l A dune ridge complex immediately behind the beach. The width of the ridge varies from 10 to 50 m. never exceeding in depth beyond 27 m (Fig. The dune-ridge complex extends for about 30 km parallel to the shoreline. They rest over the Lakhanka Formation. 6 to 8 m above the present sea level.5). The beach at Ghogha is made up of shingles only. though in recent years considerable plantations have been made by the Forest department to check the inward migration of the sands. Inner gulf (north of Ghogha Dahej E-W line).. with frequent breaks on account of dissections by numerous inflowing streams. and some of the ridges rise above the low water line. The channels form the deeper seas in between the various parallel underwater ridges. The present day coastal dune ridge complex is observed right from the Kuda guesthouse to as far south as Mathawada. and are considerably dissected and eroded. Fig. The bathymetry of the gulf is very unique. there occurs an older dune-beach complex south of Hathab Bungalow upto Mathawada.1 Bathymetry 34 . Gujarat because of a marked change in the shoreline configuration and sand accumulation.g. located east of the Piram island. l An ancient beach and dune topography just at the back of the present day dunes which indicates a post higher strandline. appears an important factor responsible for the exclusive accumulation of shingles. The backshore features comprise only coastal accumulations. e. and evidently related to the present day shoreline. Evidently the imbalance caused by the interference between wave action and longshore currents. and is replete with mudbanks and shoals. It overlooks the gulf mouth and forms an open flat shelf area averaging from 30 to 35 m deep dissected by a number of channels with intervening sandy ridges which tend to converge towards the gulf mouth. 4. It is made up of underwater channels and ridges which tend to diverge and open up southward. The deepest portion of the gulf comprises of median channels as deep as 45 to 49 m. About one km south of Kuda. The tectonic and sedimentation factors have played a dominant role in imparting diversity of the gulf bathymetry. The features of the gulf bottom are essentially products of graben faulting related to the tectonics of the Cambay basin. The development of these underwater sandy ridges of the order of 30 to 80 km long outside the mouth of the gulf is illustrative of the phenomenon of transport and deposition by tidal currents which are presently performing an equally important role of controlling the tidal current directions and the pattern of sediment transport and deposition. and provide a rolling topography.6 illustrate the tidal range in the 4.

5 Bathymetry of Gulf of Khambhat 35 . 4. Gujarat Fig.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.

the tide generates very strong tidal currents. and.8. Along open coast. The proportion of sediment load near or outside the gulf mouth is much less. in combination with the irregular floor of the gulf bottom have been responsible for the pattern and behaviour of tides and tidal currents. the broad extensive shelf zone within which the gulf is located and the dominant direction of the monsoonal winds.8 Time differences for peak tides with reference to high tide at Bhavnagar Jetty Location Methla Gopnath Piram Ghogha Khambhat Dahej Hazira Time differences -80 min -70 min -15 min -10 min +60 min -70 min -70 min (Source: Merh 1997) Apart from the phenomenon of the rise and fall of water level. observed by Islam (1986). it stands out that the tidal current are rather week at the river mouth during flood tide. especially of Sabarmati. react differently to the rising and receding tides. However. the normal difference between high and low tide is only a metre or so. At the peak high tide the stagnation of water would cause settling of the suspended sediments especially the sand and the silt size fraction. These currents during the flood and ebb tides have been responsible for most of the depositional and erosional features in the gulf. the pattern of variation in the height range of high and low tides is strikingly different between the mouth and the interior part. A fact worth noting is that the various river mouths. During the flood tide. The pattern of concentration is also indicative of the trends of total currents and bathymetry. The computed time differences for the peak tides at various locations with reference to high tide at Bhavnagar Jetty are presented in Table 4. such that the influx is both from the south Saurashtra coast as well as from the south Mainland coast. Mahi and Narmada. The geographic location and configuration of the gulf with respect to the Saurashtra coast and the south Gujarat mainland coast. mudflats. The distribution patterns of sediment load during different seasons are observed to be quite variable. shoals and underwater linear ridges show resemblance to the type diagram for macrotidal coast (Hayes 1979). l Table 4. Gujarat different parts of the gulf. whereas they are quite strong during the ebb tide. and the obstruction caused by the Piram island are also the factors that governed the movement of tidal waters. mudbanks. This points to a vital fact that incoming tidal waters are less loaded with suspended sediments. From these observations. The sediments are carried by tidal currents. thereby slowing down or even reversing their flow direction. The median portion of the gulf shows only moderate to slight concentrations except where the tidal water flow over the submerged ridges. during the ebb tide the river water would join the seawater in its outward journey. During receding tide there is an overall decrease in the sediment content. the unevenness of the inner gulf bottom characterised by numerous mudbanks and shoals. Vast coastal mud deposits. shoals and other offshore features. the inflow of river waters would experience a resistance.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. but within restricted areas like a gulf the tidal range always increases. The tidal current directions as observed on satellite imagery establish following facts (Islam 1986): l the current directions during flood and ebb tides have almost identical paths. l the tidal currents bothways follow the bathymetric feature of the gulf. Heavy concentration during ebb tide is restricted to the inner tidal muddy areas only. l the fanning pattern outside the mouth of the gulf is closely related to the presence of numerous underwater rhythmic linear ridges which regulates the entry and exit of the tidal water. a shallow water zone dominated by high tide. The proportion of suspended load is directly related to the shallowness of the gulf inlet. In the gulf of Khambhat. The height of the tide at Bhavnagar 36 . mudbanks.

Gujarat Plate 3.3 A view of Alang-Sosiya ship-breaking yard 37 .Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.

suggesting a strong hydrodynamic condition in the gulf.3 Waves The gulf. river water input.3.5 m Hazira 2-3 m Monsoon Summer 4-5 m 3-4 m 2-3. It is observed that the southwesterly winds generate relatively high amplitude waves in the open sea (outside the gulf mouth). strong winds blow from W and SW. Gujarat jetty is +12 m and equally high tides are indicated in the areas around Dholera and Khambhat. Main causes of very high tides could be listed as the convergence of shorelines. Montmorillonite. thereby causing extensive flooding of the low lying coastal areas of Saurashtra and Bhal. makes up about 75 to 85% of the total clay mineral assemblages. Unlike the other coastal areas of Saurashtra and of South Gujarat which experience north westerly winds. thereby losing most of their energy. sediments are also similar to that of tidal flats.4 Nature of tidal sediments The grainsize variation of the suspended sediments is practically the same both spatially and temporally.5 m 2-2. Mineralogically. A perusal of the climatic data reveals that for most part of the summer and monsoon months. The distribution of clay minerals in the gulf is homogeneous.9 Seasonal Wave height at different location along the coast Locations Winter Methla 2-3 m Gopnath 1.5-2 m 1-1.5-3.5 m Ghogha 1-2 m Khambhat 0. but they reach the gulf coast after considerable refraction. Waves are generated generally by winds and the geographic location of the gulf and its configuration is such that the gulf waters do not come under the direct influence of wind generated waves.5-5 m 2. whereas during winter months landward breeze blow from N or NNE.7 show the clay mineral percentage in the gulf suspended sediments. and shallowness of the gulf. these suspended 38 . Wave height observed during different seasons are presented in Table 4. followed by illite (10-14%).5-2.10 and Fig.5-3.5-2. 4. The occurrence of chlorite and kaolinite is insignificant.5 m 3.5-2 m 3-4. the major clay mineral in the gulf suspended sediments. 4. Table 4. the gulf is protected by the Saurashtra landmass.5 m 2-3 m 2.3.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.5 m 1.5 m (Source: Merh 1997) 4. by and large forms an area of low wave energy.5 m 1.9 Table 4. Strong southwesterly monsoonal winds also augment the height of the tides under stormy conditions.5-1 m Dahej 1.

Gujarat Fig 4.7 Minerology around Gulf of Khambhat 39 .Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.

55 03.97 10.48 04.98 04.20 04.55 04.80 03.80 03.25 October 85 76.48 40 .23 04.21 January 86 75.34 03.81 03.66 January 86 83.16 05.54 12.56 January 86 82.74 11.86 04.99 03.36 13.20 04.40 04.60 03.88 13. % 04.53 11.99 13.80 04.41 03.82 04.12 10.90 14. Gujarat Table 4.48 04.65 05.96 11.13 October 85 74.96 October 85 77.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.15 03.99 03.30 Dahej July 95 79.75 Kaolinite.23 January 86 80.35 09.83 April 85 73.% % April 85 75.23 April 85 79.89 04.61 04.77 13.20 06.10 03.98 15.53 East October 85 81.83 02.66 13.93 Methla July 95 78.59 13.16 January 86 82.10 Clay mineralogical percentages in suspended sediments Month/ Montmorillonite Illite.76 04.69 04.11 10.34 October 85 83.28 Piram July 95 75.10 04.17 April 85 77.31 03.00 04.98 Hazira July 95 79.88 09.10 04.01 03.20 04.75 Khambhat July 95 78.27 18.30 11.01 03.67 05.82 04.05 10.98 05.55 13. Year .10 04.92 April 85 77.69 October 85 77.15 04.42 Location Chlorite.59 03.50 05.71 January 86 78.28 Ghogha July 95 82.99 03.28 17. % 05.56 April 85 75.18 04.53 14.33 10.

certain changes have taken place in the area. In the first step the changes in the vegetation pattern over the years was assessed at macro level from satellite data. This actually means a change in landuse pattern in a 200 m (average) wide belt of about 10 km length.2). while in the third step some detailed phyto-sociological studies were conducted. etc. This followed an intensive observation of floral components at different habitats. which finally breeds various types of environmental problems of different scales. A comparison of the landuse pattern between the 41 .1 VEGETATION CHANGE DETECTION USING RS DATA Remotely sensed (RS) satellite data of March 1985 and January 1998 was used to assess the impact of ASSBY on the natural vegetation in the area.2.000 scale with the help of an equipment called 'Procom'. A similar situation is. This comparison. including the human. some detailed phyto-sociological studies were conducted.) and distributional pattern. vegetation (especially of onshore areas) was considered as one of the important study components to achieve the objective of formulation of environmental management plan for ASSBY and surrounding areas.1) shows that the direct impact of ASSBY on vegetation has been restricted only to the coastal belt where the land was used for agriculture or Prosopis plantation. pressure on natural vegetation has increased manifold in recent years. most of these changes are caused by the increase in agriculture land. for example. Part of the area that is occupied by ASSBY was previously a beach and the direct impact is restricted only to the regions of actual ship breaking and the houses of the workers. The RS data comprised of Landsat MSS for 1985 (Plate 5. 5. Block II: Mithivirdi including coastal areas and mainland C. Block III: Gopnath-Sartanpar coastal area and the surrounding mainlands D.Sosiya with surrounding mainlands B. They are: A. and it is other factors that have resulted in the observed changes. Almost all of the land that has been converted to agriculture was previously scrubland (in 1985). by holding the lower most position of trophic level it supports many other life forms. cover. two periods (Fig.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. and was interpreted with reference to changes in the natural vegetation during this periods.1 Methodology The floristic composition of Alang-Sosiya and its surrounding areas have been studied during September 1996 to February 1997. At some of the places the thickness of Prosopis julliflora has increased.1) and IRS LISS III for 1998 (Plate 5. Further towards landside.2 FLORISTIC COMPOSITION 5. The entire study area was divided into four blocks for the ease of documentation and presentation of data (Fig. while in the second phase. However. Further. Block IV: Bhandaria . The slides (diapositives) of both of these data were enlarged to 1:50. In the first phase a floristic inventory was prepared. The Study was conducted in three steps.Talaja belt In each block a reconnaissance was made to identify some areas for intensive documentation about the flora. therefore. The situation beyond this belt along the coastline has mostly remained similar. Block I: Alang . The study was conducted in two different phases. 5. 5. therefore.2). with growing population. Gujarat 5 VEGETATION Vegetation is one of the best indicators of the ecological health of any given area by reflecting changes in their structure (density. 5. reveals that ASSBY has not caused the changes in vegetation structure beyond its actual existence. Keeping this in view. The second step was the preparation of floristic inventory. met with in and around ASSBY.

1 & Plate 5.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. Gujarat Plate 5.2 42 .

Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. Gujarat Fig.1 Comparison of vegetaion in Assby region between 1985 & 1998 43 . 5.

2 Categarisation of the study area for vegetation study. Gujarat Fig 5.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. 44 .

Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.2). Gujarat streams and river banks. the species of Leguminosae family were dominant. Due to the presence of relatively high number of species (403 out of total 433) in general. The fieldwork included identification of plants on the spot and confirmation of identification following Santapau (1962).1). 5. The floral abundance has been rated subjectively as per the modified abundance scale (Pandya and Pathak 1995). were recorded and identified from the four blocks of the study area (Table 5.2. and Bole and Pathak (1988). Table 5. coastal strips etc.78) of cultivated to wild plant species (Table 5. 45 . including 365 dicots and 68 monocots. protected grass lands. orchids. pond and puddle areas. hedges of the crop fields.2 Floral abundance A total of 433 species of wild and cultivated plants.3) indicate more human activities in this block. block IV seems to be more rich in floristic terms. unprotected grazing grounds. Shah (1978). crop fields. road side plantation strips.1 The Flora of Alang-Sosiya Complex and its surrounding Blocks I-Alang-Sosiya II-Mithivirdi III-Gopnath-Saltanpar IV-Bhandaria-Talaja belt Overall Dicotyledons 199 241 276 341 365 Monocotyledons 37 58 57 62 68 Total 236 299 333 403 433 In all the four blocks. followed by Poaceae and Euphorbiaceae (Table 5. Identification in laboratory was accomplished with the help of recorded herbarium sheets and from records of Cook (1901-08) and Bailey (1951). and of family leguminosae and poaceae in particular. comparatively high ratio (0. plantation areas. However.

5.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. Rhynchosia minima. Echinops echinatus. Euphorbia hirta. Eclipta alba. Floral analysis also reveals a fairly high number (109) of exotic species from the area. and occurring at the frequency of 30% and more. aegyptium and Dichanthium annulatum B.1 Common wild and naturalised plants The species in the abundance scale of 3 and more.2. Convolvulus arvensis. are considered here as common plants of the area. Aristida adscensionis. Dactyloctenium 46 . Tridex procumbens. Evolvulus alsinodes. The common species are as follows: A. Families Total Species 72 40 17 15 43 23 18 15 15 12 11 10 9 9 1 Leguminosae sub-families: -Papilionaceae -Caesalpinaceae -Mimosaceae 2 Poaceae 3 Euphorbiaceae 4 Convolvulaceae 5 Malvaceae 6 Asteraceae 7 Solanaceae 8 Cucurbitaceae 9 Amaranthaceae 10 Tiliaceae 11 Acanthaceae Distribution of species Block I Block II Block Block IV III 44 45 57 71 25 10 9 24 12 13 13 10 7 5 6 7 9 25 11 10 39 11 11 13 12 10 5 8 8 8 30 15 13 36 16 10 14 14 10 6 9 7 9 40 16 15 42 22 15 15 15 11 10 10 9 8 A total of 136 species (111 dicots and 25 monocots) were recorded commonly in all the four blocks. Avicennia marina. Trianthema portulacastrum. Borreria stricta. Cyperus rotundus. Goniogyna hirta. Parthenium hysterophorus. Vernonia cinerea. was the only mangrove species observed at the coastal site of blocks II and III.2 Dominant floral families in the four blocks S N. Amaranthus spinosus. Grasses: Apluda mutica. Cynodon dactylon. Pulicaria whitiana. Herbaceous legumes and forbs: Alysicarpus vaginalis (Block III and IV only). Boerhavia diffusa. with poor population density. Gujarat Table 5.2.

) plant species in the four blocks S Plant-habit BlockI BlockII BlockIII N Wild Cult.Undershrub-erect 20 01 21 05 28 05 -scandent 04 02 04 01 04 01 -climber 01 00 00 01 01 01 25 03 25 07 33 07 Subtotal 3 Shrub-erect 10 21 16 26 16 36 -scandent 03 03 04 02 08 00 -climber 09 03 08 01 09 04 22 27 28 29 33 40 Subtotal 4 Trees-small 02 16 03 22 06 27 -medium to large 01 24 01 25 01 28 03 40 04 47 07 45 Subtotal 149 87 189 110 211 122 Total plants species 236 299 333 Total of the block (a) % of the wild species 63% 62% 63% (b) % of the cult. Euphobia nerfolia and Zizyphus nummularia. sepiaria (in hedges only).8% 36. Pupalia lappacea. to wild species 0. Prosopis juliflora and Parthenium hysterophorus are exotic weeds occurring in wide areas of all the four blocks (Plate 5. D. Under-shrubs: Achyranthes aspera. C. Leptadenia reticulata (both in hedges and grounds). Trees: Ailanthus excelsa.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.3 Habitwise distribution of wild and cultivated (cult.58 BlockIV Wild Cult. Wild Cult.58 0. species 36% 36. P. E. Acacia nilotica. 1 Herb-erect 51 14 79 21 87 25 -prostrate 37 01 44 02 41 01 -climber/twinner 11 02 09 04 10 04 99 17 132 27 138 30 Subtotal 2 . juliflora. Capparis decidua. Tephorsia purpurea and Sida spinosa Shrubs: Abutilon glaucum.6% (c) ratio of cult. Salvadora persica.3). Calotropis procera. Prosopis cineraria. Gujarat Table 5. 47 .58 0.78 C. 96 34 46 03 13 05 155 42 30 10 04 01 01 03 35 14 15 40 07 03 08 07 30 50 06 42 01 28 07 70 227 176 403 56% 43.7% 0. Wild Cult.

Ground-nut. A variety of tree/woody species have been observed along the road side strips. For this. 5.M ith iv ird i S esam u m + M u sta rd + G ram + + S u n flo w e r+ C h illy+ + III G o p n a th & S a rtan p a r O n io n + + G arlic + W h e a t+ S esam u m + G ram + + C h illy+ IV B h a n d ariya to T ala ja b e lt O n io n + + G arlic + + W h e a t+ + C h illy+ + + S esam u m + M u sta rd + G ram + + U d ad (R ) M ag(R ) S u n flo w e r+ Rabi crops of the study area.2 Cultivated plant species The distribution of major and minor cultivated crop species in the four study blocks is presented in Table 5. soil types.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.4 Cultivated crops in the Alang-Sosiya complex and its surroundings B lo c k s I -A lan g & S o siya M a jo r-cro p s K h a r if R abi G ro u n d n u t + O n io n + S o rgh u m + G arlic + w h e at+ G ro u n d n u t+ + + P e arlm illet+ + S o rgh u m + M a iz e + G ro u n d n u t+ + P e arlm illet+ + S o rgh u m + + M a iz e + G ro u n d n u t+ + + P e a rl-m ille t+ + S o rg h u m + + M a iz e + O n io n + + G arlic + W h e a t+ M in o r-c ro p s K h a r if R abi G ram + C h illy+ A n n u al crop C o tto n + P ig eo n p ea + B anana+ S u garcan e+ C o tto n + + + P ig eo n pea++ B anana+ + S u garcan e+ C o tto n + + P ig eo n p ea + B anana+ + C asto r seed+ + S u garcan e+ C o t to n + + + P ig e o n p e a + + B anana++ C a s to rs e e d + + + S u g a rc a n e + II . A.2). A. nilotica. tortalis. Psidium guajava. Moringa oleifera. The common species are Acacia leucophloea. Tamarindus indica. Mangifera indica. Prosopis juliflora and Holoptelia integrifolia. The details of topography.3 PHYTOSOCIOLOGY The main objective of this aspect of the study was to evaluate the impact. Delonix elata. if any. Punicum granetum. Cordia sp.extension of N-Control (~ 15 km north of N-ASSBY) 48 .4. an intensive study was undertaken after the monsoon showers of 1997 in four localities along the coastline. Leucaena leucocephala. and at varying distances from ASSBY (Fig. Other species observed as plantation and avenue trees are Albizia lebbeck. The stations are: l l l l S-ASSBY (upto 1 km from last shipbreaking plot on both sides) N-ASSBY (-do-) N-Control (~ 3 km north of N-ASSBY) Ghogha . The important horticultural woody species observed are Cocos nucifera. avenues and gardens. pearlmillet and sorghum are the major Kharif crops and onion and garlic are the Table 5. Gujarat 5. Syzygium cumini and Terminalia cattapa. Azadirachta indica.2. of ASSBY on coastal vegetation with special emphasis on onshore vegetation. 5. Mimosa hamata and Pithecellobium dulce.5.. Sugarcane and banana are also cultivated in areas covered by the Shetrunji irrigation project. land- use pattern and vegetational covers of the four blocks are presented in Table 5. Delonix regia. Cassia siamea.2.

Gujarat Plate 5.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.3 Thickets of Prosopis around ASSBY 49 .

A division of Mc by 2 is done because the common species represent two sets (sites) of values when there density/cover are used. The significance of difference among means were statistically determined using non-parametric tests (KruskalWallis test). 50 . Among the medium to large shrubs. Prosopis julliflora and Zizyphus nummularia) were medium to large size and others were small. marina were found in large number at Ghogha coast. m quadrates were selected randomly by tossing pebbles. Except the first. and Avicennia marina at Ghogha. cases ensured robustness of the results even using non-parametric statistics. This suggests low density.5 Shrubs 5. P. 5. Ghogha and N-Control.e. the Girth at Breast Height (GBH) was also measured.S University of Baroda.1 Sampling The vegetation of the area was studied in two phases at different times.3.2 Data collection A 10m radius circular plot was used to quantify the tree and large shrub species and their seedlings/ saplings.05.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. Ma = sum of density/cover of species unique to site a Mb = sum of density/cover of species unique to site b Mc = sum of density/cover of species common to both sites a and b. Ghogha .3. Acacia leucophloea and Azardiacta indica at N-Control. Small shrubs. This survey helped in finalising the methodology for intensive sampling to determine the phytosociological values and the impacts of ASSBY activities on vegetation. The equation for similarity index is as follows: ISE = Mc/2 X 100 Ma+Mb+Mc/2 Where..the disturbed site. Seedling/sapling of undisturbed site and the influence zone along the road between ASSBY and Bhavnagar. The on-site random sampling was done by walking 50 paces in the direction of the second's hand of the wrist watch. julliflora (Table 5. The large sample size in most of the Six shrub species were recorded in the area (Table 5. Within this 10m radius plot. The specimens were identified at the Botany department of M. but in terms of presence they represent only a single set. N-ASSBY. During the first phase a reconnaissance was conducted in the areas around the ASSBY. distribution of this mangrove species was limited and patchy (Fig.3. A total of 22 plant species were recorded. viz.3).7) three of which (Calotropis.4 Trees Total tree species recorded in all sites were three. i. Individuals of a tree/shrub species were counted in the plot. Similarity indices were calculated following Mueller-Dombois & Ellenberg (1974). others were seedlings/saplings. the maximum frequency was that of P.3. 5.6) and minimum was of Zizyphus nummularia. five 0. Only one individual of A. Stratification was based on the localities and distance from ASSBY. leucophloea was recorded. 5. A stratified random sampling was adopted to study the vegetation. A total of 21 circular plots and 105 quadrates were laid in the four sites at S-ASSBY.3. The minimum probability of accepting the differences in groups means was set at 95% confidence level. 5. P< 0. probability of rejecting the results. and highly restricted distribution of trees in the area. herbs and grass species were recorded and their percentage cover was estimated in these quadrates..3 Data analysis Tree seedling and large shrub density was calculated according to sample stations and their group means were compared.5X0. In case of trees. However.5 sq. Gujarat 5.6 & 5.

Grasses an undulating grass. Grasses.(a) Bhandariya to (b) Talaja belt (a) Plain (a) Cropfields (b)Cropfields Mostly grasses with succulent shrubs. crop-fields horticultural fields III . Gujarat Table 5. P either abse and growth Crop-fields. some muddy area on sea-coast with highly scattered seedlings & saplings of mangroves (a) Mostly Undershrubs & shrubs scattered as small bushes and forbs (b) Muddy shore with scattered mangroves Undulating area interrupted by some plain and low-lying areas Light morrum in undulating area.51 Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. clayey (horticulture) mostly absent except loam those planted Blocks Main-land Land-use V Mostly crop fields. to Crop-fields. rocky Sandy. some lowlying waterlogged areas (b) salty marshes Clayey loam in crop fields.Grassland lying plain sp.Alang & Plain. planted Prosopis chilensis in bushes. grazing in lowlying and waterlogged area Water-log sedges and marshes an dominated bush form thickets II Sandy coast Sandy and Mithivirdi with rocky sand mounts inter-tidal zone Grassland. to sandy silty loam in lowlying & marshy area (a) Plain to (a)Light to (a)Crop-fields Undulating medium black grazing grounds and silty loam (b) mostly (b)medium (b) Crop-fields plain black-clayey Scattered b chilensis. undula grasslands in hilly fodder gra upland and grazing scattered b in undulating area nummular locations. some Plain to Medium Sosya at places sandy loam fruit-gardens scattered shrubs tree undulating black. Z Maytenus some grass .5 Site Characteristics of Alang-Sosiya complex and its surroundings Sea-shore Topography Soil Land-use Vegetation Topography Soil I .scattered s small trees lands with seasonal / perennial climbers & scandent shrubs Crop fields in low. medium black in depression & plain area (a) Plain.(a) Sartanpar (a) Silty loam with deep alluvial dipos at (b)Gopnath (b)Rocky sea places shore (b)sandy silty loam IV .

0 0 0 16.1 47. It was maximum at S-ASSBY and Table 5. juliflora (the largest contributor to the shrub density.6 60.7 Prosopis julliflora 276.6 75.8 to 764.5 16.4) and minimum at N-Control.5 10. degree of freedom = 3.0 24. The overall difference was significant statistically (K-W c2 = 7.0 59. Gujarat julliflora was recorded in each plot at S-ASSBY and its frequency of occurrence was 50% at NASSBY and N-Control.5 Zizyphus nummularia 0 0 26.2 0 0 31. Prosopis julliflora Zizyphus nummularia N-ASSBY (Fig.4 13.3 45. and better at N-Control.8 Species 52 .7) as fuelwood which was supported by focal observations. The relatively higher frequency of this species at S-ASSBY was due to the location of the sampling strip at relatively undisturbed site.3 10. P = 0. The density of medium to large shrubs ranged from 31.5 50. An ocular estimate at Ghogha suggested that the shrub density would be similar to N-Control. The comparatively low shrub density at N-Control was due to cutting down of P.6 4.0 173.7 Absolute density/ha (AD) and Relative density (RD in %) of large shrubs species Shrub Density Shrub Density S-ASSBY N-ASSBY N-Control Average AD RD AD RD AD RD AD RD Calotropis sp.7 40. 79.1 0 0 100. The frequency of occurrence of small shrubs/herbs which had just sprouted up was relatively poor at S-ASSBY and N-ASSBY (Table 5.0 50.0 54.8 10. The strata at both the sides of S-ASSBY-N-ASSBY road was different.78. The site at N-Control was under heavy cutting pressure.8 50.3 individuals (or bunch) per hectare in all the sites. 5.6 20.6 212.05).6 77.1 50.6 20.0 50.6 22.3 85.6 Absolute frequency (AF) and Relative frequency (RF) of large shrubs species Large Shrub Density S-ASSBY N-ASSBY N-Control AD RD AD RD AD RD 83.8).6 71.0 Species Calotropis sp.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. The maximum frequency at which a small shrub/ Table 5. Table 5.

Shrub density at various localities on coast. Hi gh NCont ol r Fig 5.SSBY A S.SSBY A A vg. 800 Shrub Density 600 400 200 0 S.SSBY A N .Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.3 Avicennia maina seedling density at various localities on coast. Hi gh Fig 5. 53 .SSBY A Low A vg. Gujarat 1500 Density/h Low 1000 500 0 Ghogha ( ens on of ext i NCont ol r ) N .4.

06 100 0 0 1.0000) and minimum Table 5.6 Species Boerhavia diffusa Indigofera enneaphylla Tridex procumbens at S-ASSBY and N-ASSBY (Fig. The substrata at S-ASSBY and N-ASSBY are sandy with insignificant humus content.8 0. The increased shrub cover at N-Control could be due to favourable substratum and increased input of organic fertiliser such as. 5. Gujarat herb was recorded was 30% in case of Boerhavia diffusa.8 0 0 10 17.7 Similarity index Similarity index (Mueller-Domboys and Ellenberg.6 Grass Desmostchaya bipinnata was the most dominating Table 5.5). degree of freedom = 3.4 0 0 0 0 2. followed by Cenchrus ciliaris.6). diffusa also dominates (Table 5.8 Absolute frequency (AF) and Relative frequency (RF) of small shrubs species Small Shrub Frequency Small S-ASSBY AC RC 0 0 0 0 6 100 Shrub Frequency N-ASSBY N-Control AC RC AC RC 10 100 30 52. Similar pattern was observed for the percentage of cover provided by small shrubs/herbs where B. 5.0000).9 Absolute cover (AC) and Relative cover (RC) of small shrubs species % Small Shrub Cover % Small Shrub Cover S-ASSBY N-ASSBY N-Control AC RC AC RC AC RC 0 0 0.1 100 6.81.1 20.31. Shrub cover was maximum at N-Control (K-W c2 = 56.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. degree of freedom = 3.10) and cover (Table 5. (Fig.6 0 0 17 29. P = 0. dung. 5.9).11). 54 .3 62. The average grass cover was maximum at NControl and minimum at N-ASSBY (K-W c2 = 28. 5.7 Species Boerhavia diffusa Indigofera enneaphylla Tridex procumbens grass both in terms of frequency (Table 5. P = 0.

5 Percentage of shrub cover at various localities on coast.6 Percentage of grass cover at various localities on coast.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.SSBY A N -A SSBY NContr ol Fig 5.SSB Y A N -Cont rol A vg. Gujarat 30 25 % Shr C over ub Low 20 15 10 5 0 S.SSBY A N . 55 . Hi gh Fig 5. 80 Low % G r C over ass 60 A vg. Hi gh 40 20 0 S.

5 0 0 Species Aleuropus lagopoides Cenchrus ciliaris Commalina nodiflora Cyperus rotundus Desmostachya bipinnata Scirpus asticulatus Unidentified * A.1 30 39.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.93 65.75 4.9 3.96% cover of and relative cover was 100%.25 72.77 21.9 0. It had an absolute 2.6 0 0 12.80 27.0 0 0 7 9. lagopoides was recorded only from Ghogha (extension of N-Control).10 Absolute frequency (AF) and Relative frequency (RF) of grass species % Grass Frequency S-ASSBY N-ASSBY N-Control AF RF AF RF AF RF 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 40 54. Table 5.9 27 38. It had an absolute frequency of 33% and relative frequency was 100.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 9. 56 . lagopoides was recorded only from Ghogha (extension of N-Control).3 0 0 Species Aleuropus lagopoides* Cenchrus ciliaris Commalina nodiflora Cyperus rotundus Desmostachya bipinnata Scirpus asticulatus Unidentified * A.6 0 0 0 0 0 0 27 36.11 Absolute cover (AC) and Relative cover (RC) of grass species % Grass Cover S-ASSBY N-ASSBY N-Control AC RC AC RC AC RC 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.8 22.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.83 78.20 6.4 0 0 40 51.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0. Gujarat Table 5.1 43 61.6 0 0 0.5 2.

Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. On the other hand. no significant impact on on-shore vegetation was observed. the similarity of vegetation between SASSBY and N-ASSBY is almost 17% more than that between S-ASSBY and N-Control. II and III. Block IV represents the rich species zone in the study area.7% N-ASSBY 63% 5. Wild tree species are rich in block III and IV. The anthrogenic factors have not played significant role in altering the composition of vegetation as is evident by the fact that the vegetation of N-ASSBY and N-Control was 63% similar. which increases to 78% in block IV.12 Similarity of vegetation between different sites Sites N-ASSBY N-Control S-ASSBY 69% 51. Although. The cultivated plant species also show a progressive increment from block I towards block IV (Table 5. coupled with the fact that the region is under pressure from other anthropogenic activities. This indicates a progressive pressure on natural vegetation in block I. quantitative studies in different localities indicate that the variation in species composition and abundance does not have any correlation with ASSBY activities. Table 5. is relatively poorer in plant species compared to other blocks. Instead. it is the variation in substratum. II and III. type of shore and activities of villagers that have caused differences in the species composition and abundance at the three sites.12). which includes ASSBY. the difference is not much and is due to the difference in the substratum. Gujarat 1974) shows that the vegetation of S-ASSBY and N-ASSBY was mostly similar (69%) while there was about 50% similarity between the vegetation of S-ASSBY and N-Control (Table 5. The cultivated plant species comprises of 58% of the total plant species in block I.3). ASSBY activities being primarily confined to off-shore and intertidal region.4 CONCLUSION The detail of floristic composition indicates that block I. Herbs are less in block I relative to other blocks. 57 . In short.

whereas in shores having a wide tidal range like gulf of Cambay. salinity. The sediments were mainly clayey in nature with small contents of silt and sand. However. the zones are correspondingly wide and quite distinct vertically. At some places. together with some muddy patches. respectively. M-ASSBY was left out from the study on macrobenthic community. since it was most accessible to humans for study purpose. the intertidal zone is narrow and therefore. the sediment was predominantly clay and silt with frequent layers of well rounded medium to fine grain sand while beyond 800 m towards the sea. hereafter reffered as N-ASSBY. where the tidal range is small. the nature and composition of the fauna and flora of the intertidal zone depend on the nature of the substratum. The availability of organic matter and. the zonation is not very distinct. N-ASSBY The 1-5 km long intertidal platform. insolation and temperature have greater influence on otherwise densely populated biotic communities of the intertidal region. 1-15 and 30-40. representing control sites were selected at the north and south ends of ASSBY near Ghoga-Mithivirdi and Gopnath-Mahuva respectively. M-ASSBY and SASSBY. From the high water line to 800 m. nutrients. N-Control The intertidal area at this location consisted of depositional landforms mainly beach and dune ridge complex. the upper intertidal area was rocky followed by a small stretch extending to the lower intertidal region. Gujarat 6 INTERTIDAL ECOLOGY The intertidal zone or littoral zone is a shore area lying between the extremes of high and low tides. Also. mostly derived from the disintegration of animals and plant materials. nutrients. However. Plot Nos. The study was undertaken in the region between the highest high tide mark and the lowest low tide level (eulittoral zone). it was predominantly clay and silt. sandy or muddy. For sampling the ASSBY area.1 METHODOLOGY To understand the ecology of the intertidal zone. Stephenson (1953) recognised three universal zones for intertidal regions which are as follows: a) b) c) Supra littoral zone (upper intertidal zone) Mid-littoral zone (middle intertidal zone) Infra littoral zone (lower intertidal zone) 6. which marked an erosional feature of wave action was seen as a very gently sloping rocky and sandy plane. and thus represents the transitional area between marine and terrestrial conditions. three transects were selected at the north. whether it is rocky. Further. adequate oxygenation and illumination ensure an abundance of life forms in the intertidal region. Organisms of the intertidal zone are adapted in various ways to transitional environmental conditions.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. middle and south part of ASSBY near Sosiya. The nature of the substratum at the sampling locations were as under: In shores. Zonation is a characteristic feature of the intertidal region. Physio-chemical factors like waves. it has been a constant source of information in better understanding and management of coastal marine environment. hereafter referred as N-Control and S-Control. it is emphasised that this area is truly an extension of marine environment and thus been affected by different physico-chemical-biological factors of marine environment. and Sartanpar. various physio-chemical parameters of water as well as sediments and abundance and diversity in macrobenthic fauna were evaluated. The beach sediment varied from very fine sand to very coarse pebbly gravels in upper intertidal zone interspersed by rocky patches while the lower intertidal area was 58 . which can be divided into certain well designed sub-zones depending on the tide levels. Special attempt has also been made to collect information regarding the oil related micro-organisms. Two transects. A total of five transects were marked for this study.

For rock-associated fauna. Taxa richness and Shannon-Wiener group diversity index were used to estimate diversity of macrobenthic fauna. sorted out. 1980). of which first 200 m was completely rocky. 1 sq. Diversity and Similarity index were estimated as suggested by Magurran (1988). were directly picked up from known area (1 sq. sampling was separately planned for soft (muddy and sandy) and rocky substrata. Shells of molluscs were removed before weighing. counted and preserved separately in small plastic containers (Holme and McIntyne.1. While for soft surface these transects were divided into lower. pi = the proportion of individuals of different species groups. Sediment samples were collected using a quadrate of 0. Four transects namely Ghogha (NControl). Each group of animals were sorted out and adhered water content was removed using blotting papers and finally weighed on an analytical balance. Population counting of macrobenthos was done following methods suggested by UNESCO (1968) and IOBC (1969). In the laboratory. of sq ft sample collected S-Control The upper intertidal platform in this area was rocky with silt and clayey patches in between. The rocks were generally covered with deposition of fine clay and other wastes.25 m2. Among them S-ASSBY and N-ASSBY were presumed as affected sites while N-control and Scontrol were presumed as control locations.1 Sampling The sediment and water samples were collected and analysed following standard methods (APHA. Gujarat predominantly muddy. macrobenthic fauna were sampled from a total 10 stations form these different zones. The lower part of the intertidal area was rocky but covered with fine grain mud.1. ft . For Similarity index Jaccard and Sorenson index were calculated using following formulae: c J = ----------------a+b-c 2c S = --------------a+b a = Total no of taxa at site 1 b = Total no of taxa at site 2 c = No of taxa common to site 1 & 2 59 . In each transect. S-ASSBY 6. muddy and sandy intertidal regions respectively.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. middle and upper intertidal zones. for rocky surface the transects were divided only into upper and lower-intertidal zones.0. 1984). The uppermost intertidal region was sandy with rocky cliffs. Alang (S-ASSBY) and Gopnath (S-control) were selected for this study. Sosiya (N-ASSBY).pi log pi Where.2 cm2) depending upon the species and population of macrofauna. The tidal exposure was about 2 km from the highest high water line. The area above lowest high water line was sandy with very coarse gravel. For Shannon-Wiener Index (H') was calculated using following formula: H' = .5 mm mesh sieve and materials retained on the sieve was preserved in 5% formaldehyde-rosebengal solution. No/m2 = 6. The number of macrobenthic animals present was calculated by using the following formula: No. the samples were screened under a binocular stereo microscope and organisms were identified.2 Data Analysis The intertidal platform had a very gentle seaward slope of rocky muddy and sandy plane. ft and 2 cm2 for rocky. The sediments were sieved through a 0. For macrobenthic study. organisms Biomass of macrobenthic organisms was estimated on fresh weight basis. of animals present in 1 sq ft sample X 11 No.

where the maximum salinity of 33. COD and Oil-PHC were recorded lowest and highest values during the post.8 to 6. While S-Control recorded relatively lower concentration of total-N. and Oil-PHC Wide spatial as well as seasonal variations in concentration of BOD. COD and oil-PHC were recorded during the study (Fig.2 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER 6. DO content also showed a narrow range of variation amongst the transects and seasons (Fig.0 ppt was recorded from S-ASSBY. The range of variation of all species of N in transects at ASSBY are comparable with the transects at control areas. 6.4. 6. NH4-N and NO2-N. pH and Dissolved Oxygen (DO) The salinity at and around the ASSBY showed very little spatial and seasonal variations (Fig. However.1 Salinity. However.5 µg/l) concentration of NO3-N during the winter season (Fig.2. respectively.16 (Fig. The value of these parameters were recorded higher in the transects at ASSBY as compared to the control transects. S-Control recorded lower concentration of PO4 (Fig. The low salinity reflects the semi-estuarine condition of the study area.3 Dissolved phosphorus and nitrogen Phosphorus was determined as PO4. 6. in the NASSBY and M-ASSBY. 6. There was a very little difference in the values of PO4-P within a transect at different seasons. 6. BOD. the N-Control recorded the highest (41. 60 . However.6). NO3-. these values were comparatively lower than the control transects. 6. respectively.3).7 ppt in M-ASSBY during pre-monsoon season.2. 6. However. The seasonal variation in pH was not significant in the study area. 6. Further. during the same season the maximum value of 31. NO2 and total-N. at ASSBY the higher DO content was recorded during the winter season.2).10). at ASSBY pH was comparatively low and high during the premonsoon and post-monsoon seasons. 6. The pH was always in alkaline range at and around ASSBY and varied between 7.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. However.2 BOD. This suggests higher organic load in the littoral zone of ASSBY. However. COD. in S-ASSBY the parameters recorded no such seasonal variation.86 to 8.5 & 6.and pre-monsoon seasons.7) than the other sites. 6. Gujarat 6.1) The salinity in the ASSBY areas showed a minimum value of 29.2. No significant seasonal or spatial variation was recorded in the concentration of various species of nitrogen (Fig.1 ppt was recorded from the S-Control.while Nitrogen was determined as NH4+.11).

5 7 . 9 7.0 29 . 2 5 .A S S B Y S -A S S B Y S -Co nt rol Fig 6.7 5 . 2 8 . 3 5. 3 8.0 8 .9 7.4 5 . Gujarat 37 .0 27 .9 8.1 5 . 8.9 P o s t-m on s oo n W in ter 3 2.0 8 .m on so o n 8.3 5.0 P re -m o ns oo n 8. 0 7. 3 W i nte r 8.2 S -A S S B Y 30 .0 8.1 Salinity variation of water in intertidal zone. 4 M -A S S B Y 29 . 1 8 . 8 3 0.1 7 .8 6.3 30 .4 5.5 N-Co n tro l N-A S S B Y M -A S S B Y S -A S S B Y S -Co n tro l Fig 6.0 3 0 . 5 P o st.0 N-Co nt rol N-A S S B Y 31 .9 P r e-m o ns o on 3 1 .0 p pt 31 .0 25 . 6.1 5.8 3 0.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.9 5 .5 5.2 pH variation of water in intertidal zone.0 3 1.7 3 0.6 33 .1 5 .9 7 .9 . 8 7.1 2 9. 7 3 0 .7 7 .0 33 .2 7 .0 4. 0 3 0 .0 P r e-m o ns o on 5.3 DO variation of water in intertidal zone 61 5 .3 5.2 5 . 5 N-Co n tro l N -A S S B Y M.6 S -C on tro l Fig 6.5 m g/ l 5 .0 35 .5 P o s t-m on s oo n W in ter 5.

Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.3 5.1 5. 3 M-A S S B Y S -AS S B Y S -C on trol Fig 6. 1 7.0 N-C on trol N-AS SB Y M-AS S B Y S -AS SB Y 2.4 BOD variation of water in intertidal zone 56 .0 5.0 1 4.7 1 0. 3 40 21 . 0 8 3.0 2 3. 2 2 0.2 4.7 3.9 P o st-m on so on W inte r P re -m o ns oon 8 . Gujarat 3 0.0 m g /l 1 5.1 Fig 6.3 40 20 0 N -Co ntr ol N-A S S B Y M -ASSBY S -A S S B Y S -Co n tro l 29 .5 COD variation of water in intertidal zone 12 0 9 8.6 Oil-PHC variation of water in intertidal zone 3 .2 1 0.0 5.0 2 0. 2 S -C o ntro l Fig 6.0 5 .9 9 .9 1 8.8 W in te r P r e-m o n so on 1 1 .0 0.3 19 .4 17 .0 P o s t-m o ns oo n 72 .7 2 5.4 62 .0 1 0.8 60 50 m g /l 27.2 1 6.6 10 0 80 m g/ l 60 30 .1 30 20 10 0 N-C ont rol N-AS S B Y 15 .4 P ost -Mons oo n W int er P re-m ons oo n 23.9 2 6.

4 1 0.3 P re -m o ns o on 12 .7 PO4-P variation of water in intertidal zone 30 2 2 . 2 5. 6 1 3.0 1 6.5 1 1 .5 1 4 .4 P r e-m o n so on 1 6.0 11 .4 25 1 9.6 11 . 4 8.A S S B Y M -ASSBY S -A S S B Y S .0 10 9 .2 15 .4 9 .0 1 9.2 20 m g/ l 15 10 5 0 N-C on tro l N -A S S B Y M -A S S B Y S -A S S B Y 22 .7 11 .0 P re.6 W in te r 8.Con tro l Fig 6.8 1 5.9 1 7. 2 1 7 .9 NH4-N variation of water in intertidal zone 63 5 .6 5 0 N-Co nt rol N. 8 1 3.8 Total N variation of water in intertidal zone 50 P os t-m o ns o on 40 30 µ g /l 17 .A S S B Y M -A S S B Y S -A S S B Y S -C on tro l Fig 6.9 S . 8 8.8 19 .Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.m on so o n 1 1.4 P o st -m on s oo n W i nt er 16 .4 0 N-Co n tro l N.5 .5 1 6. 1 15 .3 1 7.3 m g/ l 1 0.4 1 4. 7 20 9.1 20 1 5 . Gujarat 25 1 8.0 9 .1 P o s t-m o ns oo n W in te r 1 7 .5 1 2.7 15 10 1 2. 1 16 .1 1 . 3 4.Co ntr ol Fig 6.

8 20 P ost -m o nso on W int er P re-m ons oo n 8. 4 12 .7 1 3.9 1 3 . Gujarat 50 41 . 0 14 .8 64 .1 1 3 .5 1 3.9 1 9.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. 8 10 0 N -Co ntr ol N.Co ntr ol Fig 6. 9 8 . 9 20 10 0 N-C on trol N-AS S B Y M-A S S B Y S -AS S B Y 13 .5 S -C on trol Fig 6. 1 19 .2 16 .5 1 2.5 7 .1 12 .5 30 µ g/l 19 .0 7.1 1 1.5 P o st.m on so o n W i nte r P re -m o ns oo n 40 24 .3 1 2.4 12 .8 1 2.3 18 . 4 1 2.4 14.A S S B Y M -A S S B Y S-ASSBY S .9 11.6 1 7.10 NO3-N variation of water in intertidal zone 50 40 30 µg /l 1 4.11 NO2-N variation of water in intertidal zone 4.

The oil-PHC content varies from 10 to 450 mg/kg in the sediments of ASSBY.e. especially when comparison were made of N-ASSBY with N-Control and SASSBY with S-Control. middle and upper intertidal zones recorded significant variations. variation amongst the four transects (Fig. 16 to 46 µg/kg at S-Control and 18 µg/kg at NControl. 6. N-ASSBY and SASSBY) were recorded significantly lower than the control transects.. possibly due to the direct disturbances caused by ship breaking activities. were separately evaluated for soft and rocky substrates in each transects. The phosphorus concentration at different transects have also followed the similar trend as of nitrogen. upper.3.4. population.72 to 8. only the lower intertidal zones recorded near equal population density of macrobenthos and. between 53 and 113 µg/kg at N-ASSBY. under the similar mode of comparison (i. 14 to 134 mg/kg at S-Control.1 Macrobenthos on soft substrates 6.2 pH and oil-PHC The pH of sediment was alkaline in the study area and varies from 7. while it was below detectable level at the control points. Further.4 MACROBENTHIC COMMUNITY For the clarity and better understanding. 6. e. especially in the upper and middle intertidal zones of ASSBY areas.3. Total as well as average population densities in both the ASSBY transects (viz. These variations thus highlight very patchy presence of suitable habitats for macrobenthic population. 128 to 568 mg/kg at N-ASSBY. the data on macrobenthos were also analysed and presented for three intertidal zones viz.g.3. middle and lower intertidal zones. N-ASSBY with N-Control and S-ASSBY with S-Control).4. Phosphorus varies in concentration between 35 and 188 µg/kg at SASSBY. Gujarat 6.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. Suitable comparisons were made wherever possible for each study parameters.1. 6. Furthermore.1 Population Total macrobenthic population showed a wide 65 .1 Particulate nitrogen and phosphorus The sediments in and around ASSBY have recorded high nitrogen content. Total-N was ranging between 188 to 438 mg/kg at S-ASSBY. species composition.3 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SEDIMENTS 6. biomass and diversity. 12 mg/kg at Mahuva and 10 mg/kg at N-Control. the data on macrobenthic community. 6.12).

1). Results also highlight that there was no stratification of species group in three different intertidal zones. crustaceans were recorded in comparatively higher number in S-Control transect./m2) in low-intertidal zone (Table 6. Gujarat Fig 6. dominated the population in N-Control and S-ASSBY transects (Table 6.1). 32000 24000 No/sq m 16000 8327 8000 7026 0 N-Control N-ASSBY 3201 2629 5764 S-ASSBY Upper Inter tidal Middle Intertdal Low er Intertidal 14186 1071 616 1452 1202 8103 1273 S-Control The next step of analysis of macrobenthic population reflects that while molluscans. 66 . However.12 Population of macrobenthic community. polychaetes dominated in N-ASSBY and S-Control transects. This again suggested very patchy distribution of even different species group./m2) and lowest (1601 No. except that the population of Gastropod velligers in N-Control transect recorded maximum number in upper intertidal zone (11752 No.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. and particularly Gastropod velligers.

Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.1 Average Intertidal macrobenthic population (no/sq m) for self abstracts. Gujarat Table 6. Groups Crustaceans Amphipods Isopods Crab Hermit crab Prawn (small) Insect Decapods Barnacles Molluscans Gastropod velliger Bivalve Onchidium Oyster Chitons Fish small Polychaetes Nematodes Others Cumaceans Copepods Pycnogonida Cerithrids Calliostoma sp Total N-Control N-ASSBY S-ASSBY S-Control UIT MIT LIT UIT MIT LIT UIT MIT LIT UIT MIT LIT 44 4 136 18 18 18 7 7 3 8 6 25 29 59 62 235 224 15 3 11 15 74 14 11 11 37 3 41 825 36 275 198 51 4 15 7 136 132 7 14 6 26 58 6 231 168 11753 7187 1601 15 1247 4 26 495 114 18 4 - 37 17 4 220 4 7 22 1837 1027 5343 3047 2171 5673 209 3 14206 8327 7026 150 458 - 73 127 18 194 6992 756 11 26 51 - 40 14 3 4 3 4 6 367 598 6 172 22 91 616 1452 1202 1096 8103 1273 67 .

mainly the pollution. The two control transects (N-Control and SControl) recorded the lowest similarity by both 68 . However.13). 6. were measured using presence/ absence data of macrobenthos. The two northern most transects (N-Control and N-ASSBY).44) indices (Table 6. suggested the high level of human related interferences. it was important to understand the level of similarity amongst the four transects. however.4 g/m2) was recorded from the middle intertidal zone of S-ASSBY transect.4.1.67) indices. Amongst the three intertidal zones across the four transects. The variation in biomass.1. 6. in the area. Jaccard and Sorenson. the lowest biomass (3. the biomass of macrobenthic communities also recorded a wide variation amongst the four transects (Fig 6.2 Biomass Like the population density. seems to be controlled by the different proportion of species groups present in the transects and different intertidal zones (Fig.14). no clear pattern of biomass was recorded in three different intertidal zones (Fig. However. Two indices. Jaccard (0. Taxa richness was recorded maximum in S-Control and minimum in N-ASSBY transects (Fig. there was no clear pattern in taxa richness in three intertidal zones.13). The total and average biomass in the control transects were recorded significantly higher than the two transects in ASSBY areas.15). in terms of their macrobenthic communities.16).Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. Gujarat 6.3 Diversity The diversity in macrobenthic fauna was estimated in terms of richness of taxa and Shannon-Wiener diversity index of macrobenthic groups.9 gm/m2) was recorded from the lower intertidal zone of N-Control transect.2). However.27) and Sorenson (0. While it was recorded that there was no significant variation in term of diversity. While the highest biomass (151.4. in general the diversity was recorded very low in all the transects and thei respective intertidal zones.2). N-Control also recorded high level of similarity with S-ASSBY (Table 6. Comparatively low taxa richness and group diversity in the ASSBY area than the control ones.50) and Sorenson (0. recorded the highest similarity in macrobenthic fauna as indicated by both Jaccard (0. the highest taxa richness (11) was recorded in the upper intertidal zone of S-Control transect and lowest (3) was recorded from the middle zone of N-ASSBY transect. in this particular case. Maximum diversity (ShannonWiener index) was also recorded the in S-Control transect and minimum in N-ASSBY transect (Fig 6. 6. 6.

4 1 6 .1 S -A S S B Y S -Co n tro l 3 8.7 Up pe r Inte r t id al M id dl e Int ert da l 90 . 1 40 00 1 20 00 1 00 00 no /s q m 80 00 60 00 40 00 20 00 0 N -C o ntro l 1 200 0 Midd le Ine r-tid al 1 000 0 800 0 600 0 400 0 200 0 0 N -C o ntro l 1 20 00 1 00 00 80 00 no /s q m 60 00 40 00 20 00 0 N -C on trol N -AS S B Y S -A S S B Y S -C o ntro l Lo w e r In ter-t ida l N -AS S B Y S -AS S B Y S -C o ntro l N -AS S B Y S -AS S B Y S -C o ntro l C ru s ta c e an s Mo llus c an s P oly c h ae tes oth ers U ppe r In ter-t ida l Fig 6. 69 no /s q m .A S S B Y 4 .4 8 .5 Lo we r Inte rti da l 79 .13 Biomass of macrobenthic community.9 5 . 7 Fig 6.14 Species groups in different intertidal zones with different proportions.3 3 .Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. 8 1 50 1 00 15 1.9 10 . Gujarat 3 00 2 50 2 00 g m /s q m 2 5.1 1 8 . 9 50 0 N-Co nt rol N.

16 Diversity (Shannon-Wiener index) of macrobenthic community 0 .6 0 .4 1 .1 S -A S S B Y S -C on tro l Fig 6. Gujarat 12 10 8 8 S 6 4 2 0 N-C on tro l 9 9 Up pe r Inte rti da l M id dl e Int ert id al Lo we r Inte rti da l 9 8 8 11 9 10 5 4 3 N-A S S B Y S -A S S B Y S -Co nt ro l Fig 6.2 N.6 1 . 3 L ow er In ter tid a l 1.6 1.6 0.2 1 . 8 2 .6 0 .2 0 .Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.9 0 . 6 0 .15 Taxa richness of macrobenthic community Up p er In ter tid a l M id d le In te rti da l 1 .5 0.8 1 .4 0 .0 N-Co n tro l H 0.6 0 .8 0 .0 70 . 9 0.A S S B Y 0 .0 0.

2 Macrobenthos on rocky substrates Of all the intertidal areas of the world. of which 11 were exclusive to this transect.17). Therefore.48 S-ASSBY 0.2 Similarity index of macrobenthos in soft substratum Stations N-Control N-ASSBY S-ASSBY S-Control N-Control 0. While in the N-Control transect only upper intertidal zone could be delineated.17 Total number of species in the intertidal zone 71 .2.33 0. 6. these densely populated.3).67 0.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.3).47 0. species rich and topographically diverse (microtopography) areas were separately examined in detail. Of these species.27 0. in the remaining three transects both upper and lower intertidal zones were delineated for sampling. those composed of hard material. keeping this in view. Gujarat Table 6. of which the maximum number of species (14) were represented by group Gastropoda (Table 6.50 0. there was no significant variation in the number of species in the upper and lower intertidal zones (Fig. 6. Cerithium scabridum. Balanus amphitrite was recorded in abundance in all the transects.4. 18 Number of species Upper intertidal 12 Lower intertidal 9 6 6 5 5 3 16 16 0 N-Control N-ASSBY S-ASSBY S-Control Fig 6. However. Calliostoma scobinatum and Balanus amphitrite.31 0.50 0. were recorded from all the four transects (Table 6. across the transects. While in comparison rest of the three transects recorded only 7-9 species with an unidentified species of each of Potamides and Balanus recorded exclusively in the N-Control and S-ASSBY transects. the rocky shores.1 Population A total of 23 species were recorded from all the four transects.48 S-Control 0.32 Sorenson index Jacard index 6. are the most densely inhabited by macro-organisms and record higher diversity than the soft muddy and sandy shore types. Four species viz. however.44 N-ASSBY 0. Transect at S-Control recorded 20 species.4. Cerithium morus.64 0. respectively.

18). Drupa subnodulosa Planaxis acutus Potamides sp. Barnacle recorded higher density in all the transects with the maximum value (42218 No. 6./ m2) than S-ASSBY (10308 No. Amphineura Ischnochiton comptus Pulmonata Onchidium verruculatum Cephalopoda Octopus honkongensis Porifera Sponge Annelida Tubular polychaetes C R -C --------R R -A -C ------------------------------C --C -------R ---A --R -----C R -C ---R --R R R --A --R -----C R -C -----------A --R ------R ------------A R ------A C -A C --C R R R C ---A -A -C C R R A A C A A C R R R -R R ----A -A R C C --A 72 . Cirripedes Balanus amphitrite Balanus sp. Donax sp.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. Furthermore./m2) and minimum in N-Control (14392 No. Record of higher species richness and population density in S-Control transect and the low population density and species richness in S-ASSBY indicate that the latter has highly disturbed shoreline. Gujarat The total population density was recorded maximum in S-Control (96392 No. Amongst the species groups. N-ASSBY recorded higher density (34494 No. only in the N-ASSBY and S-Control transects./m2) in the lower intertidal zone of S-Control transect (Table 6. 6. lower intertidal zones recorded higher population density than upper intertidal zones (Fig. Oysters were also recorded in high density in SControl transect. Table 6.18)./m2) transects (Fig./m2).4).3 Species abundance of rocky intertidal macrofauna at sampling sites NN-ASSBY S-ASSBY S-Control Control UI LI UI LI UI LI UI LI Gastropoda Cerithium scabridum Cerithium morus Astrea semicostalis Calliostoma scobinatum Clavatula Virginia Clavus Preclara Nassarius ornatus Cantharus spiralis Diodora ticaonica Haminoae galba Trochus sp. Amongst the two ASSBY transects. Pelecypoda Crassostrae sp.

Reason for this could be the direct human 73 . seems to be controlled by the proportional composition of species.4 Population of macrobenthos in intertidal zone with rocky substratum Group N-Control UIT LIT N-ASSBY UIT LIT S-ASSBY UIT LIT S-Control UIT LIT Crustaceans Barnacle 14167 Polychaetes Molluscans Oyster 64 Drupa Chiton Octopus Calliostroma 51 Cerithids 110 - 11500 22917 6071 4167 21875 42218 293 13 4 9 18 18 15 9 20 28 7 9688 20500 13 1 6 473 66 616 452 6. Biomass of macrobenthic fauna of rocky surfaces recorded the maximum value of 451. data vaguely reveals that the lower intertidal zones recorded higher biomass than the upper intertidal zone. However. 6. S-ASSBY recorded the minimum biomass.2./sq m Low er Intertidal 32948 11526 25000 32948 14392 0 N-Control N-ASSBY S-ASSBY S-Control 6128 11526 50000 63445 Fig 6.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.19). Biomass distribution in different transects and their respective upper or lower intertidal zones.18 Population macrobenthic community on rocky substrate Table 6.2 Biomass disturbances like pollution in the upper intertidal zones.4. Gujarat 100000 Upper Inter tidal 75000 No.5 g/m2 from upper intertidal zone of S-Control transect (Fig. However.

32 0. Table 6. respectively.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.4. the two control transects recorded very low level of similarity as indicated by the two indices (0.55 N-Control 0.25 S-Control Sorenson index Jacard index S-Control 0. inter.18 0. 600 gm/sq m 400 200 24.36 0.40 74 .19 Biomass macrobenthic community on rocky substrate 6. the N-ASSBY and S-ASSBY had very high level of similarity (0. Gujarat 800 Upper Inter tidal Low er Intertidal 336.5 upp.0 6.5 Similarity index of macrobenthos in rocky substratum Stations N-Control N-ASSBY S-ASSBY 0.5 0 N-Control N-ASSBY S-ASSBY S-Control Fig 6. 9.6 upp.71 N-ASSBY 0. respectively).53 0.48 0.9 451. inter.38 0.18 and 0.31. Table 6.56 and 0.5).3 Diversity Jaccard's and Sorenson's similarity indices reveal that in terms of macrobenthic composition of rocky substratum.31 336.0 9.56 S-ASSBY 0. Similarly.

6. the result indicates their high availability in the area. 75 .20). the research is focused on the estimation of total number of micro-organisms and relative predominance of different physiological types. 6. 6.5. especially from the S-ASSBY (Table 6. There was a qualitative variation in the number of bacteria that could tolerate different level of salinity. The result highlights that the number of chintinolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were significantly high in the soil samples from the two ASSBY sites. in S-ASSBY. the result indicate that the bacteria present were halotolerant. Standard techniques were used in culturing and counting the bacteria (APHA. This component focuses mainly on the microbial population in the intertidal regions vis-à-vis the oil related pollution in the ASSBY area.2 Total Number of Bacteria Since the soil samples were collected from the intertidal zone.1 Methodology The soil samples from two different sites at ASSBY (M-ASSBYand S-ASSBY) were collected in a sterile bottle. 3.4% NaCl was considered as sea water salinity.21). it was essential to find out the bacterial population under different salinity levels.3 Physiological types The relative abundance of bacteria capable of degrading agar.5. approximately 50 km away from the ASSBY. 1989). For control. Gujarat 6. Three different concentration of NaCl were checked for its effect on the growth of bacteria in nutrient agar (NA) medium (Fig. Especially. This indicates that certain pollutants might suppress the growth of certain bacteria and deserves further research.6). Almost equal number of bacterial cells in all the three samples of 3% NaCl treatment indicate that the total microbial load was not affected by the ship breaking activity. possibly through different types of pollutants. Further analysis revealed that the bacteria count go significantly high under the treatment of unpolluted artificial sea water as compared with the treatment of polluted water collected near the ASSBY area (Fig.5. 6. Since both these enzyme systems are inducible. Considering the complexity of the system.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. Study also attempts to identify the oil degradation potential of bacteria of the ASSBY area.5 MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES 6. chitin and cellulose was estimated. The bacteria were cultured in various suitable mediums with some known treatments. soil samples were collected from the old Bhavnagar port at Mathavad.

of cells x (107 c ells/m l) 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Control M-Alang S-Alang 4 7 6 4 5 8 8 Nut.4 0. 5 0 . typh i 3.4 9 28 15 13 4 S . agar + artific ial sea water Zobell m arine agar 18 17 Fig 6.21 Viable count of the Bacteria in Unpolluted sea water 76 .5 0 E .20 Viable count of bacteria on different media 30 S eaw a ter % n il a t 5 0% (x1 01 1 c ells/ m l) 20 a t 8 0% a t 9 0% 11 10 6 4 1 . Gujarat Nut. agar + sea water 20 18 No. dyse nt ry Fig 6.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.c oli S .

a little less degradability was recorded by gravimetric analysis. suggested that though the total number of bacteria present at all the sites were relatively constant (Fig. Gujarat Table 6.0.5% (w/v) chitin and 0. 1.5. Keeping this in view. This result. 80 % degradation 60 40 20 0 Control M-ASSBY 31.4 Oil related microbes One of the major pollutants at the ASSBY sites is petroleum hydrocarbon. The biological effects of oil in the marine environment is well studied.e. as representative.6 76. Consortium of microorganisms from soil samples collected at S-ASSBY and M-ASSBY showed the 50% and 76% degradability of BHC. While during the ship breaking activity various types of petroleum hydrocarbons are released and mixed with each other. 6. MgSO4 . 22 BHC Oil degradation by consortium of microorganisms 77 . Composition of Basal Medium (g/100 ml) : Peptone. K2 HPO4 .22). the degradability of the hydrocarbon by microbial activity was analysed by gas chromatography (Hanson et al.74 31.6 Enumeration of bacteria of different physiological types from the soil samples near Alang Sample. therefore.21). 1994) and gravimetric methods.7H2 O.20 and 6. Viable Count of Organism (X 10 6 cells/g) Site Agarolytic Chitinolytic Cellulolytic M-ASSBY 0. 0.5% (w/v) cellulose was used as the sole carbon source in the basal medium.3 36 Control 2 3 7 3% (w/v) agar.67 56. respectively. 6. 6.1. KH2 PO4 . These values were significantly high as compared to the control sample.1. In this study. 0. when analysed by gas chromatography (Fig. 0. i. the number of oil degrading bacteria seems to be very high in the polluted ASSBY area. their degradability by microbial actions is very difficult to ascertain.7 18.1. 0. 0.4 22 S-ASSBY 0. oils.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.5% Bombay high crude (BHC) oil was used to test the microbial potential. 0.3 48..1 65 S-ASSBY Gravimetric Gas Chrometography Fig 6.05. NaCl. However.64 1.

the most dominating bacteria was tentatively identified to belong to genus Pseudomonas (Table 6. It is likely that increased amount of heavy metals in M-ASSBY may be acting as inhibitors for these specialised microbes. On the basis of colony morphology and biochemical assay.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. The sediments in the intertidal zone reveal some heavy metals. it was of interest to isolate and characterise the predominant bacteria from the soil samples of ASSBY area. It is interesting to note that hydrocarbon degrading microbes have been isolated mainly from S-ASSBY where shipbreaking activity is recent compared to M-ASSBY.7 Identification of isolate 2 from the soil sediment of M-ASSBY Size 2 mm Shape Colour Margin Elevation Opacity Consistency Round Green Uniform Slightly Transluscent Mucoid raised Results Pseudomonas Isolate 2 Gram’s Staining Gram Negative Gram Negative Reaction Medium to small rods Thin rods Cell Morphology Motile Motile Hanging drop motility Negative Negative Indole test Positive Positive Citrate utilisation Positive/Negative Positive Nitrate reduction Positive Positive Gelatin liquefaction Positive Positive Catalase test Strongly Positive Strongly Positive Oxidase Test Positive/Negative Positive Growth in Anaerobic Jar Sugar fragmentation Glucose Negative Negative Lactose Negative Negative Sucrose Negative Negative Maltose Negative Negative Xylose Negative Negative Maltose Negative Negative 6.6 CONCLUSION increased concentrations of nutrients. Biochemical test 78 . However.7). non-biodegradable kind (as revealed by increased COD) and oil-PHC. While the nutrient enrichment may be due to the break down of organic matter present in water. Table 6. significant spatio-temporal variations in parameters suggest sporadic loading and rapid systemic assimilation. oil-PHC and The degradation in the water quality of the intertidal zone is related to enrichment of the organic matter of all kinds: the biodegradable kind (as shown by increased BOD). A number of pathogenic microbes have also been isolated which are probably related to the continuous input of degradable organic matter into this system. The macrobenthic population in ASSBY region was impoverished in terms of taxa richness. Gujarat Further. oil-PHC and heavy metals occur as a result of direct input from shipbreaking activities.

particularly in the upper and middle intertidal zones. were worst affected in this regard. Macrobenthic communities were similar in NASSBY and S-ASSBY but were different from the control sites. the damage is presently contained by the assimilative capacity of the system and therefore calls for immediate and appropriate corrective actions. The molluscan populations. 79 .Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. Regular study and monitoring of the system is required on a priority basis to prevent further degradation and provide for mid-course corrections. Gujarat diversity and biomass. However. be concluded that distinct changes are taking place in the ecological set-up of the intertidal region due to disturbance caused by human activities. therefore. It may.

3 km and 5 km at each of these transects. However. input of brine. Each round of sampling was completed in a single day covering one flood and one ebb tide. N-Control: N-ASSBY: M-ASSBY: S-ASSBY: S-Control: about 5 km north of ASSBY northern end of ASSBY zone of maximum breakage at the middle of ASSBY southern end of ASSBY about 5 km south of ASSBY However. The conditions created are those characteristic of large. well mixed estuaries which export large quantities of detritus to the nearby open seas and converting these to fertile and productive regions. km today. Some of the major factors that have probably caused this shift are reduced discharge of freshwater from rivers draining into the gulf.1 METHODOLOGY 7. sediment nature (Islam 1984). Information on the ecological aspects of this region is sporadic and fragmentary. Rao and Parulekar 1985). Satellite imageries reveal increasing silt deposition in the mouth of various rivers draining into the Gulf and shift of mudbanks and shoals towards inland. Later studies have mostly focused on specific parameters such as water quality (Zingde et al. available time frame and logistic factors. it becomes evident that the ecological features of this region have witnessed significant changes over the past few decades. it is perhaps the most important support system for sustaining the high fish production in south Saurashtra coast.1 Sampling strategy Three rounds of comprehensive sampling during October '96 (post-monsoon).Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. Although the extent of nutrient transport from the Gulf of Khambhat to the open ocean is yet to be studied. 7. therefore. Gujarat 7 OFFSHORE HYDROBIOLOGICAL FEATURES As mentioned earlier. Since there was no significant variation in most of the parameters with depth. The biological productivity in this zone is lower. shifts in equilibrium between evaporation and precipitation rates and global climate change. sampling was not done in the control sites during the post-monsoon period. Whatever may be the cause. 80 . II. Satyanarayana et al. Sampling was done along five transects: I. absence of any vertical stratification and large suspended sediment load. A recent study on the spread of salinity around the Gulf of Khambhat (GEC 1997) reveals a drastic reduction of mangrove cover from over 350 sq km in 1960s to less than 10 sq. zooplankton (Nair et al. it is well established that the Gulf of Khambhat is a system with high energy regimes which manifests in very strong tidal currents. The average salinity of the Gulf waters has increased significantly and even a slight increase in the average water temperature has been reported. the sub-tidal region off the shore of ASSBY is a highly dynamic system with very high tidal amplitudes and strong currents. V. primarily due to high turbidity and lower penetration of sunlight. December '96 (winter) and April '97 (pre-monsoon) were undertaken keeping in view the overall objectives. such dramatic shifts in salinity and hydrologic and energy regimes induce large-scale changes to the Gulf and its associated ecosystems. in the context of this highly dynamic and rapidly changing ecological scenario. 1980. 1981. Even by analysing the meagre scientific data available. (1971) provide a preliminary account of certain hydrobiological features of the Gulf of Khambhat. The present attempt at identifying the nature and extent of impact of ASSBY on the nearby offshore zone is. 1981 and 1985). Samples were collected from both the surface and bottom layers. Rapid industrialisation and changes in the quality of freshwater inputs in recent years are some other causes needing a thinking. Three sampling points were located at distances of 1 km.1. III. Fishing and other commercial activity is less in this region which perhaps explains the scant attention it has received from the scientific community so far. 1981) and macroinvertebrates (Varshney et al. IV.

The filtered seawater sample is passed through a column packed with amalgamated cadmium to reduce the entire nitrate present in the sample to nitrite. Oil-PHC: Ten litres of seawater sample was collected in a narrow mouth amber bottle (Plate 7. The values are expressed as mg/l. Ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) was determined using the Indo-phenol blue method. The absorption was measured using a Spectrophotometer at 882 nm and the values expressed as mg/l. Salinity and Chloride Content: A suitable volume of sample was titrated against silver nitrate (20 g/l) with potassium chromate as indicator. The values are expressed as mg/l. covering one tidal cycle during the post monsoon condition. was calculated by using Knudsen's Tables. Suspended Solids: 500 ml of water was filtered on preweighed millipore filter paper (Whatman GF type) having pore size of 0. surface and bottom data was pooled in most cases for each of the sampling stations. j) Nitrogen and phosphorus: Nitrite-nitrogen (NO2-N) in the sample was allowed to react with sulphanilamide in acid solution. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) was determined by cadmium reduction method. The instrument was calibrated with standard buffer just before use. The resulting diazo compound was reacted with NC l-napthylene diamine to form a highly coloured azodye which was measured colorimetrically using a Spectrophotometer at 543 nm. The sample was filled in a BOD bottle in the field and was incubated in laboratory for 5 days at 20º C after which oxygen content was determined.1. transferred to clean polyethylene bottles and transported to a shore-based laboratory under appropriate conditions. These were oven-dried (at 60°C). DO and BOD: Dissolved oxygen (DO) was determined by the Winkler's method. The amount of nitrite originally present in the sample was subtracted from the total amount of nitrite to obtain the concentration in the sample. a) Current: The surface and near bottom current at ten stations was measured by using Roter currentmeter. g) b) h) c) i) d) e) k) 81 . The results are expressed as mg/ l. Ammonium compounds in water give blue colour of endophenol when reacted with phenol in presence of hydrochlorite. stored in a desiccator and reweighed on digital balance. expressed as parts per thousand (ppt).2) from a depth of 1m at each of the sampling stations. The salinity. Gujarat probably due to the shallow depth and mixing pattern. f) 7. The absorption of this colour was measured at 630 nm using a Spectrophotometer and the results expressed as mg/l. A Van Veen type grab sampler (Plate 7. which is then estimated by the azodye method.1) was used for collecting the benthos while suitable nets were used for sampling the plankton. The values are expressed as mg/l. This was then analysed in the laboratory using standard methods. Acidified molybdate reagent was added to the sample to yield a phosphomolybdate complex which was then reduced with ascorbic acid to a highly coloured blue compound.45 micron.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. Direct unseeded method was employed in the determination of Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD).2 Field and laboratory techniques Water samples were collected using Niskin sampler. Phytoplankton pigments: For the estimation of phytoplankton pigments. Inorganic phosphate (PO4-P) was determined by the ascorbic acid method. pH and temperature : pH was measured immediately after the collection of sample with a portable pH meter.

Benthos: Sediment samples were collected by using a Van veen type grab of 0. The sediment was sieved through 0.3 mm and mouth area 0.04 m2 area.7 ppt).2. l) Zooplankton: Oblique hauls were made using a Heron Trantor net (Plate 7.1). Salinity was lower during the post-monsoon (27 . pH and salinity During the study period. Biomass was found out by displacement method.2 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL FEATURES 7.9ºC during postmonsoon. Gujarat surface samples were collected. mesh size 0. 82 .3 .4ºC during winter to a maximum of 31. The pH was alkaline. There was no significant spatial variation in the levels of salinity (Table 7.5 mm mesh sieve and animals retained were stained with Rosebengal and preserved in 5% buffered formaldehyde solution.8 ppt) and higher during the pre-monsoon (33.1 Temperature. water temperature off the coast of ASSBY varied from a minimum of 23.2 (Table 7. and phaeophytin were estimated by extraction of pigment in 90% acetone following standard procedures.25 m2).3). varying between 7.2). All collections were of 5 minute duration.28. A slightly smaller range of variation in temperature was observed at 5 km off the shore of ASSBY (Table 7.3. Chlorophyll a.9 and 8.33. both recorded close to the shore (1 km). m) 7.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.

2 Narrow mouth sampling bottle for oil Plate 7.3 Heron Tantor net for zooplankton sampling 83 . Gujarat Plate 7.1 Van Veen type grab sampler Plate 7.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.

5 25 24.95 Winter 7.3 Salinity (ppt) variation in offshore water Distance Season N-Control N-ASSBY M-ASSBY S-ASSBY S-Control 1 km Postmonsoon 27.2 not available 84 .3 30.4 Winter 24.9 27.9 31.9 24.05 Premonsoon 8.7 Winter 24.4 Winter 30.7 30.3 24.2 25.95 8 8 8 8 Premonsoon 8 8.4 30.5 33.5 .1 Temperature.8 Premonsoon 33.05 8.95 7.05 8 8.3 28.4 33.5 33.3 33.8 Winter 30.6 33.95 8.15 8.5 23.4 28.65 5 km Postmonsoon 27.3 30.7 33.05 8.3 28.6 27 28.9 Premonsoon 27. (ºC) variation of offshore water Distance Season N-Control N-ASSBY M-ASSBY S-ASSBY S-Control 1 km Postmonsoon 31.5 26.6 28.4 30.6 Premonsoon 33.7 30.05 8.7 31 Premonsoon 33.6 28.4 5 km Postmonsoon 31 30.5 33.1 Premonsoon 28.05 Premonsoon 8 8 7.5 31 30.5 .55 33.5 30.9 7.05 8.55 33.2 28.4 30.7 26.9 31.6 30.4 28.2 pH variation in offshore water Distance Season N-Control N-ASSBY M-ASSBY S-ASSBY S-Control 1 km Postmonsoon 7.05 8.5 33.4 not available Table 7.7 Winter 24.9 24.4 28.9 28.7 24.8 26.7 24.05 8 not available Table 7.5 30.1 8.05 8.4 24.4 3 km Postmonsoon 30.2 26.4 Premonsoon 28.05 5 km Postmonsoon 8 8 8 Winter 8 8 8.95 Winter 8 8 8.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.3 28.2 27.1 27.1 3 km Postmonsoon 8 8 7.7 23.15 .5 3 km Postmonsoon 28.6 Winter 30.5 33. Gujarat Table 7.6 30.

9 Premonsoon S 367.2 B 352. possibly due to the lower wind speeds during this period.6 168.0 3618.4 136.8 B 2838. Table not available: S .6 752.6 B 748.0 98.2 3824.0 2425.0 B 4466.0 1153.0 3028. Gujarat Variations in temperature and salinity are largely governed by seasonal changes and there is little variation between the different sites in the study area.0 2720.4 Winter S 721.2 to 4010 mg/l.8 2995.6 Winter S 65. Some prominent variation in TSM can also be noticed between the surface and bottom waters (Table 7.0 B 732.0 964.0 186.0 427.4 478.2 Premonsoon S 864.4 Winter S 305.8 B 1971.0 686.0 102.0 655.Bottom 85 .6 71.8 43.0 1814.0 1945.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.0 3736.4 85.0 1253.0 629.0 372.0 1408.0 528. The spatial variability was also without much significance.0 148.2 747.0 1473. pH and salinity of the water in this region.0 2476.0 .0 1111.0 687.6 115.4).8 103.6 1187.Surface.2 56.0 187.8 B 305.0 3 km Post monsoon S 103.0 B 735.2 Premonsoon S 363.2 Total suspended matter (TSM) The TSM of the surface waters ranged from 14.0 1099.0 1495.6 to 2995 mg/l.6 208.0 966. TSM was relatively lower during the winter.2. 7.0 118.0 5 km Post monsoon S 420.2 3566.0 1671.4 3365.3 156.6 698.2 39.4 4010.4 Suspended solids (mg/l) in offshore water N-Control N-ASSBY M-ASSBY S-ASSBY S-Control Distance Season 1 km Post monsoon S 57.6 166.0 3486. while that of the bottom waters ranged from 43. Depth and distance from the shore also do not have any significant influence on the temperature. B .0 3393.0 82.0 667.8 379.4 14.4 B 156.4 208.

65 6.2 6.95 not available The spatial and temporal variation of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) are presented in Fig.3 DO and BOD The dissolved oxygen (DO) in offshore waters was slightly lower (5.8 6.7 7.9 6. both during the post-monsoon period.6 S-Alang S-Control 6. probably as drainage from the onshore region.7.2.95 7.4 6.1 7.2).75 7.5).3 mg/l) during premonsoon than during post-monsoon (6.7.4 6.7 6.420 µg/l) and lowest during the premonsoon (210 .572 µg/l).55 6.7. BOD at ASSBY area was always higher compared to the control sites and there was hardly any difference with distance from the shore. Highest BOD (6.2 6. This suggests an increased organic loading in the off-shore area during post-monsoon period.323 µg/l).1 6.9 mg/l) during winter. Table 7. However. 7.7 5.7 6.2 .7.65 6.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.85 6.2 5.4 Nitrogen and phosphorus The NO3-N content was highest during the postmonsoon (491 . Gujarat 7.65 5. decreasing during the winter (389 . during the premonsoon.35 6.3 M-Alang 7 6.1.55 7.5 DO in offshore water DO 1 km 3 km 5 km (mg/l) Postmonsoon Winter Premonsoon Postmonsoon Winter Premonsoon Postmonsoon Winter Premonsoon N-Control N-Alang 7.2 .65 .2. There was no significant variation between the different study sites (Table 7.7 7.3 . There was no significant spatial variation (Fig.35 7.2 6.6 mg/l)was recorded at 1 km off the shore of Northern ASSBY followed by 6 mg/l at 3 km off the shore of Middle ASSBY. 7. BOD is lowered during winter.55 6.15 6.5 7.25 7.3 7. possibly due to the increased availability of dissolved oxygen. 86 .1 mg/l) or winter (6. DO was also not affected in any significant manner by the distance from shore.85 6.75 6.3 6.5 7.

4 2 .3 2 .4 3.8 2 .4 2.6 0.6 4 1 .2 2 2.1 Variation of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in offshore water 87 .6 P o stm ons oo n W inte r P re m on so on 4 3.4 0 .2 2.3 2 0 N-C o ntro l 8 5 km 6 m g/ l 3.4 2. 4 N-A S S B Y M-A S S B Y S -AS SB Y S -C ont rol 0 .2 2 N-A S S B Y M-A S S B Y S -AS SB Y S -C ont rol Fig 7.2 S -AS SB Y S -C ont rol 8 3 km 6 6 m g /l 4 3 .6 0 N-C on trol 3 .5 2.4 1.7 6 .6 2 .4 2.9 0.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.4 2 .7 0 .1 2.6 2 .4 1. 4 0.8 0 .3 2.5 0 N-C o ntro l N-A S S B Y M-A S S B Y 3 . 4 0.9 3.1 2 . 8 3. Gujarat 8 1 km 6 m g /l 3 .6 2.8 2.

Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.2 Variation of NO3-N content in offshore water 88 . Gujarat 7 00 1 km 6 00 51 1 5 00 4 03 (µg /l) 4 00 3 00 2 00 1 00 0 N-C on trol N-ASS BY M-AS SB Y S-AS SB Y 24 9 231 221 40 3 42 0 5 72 54 6 405 3 23 Po stm on soo n W inte r Pre m on so on 3 94 2 12 S-C on trol 6 00 3 km 5 00 4 13 4 00 (µg/ l) 3 00 2 00 1 00 0 N-C ont rol 6 00 5 km 5 00 4 09 4 00 (µg/ l) 3 00 2 00 1 00 0 N-C ont rol N-AS SB Y M-AS SB Y S-ASS BY S-Co ntro l 25 1 245 2 32 235 235 39 2 401 40 3 39 6 50 9 51 5 4 93 N-AS SB Y M-AS SB Y S-ASS BY S-Co ntro l 28 1 226 2 11 22 8 241 40 3 390 4 10 39 9 49 9 49 1 4 95 Fig 7.

4). varying during the winter (4 . Even during the post-monsoon.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. 7. 7. Higher concentration of chlorophyll a (Fig. particularly during the post-monsoon and winter sampling periods.5 . 7. This seasonal variation was more pronounced closer to the shore (1 and 3 km) compared to farther off (5 km). However.2.8 µg/l) and pre-monsoon (0. However. 7. 7.6).5 0.3.7 µg/l). 7.2. There was no significant variation between the control sites and the sites within ASSBY. 7.67 µg/l) compared to the winter (0. it is difficult to derive any meaningful pattern from this spatiotemporal variation.24.5).157 µg/l) during the post-monsoon compared to the winter (73-114 µg/l) and pre-monsoon (50146 µg/l). 89 .5 Oil and PHC PHC concentration was generally below 35 µg/l in the study area (Fig.1. There was no significant difference in PO4-P concentration in the ASSBY area compared to the control sites (Fig.20 µg/l).07 .3).1 Phytoplankton pigments The concentration of chlorophyll a is a measure of biomass productivity in the offshore aquatic system.182 µg/l) have been recorded at 5 km offshore of the study area.11 µg/l). much higher concentrations (85 . the 5 km offshore zone recorded a slightly higher chlorophyll a content compared to the 1 km and 3 km offshore zones. There was a wide fluctuation in the NH4-N content in the study area (Fig. There was no significant spatial variation (Fig. on the other hand was lower during the post-monsoon (4 .3 BIOLOGICAL FEATURES 7. Gujarat The NO2-N content.5 µg/l) and higher during the pre-monsoon (8 . The PO4-P concentration was relatively higher (90 .7) was recorded during the post-monsoon period (1.

5 8 .5 9 14 17 .5 5.3 Variation of NO2-N content in offshore water 90 .5 1 8.5 10 5 0 N-C o ntro l N-AS S B Y M-AS S B Y S -AS S B Y S -Co ntro l 7 .6 4. 2 8 5 .5 S -A S S B Y S -C o ntro l 25 3 km 20 1 6. 9 6 4 11 22 30 5 km 25 20 (µg/ l) 24.5 11 .5 (µg /l) 15 10 5 0 N-C on trol N-A S S B Y M-AS S B Y S -AS S B Y S -C on trol 13 9 4 1 0. 5 15 1 0. 5 8. 5 10 5 0 N-C on trol N-AS S B Y M-AS S B Y 9 6 11.5 P os tm o ns oon W in ter P rem on soo n 20 (µ g/l) 1 0.9 8 . 5 7 .5 1 0. Gujarat 25 1 km 20 15 10.5 6 .5 4.5 13 .9 8 5 .8 12 11.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.5 Fig 7.

3 5.5 S-C on tro l 50 3 km 40 30 22 20 10 0 N -Co ntro l N-ASS BY M-AS SB Y S-AS SB Y S-Co ntro l 15 9 5.4 Variation of NH4-N content in offshore water 91 (µg/ l) .5 20 13 10 1 0 N-C ont rol N-ASS BY M-AS SB Y S-ASS BY S-C o ntro l 3 3 21 . Gujarat 50 1 km 40 30 20 10 0 N -Co ntro l N-ASS BY M-AS SB Y S-ASS BY 7 9 5 .5 18 13 9 5 3 20 .5 1.7 15 42.5 0 . 8 11 7 3. 5 (µg /l) 50 5 km 40 30 2 0. 6 5 8 4 . 9 35 25 Pos tm o ns oon W in ter Prem ons oo n (µ g/l) 8 .6 Fig 7.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.3 4.

5 113 .5 94 91.5 14 6 13 2 99 76 90 1 69 173 (µg /l) 80 7 9 73 20 0 5 km 16 0 1 02 .5 (µg/ l) 12 0 80 40 0 N-C o ntro l N-ASS B Y M-AS S B Y S -ASS B Y S -Co ntro l 9 5.5 Variation of PO4-P content in offshore water 92 . Gujarat 20 0 1 km 16 0 12 0 80 40 0 N-C o ntro l N-ASS B Y M-AS S B Y S -ASS B Y 10 7.5 78. 5 8 8.5 98 89 .5 75 .Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. 5 50 1 03 1 57 P os tm o ns oon W in ter P rem on soo n 98 73 (µg /l) S -C ont rol 200 3 km 160 120 89 80 40 0 N-C on trol N-ASS B Y M-A S S BY S -ASS B Y S -C ont rol 8 4 7 8.5 9 5. 5 90 72.5 85 99 Fig 7. 5 76.5 84 8 2 93 .5 9 4.

7 2 2.4 8 5. 6 27 .7 2 8.6 1 9.1 8 .5 3 0.8 5 km 16 4.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.9 1 4.2 1 4.4 27 3 km 200 175 150 (µ g/l) 125 100 75 50 25 0 N-Co ntro l N-A S S B Y M-A S S B Y S -AS S B Y S -C on trol 1 8 24. 93 . 6 3 4.6 26 .7 113 .9 14 .2 Fig 7.8 31 .1 12.4 2 3.1 1 0. 7 20 S -C on trol 20 0 17 5 15 0 12 5 (µg /l) 10 0 75 50 25 0 N-C on trol N-AS S B Y M-A S S B Y S -A S S B Y S -C o ntro l 2 0.5 1 1.5 1 24 .7 24 .2 31.3 45 . Gujarat 200 175 150 125 (µg /l) 100 75 50 25 0 N-Co ntro l N-A S S B Y M-A S S B Y S -AS S B Y 19 .5 20 21. 3 4 5.3 12 .7 29 .4 1 km P ost m on so on W int er P rem o ns oo n 25 31 .6 Variation of Oil-PHC content in offshore water.6 21 .2 181 .7 29 .

6 1 1. 8 0 .5 3 0 .53 1 .6 7 2.1 4 2 (µ g/l) 1.0 7 1.1 4 1. 8 0 . 53 0 .8 0. 53 0 .07 0.5 3 1 0.8 0.8 2.53 0.53 0.53 0.8 0.7 Variation of Chlorophyl a content in offshore water. 53 0. 53 0 .Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. 53 0. Gujarat 3 1 km 2 (µg /l) P os tm o ns oon W in ter P rem on soo n 1.1 1 0.0 7 0.5 3 0 .07 1 0 .53 0. 61 0 .53 0.53 0 N-Co ntro l N-A S S B Y M-A S S B Y S -AS S B Y S -C on trol 3 3 km 2. 7 1 .5 3 0 N-C o ntro l N-A S S B Y M-AS S B Y S -AS S B Y S -C on trol 3 5 km 2 (µg /l) 1 .8 0.0 7 1.8 0.5 3 0.8 0 N-C ont rol N-A S S B Y M-AS S B Y S -AS S B Y S -C o ntro l Fig 7.8 0 . 94 .

6). Pleurosigma sp. and Thalassiosira sp.. Nitzschia sp.25 µg/l) during the winter season.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. 7.800 nos. .3. Other diatoms like Cyclotella sp.600 nos. begins to dominate during winter. Nitschia sp. Nitzschia sp.l1) and much lower during the winter and premonsoon periods (3. Gujarat Phaeophytin concentration is usually low (< 2 µg/ l) in the offshore waters of the study area (Fig.8). 7. There was also a distinct shift in the dominance of major groups of phytoplankton over the different seasons. It was highest during the post-monsoon (11. Cyclotella sp. not available 95 .200 . dominated during the post-monsoon while Coscinodiscus sp. Navicula sp.2 Phytoplankton There was adistinct seasonal variation in the phytoplankton density observed in the offshore waters of the study area (Table 7. and Pleurosigma sp. Thalassioira sp.164. Again.19.6 Variation in Phytoplankton at different stations at Alang Stations N-Control N-ASSBY M-ASSBY S-ASSBY S-Control Major genera Population range (no/l) Post-monsoon Winter Pre-monsoon 22560-164800 5600-19600 5600-19600 24960-86400 4000-14000 4800-10000 11500-110400 4000-6000 3200-16000 4800-10000 4000-6000 3200-12800 6000-14000 Navicula sp.5 .l-1). Navicula sp. Table 7. Nitschia sp. no significant spatial variation could be observed. there is a distinct increase in the phaeophytin level (2.. Coscinodiscus sp. appear during the pre-monsoon to dominate the phytoplankton assemblage along with Coscinodiscus sp.500 .5. Coscinodiscus sp. Rhizosolenia sp. Thalassisors sp.

96 0.5 9 2.96 1 0 N-C o ntro l 1.9 6 1 0 N-C on trol N-A S S B Y M-AS S B Y S -AS S B Y S -C on trol 0 .14 3.07 1 0 N-C on trol N-AS S B Y M-AS S B Y S -AS S B Y S -C o ntro l 0.8 Variation of Phaeophytin content in offshore water 96 . 07 1 km 3 .8 9 4.4 3 0.9 2 2 0.9 4 2.96 2. 51 6 5 4 (µg/ l) 3 2 1 .7 0.7 0. 78 5 km 4 . 7 1.4 3 0.66 P os tm o nso on W in ter P rem ons oo n 3 . 86 2.8 7 3 . 59 N-AS S B Y M-AS S B Y 6 5 4 (µ g/l) 3 1.7 3 km 5.2 6 4 .9 4 1.43 0.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard.4 3 0 .2 1. Gujarat 6 5 4 (µg /l) 3 2 0 .5 4.12 3 .11 4 . 2 S -AS S B Y S -C ont rol 0.33 Fig 7.

fish larvae.32 13 2154-4620 1. nauplii Chaetognaths.9 5 208-5223 1. Chaetognaths.7 Variation in Zooplankton at different stations at Alang Post monsoon Stations Max Population No range (no/1000 m3) N-Control N-ASSBY 6 M-ASSBY 3 S-ASSBY 5 S-Control Major genera Winter Premonsoon Ma Population Biomass Ma Populatio Biomas x (ml/100 x n range s range 3 No (no/1000 m) No (no/1000 (ml/100 m3) m3) m3) 13 1226-1566 0. gastropods salps.7).3 Zooplankton Again.74 7 6251. nauplii decapods. chaetognaths . copepods.52 14036 Copepods. The recorded number of groups reduced to 7 during the pre-monsoons. copepods salps. larvae.55 12 603-1576 0. fish larvae. Gujarat 7. crustacean gastropods larvae. a distinct seasonal shift in the composition and density of zooplankton was observed in the offshore waters of the study area (Table 7. cirripds. larvae.00 13 1297-1327 0. cirripds. among which salps. copepods and larvae of decapods and gastropods dominated the zooplankton assemblage during the winters when a maximum of 13 groups were recorded. copepods decapods. copepods.59 6 2024-19698 3. crustacean larvae and chaetognaths were Table not available 97 .35 13 990-1500 0.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. Only six groups were recorded during the post-monsoon which included copepods. their nauplii and cirripeds. fish larvae.3. copepods. chaetognaths Major genera Copepods. Chaetognaths. crustacean larvae.31 6 240-642 2.66 5 217-5687 1.

500 3. The contaminants from the ship breaking yards inflict damages to the resident foraminiferal fauna directly or indirectly by destroying the feeding material of the forams.8).199 Coilie Dhoma (Scianoid) Other fish 420.225 1.689 20.3. Many of the forams might well have shifted the ecological niche to avoid the ecological crisis.1. The total population density is also seldom more than 50 nos.121 Jumbo prawn 214.831 110.534 30.020 Nil 1. Among the three transects around the Alang ship-breaking yard.905 112.690 Nil 2.860 23. Hilsa.951 1995 46. Somewhat higher numbers were recorded during the premonsoon period.8 Fish landing data (kg/yr) at the neighbourhood of ASSBY. The biomass was also negligible. 7.179 408.400 Lobster 87. although in case of shrimp the increase at Katpar may be Table 7.314 80.309 not available 34.4 Benthos The macro-benthic community is composed of only a few forms.4.74 ml/100m) to pre-monsoon (1.700 nos/ml) seasons.427 .5 Fishery The fish landing data was obtained from the Department of Fisheries. The size reduction of certain forams like Ammonia spp.) landings reveal a decreasing trend from 1991 to 1995 (Table 7.854 BHAVNAGAR LOCKGATE 1991 1995 74. The population of zooplankton was high during both the winter (603 .089 98 .769 3.3. No agglutinated foraminifera were encountered from the study area.620 nos/ml) and premonsoon (208 .860 Nil 44. No landing is reported from the ASSBY area.m2.015 108. The nearest landing centres are Ghogha and Bhavnagar in the North (60 km away) and Katpar in the South (again 50-60 km away).55 ml/100m).776 2. GHOGHA 1991 1995 102.348 11. 7.809 2.3.792 32.175 175.487 106.129 15.862 7.141 21. possibly due to the dominance of salps and fish larvae. clearly indicates ecological degredation.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. There was also a definite increase in the zooplankton biomass from winter (0.591 Nil Nil 5.639 - Name of fish Bombay duck Hilsa Clupid Mullet Catfish Colmi (Shrimp) Medium prawn 704. Mullets.31 .950 30.308 24. All commercially important fish (such as Bombay duck. A total of 48 species of recent benthic forminifera belonging to 25 genera under 13 family were identified and reported from the study side.240 62.069 93.180 3.565 27. such as polychaetes.762 22.19.865 31. Gujarat prominent. Prawns etc. the N-ASSBY transect was the most stressed transect having almost a foraminiferal dead zone within which only two opportunistic species Ammonia beccarii & Nonionenllina turgida survive. Foraminiferans dominated the meiobenthic community.250 909.250 48. Government of Gujarat.695 13. The N-Control transect was the most healthy transect.538 186.004 78.151 KATPAR 1991 116.162 27.072 18.056 52863.32 . molluscs. prawn larvae and ostracods.

The levels are also seen to reduce drastically at the 5 km zone. These forms of nitrogen have the potential to reduce productivity and can even prove toxic to the biotic systems. resulting in a drop in salinity. although at much higher concentrations. The species composition of phytoplankton also changes. through surface drainage. Many of these are the hardy types.4 IMPACT OF ASSBY ON THE OFFSHORE ECOSYSTEM Many of the hydrobiological features described above suggest the predominance of seasonal factors over others. The slight increase in BOD and certain nutrients in the near shore waters (1 to 3 km) indicate loading of organic matter form the ASSBY region. it might be concluded that any effort made to reduce the input of organic matter in the intertidal region would naturally take care of the problem in the offshore zone as well. with a corresponding change in the concentration of phytoplankton pigments. a decomposition product from organic matter is also observed occasionally in higher concentrations. Grazing causes a sharp decrease in phytoplankton density during winter with a corresponding increase in both the number of species and density of zooplankton. Species composition of both phytoplankton and zooplankton changes during pre-monsoon. 1974).5 CONCLUSION The predominance of the seasonal and other natural factors in the functioning of the offshore ecosystem suggest very little anthropogenic disturbance. This leads to an increase in the primary productivity. Gulf has also been reported (Stephen et al. are obviously related to more broadbased changes operating on a wider scale. as evident from the increase in chlorophyll a. particularly those related to immediate and concentrated activities such as ship-breaking. Increase in the petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in the sediments of western Arabian 7.Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard. Another important impact is the occurrence of petroleum hydrocarbons in this region. Although oil-PHC levels are lower in 1 and 3 km offshore zones. Gujarat attributed to increased effort. The levels of heavy metals are also within acceptable limits at present but constant monitoring would be required to ensure that levels do not build-up beyond the critical levels. 1990). 99 . higher levels of BOD have also been observed elsewhere in the gulf region by Zingde (1980a & 1980b. The problems. Therefore. and the density of phytoplankton. The post-monsoon period is characterised by large input of freshwater. capable of surviving higher salinity ranges and reduced concentrations of oxygen and nutrients. as mentioned in the initial sections of this chapter. NO2-N concentration is also consistently higher during the pre-monsoon. NH4-N. However. 1981 and 1985). The study reveals that loading of organic matter from surface drainage in the ASSBY region might be contributing to the BOD of these waters. Oil pollution in the intertidal area along the South Gujarat coastline have been reported much earlier (Dwivedi et al. increased turbidity and enrichment of nutrients. considerably higher values were recorded at 5 km offshore zone during the post-monsoon and winter sampling periods. Oil-PHC has much lower natural degradability and hence efforts will be required to reduce its escape into the marine system. 7.

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