Modernists

Hadeeth
A critical Analysis of the
by Sajid A.Kayum
.,,........,··.÷·....·...·.·..·¸.´...·...:´..´·
Rejecters
www.qsep.com
Published by Quran Sunnah Educational Programs
and
Overview........................................................................01
The Two Modernist Trends...................................................03
Philosophy and its conflict with Islam..............................09
'Ilmul-Kalaam' and sects that pursued it..........................14
Major Deviations of the Mu'tazilah ...................................15
An Important note on the harmony between sound intellect
and Quran and Sunnah.......................................................18
Reasons for the spread of Mu'tazili Ideology.....................20
A testament of the great ordeals caused by the Mu’tazilah:
Imam Ahmed Ibn Hanbal's Trial......................................22
Imam Abu Hanifa's condemnation of Kalaam...................27
Section One
Mu'tazilah, Aqlaniyyah and the Modernists....................07
Imam al-Ghazzali's rejection of Philosophy and
Kalaam...........................................................................29
The Aqlaniyyah (rationalists) school of thought................35
The Modernist Movement................................................37
1. Call to adapt and adjust the religion to the
requirements and
necessities of the times..............................................41
2. Call for the renewal of the Deen claiming advancement
of the society.............................................................43
3. Free interpretation of the Qur'aanic injunctions without
any hindrance or intervention of the Sunnah..............44
4. The claim that Qur'aan can only be a relevant source of
guidance as long as it can be interpreted independently
in the present...........................................................45
Non-acceptance of Ahaad Ahadeeth in matters of
Aqeedah...............................................................46
5. Dividing the Sunnah into 'Sunnah Tashree'eah' and
'Ghair Tashree'eah.'..................................................47
6. Support for Wahdat al-Adyaan (unity of religions)......49
7. Modernists and ‘Hadeeth-Rejectors’.........................51
8. 'Neo Modernists' or Progressives.........................51
The Female-Imam Fiasco......................................52
Deen based on feelings..........................................53
Disputing agreed-upon matters....................53
The True Meaning of Ijtihad v/s the false understanding of
the Progressives..............................................................55
A Movement in Disarray..................................................59
The Modernist Call to Transform Islam.......................40
Section Two
Munkareen al-Hadeeth (the Hadeeth-Rejecters)..............63
Authority and Significance of Sunnah in Islam
The Misguidance of Rejecting Hadeeth.............................67
Hadeeth-rejecters come in different orientations..............68
Hallmarks of the Hadeeth-rejecters.................................70
Callers to evil masquerading as Reformers.......................72
1. The Example of Allah's Messenger is part of
Islam..................................................................75
2. Allah's Messenger received revelations beside the
Qur'aan...............................................................76
3. The Sunnah is in itself a Revelation from Allah.......78
4. The Qur'aan needs to be understood as Allah meant
it to be understood...............................................80
5. The Qur'aan can only be correctly understood in light
of the Sunnah......................................................81
i) The Sunnah explains the commands of the
Qur'aan in details..........................................82
ii) The Sunnah establishes a meaning, when a
number of meanings are possible.......84
iii) The Sunnah can specify exceptions to a
general rule...................................................85
iv) The Sunnah also gives additional injunctions
in a number of issues....................................85
v) Inadequacy of language alone to understand
Qur'aan........................................................86
vi) Detailed book?............................................87
6) Allah's Protection for the Dhikr includes all
the Deen..............................................................90
Defining Sunnah and Hadeeth........................................92
Preservation of Hadeeth..................................................94
Compilation of the Qur'aan..............................................95
Compilation of Hadeeth...................................................97
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Writing Hadeeth..............................................................99
Saheefah Hammaam ibn Munabbih..............................102
Structure of Hadeeth and Methodology of its
authentication.............................................................104
Doubt 1: Hadeeth were not written (the primary
objection).................................................................108
Doubt 2: No Effort was put into preserving
Hadeeth................................................................110
Doubt 3: Does every narrator in the chain understand
Hadeeth correctly?....................................................111
Doubt 4: Hadeeth collection and verification is human
effort........................................................................113
An Analysis of the Extreme Misguidance of the
Hadeeth-rejecters............................................................115
Are Hadeeth-Rejectors Liberal?..........................................123
1) Perwez classifies people as faithful and disbelievers by
Tafseer based on his personal opinion........................124
2) Farahi's principle of coherence and the result of not
following it...................................................................126
A Response to Doubts raised by Maulana Mawdudi on the
science of hadeeth verification.......................................130
Doubts and their Response
Appendix
As Muslims, we are obliged to believe and understand our
religion in a manner that Allah wants us to. The way to achieve this is
mentioned in the Qur'aan. Allah says, "And if they believe as you (i.e.,
the Sahabah) believe then they are rightly guided, but if they turn
away, then they are only in opposition." In light
of this verse, the correct understanding is what emulates the beliefs
and understandings of the Sahabah (the Prophet's Companions).
The Sahabah were the fortunate people who accompanied
the Prophet and learned the religion directly from him . They
witnessed the revelation of the Qur'aan and the Sunnah and
experienced the circumstances in which they were revealed. The
Sahabah's understanding of the religion is therefore, the most pure
[Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 137]
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and perfect, and they are a group that has
definitely succeeded in achieving what
Faith is meant to achieve, i.e. Allah's
Pleasure. “And the first to embrace Islam of
the Muhajirun (those who migrated from
Makkah to al-Medina) and the Ansar (the
people of al-Medina who helped the Muhajirun) and
also those who followed them exactly (in Faith). Allah is
well-pleased with them as they are well-pleased with Him. He has
prepared for them Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise), to
dwell therein forever. That is the supreme success.”
Apathy towards the understanding of the Sahabah as well as
free interpretation of Islamic texts are the primary causes of
misconceptions and confusion; and consequently straying from the
path of the 'the rightly guided'. The Messenger of Allah said, "This
Ummah (nation) will split into seventy-three sects, all of them in the
Fire except one." They asked, "What is that sect?” He said, "That
which I and my Companions are upon today."
Ilmul-Kalaam (argumentation based on Greek philosophy) is
among such innovations in the religion that created intellectual
schisms in the Muslim nation and initiated deviant trends. One of the
sects that indulged in Ilmul-Kalaam were the Mu'tazilah. They gave
precedence to intellect over the revealed texts of the Qur'aan and the
Sunnah - when they perceived the two conflicted. This attitude set an
evil precedent for all later groups who sought to make intellect and
desire decisive over the Qur'aan and the Sunnah. In this book, we
shall critique such modernist groups that attempt to impose novel
interpretations upon Islamic teachings.
[Soorah at-Tawbah
(9):100]
[at-Tabaraanee]
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It is important to clarify from the onset that condemning
'modernism' is rejecting illegitimate interpretations in religious
matters and not about opposing science and technology, or about
rejecting benefit from information and awareness that mankind
constantly improves with time. What is eternal and ever-relevant
according to Islam are the teachings revealed by Allah – the Most
High and since Prophethood ends with Prophet Muhammad , his
teachings will be preserved and applicable until the time people need
Guidance.
One trend of Modernists are the self-proclaimed 'Islam-
experts' and 'Muslim-reformers' that we see all to often paraded on
major media outlets. They openly demand reformation in Islam and
call for a 'progressive' interpretation of Islamic values. Their catch
phrases are “humane Islam”, “gender-friendly Islam”, “Islam 2.0”,
“Progressive Islam” and the like.
Their newly-found activity gained momentum with the
emergence of violent extremist elements that misinterpret Islam to
create chaos and cause hardship for Muslims. This began a search for
an alternate, sensible and moderate voice - a voice that can expect
statefunding and favors.
The lucrative opportunity thus created has attracted
an assembly-line of individuals with a history of
apathy for Islam and Muslims, to masquerade as
champions of the 'oppressed Muslim woman',
good-governance for Muslim nations,
human rights, etc. They claim to be the
moderate voice and speak in a language
that the media, especially the western
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The Two Modernist Trends

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media, likes to hear. They persist in this
even if it alienates Muslims and reinforces
biased stereotypes about Islam. In the
name of 'progressive thinking', they
organize campaigns against the head-
covering for women, for women to pray in
mosques alongside men, for the acceptance of
lewdness, and other similar issues. They seek to
misinterpret Islamic texts in light of rational thought, modern values
and even feelings and desires for, they consider the rational (Aql) and
desires decisive over the revealed texts (Naql).
Another group that is an equally staunch patron of free-
thinking and modernist interpretations is that of the so-called
'Islamic-thinkers' and activists. Their primary goal is political power
and thus, their novel interpretations are aimed at supporting their
revolutionary goals and undermining genuine priorities of Islamic
Dawah that they see as a hurdle or a distraction from their primary
goal.
Politically, the two modernist groups are poles apart. The
'progressive thinkers' are extreme secularist while the 'Islamic-
thinkers' are ardent callers to the Khilafah - however distorted their
views may be about it. But the two are similar in making Aql decisive
over Naql, in their apathy towards Hadeeth, in their emphasis on
modernistic interpretations of the Qur'aan, and in their unjustified
toughening or lightening of Islamic regulations for the achievement
of political/organizational goals.
The vocal participation of these media-savvy modernist
groups in speaking about Islam and affairs of the Muslims has
resulted in the spread of a lot of confusion and misinformation. In this
book, Insha'Allah, we shall critically analyze the Modernists,
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beginning by understanding the deviations of the Mu'tazilah sect. We
shall see with examples;
a) the rejection of Kalaam by the scholars and Imams of the
Muslims,
b) the turmoil that the Mutazilah brought upon the Islamic
world as a result of their Kalaam and,
c) the ill-effects of philosophy on pious and knowledgeable
scholars who indulged in it and later abandoned it.
We shall study the views of the 'Muslim' rationalists (al-
Aqlaniyah), a group that emerged towards the end of the colonial era
and found intellectual nourishment in the views of the Mutazilah.
Impressed by Western advances in science and technology, they
sought inspiration from the west for the advancement of Muslim
societies, assimilating along the way 'Modernist' attitudes towards
religion that had gained popularity amongst European Christians
and Jews.
The European Modernist agenda was primarily aimed at
settling the conflict between religion and rationality with the help of
philosophy. On their part, 'Muslim' Modernists attempted to reject or
alter those teachings of the Qur'aan and Sunnah that they saw as
hindrances, and turned to the Mu'tazilah and 'Muslim'
philosophers for guidance.
We shall see in this booklet the close
resemblance between Christian and Jewish
Modernists on one hand, and the 'Muslim'
modernist and progressives on the other.
We shall analyze the views that have
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become the hallmark of the Modernist call and expose their
remoteness from Islam.
Lastly, we shall comment on the most outrageous antics of
present-day 'progressives', expose their hatred for Islamic teachings
and report on the complete failure of their call.
The second section of this booklet deals with the misguidance
of rejecting Hadeeth as this is another malady afflicting all Mu'tazili
influenced groups whether the Modernists, the Progressives, the
Secularists or the pseudo-Islamists. The refutation focuses upon
analyzing the views of three prominent rejecters of Hadeeth; Rashad
Khalifah, Ghulam Parvez and Amin Ahsan Islahi.
The two sections of the book greatly complement each other
as the modernists and the hadeeth rejecters are two sides of the same
coin.
All in all, this booklet should provide a good overview
towards understanding the many misguided views that emanate
from varied groups influenced by the Mu'tazilah.
May Allah make us amongst “Those who listen to the Word
(good advice La ilaha ill-Allah) and follow the best thereof." [Soorah Az-
Zumar (39): 18]
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and the
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Mu'tazilah is the sect responsible for popularizing
ideas of ancient pagan philosophy to the Muslim Ummah
in the name of 'Ilmul-Kalaam', by which they caused much
confusion with regards to the status of Qur'aan and
Sunnah, and attempted to make intellect (Aql) decisive
over the texts of the Deen. They paved a way where well-
established Islamic beliefs (like Attributes of Allah,
matters of Ghayb, etc.) and acts of worship were
questioned and argued about, then distorted or
abandoned.
From amongst their off-shoots are the modern-day
Aqlaniyyah (rationalists), the Modernists, Munkareen al-
Hadeeth (the Hadeeth Rejecters) and the Secularists.
Each of these groups is distinct in its goals and approach,
but they all depend upon the same Mu'tazili principles by
which they justify their heretical views.
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"Philosophy in general means 'wisdom', and a
philosopher came to be referred to as wise man (hakeem).
The word, 'philosophy' refers to the study of basic
principles, viewing knowledge as something based on
rationality, the goal of which was the search for truth.
Philosophy is a liberal rational examination that is free
from any restrictions and external authority with the
ability to go all the way on the basis of logic regardless of
the difference between the (philosophical) views and
religious beliefs, and dictates of tradition; and without
being confronted or resisted or punished by any
authority."
It is evident by the definition itself that philosophy
is opposed to Faith in Islam for a number of
fundamental reasons;
[al-Mawsoo'ah al-Muyassarah fi'l-Adyaan wa'l-Madhaahib
al-Mu'aasirah (2/1118-1121) courtesy: islamqa.com (slighted adapted)]

and its conflict with Islam
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1. In Islam, knowledge is based upon
Divine revelation while the role of
rational is limited to appreciating the
revelation. We are commanded to
believe and accept every aspect of the
religion; even those which the mind cannot
fully comprehend like matters of the Ghayb
(unseen). The wisdom behind this is to distinguish the
sincere believers from those who are insincere. "None dispute
regarding the Ayaat (revelations, signs, proofs) of Allah except
those who disbelieve."
Allah is the Creator of reason, and He is the One Who issues
the command. The true believer is he who responds and submits,
and says, "I hear and I believe and obey, even though I do not
understand the reason." He admits his mortality, weakness and
submission to Allah, Who cannot be questioned as to what He
does because His Commands are based upon Divine Wisdom
and Divine Justice.
This is how the Companions of the Prophet submitted to
the Deen as Imam al-Bukharee (1597) recorded in his Saheeh
that Umar ibn Khattab said of the Black Stone when he kissed
it, "By Allah, I know that you are only a stone and you can neither
bring benefit nor cause harm. Were it not that I had seen the
Messenger of Allah kissing you, I would not have kissed you."
2. Hikmah (lit. wisdom) in Islam refers to the Sunnah as defined by
the majority of the scholars of Hadeeth and Fuqaha (jurists), and
the Sunnah is the judge and criteria to distinguish truth from
falsehood.
[Soorah Ghafir (40): 4]
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3. If philosophy is the search for truth then with the achievement of
faith, the search of a Muslim has come to an end because "…after
the truth, what else can there be, save error?"
4. According to Islam, for the faith (Eeman) to be established, it is not
enough to have mere Tasdeeq in the heart (i.e. recognition,
knowledge and affirmation of Allah and His Commandments).
It must be accompanied by Inqiyad of the heart (i.e., acceptance
and submission to Allah and His Commands), as well as actions
of the limbs.
Those who use philosophy in examining Islamic knowledge
must - to be true to philosophy - have some degree of doubt and
skepticism about the truth of Islamic teachings. This doubt will
definitely negate Inqiyad (i.e, wholehearted submission) that is a
pillar of Faith, and will lead to major disbelief (Kufr ash-Shakh -
Apostasy of Doubt) that takes someone out of Islam. Faith in
Allah therefore with complete submission at it's core is
fundamentally opposed to the way of the philosophers.
[Soorah Yunus (10): 32]
(This is an extremely important and fundamental concept which needs to be understood,
for a detailed explanation, refer to our book, 'Eeman and its components and explaining the
misguidance of the Khawaarij and the Murji'ah'.)
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Amongst the earliest of the so-
called 'Muslim philosophers' was
the Persian, al-Farabi (872CE/259AH -
950 CE/339AH). He was a translator and
author of many commentaries on Aristotle's
(a Greek philosopher) works, for which he was
called, 'the Second Teacher' (Aristotle being the first).
He greatly influenced the philosophers who followed him,
particularly Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and Ibn Rushd (Averroes).
Al-Farabi agreed with Aristotle's view that the philosopher is
of a higher status than a Prophet because the philosopher
understands issues by means of reason and contemplation while the
Prophet - as the philosophers claim - understands things by means of
imagination which in their view is inferior to logic. (*1)
Philosophy is therefore one of the most dangerous falsehoods
and most vicious in fighting faith in the name of logic and reason. The
Salaf unanimously rejected philosophy whilst strongly condemning
it.
(*1) A Prophet's understanding is based on revelation and guidance from Allah and not
imagination
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Imam ash-Shaafa'i said, "The people did not become
ignorant and begin to differ until they abandoned
Arabic terminology and adopted the terminology of
Aristotle. Even though, philosophy existed in the
ancient civilizations of Egypt, India and Persia; it
became most famous in Greece, and became
synonymous with that land. The reason being that
the Greek philosophers were interested in
transmitting it from the legacy of idolatrous peoples
and the remnants of the divinely-revealed religions,
benefiting from the scriptures of Ibraheem and
Moosa after the Greek victory over the Hebrews
following the captivity in Babylon, and benefiting
from the religion of Luqmaan, the Wise. So there was
an amalgam of views that confirmed the Divinity and
Lordship of the Creator, but were contaminated with
idolatry."
u
u
[courtesy: islamqa.com]
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Before the appearance of outright-philosophers in the Muslim
Ummah like al-Farabi, a philosophical discipline crept amongst
Muslims in the name of 'Ilmul-Kalaam'.
is a way or mode of argumentation that has its origin
in Greek Philosophy. It is thus, a reprehensible innovation that
initiated unnecessary argumentation and confusion in the Ummah.
The sects that indulged in it however, insist that it is merely a tool to
prove the truthfulness of Islam, and not a judge to analyze its veracity.
The first groups to pursue and indulge in Ilmul-Kalaam were
the Qadariyyah, the Mu'tazilah and the Jahmiyyah. The influence of
Ilmul-Kalaam led them astray in many issues of belief. After the
Mu'tazilah, it was absorbed by the Ash'aris and the Maturidis, who
used Ilmul-Kalaam to argue with the Mu'tazilah. They in turn, sought
to rationally prove and justify their 'fundamental tenants of faith' by
means of 'Kalaam, which on the issue of the Attributes of Allah,
amounts to approving only a few Attributes whilst nullifying others.
Thus for the Ash'aris and the Maturidis, 'Ilmul-Kalaam' holds special
significance as it is the defender of their beliefs; even though their
senior-most scholars like al-Fakhr ar-Razi and al-Juwayenee regretted
having indulged in Kalaam towards the end of their lives.
Kalaam

and sects that pursued it
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Mu'tazilah comes from the word, ' ', i.e., 'to
withdraw.' The group is named such because its founder
'Waasil Ibn Ataa' withdrew ( ) from the study
circles of Hassan al-Basri after proposing an innovative
idea on the status of Muslims who commit major sins (i.e.
whether they are believers or disbelievers). From then on
the Mu'tazilah deviated further and increased in
misguidance under the influence of in
many issues of belief;
(Oneness of Allah) which according to the
Mu'tazilah is complete denial of Allah's Attributes.
Their theory of belief concerning Allah's Names is
approval by the tongue and rejection by the heart; i.e., they
merely affirm the Names without affirming any meaning for
them. For example, they affirm by the tongue that Allah is
'As-Samee (All-Hearer),' but reject True Hearing for Him.
I'tazaal
I'tazala
Ilmul-Kalaam
1. Five innovated Usool (principles) of the
Mu'tazilah
I) Tawheed

of the Mu'tazilah
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ii) Adl (Justice),
iii) Wa'd wal-Wa'eed
iv) Manzilah baynal-Manzilatain
v) Amr bil-Ma'roof wa-Nahi anil-Munkar
which to the
Mu'tazilah, is denying that Allah
is the Creator of the actions of the
slaves. They also deny that actions
of the slaves are subject to Qadr (pre-
decree). According to them, a person is
independent of Qadr and Power of Allah in
his will and ability of action.
(Warning and cautioning) which in
their understanding is to enforce and warn that Allah neither
accepts Shafa'ah (intercession) on behalf of someone who
commits major sin, nor does He take him out of Hell-Fire.
(state between the two
states). The idea that a Muslim who commits a major sin, is in
a state between Eeman and Kufr (*1) with respect to this
world; and in the Hereafter, he will be in Hell-Fire eternally if
he dies without repentance.
(enjoining the
good and forbidding the evil), which according to them is
disobedience to the ruler and raising the sword against him.
2) Denial of seeing Allah in the Hereafter.
(*1) It is irrational that one is neither a believer nor a disbeliever! Whereas Allah
classifies mankind into two outright groups, “He it is Who created you, then some of
you are disbelievers and some of you are believers.” [Soorah at-Taghabun (64): 2]
Allah did not say that some of you are in a state between the two states!!
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3) Their innovated belief that the Qur'aan is a
creation of Allah.
4) Defaming the Sahabah and the Taba'een,
5) Denying various issues of the Ghayb
6) Most importantly, undue veneration of Aql
(intellect)
(The belief of Ahlus-Sunnah is that the
Qur'aan is the uncreated literal Kalaam (Speech) of Allah).
especially
the narrators of hadeeth like Abu Hurayrah
(unseen) like the
angels, jinn, magic, etc.
and giving it priority over Naql (texts of the Qur'aan and
the Sunnah) which resulted in deviations like;
(i.e., giving an interpretation different from the
apparent meaning) of Qur'aanic verses which they
considered contradictory to Aql.
which were deemed contradictory
to Aql - even if they were mutawathir or collected in the two
saheehs (Saheeh al-Bukharee and Saheeh Muslim).
which form the major
part of the Hadeeth compilation, because
according to them, Ahaad Ahadeeth do not
give the benefit of certain-knowledge.
r.
i) Ta'weel
ii) Rejection of Ahadeeth
iii) Rejection of Ahaad Ahadeeth,
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An Important note on the harmony between

and
“Contradiction between a clear text of the Book
and the Sunnah and the sound Aql cannot be
imagined and is in fact impossible. So if there
appears to be a contradiction between the two then
the Revelation is given precedence and is decisive
since it comes from the One, Who is infallible,
whereas the Aql (intellect) of a person is not
infallible. Indeed, Aql is the deficient opinion of
humans that is open to misconception, error,
forgetfulness, desires and ignorance.”
[end quote from, 'The Principles of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama'ah in
deriving Aqeedah' by Nasir al-Aql]
Philosophical groups who assumed that religious texts contradict
reason, tried to mediate between reason and the transmitted reports.
This led them to force reason into fields where it had no place. So they
came up with false rulings that led them to say that they did not know
what the texts meant and that only Allah knows their meaning, or to
misinterpret them altogether, like the philosophical groups who went
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astray concerning the Attributes of Allah; Jahmiyah, Mu'tazilah and
Asha'irah who either denied or misinterpreted the Names and
Attributes of Allah instead of accepting them without reservations.
Ibn Hajr (rahimahullah) writes in Sharh al-Bukharee,
"…The Salaf intensified their rejection of these trends, such
as Abu Haneefah, Abu Yusuf and ash-Shafa'ee and their
refutation of the Ahlul-Kalaam is well known. The reason behind
such severe censure is that the Ahlul-Kalaam discussed issues
concerning which Allah's Messenger and his Sahabah had
acquired silence.
Those who came after the three generations, magnified upon
the issues… They did not contend themselves until they confused
the fundamental issues of Deen with philosophy, which they
considered to be the Asl (the foundation) (instead of the texts of
the Deen), to which everything had to be referred to and they
made Ta'weel (interpretations) of all narrations that
contradicted their philosophy. They did not stop at that. They
further claimed that their compilations were the noblest
knowledge and most deserving to be studied and whosoever did
not make use of their interpretation was an ignorant layman.
Thus, fortunate is he who holds on to the way of the Salaf and
refrains from the innovations of the Khalaf (the
late-comers) and if he is unable to do so, he
should only take what is needed and make
the way of the Salaf his basic goal."

r y
[Fath al-Baree (13/253)]
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a) Prevalence of excessive debate on the status of a Muslim
who commits a major sin due to the extreme position taken
on the subject by the Khawarij (who judge such a person as
outright Kafir) and the Murji'ah (who consider such a person to
be a Mumin with perfect faith). (*1)
The Mu'tazilah presented their seemingly moderate solution
to the argument that such a Muslim is neither a believer, nor an
outright Kafir (disbeliever), but is between the two states.

of Mu'tazili Ideology

for the
(*1) The Khawarij fell into this misguidance due to their exaggeration in
understanding the texts of warning (i.e., the verses that dictate punishments of sins),
while the Murjiyah were deficient in the same as explained by Shaikh Bakr ibn
Abdullah Abu Zaid in Dar' al-Fitna 'an Ahlus-Sunnah. [Learn more about their
deviated views and their refutation with references from the writings of the scholars in
our booklet, 'Eeman and its components, and explaining the misguidance of the
Khawarij and the Murjiyah on the issue.]
(*2) According to the understanding of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama'ah, a Muslim who is
guilty of major sin is not outside the fold of Islam. He may be punished for his major
and minor sins in the Hereafter or be forgiven by Allah.
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b) Mu'tazilah who remained discredited throughout the
Umayyad rule gained a position of prominence and
influence during the Abbasids era
c) Translation of numerous books on Greek Philosophy
d) Mu'tazilah used 'Ilmul-Kalaam' to argue in defense of
Islam
when Ma'mun (212H
/827 CE) came to power and appointed them as judges within
the state.
At the behest of the Mu'tazilite theologians, who attributed
themselves to Imam Abu Hanifa in jurisprudence, Ma'mun
subjected the scholars, who opposed the Mu'tazili views, to
severe persecution. This policy continued during the reign of the
next two Abbasid rulers, al-Mu'tasim and al-Wathiq.
under the patronage of Ma'mun who was interested in having
Aristotle's work translated.
"He (Ma'mun) wrote to the Roman Emperor requesting him
to send all of Aristotle's works available to him. The Emperor
hesitated. He consulted his Christian scholars, who suggested,
'The books on philosophy are under lock and key in our country,
and none is allowed to read and teach them because they expel
respect for religion from the people's heart. We must send these
books to the Caliph of Islam so that the publicity of philosophy
will dampen the religious spirit of the Muslims.' The Emperor
had five camels loaded with these books and sent them to
Mamoon Rasheed."
These books were then translated by Christian
scholars assigned by Mamoon.
, thus portraying themselves as defenders of the faith.
[end quote from History of Islam (vol.2) by Akbar Shah
Najeebabadi]
- 21 -

A testament of
thegreat ordeals
caused by the Mu’tazilah
The innovated idea of the Qur'aan being a creation engulfed the
Ummah at the time of Imam Ahmad when the Mu'tazilah used the
ruler's sword to force scholars and jurists into accepting it.
Caliph Ma'mon (himself a student of the Abu al-Huzail al-
Allaf - a Mu'tazili), was instigated by his Qadhi (chief-judge) Ahmad
ibn Abee Dawood to persecute anyone who resisted the innovated
idea.
Four scholars stood up to the Fitna (trial), but only Imam
Ahmed Ibn Hanbal and Mohammad ibn Nuh kept steadfast. As a
result, they were imprisoned and taken in chains to Tartoos where
Ma'moon had summoned them.
It is reported in books of history that Ma'moon sent a
messenger to Imam Ahmad with a threatening message that a sword -
that had not been used on anyone else - had been prepared for Imam
Ahmad. Upon hearing this, Imam Ahmad said, "I ask Allah to suffice
me, for what is (this life) but a short while."
During the journey, Muhammad ibn Nuh passed away. Imam
Ahmad invoked Allah that he should not meet Ma'moon. Allah
answered his prayer and Ma'moon died a sudden death, before he
- 22 -
could encounter Imam Ahmad. Imam Ahmad was then returned to
prison. The Caliphate passed on to Mu'tasim, who was instructed by
Ma'moon to keep close to Ibn Abu Dawood and continue the
persecution. Mu'tasim summoned Imam Ahmad and arranged a
gathering with Ibn Abee Dawood and his companions on the issue of
Khalq al-Qur'aan. Despite many arguments and efforts by the
Mu'tazilah, they were unable to overcome Imam Ahmad, and the
gathering dragged on for two days.
On the third day, the gathering continued and Imam Ahmad
was asked, "What do you say about the Qur'aan?" to which he replied,
"The Speech of Allah is not a creation. Allah says, "And if anyone of the
polytheist seeks your protection then grant him protection, so that he
may hear the Word of Allah."
He was asked to present more proof to which Imam Ahmad
replied with the following verse, "The Most Beneficent! Has taught
the Qur'aan." Imam Ahmad argued that Allah
has nowhere referred to the Qur'aan as Khalq al-Qur'aan.
Imam Ahmad was summoned once more in front of
Mu'tasim, but this time the swords were unsheathed and the spears
were pointing at him. Mu'tasim questioned Imam Ahmad about his
position only to receive the same reply. Mu'tasim threatened Imam
Ahmad with murder upon which Imam Ahmad said, "O Ameerul-
Mu'mineen, Allah's Messenger said, "The blood of a
Muslim who testifies La ilaha illa Allah is not
Halaal to be spilled except in three cases…" So
what is that which makes my blood
permissible to be spilled while I have not
done any of the three? O Ameerul-
Mu'mineen, remember your standing
[Soorah at-Tawbah (9): 6]
[Soorah ar-Rahman (55): 6]
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before Allah the way I am standing before
you."
Imam Ahmad's steadfastness and
determination weakened Mu'tasim's
resolve, but Ibn Abee Dawood instigated, "O
Ameerul-Mu'mineen, if you leave him, it will be
said that you abandoned the madhhab of Ma'moon."
This infuriated the Chaliph who ordered Imam Ahmad to be
taken back to prison.
The next day Imam Ahmad was brought back from the prison to be
whipped even though it was Ramadaan and he was fasting. Mu'tasim
came along with two executioners who were ordered to be
inconsiderate and they whipped Imam Ahmad in turns.
Mu'tasim then addressed Imam Ahmad, "Repeat what I say that
the Qur'aan is Makhlooq (a creation)."
Imam Ahmad insisted, "Bring me a proof from the Book of Allah or
the Saying of Allah's Messenger."
Imam Ahmad was then stripped off all his clothes except his lower
garment. He was whipped until he would loose consciousness. The
whipping would continue every time he regained consciousness.
Imam Ahmad says, "My mind went blank and nothing would
come to my mind except the fear that my private parts would be
exposed."
Imam Ahmad was then transferred to his house and his
ordeal left him unable to walk. When his wounds healed and he
regained strength, Imam Ahmad would preach in the mosque, He
was not prevented from teaching until the caliphate passed on to
Mu'tasim's successor Wathiq.
- 24 -
Wathiq too was instigated by Ibn Abu Dawood and his evil
companions to coerce the people into accepting the Qur'aan as a
creation. Wathiq however did not find it in his interest to imprison
Imam Ahmad. So he ordered Imam Ahmad to leave. Imam Ahmad
thus sought refuge away from public view for five years. Towards the
end of his caliphate, Allah guided Wathiq to retreat from his deviation
due of an interesting incident. People were being brought before
Wathiq in shackles and were being forced to accept that the Qur'aan is
a creation. Anyone who resisted was killed.
A man amongst them greeted Wathiq, "As-Salaam alaikum, O
Ameerul-Mu'mineen,"
to which Wathiq retorted, "Neither has Allah saved you, nor there
be any salaam (safety) on you."
The man said, "Verily, he who has nurtured you did not do it well."
He was referring to Wathiq's mentor Ibn Abu Dawood who was
also present there. The man recited the verse, "When you are
greeted with a greeting, greet in return with what is better than it
or (at least) return it equally." and then said,
"You have not replied me with the same or the better."
The caliph was astonished and ordered Ibn Abu Dawood to debate
with him.
Ibn Abu Dawood asked him, "What do you say about the
Qur'aan?"
The man said, "You have not done justice to
me, I should initiate."
The caliph agreed and the man asked,
"What do you say about the Qur'aan? O
Ibn Abu Dawood."
He replied, "I say that the Qur'aan is
[Soorah an-Nisa (4): 86]
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Makhlooq (a creation)."
The man said, "This saying of yours with which you have burdened
the people and the caliph with, did the Messenger , Abu Bakr and
Umar say this or not?"
Ibn Abu Dawood replied, "They did not say it."
He asked, "Did they know it or were they ignorant of it?"
Ibn Abu Dawood said, "They knew it."
The man said, "Was this issue kept open to be silent about or were
the people burdened with it?"
Ibn Abu Dawood said, "No, rather they kept silent."
The man said, "Something which Allah's Messenger, Abu Bakr and
Umar kept silent about, you have not followed suit."
So Ibn Abu Dawood kept quite.
Wathiq freed the man and after solitary deliberation, he revoked his
statement that the Qur'aan was created.
After the death of Wathiq, the righteous-caliph al-
Mutawakkil came to office. He ordered an end to all indulgence in the
issue.
Imam Ahmad's trials finally ended, and his patience and
steadfastness in upholding the Aqeedah of Ahlus-Sunnah bore fruit.
The issue of the innovated idea of Khalq al-Qur'aan disintegrated; and
along with it, the strength of the Mu'tazilah.
Imam Ahmad passed away in 241H. Seven hundred
thousand men and sixty thousand women attended his funeral. With
this came true the saying of Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal,
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"Say to the people of Bidah,
between us and you are the funerals."
- 26 -

of Kalaam

Abu Hanifa's
Imam Abu Hanifa said,
"May Allah's Curse be upon Amr ibn Ubaid for he paved for
the people the way to Kalaam…"
Someone asked him (i.e., Imam Abu Hanifa), "What is your opinion
about that which he has innovated for the people with regards to
Kalaam about accidents and bodies?”
He said, "Principles of philosophy!!! Stick to the way of the Salaf, for
every novelty is a Bidah (innovation in the religion).”


Imam Abu Haneefa also said,
"The people of desires in al-Basrah are many and I have entered
it odd twenty times. Perhaps, I stayed there for a year or
more thinking that Ilmul-Kalaam is the greatest of sciences."
[Dhamul-Kalaam lil-Harawee, p.28-31]
[Manaqib Abi Haneefah of al-Kurdi (baa/p.194)
Quoted from A'tiqaad al-A'imma al-Arba'a]

[Manaqib Abi Haneefah of al-Kurdi (p.137)
Quoted from A'tiqaad al-A'imma al-Arba'a]
Imam
- 27 -
Hammad ibn Abi Haneefa related, "My father (i.e., Imam Abu Hanifa
rahimahullah) entered upon me one day and accompanying me
was a group of Ashab al-Kalaam; and we were arguing at a door.
So when I heard him approaching the house, I went out to him.
He asked me, 'O Hammad, who is with you?’
I replied, 'So and so,' and I named those who were with me.
He then advised me, 'O Hammad, abandon Kalaam.'
He (Hammad) says, 'My father was neither a man who confused
matters, nor was he from those who command something and
then prohibit it.' So I asked him, 'O father did you not used to
command me with it?’
He said, 'Yes, my son and today I prohibit you from it.'
Hammad said, 'Why is that?'
He said, 'Verily, these are people of Kalaam - you will see they were
upon one statement and one religion until Shaytan came
between them and sow discord and differing…'
Despite Imam Abu Hanifa's condemnation of Kalaam; many of those
who claim to follow his madhhab like the Maturidis and Deobandis
continue their indulgence in Kalaam.
- 28 -

of Philosophy and Kalaam

al-Ghazzali's
Imam al-Ghazzali, the well-known author of the book 'Ihyaa Uloom
ad-Deen', was a person of rare level of intelligence, ingenuity and
cleverness.
He went through a number of stages. He indulged in
philosophy, and then he recanted and rejected it. Then he indulged in
Ilmul-Kalaam and gained a sound grasp of its basic principles and
used it to refute philosophy; but later rejected Ilmul-Kalaam when it
became clear to him that it was corrupt and filled with contradictions,
he then followed the path of the Batiniyyah (esotericisms) and
learned their knowledge, but rejected that too. He showed the beliefs
of the Baatiniyyah to be false, and exposed the manner in which they
tamper with the texts and rulings. Then he followed the path of
Sufism. These are the four stages that al-Ghazzali went through.
Even though, al-Ghazzali had a deep knowledge of Sufism,
Ilmul-Kalaam, Usool al-fiqh, etc., and he was a devoted worshiper
with good intentions, he could not completely free himself from
philosophy.
His closest companion, Abu Bakr ibn al-Arabi refuted his
ideas saying, "Our shaykh Abu Haamid went deep into philosophy
then he wanted to come out of it but he was unable to. There were
Imam
- 29 -
narrated from him opinions which sound like the Baatini way of
speaking, and that may be verified by looking in al-Ghazzali's books."
Shaikhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (rahimahullah) said,
"If we assume that someone narrated the view of the Salaf but
what he narrated is far removed from what the view of the Salaf
actually is, then he has little knowledge of the view of the Salaf,
such as Abu'l-Ma'aali, Abu Haamid al-Ghazzali, Ibn al-Khateeb
and the like, who did not have enough knowledge of hadeeth to
qualify them as ordinary scholars of hadeeth, let alone as
prominent scholars in that field for none of these people had any
knowledge of al-Bukharee and Muslim and their ahadeeth apart
from what they heard, which is similar to the situation of the
ordinary Muslim, who cannot distinguish between a hadeeth
which is regarded as saheeh and mutawatir according to the
scholars of hadeeth and a hadeeth which is fabricated and false.
Their books bear witness to that because they contain strange
things and most of these scholars of Ilmul-Kalaam and Sufis who
have drifted away from the path of the Salaf admit that either at
the time of death or before death. There are many such well-
known stories.
This Abu Haamid al-Ghazzali, despite his brilliance, his
devotion to Allah, his knowledge of kalaam and philosophy, his
asceticism and spiritual practices and his Sufism ended up in a
state of confusion and resorted to the path of those who claim to
find out things through dreams and spiritual methods."
[See Majmoo al-Fatawa, (4/66)]
[Majmoo al-Fatawa (4/71)]
- 30 -
Ibn Taymiyah also said,
"Hence, even though Abu Haamid refuted the philosophers
and classed them as kuffar (disbelievers), and expressed
veneration of Prophethood [as opposed to philosophy], etc., and
even though some of what he says is true and good, and indeed of
great benefit, nevertheless some of his writings contain
philosophical material and matters where he followed the
corrupt principles of philosophy that contradict Prophethood
and even contradict sound common sense."
Adh-Dhahabi narrated in his book, that
Muhammad ibn al-Waleed al-Tartooshi said,
"…he became a Sufi and forsook knowledge and its people, then
he got involved with 'inspiration' - those who claim to have
spiritual knowledge and the insinuating whispers of the Shaytan.
Then he mixed that with the views of the philosophers and the
symbolic phrases of al-Hallaaj. He started to criticize the fuqaha
(jurists) and the scholars of Ilmul-Kalaam. He almost went
astray from the religion altogether when he wrote al-Ihya [i.e.,
Ihya Uloom al-Deen]. He started to speak of the inspiration and
symbolic words of the Sufis although he was not qualified to do
that and had no deep knowledge of such matters. Hence he failed
and filled his book with fabricated reports,
"I (ad-Dhahabi) say, "as for al-Ihya, it contains many false
ahadeeth and it contains much that is good. I wish that it did not
contain etiquette, rituals and asceticism that are in accordance
with the ways of the philosophers and deviant Sufis. We ask
Allah for beneficial knowledge.
Siyar A'laam an-Nubula
- 31 -
Do you know what beneficial knowledge is? It is that which
Allah revealed in the Qur'aan, which was explained by the
Messenger in word and deed, and the type of knowledge which
we are not forbidden to acquire. The Prophet said, "Whoever
turns away from my Sunnah does not belong to me." So, my
brother, you must ponder over the Words of Allah and persist in
studying al-Saheehayn (Saheeh al-Bukharee and Saheeh
Muslim), Sunan al-Nasa'ee, Riyadh an-Nawawi and al-Adhkaar
by an-Nawawi, and then you will succeed and prosper.
Beware of the opinions of the philosophers, the practice of
spiritual exercises, the starvation of monks, and the nonsense
talk of those who stay alone for long periods in their monasteries.
All goodness is to be found in following the pure and tolerant way
of the haneefs. And seek the help of Allah. O Allah, guide us to
Your straight path.”
At the end of his life, al-Ghazzali (rahimahullah) returned to the belief
of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama'ah. He focused on the Qur'aan and the
Sunnah and condemned Ilmul-Kalaam and its proponents. He
advised the Ummah to come back to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah
of His Messenger , and to act in accordance with them as was the way
of the Sahabah.
Shaikhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) said,
"After that he (al-Ghazzali) came back to the path of the
scholars of hadeeth and wrote Iljaam al-Awwaam an Ilm al-
Kalaam."
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[Siyar A'laam an-Nubula (19/340]
[Majmoo (4/72)]
- 32 -
A glance at 'I ' will prove to us
that al-Ghazzali had indeed changed in many ways:
1. In this book he advocated the belief of the salaf and pointed out
that the way of the salaf was the truth, and that whoever went
against them was an innovator or follower of bidah.
2. He emphatically denounced ta'weel (interpretation of the
Attributes of Allah in a manner that differs from their
apparent meaning). He advocated affirming the Attributes of
Allah and not misinterpreting them in a manner that would
lead to denying the attributes of Allah.
3. He emphatically denounced the scholars of Ilmul-Kalaam and
described all their principles and standards as reprehensible
innovations, which had harmed a great number of people and
created trouble for the Muslims. Al-Ghazzali said, "The harm
caused to a great number of people is something that has been
seen, witnessed and experienced. The evil that has resulted
since Ilmul-Kalaam began has become widespread, even
though people at the time of the Sahabah forbade that.
This is also indicated by the fact that the Messenger and the
Sahabah, by consensus, did not follow the way of the scholars
of Ilmul-Kalaam when they produced arguments, evidence
and analysis. That was not because they were incapable of
doing so. If they had thought that it was something good, they
would have done it in the best manner, and they would have
studied the matter hard, more than they did with regard to
the division of the estate among the heirs.”

ljaam al-Awwaam an Ilm al-Kalaam
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Courtesy islamqa.com
- 33 -
“The Sahabah needed to prove the
Prophethood of Muhammad to the Jews and
Christians, but they did not add anything to
the evidence of the Qur'aan. They did not
resort to arguments or lay down philosophical
principles. That was because they knew that
doing so would provoke trouble and cause
confusion.
Whoever is not convinced by the
evidence of the Qur'aan will not be convinced
by anything other than that, for there is no
proof after the proof of Allah."
y
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See Abu Haamid al-Ghazzaali wa'l-Tasawwuf.
- 34 -
school of thought
(rationalists)
The
The Aqlaniyyah school of thought are a contemporary group inspired
by the Mu'tazilah of old, and were initiated by Jamaal ad-Deen ibn
Safdar al-Husaini al-Afghani, who was an Iranian with a Shiite
upbringing. Al-Afghani's thoughts were forwarded by his Egyptian
student, Muhammed Abduh, who was appointed an official mufti in
1899. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan from the Indian sub-continent also
belonged to this trend.
These trends emerged towards the end of the colonial era,
along with other movements that sought to give a solution to the
major problems facing the Muslim Ummah at that time that included
rampant superstitions and grave-worship, intellectual stagnation,
the people's distance from the Qur'aan and Hadeeth, blind
dependence on deviant clerics for religious guidance, social and
political evils, scientific and economical backwardness.
The Aqlaniyyah trend proposed its solutions, and in general,
stood up for some praiseworthy issues like opposing blind-following
of madhhabs, turning back to the Qur'aan as a relevant guide for
modern times, reaffirming the importance of Ijtihad, opposing
widespread superstition and grave-worship, calling upon the Ummah
to benefit from scientific progress and education.
- 35 -
Some of them even referred to previous writings upon the
way of the Salaf, like those of Ibn Taymiyah and Ibn al-Qayyim, when
they could find in them support for their views, because Ibn
Taymiyah's era has witnessed the very same problems - only that
during the colonial era, Muslims were totally destitute of political and
economical strength.
However, Mu'tazili views overwhelmed the Aqlaniyyah, and their
modernist interpretations lead them to spread dangerous deviations
in the Ummah, amongst which were:
a) Giving precedence to Aql over Naql
b) Re-interpretation of the verses and texts in accordance
with latest scientific discoveries
c) Rejection of Ahadeeth that cannot be given a modernist
interpretation, even those that are mutawathir or
recorded in the two saheehs.
d) Defaming the Sahabah and the taba'een, especially the
narrators of Hadeeth
e) Denying various issues of Ghayb like the angels, jinn,
magic, etc.
f) Calling towards wahdatul-adyaan (unity of religions)
g) Dividing the Sunnah into Sunnah Amaliya and
Sunnah Ghair Amalia (explanation
ahead),
h) Calling towards nationalism
I) Raising objections on issues like
hijaab, polygamy, etc.
- 36 -
Those who studied with or were influenced by the Aqlaniyyah further
deviated and developed into that which shows a stark resemblance to
the modernist movement in Christianity and Judaism. As a matter of
fact, European modernist movements continue to provide much
inspiration to their 'Muslim' counterparts, and therefore
understanding the western-modernist helps us understand the
objectives of those who seek to modernize Islamic teachings and
values.
The modernist movement has its origins in medieval Europe,
whose basic view is that the religion should change according to
circumstance. They believed that most dogmas or teachings of the
Church were novelties which arose because of specific historical
circumstances throughout the history of the Church. They saw the
Church to be mere human institution, and as such, not the absolute
truth.
Modernism initiated a rationalist approach to the Bible that
took a skeptical view of miracles and the historicity of biblical
narratives. This approach attempted to evaluate the meaning of the
Bible by focusing on the text alone and ignoring what the Church
fathers had historically taught about it. This way of looking at the

Movement

The
- 37 -
Bible became quite popular in the
Protestant churches and found its way
into Catholic churches. It was an offshoot
of the concept of 'sola scriptura' which
asserts that Bible is God's written word that is
self-authenticating, clear (perspicuous) to the
rational reader. The Bible is its own interpreter
(scripture interprets Scripture), and sufficient of itself to be the
final authority of Christian doctrine.
The excesses of the Christian church in Medieval Europe and
the view that the Church was a hurdle to social, scientific and cultural
progress gave strength to the idea of the separation of the Church and
the State - giving rise to secularism.
Modern European philosophers played an important role in
forwarding Modernism, by using philosophy to integrate the
Christian and Jewish scriptures with secular learning. Collectively
these trends were seen as 'progressive thinking,' and it was forcefully
argued that religion must be primarily caused and centered on the
feelings of believers.
In 1864, Pope Pius IX issued a document called, 'The Syllabus
of Errors' that condemned the ideas that human reason is the sole
arbiter of truth and falsehood; and rejected calls that the Pope
reconcile himself, and come to terms with progress, liberalism and
modern civilization.
This document was largely ignored because the trend of
injecting secular values and to 'fit in' with the times was firmly
established; and rather than be a source of correction, it itself had to
be re-interpreted by Catholic apologetics.
The evolution of ideas, similar to the Christian dogma of 'sola
- 38 -
fide' (being saved by faith alone), became a justification for constantly
updating or rather downgrading the standards of morality. The
doctrine of sola fide asserts that it solely is on the basis of the believer's
faith that their transgressions of God's Law are forgiven.
As moral standards shifted heavily during the 20th century,
previously a Catholic would have had to deny his faith to engage in
some of the actions of his contemporaries. Now 'citing that dogmas
can change', it was possible to 'update' Catholic morality while not
being concerned with possible contradictions.
Modernist, neo-philosophers and secularists have succeeded
in changing the face of Christianity to its very core. They have forced it
to give into unlimited concessions, until even the most scandalous
heretical action or statement is ignored. Everything seems to be
permitted for everyone until there remains little to distinguish
between a Christian and a secular humanist.
- 39 -
Allah's Messenger informed us that groups of his Ummah
would follow the deviations of the past generation. He
said, "You will certainly follow the ways of those who came
before you, span by span, cubit by cubit, until even if they
were to enter a lizard's hole, you would follow them."
We (the Sahabah) said, "O Messenger of Allah, (do you
mean) the Jews and Christians?"
He said, "Who else?!" [Agreed upon]
This Hadeeth describes with precision, the attitude and end-result of
the 'Muslim-modernists' who imitated their Christian counterparts
until they followed them into the hole of deviation and disbelief.
The following issues are the hallmarks of the
modernist;
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transform

The
call to
- 40 -
1. According to the Modernists, thinking and values of a
society are closely related to its environment and historic
circumstances, and it is necessary to adapt and adjust the
religion to the requirements and necessities of the times.
Thus archaic interpretations and understandings must be altered to
suit modern society. They argue that the people at the time of the
Prophet did what they believed suited them the best, and the people
today must act as is suitable to modern times.
For example, with regards to the hadeeth, "No people will ever
prosper who place a woman in authority over them."
Dr. Yusuf al-Qaradawi says,
"This is limited to the era of Messenger , when the
rule was for the men with absoluteness, but not now!!'
Muhammad Abduh writes concerning the issue of the permissible
number of wives for a man,
"It is required from the ulama to revise this issue…
the Deen was revealed for the welfare of the people and
their good and its basis is to prevent harm and
destruction. So if there is something causing
corruption at an age that was not such
previously, then without doubt the
ruling should be changed and
modified in accordance with
the present."
[Saheeh al-Bukharee]
[Nadwa fi Qanaat bi-Taarikh 4/7/1418H]
[Tafseer al-Manar (4/349-350)]
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It is sufficient reply that Islam is a complete religion and during the
Prophet's last sermon, Allah revealed concerning this last and final
Deen, "This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My
Favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion…"
The meaning of this verse is that until the end of time, people
will neither need a new sharee'ah, nor a new set of rules to govern
their lives, and the sharee'ah of Prophet is sufficient for them.
Allah's Messenger said, "I have not omitted anything that will bring
you closer to Paradise but I have enjoined it upon you; and there is
nothing that will keep you away from Hell but I have commanded you
to do it."
The fundamental evils that cause harm to the social,
economical and spiritual well-being of the people like greed,
miserliness, jealousy, hatred, injustice, being inconsiderate, lust,
dishonesty, etc. are the same today as they were at the time of the
Prophet. When one reads the stories of the previous nations in the
Qur'aan and reasons why they prospered or went astray, we see them
to be very much relevant to contemporary times for example; the
story about the evil of homosexuality that afflicted the people of
Prophet Lut .
(**) However, their objective is not to benefit from advances in
science or to prepare the society for the future but they seek to
transform religious teachings in accordance with modern culture
with the help of philosophy.
[Soorah al-Maida (5): 3]
[Sunan Ibn Majah]
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2. "The modernists consider the present time to be more
advanced than that of the Prophet and they call for the
renewal of the Deen claiming advancement of the society."
- 42 -
** Modernism in Islam by Jamaal Zarabozo
- 43 -
Muhammad Abduh alleged that the Islamic nation has agreed,
"except for a very few who can be ignored that if Aql
contradicts Naql, then what is proven by Aql has to be
taken.”
Muhammad Abduh's statement holds good only if he is referring to
the Mu'tazilah, the Ash'ariyah and their ilk. But as for Ahlus-Sunnah,
they do not give precedence to Aql over the sayings of the Messenger
as is known from the Imams of Deen like Imam Malik, Shafa'ee,
Ahmad, Ishaaq ibn Rahwiya, Sufyan ath-Thawreee, ibnul-Mubarak,
ibn Uyaynah, ad-Darimee and others. Far from 'Aql over Naql' being
the majority view, it is a heretical principle rejected overwhelmingly.
For the modernist however, this heretical principle is so essential that
Fahmi Huwaidi (considered an 'Islamist' journalist) considers
following the Naql (texts of the Qur'aan and the Sunnah) to be idol-
worship, he says,
"idol-worship is not merely worship of the idols,
rather idol-worship in today's time has been represented
by… worship of the texts…"
as an explainer of the Qur'aan and an independent source of
Islamic teaching, especially in matters of Aqeedah.
[Quoted from al-Islam wan-Nasraniyah (p. 56)]
[Majallah (no. 235) 1978, quoted from al-Asraniyoon p. 178]
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4. Modernists claim that the Qur'aan can only be a relevant
source of guidance as long as it can be interpreted
independently in the present, and thus they reject the
Sunnah
- 44 -
Muhammad Abduh writes,
"Anyway, it is required from us to dust off the
commands in the hadeeth and not let it direct our
Aqeedah, we take what is in the texts of the Qur'aan and
what is in accordance with the Aql.”
The modernists have made Aql their judge to determine which
hadeeth are acceptable, preferring those with general principles over
the ones with specific meaning. Concerning the hadeeth, "There is
none born among the off-spring of Adam, but Shaytan touches it. A
child therefore, cries loudly at the time of birth because of the touch of
Shaytan, except Maryam and her child." [Saheeh al-Bukharee (641)]
Zamakhshari remarks,
"Allah alone knows the authenticity of this, for if this
was true, then it would mean that Shaytan craves to
seduce every new-born except Maryam and her son; so
they are both masoom (free from sin), and similarly
whosoever fits their description… The beginning of the
cry from the touch is a representation of his craving…
The reality of the touch is not as people think. No. If
Shaytan was to control people then the world would have
been full of cries…"
[Tafseer Juz Amma, p.186]
[Tafseer al-Kashshaf (1/385-386)]
- 45 -
The modernists do not accept Ahaad Ahadeeth in matters of
Aqeedah.
Muhammad al-Ghazali as-Saka argues,
"Verily, beliefs, its basis is pure certainty that does
not have a speck of doubt. Moreover, the beliefs of Islam
are based upon mutawathir texts and established Aql.
We do not base our Aqeedah upon khabar wahid (i.e.,
Ahaad Ahadeeth) or guessing thoughts."
Muhammad Abduhu also writes,
"About the hadeeth which speak about Maryam and
Eesa that the Shaytan does not touch them, and the
hadeeth which speaks about the Shaytan of Allah's
Messenger accepting Islam, and the removal of the
share of Shaytan from his heart - these are from
Dhanni (unsure) reports because they are from Ahaad
hadeeth which speak about the world of the unseen, and
Eeman in the unseen comes under Aqeedah, and
nothing that is dhanni can be accepted concerning it…
We are not responsible to have faith in
information from those Ahadeeth in
our Aqeedah."
[As-Sunnah an-Nabawiya bayna ahlul-fiqah wa ahlul-hadeeth p.66.
Quoted from al-Asraniyoon, p288]
[Tafseer al-Manar (3/292)]
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5. The Modernists divide the Sunnah into 'Sunnah
Tashree'eah' and 'Ghair Tashree'eah.' They consider basic
Aqeedah, Salaat, Zakaat, Hajj and other worships as Sunnah
Tashree'eah. But Ahadeeth that speak about general public affairs
and rules and regulations are according to them, 'Ghair Tashree'eah'
which does not have to be implemented necessarily. This explains
their aversion in taking judgment from the Sunnah.
Muhammad Abduh said,
“What falls under the Sunnah from the issues of
politics are worldly issues and not Deen. It was so even
during the time of the Prophet and thus it is subject to
shoora (consultation) and rai (opinion) and ijtihad (and
therefore can be), accepted, rejected, modified and
made additions to.”
Muhammad Abduh says about the prohibition of women ruler-ship,
"What we have in our heritage about the issue of the
ruler-ship of women is an Islamic thought and Fiqhi
opinion and Fiqhi Ijtihad and it is not from Allah…"
About the Hadeeth of Allah's Messenger , "No people will ever
prosper who place a woman in authority over them."
Abduh says,
"It is a political prophecy from the Messenger about
the failure of the Majoos - they were the ones who were
ruled by a woman. It is not a command of prohibition for
the leadership of women, neither general nor specific. It
was an exceptional case…"
[Al-Islam was-Sultan ad-Diniya ( 104)]
[Al-Islam wal-Mustaqbil, 282, 232]
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Thus, we have seen how the Modernists try to force their
interpretation onto the text, just like the Mu'tazilah concerning whom
Shaikhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyah writes,
"Such people have made Rai their basic beliefs and
then present the words of the Qur'aan on it (take,
reject and make interpretation based upon it), - they
have no predecessors (in this act/methodology) from
the Sahabah and the Taba'een, nor from the Imams
of the Muslims; neither in their views or their
tafseer…" [Majmoo al-Fatawa (13/358)]
- 48 -
6. An element of the Modernists express opinions that
support Wahdat al-Adyaan (unity of religions).
Jamaal al-Deen al-Afghani said,
"The three religions (Judaism, Christianity and
Islam) are overall in agreement in ideology and aims, so
if there is a shortcoming in one in its ruling concerning
the absolute good, then it should be completed with the
other… In this, I see a great hope that the three religions
can be united, just like they are united in their essence,
foundation and objective, and with this unison,
humanity will move towards peace - a big step in this
short life."
Muhammad Ammarah says,
"The differences between the Muslims and the
People of the book is not dangerous. When they go out of
the pale of eeman, they are guided by (another) deen of
the lord."
Yusuf al-Qaradawi says about the Christians,
"Every issue among us is similar, we are children of
the same homeland, our fate is same, our Ummah is
same, I say about them our brother Christians, some
may object to my calling them brother (for, only
mu'mineen [believers] are brothers), yes we are mumin
and they are mu'min (only) in a different way."
[al-A'maal al-Kamila by Jamaal ad-Deen al-Afghani,
collected by Muhammad Ammarah, p.294-5]
[Tajdeed al-Fikr Islami,82. Quoted from al-asraniyoon, 309]
[The program as-Sharee'ah wal-Hayat 12/10/1997,
and he confesses this in his books like fatawa mu'asirah (2/668)]
- 49 -
Shaikh Bakr Abu Zaid (rahimahulah) writes refuting
, "the call of uniting Islam (the
religion which came to cancel out all the previous
religion) with that which the Jews and Christians are
upon (religions that are marred with additions and
modification) is the greatest deceit that has
challenged Islam - united upon it are both, the Jews
and the Christians due to their mutual hatred for
Islam and the Muslims, and they have covered it with
polished slogans and it is a deception that holds
frightening fate.
Its ruling in Islam is that it is a call of Bidah,
misguidance that leads to Kufr (disbelief), Riddah
(apostasy) from Islam, because it ruins the Aqeedah,
falsifies the truthfulness of the Qur'aan, and the
Qur'aan's being the Naskh (something that cancels
out the previous revealed books), and falsifying the
Naskh of Islam for the previous legislations, falsifies
the fact that Prophet is the seal of the Prophets - So
it is a theory that is rejected in Sharee'ah."
Wahdat al-Adyaan
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[Ibtaal li-Nadhariyah al-Khalt bayna al-Islam wa-gairihi minal-Adyan
by Sheikh Bakr Abu Zaid]
- 50 -
7. Another sect that is part of the Modernist trend is the
'Hadeeth-Rejectors'.
8. 'Neo-Modernists' or Progressives.
While the disease of abandoning hadeeth is
found amongst all modernists to varying degrees, hadeeth-rejectors
have gone further in their blanket rejection of either all or most
hadeeth, which is why they innovate ideas even stranger to Islam to
the extent that they seek to re-interpret even basic worship like salaat
and siyaam.
They are the new wave of
westernized-individuals claiming to be 'Muslim reformers', with a
singular message to re-define Islam in a manner that suits the
sensitivities of Western culture and values.
Amongst them are U.S. or European based academics,
journalists, self-styled activists, and others - all enticed by the
lucrative opportunities arisen out of the media's voracious appetite
for apologetic muslims speaking about 'problems within Islam.'
Some of these individuals are not even from Muslim
backgrounds like those who are Ismailis or Qadianis; or others who
are soofi charlatans, raafidah, Iranian communists, Egyptian
modernists, or other non-practicing secular individuals with
rudimentary knowledge of Islam.
Together they form a political movement dubbed
'Progressive Muslims' that has no consistent aims or agenda apart
from making statements that are opposed to Islam or Muslim
interests, like having a women lead a mixed gathering of men and
women for a Friday khutbah at a church, to invite a Christian pastor to
give the Friday khutbah, to express support for homosexual
marriages, to support the banning of niqaab and to throwing
accusations against Islamic charities and organizations.
[Detailed discussion in the next section]
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The 'progressives' for most part find academic direction from
the misguidance of the Mu'tazilah and the Mulhid philosophers, and
show very little intellectual integrity and sincerity as will be apparent
from the following incident.
In March 2005, US-based 'progressives' arranged for Amina
Wadud, a feminist, to give the Friday khutbah and lead the prayers in
a church to a mixed gathering of men and women.
The justification was a weak narration about a woman called
'Umm Waraqah' who was allowed to lead the prayers for her
household. They used this weak narration despite the well-known fact
that in Islam only men are allowed to lead the prayers and the prayer-
rows of women are behind that of men. What is amazing is that
'progressives' reject most or all hadeeth as a source of legislation.
It turned out that Amina Wadud
. A month before the 'church event', another
'progressive' Tarek Fatah reported the following about Amina
Wadud's lecture in Toronto.
"Midway through her speech … (Wadud) stated that despite
the fact the Qur'aan explicitly asks for cutting off the hands of
thieves, she did not agree with the Qur'aan…
She maintained that as a Muslim with Allah close to her heart,
in all honesty she could not continue with the hypocrisy of lying
about how she felt about some verses of the Qur'aan…
She declared that she could not intellectually or spiritually
accept some things in the Qur'aan, for example some of the
hudud punishments like the cutting of hands or the permission
to beat one's wife."
The Female-Imam Fiasco
does not even believe in
parts of the Qur'aan
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Inna'lillahi wa inna ilaihe raji'oon such words do not come out
except from a disbeliever or a hypocrite. We see that the 'progressives'
neither have true faith in Allah's revelation or His Wisdom, nor do
they have the intellectual integrity or truthfulness to stick by their
own principles. They follow what they like however frail and they
reject what they dislike however well established! When it suits them,
they seek to act upon a weak narration despite all odds; and when it
does not, they reject the entire collection of Bukharee and Muslim -
even parts of the Qur'aan!

The 'progressives' show an attitude that closely resembles that of the
Christian-modernist i.e., giving more credence to people's feelings
than to the revealed texts. This is why one often finds them speaking
of the 'spirit of Islam' in order to avoid following the specific teachings
of the Qur'aan and the Sunnah.
For example, they argue that text of the Qur'aan only says for
women to dress modestly and they do not like to talk about the
specific details of hijaab and say we only need to follow the 'spirit' of
the law. Naturally, the Modernist/Progressives find satisfaction with
the Murjiah view that faith is belief in the heart only, and actions of the
limbs are not part of faith i.e. 'progressive sola fide'!!! The neo-
progressives have gone even further to define with cultural
or social affinities to Muslims as 'Muslims'.
When an issue has been agreed upon by consensus amongst
the previous generations, then peculiar opinions of those who come
later do not break this consensus and do not make this issue a
Deen based on feelings
Disputing about agreed upon matters
an atheist
- 53 -
disputed one. However, the 'progressives' promote strange/heretical
opinions in order to term agreed upon matters as disputed; then insist
upon following the peculiar opinion over the traditional view. They
seek after and promote strange and mistaken opinions of past
scholars, or accept the views of outright deviants and heretics when it
suites them.
As is evident, the 'progressives' mimic closely the Christian-
modernist idea that scriptural guidelines are relative truth and not
absolute. What they overlook is that unlike Christianity, Islamic texts
as well as their preliminary interpretation by the Prophet and his
companions are preserved and available today such that one can refer
back to them in order to determine the original state of affairs, and
distinguish between what are religious injunctions and what are
cultural practices.
The 'progressives' seek to make Islam more humane by
removing practices from it that are not part of Islam in the first place,
like forced marriages and honor killings. By this, they have exposed
their ignorance and prejudice towards Islam to be on par with that of
the western media that they cater to.
The 'progressives' may be ardent claimants to independent
thinking, but in reality it is nothing but the age-old disease of
philosophy in a new garb. Hence we find them seeking guidance from
the works of Ibn Sina and Ibn Rushd. They also have
extremely distorted views about the concept of
'Ijtihaad' and when Islamic scholars resort to
Ijtihad to deduce rulings.
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It must be understood that the vast majority of the
beliefs and practices that are an essential part of a
Muslim's life are clearly stated in the Qur'aan and the
Sunnah and are agreed upon by consensus since the
early generations of Muslims. These established
beliefs and practices are not open to change or
reinterpretation.
In a small minority of finer issues where
there is no direct reference in the texts, qualified
Islamic scholars derive the ruling by means of
Ijtihaad (i.e., deliberating upon a ruling in light of the
Qur'aan and the Sunnah). The 'progressives'
however have taken 'Ijtihaad' as a panacea by which
they seek to change what they wish from Islam at will
even when those issues are plainly mentioned in the
Book and the Sunnah.

understanding

The True Meaning of
v/s

the false

of the
- 55 -
The following quote from one of the
'progressives' Muqtedar Khan
summarizes what the progressive
movement is about and its means in
achieving its goals:
"The second view (on Ijtihad)
often espoused by non-jurists and
particularly by those who advocate some form of
Islamic modernism and liberalism, envisions ijtihad
more broadly.
For modernist Muslims…Ijtihad is about freedom of
thought, rational thinking and the quest for truth
through an epistemology covering science, rationalism,
human experience, critical thinking and so on.
When modernist Muslims claim that the door of
ijtihad has been closed, they are lamenting the loss of the
spirit of inquiry that was so spectacularly demonstrated
by classical Islamic civilization at its peak. They are, in a
sense, nostalgic for Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and Ibn Rushd
(Averroes), for al-Farabi, al-Biruni and al-Haytham --
scientists, philosophers and jurists of Islam's 'Golden
Age'.
...As long as a majority of Muslims equate Islam with
sharee'ah, Islamic scholarship with fiqh (jurisprudence)
and real knowledge with juristic knowledge, ijtihad will
remain a limited jurisprudential tool and closed minds
will never open… Muslims must go back and read Ibn
Rushd (Fasl al-Maqaal, The Decisive Treatise), and
learn how he bridged science and religion, in order to
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understand that Islam has
nothing to fear from reason
and so to open their hearts and
minds to rational thought…
Islami c ref ormati on can be
understood in two different ways. It
can mean the reform of society to bring it
back to what have been considered Islamic norms and
values: most Islamic and Islamist reformers are
pursuing this type of reform. The other reform strategy
is to question the existing understanding of Islam and
seek to articulate a reformed understanding of Islam:
this is where Islamic modernists and rationalists have
always plied their trade. Here, Ijtihad is employed as an
instrument to critique prevalent understanding and
articulate a more compassionate, more modern and
perhaps even a more liberal understanding.”

As we can see…
(i) Ijtihad is falsely given a definition similar to philosophy - "quest
for truth through… rationalism, human experience, critical
thinking."
(ii) Muslims are asked to follow the deviant ways of the
philosophers that confused and misguided even someone as
pious and knowledgeable as Imam Al-Ghazzali.
[Two Theories of Ijtihad]
Comments:
- 57 -
(iii) Islam should not be equated with sharee'ah (the teachings of
Islam as a way of life)… and this begets the question, What
should Islam, the way of life based upon revelation to Prophet
Muhammad be equated with?
(iv) Reformation is to "question the existing understanding of
Islam" and make it "a more compassionate, more modern,
more liberal."
Subhaan'Allah! Islam is after all, the Command of the
Most Compassionate revealed 1400 years back to liberate
mankind from the worship of the creation to the worship of the
Creator.
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Presently (2008), the Progressive movement is in complete disarray
and its main organization in the US has lost over 90% of its board
members. It has lost support of most of the people that it claims to
represent, primarily because the 'progressives' have nothing to offer
the people beyond expressing disdain and aversion for the Islamic
sharee'ah. The Muslims find the 'progressives' on the other side when
their interests are discussed.
For example, when Allah's Messenger was unjustly
ridiculed by the Danish cartoonists, the progressives were found
justifying them and blaming Muslim reaction. When Muslims in
Canada sought to refer to Islamic law to solve marital and inheritance
disputes, the progressives strongly opposed it blaming the sharee'ah
to be 'unfair to women'.
Initially the Progressives did find common ground with
extremist soofis, raafidah, ismailis and other groups that share the
'progressives' disdain for the Islamic sharee'ah, and who too base
their religion upon feelings rather than the text - but later relations
soured between them over political differences and group rivalry.
The figureheads of the 'progressives' fiercely compete with
each other in issuing anti-Islamic statements, and often accuse each
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A

in
- 59 -
other of being too-Muslim. Their internal bickering provides useful
insights on the movement and its attitude towards Islamic teachings.
For instance, Muqtedar Khan, despite his lewd attitude
towards Islamic teachings and his far-fetched ideas on Ijtihaad, was
forced to resign from the advisory board of the primary 'progressive'
organization.
He says in his resignation letter,
"Lately I have found the environment with Progressive
Muslims Union (PMU) extremely oppressive, abusive and
hateful. I have found both PMU and *** extremely
intolerant of difference and disagreement. This is the only
Muslim group where people who believe in the teachings of
the Quran are ridiculed and those who express ambivalence
about it even about the existence of God are celebrated…
My close interaction with PMU has taught me three
things, (1) that clearly I am not sufficiently indifferent to the
teachings of Quran and the traditions of the Islamic
heritage to be a "good Progressive Muslim" (2) I was too
gullible to believe in its empty claims of openness and
tolerance for different perspectives and (3) I have also
learned that I am completely opposite in nature to most of
the members of PMU. For example I believe that a rational
argument precedes the moral judgment.
PMU is operating with a set of moral principles
randomly acquired from Marxism and/or postmodern
cultural trends and is treating them as absolutely moral
truths, and are now looking for arguments [hopefully with
some Islamic content] to justify them. PMU members
unleash fanatical rage when this is questioned and resort to
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abuse, distortion, false accusations as a substitute to
argument.
I can understand, sympathize and participate in
exercises of Ijtihad that seek to reassess "human
understanding" of Islam. I have been advocating this for
over a decade. My website Ijtihad was launched in 1999. But
not to observe Islamic values after recognizing them as such
to me is a sin. I cannot for example in good conscience
approve of alcohol consumption by those who acknowledge
it as forbidden. To demand that I do so in order to remain a
member of the community is exactly the kind of oppression
that I thought we had come together to fight…"
We Conclude with the wise words of,
Imam al-Barbaharee:
"If you wish to be firm upon the truth and upon the
way of the Ahlus-Sunnah before you; beware of
theological rhetoric (Kalaam) and of disputation,
arguing, analogy and debating about the religion.
Listening to them, even if you do not accept from
them, throws doubts into the heart.
This is sufficient for you to be destroyed. There has
never been any heresy, innovation, innovated sect or
misguidance except through rhetoric, disputation,
argumentation and analogy. These are the gates of
innovation, doubt and heresy.'
[End quote from, ‘Explanation of the Creed’
by Imam al-Barbaharee]
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- 63 -
Ibn Abbas (radiallahuanhuma) the great Qur'aanic commentator -
explained this verse in a manner that shows its relevance to all
generations that came after the time of the Messengers . He said that
by not putting oneself forward it is meant, "Do not say anything that
contradicts the Qur'aan and Sunnah."
Along these lines, we understand the next verse of this
soorah, "O you who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of
the Prophet ( ), nor speak aloud to him in talk as you speak aloud to
one another, lest your deeds may be rendered fruitless
while you perceive not."
To us, the forbiddance of raising our
voices over that of the Prophet signifies not
forwarding opinions and arguments in the
presence of the Messenger's teachings
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[Soorah al-Hujurat (49): 1]
;
"O you who believe!
Do not put (yourselves) forward
before Allah and His Messenger ( ), and fear Allah.
Verily! Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing."
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[Soorah al-Hujurat (49): 1]
Allah says in the Qur'aan,
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most significantly refraining from any
u na ut ho r i z e d a nd unf ou nde d
interpretations of the Qur'aan that are
based on opinion. This while we have with
us explanations from the Prophet , the one
assigned by Allah to convey and explain His
Message. "And We have also sent down unto you (O
Muhammad ) the Reminder and Advice, that you may explain
clearly to men what is sent down to them."
And undoubtedly, Allah's Messenger fulfilled this
responsibility of his in a manner that anyone who turns away from
this guidance has none to blame but himself. He said, "…I should
not like to see anyone amongst you on the Day of Resurrection,
carrying over his neck a horse that will be bleating or carrying over his
neck a horse that will be neighing, Such a man will be saying, "O
Allah's Messenger , Intercede with Allah for me!" and I will reply, "I
can't help you, ."
The severe caution against raising voices in the Messenger's
presence was given at a time when any defiance to his teachings was
inconceivable. It is narrated that after the revelation of these verses
from Soorah al-Hujurat about raising voices in the Messenger's
presence, Umar spoke so softly that the Prophet had to ask him to
repeat himself in order to be understood.
Similarly Anas bin Malik narrated, "When this Ayah (49:2)
was revealed, Thabit bin Qays whose voice was (naturally) loud said, 'I
was the one who raised his voice above the voice of Allah's Messenger.
I am among the dwellers of the Fire. My good deeds have been done in
vain." He remained in his house feeling distressed until the
Messenger of Allah noticed his absence. When Thabit's apprehension
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[Soorah an-Nahl (16):44]
[See, Tafseer Ibn Katheer]
for I have conveyed Allah's Message to you
- 65 -
was conveyed to the Prophet , he said,
"Nay, he (Thabit) is among the dwellers of
Paradise."
These incidents bear witness to the
Sahabah's understanding and awareness of
the Prophet's elevated status that voices raised,
not at but in the presence of the Messenger caused
such fear in their hearts.
The Sahabah would never oppose the Messenger or
contradict him or voice their opinion or shed doubt or express
anything less than complete submission to the Prophet's orders. It
was in this backdrop that Allah's Messenger warned against that
which was unthinkable to his faithful companions. He said, "Does
any of you, while reclining on his couch, imagine that Allah has
prohibited only that which is to be found in this Qur'aan? By Allah, I
have preached, commanded and prohibited various matters as
numerous as that are found in the Qur'aan or more."
He informed, "Indeed, I have brought the Qur'aan and
something like it along with it, yet the time is coming when a man
reclining on his couch will say, 'Keep to this Qur'aan, what you find in
it to be permissible (Halaal), treat as permissible, and what you find in
it to be prohibited (Halaal), treat as prohibited…"
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[Abu Dawood (3044)]
[Abu Dawood]
- 66 -
The prophecy of Allah's Messenger materialized
when a dangerous precedence was set after the era of the
righteous Salaf. Ahlul-Kalaam as well as some scholars
of Fiqh and Usool deduced certain rules and in their
extremism subjected the hadeeth to these rules such that
if the hadeeth were in accordance with these rules, they
were accepted; and if they were contrary to these rules,
the Ahadeeth were not followed. So they effectively
reversed the affair, and the hadeeth becomes subject to
these deduced rules, instead of it being the judge and
criterion. [See, The Hadeeth is Proof in itself by Shaikh
al-Albani] Rules for example: 'matters of Aqeedah are
not taken from Aahad hadeeth' and 'hadeeth that add a
rule to the Qur'aan are not accepted!'
Those who followed this misguided way built
upon it until certain groups rejected Hadeeth outright
and questioned its authority. Their motivations were the
same as the Ahlul-Kalaam before them i.e., to sideline
the hadeeth and clear the path for opinions,
philosophies and conjecture in the Deen.
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The

of
- 67 -
Hadeeth-rejecters come in different orientations…
1. Some reject Hadeeth bluntly like Rashad Khaleefah. (*1)
2. Some do not reject Ahadeeth outright but reduce its status to
mere tradition and fables, and only approve Ahadeeth that they
see as consistent to their understanding of the Qur'aan like
Ghulam Parvez.(*2)
(*1) Rashad Khaleefah was an Egyptian immigrant to the U. S. who claimed to have
discovered a mathematical pattern involving 'the number 19’ and its multiples
throughout the Qur’aan. He claimed this discovery was a miracle that comes from
Messengers, and he declared Messengership on this basis.
His infatuation with the number 19 led him to reject two verses from the
Qur’aan that did not fit his calculation (i.e. verses 9:128-129).
He claimed that the Prophet had no function except to deliver the Qur’aan
and so, he did not explain or interpret it.
Rashad Khaleefah rejected hadeeth outright, and declared anyone who
testifies to ‘ ’ in the Kalimah as a mushrik.
As for the integrity of Rashad Khalifa’s number 19 research, Dr Bilal Philips
mentions, “Many Muslims at first received Khalifa’s theories with uncritical
enthusiasm. However, when more rigorous critics began checking his numbers, they
found numerous discrepancies and some outright fabrica-tions in his data.
His claims were based on the number of times a given letter or word occurs
in a given soorah or group of soorahs. It was discovered that he would sometimes treat
hamzahs like alifs and sometimes he wouldn’t, depending on the totals he needed in a
given soorah to confirm his theory. Sometimes he counted letters that weren’t there,
sometimes he failed to count existing letters, sometimes he counted two words as one,
sometimes he added to the Qur’aanic text and sometimes he deleted from it, all for the
purpose of making the letter and word counts conform to his theory.” [For more
details see the book, “The Quran’s Numerical Miracle: Hoax and Heresy” by Dr. Bilal
Philips]
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Muhammad-ar-RasoolAllah
(*2) Gulam Parvez was a government civil servant in pre-partition India, and later
worked in the Pakistan Central Government. He was the founder of the Tolu-e-Islam
Trust and authored many books to forward his ideas of hadeeth rejection.
- 68 -
3. Some shed doubt on the authenticity of the entire collection of
hadeeth whose usefulness - as they claim - is of secondary dependant
nature like Amin Ahsan Islaahi.(*3)
(*3) Amin Ahsan Islahi was a journalist born in Azamgarh. He took Hamiduddin
Farahi’s idea of direct deliberation on the Qur’aan and was amongst the founding
members of the Moulana Maudoodi’s, “Jamaat Islami.”
Maudoodi himself, like Islahi had dubious views with regards to hadith, and
both he and Islahi spread doubts and suspicions on the verification of hadith. Many
specialized scholars have pointed out the incorrect views of Maududi on the Hadith
and Sunnah, most notably the great scholar Muhammad Ismaa’eel al-Salafi (may
Allaah have mercy on him) (d. 1387 AH), who wrote an important study entitled
Mawqif al-Jamaa’at al-Islamiyyah min al-Hadeeth al-Nabawi (attitude of the
Jama’at-e-Islami towards the Prophet’s hadeeth).
In Moulana Ismaa’eel al-Salafi analysis, "It is possible that Moulana Islahi's words and
tone may be different, but as for the objective then Moulana Islahi's views are no
different from that of Moulana Maududi. With regards to the hadith, both elders have
almost the same views" [Hujjiyat Hadith, Shaikh Muhammed Ismail Gujranwala,
p.87 (Jamaat Islami's Views on Hadith – a critcal analysis)]. More on this in the
appendix.
Maudoodi mentioned a strange criterion for approving hadeeth. He said, “A person
who understands the distinguishing character of Islam and has done a thorough study
of Qur’aan and the character of Prophet Muhammad becomes capable of sensing the
finer sentiments of the character of the Messenger. His insight is able to sense which
words his Holy Majesty the Messenger of Allah could have uttered in a certain hadith,
while dishonoring others that he does not sense, belong to the Messenger."
[Tafhimaat, vol.1/338, Islamic Publications Limited, Lahore 2000 CE]
Amin Islahi's way and teachings are being promoted by his media-savvy
student, Jawed Ahmed Ghamidi who forwards false ideas like hijab has no foundation
in Islam, Music is not haraam, it is completely legitimate for a female to be the head of
an Islamic State, rejecting the bodily Meraaj of the Prophet, rejecting the punishment
of Rajm (stoning), rejecting the descent of Eesa (alihis-salaam), rejecting the advent of
the Mahdi and the appearance of the Dajjal, and many other issues. He is amongst the
very few who publicly indorsed the Female-Imam fiasco that took place in the US.
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Despite differences in approach, the Hadeeth-rejecters share the
following common traits:
According to them, it is either impossible to distinguish between
authentic and inauthentic Hadeeth, or the science of Hadeeth
cannot prove a narration to be authentic with certainty. Their
uncertainty is a result of their ignorance or lack of correct
appreciation for the science of hadeeth verification.
like the agreement on
the authenticity of the Ahadeeth collected in Saheeh al-Bukharee
and Saheeh Muslim concerning which Imam an-Nawawi
(rahimahullah) said in his introduction to Sharh Muslim (1/14),
"The scholars are agreed that the most sound of books after the
Qur'aan are the two Saheehs of al-Bukharee and Muslim which
were accepted by the Ummah. The book of al-Bukharee is
sounder and the more beneficial of the two."
a) They shed doubts on the validity of the process by which
Ahadeeth are declared as authentic or fabricated.
b) They do not respect the unanimous agreements between
the hadeeth-specialists of the past,

of the hadeeth-rejecters
- 70 -
c) They aggressively promote that the interpretation of the
Qur'aan is not limited to the understanding of the
earlier generations of Islam
d) They harbor ambitions to insinuate a new social and
religious order for the Muslims which they justify by
misinterpreting the Book of Allah.
, but that the Qur'aan should be
open to interpretation in accordance with modern thought.
They seek an 'Islamic
renaissance' to change the way Muslims understand the Deen.
Therefore, one often finds the names of Hadeeth-rejecters
associated with heretical interpretations of well-accepted
Islamic teachings.
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Like all dangerous innovations and deviations from the Deen, the
Fitna of hadeeth-rejection comes in a guise that appeals to the
people's reverence for Allah's Deen. Some hadeeth-rejecters claim to
be defenders of the Prophet's honor when they reject authentic
hadeeth from Saheeh al-Bukharee that mentions the age of the
Prophet's wife Aaisha at the time of the consummation of her
marriage or the Hadeeth about Allah's Messenger being harmed by
magic. They consider these Ahadeeth unacceptable and a cause for
Islam's critics to attack the Messenger!
Their solution is to cast doubts on the very process of
transmission and verification of hadeeth and deprive the Muslims
from the entire treasure of knowledge inherited from the Prophet
Their call takes strength from the general ignorance with
regards to the process by which Ahadeeth are verified as authentic or
inauthentic.
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.
The irony of the matter is that the hadeeth-
rejecters wish to defend the Prophet's honor by rendering
meaningless his status as an example, a teacher and
explainer of the Qur'aan.

as

Callers to evil
- 72 -
But what remains of Islamic law when you curtail the Sunnah from it
and expose the Qur'aan to open misinterpretation until every
opinionated person has his own personal interpretation of Quran.
In an environment of increased sectarianism, where religious
groups openly squabble amongst themselves, Munkareen al-Hadeeth
present themselves
who wish to gather all the sects on the one agreed-upon book, 'the
Qur'aan'.
The fact however, is that Munkareen al-Hadeeth are neither
liberal nor progressive. They project themselves as liberal in the sense
that they are not averse to divergent opinions. But a closer analysis
shows that hadeeth-rejecters declare anyone who disagrees with their
personal interpretations of the Qur'aan as misguided and
disbelievers.
As for being progressive, progress is to advance towards
following the Deen of Allah, not changing it.
Finally, with regard to unifying the different sects under the
banner of the Qur'aan, then these sects are already united on the text
of the Qur'aan. It is the interpretation that there is disagreement
about. And this is exactly the type of disagreement found amongst
Munkireen al-Hadeeth themselves (examples ahead).
There is thus no substance in this claim either.
As a result, the only thing that
Munkireen al-hadeeth have managed to
accomplish by spreading doubts about
Islam's texts is to open the way for Islamic
law to be attacked by its enemies and to
Hadeeth-rejecters like Gulam Perwez consider
themselves as vanguards of Islamic law against secularism.
as liberal, progressive consensus-makers
(Examples to follow under, 'Are Hadeeth-Rejecters Liberal?')
- 73 -
question beliefs and practices that have
always been accepted by consensus.
These groups now
compete with Hadeeth-rejecters and concoct ever-weirder
misinterpretations of Islam.
This is why we find
'secularist', 'modernists',
'progressives' and anyone who has a
vested interest in subduing Islam's
influence as a legislation and law have
jumped on the bandwagon of the hadeeth-rejecters
for they find common cause with them.
- 74 -

and

Sunnah in Islam
of
1. The Example of Allah's Messenger is part of Islam and will
be protected till the Last Day. Allah says, "Indeed, in the
Messenger of Allah (Muhammad ) you have a good example to
follow, for him who hopes in (the Meeting with) Allah and the
Last Day and remembers Allah much."
Islam is a universal religion, and its teachings are for all
mankind and for all ages; and as long as people need to be
guided, the example of the Prophet will be preserved. "We have
not sent you (O Muhammad ) except as a Messenger to all
mankind, giving them glad tidings and warning them against
sin."
Rather, the very purpose of sending a human Messenger was
for people to take him as an example in their day to day lives,
"Say, 'If there were on the earth, angels walking about in peace
and security, We should certainly have sent down for them from
the heaven, an angel as a Messenger."
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[Soorah al-Ahzab (33): 21]
[Soorah Saba (34): 28]
[Soorah al-Isra (17): 95]
- 75 -
2. Allah's Messenger received revelations beside the
Qur'aan.
Anyone who believes in Allah as the Supreme Rabb,
must agree that the guidance which Allah has sent will
be protected as long as there is a need for it which in
case of Islam is until the last day. The question remains
- Is Qur'aan the only guidance that has been revealed by
Allah as the hadeeth-rejecters contend or has the
Messenger received revelation from Allah that is not
part of the Qur'aan?
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Allah says, "Verily, it is We who have sent down the
Dhikr (revelation), and surely We will guard it."
The Qur'aan itself refers to revelation being received from
Allah that is not found in the Qur'aan and hereunder are few
examples:
i) Allah says in the Qur'aan, "And We made the Qiblah (prayer
direction towards Jerusalem) which you used to face, only
to test those who followed the Messenger (Muhammad)."
This verse shows that Allah had assigned the
previous Qiblah of the Muslims but there is no verse in the
Qur'aan designating Jerusalem as the previous Qibla. This
means that there has to be an alternative form of 'Wahy'
(revelation) apart from the Qur'aan through
which Allah revealed the previous
command of facing towards
Jerusalem.
ii) "And (remember) when the
Prophet ( ) disclosed a
[Soorah Hijr (15):9]

[Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 143]
- 76 -
matter in confidence to one of his wives (Hafsah), so when
she told it (to another i.e. Aa'isha), and Allah made it
known to him, he informed part thereof and left a part.
Then when he told her (Hafsah) thereof, she said, 'Who
told you this?' He said, 'The All-Knower, the All-Aware
(Allah) has told me."
The verse says, "Allah made it known to him," and
yet, there is no verse in the Qur'aan that makes mentions
this.
iii) "It is for Us to collect it (i.e. the Qur'aan) and to give you (O
Muhammad ) the ability to recite it (the Qur'aan)."
The Qur'aan as it has been collected is not in the same
order in which it was revealed, and while it is for Allah to
collect the Qur'aan there are no verses in the Qur'aan that
mention the arrangement of the verses. This information
is found in the Sunnah.
iv) The Qur'aan mentions the call to the prayer (adhan), "And
when you proclaim the call for Salaat, they take it (but) as a
mockery and fun." and, "O you who
believe! When the call is proclaimed for the Salaat on the
day of Friday, come to the remembrance of Allah."

These verses testify that Adhan is part of the religion
of Islam but there is no verse in the Qur'aan that
prescribes the Adhan for the believers. This order is found
in the other revelation - the Sunnah.
[Soorah at-Tahrim (66): 3]
[Soorah al-Qiyamah (75): 17]
[Soorah al-Maidah (5): 58]
[Soorah
al-Jumuah (62): 9]
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These are some proofs that show that the Messenger of Allah
did indeed receive revelation apart from the Qur'aan; and since
this revelation constitutes beneficial guidance, it will be
preserved.
Allah repeatedly makes mention of the revealed 'al-Hikmah'
in the Qur'aan. He said, "Allah has sent down to you the Book
(the Qur'aan), and al-Hikmah, and taught you that which you
knew not."
"He, it is Who, sent among the unlettered ones a Messenger
from among themselves, reciting to them His Ayaat, purifying
them, and teaching them the Book and the Hikmah."
"And remember (O you members of the Prophet's family),
that which is recited in your houses of the Ayaat of Allah and the
Hikmah."
These verses show;
(i) Al-Hikmah is revealed by Allah
(ii) It is part of the Messenger's duty to teach the Hikmah
(iii) It is something recited and remembered in the
Prophet's household.
There is nothing in status and position that can be mentioned
alongside the Qur'aan apart from the Sunnah of Prophet
Muhammad . This honor cannot be given to conventional
wisdom inherited from the past or even to the books given to
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[As-Sunnah Hujjiyyatuhaa wa Makaanatuha fi-l-Islam by Dr.
Luqmaan as-Salafi; Introduction to the Sunnah by Dr. Suhaib Hassan]
[Soorah an-Nisa (4): 113]
[Soorah al-
Jumu'ah (62): 2]
[Soorah al-Ahzab (33):34]
3. The Sunnah is in itself a Revelation from Allah
- 78 -
previous nations. At the time of the Sahabah, such 'wisdom' was
not given any consideration as the following incidents testify…
Imran bin Hussain said, "The Prophet said, 'Haya' does not
bring anything except good." Thereupon, Bashir bin Ka'b said,
"It is written in the wisdom paper: Haya leads to solemnity; Haya
leads to tranquility (peace of mind)."
Imran said to him, "I am narrating to you the saying of Allah's
Messenger and you are speaking about your paper (wisdom
book)?"
When Umar came to the Prophet , he said, "We hear the
narrations from the Jews, which sound pleasing to us, so should
we not write some of them?" Whereupon he said, "Do you want
to be baffled as the Jews and the Christians were baffled? I have
brought to you (guidance) bright and pure and if Prophet Moosa
was alive now there would have been no alternative left for
him but to follow me."
Therefore, Imam Ash-Shafiee (rahimahullah) says
explaining the verse about Hikmah,
"So Allah mentioned His Book, i.e., the Qur'aan and (He also
mentioned) Hikmah. I have heard that those who are learned in
the Qur'aan - whom I approve - hold that Hikmah is the Sunnah
of the Messenger of Allah.
This is like what [Allah Himself] said but Allah knows best!
For the Qur'aan is mentioned [first], followed by Wisdom; [then]
Allah mentioned His favor to mankind by teaching them the
Qur'aan and Wisdom. So it is not permissible for Hikmah to be
called here [anything] save the Sunnah of the Messenger of
Allah. For [Hikmah] is closely linked to the Book of Allah, and
Allah has imposed the duty of obedience to His Messenger, and
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[Saheeh al-Bukharee (8/138)]
[at-Tirimidhee]
- 79 -
imposed on men the obligation to obey his orders.
So, it is not permissible to regard anything as a duty save that
set forth in the Qur'aan and the Sunnah of His Messenger. For
[Allah], as we have [just] stated, prescribed that the belief in His
Messenger shall be associated with the belief in Him."
Furthermore, Book and Hikmah are not the same because at
no place is the word 'Hikmah' used for the Book or the word
'Book' used for 'Hikmah'. They are two separate and distinct
entities.
Allah says, "It is for Us to collect it and to give
you (O Muhammad ) the ability to recite it (the Qur'aan). And
when We have recited it to you, then follow you its recital. Then it
is for Us (Allah) to make it clear to you."
This verse indicates that both the text of the Qur'aan as well as its
explanation have been sent from Allah.
Allah also says, "And We have also sent down unto you (O
Muhammad ) the reminder and the advice, that you may
explain clearly to men what is sent down to them and that they
may give thought."
This verse mentions that the
, and the Messenger is the one assigned to
provide it. This explanation is not only needed by people at the
time of the Prophet , but by all subsequent generations until the
last day. Rather, the more the distance in age from the time of the
Prophet , the more the need to solve differences in
understanding by reference to the original state of affairs.
[Ar-Risala]
[Soorah al-Qiyamah (75): 17-19]
[Soorah an-Nahl (16): 44]
4. The Qur'aan needs to be understood as Allah meant it to
be understood.
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message requires
explanation
- 80 -
Furthermore, this verse also gives instructions about the
order in which the Qur'aan should be understood. First the
Messenger explains Allah's revelation clearly to mankind and
then they give thought. People are not free to let loose their
thoughts and speculate about the message of the Qur'aan whilst
ignoring the teachings of the Messenger
According to Hadeeth-rejecters, 'God Himself states in the
Qur'aan that it is He Who explains the Qur'aan. This means that
the Qur'aan explains itself.' But
One of the most important duties with which
Allah's Messenger was sent with was to convey the Qur'aan to
mankind and to teach it. Allah says, "Indeed, Allah conferred a
great favor on the believers when He sent among them a
Messenger (Muhammad ) from among themselves, reciting
unto them His Verses, and purifying them, and teaching them
the Book (Qur'aan) and Hikmah while before that they had been
in manifest error."
"And We have also sent down unto you (O Muhammad ) the
Reminder and the Advice that you may explain clearly to men
what is sent down to them."
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.
why then have the Hadeeth-
rejectors not sufficed themselves with the text of the Qur'aan and
have written huge volumes discussing and explaining the
Qur'aan?
Because there are verses in the Qur'aan that explain
each other, and there are verses that require
explanation from the Sunnah.
5. The Qur'aan can only be correctly understood in light of
the Sunnah.
[Soorah aal-Imran (3): 164]
[Soorah an-Nahl (16): 44]
- 81 -
i) The Sunnah explains the commands of the
Qur'aan in details. For example, Allah commands His
believing slaves in Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 43, "…establish
As-Salaat and give Zakaat…"
Details of the command to establish the Salaat are not
found in the Qur'aan such as the required number of daily
prayers, the units of prayers (rak'ah) and the recitation in
each mode of prayer as well as the manner of performing
the prayer from the beginning to the end, etc. All these
guidelines are to be taken from the Sunnah.
Similarly, Allah commands in Soorah al-Jumuah
(62), verse 9, "When the call is proclaimed for the Salaat
on the day of Friday..."
The words of the call to prayer (Adhaan) is known
from the Sunnah. Likewise, all issues of Zakaat e.g., the
minimum amount on which Zakaat becomes payable, the
percentage paid, the kind of wealth, goods and animals on
which Zakaat is obligatory, etc. are clearly explained by the
Prophet
Other important acts of worship like fasting and Hajj
are touched upon briefly in the Qur'aan and for detailed
injunctions Muslims are to refer to the Sunnah.

Another example is the Qur'aanic punishment for the
thief. "Cut off the hand of the thief, male or female, as a
recompense for that which they committed..."
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[Soorah al-
Maidah (5) :38]
- 82 -
This verse prescribes the punishment, but the Sunnah
designates what is the minimum amount when it is
applied. The Messenger of Allah said, "The hand of the
thief shall be cut off if he steals a quarter of a Dinar or
more."
Note: The manner in which the hadeeth-rejectors explain this
verse provides beneficial insight into their methodology
and contradictions.
Rashad Khalifa translates this verse as,
"The thief, male or female, you shall mark their hands as
a punishment for their crime," and then comments,
"The practice of cutting off the thief's hand as decreed
by the false Muslims is a satanic practice without
Qur'aanic basis." [Rashad Khalifa's Translation]
Therefore, the Qur'aan itself does not have Qur'aanic basis (!)
when the hadeeth-rejectors dislike something in it.
Rashad Khaleefah used mathematical calculations to
interpret cutting as marking.
Ghulam Perwez says about this verse,
"As to a thief, man or woman, such restrictions should be
imposed on them which render them incapable of
committing such crime."
He comments,
"The literal meaning of the text is 'cutting off the hands.'
When the Divine Order of Rabubiyyat is established,
every person will be guaranteed means of livelihood.
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[Saheeh al- Bukharee]
- 83 -
If anyone commits a
t h e f t u n d e r s u c h
c i r c u ms t a n c e s h e
deserves t he hi ghest
punishment." [Perwez's
Translation]
We can see that after all the
prolonged argument by the Hadeeth-rejecters
that the Qur'aan explains itself and is in no need of
the Sunnah to clarify it, we find Perwez adding non-
Qur'aanic clauses to the Qur'aanic law to limit the
circumstance under which this punishment is
applied.
The Qur'aan
prescribes, "Cut off the hand of the thief, male or female…"
but does not clarify what hand means. The Sunnah
explains the hand to mean 'from the wrist down'.
The Qur'aan explains the ruling and manner of
Tayammum as, "…But if you are ill or on a journey or any
of you comes from answering the call of nature, or you
have been in contact with women and you find no water,
then perform Tayammum (dry ablution) with clean earth
and rub therewith your faces and hands."
The Sunnah explains that hands in this verse mean
only the palms. The word 'hand' could have multiple
meanings but the Sunnah specifies the appropriate
meaning for each ruling.
ii) The Sunnah establishes a meaning, when a
number of meanings are possible.
- 84 -
Another example is the Saying of Allah, "And those
who ( means hoarding up) gold and silver,
and spend it not in the Way of Allah, announce unto them
a painful torment."
Apparently, this verse means that any kind of hoarding or
collection of money that is not spent in the Way of Allah
will doom one to the painful torment but the Sunnah
clarifies that Kanz refers to the wealth on which Zakaat
has not been paid.
In Soorah al-Maida (5): 3, Allah says, "Forbidden to
you (for food) are: al-Maytatah (the un-slaughtered dead
animals), blood…"
The general rule in this verse prohibits all Maytatah
and all forms of blood but the Prophet made exceptions
to this rule. He said, "We were allowed two dead animals
and two (kinds of) blood. As for the two dead animals, they
are fish and locust. As for the two bloods, they are liver and
spleen."
Allah says, "Those who follow the Messenger, the
Prophet who can neither read nor write - he commands
them for al-Ma'roof (the prescribed); and forbids them
from al-Munkar (the prohibited); he allows them as lawful
at-Taiyibaat (i.e. all good), and prohibits them as unlawful
yaknizu 'Kanz'
[Introduction to the Sunnah by Dr Suhaib Hassan]
[Quoted from Tafseer Ibn Katheer]
iii) The Sunnah can specify exceptions to a general
rule.
iv) The Sunnah also gives additional injunctions in a
number of issues.
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al-Khabaaith (i.e. all evil), he
releases them from their
heavy burdens (of Allah's
Covenant), and from the fetters
(bindings) that were upon them.
So those who believe in him
(Muhammad ), honor him, help him,
and follow the light which has been sent down with
him, it is they who will be successful."
A number of religious injunction thus emanate from
the Sunnah like the prohibition of the flesh of the donkeys,
dogs, beasts with canine teeth and birds of prey. He
made wearing gold and silk Halaal for the women and
Haraam for the men, etc.
There is no scope for anyone with all his Arabic
scholarship to understand the glorious Qur'aan without
Sunnah. The Sahabah were the most knowledgeable in the
language in which the Qur'aan was revealed at a time
when Arabic was not blemished by the incorrectness of the
colloquial language or their grammatical mistakes. Yet,
they erred in understanding the verses when they relied
on language alone, and following are some examples…
a) Allah says in the Qur'aan, "It is those who believe
and confuse not their belief with Dhulm (wrongdoing), for
them (only) there is security and they are the guided."
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[Soorah al-A'raf (7):157]

[Soorah al-An'am (6): 82]
v) Inadequacy of language alone to understand
Qur'aan.
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When this verse was revealed, the Sahabah
understood 'Dhulm' in its wider sense meaning 'all
wrongdoing' and this caused much concern because no
one is free from wrongdoing. The Prophet explained
that 'Dhulm' in this verse refers to Shirk.
b) "…eat and drink until the white thread of dawn appears to
you distinct from the black thread."
This verse describes the time when the fast begins. A
companion understood this verse literally and slept with
two threads under his pillow to determine when the fast
should begin. The Prophet explained that the black and
white thread actually refers to the white streak of dawn
and the darkness of night.
The hadeeth-rejecters maintain that the Qur'aan is a
detailed Book that does not require any other source to
supplement it – not even Sunnah. Despite this we have
seen how Ghulam Parwez added additional clauses to the
order of cutting the thief's hand. Furthermore, the
Hadeeth-rejecters seriously contradict themselves when
they author detailed volumes explaining and deliberating
upon the Qur'aan and propose additional clauses and
conditions to the Qur'aan's orders.
Another example of this is Rashad Khaleefah's
comment on the verse, "Those who eat Riba (usury) will
not stand (on the Day of Resurrection) except like the
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[Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 187]
[Adapted from, 'The Status of Sunnah in Islam' by Allama Al-Albanee]
vi) Detailed book?
- 87 -
standing of a person beaten
by Shaytan leading him to
insanity.”
Rashad Khaleefah says,
"It i s an est abl i shed
economic principle that excessive
interest on loans can utterly destroy a whole country.
During the last few years we have witnessed the
devastation of the economies of many nations where
excessive interest is charged. Normal interest - less
than 20% - where no one is victimized and everyone
is satisfied is not usury."
The 20% condition is not mentioned in the Qur'aan.
To emphasize that the Qur'aan does not need
supplementary explanations, the Hadeeth-rejecters
quote, "We have neglected nothing in the Book, then unto
their Lord they (all) shall be gathered."
"And We have sent down to you the Book (the Qur'aan)
as an exposition of everything…"
For the correct understanding, we refer to the
complete verse, i.e., "There is not a moving (living)
creature on earth, nor a bird that flies with its two wings,
but are communities like you. We have neglected nothing
in the Book, then unto their Lord they (all) shall be
gathered."
One interpretation is that 'the Book' in this verse
refers to the preserved tablet in which Allah has recorded
[Soorah al-An'am (6):
38]
[Soorah an-Nahl (16): 89]
[Soorah al-An'aam (6):38]
- 88 -
everything that occurs, and this is similar to another verse,
"And no (moving) living creature is there on earth but its
provision is due from Allah. And He knows its dwelling
place and its deposit all is in a Clear Book (al-Lawh al-
Mahfoodh)."
Even if one interprets 'the Book' to be the Qur'aan
then Allah has not neglected to mention in it the Prophet's
duty as the example, teacher and explainer of the Qur'aan
and obedience to him is ordered in seventy verses.
While 'the Book' does not contain details of the
prayers and fasting, it did not neglect to direct the
believers towards the example of the Prophet where it
can be found. And the same explanation holds good for the
other similar verse, i.e., "We have sent down to you the
Book (the Qur'aan) as an exposition of everything…"

Allah says, "Verily, it is We who have sent down the Dhikr
(revelation), and surely We will guard it."
The word, 'Dhikr' has been used in the Book of Allah
to refer to the Qur'aan, the Deen in general, the remembrance of
Allah, the Friday prayer (62:9) and Allah's Messenger as in the
verse, "Allah has indeed sent down to you a Dhikr (reminder). A
Messenger who recites to you the verses of Allah."
Therefore, Allah promised to protect the Qur'aan, its
understanding, the example of His Messenger , the Prayer and
all aspects of the Deen which collectively are 'the Dhikr'. The text
of the Qur'aan will not be protected if its understanding which is
[Soorah Hud (11): 6]
[Soorah Hijr (15): 9]
[Soorah at-Talaaq
(65): 10-11)]
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6) Allah's Protection for the Dhikr includes all the Deen.
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contained in the Sunnah is not
protected.
Furthermore, if anyone wants to
restrict the meaning of 'Dhikr' to the
Qur'aan then they need to present a
proof. A segment of Munkireen al-Hadeeth
argues that Qur'aan was the only revelation and
hence Dhikr exclusively refers to the Qur'aan. This
argument has already been replied to earlier with examples that
the Qur'aan itself refers to a revelation apart from it.
Another group of Munkareen al-Hadeeth claims that the
additional guidance received by the Messenger was for his
period only. This is a false argument because the latter
generations who do not have a living Messenger amongst
themselves are more in need of the guidance and explanations
that was revealed apart from the Qur'aan. This group also claims
that the Messenger himself did not undertake any measures to
preserve the hadeeth, the like of which was undertaken to
preserve the Qur'aan. We will shed light on the issue in the
following pages.
To summarize, the insistence of Munkareen al-Hadeeth that the
Dhikr which Allah had Promised to protect, is only the Qur'aan is not
based on any sound proof but upon their assumption and conjecture.
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The Sunnah is composed of the sayings, actions and
silent approvals of Allah's Messenger
Sunnah also refers to the correct Aqeedah
(creed) and worship, as opposed to innovations,
which is why many scholars refer to their books on
Aqeedah as, 'the Sunnah,' like 'As-Sunnah' of Imam
Ahmed, 'As-Sunnah' by al-Khallah, 'Sharhus-
Sunnah' by al-Barbaharee.
The authentic narrations that have reached
us about the sayings, actions and approvals of Allah's
Messenger are referred to as Hadeeth.
The Sunnah is therefore contained within
the authentic hadeeth and is synonymous with the
authentic hadeeth.
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and

Defining
- 92 -
Shaikhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyah explains, "The Sunnah
that is a must to be followed, for which one is praised
due to following it, and blamed for going against it, is
the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah in matters of
belief, matters of worship and the rest of the affairs of
the religion and what is known only by knowledge of
the hadeeth of the Prophet that are confirmed on
his authority."
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[Majmoo Fatawa (3/387)
Quoted from The Importance and Authority of the Sunnah
by Jamaal al-Din M. Zarabozo]
- 93 -
From what has preceded, we have seen the significance of the Sunnah
as a source of the Deen and it is only a natural consequence that the
study of Hadeeth has been a constant pursuit since the beginning of
Islam to the present time.
The Companions of the Prophet eagerly observed what he
said and did, and memorized it faithfully. Some of them even
recorded Hadeeth by writing in 'saheefahs'.
The Ahadeeth were passed down from generation to
generation among the most trustworthy of individuals in a
tremendous effort that not only preserved the exact words of the
Messenger , but also the entire chain of narration and the condition
of the narrators (memory, period, beliefs, etc.).
This manner and meticulousness by which Ahadeeth have
been preserved is unique and unparallel in literary history, and one
needs to study the science of hadeeth-verification in order to truly
appreciate it.
To get a good overview of how Islamic texts were preserved
we start by understanding the methodology of the compilation of the
Qur'aan so that it can be compared to the methodology of Hadeeth
compilation.
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of
- 94 -
Allah says, "He, it is Who, sent among the unlettered ones a
Messenger (Muhammad) from among themselves."
Being mostly unlettered, the primary mode by which the
Arabs preserved their knowledge like poetry and history was by
memorization. When the Qur'aan was revealed it too, was memorized
by the Sahabah and in addition some of the sahabah were assigned by
the Prophet to write down the Qur'aan.
At the time of the Prophet's death , all of the Qur'aan had
been verified and written on various materials like cloth, stone, date-
palm leaves, etc., and remained scattered as loose fragments in the
possession of various Sahabah.
It had not been compiled in the form of a book because during
the lifetime of the Prophet the Qur'aan was continually being
revealed, and the order of the verses is not chronological. There was
also no pressing need for it because of the large number of accurate
memorizers and reciters of the Qur'aan.
During the Caliphate of Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq, many
memorizers of the Qur'aan were killed in battles and a collective
decision was taken to compile the Qur'aan in a single book in order to
[Soorah al-
Munafiqun (63): 2]
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of the
- 95 -
preserve it. The enormously significant task was given to Zayd ibn
Thaabit who began to collect the Qur'aan from what was written on
palm stalks, thin white stones and also from the men who knew it by
heart.
Zayd ibn Thaabit, despite being a memorizer of the Qur'aan
himself, was methodical in his compilation and would not agree to
write down any verse until two of the Sahabah testified that they had
heard it from the Messenger of Allah . In this manner, the entire
Qur'aan was verified and written on leather, and remained with Abu
Bakr until his death and then with Umar until the end of his life, and
then with Hafsah the daughter of Umar and the wife of the Prophet
At the time of Uthmaan ibn Affan, the Islamic empire had
spread far and wide and people were being taught to recite the
Qur'aan in seven different dialects (the Qur'aan was revealed in seven
dialects). This began to cause confusion in far off provinces, and a
decision was taken to make an official standardized copy from the
manuscript of Abu Bakr and limit the people to its recitation.
More copies were made from this copy known as 'Mushaf
Uthmaan,' and sent to different parts of the Islamic empire. This
Mushaf was unpointed (i.e., it had no diacritical marks). The addition
of diacritical marks to the Mushaf happened in the era of Abd al-Malik
ibn Marwaan to ease recitation.
t
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- 96 -
Like the Qur'aan, the sayings and actions of the Prophet were
preserved primarily at the time of the Sahabah by memorization and
they were also noted down. This was due to encouragement and
direction by the Messenger of Allah himself, who said, "May Allah
make radiant the man who has heard what I said and has preserved it
in his memory until he conveys it to another. Perhaps, the one he
conveyed it to has a better understanding than him." He
also said, "Convey from me even a single verse. You may relate from
the Children of Israel without objection. Anyone who deliberately
tells a lie against me will have prepared his seat in Hellfire."
The Prophet also made clear the necessity of accurately
preserving and transmitting Hadeeth when he warned, "Lying about
me is not like lying about anybody else. Whoever lies about me let him
take his place in Hell." So serious was this matter that at
the time of the Messenger , lying about him was punishable by
death. (*1)
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r
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[At-Tirmidhee]
[Bukharee]
[Agreed upon]

of the
(*1) Ibn 'Adi transmitted on the authority of Buraida b. Hussaib al-Aslami, that in the
pre-Islamic era a man wanted to marry in the tribe of Bani Laith which had been living
a mile away from Madina. But the tribe did not concede to his will. Later he visited
- 97 -
Abu Hurayrah said, "People say that I have narrated many Ahadeeth.
Had it not been for two verses in the Qur'aan I would not have
narrated a single Hadeeth and the verses are, "Verily, those who
conceal the clear sign and the guidance which We have sent down..."
No doubt, our Muhajir (emigrant) brothers used to be busy in
the market with their business (bargains); and our Ansari brothers
used to be busy with their property (agriculture). But I used to stick to
Allah's Messenger content with what will fill my stomach and I used
to attend that which they used not to attend and I used to memorize
that which they used not to memorize."
h
included Abu Hurayrah, Abdullah Ibn Abbas, Aa'isha Siddeeqa,
Abdullah Ibn Umar, Jabir Ibn Abdullah, Anas Ibn Maalik and Abu
Sa'eed al-Khudree. Each of them memorized over a 1000 Ahadeeth.

included Sa'eed Ibn al-Mussayab, Urwah Ibn Zubair, Saalim Ibn
Abdullah Ibn Umar (the son of Abdullah Ibn Umar) and Naaf'i (the
servant of Abdullah Ibn Umar).
[Soorah al-Baqarah (2):159-160]
[Saheeh al-Bukharee (3/118)]
[see. 'The Compilation of Hadeeth' by Shaikh
Abdul-Ghaffar Hassan. Translated by Abu Hibban and Abu Khuzaimah]
r
Famous Memorizers of Hadeeth amongst the Sahaba
Famous Memorizers of Hadeeth amongst the Tabieen
them dressed in a fine garment. He told them, 'The Prophet gave me this garment and
authorized me to judge among you in all issues regarding money and soul.' Then he
came to the woman who he wanted to marry. The people of the tribe sent someone to
the Prophet who instantly said, 'The enemy of Allah has lied.' Then the Prophet
deputized a man and instructed him, 'Kill him if you find him alive and burn him if you
find him dead.' The man came to the spot and discovered that he had already met his
death by the bite of the snake. So he burnt him. [Suyuti, Tahdhib aliKhawas min
Akadhib al-Qussas Beirut-1972 pg. 32-33]
- 98 -
References to writing the Hadeeth can be found in various narrations
some examples are mentioned below:
1. Abdullah ibn Umar ibn al-As stated that they used to record
everything they heard from the Prophet until they were warned
that the Prophet was a human being who may be angry at times
and pleased at times. Abdullah stopped writing Ahadeeth until
he asked the Messenger of Allah about it, who said, "Write (my
hadeeth), by the One, in Whose Hand is my soul, nothing leaves
it (the Prophet's mouth) save the truth."
2. Al-Bukharee recorded in his Saheeh that Abu Hurayrah said,
"One can find none of the Companions of the
Messenger of Allah relating more Ahadeeth
than me, except Abdullah ibn Amr
because he used to record the hadeeth
while I did not do so."
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[Saheeh Sunan Abu Dawood
(2/695)]
- 99 -
3. Al-Bukharee recorded that a man from
Yemen came to the Prophet on the
day of the conquest of Makkah and
asked him if he could get the Prophet's
speech recorded and the Prophet
approved and told someone, "Write it for
the father of so and so.”
Al-Azami in his work Studies in Early Hadeeth
Literature (p.34-60) has listed and discussed some fifty
Companions of the Prophet who wrote Ahadeeth. He listed
eighty-seven of the scholars covering the late first and early
second centuries who recorded hadeeth.
Then he listed from the early second century scholars, 251
people who collected and recorded hadeeth. Thus al-Azami has
produced a list of 437 scholars who had recorded Ahadeeth and
all of them lived and died before the year 250 A.H. Many of them
are from before the time of Umar ibn Abdul-Azeez who is
credited with having been the first person to ask for the
compilation/collection of hadeeth.
Al-Azami said,
"I have established in my doctoral thesis Studies
in early Hadeeth Literature that even in the first century
of the Hijra many hundreds of booklets of hadeeth were
in circulation. If we add another hundred years, it would
be difficult to enumerate the quantity of booklets and
books, which were in circulation. Even by the most
conservative estimate they were many thousands."
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[Studies in Hadeeth Methodology and Literature (p.64)]
- 100 -
He also demonstrated in his Ph.D. thesis the reason why none or very
few of them are still in existence today
“These books were not destroyed nor did they
perish, but (they) were absorbed into the work of later
authors. When the encyclopedia-type books were
produced scholars did not feel the necessity to keep the
early books or booklets and so slowly they disappeared."
[Studies in Hadeeth Methodology and Literature, p.64]
- 101 -
"Of the earliest collections of hadeeth one in particular deserves closer
attention. This is the Saheefah of Hammaam ibn Munabbih. It is
actually a written collection of hadeeth that the Companion Abu
Hurayrah dictated to his student Hammaam.
Since Abu Hurayrah died around 58 A.H. (or some 48 years
after the death of the Prophet) this collection must have been dictated
to Hammaam sometime from that date...
Imam Ahmad Ibn Hambal incorporated the entire work
except two hadeeth into his famous Musnad.
Al-Sulami (a muhaddith), on the other hand, continued the
passing on of this collection as an independent work. It was
continually passed on until the 9th century which is the date of the
Berlin manuscript, one of the four manuscripts of this work that is still
in existence.
Since Ahadeeth in Ahmad's Musnad are
arranged according to the Companions who
narrated the Hadeeth. It is very easy to find
all of the hadeeth from Hammam on the
authority of Abu Hurayrah in that
collection.
Hammaam ibn Munabbih
- 102 -
Other books where the Ahadeeth
are arranged according to Fiqh topics also
incorporated a great deal of this Saheefah.
A study of Saheeh al-Bukharee and
Saheeh Muslim will demonstrate the
following. Out of the 137 Ahadeeth in the
Saheefah of Hammaam:
29 are recorded by both al-Bukharee and Muslim
22 others are recorded by only al-Bukharee
48 other are recorded only by Muslim.
Thus 99 of the 137 hadeeth may be found in either Saheeh al-
Bukharee or Saheeh Muslim...
It is interesting to note that all of the following works that
contain many, if not all, of the hadeeth of this saheefah are now
published: al-Bukharee's al-Jaami al-Saheeh, Muslim's Saheeh,
Ahmad's Musnad, Abdul Razzaq's Musannaf, Ma'mars Jami and
even Hammam's Saheefah. All of these collections may be studied to
see that even the wordings of the hadeeth have not been changed from
the time of Abu Hurayrah to the time of al-Bukharee.”
[Authority and Importance of Sunnah by Jamal al-Din Zarabozo]
- 103 -
Sanad and Matn
[Adapted from, Introduction to the Science of Hadith by Dr. Suhaib Hassan]
[Saheeh al-Bukharee]
The following is an example of a Hadeeth:
Musaddad told us that Yahyaa informed him from
Shu'bah, from Qataadah from Anas from the Prophet
that he said, "None of you truly believes until he loves
for his brother what he loves for himself."
This means that the Hadeeth scholar Imam al-Bukharee recorded in
his book, 'Saheeh al-Bukharee' the statement, "None of you truly
believes…", which he heard from his Hadeeth teacher Musaddad,
who heard it from his teacher Yahya, who was informed by his teacher
Shu'bah that he heard it from his teacher Qatadah, a
student of the Prophet's Companion, who heard it
quoted by the Sahabee (Companion) Anas ibn
Malik from Prophet Muhammad r.

of

and Methodology of its authentication
- 104 -
Thus, a Hadeeth consists of two main
parts Sanad and Matn
Sanad or Isnad, is the chain of
narrators that lead to the text of the Hadeeth.
The Sanad consists of all those who narrated the
text, starting with the last narrator (who records the
Hadeeth in his book) and ending with the Prophet.
Following is the Sanad of the Hadeeth mentioned before...
Al-Bukharee > Musaddad > Yahyaa > Shu'bah >
Qataadah > Anas > Prophet Muhammad
The text of the Hadeeth or what the Prophet actually said or
did is called the Matn. In the Hadeeth mentioned before, the
Matn is, "None of you truly believes until...”
Even though the text (Matn) of a Hadeeth may seem to be logical and
reasonable, it needs an authentic Sanad with reliable reporters to be
acceptable. The Sanad is thus the most important part of the Hadeeth
as it is the bridge leading to the Hadeeth itself.
Abdullah bin al-Mubarak (d.181AH), one of the teachers of
Imam al-Bukharee said, "The Isnad is from the Deen (religion). If it
wasn't for the Isnad anyone would say anything he wished." Hence,
one must be careful only to take his religion from people who are
trustworthy and who can trace what they have said back to the
Prophet and this can only be done through the use of isnad.
During the lifetime of the Prophet and after his death, his
Companions (Sahabah) used to refer to him directly, when quoting
Sanad:
Matn:
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- 105 -
his sayings. The Successors (Tabi'oon) followed suit; some of them
used to quote the Prophet through the Companions, while others
would omit the intermediate authority, (such a Hadeeth is called
Mursal).
During the time of the Successors, they were either one of two
narrators between them and the Prophet. But from then on the need
for verification of each isnad rose as Imam Malik (d. 179) said, "The
First one to utilize the isnad was Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri (d.124)."
The need to verify the Hadeeth rose because various sects
appeared among the Muslims who fabricated Hadeeth. Ibn Sirin
(d.110), a Successor, said, "They would not ask about the Isnad. But
when the fitnah (turmoil/civil war) happened, they said, 'Name to us
your men. So the narrations of the Ahlus-Sunnah (Adherents to the
Sunnah) would be accepted, while those of Ahlul-Bidah (Adherents to
Innovations) would not be accepted.'
After the early years, the isnad and its proper use became
standardized and its knowledge became an independent branch of
Hadeeth (known as Ilm al-Jarh wal-Ta'deel). This continued until the
major collections of hadeeth were compiled in the third century. In
fact, the tradition of relating hadeeth by their isnads continued until
the fifth century.
After that time books were passed on mostly
by ijaza (permission given to other to narrate
one's books or hadeeth) although, there are
still some scholars today who can narrate
hadeeth with a complete chain from
themselves back to the Prophet
[Ibn Abi
Hatim al-Razi, Al-Jarh wal-Ta'dil (8 vols., Hyderabad, 1360-1373), 1:20]
[Saheeh Muslim bi Sharh an-Nawawi -
Introduction]
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- 106 -
Muhammad ibn Hatim ibn al-
Mudhaffar wrote, "Verily, Allah has
honored and distinguished this nation
and raised it above others by the use of
isnad. None of the earlier or present nations
have unbroken isnads.
They have (ancient) pages in their possession
but their books have been mixed with their historical reports
and they are not able to distinguish between what was originally
revealed as the Torah or the Gospel and what has been added later of
reports that have been taken from untrustworthy (or, mostly likely,
unknown) narrators." [Quoted in al-Mukhtasar fi Ilm Rijaal al-Athaar (Dar al-Kutub
al-Hadhithiya) p. 18]
- 107 -
Doubt 1: Hadeeth were not written (the primary objection)
Response:
Parwez wrote,
"… if memory was enough of a viable resource to be
depended upon, why then was the need felt to have the Holy
Qur'aan dictated and written on paper, then recited again to
remove any possibility of errors or mistakes during the
process of its dictation.
If any disciple of the Messenger had learnt those hadeeth
or sayings of the Messenger by heart, we still are not in a
position to vouch for it until and unless those sayings were
not verified and the seal of approval cast on them by the
Messenger Muhammad himself, we cannot depend on
them.”
1. The procedures that were adopted to preserve the Qur'aan are all
mentioned in the Hadeeth. By quoting the Hadeeth as proof,
Parwez has inadvertently accepted the authority and
indispensability of the hadeeth.
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[Muqaam-e-Hadeeth (Actual Status of Hadeth) by G. A. Parwez. Chp. 1]

and their
- 108 -
2. We have seen that memorization was the primary means by which
the Qur'aan was preserved. The written parchments of the
Qur'aan remained scattered until they were collected at the time
of Abu Bakr Likewise, the hadeeth too, were preserved
primarily by memorization and a lot of them were written.
3. Some Hadeeth-rejecters speculate that the Qur'aan was compiled
fully into a book by the Prophet himself but this compilation is
not found. If writing was the primary means by which Qur'aan
was meant to be preserved, how could this compilation not exist?
The earliest written compilation of the Qur'aan which is believed
to be one of the Uthmani Mushaf is on exhibit at the Topkapi
Museum in Istanbul, Turkey.
4. 'The seal of approval' for the Sahabah has been provided by Allah,
the Most Glorious, as the Qur'aan states, "And foremost to
embrace Islam of the Muhajirun and the Ansar and those who
followed them exactly (in Faith). Allah is well-pleased with them
as they are well-pleased with Him."
Would a group of people who attributes falsehood to the
Messenger or are careless when transmitting his words after
being warned against it be worthy of being described as,
"Allah is well-pleased with them"?
5. The fact that extra precautions were taken
in the preservation of the Qur'aan does
not mean that the Hadeeth were not
preserved or were not meant to be
protected.
t
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[Soorah at-Tawbah (9): 100]
- 109 -
Doubt 2: No Effort was put into preserving Hadeeth
Response:
Parwez wrote with regards to the preservation of Hadeeth,
"…Though the mind questions, if hadeeth is all that
significant, why the Messenger did not take the same
measures as he did in the case of Holy Qur'aan?
On the contrary, we find in that very hadeeth,
Muhammad clearly says, "Do not have anything else
dictated from me, save the Qur'aan. If anyone of you has
written any word other than the Qur'aan, erase it!"
1. We have seen earlier that Allah's Messenger encouraged the
memorization and transmission of Hadeeth.
2. The forbiddance to write anything other than the Qur'aan was a
temporary order and a precaution against mixing the Qur'aan
and the Hadeeth. Otherwise, Ahadeeth have been written in the
presence of Allah's Messenger (the narrations have been
mentioned earlier).
3. It is ludicrous of Parwez to quote Hadeeth to prove that Hadeeth
were not meant to be preserved!!
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[Muqaam-e-Hadith Chp. 1]
- 110 -
Doubt 3: Does every narrator in the chain understand
Hadeeth correctly?
Response:
Parwez writes,
"You can vouch for the individual's character who is
saying the hadeeth to you, how can you say with authority
that all the people who carried the words of Messenger were
sincere at heart or could be depended on.
It is not the question of having confidence in those
writers, the most important aspect is, were they capable of
thoroughly understanding a statement and giving the
correct interpretation of it.
If we can prove that in two or two and a half centuries the
words are capable of remaining in their original form, then I
think we have solved the greatest mystery of our times... It is
impossible!"
1. The mode by which the Qur'aan was transmitted is the same as the
way in which the Ahadeeth were transmitted - from generation
to generation. The individuals who transmitted the Qur'aan were
the same who have transmitted the hadeeth. To accept one and
reject the other defies reason. Moreover, the Qur'aanic promise
of protection must apply to Hadeeth as well for
there is no point in protecting the words but
not the interpretation.
2. Information transmitted by means of
sanad is superior in authenticity.
[Muqam-e-Hadith by G.A.Parwez. Chp 1]
- 111 -
"Modern scholars quote the sources of important statements
of facts in learned works. But even in the most carefully
documented works, there are two drawbacks,

(a) In case of published works, there is little
possibility of verifying whether there are any
misprints or other inaccuracies; this would not
happen if one were to depend on a work only
after hearing (it) from the author himself, or
obtaining a copy certified by the author, or in
case of old works by those who have had the
opportunity of hearing it from the author, or his
authorized transmitter.
(b) One is content now-a-days with one's immediate
source, without much caring to trace the
proceeding sources of that source, witness of the
event. In Hadeeth works, the case has been
different…"
3. The Hadeeth narrators transmit the exact words of the Messenger
not its explanation as Imam Shafa'ee explained in al-Risaalah
(370-371), "…he (the narrator of the hadeeth) should be one of
those who can narrate the hadeeth exactly as he heard it, not
based on the meaning but with the exact wording, because if he
narrated on the basis of meaning and not with the exact wording,
and he does not have knowledge of possible interpretations, he
may inadvertently change what is halaal into haraam. But if he
narrates it exactly, there is no fear that it may be changed.”
[Hamiduallah, Muhammad. Sahifah
Hammam ibn Munabbih p.83]
- 112 -
Doubt 4: Hadeeth collection and verification is human
effort
Response:
Abul A'ala Maudoodi (the founder of Jamaat Islami) has written,
"No doubt, the material that is provided about the
pioneers is of immense value for future narrators of
Hadeeth. The only question is how far are these people
completely trustworthy. After all they were all but human
and we must not expect them to go beyond the scope of
human limits. Nor can we guarantee they can compensate
for the human lacuna. How are you to say for sure that
whatever they are relating is fool proof when the writers
themselves are not sure about it?"
He further argues,
"By these examples we are not, by any means, connoting
that their research is abracadabra. Our purpose is only to
bring to surface the fact that the narrators were but only
human. They were not above human imperfections. Is it
then mandatory that whosoever they claim to be worthy of
respect ought to be taken with respect.”
It is sufficient for us to quote Imaam Ibn al-Qayyim in reply to those
who are not satisfied with the science of Hadeeth verification in
determining the Authenticity of Ahadeeth.
Imaam Ibn al-Qayyim said, "If they say, 'The Messenger's
Khabars and Ahadeeths do not lead to certainty, "then they are saying
[Tafheemat (1/318) Quoted from Maqaam-e-Hadeeth by G.A.Parvez]
[Tafheemat (1/321) Quoted from Maqaam-e-Hadeeth by G.A.Parvez]
- 113 -
the truth about themselves. They do not accept these Ahadeeths with
certainty. Therefore, they are describing themselves. However, they
are not saying the truth when they claim that Ahlul-Hadeeth and
people of Sunnah feel the same way." He also said, "They do not know
of the various ways that a Hadeeth is narrated, which led people of
Sunnah to be certain of it. Therefore, their saying, 'We do not feel
certainty about its validity,' does not apply to others…
It is also similar to when one says that he feels pain, pleasure,
love or hatred, but another person stands up to him, trying to prove
that he does not feel pain, suffering, love or hatred. He tries to produce
many doubts, as if saying, 'I do not feel what you feel, therefore what
you feel is false because we do not share it!' This is the true
misguidance.
Therefore, true is the following saying, 'I say to the one who
presents his blame (to us) as a gift, taste what we feel and afterwards
blame us, if you can.'
We advise these people to concentrate their attention on what
the Messenger was sent with. Preserve, search for and collect it. Study
the character of those who narrated it. And when it is proven correct,
do not shun it for anything else. Make the Sunnah the ultimate goal
and desire behind your efforts... Then, and only then, you will know,
'Do the Khabars of the Messenger of Allah lead to certainty or not?'
However, if you refuse them (the Khabars of the Messenger)
and do not seek knowledge from them, then they will not lead you to
certainty. Even if you say that they do not lead you to Dhann, then you
are truly describing yourself and what you gained and benefitted from
them (the Khabars of the Messenger of Allah)." [Hadeeth is Proof Itself in
Belief and Laws by Shaikh al-Albanee, p.77]
- 114 -

of the
An Analysis of the
Deducing the manner of worship in the absence of the
Sunnah
When faced with the problem of defining worships in the
absence of the Hadeeth,
The hadeeth-rejecters are faced with a predicament whereby
they find orders in the Qur'aan towards establishing the prayers and
the other forms of worships, but they do not find in it the required
details of performing them. They therefore are forced to either seek
direction from the sunnah indirectly or to contradict the claim that
the Qur'aan is "sufficient and self-explanatory'" by adding additional
clauses or to change the meaning of the worships altogether.
Rashad Khalifa's solution was to say,
"All religious practices in submission (Islam) were given
to us through Ibraheem and the Prophet himself
followed the way of Ibraheem. Therefore, we are to take our
worships from Ibraheem
u r
u. "
[The United Submitters International Website]
- 115 -
Comments:
I) If any form of non-Qur'aanic guidance has no place in Islam, then
why is the way (Sunnah) of Ibraheem being referred to in
matters of the Deen? If the answer to this is the Qur'aan's
approval of the way of Ibraheem , then the same holds true to
a much greater degree for the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad
ii) How is it possible that the Sunnah of Prophet Ibraheem whose
Prophethood was limited be preserved by Allah, and the Sunnah
of Prophet Muhammad whose Prophethood continues until
the Last Day not be preserved?
iii) Can the hadeeth-rejecters show an uninterrupted chain of
narration from Ibraheem to Rashad Khalifa such that the way
of Ibraheem is verified and authenticated? They will never be
able to show this but in the case of the hadeeth of Prophet
Muhammad , then tens of thousands of such chains exist by
which hadeeth can be verified and authenticated.
iv) How will the way of Ibraheem be traced? Do we have historical
records whose authenticity is as absolute as that of the Qur'aan
or will the way of Ibraheem be deduced from the current
practices of the Muslims that are based on the
Sunnah of Muhammad (and this in effect
is accepting the Sunnah)? Or will the way
of Ibraheem be deduced from
others who claim Abrahamic roots
like the Jews, Christians, Druze or
the Sabians?
u
u
r
u
r
u
u
r
u
r
u
.
- 116 -
v) What is more reliable to determine? The authentic way of Prophet
Muhammad from the vast volumes of hadeeth literature and
colossal records on hadeeth narrators that exist with us today or
the way of Ibraheem that has no such records and would be
dependant on the enormously different practices and traditions
that exist amongst various religions that claim Abrahamic
roots!!
Ghulam Parwez's solution to the predicament is the outright
rejection of the well-known understanding of salaat. He claims
that salaat has lost its religious meaning and is merely a national
symbol. According to him, the only reason for not abandoning
salaat outright is "because 'national symbols' like salaat, help
maintain harmony in the society. However, if a government
based on 'Qur'aanic system' comes, it will have the authority to
change the pillars of Islam."
Ghulam Parwez says about individual prayers,
"So far our insight goes we do never find any glimpse of
guidance for the individual Salaat anywhere in the
Qur'aan."
and he interpreted the congregational prayer to be,
"time-related congregation where, after God's
appreciation, and adjudication of His obeisance and
subordination, important matters are mutually consulted.
These are called the time-related congregation of Salaat.
That is why the order of 'mutual consultation' and
'establishment of Salaat' have come together. 'Assalaa-tul-
jaam'ia (the congregational prayer)', so, hearing these
r
u
[Various Aspects of Salaat by G. A. Parwez]
- 117 -
words, the people used to
assemble and the matter under
d i s c u s s i o n u s e d t o be
considered. This also makes it
clear as to what the exposition of
Salaat was in those days."
I) Ahadeeth are needed by those who wish to follow Islam as taught by
Allah's Messenger Muhammad and understood by the
Sahabah. As for those who wish to invent their own religion and
interpret the Qur'aan as they wish, then they indeed do not need
the Sunnah.
ii) Parwez's claims that when people were called with the words,
' ', they would assemble for mutual
consultation. Since this is not mentioned in the Qur'aan, on what
basis did he take 'non-Qur'aanic guidance' to explain the
'Qur'aanic concept' of congregational prayer?
Furthermore, what is the source of this information? It is
neither mentioned in the Hadeeth nor does it have any historical
record?

iii) In his writing, Parwez extensively quotes from history. He even
quotes from the 'Encyclopedia Britannica' even though, the
recording and preservation of hadeeth is far superior and
meticulous than the recording of history.
[Various Aspects of Salaat by G. A. Parwez]
Comments:
r
Assalaa-tul-jaam'ia
- 118 -
iv) In Parwez's view, the state has the authority to reinterpret even the
pillars of Islam, and thus he makes Islam subservient to the state.
His view is that the state is itself Deen and Islam. He says,
"In Deen, man's entire life is in obedience to a collective
order. In modern phraseology, it would be termed as,
'State.' That is, to act on Deen, it is necessary to have an
'independent state.'”
Amin Islahi, who is of a slightly different orientation of hadeeth-
rejecters, when faced with the same predicament, came up with his
own solution. He says,
“To my knowledge, no Hadeeth exists which satisfies the
definition of . (i.e., a
).”

Thus, in his opinion, all ahadeeth are Ahaad, and cannot be
independent sources of beliefs or actions. However, he accepts the
role of the Prophet as the teacher of the Qur'aan and says,
"The view point of those who do not believe in the
Sunnah, i.e., the role of the Prophet is simply that of a
courier who delivers the post is absolutely baseless and
nonsensical. The Prophet is not only the
Messenger who delivered the Book to
humanity but is simultaneously a
teacher of the Sharee'ah and
purifier of souls." And he states,
"The Sunnah is binding on us as
much as the Qur'aan itself."
[Reasons for Decline of Muslims]
[Difference Between Hadeeth and Sunnah by Amin Islahi]
Khabar-i-Tawatur Mutawaatir
Hadeeth
r
r
- 119 -
His view is that,
"The Sunnah has not been
founded on Ahadeeth, which
have an inherent prospect of
either being right or wrong… On the
contrary, it is based on the perpetual
adherence of the Ummah to it. Just as the
veracity of the Qur'aan is proved by perpetuity in
verbal adherence, likewise the veracity of Sunnah is equally
proved by the Ummah's perpetuity in practical adherence to
it.
For instance, we have not adopted the prayers,
pilgrimage, etc., in all their details because a few narrators
explained them to us, but we act in a particular manner
because the Prophet acted accordingly. Thereafter,
through him learnt the Companions, and through them
learnt the followers of the Companions, and then the
successors thereof learnt through the followers. In this
manner, the later generations continued to learn through
their earlier predecessors. In case, the narrative records
also testify to this effect, it should be taken as additional
testimony."
1. The dissatisfaction of the hadeeth-rejecters with the science of
Hadeeth verification is a sign of their ignorance of the different
modes of hadeeth transmission as Imaam Ibn al-Qayyim
pointed out.
r
[end quote]
Comments:
- 120 -
2. The mode of transmission described for the "perpetual adherence
of the Ummah", i.e. the companions learnt from the Prophet and
taught it to the next generation, and the next generation to those
who followed them, and so on - this is the same mode of
transmission by which the hadeeth were transmitted, only that
in the case of the Hadeeth, they were transmitted meticulously
by one generation of hadeeth-scholars to the next and they were
individuals dedicated to the verification, memorization,
collection and accurate transmission of hadeeth.
As for the wider Ummah, then with time they split into sects
and groups, disagreed due to different interpretations, adopted
cultural practices and innovations, so how does one distinguish
between actions that have been "perpetually adhered to by the
Ummah" and those that were introduced later on? Therefore it is
self-evident as to which of the two modes will the knowledge be
authentically and accurately transmitted.

3. Even though Amin Islahi says, "the Sunnah is binding on us as
much as the Qur'aan itself." he renders this statement
meaningless by excluding hadeeth (the authentically
transmitted statements of the Prophet ) from the Sunnah.
All in all, the source of the deen according to him is exclusively
the Qur'aan; and he accepts the prevalent religious rituals in the
broader sense since there is no means to authenticate the specific
details of worships without referring to the hadeeth. This is
exactly what Parvez accepts as the deen.

4. Accepting the existing religious practices, gives both Parwez and
Amin Islahi the convenience of not being obliged to explain
r
- 121 -
specific details of worship and many other issues from the
Qur'aan. They could then exclude the hadeeth as a definite and
independent source of the deen without providing its alternative.
5. Despite all efforts, none of the three hadeeth-rejecters could truly
free themselves of their dependence on knowledge acquired
from hadeeth. Rashad Khaleefah has to patch the shortcoming of
his way by accepting the hadeeth in the name of 'Ibraheem's
sunnah.'
Amin Islahi had to accept the hadeeth by describing it instead
as 'perpetual adherence of the Ummah.'
Ghulam Parwez inadvertently recognized the hadeeth by naming it
'historical research' as he writes in the book, 'Islam - A Challenge to
Religion,'
"The Book that God gave to Muhammad ( ) through
revelation and which he passed on to the Muslims in the
form in which we know it today. The internal evidence
provided by the Qur'aan itself as well
proves beyond a shadow of doubt that not even a comma of
the original Qur'aanic text has been changed or is likely to
be altered in the future."
What historical research covers the details of the
collection and preservation of the Qur'aan apart
from the hadeeth literature?
r
as historical research
- 122 -
The Munkareen al-Hadeeth proclaim themselves to be liberal
intellectuals who are opposed to stagnation in Islamic thought and
respect differences of opinion. For instance,
Parwez's organization says,
"Tolu-e-Islam's understanding of the Holy Qur'aan is
not final. In fact, the understanding of the Holy Qur'aan
cannot be considered final with respect to any one person or
a particular time period. Just as humans change, develop
over time and adjust themselves to their environment so
should the understanding of the Holy Qur'aan.
As the Holy Qur'aan is the final message for all of
eternity, we should not be limiting ourselves to the
outmoded explanations provided by scholars hundreds of
years ago nor should we allow misinterpretations of Allah's
true guidance to come to the fore." [An Introduction to
Tolu-e-Islam Movement (pt no.3)]
By these liberal principles, the Munkireen al-Hadeeth allow
themselves to differ with the well-established understanding of
Are Hadeeth-Rejectors
- 123 -
Islamic issues that have been agreed upon by consensus amongst the
greatest scholars of Islam. But they show little tolerance for those who
disagree with their opinions and interpretations. Following are two
examples:
He says explaining the
terms, 'Dunya' (worldly life) and 'Aakhirah' (Hereafter):
"The connotation and usage of the words 'this world' and
'the Hereafter' by the Qur'aan not only imply its apparent
meanings… in this world there are two kinds of persons.
One who leaps for the 'here and now' or the immediate
gain. Their entire effort is for this immediate gain and for
their own interests. They are not concerned as to what will
happen to those who are to come or the people who are to
follow? They are only occupied with their self-indulgences
and luxuries… Hence, by Qur'aanic connotations the 'here
and now' and the immediate gains are called the world -
Dunya - while the future of this world is called Aakherath.
Therefore Qur'aanic view of Matha-e-Dunya would
mean that gain which one seeks for himself. Matha-e-
Aakherath (possession of the Hereafter) means those
possessions, material, equipment and properties saved and
stored for the coming generations."
On this basis, he says,
"…Those people who only regard this present life as the
only life having no care or bother about the Hereafter…
With this they do gain the 'nearby and the immediate gains.'
1) Perwez classifies people as faithful and disbelievers by
Tafseer based on his personal opinion.
- 124 -
They may be said to be the Group of Kuffar, i.e. who deny the
Future.
As for those people (group two) that keep both the
present and the future (the Dunya and Aakherath) in mind.
For this, it has an order of life that does not distance the
Present and the Hereafter... The Qur'aan calls this group
Momineen. Their view encompasses the development of
the entire humankind that they carry out in accordance with
the set program of the Qur'aan.
Now coming to the Group Three which divides the world
and the Hereafter into two different worlds. It thinks that
there are some efforts, which bestow gains only for this
present world, and there are some, which decorate the
Hereafter. To them it is not necessary that who-so-ever's
Hereafter is decorated should have their present decorated
as well. In fact, against this, they understand that the
Hereafter is a success of those whose worldly life is
chagrined, of disappointment, of misfortune and failure…
Those who say so wish to formulate two different laws each
to develop the present and the future. This is Shirk. This is
not Eemaan in the unity of God."
a) We can see here that anyone who does not agree with 'Parwez's
Materialistic Manifesto' is either a kaafir (disbeliever) or a
Mushrik (one who does shirk) while the only believers being
those who follow Parwez's interpretation of 'Aaakhirah' and this
interpretation has no precedence in the 1400 years of Islam.

[end quote]
Comments:
- 125 -
b) According to Perwez's interpretation of the Qur'aan, Dunya means
our present and the one who gathers possessions for himself is a
disbeliever. 'Aakhirah' is to save and store provisions for the coming
generations. The one who works for immediate gains and stores some
provisions for the coming generations is a believer (Mumin).
The selfless philanthropist however, who has dedicated
himself totally to save for the future generations is condemned
the utmost as a polytheist (Muskhrik) and Faithless! While the
world honors such people, names streets and foundations after
them and considers them role-models for the future generation,
Ghulam Parwaz condemns them and finds them guilty of the
worst crime - Shirk.
c) It is apparent that Perwez's writing is, nothing more than a twisted
materialist manifesto where he defines the Deen (religion) as the
state, the hereafter as amassing possessions for the future, and
the congregational prayer as a gathering for mutual
consultation.
Farahi was Amin Ahsan Islahi's mentor. His follower praises him
saying,
“For almost fifty years, Farahi reflected over the
Qur'aan, which remained his chief interest and the focal
point of all his writings. His greatest contribution in its
study is his discovery of coherence in the Qur'aan…
2) Farahi's principle of coherence and the result of not
following it.
- 126 -
Farahi demonstrated to all the western critics that with a
sound understanding of the Arabic language one can
appreciate the coherence in the Qur'aan which is certainly
not a haphazard collection of injunctions… Serious
differences in the interpretation of the Qur'aan, which have
given rise to the menace of religious sectarianism, are
actually the result of disregarding thematic and structural
coherence in the arrangement and mutual relationship of
various Qur'anic verses and paragraphs. Each sect has
adopted its interpretation because isolating a verse from its
context can associate multiple meanings to it. It is only the
coherence of the Qur'an, which if considered leads to a
definite and integrated understanding of the Divine
Message. It is only then that the Qur'an can be truly
regarded as a Mizan (Balance of Justice) and a Furqan
(Distinguisher of Good and Evil). It is only then that the
Qur'anic verse, 'Hold fast to the Cable of Allah and be not
divided.' (3:103), can become a manifest reality and the
unity in the Muslim Ummah be achieved. Farahi went on to
enunciate certain principles necessary to understand and
interpret the Qur'aan. The foremost among them was the
principle of coherence. He was able to show that unless the
Qur'aan is understood through a holistic approach a lot of
its treasure of wisdom remains hidden… Farahi had
adopted a very direct method in his study of the Qur'aan and
his findings were as original as his approach…"
[Hamid Uddin Farahi by Shehzad Saleem. Source: Official website of Amin Islahi).
Shehzad Saleem is the editor of the magazine "Renaissance Monthly" that forwards the
ideas of Hameed Uddin Farahi and his student, Amin Ahsan Islahi]
- 127 -
Comments:
1. 'It is only the coherence of the Qur'an, which if considered leads to a
definite and integrated understanding of the Divine Message.'
This shows that Farahi's research on the 'coherence of the
Qur'an' is the Islahi group's substitute for the Hadeeth and the
Sunnah.
2. They expect all the sects to accept Farahi's principles in interpreting
the Qur'aan to bring about unity in the Ummah and it is only
then that the Qur'aan will be "truly regarded as a Mizan (Balance
of Justice) and a Furqan (Distinguisher of Good and Evil)."
3. They claim that without Farahi's holistic approach 'a lot of its
treasure of wisdom remains hidden' this after they have
discredited the hadeeth as an interpreter of the Qur'aan.

4. 'His (Farahi's) findings were as original as his approach' this is not a
praiseworthy attribute but a serious imperfection and a
perversion from the true manner in which the Qur'aan ought to
be understood. 'Original' is but a euphemism to hide the ugly
reality that such a manner of Tafseer does not have precedence
from the earlier generations of Muslims and is a product of
intellectual effort taken by a person from
contemporary times.
- 128 -
In Conclusion, we reflect on the wise words of
Imam al-Barbaharee (rahimahullah), 'If you
hear a man criticizing the narrations, not accepting
them or rejecting any of the narrations from the
Messenger of Allah , doubt his Islam since he is a
person having a despicable opinion and saying. He is
indeed attacking the Messenger of Allah and his
companions, since we have only come to know of
Allah, His Messenger , the Qur'aan, what is good
and bad and of this world and the Hereafter through
the narrations.'
r
r
r
[Sharhus-Sunnah by Imam Barbaharee (point no: 69)]
- 129 -
Maulana Mawdudi expounds his views extensively on hadeeth and
the science of hadeeth verification in his book Tafhimaat (vol.1,
p.359–362 / Islamic Publications Limited, Lahore 2000 CE). Under
the heading, 'Maslak-e-Eitidaal (The Moderate Position)', he says,
“…Rather our intention is to clarify that those (the
Muhadditheen) who have criticized or praised individuals
were after all human. They too had human weaknesses. Is it
necessary that those whom they have declared as
trustworthy were trustworthy beyond doubt and
trustworthy in all their narrations… Moreover, to accurately
ascertain each individual's memory, good intention and
self-restrain, etc., is further difficult…
It is due to this and similar reasons that the knowledge of
isnad, Jarh and Ta'deel cannot be considered correct in its
entirety. This material is reliable to the extent that it helps in
the research of Prophet's Sunnah and Aathaar and it may be
given due consideration, but it is not of the status that it may
be relied upon completely.”
on the science of hadeeth verification
A Response to Doubts raised by
- 130 -
On page, 356-57 he writes,
"The first thing that is examined in judging a narration is
the status of the narrators. In this regard, each and every
narrator is examined through various manners, whether he
is a liar, careless in narrating narrations, sinner or heretic,
dubious or weak in his memory, whether his condition is
unknown or his condition is known. By all these conditions
the status of the narrators were examined by the
Muhadditheen, and they thus presented a glorious
collection on Asmaa' ar-Rijaal (the study of the narrators)
which are beyond doubt invaluable. But what amongst this
is not prone to mistakes? Firstly, it is difficult to accurately
know the biography of the narrators, their memory and
their other inner qualities. Secondly, those people
themselves who formed an opinion about them were not
free from human weaknesses. Nafs (desires) accompany
everyone and
"
Firstly: The science of hadeeth and isnads (chains of narrators) is one
of the special characteristics of this ummah. No other
nation paid attention as this ummah did to the
chains of narration through which their books
and their religion were transmitted. This is
why the texts of other nations were
subjected to distortions and fabrications,
and it became impossible for them to
there is a strong possibility that personal
opinions interfered in forming an opinion, good or bad,
about individuals…
Clarification
- 131 -
know the pure religion and to find out about the stories of the
Prophets in a sound and authenticated manner.
The scholars of hadeeth have striven hard and reached a
prominent position in that field, as Allaah has honoured them with
efforts to preserve His religion and the Sunnah of His Prophet
Muhammad ibn Haatim ibn al-Muzaffar (rahimahullah) said,
"Allaah has honoured this ummah and favoured it over
others by blessing it with the isnaad. No other nation has this
blessing, and they do not distinguish between that which was
revealed in the Tawrah and Injeel and was brought by their
Prophets, and that which was added to their books of narrations
transmitted from inauthentic sources. This ummah narrates
hadeeth from a trustworthy individual who was known at his
own time for sincerity and honesty, from another of similar
character, and so on until the end of the chain of narrators. Then
they researched very carefully to find out who had the stronger
memory and was more precise, and who spent more time with
the one from whom the report was transmitted, and who spent
less time, then they would write down the hadeeth from more
than twenty chains of narration, so that they could be sure that
they had eliminated any mistake or error from it, and they wrote
it exactly as it was narrated. This is one of the greatest blessings
that Allaah has bestowed upon this ummah. We ask Allah to
inspire us to thank Him for this blessing and we ask Him to make
us steadfast and to guide us to that which will bring us closer to
Him and make us adhere to obedience to Him."
r.
[End quote from
Sharaf Ashaab al-Hadeeth (40)]
- 132 -
Secondly: They are the best people who strove the most to ensure that
their judgement and transmission of hadeeth was done on the basis of
honesty and sincerity, and they were the ones who strove the most to
avoid errors and mistakes to the extent that they set the highest
example of fairness and avoiding favoritism when it comes to
preserving the religion of Allah.
So we see 'Ali ibn al-Madeeni ruling that his father was da'eef
(weak), and he knew that this ruling regarding his father would
guarantee an end to his position as a scholar, but that did not prevent
him from stating his opinion concerning him.
Al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadi (rahimahullah) said,
"None of the people of hadeeth should show any favoritism
with regard to the science of hadeeth, whether it is to his father or
his son. 'Ali ibn 'Abd-Allaah al-Madeeni, who was a prominent
scholar of hadeeth in his time, never narrated even a letter to
suggest that his father was strong in hadeeth, rather what was
narrated from him was the opposite of that."
Ibn Hibbaan said in al-Majrooheen (2/15),
"Ali ibn al-Madeeni was asked about his father and he said,
'Ask someone else. They said, 'We asked you. He
paused then he raised his head and said, This
has to do with religion; my father is da'eef
(weak)."
[End quote from Sharaf Ashaab al-Hadeeth (41)]
[end quote]
- 133 -
Yahya ibn Ma'een spoke about a friend of his whom he loved, and al-
Husayn ibn Hibbaan narrated that he said of Muhammad ibn Saleem
al-Qaadi,
“By Allaah, he is our friend, and he is dear to us, but there is no
way to praise him and I do not recommend anyone to narrate
from him or encourage others to do so." and he said, "By Allaah,
he heard a great deal and he is well known, but he does not limit
himself to what he heard, rather he includes things that he did
not hear." I said to him, "Should he be narrated from?" He said,
"No.”
Jareer ibn 'Abd al-Hameed said concerning his brother Anas,
"He should not be narrated from. He tells lies when he talks to
people."
Imam al-Bukharee narrated a great deal in his Saheeh from his
Shaykh, Muhammad ibn Yahya al-Dhuhali in spite of the harm that
he was subjected to as a result of a misunderstanding between him
and the Shaykh who forsook him. But that enmity did not prevent him
from accepting and narrating his hadeeth.
They would accept hadeeth from those who held different
opinions and beliefs to their own – if it was proven that (the narrator)
was honest and sincere. The fact that a narrator was a follower of
bidah did not prevent them from judging him on the basis of fairness,
because they paid heed to the Words of Allah, “O you who believe!
Stand out firmly for Allaah as just witnesses; and let not the enmity
and hatred of others make you avoid justice. Be just, that is nearer to
piety, and fear Allah. Verily, Allaah is Well Acquainted with what you
do.”
[See, Tareekh Baghdaad (5/325)]
[Al-Jarh wal-Ta'deel (2/289)]
[Soorah al-Maidah (5): 8]
- 134 -
Yahya ibn Ma'een was asked about Sa'eed ibn Khuthaym and he said,
"He is a Kufi and there is nothing wrong with him; he is
trustworthy."
It was said to Yahya, "Is he Shi'i?"
He said, "A trustworthy Shi'i, a trustworthy Qadari."
Abbaad ibn Ya'qoob al-Rawaajini al-Kufi was a fanatical Shi'i, but
despite that Ibn Khuzaymah said in his Saheeh (2/376),
"The one who is trustworthy in his narration but dubious in his
religious commitment, 'Abbaad ibn Ya'qoob, told us… "
Thirdly: Just as they understood the seriousness of tarnishing
people's honour unlawfully, they also understood the seriousness of
speaking badly about any of the narrators, because it could affect the
issue of accepting or rejecting the hadeeth of the Messenger of Allah
from them. Muhammad ibn Sireen said, "This knowledge is the
(foundation of) religion, so watch from whom you learn your
religion."
Ibn Daqeeq al-Eid said,
"The honour of the Muslims is a pit of Hellfire. Two groups
are standing at the edge of this pit; the muhadditheen and the
judges."
Such great piety and awareness must inevitably have a great effect of
fairness and seeking to be right when judging narrators. This is what
was stipulated by the scholars for everyone who wants to examine
narrators and pass judgement concerning them.
[Tahdheeb al-Kamaal (10/414)]
[Narrated by Muslim in the Introduction to his Saheeh]
[End quote. See: Tadreeb al-Raawi (2/369)]
r
- 135 -
Al-Dhahabi said in al-Mooqizah (82),
"Judging narrators requires a great deal of piety and freedom
from whims and desires and bias, along with complete
experience in the science of hadeeth and the faults and narrators
thereof."
Al-Mu'allimi (rahimahullah) said in al-Tankeel (1/54),
"The imams of hadeeth are knowledgeable and careful,
andthey strive to avoid mistakes, but they differ with regard to
that."
Fourthly: Yes, none of them is infallible and it is possible that there
may be mistakes in what some of them say. It is also possible that the
cause of some of these mistakes may be love or hate for someone.
Some things of that nature did indeed happen, for no human being
can be entirely free of that. But that should not be a reason for
doubting all of their judgements, and this is for the following reasons:
1 – Because these are a few mistakes when compared with the
great legacy that the leading scholars of hadeeth and
l have left behind, the vast majority of
which is based on honesty and fairness, so it is unfair to
overlook that because of a few mistakes.
2 – Because the scholars highlighted these mistakes and
pointed them out in their comments. Whatever the motive
was, whether it was enmity, envy or a difference of
madhhab, they would reject unfair judgements and would
issue fair judgements concerning a specific narrator.
[end quote]
[end quote]
al-
jarh wa'l-ta'dee
- 136 -
Hence none of the scholars accepted the view of Imam Malik
concerning Muhammad ibn Ishaaq, the author of al-Maghaazi, that
he was one of the fabricators, when they realized that this statement
was based on resentment and personal reasons; rather they judged
him as “hasan al-hadeeth” (i.e., a good narrator) and the leading
scholars of hadeeth used his reports as evidence. And they did not
accept the view of al-Nasaa'i concerning Ahmad ibn Salih al-Masri, or
the view of Rabee'ah concerning Abu'l-Zinnaad 'Abd-Allaah ibn
Dhakwaan. See, al-Raf' wa'l-Takmeel (409-432).
Abu Hatim al-Raazi (rahimahullah) said,
"There has never been in any nation since Allah created Adam
safekeepers who preserve the legacy of the Messengers except in
this ummah. A man said to him, "O Abu Hatim, perhaps there
were narrations which have no basis and are not sound?" He
said, "Their scholars will recognize the sound from the unsound.
So they preserved this science (of hadeeth) so that the people
who came after them were able to distinguish between reports
and preserve them." Then he said. "May Allah have mercy on
Abu Zur'ah; by Allah he strove very hard to preserve the legacy of
the Messenger of Allah ."
You should understand that Allah has preserved this
religion by His grace and blessing and that the
Sunnah has been preserved as Allaah
guaranteed to preserve His religion. So it is
not possi bl e for the schol ars to
unanimously agree to authenticate a weak
narrator or to criticize or condemn a
r [Sharaf Ashaab al-Hadeeth (43)]
- 137 -
sound narrator. Rather you will inevitably
find that truthfulness and fairness are
very apparent in the views of the majority
of scholars and in most issues of religion.
Imam al-Dhahabi (rahimahullah) said in al-
Mooqizah (84),
"The same Imam may be more generous or more
kind with regard to a report that is in accordance with his
madhhab or the madhhab of his Shaykh than with regard to
other reports that say the opposite. But it is only the Prophets
who are infallible.
But this religion is supported and protected by Allah, may He
be exalted, and its scholars will never agree on misguidance,
either deliberately or by mistake. So no two scholars will agree on
classing a weak narrator as sound, or a sound narrator as weak.
Rather their differences will be with regard to how strong or
weak a narrator is. The one who passes such judgements speaks
on the basis of his own effort, strength and knowledge. If it so
happens that he makes a mistake in judging, then he will have a
single reward. And Allah is the source of strength."
Ibn Katheer said in al-Baa'ith al-Hatheeth (1/11),
"As for the words of these imams who took on this task (of
examining hadeeth), they should be accepted without
questioning or mentioning the reason because of their
knowledge of it and their deep understanding of this field and
because of their being known to be fair, religiously committed,
experienced and sincere, especially if they agree unanimously
that a narrator is weak, or matrook (to be ignored) or a liar and so
[end quote]
- 138 -
on. The skilled muhaddith will not
hesitate to agree with them when
they take a decision of that nature
b e c a u s e o f t h e i r h o n e s t y ,
trustworthiness and sincerity. Hence al-
Shaafa'i said in many instances when
commenting on ahaadeeth, “None of the
scholars would regard this hadeeth as sound,” so he would
reject it and not quote it as evidence on that basis.”
Finally, one should be content with the blessing that Allah has
bestowed upon this ummah by means of this noble branch of
knowledge, and do not get carried away with doubts about the saheeh
ahaadeeth. Reason dictates that we should not reject the efforts of
thousands of sincere scholars throughout the centuries on the basis of
a few mistakes here and there. To appreciate the science of Hadeeth
verification, one must strive to read the numerous books on the
subject, and one cannot help but be astonished by the huge efforts
that were put into verifying a single hadeeth. Even the Orientalist
Margoliouth said,
"The Muslims may boast about their science of hadeeth.”
[end quote]
Courtesy: islamqa.com. (slightly abridged and adapted)
- 139 -



A critical Analysis of the and

Modernists Hadeeth Rejecters
by Sajid A.Kayum
Published by Quran Sunnah Educational Programs www.qsep.com

.... Aqlaniyyah and the Modernists...........................09 'Ilmul-Kalaam' and sects that pursued it.....15 An Important note on the harmony between sound intellect and Quran and Sunnah.......03 Section One Mu'tazilah...........07 Philosophy and its conflict with Islam....................20 A testament of the great ordeals caused by the Mu’tazilah: Imam Ahmed Ibn Hanbal's Trial........................................................................................18 Reasons for the spread of Mu'tazili Ideology................................Overview..................................14 Major Deviations of the Mu'tazilah .............................................01 The Two Modernist Trends.........22 Imam Abu Hanifa's condemnation of Kalaam..............................27 .........................................................

............40 1........................... Call for the renewal of the Deen claiming advancement of the society....................... 'Neo Modernists' or Progressives........................................55 A Movement in Disarray.......45 Non-acceptance of Ahaad Ahadeeth in matters of Aqeedah........................................................59 .............................................................35 The Modernist Movement................................53 Disputing agreed-upon matters..................................................52 Deen based on feelings...... Dividing the Sunnah into 'Sunnah Tashree'eah' and 'Ghair Tashree'eah......................44 4.......................53 The True Meaning of Ijtihad v/s the false understanding of the Progressives.....41 2........ Call to adapt and adjust the religion to the requirements and necessities of the times..............................49 7........29 The Aqlaniyyah (rationalists) school of thought........... The claim that Qur'aan can only be a relevant source of guidance as long as it can be interpreted independently in the present............................................................46 5....................................................43 3........................Imam al-Ghazzali's rejection of Philosophy and Kalaam... Support for Wahdat al-Adyaan (unity of religions)......... Modernists and ‘Hadeeth-Rejectors’.................'..................51 The Female-Imam Fiasco................................37 The Modernist Call to Transform Islam...................................................51 8.................47 6...................... Free interpretation of the Qur'aanic injunctions without any hindrance or intervention of the Sunnah.......

...........97 ...............................................70 Callers to evil masquerading as Reformers...85 iv) The Sunnah also gives additional injunctions in a number of issues...................................................78 4................ The Sunnah is in itself a Revelation from Allah.72 Authority and Significance of Sunnah in Islam 1.................63 The Misguidance of Rejecting Hadeeth.......87 6) Allah's Protection for the Dhikr includes all the Deen......................................95 Compilation of Hadeeth..................................................82 ii) The Sunnah establishes a meaning.............................................67 Hadeeth-rejecters come in different orientations.68 Hallmarks of the Hadeeth-rejecters............................................76 3.............................................. The Example of Allah's Messenger is part of Islam................................92 Preservation of Hadeeth.......................................75 2......................................81 i) The Sunnah explains the commands of the Qur'aan in details.................................86 vi) Detailed book?....Section Two Munkareen al-Hadeeth (the Hadeeth-Rejecters)............................................................84 iii) The Sunnah can specify exceptions to a general rule.............................. The Qur'aan can only be correctly understood in light of the Sunnah..90 Defining Sunnah and Hadeeth............................................. Allah's Messenger r received revelations beside the Qur'aan......................................................94 Compilation of the Qur'aan................................85 v) Inadequacy of language alone to understand Qur'aan............ when a number of meanings are possible......... The Qur'aan needs to be understood as Allah meant it to be understood............................................80 5...............................

.......111 Doubt 4: Hadeeth collection and verification is human effort..........................................Writing Hadeeth....110 Doubt 3: Does every narrator in the chain understand Hadeeth correctly?......................108 Doubt 2: No Effort was put into preserving Hadeeth.................99 Saheefah Hammaam ibn Munabbih..................................130 .......................................................113 An Analysis of the Extreme Misguidance of the Hadeeth-rejecters............................................................................................................................115 Are Hadeeth-Rejectors Liberal?.....................................................102 Structure of Hadeeth and Methodology of its authentication.............................................................................104 Doubts and their Response Doubt 1: Hadeeth were not written (the primary objection).............................................................................123 1) Perwez classifies people as faithful and disbelievers by Tafseer based on his personal opinion......124 2) Farahi's principle of coherence and the result of not following it...............................................................................................................126 Appendix A Response to Doubts raised by Maulana Mawdudi on the science of hadeeth verification..........

They witnessed the revelation of the Qur'aan and the Sunnah and experienced the circumstances in which they were revealed. the correct understanding is what emulates the beliefs and understandings of the Sahabah (the Prophet's Companions)." [Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 137] In light of this verse. The way to achieve this is mentioned in the Qur'aan. The Sahabah were the fortunate people who accompanied the Prophet r and learned the religion directly from him r.e..As Muslims. "And if they believe as you (i.01 - . but if they turn away. the most pure . The Sahabah's understanding of the religion is therefore. the Sahabah) believe then they are rightly guided. Allah says. then they are only in opposition. we are obliged to believe and understand our religion in a manner that Allah wants us to.

That is the supreme success.” [Soorah at-Tawbah (9):100] Apathy towards the understanding of the Sahabah as well as free interpretation of Islamic texts are the primary causes of misconceptions and confusion.when they perceived the two conflicted." [at-Tabaraanee] Ilmul-Kalaam (argumentation based on Greek philosophy) is among such innovations in the religion that created intellectual schisms in the Muslim nation and initiated deviant trends. They gave precedence to intellect over the revealed texts of the Qur'aan and the Sunnah ." They asked.e. . to dwell therein forever. The Messenger of Allah r said. "That which I and my Companions are upon today. He has prepared for them Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise). This attitude set an evil precedent for all later groups who sought to make intellect and desire decisive over the Qur'aan and the Sunnah. Allah is well-pleased with them as they are well-pleased with Him. "What is that sect?” He r said. i. In this book.02 - .and perfect. Allah's Pleasure. “And the first to embrace Islam of the Muhajirun (those who migrated from Makkah to al-Medina) and the Ansar (the people of al-Medina who helped the Muhajirun) and also those who followed them exactly (in Faith). One of the sects that indulged in Ilmul-Kalaam were the Mu'tazilah. and consequently straying from the path of the 'the rightly guided'. "This Ummah (nation) will split into seventy-three sects. and they are a group that has definitely succeeded in achieving what Faith is meant to achieve. all of them in the Fire except one. we shall critique such modernist groups that attempt to impose novel interpretations upon Islamic teachings.

a voice that can expect state funding and favors. What is eternal and ever-relevant according to Islam are the teachings revealed by Allah – the Most High and since Prophethood ends with Prophet Muhammad r. The lucrative opportunity thus created has attracted an assembly-line of individuals with a history of apathy for Islam and Muslims. “Islam 2. They openly demand reformation in Islam and call for a 'progressive' interpretation of Islamic values. or about rejecting benefit from information and awareness that mankind constantly improves with time. to masquerade as champions of the 'oppressed Muslim woman'. etc. human rights. They claim to be the moderate voice and speak in a language that the media.0”. good-governance for Muslim nations. “Progressive Islam” and the like. his teachings will be preserved and applicable until the time people need Guidance.03 - . Their newly-found activity gained momentum with the emergence of violent extremist elements that misinterpret Islam to create chaos and cause hardship for Muslims. especially the western .It is important to clarify from the onset that condemning 'modernism' is rejecting illegitimate interpretations in religious matters and not about opposing science and technology. “gender-friendly Islam”. Their catch phrases are “humane Islam”. sensible and moderate voice . This began a search for an alternate. The Two Modernist Trends One trend of Modernists are the self-proclaimed 'Islamexperts' and 'Muslim-reformers' that we see all to often paraded on major media outlets.

media. they consider the rational (Aql) and desires decisive over the revealed texts (Naql). they organize campaigns against the headcovering for women. for women to pray in mosques alongside men. their novel interpretations are aimed at supporting their revolutionary goals and undermining genuine priorities of Islamic Dawah that they see as a hurdle or a distraction from their primary goal. The vocal participation of these media-savvy modernist groups in speaking about Islam and affairs of the Muslims has resulted in the spread of a lot of confusion and misinformation. In this book. in their apathy towards Hadeeth. But the two are similar in making Aql decisive over Naql. Politically. in their emphasis on modernistic interpretations of the Qur'aan. They seek to misinterpret Islamic texts in light of rational thought. Another group that is an equally staunch patron of freethinking and modernist interpretations is that of the so-called 'Islamic-thinkers' and activists. modern values and even feelings and desires for. we shall critically analyze the Modernists.04 - . Insha'Allah. and other similar issues. The 'progressive thinkers' are extreme secularist while the 'Islamicthinkers' are ardent callers to the Khilafah .however distorted their views may be about it. the two modernist groups are poles apart. They persist in this even if it alienates Muslims and reinforces biased stereotypes about Islam. . Their primary goal is political power and thus. In the name of 'progressive thinking'. and in their unjustified toughening or lightening of Islamic regulations for the achievement of political/organizational goals. likes to hear. for the acceptance of lewdness.

Impressed by Western advances in science and technology. a group that emerged towards the end of the colonial era and found intellectual nourishment in the views of the Mutazilah. c) the ill-effects of philosophy on pious and knowledgeable scholars who indulged in it and later abandoned it. b) the turmoil that the Mutazilah brought upon the Islamic world as a result of their Kalaam and. On their part. and turned to the Mu'tazilah and 'Muslim' philosophers for guidance. The European Modernist agenda was primarily aimed at settling the conflict between religion and rationality with the help of philosophy. a) the rejection of Kalaam by the scholars and Imams of the Muslims. they sought inspiration from the west for the advancement of Muslim societies. We shall study the views of the 'Muslim' rationalists (alAqlaniyah). We shall analyze the views that have .beginning by understanding the deviations of the Mu'tazilah sect. We shall see in this booklet the close resemblance between Christian and Jewish Modernists on one hand. 'Muslim' Modernists attempted to reject or alter those teachings of the Qur'aan and Sunnah that they saw as hindrances.05 - . We shall see with examples. and the 'Muslim' modernist and progressives on the other. assimilating along the way 'Modernist' attitudes towards religion that had gained popularity amongst European Christians and Jews.

expose their hatred for Islamic teachings and report on the complete failure of their call. the Progressives. the Secularists or the pseudo-Islamists.06 - . Ghulam Parvez and Amin Ahsan Islahi. we shall comment on the most outrageous antics of present-day 'progressives'. All in all. The second section of this booklet deals with the misguidance of rejecting Hadeeth as this is another malady afflicting all Mu'tazili influenced groups whether the Modernists. The refutation focuses upon analyzing the views of three prominent rejecters of Hadeeth. May Allah make us amongst “Those who listen to the Word (good advice La ilaha ill-Allah) and follow the best thereof. Lastly. Rashad Khalifah. The two sections of the book greatly complement each other as the modernists and the hadeeth rejecters are two sides of the same coin.become the hallmark of the Modernist call and expose their remoteness from Islam." [Soorah AzZumar (39): 18] . this booklet should provide a good overview towards understanding the many misguided views that emanate from varied groups influenced by the Mu'tazilah.

07 - .and the .

Munkareen alHadeeth (the Hadeeth Rejecters) and the Secularists. then distorted or abandoned. the Modernists. . They paved a way where wellestablished Islamic beliefs (like Attributes of Allah. matters of Ghayb. by which they caused much confusion with regards to the status of Qur'aan and Sunnah. etc.) and acts of worship were questioned and argued about. Each of these groups is distinct in its goals and approach. From amongst their off-shoots are the modern-day Aqlaniyyah (rationalists). and attempted to make intellect (Aql) decisive over the texts of the Deen.08 - . but they all depend upon the same Mu'tazili principles by which they justify their heretical views.Mu'tazilah is the sect responsible for popularizing ideas of ancient pagan philosophy to the Muslim Ummah in the name of 'Ilmul-Kalaam'.

and a philosopher came to be referred to as wise man (hakeem). 'philosophy' refers to the study of basic principles.09 - . and dictates of tradition." [al-Mawsoo'ah al-Muyassarah fi'l-Adyaan wa'l-Madhaahib al-Mu'aasirah (2/1118-1121) courtesy: islamqa. the goal of which was the search for truth. Philosophy is a liberal rational examination that is free from any restrictions and external authority with the ability to go all the way on the basis of logic regardless of the difference between the (philosophical) views and religious beliefs. viewing knowledge as something based on rationality.and its conflict with Islam "Philosophy in general means 'wisdom'.com (slighted adapted)] It is evident by the definition itself that philosophy is opposed to Faith in Islam for a number of fundamental reasons. and without being confronted or resisted or punished by any authority. . The word.

"None dispute regarding the Ayaat (revelations. and He is the One Who issues the command. I know that you are only a stone and you can neither bring benefit nor cause harm. Hikmah (lit.10 - . ." [Soorah Ghafir (40): 4] Allah is the Creator of reason. "I hear and I believe and obey. proofs) of Allah except those who disbelieve.1. wisdom) in Islam refers to the Sunnah as defined by the majority of the scholars of Hadeeth and Fuqaha (jurists). even though I do not understand the reason. In Islam. knowledge is based upon Divine revelation while the role of rational is limited to appreciating the revelation. The true believer is he who responds and submits. This is how the Companions of the Prophet r submitted to the Deen as Imam al-Bukharee (1597) recorded in his Saheeh that Umar ibn Khattab t said of the Black Stone when he kissed it. weakness and submission to Allah. and says." He admits his mortality. and the Sunnah is the judge and criteria to distinguish truth from falsehood. We are commanded to believe and accept every aspect of the religion. "By Allah. signs. Who cannot be questioned as to what He does because His Commands are based upon Divine Wisdom and Divine Justice. The wisdom behind this is to distinguish the sincere believers from those who are insincere." 2. Were it not that I had seen the Messenger of Allah kissing you. I would not have kissed you. even those which the mind cannot fully comprehend like matters of the Ghayb (unseen).

to be true to philosophy .have some degree of doubt and skepticism about the truth of Islamic teachings. Faith in Allah therefore with complete submission at it's core is fundamentally opposed to the way of the philosophers. knowledge and affirmation of Allah and His Commandments). (This is an extremely important and fundamental concept which needs to be understood. as well as actions of the limbs. for a detailed explanation. the search of a Muslim has come to an end because "…after the truth. This doubt will definitely negate Inqiyad (i. wholehearted submission) that is a pillar of Faith.e. and will lead to major disbelief (Kufr ash-Shakh Apostasy of Doubt) that takes someone out of Islam. what else can there be. it is not enough to have mere Tasdeeq in the heart (i. save error?" [Soorah Yunus (10): 32] 4.11 - . 'Eeman and its components and explaining the misguidance of the Khawaarij and the Murji'ah'. According to Islam. for the faith (Eeman) to be established. acceptance and submission to Allah and His Commands). Those who use philosophy in examining Islamic knowledge must .. If philosophy is the search for truth then with the achievement of faith. refer to our book. recognition. It must be accompanied by Inqiyad of the heart (i.3.e.e.) .

12 - .understands things by means of imagination which in their view is inferior to logic. He greatly influenced the philosophers who followed him. al-Farabi (872CE/259AH 950 CE/339AH). particularly Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and Ibn Rushd (Averroes). 'the Second Teacher' (Aristotle being the first). (*1) A Prophet's understanding is based on revelation and guidance from Allah and not imagination . The Salaf unanimously rejected philosophy whilst strongly condemning it.Amongst the earliest of the socalled 'Muslim philosophers' was the Persian. He was a translator and author of many commentaries on Aristotle's (a Greek philosopher) works.as the philosophers claim . (*1) Philosophy is therefore one of the most dangerous falsehoods and most vicious in fighting faith in the name of logic and reason. for which he was called. Al-Farabi agreed with Aristotle's view that the philosopher is of a higher status than a Prophet because the philosopher understands issues by means of reason and contemplation while the Prophet .

but were contaminated with idolatry.Imam ash-Shaafa'i said. India and Persia. "The people did not become ignorant and begin to differ until they abandoned Arabic terminology and adopted the terminology of Aristotle. Even though.com] ." [courtesy: islamqa. The reason being that the Greek philosophers were interested in transmitting it from the legacy of idolatrous peoples and the remnants of the divinely-revealed religions.13 - . the Wise. benefiting from the scriptures of Ibraheem u and Moosa u after the Greek victory over the Hebrews following the captivity in Babylon. it became most famous in Greece. and benefiting from the religion of Luqmaan. and became synonymous with that land. philosophy existed in the ancient civilizations of Egypt. So there was an amalgam of views that confirmed the Divinity and Lordship of the Creator.

who used Ilmul-Kalaam to argue with the Mu'tazilah. They in turn. The influence of Ilmul-Kalaam led them astray in many issues of belief. even though their senior-most scholars like al-Fakhr ar-Razi and al-Juwayenee regretted having indulged in Kalaam towards the end of their lives. a reprehensible innovation that initiated unnecessary argumentation and confusion in the Ummah. 'Ilmul-Kalaam' holds special significance as it is the defender of their beliefs.14 - . a philosophical discipline crept amongst Muslims in the name of 'Ilmul-Kalaam'. which on the issue of the Attributes of Allah. . and not a judge to analyze its veracity. sought to rationally prove and justify their 'fundamental tenants of faith' by means of 'Kalaam. After the Mu'tazilah. The first groups to pursue and indulge in Ilmul-Kalaam were the Qadariyyah. It is thus. Thus for the Ash'aris and the Maturidis. the Mu'tazilah and the Jahmiyyah. it was absorbed by the Ash'aris and the Maturidis.and sects that pursued it Before the appearance of outright-philosophers in the Muslim Ummah like al-Farabi. Kalaam is a way or mode of argumentation that has its origin in Greek Philosophy. amounts to approving only a few Attributes whilst nullifying others. The sects that indulged in it however. insist that it is merely a tool to prove the truthfulness of Islam.

of the Mu'tazilah Mu'tazilah comes from the word.e.' The group is named such because its founder 'Waasil Ibn Ataa' withdrew (I'tazala) from the study circles of Hassan al-Basri after proposing an innovative idea on the status of Muslims who commit major sins (i. 'I'tazaal'. From then on the Mu'tazilah deviated further and increased in misguidance under the influence of Ilmul-Kalaam in many issues of belief. Their theory of belief concerning Allah's Names is approval by the tongue and rejection by the heart. they merely affirm the Names without affirming any meaning for them.. For example. i. . they affirm by the tongue that Allah is 'As-Samee (All-Hearer).15 - . Five innovated Usool (principles) of the Mu'tazilah I) Tawheed (Oneness of Allah) which according to the Mu'tazilah is complete denial of Allah's Attributes. 1.e. 'to withdraw. whether they are believers or disbelievers).. i.e.' but reject True Hearing for Him.

which to the Mu'tazilah. “He it is Who created you. (*1) It is irrational that one is neither a believer nor a disbeliever! Whereas Allah classifies mankind into two outright groups. They also deny that actions of the slaves are subject to Qadr (predecree). iv) Manzilah baynal-Manzilatain (state between the two states). he will be in Hell-Fire eternally if he dies without repentance. a person is independent of Qadr and Power of Allah in his will and ability of action. 2) Denial of seeing Allah in the Hereafter.16 - . nor does He take him out of Hell-Fire. then some of you are disbelievers and some of you are believers. The idea that a Muslim who commits a major sin. v) Amr bil-Ma'roof wa-Nahi anil-Munkar (enjoining the good and forbidding the evil). is denying that Allah is the Creator of the actions of the slaves. According to them. and in the Hereafter.ii) Adl (Justice).” [Soorah at-Taghabun (64): 2] Allah did not say that some of you are in a state between the two states!! . iii) Wa'd wal-Wa'eed (Warning and cautioning) which in their understanding is to enforce and warn that Allah neither accepts Shafa'ah (intercession) on behalf of someone who commits major sin. which according to them is disobedience to the ruler and raising the sword against him. is in a state between Eeman and Kufr (*1) with respect to this world.

. undue veneration of Aql (intellect) and giving it priority over Naql (texts of the Qur'aan and the Sunnah) which resulted in deviations like. Ahaad Ahadeeth do not give the benefit of certain-knowledge. because according to them. etc. giving an interpretation different from the apparent meaning) of Qur'aanic verses which they considered contradictory to Aql. iii) Rejection of Ahaad Ahadeeth. 5) Denying various issues of the Ghayb (unseen) like the angels. 4) Defaming the Sahabah and the Taba'een.17 - . i) Ta'weel (i.even if they were mutawathir or collected in the two saheehs (Saheeh al-Bukharee and Saheeh Muslim). which form the major part of the Hadeeth compilation.e. jinn. especially the narrators of hadeeth like Abu Hurayrah r. 6) Most importantly.3) Their innovated belief that the Qur'aan is a creation of Allah. ii) Rejection of Ahadeeth which were deemed contradictory to Aql . (The belief of Ahlus-Sunnah is that the Qur'aan is the uncreated literal Kalaam (Speech) of Allah).. magic.

Indeed. whereas the Aql (intellect) of a person is not infallible. tried to mediate between reason and the transmitted reports. or to misinterpret them altogether. Who is infallible. error. Aql is the deficient opinion of humans that is open to misconception. like the philosophical groups who went . So they came up with false rulings that led them to say that they did not know what the texts meant and that only Allah knows their meaning.An Important note on the harmony between and “Contradiction between a clear text of the Book and the Sunnah and the sound Aql cannot be imagined and is in fact impossible. 'The Principles of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama'ah in deriving Aqeedah' by Nasir al-Aql] Philosophical groups who assumed that religious texts contradict reason. forgetfulness.” [end quote from. desires and ignorance. So if there appears to be a contradiction between the two then the Revelation is given precedence and is decisive since it comes from the One.18 - . This led them to force reason into fields where it had no place.

he should only take what is needed and make the way of the Salaf his basic goal. magnified upon the issues… They did not contend themselves until they confused the fundamental issues of Deen with philosophy. They further claimed that their compilations were the noblest knowledge and most deserving to be studied and whosoever did not make use of their interpretation was an ignorant layman. Jahmiyah.astray concerning the Attributes of Allah. Those who came after the three generations.19 - . fortunate is he who holds on to the way of the Salaf and refrains from the innovations of the Khalaf (the late-comers) and if he is unable to do so. Thus. Ibn Hajr (rahimahullah) writes in Sharh al-Bukharee. such as Abu Haneefah. Abu Yusuf and ash-Shafa'ee and their refutation of the Ahlul-Kalaam is well known. to which everything had to be referred to and they made Ta'weel (interpretations) of all narrations that contradicted their philosophy. Mu'tazilah and Asha'irah who either denied or misinterpreted the Names and Attributes of Allah instead of accepting them without reservations. which they considered to be the Asl (the foundation) (instead of the texts of the Deen). They did not stop at that. The reason behind such severe censure is that the Ahlul-Kalaam discussed issues concerning which Allah's Messenger r and his Sahabah y had acquired silence. "…The Salaf intensified their rejection of these trends." [Fath al-Baree (13/253)] .

He may be punished for his major and minor sins in the Hereafter or be forgiven by Allah. while the Murjiyah were deficient in the same as explained by Shaikh Bakr ibn Abdullah Abu Zaid in Dar' al-Fitna 'an Ahlus-Sunnah.] (*2) According to the understanding of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama'ah. the verses that dictate punishments of sins). (*1) The Khawarij fell into this misguidance due to their exaggeration in understanding the texts of warning (i. and explaining the misguidance of the Khawarij and the Murjiyah on the issue. nor an outright Kafir (disbeliever). (*1) The Mu'tazilah presented their seemingly moderate solution to the argument that such a Muslim is neither a believer. . a Muslim who is guilty of major sin is not outside the fold of Islam. 'Eeman and its components. [Learn more about their deviated views and their refutation with references from the writings of the scholars in our booklet.e..for the of Mu'tazili Ideology a) Prevalence of excessive debate on the status of a Muslim who commits a major sin due to the extreme position taken on the subject by the Khawarij (who judge such a person as outright Kafir) and the Murji'ah (who consider such a person to be a Mumin with perfect faith).20 - . but is between the two states.

thus portraying themselves as defenders of the faith. He consulted his Christian scholars." [end quote from History of Islam (vol. . c) Translation of numerous books on Greek Philosophy under the patronage of Ma'mun who was interested in having Aristotle's work translated. d) Mu'tazilah used 'Ilmul-Kalaam' to argue in defense of Islam.b) Mu'tazilah who remained discredited throughout the Umayyad rule gained a position of prominence and influence during the Abbasids era when Ma'mun (212H /827 CE) came to power and appointed them as judges within the state. and none is allowed to read and teach them because they expel respect for religion from the people's heart. who attributed themselves to Imam Abu Hanifa in jurisprudence. "He (Ma'mun) wrote to the Roman Emperor requesting him to send all of Aristotle's works available to him. 'The books on philosophy are under lock and key in our country. Ma'mun subjected the scholars. who suggested. to severe persecution.21 - . At the behest of the Mu'tazilite theologians. This policy continued during the reign of the next two Abbasid rulers.' The Emperor had five camels loaded with these books and sent them to Mamoon Rasheed. who opposed the Mu'tazili views. We must send these books to the Caliph of Islam so that the publicity of philosophy will dampen the religious spirit of the Muslims.2) by Akbar Shah Najeebabadi] These books were then translated by Christian scholars assigned by Mamoon. The Emperor hesitated. al-Mu'tasim and al-Wathiq.

Allah answered his prayer and Ma'moon died a sudden death." During the journey. Muhammad ibn Nuh passed away. before he .a Mu'tazili). Four scholars stood up to the Fitna (trial). Imam Ahmad said. for what is (this life) but a short while. they were imprisoned and taken in chains to Tartoos where Ma'moon had summoned them. It is reported in books of history that Ma'moon sent a messenger to Imam Ahmad with a threatening message that a sword that had not been used on anyone else . Imam Ahmad invoked Allah that he should not meet Ma'moon.22 - . but only Imam Ahmed Ibn Hanbal and Mohammad ibn Nuh kept steadfast. As a result. Upon hearing this. "I ask Allah to suffice me.had been prepared for Imam Ahmad. Caliph Ma'mon (himself a student of the Abu al-Huzail alAllaf . was instigated by his Qadhi (chief-judge) Ahmad ibn Abee Dawood to persecute anyone who resisted the innovated idea.the great by the Mu’tazilah ordeals caused A testament of The innovated idea of the Qur'aan being a creation engulfed the Ummah at the time of Imam Ahmad when the Mu'tazilah used the ruler's sword to force scholars and jurists into accepting it.

they were unable to overcome Imam Ahmad. "O AmeerulMu'mineen. Imam Ahmad was then returned to prison." [Soorah ar-Rahman (55): 6] Imam Ahmad argued that Allah has nowhere referred to the Qur'aan as Khalq al-Qur'aan. "The Speech of Allah is not a creation.could encounter Imam Ahmad. On the third day. who was instructed by Ma'moon to keep close to Ibn Abu Dawood and continue the persecution. so that he may hear the Word of Allah. Mu'tasim summoned Imam Ahmad and arranged a gathering with Ibn Abee Dawood and his companions on the issue of Khalq al-Qur'aan. The Caliphate passed on to Mu'tasim. the gathering continued and Imam Ahmad was asked. remember your standing . Imam Ahmad was summoned once more in front of Mu'tasim. Allah says. Allah's Messenger r said. "The blood of a Muslim who testifies La ilaha illa Allah is not Halaal to be spilled except in three cases…" So what is that which makes my blood permissible to be spilled while I have not done any of the three? O AmeerulMu'mineen. and the gathering dragged on for two days. but this time the swords were unsheathed and the spears were pointing at him. "And if anyone of the polytheist seeks your protection then grant him protection.23 - . Despite many arguments and efforts by the Mu'tazilah. Mu'tasim questioned Imam Ahmad about his position only to receive the same reply. Mu'tasim threatened Imam Ahmad with murder upon which Imam Ahmad said." [Soorah at-Tawbah (9): 6] He was asked to present more proof to which Imam Ahmad replied with the following verse. "The Most Beneficent! Has taught the Qur'aan. "What do you say about the Qur'aan?" to which he replied.

." Imam Ahmad was then transferred to his house and his ordeal left him unable to walk." Imam Ahmad insisted. When his wounds healed and he regained strength. "Repeat what I say that the Qur'aan is Makhlooq (a creation). He was whipped until he would loose consciousness. but Ibn Abee Dawood instigated.before Allah the way I am standing before you. The whipping would continue every time he regained consciousness.24 - . The next day Imam Ahmad was brought back from the prison to be whipped even though it was Ramadaan and he was fasting." Imam Ahmad's steadfastness and determination weakened Mu'tasim's resolve. "O Ameerul-Mu'mineen. "My mind went blank and nothing would come to my mind except the fear that my private parts would be exposed. "Bring me a proof from the Book of Allah or the Saying of Allah's Messenger. if you leave him. Mu'tasim then addressed Imam Ahmad." Imam Ahmad was then stripped off all his clothes except his lower garment. Imam Ahmad says. Imam Ahmad would preach in the mosque. He was not prevented from teaching until the caliphate passed on to Mu'tasim's successor Wathiq." This infuriated the Chaliph who ordered Imam Ahmad to be taken back to prison. Mu'tasim came along with two executioners who were ordered to be inconsiderate and they whipped Imam Ahmad in turns. it will be said that you abandoned the madhhab of Ma'moon.

"As-Salaam alaikum. The man recited the verse." [Soorah an-Nisa (4): 86] and then said. Wathiq however did not find it in his interest to imprison Imam Ahmad. People were being brought before Wathiq in shackles and were being forced to accept that the Qur'aan is a creation. Allah guided Wathiq to retreat from his deviation due of an interesting incident. "When you are greeted with a greeting. "What do you say about the Qur'aan?" The man said." The caliph was astonished and ordered Ibn Abu Dawood to debate with him. nor there be any salaam (safety) on you. he who has nurtured you did not do it well. "Neither has Allah saved you. "What do you say about the Qur'aan? O Ibn Abu Dawood." The man said.25 - . A man amongst them greeted Wathiq. Anyone who resisted was killed.Wathiq too was instigated by Ibn Abu Dawood and his evil companions to coerce the people into accepting the Qur'aan as a creation." He replied. Ibn Abu Dawood asked him." He was referring to Wathiq's mentor Ibn Abu Dawood who was also present there. Towards the end of his caliphate. So he ordered Imam Ahmad to leave. O Ameerul-Mu'mineen. "I say that the Qur'aan is . Imam Ahmad thus sought refuge away from public view for five years. I should initiate. "Verily. "You have not done justice to me." to which Wathiq retorted." The caliph agreed and the man asked. greet in return with what is better than it or (at least) return it equally. "You have not replied me with the same or the better.

and his patience and steadfastness in upholding the Aqeedah of Ahlus-Sunnah bore fruit. "Something which Allah's Messenger. you have not followed suit." The man said. After the death of Wathiq. The issue of the innovated idea of Khalq al-Qur'aan disintegrated. "No. "Did they know it or were they ignorant of it?" Ibn Abu Dawood said. Abu Bakr and Umar kept silent about." He asked. With this came true the saying of Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal. the righteous-caliph alMutawakkil came to office.26 - ." So Ibn Abu Dawood kept quite. Imam Ahmad passed away in 241H. did the Messenger r. "This saying of yours with which you have burdened the people and the caliph with. he revoked his statement that the Qur'aan was created." The man said.Makhlooq (a creation). He ordered an end to all indulgence in the issue. rather they kept silent." . the strength of the Mu'tazilah. between us and you are the funerals." The man said. "Say to the people of Bidah. "They knew it. "They did not say it. "Was this issue kept open to be silent about or were the people burdened with it?" Ibn Abu Dawood said. and along with it. Seven hundred thousand men and sixty thousand women attended his funeral. Abu Bakr and Umar say this or not?" Ibn Abu Dawood replied. Wathiq freed the man and after solitary deliberation. Imam Ahmad's trials finally ended.

"What is your opinion about that which he has innovated for the people with regards to Kalaam about accidents and bodies?” He said. "May Allah's Curse be upon Amr ibn Ubaid for he paved for the people the way to Kalaam…" [Dhamul-Kalaam lil-Harawee. Imam Abu Hanifa).27 - .” [Manaqib Abi Haneefah of al-Kurdi (baa/p. "The people of desires in al-Basrah are many and I have entered it odd twenty times. for every novelty is a Bidah (innovation in the religion).28-31] Imam Someone asked him (i." [Manaqib Abi Haneefah of al-Kurdi (p. I stayed there for a year or more thinking that Ilmul-Kalaam is the greatest of sciences. p.Abu Hanifa's of Kalaam Imam Abu Hanifa said. "Principles of philosophy!!! Stick to the way of the Salaf..e. Perhaps.194) Quoted from A'tiqaad al-A'imma al-Arba'a] Imam Abu Haneefa also said.137) Quoted from A'tiqaad al-A'imma al-Arba'a] .

'Yes. 'My father was neither a man who confused matters. many of those who claim to follow his madhhab like the Maturidis and Deobandis continue their indulgence in Kalaam.Hammad ibn Abi Haneefa related.. 'Why is that?' He said.' and I named those who were with me. these are people of Kalaam .' Hammad said.' So I asked him.' He (Hammad) says. 'O Hammad.you will see they were upon one statement and one religion until Shaytan came between them and sow discord and differing…' Despite Imam Abu Hanifa's condemnation of Kalaam. and we were arguing at a door. who is with you?’ I replied. 'Verily. 'O Hammad. I went out to him. He then advised me. He asked me. Imam Abu Hanifa rahimahullah) entered upon me one day and accompanying me was a group of Ashab al-Kalaam.28 - . nor was he from those who command something and then prohibit it. 'O father did you not used to command me with it?’ He said. my son and today I prohibit you from it. 'So and so.e. "My father (i. . So when I heard him approaching the house. abandon Kalaam.

and exposed the manner in which they tamper with the texts and rulings. "Our shaykh Abu Haamid went deep into philosophy then he wanted to come out of it but he was unable to. he could not completely free himself from philosophy. He indulged in philosophy. His closest companion. He went through a number of stages. There were . he then followed the path of the Batiniyyah (esotericisms) and learned their knowledge. etc. These are the four stages that al-Ghazzali went through. al-Ghazzali had a deep knowledge of Sufism. and then he recanted and rejected it. was a person of rare level of intelligence.29 - Imam . the well-known author of the book 'Ihyaa Uloom ad-Deen'. Then he followed the path of Sufism. Then he indulged in Ilmul-Kalaam and gained a sound grasp of its basic principles and used it to refute philosophy. Usool al-fiqh. but later rejected Ilmul-Kalaam when it became clear to him that it was corrupt and filled with contradictions. and he was a devoted worshiper with good intentions. Even though.al-Ghazzali's of Philosophy and Kalaam Imam al-Ghazzali. but rejected that too.. Abu Bakr ibn al-Arabi refuted his ideas saying. ingenuity and cleverness. Ilmul-Kalaam. He showed the beliefs of the Baatiniyyah to be false.

let alone as prominent scholars in that field for none of these people had any knowledge of al-Bukharee and Muslim and their ahadeeth apart from what they heard. Abu Haamid al-Ghazzali. his devotion to Allah. who cannot distinguish between a hadeeth which is regarded as saheeh and mutawatir according to the scholars of hadeeth and a hadeeth which is fabricated and false. despite his brilliance. who did not have enough knowledge of hadeeth to qualify them as ordinary scholars of hadeeth. and that may be verified by looking in al-Ghazzali's books. Their books bear witness to that because they contain strange things and most of these scholars of Ilmul-Kalaam and Sufis who have drifted away from the path of the Salaf admit that either at the time of death or before death. "If we assume that someone narrated the view of the Salaf but what he narrated is far removed from what the view of the Salaf actually is.30 - . his knowledge of kalaam and philosophy. his asceticism and spiritual practices and his Sufism ended up in a state of confusion and resorted to the path of those who claim to find out things through dreams and spiritual methods. (4/66)] Shaikhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (rahimahullah) said. then he has little knowledge of the view of the Salaf. which is similar to the situation of the ordinary Muslim. There are many such wellknown stories." [Majmoo al-Fatawa (4/71)] . Ibn al-Khateeb and the like.narrated from him opinions which sound like the Baatini way of speaking. such as Abu'l-Ma'aali." [See Majmoo al-Fatawa. This Abu Haamid al-Ghazzali.

and indeed of great benefit. We ask Allah for beneficial knowledge. nevertheless some of his writings contain philosophical material and matters where he followed the corrupt principles of philosophy that contradict Prophethood and even contradict sound common sense. rituals and asceticism that are in accordance with the ways of the philosophers and deviant Sufis.31 - . Then he mixed that with the views of the philosophers and the symbolic phrases of al-Hallaaj. .Ibn Taymiyah also said.. "…he became a Sufi and forsook knowledge and its people. it contains many false ahadeeth and it contains much that is good. He almost went astray from the religion altogether when he wrote al-Ihya [i. "Hence. "I (ad-Dhahabi) say. and even though some of what he says is true and good.e. then he got involved with 'inspiration' . "as for al-Ihya." Adh-Dhahabi narrated in his book. He started to speak of the inspiration and symbolic words of the Sufis although he was not qualified to do that and had no deep knowledge of such matters.those who claim to have spiritual knowledge and the insinuating whispers of the Shaytan. etc. Siyar A'laam an-Nubula that Muhammad ibn al-Waleed al-Tartooshi said. I wish that it did not contain etiquette. Hence he failed and filled his book with fabricated reports.. He started to criticize the fuqaha (jurists) and the scholars of Ilmul-Kalaam. and expressed veneration of Prophethood [as opposed to philosophy]. Ihya Uloom al-Deen]. even though Abu Haamid refuted the philosophers and classed them as kuffar (disbelievers).

guide us to Your straight path. the practice of spiritual exercises. Sunan al-Nasa'ee. and to act in accordance with them as was the way of the Sahabah. Beware of the opinions of the philosophers." [Majmoo (4/72)] ." So. Riyadh an-Nawawi and al-Adhkaar by an-Nawawi.Do you know what beneficial knowledge is? It is that which Allah revealed in the Qur'aan. Shaikhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) said. He advised the Ummah to come back to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger r. my brother. "Whoever turns away from my Sunnah does not belong to me. al-Ghazzali (rahimahullah) returned to the belief of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama'ah.32 - . And seek the help of Allah. and then you will succeed and prosper. and the type of knowledge which we are not forbidden to acquire. The Prophet r said. which was explained by the Messenger r in word and deed. All goodness is to be found in following the pure and tolerant way of the haneefs. and the nonsense talk of those who stay alone for long periods in their monasteries. He focused on the Qur'aan and the Sunnah and condemned Ilmul-Kalaam and its proponents. "After that he (al-Ghazzali) came back to the path of the scholars of hadeeth and wrote Iljaam al-Awwaam an Ilm alKalaam.” [Siyar A'laam an-Nubula (19/340] At the end of his life. the starvation of monks. O Allah. you must ponder over the Words of Allah and persist in studying al-Saheehayn (Saheeh al-Bukharee and Saheeh Muslim).

which had harmed a great number of people and created trouble for the Muslims. The evil that has resulted since Ilmul-Kalaam began has become widespread. This is also indicated by the fact that the Messenger r and the Sahabah. and they would have studied the matter hard.A glance at 'Iljaam al-Awwaam an Ilm al-Kalaam' will prove to us that al-Ghazzali had indeed changed in many ways: 1. did not follow the way of the scholars of Ilmul-Kalaam when they produced arguments. more than they did with regard to the division of the estate among the heirs. If they had thought that it was something good. by consensus.33 - . 3. witnessed and experienced. He emphatically denounced the scholars of Ilmul-Kalaam and described all their principles and standards as reprehensible innovations. Al-Ghazzali said. and that whoever went against them was an innovator or follower of bidah.com . "The harm caused to a great number of people is something that has been seen. 2. He advocated affirming the Attributes of Allah and not misinterpreting them in a manner that would lead to denying the attributes of Allah. That was not because they were incapable of doing so. evidence and analysis. even though people at the time of the Sahabah forbade that.” Courtesy islamqa. they would have done it in the best manner. He emphatically denounced ta'weel (interpretation of the Attributes of Allah in a manner that differs from their apparent meaning). In this book he advocated the belief of the salaf and pointed out that the way of the salaf was the truth.

“The Sahabah y needed to prove the Prophethood of Muhammad r to the Jews and Christians, but they did not add anything to the evidence of the Qur'aan. They did not resort to arguments or lay down philosophical principles. That was because they knew that doing so would provoke trouble and cause confusion. Whoever is not convinced by the evidence of the Qur'aan will not be convinced by anything other than that, for there is no proof after the proof of Allah."
See Abu Haamid al-Ghazzaali wa'l-Tasawwuf.

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The (rationalists) school of thought
The Aqlaniyyah school of thought are a contemporary group inspired by the Mu'tazilah of old, and were initiated by Jamaal ad-Deen ibn Safdar al-Husaini al-Afghani, who was an Iranian with a Shiite upbringing. Al-Afghani's thoughts were forwarded by his Egyptian student, Muhammed Abduh, who was appointed an official mufti in 1899. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan from the Indian sub-continent also belonged to this trend. These trends emerged towards the end of the colonial era, along with other movements that sought to give a solution to the major problems facing the Muslim Ummah at that time that included rampant superstitions and grave-worship, intellectual stagnation, the people's distance from the Qur'aan and Hadeeth, blind dependence on deviant clerics for religious guidance, social and political evils, scientific and economical backwardness. The Aqlaniyyah trend proposed its solutions, and in general, stood up for some praiseworthy issues like opposing blind-following of madhhabs, turning back to the Qur'aan as a relevant guide for modern times, reaffirming the importance of Ijtihad, opposing widespread superstition and grave-worship, calling upon the Ummah to benefit from scientific progress and education.
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Some of them even referred to previous writings upon the way of the Salaf, like those of Ibn Taymiyah and Ibn al-Qayyim, when they could find in them support for their views, because Ibn Taymiyah's era has witnessed the very same problems - only that during the colonial era, Muslims were totally destitute of political and economical strength. However, Mu'tazili views overwhelmed the Aqlaniyyah, and their modernist interpretations lead them to spread dangerous deviations in the Ummah, amongst which were: a) Giving precedence to Aql over Naql b) Re-interpretation of the verses and texts in accordance with latest scientific discoveries c) Rejection of Ahadeeth that cannot be given a modernist interpretation, even those that are mutawathir or recorded in the two saheehs. d) Defaming the Sahabah and the taba'een, especially the narrators of Hadeeth e) Denying various issues of Ghayb like the angels, jinn, magic, etc. f) Calling towards wahdatul-adyaan (unity of religions) g) Dividing the Sunnah into Sunnah Amaliya and Sunnah Ghair Amalia (explanation ahead), h) Calling towards nationalism I) Raising objections on issues like hijaab, polygamy, etc.

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As a matter of fact. This approach attempted to evaluate the meaning of the Bible by focusing on the text alone and ignoring what the Church fathers had historically taught about it. The modernist movement has its origins in medieval Europe. They believed that most dogmas or teachings of the Church were novelties which arose because of specific historical circumstances throughout the history of the Church. and as such. European modernist movements continue to provide much inspiration to their 'Muslim' counterparts.37 - . This way of looking at the . Modernism initiated a rationalist approach to the Bible that took a skeptical view of miracles and the historicity of biblical narratives. and therefore understanding the western-modernist helps us understand the objectives of those who seek to modernize Islamic teachings and values.The Movement Those who studied with or were influenced by the Aqlaniyyah further deviated and developed into that which shows a stark resemblance to the modernist movement in Christianity and Judaism. They saw the Church to be mere human institution. whose basic view is that the religion should change according to circumstance. not the absolute truth.

The Bible is its own interpreter (scripture interprets Scripture). and come to terms with progress. and rejected calls that the Pope reconcile himself.' and it was forcefully argued that religion must be primarily caused and centered on the feelings of believers. liberalism and modern civilization. and sufficient of itself to be the final authority of Christian doctrine. Modern European philosophers played an important role in forwarding Modernism. The evolution of ideas. and rather than be a source of correction. Pope Pius IX issued a document called. It was an offshoot of the concept of 'sola scriptura' which asserts that Bible is God's written word that is self-authenticating. scientific and cultural progress gave strength to the idea of the separation of the Church and the State .38 - . This document was largely ignored because the trend of injecting secular values and to 'fit in' with the times was firmly established. similar to the Christian dogma of 'sola . The excesses of the Christian church in Medieval Europe and the view that the Church was a hurdle to social. Collectively these trends were seen as 'progressive thinking. In 1864.Bible became quite popular in the Protestant churches and found its way into Catholic churches. it itself had to be re-interpreted by Catholic apologetics.giving rise to secularism. 'The Syllabus of Errors' that condemned the ideas that human reason is the sole arbiter of truth and falsehood. by using philosophy to integrate the Christian and Jewish scriptures with secular learning. clear (perspicuous) to the rational reader.

neo-philosophers and secularists have succeeded in changing the face of Christianity to its very core. They have forced it to give into unlimited concessions. until even the most scandalous heretical action or statement is ignored. As moral standards shifted heavily during the 20th century. it was possible to 'update' Catholic morality while not being concerned with possible contradictions. The doctrine of sola fide asserts that it solely is on the basis of the believer's faith that their transgressions of God's Law are forgiven. Everything seems to be permitted for everyone until there remains little to distinguish between a Christian and a secular humanist. previously a Catholic would have had to deny his faith to engage in some of the actions of his contemporaries. Now 'citing that dogmas can change'.39 - . . became a justification for constantly updating or rather downgrading the standards of morality.fide' (being saved by faith alone). Modernist.

"Who else?!" [Agreed upon] This Hadeeth describes with precision. span by span.The transform Allah's Messenger r informed us that groups of his Ummah would follow the deviations of the past generation." We (the Sahabah) said. (do you mean) the Jews and Christians?" He said.40 - . cubit by cubit. you would follow them. The following issues are the hallmarks of the modernist. "You will certainly follow the ways of those who came before you. He r said. "O Messenger of Allah. the attitude and end-result of the 'Muslim-modernists' who imitated their Christian counterparts until they followed them into the hole of deviation and disbelief. call to . until even if they were to enter a lizard's hole.

with regards to the hadeeth. "This is limited to the era of Messenger r. They argue that the people at the time of the Prophet did what they believed suited them the best.41 - . thinking and values of a society are closely related to its environment and historic circumstances. then without doubt the ruling should be changed and modified in accordance with the present. and the people today must act as is suitable to modern times." [Tafseer al-Manar (4/349-350)] . According to the Modernists. For example. So if there is something causing corruption at an age that was not such previously. "No people will ever prosper who place a woman in authority over them. "It is required from the ulama to revise this issue… the Deen was revealed for the welfare of the people and their good and its basis is to prevent harm and destruction. Thus archaic interpretations and understandings must be altered to suit modern society. but not now!!' [Nadwa fi Qanaat bi-Taarikh 4/7/1418H] Muhammad Abduh writes concerning the issue of the permissible number of wives for a man. when the rule was for the men with absoluteness.1. and it is necessary to adapt and adjust the religion to the requirements and necessities of the times. Yusuf al-Qaradawi says." [Saheeh al-Bukharee] Dr.

and the sharee'ah of Prophet r is sufficient for them. their objective is not to benefit from advances in science or to prepare the society for the future but they seek to transform religious teachings in accordance with modern culture with the help of philosophy. Allah's Messenger r said. economical and spiritual well-being of the people like greed. miserliness. completed My Favor upon you. Allah revealed concerning this last and final Deen.42 - . the story about the evil of homosexuality that afflicted the people of Prophet Lut u. and have chosen for you Islam as your religion…" [Soorah al-Maida (5): 3] The meaning of this verse is that until the end of time. "I have not omitted anything that will bring you closer to Paradise but I have enjoined it upon you." (**) However. 2. nor a new set of rules to govern their lives. people will neither need a new sharee'ah. . jealousy. "This day. we see them to be very much relevant to contemporary times for example. etc." [Sunan Ibn Majah] The fundamental evils that cause harm to the social. and there is nothing that will keep you away from Hell but I have commanded you to do it. injustice.It is sufficient reply that Islam is a complete religion and during the Prophet's last sermon. lust. are the same today as they were at the time of the Prophet. "The modernists consider the present time to be more advanced than that of the Prophet r and they call for the renewal of the Deen claiming advancement of the society. dishonesty. I have perfected your religion for you. hatred. being inconsiderate. When one reads the stories of the previous nations in the Qur'aan and reasons why they prospered or went astray.

** Modernism in Islam by Jamaal Zarabozo .43 - .

. they do not give precedence to Aql over the sayings of the Messenger r as is known from the Imams of Deen like Imam Malik. ad-Darimee and others. "idol-worship is not merely worship of the idols. 178] 4. rather idol-worship in today's time has been represented by… worship of the texts…" [Majallah (no. "except for a very few who can be ignored that if Aql contradicts Naql. this heretical principle is so essential that Fahmi Huwaidi (considered an 'Islamist' journalist) considers following the Naql (texts of the Qur'aan and the Sunnah) to be idolworship. Ishaaq ibn Rahwiya. Ahmad. ibn Uyaynah.44 - . 235) 1978. But as for Ahlus-Sunnah. 56)] Muhammad Abduh's statement holds good only if he is referring to the Mu'tazilah. especially in matters of Aqeedah. Shafa'ee. then what is proven by Aql has to be taken. Modernists claim that the Qur'aan can only be a relevant source of guidance as long as it can be interpreted independently in the present. quoted from al-Asraniyoon p. it is a heretical principle rejected overwhelmingly.Muhammad Abduh alleged that the Islamic nation has agreed. ibnul-Mubarak. he says. Far from 'Aql over Naql' being the majority view. and thus they reject the Sunnah as an explainer of the Qur'aan and an independent source of Islamic teaching. Sufyan ath-Thawreee. the Ash'ariyah and their ilk.” [Quoted from al-Islam wan-Nasraniyah (p. For the modernist however.

for if this was true. A child therefore. it is required from us to dust off the commands in the hadeeth and not let it direct our Aqeedah.” [Tafseer Juz Amma. preferring those with general principles over the ones with specific meaning. we take what is in the texts of the Qur'aan and what is in accordance with the Aql. but Shaytan touches it. except Maryam and her child. "Allah alone knows the authenticity of this. If Shaytan was to control people then the world would have been full of cries…" [Tafseer al-Kashshaf (1/385-386)] . Concerning the hadeeth. so they are both masoom (free from sin).186] The modernists have made Aql their judge to determine which hadeeth are acceptable. cries loudly at the time of birth because of the touch of Shaytan. and similarly whosoever fits their description… The beginning of the cry from the touch is a representation of his craving… The reality of the touch is not as people think.45 - . p. No. then it would mean that Shaytan craves to seduce every new-born except Maryam and her son. "Anyway.Muhammad Abduh writes. "There is none born among the off-spring of Adam." [Saheeh al-Bukharee (641)] Zamakhshari remarks.

and nothing that is dhanni can be accepted concerning it… We are not responsible to have faith in information from those Ahadeeth in our Aqeedah.. Muhammad al-Ghazali as-Saka argues. and Eeman in the unseen comes under Aqeedah. "Verily.e. Moreover. beliefs. Ahaad Ahadeeth) or guessing thoughts.these are from Dhanni (unsure) reports because they are from Ahaad hadeeth which speak about the world of the unseen.66. "About the hadeeth which speak about Maryam and Eesa that the Shaytan does not touch them. the beliefs of Islam are based upon mutawathir texts and established Aql. Quoted from al-Asraniyoon." [Tafseer al-Manar (3/292)] . its basis is pure certainty that does not have a speck of doubt. and the hadeeth which speaks about the Shaytan of Allah's Messenger r accepting Islam. p288] Muhammad Abduhu also writes. We do not base our Aqeedah upon khabar wahid (i.46 - ." [As-Sunnah an-Nabawiya bayna ahlul-fiqah wa ahlul-hadeeth p. and the removal of the share of Shaytan from his r heart .The modernists do not accept Ahaad Ahadeeth in matters of Aqeedah.

It was so even during the time of the Prophet and thus it is subject to shoora (consultation) and rai (opinion) and ijtihad (and therefore can be). "It is a political prophecy from the Messenger about the failure of the Majoos . This explains their aversion in taking judgment from the Sunnah. “What falls under the Sunnah from the issues of politics are worldly issues and not Deen. "No people will ever prosper who place a woman in authority over them. accepted. Hajj and other worships as Sunnah Tashree'eah. Muhammad Abduh said.5. 232] . The Modernists divide the Sunnah into 'Sunnah Tashree'eah' and 'Ghair Tashree'eah. Salaat.they were the ones who were ruled by a woman. 'Ghair Tashree'eah' which does not have to be implemented necessarily." Abduh says.” [Al-Islam was-Sultan ad-Diniya ( 104)] Muhammad Abduh says about the prohibition of women ruler-ship. modified and made additions to.' They consider basic Aqeedah. It is not a command of prohibition for the leadership of women. rejected.47 - . neither general nor specific. It was an exceptional case…" [Al-Islam wal-Mustaqbil. "What we have in our heritage about the issue of the ruler-ship of women is an Islamic thought and Fiqhi opinion and Fiqhi Ijtihad and it is not from Allah…" About the Hadeeth of Allah's Messenger r. But Ahadeeth that speak about general public affairs and rules and regulations are according to them. Zakaat. 282.

nor from the Imams of the Muslims.they have no predecessors (in this act/methodology) from the Sahabah and the Taba'een. . neither in their views or their tafseer…" [Majmoo al-Fatawa (13/358)] .48 - . "Such people have made Rai their basic beliefs and then present the words of the Qur'aan on it (take. reject and make interpretation based upon it). just like the Mu'tazilah concerning whom Shaikhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyah writes. we have seen how the Modernists try to force their interpretation onto the text.Thus.

" [The program as-Sharee'ah wal-Hayat 12/10/1997. our fate is same. I say about them our brother Christians. and with this unison.a big step in this short life." [Tajdeed al-Fikr Islami. Jamaal al-Deen al-Afghani said. so if there is a shortcoming in one in its ruling concerning the absolute good. just like they are united in their essence. and he confesses this in his books like fatawa mu'asirah (2/668)] . An element of the Modernists express opinions that support Wahdat al-Adyaan (unity of religions). When they go out of the pale of eeman.82. they are guided by (another) deen of the lord. "The differences between the Muslims and the People of the book is not dangerous. Quoted from al-asraniyoon. humanity will move towards peace . "Every issue among us is similar. p.294-5] Muhammad Ammarah says. only mu'mineen [believers] are brothers). Christianity and Islam) are overall in agreement in ideology and aims. foundation and objective. 309] Yusuf al-Qaradawi says about the Christians. yes we are mumin and they are mu'min (only) in a different way." [al-A'maal al-Kamila by Jamaal ad-Deen al-Afghani. then it should be completed with the other… In this. our Ummah is same. we are children of the same homeland. "The three religions (Judaism.49 - . I see a great hope that the three religions can be united. collected by Muhammad Ammarah.6. some may object to my calling them brother (for.

So it is a theory that is rejected in Sharee'ah.50 - . falsifies the truthfulness of the Qur'aan.united upon it are both." [Ibtaal li-Nadhariyah al-Khalt bayna al-Islam wa-gairihi minal-Adyan by Sheikh Bakr Abu Zaid] . "the call of uniting Islam (the religion which came to cancel out all the previous religion) with that which the Jews and Christians are upon (religions that are marred with additions and modification) is the greatest deceit that has challenged Islam . and falsifying the Naskh of Islam for the previous legislations. misguidance that leads to Kufr (disbelief). because it ruins the Aqeedah. falsifies the fact that Prophet r is the seal of the Prophets . and they have covered it with polished slogans and it is a deception that holds frightening fate. and the Qur'aan's being the Naskh (something that cancels out the previous revealed books).Shaikh Bakr Abu Zaid (rahimahulah) writes refuting Wahdat al-Adyaan. Its ruling in Islam is that it is a call of Bidah. the Jews and the Christians due to their mutual hatred for Islam and the Muslims. Riddah (apostasy) from Islam.

hadeeth-rejectors have gone further in their blanket rejection of either all or most hadeeth. self-styled activists. . with a singular message to re-define Islam in a manner that suits the sensitivities of Western culture and values. 'Neo-Modernists' or Progressives.51 - .S.7.' Some of these individuals are not even from Muslim backgrounds like those who are Ismailis or Qadianis. Egyptian modernists. to express support for homosexual marriages. While the disease of abandoning hadeeth is found amongst all modernists to varying degrees. to support the banning of niqaab and to throwing accusations against Islamic charities and organizations. [Detailed discussion in the next section] 8. or other non-practicing secular individuals with rudimentary knowledge of Islam. They are the new wave of westernized-individuals claiming to be 'Muslim reformers'. to invite a Christian pastor to give the Friday khutbah. like having a women lead a mixed gathering of men and women for a Friday khutbah at a church. Another sect that is part of the Modernist trend is the 'Hadeeth-Rejectors'. Together they form a political movement dubbed 'Progressive Muslims' that has no consistent aims or agenda apart from making statements that are opposed to Islam or Muslim interests. journalists. raafidah. Iranian communists.all enticed by the lucrative opportunities arisen out of the media's voracious appetite for apologetic muslims speaking about 'problems within Islam. and others . Amongst them are U. or European based academics. which is why they innovate ideas even stranger to Islam to the extent that they seek to re-interpret even basic worship like salaat and siyaam. or others who are soofi charlatans.

The justification was a weak narration about a woman called 'Umm Waraqah' who was allowed to lead the prayers for her household. US-based 'progressives' arranged for Amina Wadud. for example some of the hudud punishments like the cutting of hands or the permission to beat one's wife. to give the Friday khutbah and lead the prayers in a church to a mixed gathering of men and women." . a feminist. It turned out that Amina Wadud does not even believe in parts of the Qur'aan. The Female-Imam Fiasco In March 2005. another 'progressive' Tarek Fatah reported the following about Amina Wadud's lecture in Toronto. in all honesty she could not continue with the hypocrisy of lying about how she felt about some verses of the Qur'aan… She declared that she could not intellectually or spiritually accept some things in the Qur'aan.The 'progressives' for most part find academic direction from the misguidance of the Mu'tazilah and the Mulhid philosophers. They used this weak narration despite the well-known fact that in Islam only men are allowed to lead the prayers and the prayerrows of women are behind that of men. "Midway through her speech … (Wadud) stated that despite the fact the Qur'aan explicitly asks for cutting off the hands of thieves. and show very little intellectual integrity and sincerity as will be apparent from the following incident. she did not agree with the Qur'aan… She maintained that as a Muslim with Allah close to her heart.52 - . What is amazing is that 'progressives' reject most or all hadeeth as a source of legislation. A month before the 'church event'.

This is why one often finds them speaking of the 'spirit of Islam' in order to avoid following the specific teachings of the Qur'aan and the Sunnah. and actions of the limbs are not part of faith i. they reject the entire collection of Bukharee and Muslim even parts of the Qur'aan! Deen based on feelings The 'progressives' show an attitude that closely resembles that of the Christian-modernist i. they seek to act upon a weak narration despite all odds.e.Inna'lillahi wa inna ilaihe raji'oon such words do not come out except from a disbeliever or a hypocrite. giving more credence to people's feelings than to the revealed texts. nor do they have the intellectual integrity or truthfulness to stick by their own principles. they argue that text of the Qur'aan only says for women to dress modestly and they do not like to talk about the specific details of hijaab and say we only need to follow the 'spirit' of the law. then peculiar opinions of those who come later do not break this consensus and do not make this issue a . For example.. 'progressive sola fide'!!! The neoprogressives have gone even further to define an atheist with cultural or social affinities to Muslims as 'Muslims'. and when it does not.53 - . Disputing about agreed upon matters When an issue has been agreed upon by consensus amongst the previous generations.e. the Modernist/Progressives find satisfaction with the Murjiah view that faith is belief in the heart only. Naturally. They follow what they like however frail and they reject what they dislike however well established! When it suits them. We see that the 'progressives' neither have true faith in Allah's revelation or His Wisdom.

or accept the views of outright deviants and heretics when it suites them. They also have extremely distorted views about the concept of 'Ijtihaad' and when Islamic scholars resort to Ijtihad to deduce rulings. like forced marriages and honor killings. and distinguish between what are religious injunctions and what are cultural practices. What they overlook is that unlike Christianity. As is evident. Hence we find them seeking guidance from the works of Ibn Sina and Ibn Rushd. .disputed one. then insist upon following the peculiar opinion over the traditional view. the 'progressives' promote strange/heretical opinions in order to term agreed upon matters as disputed.54 - . By this. However. but in reality it is nothing but the age-old disease of philosophy in a new garb. The 'progressives' seek to make Islam more humane by removing practices from it that are not part of Islam in the first place. the 'progressives' mimic closely the Christianmodernist idea that scriptural guidelines are relative truth and not absolute. The 'progressives' may be ardent claimants to independent thinking. They seek after and promote strange and mistaken opinions of past scholars. Islamic texts as well as their preliminary interpretation by the Prophet r and his companions are preserved and available today such that one can refer back to them in order to determine the original state of affairs. they have exposed their ignorance and prejudice towards Islam to be on par with that of the western media that they cater to.

These established beliefs and practices are not open to change or reinterpretation.e. deliberating upon a ruling in light of the Qur'aan and the Sunnah).The True Meaning of understanding of the It must be understood that the vast majority of the beliefs and practices that are an essential part of a Muslim's life are clearly stated in the Qur'aan and the Sunnah and are agreed upon by consensus since the early generations of Muslims.55 - . In a small minority of finer issues where there is no direct reference in the texts. v/s the false . The 'progressives' however have taken 'Ijtihaad' as a panacea by which they seek to change what they wish from Islam at will even when those issues are plainly mentioned in the Book and the Sunnah.. qualified Islamic scholars derive the ruling by means of Ijtihaad (i.

they are lamenting the loss of the spirit of inquiry that was so spectacularly demonstrated by classical Islamic civilization at its peak. ..As long as a majority of Muslims equate Islam with sharee'ah. and learn how he bridged science and religion. for al-Farabi. Islamic scholarship with fiqh (jurisprudence) and real knowledge with juristic knowledge. in order to . nostalgic for Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and Ibn Rushd (Averroes). rational thinking and the quest for truth through an epistemology covering science. They are. critical thinking and so on. ijtihad will remain a limited jurisprudential tool and closed minds will never open… Muslims must go back and read Ibn Rushd (Fasl al-Maqaal. human experience. in a sense.56 - . When modernist Muslims claim that the door of ijtihad has been closed. al-Biruni and al-Haytham -scientists.. envisions ijtihad more broadly. The Decisive Treatise).The following quote from one of the 'progressives' Muqtedar Khan summarizes what the progressive movement is about and its means in achieving its goals: "The second view (on Ijtihad) often espoused by non-jurists and particularly by those who advocate some form of Islamic modernism and liberalism. For modernist Muslims…Ijtihad is about freedom of thought. philosophers and jurists of Islam's 'Golden Age'. rationalism.

" (ii) Muslims are asked to follow the deviant ways of the philosophers that confused and misguided even someone as pious and knowledgeable as Imam Al-Ghazzali. Ijtihad is employed as an instrument to critique prevalent understanding and articulate a more compassionate. The other reform strategy is to question the existing understanding of Islam and seek to articulate a reformed understanding of Islam: this is where Islamic modernists and rationalists have always plied their trade. more modern and perhaps even a more liberal understanding. human experience. critical thinking. . Here.understand that Islam has nothing to fear from reason and so to open their hearts and minds to rational thought… Is la mic ref ormati on ca n be understood in two different ways. It can mean the reform of society to bring it back to what have been considered Islamic norms and values: most Islamic and Islamist reformers are pursuing this type of reform.57 - .” [Two Theories of Ijtihad] Comments: As we can see… (i) Ijtihad is falsely given a definition similar to philosophy ."quest for truth through… rationalism.

" Subhaan'Allah! Islam is after all. more liberal. .(iii) Islam should not be equated with sharee'ah (the teachings of Islam as a way of life)… and this begets the question. What should Islam. more modern. the way of life based upon revelation to Prophet Muhammad r be equated with? (iv) Reformation is to "question the existing understanding of Islam" and make it "a more compassionate. the Command of the Most Compassionate revealed 1400 years back to liberate mankind from the worship of the creation to the worship of the Creator.58 - .

59 - .but later relations soured between them over political differences and group rivalry. When Muslims in Canada sought to refer to Islamic law to solve marital and inheritance disputes. the Progressive movement is in complete disarray and its main organization in the US has lost over 90% of its board members. raafidah. when Allah's Messenger r was unjustly ridiculed by the Danish cartoonists.A in Presently (2008). Initially the Progressives did find common ground with extremist soofis. The Muslims find the 'progressives' on the other side when their interests are discussed. The figureheads of the 'progressives' fiercely compete with each other in issuing anti-Islamic statements. It has lost support of most of the people that it claims to represent. the progressives strongly opposed it blaming the sharee'ah to be 'unfair to women'. and often accuse each . the progressives were found justifying them and blaming Muslim reaction. primarily because the 'progressives' have nothing to offer the people beyond expressing disdain and aversion for the Islamic sharee'ah. ismailis and other groups that share the 'progressives' disdain for the Islamic sharee'ah. and who too base their religion upon feelings rather than the text . For example.

He says in his resignation letter. I have found both PMU and *** extremely intolerant of difference and disagreement. Muqtedar Khan. despite his lewd attitude towards Islamic teachings and his far-fetched ideas on Ijtihaad. PMU is operating with a set of moral principles randomly acquired from Marxism and/or postmodern cultural trends and is treating them as absolutely moral truths. Their internal bickering provides useful insights on the movement and its attitude towards Islamic teachings. abusive and hateful. For example I believe that a rational argument precedes the moral judgment.other of being too-Muslim. PMU members unleash fanatical rage when this is questioned and resort to . For instance. and are now looking for arguments [hopefully with some Islamic content] to justify them. (1) that clearly I am not sufficiently indifferent to the teachings of Quran and the traditions of the Islamic heritage to be a "good Progressive Muslim" (2) I was too gullible to believe in its empty claims of openness and tolerance for different perspectives and (3) I have also learned that I am completely opposite in nature to most of the members of PMU.60 - . was forced to resign from the advisory board of the primary 'progressive' organization. This is the only Muslim group where people who believe in the teachings of the Quran are ridiculed and those who express ambivalence about it even about the existence of God are celebrated… My close interaction with PMU has taught me three things. "Lately I have found the environment with Progressive Muslims Union (PMU) extremely oppressive.

‘Explanation of the Creed’ by Imam al-Barbaharee] .' [End quote from. beware of theological rhetoric (Kalaam) and of disputation. Imam al-Barbaharee: "If you wish to be firm upon the truth and upon the way of the Ahlus-Sunnah before you. I cannot for example in good conscience approve of alcohol consumption by those who acknowledge it as forbidden. even if you do not accept from them. sympathize and participate in exercises of Ijtihad that seek to reassess "human understanding" of Islam. There has never been any heresy. I have been advocating this for over a decade. innovation. false accusations as a substitute to argument. My website Ijtihad was launched in 1999.61 - . innovated sect or misguidance except through rhetoric. argumentation and analogy. distortion. These are the gates of innovation. disputation. This is sufficient for you to be destroyed. But not to observe Islamic values after recognizing them as such to me is a sin. throws doubts into the heart.abuse. I can understand. To demand that I do so in order to remain a member of the community is exactly the kind of oppression that I thought we had come together to fight…" We Conclude with the wise words of. analogy and debating about the religion. arguing. doubt and heresy. Listening to them.

.62 - .

63 - ..

Verily! Allah is All-Hearing. All-Knowing. the forbiddance of raising our voices over that of the Prophet signifies not forwarding opinions and arguments in the presence of the Messenger's r teachings. and fear Allah. nor speak aloud to him in talk as you speak aloud to one another. . "O you who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet (r). "Do not say anything that contradicts the Qur'aan and Sunnah. "O you who believe! Do not put (yourselves) forward before Allah and His Messenger (r).Allah says in the Qur'aan. lest your deeds may be rendered fruitless while you perceive not." Along these lines. He said that by not putting oneself forward it is meant." [Soorah al-Hujurat (49): 1] Ibn Abbas (radiallahuanhuma) the great Qur'aanic commentator explained this verse in a manner that shows its relevance to all generations that came after the time of the Messengers r." [Soorah al-Hujurat (49): 1] To us. we understand the next verse of this soorah.64 - .

Thabit bin Qays whose voice was (naturally) loud said. "I can't help you. "And We have also sent down unto you (O Muhammad r) the Reminder and Advice. My good deeds have been done in vain. 'I was the one who raised his voice above the voice of Allah's Messenger. Such a man will be saying. This while we have with us explanations from the Prophet r. Tafseer Ibn Katheer] Similarly Anas bin Malik narrated. He r said.65 - ." The severe caution against raising voices in the Messenger's presence was given at a time when any defiance to his teachings was inconceivable." [Soorah an-Nahl (16):44] And undoubtedly. When Thabit's apprehension . "When this Ayah (49:2) was revealed. "O Allah's Messenger r. that you may explain clearly to men what is sent down to them. It is narrated that after the revelation of these verses from Soorah al-Hujurat about raising voices in the Messenger's presence." He remained in his house feeling distressed until the Messenger of Allah noticed his absence.most significantly refraining from any unauthorized and unfounded interpretations of the Qur'aan that are based on opinion. carrying over his neck a horse that will be bleating or carrying over his neck a horse that will be neighing. Intercede with Allah for me!" and I will reply. Allah's Messenger fulfilled this responsibility of his in a manner that anyone who turns away from this guidance has none to blame but himself. for I have conveyed Allah's Message to you. "…I should not like to see anyone amongst you on the Day of Resurrection. [See. Umar spoke so softly that the Prophet r had to ask him to repeat himself in order to be understood. the one assigned by Allah to convey and explain His Message. I am among the dwellers of the Fire.

commanded and prohibited various matters as numerous as that are found in the Qur'aan or more. "Does any of you. what you find in it to be permissible (Halaal).66 - . "Indeed. The Sahabah would never oppose the Messenger or contradict him or voice their opinion or shed doubt or express anything less than complete submission to the Prophet's orders. He r said." These incidents bear witness to the Sahabah's understanding and awareness of the Prophet's elevated status that voices raised. not at but in the presence of the Messenger r caused such fear in their hearts. while reclining on his couch. he (Thabit) is among the dwellers of Paradise. I have preached. treat as permissible. he said." [Abu Dawood (3044)] He r informed. treat as prohibited…" [Abu Dawood] . I have brought the Qur'aan and something like it along with it. and what you find in it to be prohibited (Halaal). yet the time is coming when a man reclining on his couch will say. imagine that Allah has prohibited only that which is to be found in this Qur'aan? By Allah.was conveyed to the Prophet r. It was in this backdrop that Allah's Messenger r warned against that which was unthinkable to his faithful companions. 'Keep to this Qur'aan. "Nay.

and the hadeeth becomes subject to these deduced rules. Their motivations were the same as the Ahlul-Kalaam before them i. they were accepted.The of The prophecy of Allah's Messenger r materialized when a dangerous precedence was set after the era of the righteous Salaf. to sideline the hadeeth and clear the path for opinions. and if they were contrary to these rules. So they effectively reversed the affair. . The Hadeeth is Proof in itself by Shaikh al-Albani] Rules for example: 'matters of Aqeedah are not taken from Aahad hadeeth' and 'hadeeth that add a rule to the Qur'aan are not accepted!' Those who followed this misguided way built upon it until certain groups rejected Hadeeth outright and questioned its authority. [See.e.67 - . instead of it being the judge and criterion. philosophies and conjecture in the Deen.. Ahlul-Kalaam as well as some scholars of Fiqh and Usool deduced certain rules and in their extremism subjected the hadeeth to these rules such that if the hadeeth were in accordance with these rules. the Ahadeeth were not followed.

and he declared Messengership on this basis. who claimed to have discovered a mathematical pattern involving 'the number 19’ and its multiples throughout the Qur’aan. Sometimes he counted letters that weren’t there. when more rigorous critics began checking his numbers. . sometimes he added to the Qur’aanic text and sometimes he deleted from it. However. He was the founder of the Tolu-e-Islam Trust and authored many books to forward his ideas of hadeeth rejection. (*1) 2. “The Quran’s Numerical Miracle: Hoax and Heresy” by Dr. and later worked in the Pakistan Central Government. he did not explain or interpret it. It was discovered that he would sometimes treat hamzahs like alifs and sometimes he wouldn’t. As for the integrity of Rashad Khalifa’s number 19 research. Dr Bilal Philips mentions. “Many Muslims at first received Khalifa’s theories with uncritical enthusiasm. Some do not reject Ahadeeth outright but reduce its status to mere tradition and fables. verses 9:128-129). and only approve Ahadeeth that they see as consistent to their understanding of the Qur'aan like Ghulam Parvez.(*2) (*1) Rashad Khaleefah was an Egyptian immigrant to the U.e. and declared anyone who testifies to ‘Muhammad-ar-RasoolAllah’ in the Kalimah as a mushrik. sometimes he counted two words as one. He claimed this discovery was a miracle that comes from Messengers. His claims were based on the number of times a given letter or word occurs in a given soorah or group of soorahs. He claimed that the Prophet r had no function except to deliver the Qur’aan and so. Bilal Philips] (*2) Gulam Parvez was a government civil servant in pre-partition India. Some reject Hadeeth bluntly like Rashad Khaleefah.” [For more details see the book. His infatuation with the number 19 led him to reject two verses from the Qur’aan that did not fit his calculation (i. depending on the totals he needed in a given soorah to confirm his theory.Hadeeth-rejecters come in different orientations… 1. Rashad Khaleefah rejected hadeeth outright. S. they found numerous discrepancies and some outright fabrica-tions in his data.68 - . all for the purpose of making the letter and word counts conform to his theory. sometimes he failed to count existing letters.

Lahore 2000 CE] Amin Islahi's way and teachings are being promoted by his media-savvy student. while dishonoring others that he does not sense.87 (Jamaat Islami's Views on Hadith – a critcal analysis)]. He took Hamiduddin Farahi’s idea of direct deliberation on the Qur’aan and was amongst the founding members of the Moulana Maudoodi’s. rejecting the descent of Eesa (alihis-salaam).” Maudoodi himself. vol. Some shed doubt on the authenticity of the entire collection of hadeeth whose usefulness . He is amongst the very few who publicly indorsed the Female-Imam fiasco that took place in the US. Islamic Publications Limited. and many other issues.3. 1387 AH). rejecting the advent of the Mahdi and the appearance of the Dajjal.1/338.is of secondary dependant nature like Amin Ahsan Islaahi. and both he and Islahi spread doubts and suspicions on the verification of hadith. both elders have almost the same views" [Hujjiyat Hadith. Jawed Ahmed Ghamidi who forwards false ideas like hijab has no foundation in Islam. More on this in the appendix.69 - . belong to the Messenger. Music is not haraam. Many specialized scholars have pointed out the incorrect views of Maududi on the Hadith and Sunnah. With regards to the hadith. "It is possible that Moulana Islahi's words and tone may be different. . who wrote an important study entitled Mawqif al-Jamaa’at al-Islamiyyah min al-Hadeeth al-Nabawi (attitude of the Jama’at-e-Islami towards the Prophet’s hadeeth). His insight is able to sense which words his Holy Majesty the Messenger of Allah could have uttered in a certain hadith. like Islahi had dubious views with regards to hadith. rejecting the punishment of Rajm (stoning). p. Shaikh Muhammed Ismail Gujranwala. but as for the objective then Moulana Islahi's views are no different from that of Moulana Maududi.(*3) (*3) Amin Ahsan Islahi was a journalist born in Azamgarh. “A person who understands the distinguishing character of Islam and has done a thorough study of Qur’aan and the character of Prophet Muhammad r becomes capable of sensing the finer sentiments of the character of the Messenger. most notably the great scholar Muhammad Ismaa’eel al-Salafi (may Allaah have mercy on him) (d. He said. “Jamaat Islami.as they claim . In Moulana Ismaa’eel al-Salafi analysis." [Tafhimaat. Maudoodi mentioned a strange criterion for approving hadeeth. rejecting the bodily Meraaj of the Prophet. it is completely legitimate for a female to be the head of an Islamic State.

like the agreement on the authenticity of the Ahadeeth collected in Saheeh al-Bukharee and Saheeh Muslim concerning which Imam an-Nawawi (rahimahullah) said in his introduction to Sharh Muslim (1/14). the Hadeeth-rejecters share the following common traits: a) They shed doubts on the validity of the process by which Ahadeeth are declared as authentic or fabricated. b) They do not respect the unanimous agreements between the hadeeth-specialists of the past. "The scholars are agreed that the most sound of books after the Qur'aan are the two Saheehs of al-Bukharee and Muslim which were accepted by the Ummah." .70 - . The book of al-Bukharee is sounder and the more beneficial of the two.of the hadeeth-rejecters Despite differences in approach. Their uncertainty is a result of their ignorance or lack of correct appreciation for the science of hadeeth verification. or the science of Hadeeth cannot prove a narration to be authentic with certainty. According to them. it is either impossible to distinguish between authentic and inauthentic Hadeeth.

Therefore.c) They aggressively promote that the interpretation of the Qur'aan is not limited to the understanding of the earlier generations of Islam. one often finds the names of Hadeeth-rejecters associated with heretical interpretations of well-accepted Islamic teachings. d) They harbor ambitions to insinuate a new social and religious order for the Muslims which they justify by misinterpreting the Book of Allah. but that the Qur'aan should be open to interpretation in accordance with modern thought.71 - . They seek an 'Islamic renaissance' to change the way Muslims understand the Deen. .

a teacher and explainer of the Qur'aan. Their call takes strength from the general ignorance with regards to the process by which Ahadeeth are verified as authentic or inauthentic.72 - . Some hadeeth-rejecters claim to be defenders of the Prophet's honor when they reject authentic hadeeth from Saheeh al-Bukharee that mentions the age of the Prophet's wife Aaisha at the time of the consummation of her marriage or the Hadeeth about Allah's Messenger being harmed by magic. The irony of the matter is that the hadeethrejecters wish to defend the Prophet's honor by rendering meaningless his r status as an example. They consider these Ahadeeth unacceptable and a cause for Islam's critics to attack the Messenger! Their solution is to cast doubts on the very process of transmission and verification of hadeeth and deprive the Muslims from the entire treasure of knowledge inherited from the Prophet r.Callers to evil as Like all dangerous innovations and deviations from the Deen. . the Fitna of hadeeth-rejection comes in a guise that appeals to the people's reverence for Allah's Deen.

Hadeeth-rejecters like Gulam Perwez consider themselves as vanguards of Islamic law against secularism. then these sects are already united on the text of the Qur'aan. There is thus no substance in this claim either. And this is exactly the type of disagreement found amongst Munkireen al-Hadeeth themselves (examples ahead). In an environment of increased sectarianism. is that Munkareen al-Hadeeth are neither liberal nor progressive. They project themselves as liberal in the sense that they are not averse to divergent opinions. It is the interpretation that there is disagreement about. Munkareen al-Hadeeth present themselves as liberal. The fact however. the only thing that Munkireen al-hadeeth have managed to accomplish by spreading doubts about Islam's texts is to open the way for Islamic law to be attacked by its enemies and to .73 - . 'the Qur'aan'. (Examples to follow under. But a closer analysis shows that hadeeth-rejecters declare anyone who disagrees with their personal interpretations of the Qur'aan as misguided and disbelievers. As a result. progressive consensus-makers who wish to gather all the sects on the one agreed-upon book. with regard to unifying the different sects under the banner of the Qur'aan. Finally. progress is to advance towards following the Deen of Allah. 'Are Hadeeth-Rejecters Liberal?') As for being progressive. where religious groups openly squabble amongst themselves. not changing it. But what remains of Islamic law when you curtail the Sunnah from it and expose the Qur'aan to open misinterpretation until every opinionated person has his own personal interpretation of Quran.

74 - . This is why we find 'secularist'. 'modernists'. 'progressives' and anyone who has a vested interest in subduing Islam's influence as a legislation and law have jumped on the bandwagon of the hadeeth-rejecters for they find common cause with them.question beliefs and practices that have always been accepted by consensus. . These groups now compete with Hadeeth-rejecters and concoct ever-weirder misinterpretations of Islam.

giving them glad tidings and warning them against sin.75 - . "Indeed. the example of the Prophet will be preserved. "Say. an angel as a Messenger.and Sunnah in Islam of 1. for him who hopes in (the Meeting with) Allah and the Last Day and remembers Allah much. and as long as people need to be guided. in the Messenger of Allah (Muhammad r) you have a good example to follow. and its teachings are for all mankind and for all ages." [Soorah al-Isra (17): 95] . Allah says. the very purpose of sending a human Messenger was for people to take him as an example in their day to day lives. "We have not sent you (O Muhammad r) except as a Messenger to all mankind. 'If there were on the earth. We should certainly have sent down for them from the heaven. angels walking about in peace and security." [Soorah al-Ahzab (33): 21] Islam is a universal religion. The Example of Allah's Messenger is part of Islam and will be protected till the Last Day." [Soorah Saba (34): 28] Rather.

The question remains . and surely We will guard it. "Verily. Allah says. ii) "And (remember) when the Prophet ( r) disclosed a . This means that there has to be an alternative form of 'Wahy' (revelation) apart from the Qur'aan through which Allah revealed the previous command of facing towards Jerusalem. Allah's Messenger r received revelations beside the Qur'aan. it is We who have sent down the Dhikr (revelation)." [Soorah Hijr (15):9] Anyone who believes in Allah as the Supreme Rabb.76 - .2. only to test those who followed the Messenger (Muhammad). "And We made the Qiblah (prayer direction towards Jerusalem) which you used to face." [Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 143] This verse shows that Allah had assigned the previous Qiblah of the Muslims but there is no verse in the Qur'aan designating Jerusalem as the previous Qibla. must agree that the guidance which Allah has sent will be protected as long as there is a need for it which in case of Islam is until the last day.Is Qur'aan the only guidance that has been revealed by Allah as the hadeeth-rejecters contend or has the Messenger r received revelation from Allah that is not part of the Qur'aan? The Qur'aan itself refers to revelation being received from Allah that is not found in the Qur'aan and hereunder are few examples: i) Allah says in the Qur'aan.

"And when you proclaim the call for Salaat." [Soorah al-Jumuah (62): 9] These verses testify that Adhan is part of the religion of Islam but there is no verse in the Qur'aan that prescribes the Adhan for the believers. ." [Soorah al-Maidah (5): 58] and. there is no verse in the Qur'aan that makes mentions this.e. the Qur'aan) and to give you (O Muhammad r) the ability to recite it (the Qur'aan). This information is found in the Sunnah. 'Who told you this?' He said.the Sunnah. This order is found in the other revelation . so when she told it (to another i. "O you who believe! When the call is proclaimed for the Salaat on the day of Friday. Then when he told her (Hafsah) thereof." [Soorah at-Tahrim (66): 3] The verse says. iv) The Qur'aan mentions the call to the prayer (adhan). Aa'isha). "Allah made it known to him. she said. and Allah made it known to him.matter in confidence to one of his wives (Hafsah). 'The All-Knower." and yet. come to the remembrance of Allah. the All-Aware (Allah) has told me. they take it (but) as a mockery and fun." [Soorah al-Qiyamah (75): 17] The Qur'aan as it has been collected is not in the same order in which it was revealed.77 - .e. iii) "It is for Us to collect it (i. he informed part thereof and left a part. and while it is for Allah to collect the Qur'aan there are no verses in the Qur'aan that mention the arrangement of the verses.

sent among the unlettered ones a Messenger from among themselves. [As-Sunnah Hujjiyyatuhaa wa Makaanatuha fi-l-Islam by Dr." [Soorah an-Nisa (4): 113] "He. reciting to them His Ayaat. and al-Hikmah. and since this revelation constitutes beneficial guidance. that which is recited in your houses of the Ayaat of Allah and the Hikmah. "Allah has sent down to you the Book (the Qur'aan).78 - . Introduction to the Sunnah by Dr. The Sunnah is in itself a Revelation from Allah Allah repeatedly makes mention of the revealed 'al-Hikmah' in the Qur'aan. He said." [Soorah alJumu'ah (62): 2] "And remember (O you members of the Prophet's family). and teaching them the Book and the Hikmah. This honor cannot be given to conventional wisdom inherited from the past or even to the books given to . purifying them.These are some proofs that show that the Messenger of Allah r did indeed receive revelation apart from the Qur'aan. and taught you that which you knew not. Luqmaan as-Salafi. it is Who. (i) Al-Hikmah is revealed by Allah (ii) It is part of the Messenger's duty to teach the Hikmah (iii) It is something recited and remembered in the Prophet's household." [Soorah al-Ahzab (33):34] These verses show. There is nothing in status and position that can be mentioned alongside the Qur'aan apart from the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad r. Suhaib Hassan] 3. it will be preserved.

which sound pleasing to us. Haya leads to tranquility (peace of mind).hold that Hikmah is the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah.previous nations. the Qur'aan and (He also mentioned) Hikmah.79 - . and Allah has imposed the duty of obedience to His Messenger. i. Imam Ash-Shafiee (rahimahullah) says explaining the verse about Hikmah. At the time of the Sahabah. Bashir bin Ka'b said. such 'wisdom' was not given any consideration as the following incidents testify… Imran bin Hussain said. followed by Wisdom. I have heard that those who are learned in the Qur'aan . [then] Allah mentioned His favor to mankind by teaching them the Qur'aan and Wisdom." Imran said to him. So it is not permissible for Hikmah to be called here [anything] save the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah. 'Haya' does not bring anything except good. "It is written in the wisdom paper: Haya leads to solemnity. "The Prophet r said. "I am narrating to you the saying of Allah's Messenger r and you are speaking about your paper (wisdom book)?" [Saheeh al-Bukharee (8/138)] When Umar t came to the Prophet r.. "So Allah mentioned His Book. "We hear the narrations from the Jews." [at-Tirimidhee] Therefore. so should we not write some of them?" Whereupon he r said." Thereupon.whom I approve . "Do you want to be baffled as the Jews and the Christians were baffled? I have brought to you (guidance) bright and pure and if Prophet Moosa u was alive now there would have been no alternative left for him but to follow me. and . For [Hikmah] is closely linked to the Book of Allah.e. he said. This is like what [Allah Himself] said but Allah knows best! For the Qur'aan is mentioned [first].

Rather. The Qur'aan needs to be understood as Allah meant it to be understood." [Ar-Risala] Furthermore. . This explanation is not only needed by people at the time of the Prophet r. And when We have recited it to you. Book and Hikmah are not the same because at no place is the word 'Hikmah' used for the Book or the word 'Book' used for 'Hikmah'. "And We have also sent down unto you (O Muhammad r) the reminder and the advice. the more the need to solve differences in understanding by reference to the original state of affairs. Allah says. Allah also says." [Soorah al-Qiyamah (75): 17-19] This verse indicates that both the text of the Qur'aan as well as its explanation have been sent from Allah. Then it is for Us (Allah) to make it clear to you. the more the distance in age from the time of the Prophet r. 4. They are two separate and distinct entities. but by all subsequent generations until the last day. For [Allah]. So. it is not permissible to regard anything as a duty save that set forth in the Qur'aan and the Sunnah of His Messenger.80 - . prescribed that the belief in His Messenger shall be associated with the belief in Him. that you may explain clearly to men what is sent down to them and that they may give thought. as we have [just] stated." [Soorah an-Nahl (16): 44] This verse mentions that the message requires explanation. and the Messenger r is the one assigned to provide it. "It is for Us to collect it and to give you (O Muhammad r) the ability to recite it (the Qur'aan). then follow you its recital.imposed on men the obligation to obey his orders.

Allah says.' But why then have the Hadeethrejectors not sufficed themselves with the text of the Qur'aan and have written huge volumes discussing and explaining the Qur'aan? Because there are verses in the Qur'aan that explain each other.81 - . and there are verses that require explanation from the Sunnah. People are not free to let loose their thoughts and speculate about the message of the Qur'aan whilst ignoring the teachings of the Messenger r. According to Hadeeth-rejecters. this verse also gives instructions about the order in which the Qur'aan should be understood. First the Messenger r explains Allah's revelation clearly to mankind and then they give thought. 'God Himself states in the Qur'aan that it is He Who explains the Qur'aan. "Indeed." [Soorah aal-Imran (3): 164] "And We have also sent down unto you (O Muhammad r) the Reminder and the Advice that you may explain clearly to men what is sent down to them. and teaching them the Book (Qur'aan) and Hikmah while before that they had been in manifest error. and purifying them. 5. One of the most important duties with which Allah's Messenger r was sent with was to convey the Qur'aan to mankind and to teach it. reciting unto them His Verses. This means that the Qur'aan explains itself.Furthermore. Allah conferred a great favor on the believers when He sent among them a Messenger (Muhammad r) from among themselves. The Qur'aan can only be correctly understood in light of the Sunnah." [Soorah an-Nahl (16): 44] .

goods and animals on which Zakaat is obligatory. "Cut off the hand of the thief. Allah commands His believing slaves in Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 43. Another example is the Qur'aanic punishment for the thief.i) The Sunnah explains the commands of the Qur'aan in details. Other important acts of worship like fasting and Hajj are touched upon briefly in the Qur'aan and for detailed injunctions Muslims are to refer to the Sunnah. the minimum amount on which Zakaat becomes payable. All these guidelines are to be taken from the Sunnah." The words of the call to prayer (Adhaan) is known from the Sunnah. Likewise. Similarly..g. the units of prayers (rak'ah) and the recitation in each mode of prayer as well as the manner of performing the prayer from the beginning to the end." Maidah (5) :38] [Soorah al- . "When the call is proclaimed for the Salaat on the day of Friday. are clearly explained by the Prophet r. "…establish As-Salaat and give Zakaat…" Details of the command to establish the Salaat are not found in the Qur'aan such as the required number of daily prayers.. verse 9...82 - . all issues of Zakaat e.. etc. the percentage paid. For example. the kind of wealth. male or female. as a recompense for that which they committed. Allah commands in Soorah al-Jumuah (62). etc.

"The literal meaning of the text is 'cutting off the hands.Bukharee] Note: The manner in which the hadeeth-rejectors explain this verse provides beneficial insight into their methodology and contradictions. Rashad Khalifa translates this verse as. every person will be guaranteed means of livelihood.' When the Divine Order of Rabubiyyat is established. you shall mark their hands as a punishment for their crime. Rashad Khaleefah used mathematical calculations to interpret cutting as marking. male or female." He comments. . Ghulam Perwez says about this verse. man or woman. "As to a thief." [Rashad Khalifa's Translation] Therefore. but the Sunnah designates what is the minimum amount when it is applied.This verse prescribes the punishment. such restrictions should be imposed on them which render them incapable of committing such crime. "The practice of cutting off the thief's hand as decreed by the false Muslims is a satanic practice without Qur'aanic basis." [Saheeh al.83 - . The Messenger of Allah r said. "The thief." and then comments. "The hand of the thief shall be cut off if he steals a quarter of a Dinar or more. the Qur'aan itself does not have Qur'aanic basis (!) when the hadeeth-rejectors dislike something in it.

" [Perwez's Translation] We can see that after all the prolonged argument by the Hadeeth-rejecters that the Qur'aan explains itself and is in no need of the Sunnah to clarify it. "Cut off the hand of the thief. The Qur'aan explains the ruling and manner of Tayammum as.84 - ." The Sunnah explains that hands in this verse mean only the palms. The word 'hand' could have multiple meanings but the Sunnah specifies the appropriate meaning for each ruling. The Qur'aan prescribes.If anyone commits a theft under such circumstances he de serve s t he hig he st punishment. we find Perwez adding nonQur'aanic clauses to the Qur'aanic law to limit the circumstance under which this punishment is applied. ii) The Sunnah establishes a meaning. or you have been in contact with women and you find no water. . when a number of meanings are possible. male or female…" but does not clarify what hand means. "…But if you are ill or on a journey or any of you comes from answering the call of nature. then perform Tayammum (dry ablution) with clean earth and rub therewith your faces and hands. The Sunnah explains the hand to mean 'from the wrist down'.

"Those who follow the Messenger. and prohibits them as unlawful . blood…" The general rule in this verse prohibits all Maytatah and all forms of blood but the Prophet r made exceptions to this rule. In Soorah al-Maida (5): 3. the Prophet who can neither read nor write . "Forbidden to you (for food) are: al-Maytatah (the un-slaughtered dead animals). this verse means that any kind of hoarding or collection of money that is not spent in the Way of Allah will doom one to the painful torment but the Sunnah clarifies that Kanz refers to the wealth on which Zakaat has not been paid." [Quoted from Tafseer Ibn Katheer] iv) The Sunnah also gives additional injunctions in a number of issues. Allah says. [Introduction to the Sunnah by Dr Suhaib Hassan] iii) The Sunnah can specify exceptions to a general rule. "We were allowed two dead animals and two (kinds of) blood. and forbids them from al-Munkar (the prohibited).he commands them for al-Ma'roof (the prescribed). they are fish and locust. all good). they are liver and spleen. As for the two dead animals." Apparently.e. "And those who yaknizu ('Kanz' means hoarding up) gold and silver. he allows them as lawful at-Taiyibaat (i. As for the two bloods. and spend it not in the Way of Allah.Another example is the Saying of Allah. He r said. Allah says.85 - . announce unto them a painful torment.

Yet.al-Khabaaith (i. beasts with canine teeth and birds of prey. dogs. So those who believe in him (Muhammad r). help him. He r made wearing gold and silk Halaal for the women and Haraam for the men.e. all evil). The Sahabah were the most knowledgeable in the language in which the Qur'aan was revealed at a time when Arabic was not blemished by the incorrectness of the colloquial language or their grammatical mistakes." [Soorah al-An'am (6): 82] . and follow the light which has been sent down with him. he releases them from their heavy burdens (of Allah's Covenant). they erred in understanding the verses when they relied on language alone. There is no scope for anyone with all his Arabic scholarship to understand the glorious Qur'aan without Sunnah. and following are some examples… a) Allah says in the Qur'aan. and from the fetters (bindings) that were upon them. honor him. for them (only) there is security and they are the guided. v) Inadequacy of language alone to understand Qur'aan. "It is those who believe and confuse not their belief with Dhulm (wrongdoing). it is they who will be successful. etc.86 - ." [Soorah al-A'raf (7):157] A number of religious injunction thus emanate from the Sunnah like the prohibition of the flesh of the donkeys.

When this verse was revealed. the Sahabah understood 'Dhulm' in its wider sense meaning 'all wrongdoing' and this caused much concern because no one is free from wrongdoing. Furthermore. The Prophet r explained that the black and white thread actually refers to the white streak of dawn and the darkness of night. "Those who eat Riba (usury) will not stand (on the Day of Resurrection) except like the . The Prophet r explained that 'Dhulm' in this verse refers to Shirk. [Adapted from. the Hadeeth-rejecters seriously contradict themselves when they author detailed volumes explaining and deliberating upon the Qur'aan and propose additional clauses and conditions to the Qur'aan's orders. Another example of this is Rashad Khaleefah's comment on the verse." [Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 187] This verse describes the time when the fast begins. 'The Status of Sunnah in Islam' by Allama Al-Albanee] vi) Detailed book? The hadeeth-rejecters maintain that the Qur'aan is a detailed Book that does not require any other source to supplement it – not even Sunnah. Despite this we have seen how Ghulam Parwez added additional clauses to the order of cutting the thief's hand. b) "…eat and drink until the white thread of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread. A companion understood this verse literally and slept with two threads under his pillow to determine when the fast should begin.87 - .

" I t i s a n e st a bl is he d economic principle that excessive interest on loans can utterly destroy a whole country. nor a bird that flies with its two wings.less than 20% . During the last few years we have witnessed the devastation of the economies of many nations where excessive interest is charged.” Rashad Khaleefah says.e. To emphasize that the Qur'aan does not need supplementary explanations. the Hadeeth-rejecters quote. We have neglected nothing in the Book. Normal interest .standing of a person beaten by Shaytan leading him to insanity.. "We have neglected nothing in the Book.where no one is victimized and everyone is satisfied is not usury. i." [Soorah al-An'aam (6):38] One interpretation is that 'the Book' in this verse refers to the preserved tablet in which Allah has recorded . then unto their Lord they (all) shall be gathered. but are communities like you. "There is not a moving (living) creature on earth." The 20% condition is not mentioned in the Qur'aan." [Soorah al-An'am (6): 38] "And We have sent down to you the Book (the Qur'aan) as an exposition of everything…" [Soorah an-Nahl (16): 89] For the correct understanding. we refer to the complete verse. then unto their Lord they (all) shall be gathered.88 - .

everything that occurs.. And He knows its dwelling place and its deposit all is in a Clear Book (al-Lawh alMahfoodh). the Deen in general. While 'the Book' does not contain details of the prayers and fasting. "Verily. and this is similar to another verse. "Allah has indeed sent down to you a Dhikr (reminder). And the same explanation holds good for the other similar verse. the remembrance of Allah. teacher and explainer of the Qur'aan and obedience to him r is ordered in seventy verses. The text of the Qur'aan will not be protected if its understanding which is . "And no (moving) living creature is there on earth but its provision is due from Allah. the example of His Messenger r.e. its understanding. 'Dhikr' has been used in the Book of Allah to refer to the Qur'aan. it did not neglect to direct the believers towards the example of the Prophet r where it can be found. i. A Messenger who recites to you the verses of Allah. Allah says. the Prayer and all aspects of the Deen which collectively are 'the Dhikr'. "We have sent down to you the Book (the Qur'aan) as an exposition of everything…" 6) Allah's Protection for the Dhikr includes all the Deen. Allah promised to protect the Qur'aan. and surely We will guard it. it is We who have sent down the Dhikr (revelation). the Friday prayer (62:9) and Allah's Messenger r as in the verse." [Soorah Hijr (15): 9] The word.90 - ." [Soorah Hud (11): 6] Even if one interprets 'the Book' to be the Qur'aan then Allah has not neglected to mention in it the Prophet's duty as the example." [Soorah at-Talaaq (65): 10-11)] Therefore.

This argument has already been replied to earlier with examples that the Qur'aan itself refers to a revelation apart from it. if anyone wants to restrict the meaning of 'Dhikr' to the Qur'aan then they need to present a proof.91 - . the like of which was undertaken to preserve the Qur'aan. Another group of Munkareen al-Hadeeth claims that the additional guidance received by the Messenger r was for his period only. is only the Qur'aan is not based on any sound proof but upon their assumption and conjecture. We will shed light on the issue in the following pages. This is a false argument because the latter generations who do not have a living Messenger amongst themselves are more in need of the guidance and explanations that was revealed apart from the Qur'aan. .contained in the Sunnah is not protected. This group also claims that the Messenger r himself did not undertake any measures to preserve the hadeeth. Furthermore. the insistence of Munkareen al-Hadeeth that the Dhikr which Allah had Promised to protect. A segment of Munkireen al-Hadeeth argues that Qur'aan was the only revelation and hence Dhikr exclusively refers to the Qur'aan. To summarize.

'As-Sunnah' by al-Khallah.92 - . which is why many scholars refer to their books on Aqeedah as. The authentic narrations that have reached us about the sayings. 'SharhusSunnah' by al-Barbaharee. . Sunnah also refers to the correct Aqeedah (creed) and worship.Defining and The Sunnah is composed of the sayings. as opposed to innovations. actions and silent approvals of Allah's Messenger r. 'the Sunnah. The Sunnah is therefore contained within the authentic hadeeth and is synonymous with the authentic hadeeth. actions and approvals of Allah's Messenger r are referred to as Hadeeth.' like 'As-Sunnah' of Imam Ahmed.

"The Sunnah that is a must to be followed. is the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah r in matters of belief. and blamed for going against it. for which one is praised due to following it.93 - .Shaikhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyah explains." [Majmoo Fatawa (3/387) Quoted from The Importance and Authority of the Sunnah by Jamaal al-Din M. matters of worship and the rest of the affairs of the religion and what is known only by knowledge of the hadeeth of the Prophet r that are confirmed on his authority. Zarabozo] .

and memorized it faithfully. To get a good overview of how Islamic texts were preserved we start by understanding the methodology of the compilation of the Qur'aan so that it can be compared to the methodology of Hadeeth compilation.). The Companions of the Prophet r eagerly observed what he r said and did. but also the entire chain of narration and the condition of the narrators (memory. This manner and meticulousness by which Ahadeeth have been preserved is unique and unparallel in literary history. beliefs. . etc. Some of them even recorded Hadeeth by writing in 'saheefahs'.of From what has preceded.94 - . and one needs to study the science of hadeeth-verification in order to truly appreciate it. we have seen the significance of the Sunnah as a source of the Deen and it is only a natural consequence that the study of Hadeeth has been a constant pursuit since the beginning of Islam to the present time. period. The Ahadeeth were passed down from generation to generation among the most trustworthy of individuals in a tremendous effort that not only preserved the exact words of the Messenger r.

. and the order of the verses is not chronological." Munafiqun (63): 2] [Soorah al- Being mostly unlettered. the primary mode by which the Arabs preserved their knowledge like poetry and history was by memorization. stone.95 - . "He. During the Caliphate of Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq.of the Allah says. all of the Qur'aan had been verified and written on various materials like cloth. was memorized by the Sahabah and in addition some of the sahabah were assigned by the Prophet r to write down the Qur'aan. At the time of the Prophet's death r. It had not been compiled in the form of a book because during the lifetime of the Prophet r the Qur'aan was continually being revealed. and remained scattered as loose fragments in the possession of various Sahabah. it is Who. There was also no pressing need for it because of the large number of accurate memorizers and reciters of the Qur'aan. etc. sent among the unlettered ones a Messenger (Muhammad) from among themselves. When the Qur'aan was revealed it too. datepalm leaves. many memorizers of the Qur'aan were killed in battles and a collective decision was taken to compile the Qur'aan in a single book in order to .

preserve it. . and remained with Abu Bakr until his death and then with Umar until the end of his life. the entire Qur'aan was verified and written on leather. was methodical in his compilation and would not agree to write down any verse until two of the Sahabah testified that they had heard it from the Messenger of Allah r. despite being a memorizer of the Qur'aan himself. The enormously significant task was given to Zayd ibn Thaabit t who began to collect the Qur'aan from what was written on palm stalks. This began to cause confusion in far off provinces.. This Mushaf was unpointed (i. More copies were made from this copy known as 'Mushaf Uthmaan. and then with Hafsah the daughter of Umar and the wife of the Prophet r. and a decision was taken to make an official standardized copy from the manuscript of Abu Bakr and limit the people to its recitation.96 - .e. The addition of diacritical marks to the Mushaf happened in the era of Abd al-Malik ibn Marwaan to ease recitation. In this manner. At the time of Uthmaan ibn Affan. thin white stones and also from the men who knew it by heart. the Islamic empire had spread far and wide and people were being taught to recite the Qur'aan in seven different dialects (the Qur'aan was revealed in seven dialects). Zayd ibn Thaabit.' and sent to different parts of the Islamic empire. it had no diacritical marks).

"Convey from me even a single verse. "May Allah make radiant the man who has heard what I said and has preserved it in his memory until he conveys it to another. that in the pre-Islamic era a man wanted to marry in the tribe of Bani Laith which had been living a mile away from Madina. the one he conveyed it to has a better understanding than him. Hussaib al-Aslami. This was due to encouragement and direction by the Messenger of Allah r himself. lying about him r was punishable by death. the sayings and actions of the Prophet r were preserved primarily at the time of the Sahabah by memorization and they were also noted down. You may relate from the Children of Israel without objection. Anyone who deliberately tells a lie against me will have prepared his seat in Hellfire. who said. (*1) (*1) Ibn 'Adi transmitted on the authority of Buraida b." [Bukharee] The Prophet r also made clear the necessity of accurately preserving and transmitting Hadeeth when he warned.of the Like the Qur'aan. Later he visited . Perhaps." [Agreed upon] So serious was this matter that at the time of the Messenger r. Whoever lies about me let him take his place in Hell. But the tribe did not concede to his will. "Lying about me is not like lying about anybody else." [At-Tirmidhee] He r also said.97 - .

Translated by Abu Hibban and Abu Khuzaimah] them dressed in a fine garment. But I used to stick to Allah's Messenger r content with what will fill my stomach and I used to attend that which they used not to attend and I used to memorize that which they used not to memorize. Saalim Ibn Abdullah Ibn Umar (the son of Abdullah Ibn Umar) and Naaf'i (the servant of Abdullah Ibn Umar). "People say that I have narrated many Ahadeeth.' The man came to the spot and discovered that he had already met his death by the bite of the snake. 'Kill him if you find him alive and burn him if you find him dead. and our Ansari brothers used to be busy with their property (agriculture). 'The Compilation of Hadeeth' by Shaikh Abdul-Ghaffar Hassan. 'The enemy of Allah has lied.98 - . Urwah Ibn Zubair. Each of them memorized over a 1000 Ahadeeth. The people of the tribe sent someone to the Prophet who instantly said. Abdullah Ibn Abbas. Had it not been for two verses in the Qur'aan I would not have narrated a single Hadeeth and the verses are. our Muhajir (emigrant) brothers used to be busy in the market with their business (bargains). those who conceal the clear sign and the guidance which We have sent down.' Then the Prophet deputized a man and instructed him. [see.' Then he came to the woman who he wanted to marry. Famous Memorizers of Hadeeth amongst the Tabieen included Sa'eed Ibn al-Mussayab.. Abdullah Ibn Umar." [Saheeh al-Bukharee (3/118)] Famous Memorizers of Hadeeth amongst the Sahabah included Abu Hurayrah. 'The Prophet gave me this garment and authorized me to judge among you in all issues regarding money and soul.Abu Hurayrah said. Jabir Ibn Abdullah. "Verily." [Soorah al-Baqarah (2):159-160] No doubt. Aa'isha Siddeeqa. Tahdhib aliKhawas min Akadhib al-Qussas Beirut-1972 pg.. 32-33] . Anas Ibn Maalik and Abu Sa'eed al-Khudree. So he burnt him. He told them. [Suyuti.

except Abdullah ibn Amr because he used to record the hadeeth while I did not do so." [Saheeh Sunan Abu Dawood (2/695)] 2. Abdullah stopped writing Ahadeeth until he asked the Messenger of Allah r about it. nothing leaves it (the Prophet's mouth) save the truth. who said." . "One can find none of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah relating more Ahadeeth than me. Abdullah ibn Umar ibn al-As stated that they used to record everything they heard from the Prophet until they were warned that the Prophet was a human being who may be angry at times and pleased at times. "Write (my hadeeth). in Whose Hand is my soul.99 - . by the One. Al-Bukharee recorded in his Saheeh that Abu Hurayrah t said.References to writing the Hadeeth can be found in various narrations some examples are mentioned below: 1.

64)] .34-60) has listed and discussed some fifty Companions of the Prophet who wrote Ahadeeth. Many of them are from before the time of Umar ibn Abdul-Azeez who is credited with having been the first person to ask for the compilation/collection of hadeeth." [Studies in Hadeeth Methodology and Literature (p.3. it would be difficult to enumerate the quantity of booklets and books. Al-Bukharee recorded that a man from Yemen came to the Prophet r on the day of the conquest of Makkah and asked him if he could get the Prophet's speech recorded and the Prophet r approved and told someone. Then he listed from the early second century scholars. 251 people who collected and recorded hadeeth.100 - .” Al-Azami in his work Studies in Early Hadeeth Literature (p.H. "I have established in my doctoral thesis Studies in early Hadeeth Literature that even in the first century of the Hijra many hundreds of booklets of hadeeth were in circulation. If we add another hundred years. which were in circulation. Thus al-Azami has produced a list of 437 scholars who had recorded Ahadeeth and all of them lived and died before the year 250 A. Al-Azami said. He listed eighty-seven of the scholars covering the late first and early second centuries who recorded hadeeth. Even by the most conservative estimate they were many thousands. "Write it for the father of so and so.

When the encyclopedia-type books were produced scholars did not feel the necessity to keep the early books or booklets and so slowly they disappeared.101 - .64] .He also demonstrated in his Ph. p." [Studies in Hadeeth Methodology and Literature. thesis the reason why none or very few of them are still in existence today “These books were not destroyed nor did they perish.D. but (they) were absorbed into the work of later authors.

102 - . Since Ahadeeth in Ahmad's Musnad are arranged according to the Companions who narrated the Hadeeth. on the other hand. This is the Saheefah of Hammaam ibn Munabbih. (or some 48 years after the death of the Prophet) this collection must have been dictated to Hammaam sometime from that date. . Since Abu Hurayrah died around 58 A. It is very easy to find all of the hadeeth from Hammam on the authority of Abu Hurayrah in that collection. It is actually a written collection of hadeeth that the Companion Abu Hurayrah dictated to his student Hammaam.. It was continually passed on until the 9th century which is the date of the Berlin manuscript.H.. one of the four manuscripts of this work that is still in existence. continued the passing on of this collection as an independent work. Imam Ahmad Ibn Hambal incorporated the entire work except two hadeeth into his famous Musnad. Al-Sulami (a muhaddith).Hammaam ibn Munabbih "Of the earliest collections of hadeeth one in particular deserves closer attention.

103 - . Out of the 137 Ahadeeth in the Saheefah of Hammaam: 29 are recorded by both al-Bukharee and Muslim 22 others are recorded by only al-Bukharee 48 other are recorded only by Muslim.. Abdul Razzaq's Musannaf. All of these collections may be studied to see that even the wordings of the hadeeth have not been changed from the time of Abu Hurayrah to the time of al-Bukharee.Other books where the Ahadeeth are arranged according to Fiqh topics also incorporated a great deal of this Saheefah. Ma'mars Jami and even Hammam's Saheefah. A study of Saheeh al-Bukharee and Saheeh Muslim will demonstrate the following.” [Authority and Importance of Sunnah by Jamal al-Din Zarabozo] . of the hadeeth of this saheefah are now published: al-Bukharee's al-Jaami al-Saheeh. Thus 99 of the 137 hadeeth may be found in either Saheeh alBukharee or Saheeh Muslim. It is interesting to note that all of the following works that contain many.. if not all. Muslim's Saheeh. Ahmad's Musnad.

of and Methodology of its authentication
Sanad and Matn
[Adapted from, Introduction to the Science of Hadith by Dr. Suhaib Hassan]

The following is an example of a Hadeeth: Musaddad told us that Yahyaa informed him from Shu'bah, from Qataadah from Anas from the Prophet that he said, "None of you truly believes until he loves for his brother what he loves for himself."
[Saheeh al-Bukharee]

This means that the Hadeeth scholar Imam al-Bukharee recorded in his book, 'Saheeh al-Bukharee' the statement, "None of you truly believes…", which he heard from his Hadeeth teacher Musaddad, who heard it from his teacher Yahya, who was informed by his teacher Shu'bah that he heard it from his teacher Qatadah, a student of the Prophet's Companion, who heard it quoted by the Sahabee (Companion) Anas ibn Malik from Prophet Muhammad r.

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Thus, a Hadeeth consists of two main parts Sanad and Matn Sanad: Sanad or Isnad, is the chain of narrators that lead to the text of the Hadeeth. The Sanad consists of all those who narrated the text, starting with the last narrator (who records the Hadeeth in his book) and ending with the Prophet. Following is the Sanad of the Hadeeth mentioned before... Al-Bukharee > Musaddad > Yahyaa > Shu'bah > Qataadah > Anas > Prophet Muhammad r.

Matn: The text of the Hadeeth or what the Prophet actually said or did is called the Matn. In the Hadeeth mentioned before, the Matn is, "None of you truly believes until...” Even though the text (Matn) of a Hadeeth may seem to be logical and reasonable, it needs an authentic Sanad with reliable reporters to be acceptable. The Sanad is thus the most important part of the Hadeeth as it is the bridge leading to the Hadeeth itself. Abdullah bin al-Mubarak (d.181AH), one of the teachers of Imam al-Bukharee said, "The Isnad is from the Deen (religion). If it wasn't for the Isnad anyone would say anything he wished." Hence, one must be careful only to take his religion from people who are trustworthy and who can trace what they have said back to the Prophet r and this can only be done through the use of isnad. During the lifetime of the Prophet and after his death, his Companions (Sahabah) used to refer to him directly, when quoting

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his sayings. The Successors (Tabi'oon) followed suit; some of them used to quote the Prophet through the Companions, while others would omit the intermediate authority, (such a Hadeeth is called Mursal). During the time of the Successors, they were either one of two narrators between them and the Prophet. But from then on the need for verification of each isnad rose as Imam Malik (d. 179) said, "The First one to utilize the isnad was Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri (d.124)." [Ibn Abi
Hatim al-Razi, Al-Jarh wal-Ta'dil (8 vols., Hyderabad, 1360-1373), 1:20]

The need to verify the Hadeeth rose because various sects appeared among the Muslims who fabricated Hadeeth. Ibn Sirin (d.110), a Successor, said, "They would not ask about the Isnad. But when the fitnah (turmoil/civil war) happened, they said, 'Name to us your men. So the narrations of the Ahlus-Sunnah (Adherents to the Sunnah) would be accepted, while those of Ahlul-Bidah (Adherents to Innovations) would not be accepted.' [Saheeh Muslim bi Sharh an-Nawawi Introduction]

After the early years, the isnad and its proper use became standardized and its knowledge became an independent branch of Hadeeth (known as Ilm al-Jarh wal-Ta'deel). This continued until the major collections of hadeeth were compiled in the third century. In fact, the tradition of relating hadeeth by their isnads continued until the fifth century. After that time books were passed on mostly by ijaza (permission given to other to narrate one's books or hadeeth) although, there are still some scholars today who can narrate hadeeth with a complete chain from themselves back to the Prophet r.

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"Verily. None of the earlier or present nations have unbroken isnads. Allah has honored and distinguished this nation and raised it above others by the use of isnad.Muhammad ibn Hatim ibn alMudhaffar wrote. They have (ancient) pages in their possession but their books have been mixed with their historical reports and they are not able to distinguish between what was originally revealed as the Torah or the Gospel and what has been added later of reports that have been taken from untrustworthy (or. 18] . mostly likely.107 - . unknown) narrators." [Quoted in al-Mukhtasar fi Ilm Rijaal al-Athaar (Dar al-Kutub al-Hadhithiya) p.

"… if memory was enough of a viable resource to be depended upon. Parwez. we cannot depend on them. The procedures that were adopted to preserve the Qur'aan are all mentioned in the Hadeeth. By quoting the Hadeeth as proof.” [Muqaam-e-Hadeeth (Actual Status of Hadeth) by G. why then was the need felt to have the Holy Qur'aan dictated and written on paper. If any disciple of the Messenger had learnt those hadeeth or sayings of the Messenger by heart. Chp. Parwez has inadvertently accepted the authority and indispensability of the hadeeth. 1] Response: 1. A.and their Doubt 1: Hadeeth were not written (the primary objection) Parwez wrote. we still are not in a position to vouch for it until and unless those sayings were not verified and the seal of approval cast on them by the Messenger Muhammad r himself.108 - . then recited again to remove any possibility of errors or mistakes during the process of its dictation. .

" [Soorah at-Tawbah (9): 100] Would a group of people who attributes falsehood to the Messenger r or are careless when transmitting his words after being warned against it be worthy of being described as.109 - . the Most Glorious. The fact that extra precautions were taken in the preservation of the Qur'aan does not mean that the Hadeeth were not preserved or were not meant to be protected. Likewise. If writing was the primary means by which Qur'aan was meant to be preserved. 4.2. "Allah is well-pleased with them"? 5. Allah is well-pleased with them as they are well-pleased with Him. were preserved primarily by memorization and a lot of them were written. Some Hadeeth-rejecters speculate that the Qur'aan was compiled fully into a book by the Prophet himself but this compilation is not found. We have seen that memorization was the primary means by which the Qur'aan was preserved. as the Qur'aan states. Turkey. "And foremost to embrace Islam of the Muhajirun and the Ansar and those who followed them exactly (in Faith). 'The seal of approval' for the Sahabah has been provided by Allah. The written parchments of the Qur'aan remained scattered until they were collected at the time of Abu Bakr t. . 3. how could this compilation not exist? The earliest written compilation of the Qur'aan which is believed to be one of the Uthmani Mushaf is on exhibit at the Topkapi Museum in Istanbul. the hadeeth too.

"Do not have anything else dictated from me. If anyone of you has written any word other than the Qur'aan. if hadeeth is all that significant. Otherwise. erase it!" [Muqaam-e-Hadith Chp. 1] Response: 1. Muhammad r clearly says. It is ludicrous of Parwez to quote Hadeeth to prove that Hadeeth were not meant to be preserved!! . Ahadeeth have been written in the presence of Allah's Messenger r (the narrations have been mentioned earlier).110 - . "…Though the mind questions. We have seen earlier that Allah's Messenger r encouraged the memorization and transmission of Hadeeth.Doubt 2: No Effort was put into preserving Hadeeth Parwez wrote with regards to the preservation of Hadeeth. 2. 3. save the Qur'aan. The forbiddance to write anything other than the Qur'aan was a temporary order and a precaution against mixing the Qur'aan and the Hadeeth. why the Messenger did not take the same measures as he did in the case of Holy Qur'aan? On the contrary. we find in that very hadeeth.

A. If we can prove that in two or two and a half centuries the words are capable of remaining in their original form.from generation to generation. It is not the question of having confidence in those writers. Moreover. then I think we have solved the greatest mystery of our times.Parwez.Doubt 3: Does every narrator in the chain understand Hadeeth correctly? Parwez writes.. were they capable of thoroughly understanding a statement and giving the correct interpretation of it. The mode by which the Qur'aan was transmitted is the same as the way in which the Ahadeeth were transmitted . [Muqam-e-Hadith by G. the Qur'aanic promise of protection must apply to Hadeeth as well for there is no point in protecting the words but not the interpretation. It is impossible!" Response: 1. Chp 1] . how can you say with authority that all the people who carried the words of Messenger were sincere at heart or could be depended on.. the most important aspect is. The individuals who transmitted the Qur'aan were the same who have transmitted the hadeeth. 2. To accept one and reject the other defies reason. Information transmitted by means of sanad is superior in authenticity. "You can vouch for the individual's character who is saying the hadeeth to you.111 - .

witness of the event. there are two drawbacks. and he does not have knowledge of possible interpretations. the case has been different…" [Hamiduallah. or obtaining a copy certified by the author. this would not happen if one were to depend on a work only after hearing (it) from the author himself. he may inadvertently change what is halaal into haraam. In Hadeeth works. (b) One is content now-a-days with one's immediate source.112 - . because if he narrated on the basis of meaning and not with the exact wording."Modern scholars quote the sources of important statements of facts in learned works. Sahifah Hammam ibn Munabbih p.” . or in case of old works by those who have had the opportunity of hearing it from the author.83] 3. there is no fear that it may be changed. without much caring to trace the proceeding sources of that source. "…he (the narrator of the hadeeth) should be one of those who can narrate the hadeeth exactly as he heard it. not based on the meaning but with the exact wording. Muhammad. or his authorized transmitter. The Hadeeth narrators transmit the exact words of the Messenger not its explanation as Imam Shafa'ee explained in al-Risaalah (370-371). (a) In case of published works. there is little possibility of verifying whether there are any misprints or other inaccuracies. But if he narrates it exactly. But even in the most carefully documented works.

A. Nor can we guarantee they can compensate for the human lacuna. "then they are saying .” [Tafheemat (1/321) Quoted from Maqaam-e-Hadeeth by G. "If they say. by any means.Parvez] Response: It is sufficient for us to quote Imaam Ibn al-Qayyim in reply to those who are not satisfied with the science of Hadeeth verification in determining the Authenticity of Ahadeeth. How are you to say for sure that whatever they are relating is fool proof when the writers themselves are not sure about it?" [Tafheemat (1/318) Quoted from Maqaam-e-Hadeeth by G. Our purpose is only to bring to surface the fact that the narrators were but only human.Parvez] He further argues. 'The Messenger's Khabars and Ahadeeths do not lead to certainty. Imaam Ibn al-Qayyim said. After all they were all but human and we must not expect them to go beyond the scope of human limits. "By these examples we are not. They were not above human imperfections. Is it then mandatory that whosoever they claim to be worthy of respect ought to be taken with respect.113 - . The only question is how far are these people completely trustworthy.A.Doubt 4: Hadeeth collection and verification is human effort Abul A'ala Maudoodi (the founder of Jamaat Islami) has written. "No doubt. connoting that their research is abracadabra. the material that is provided about the pioneers is of immense value for future narrators of Hadeeth.

as if saying.' does not apply to others… It is also similar to when one says that he feels pain. Study the character of those who narrated it. love or hatred. Preserve. Then. Make the Sunnah the ultimate goal and desire behind your efforts. p. therefore what you feel is false because we do not share it!' misguidance. Therefore. trying to prove that he does not feel pain. suffering. 'Do the Khabars of the Messenger of Allah lead to certainty or not?' However. He tries to produce many doubts. 'We do not feel certainty about its validity..' We advise these people to concentrate their attention on what the Messenger was sent with. Therefore. Even if you say that they do not lead you to Dhann. love or hatred. if you can. However. They do not accept these Ahadeeths with certainty.77] This is the true . they are not saying the truth when they claim that Ahlul-Hadeeth and people of Sunnah feel the same way. their saying. then they will not lead you to certainty. search for and collect it.the truth about themselves. 'I say to the one who presents his blame (to us) as a gift. you will know. which led people of Sunnah to be certain of it. "They do not know of the various ways that a Hadeeth is narrated. and only then.114 - . Therefore. then you are truly describing yourself and what you gained and benefitted from them (the Khabars of the Messenger of Allah). but another person stands up to him. taste what we feel and afterwards blame us. do not shun it for anything else. 'I do not feel what you feel. And when it is proven correct." [Hadeeth is Proof Itself in Belief and Laws by Shaikh al-Albanee.." He also said. true is the following saying. they are describing themselves. pleasure. if you refuse them (the Khabars of the Messenger) and do not seek knowledge from them.

but they do not find in it the required details of performing them. we are to take our worships from Ibraheem u. They therefore are forced to either seek direction from the sunnah indirectly or to contradict the claim that the Qur'aan is "sufficient and self-explanatory'" by adding additional clauses or to change the meaning of the worships altogether. When faced with the problem of defining worships in the absence of the Hadeeth." [The United Submitters International Website] .An Analysis of the of the Deducing the manner of worship in the absence of the Sunnah The hadeeth-rejecters are faced with a predicament whereby they find orders in the Qur'aan towards establishing the prayers and the other forms of worships. Therefore. Rashad Khalifa's solution was to say. "All religious practices in submission (Islam) were given to us through Ibraheem u and the Prophet r himself followed the way of Ibraheem.115 - .

Comments: I) If any form of non-Qur'aanic guidance has no place in Islam. then tens of thousands of such chains exist by which hadeeth can be verified and authenticated. then why is the way (Sunnah) of Ibraheem u being referred to in matters of the Deen? If the answer to this is the Qur'aan's approval of the way of Ibraheem u. then the same holds true to a much greater degree for the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad r. Druze or the Sabians? . ii) How is it possible that the Sunnah of Prophet Ibraheem u whose Prophethood was limited be preserved by Allah. and the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad r whose Prophethood continues until the Last Day not be preserved? iii) Can the hadeeth-rejecters show an uninterrupted chain of narration from Ibraheem u to Rashad Khalifa such that the way of Ibraheem u is verified and authenticated? They will never be able to show this but in the case of the hadeeth of Prophet Muhammad r. iv) How will the way of Ibraheem u be traced? Do we have historical records whose authenticity is as absolute as that of the Qur'aan or will the way of Ibraheem be deduced from the current practices of the Muslims that are based on the Sunnah of Muhammad r (and this in effect is accepting the Sunnah)? Or will the way of Ibraheem u be deduced from others who claim Abrahamic roots like the Jews.116 - . Christians.

These are called the time-related congregation of Salaat. However. "So far our insight goes we do never find any glimpse of guidance for the individual Salaat anywhere in the Qur'aan. That is why the order of 'mutual consultation' and 'establishment of Salaat' have come together. He claims that salaat has lost its religious meaning and is merely a national symbol. it will have the authority to change the pillars of Islam.117 - ." Ghulam Parwez says about individual prayers. so. help maintain harmony in the society. 'Assalaa-tuljaam'ia (the congregational prayer)'.v) What is more reliable to determine? The authentic way of Prophet Muhammad r from the vast volumes of hadeeth literature and colossal records on hadeeth narrators that exist with us today or the way of Ibraheem u that has no such records and would be dependant on the enormously different practices and traditions that exist amongst various religions that claim Abrahamic roots!! Ghulam Parwez's solution to the predicament is the outright rejection of the well-known understanding of salaat. "time-related congregation where. important matters are mutually consulted. A. the only reason for not abandoning salaat outright is "because 'national symbols' like salaat. hearing these . Parwez] and he interpreted the congregational prayer to be." [Various Aspects of Salaat by G. and adjudication of His obeisance and subordination. if a government based on 'Qur'aanic system' comes. According to him. after God's appreciation.

words. He even quotes from the 'Encyclopedia Britannica' even though. the people used to assemble and the matter under discussion used to be considered. Parwez] Comments: I) Ahadeeth are needed by those who wish to follow Islam as taught by Allah's Messenger Muhammad r and understood by the Sahabah. what is the source of this information? It is neither mentioned in the Hadeeth nor does it have any historical record? iii) In his writing. 'Assalaa-tul-jaam'ia'. This also makes it clear as to what the exposition of Salaat was in those days. they would assemble for mutual consultation." [Various Aspects of Salaat by G. A. As for those who wish to invent their own religion and interpret the Qur'aan as they wish. then they indeed do not need the Sunnah. Parwez extensively quotes from history. ii) Parwez's claims that when people were called with the words. the recording and preservation of hadeeth is far superior and meticulous than the recording of history. . on what basis did he take 'non-Qur'aanic guidance' to explain the 'Qur'aanic concept' of congregational prayer? Furthermore. Since this is not mentioned in the Qur'aan.118 - .

“To my knowledge. However. (i." . it is necessary to have an 'independent state. "The view point of those who do not believe in the Sunnah. 'State. to act on Deen. all ahadeeth are Ahaad. In modern phraseology. He says. in his opinion. he accepts the role of the Prophet as the teacher of the Qur'aan and says. the role of the Prophet r is simply that of a courier who delivers the post is absolutely baseless and nonsensical..119 - ." And he states. man's entire life is in obedience to a collective order.. i. no Hadeeth exists which satisfies the definition of Khabar-i-Tawatur. He says. came up with his own solution. His view is that the state is itself Deen and Islam. a Mutawaatir Hadeeth).iv) In Parwez's view.' That is.e. who is of a slightly different orientation of hadeethrejecters.'” [Reasons for Decline of Muslims] Amin Islahi. "The Sunnah is binding on us as much as the Qur'aan itself.” [Difference Between Hadeeth and Sunnah by Amin Islahi] Thus. "In Deen. the state has the authority to reinterpret even the pillars of Islam. and cannot be independent sources of beliefs or actions.e. and thus he makes Islam subservient to the state. The Prophet r is not only the Messenger who delivered the Book to humanity but is simultaneously a teacher of the Sharee'ah and purifier of souls. when faced with the same predicament. it would be termed as.

His view is that. Just as the veracity of the Qur'aan is proved by perpetuity in verbal adherence. . in all their details because a few narrators explained them to us. and then the successors thereof learnt through the followers. it should be taken as additional testimony. etc.. through him learnt the Companions. Thereafter. but we act in a particular manner because the Prophet r acted accordingly. In this manner. "The Sunnah has not been founded on Ahadeeth.120 - . which have an inherent prospect of either being right or wrong… On the contrary. pilgrimage. likewise the veracity of Sunnah is equally proved by the Ummah's perpetuity in practical adherence to it. and through them learnt the followers of the Companions. the narrative records also testify to this effect. the later generations continued to learn through their earlier predecessors. In case. For instance. The dissatisfaction of the hadeeth-rejecters with the science of Hadeeth verification is a sign of their ignorance of the different modes of hadeeth transmission as Imaam Ibn al-Qayyim pointed out. we have not adopted the prayers." [end quote] Comments: 1. it is based on the perpetual adherence of the Ummah to it.

2. The mode of transmission described for the "perpetual adherence of the Ummah", i.e. the companions learnt from the Prophet and taught it to the next generation, and the next generation to those who followed them, and so on - this is the same mode of transmission by which the hadeeth were transmitted, only that in the case of the Hadeeth, they were transmitted meticulously by one generation of hadeeth-scholars to the next and they were individuals dedicated to the verification, memorization, collection and accurate transmission of hadeeth. As for the wider Ummah, then with time they split into sects and groups, disagreed due to different interpretations, adopted cultural practices and innovations, so how does one distinguish between actions that have been "perpetually adhered to by the Ummah" and those that were introduced later on? Therefore it is self-evident as to which of the two modes will the knowledge be authentically and accurately transmitted. 3. Even though Amin Islahi says, "the Sunnah is binding on us as much as the Qur'aan itself." he renders this statement meaningless by excluding hadeeth (the authentically transmitted statements of the Prophet r) from the Sunnah. All in all, the source of the deen according to him is exclusively the Qur'aan; and he accepts the prevalent religious rituals in the broader sense since there is no means to authenticate the specific details of worships without referring to the hadeeth. This is exactly what Parvez accepts as the deen. 4. Accepting the existing religious practices, gives both Parwez and Amin Islahi the convenience of not being obliged to explain
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specific details of worship and many other issues from the Qur'aan. They could then exclude the hadeeth as a definite and independent source of the deen without providing its alternative. 5. Despite all efforts, none of the three hadeeth-rejecters could truly free themselves of their dependence on knowledge acquired from hadeeth. Rashad Khaleefah has to patch the shortcoming of his way by accepting the hadeeth in the name of 'Ibraheem's sunnah.' Amin Islahi had to accept the hadeeth by describing it instead as 'perpetual adherence of the Ummah.' Ghulam Parwez inadvertently recognized the hadeeth by naming it 'historical research' as he writes in the book, 'Islam - A Challenge to Religion,' "The Book that God gave to Muhammad (r) through revelation and which he passed on to the Muslims in the form in which we know it today. The internal evidence provided by the Qur'aan itself as well as historical research proves beyond a shadow of doubt that not even a comma of the original Qur'aanic text has been changed or is likely to be altered in the future." What historical research covers the details of the collection and preservation of the Qur'aan apart from the hadeeth literature?

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Are Hadeeth-Rejectors
The Munkareen al-Hadeeth proclaim themselves to be liberal intellectuals who are opposed to stagnation in Islamic thought and respect differences of opinion. For instance, Parwez's organization says, "Tolu-e-Islam's understanding of the Holy Qur'aan is not final. In fact, the understanding of the Holy Qur'aan cannot be considered final with respect to any one person or a particular time period. Just as humans change, develop over time and adjust themselves to their environment so should the understanding of the Holy Qur'aan. As the Holy Qur'aan is the final message for all of eternity, we should not be limiting ourselves to the outmoded explanations provided by scholars hundreds of years ago nor should we allow misinterpretations of Allah's true guidance to come to the fore." [An Introduction to Tolu-e-Islam Movement (pt no.3)] By these liberal principles, the Munkireen al-Hadeeth allow themselves to differ with the well-established understanding of

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Therefore Qur'aanic view of Matha-e-Dunya would mean that gain which one seeks for himself. One who leaps for the 'here and now' or the immediate gain.124 - . 'Dunya' (worldly life) and 'Aakhirah' (Hereafter): "The connotation and usage of the words 'this world' and 'the Hereafter' by the Qur'aan not only imply its apparent meanings… in this world there are two kinds of persons. But they show little tolerance for those who disagree with their opinions and interpretations.Islamic issues that have been agreed upon by consensus amongst the greatest scholars of Islam." On this basis. He says explaining the terms. material.' . Matha-eAakherath (possession of the Hereafter) means those possessions. Following are two examples: 1) Perwez classifies people as faithful and disbelievers by Tafseer based on his personal opinion.while the future of this world is called Aakherath. equipment and properties saved and stored for the coming generations. Their entire effort is for this immediate gain and for their own interests. They are not concerned as to what will happen to those who are to come or the people who are to follow? They are only occupied with their self-indulgences and luxuries… Hence. "…Those people who only regard this present life as the only life having no care or bother about the Hereafter… With this they do gain the 'nearby and the immediate gains. he says. by Qur'aanic connotations the 'here and now' and the immediate gains are called the world Dunya .

it has an order of life that does not distance the Present and the Hereafter. This is Shirk." [end quote] Comments: a) We can see here that anyone who does not agree with 'Parwez's Materialistic Manifesto' is either a kaafir (disbeliever) or a Mushrik (one who does shirk) while the only believers being those who follow Parwez's interpretation of 'Aaakhirah' and this interpretation has no precedence in the 1400 years of Islam. It thinks that there are some efforts. In fact.125 - . which bestow gains only for this present world.. To them it is not necessary that who-so-ever's Hereafter is decorated should have their present decorated as well. which decorate the Hereafter. Their view encompasses the development of the entire humankind that they carry out in accordance with the set program of the Qur'aan.. This is not Eemaan in the unity of God. For this. and there are some. they understand that the Hereafter is a success of those whose worldly life is chagrined. As for those people (group two) that keep both the present and the future (the Dunya and Aakherath) in mind. against this. Now coming to the Group Three which divides the world and the Hereafter into two different worlds. of misfortune and failure… Those who say so wish to formulate two different laws each to develop the present and the future. i.e. who deny the Future. of disappointment. The Qur'aan calls this group Momineen. .They may be said to be the Group of Kuffar.

Dunya means our present and the one who gathers possessions for himself is a disbeliever. Farahi was Amin Ahsan Islahi's mentor. c) It is apparent that Perwez's writing is. Farahi reflected over the Qur'aan. His follower praises him saying. nothing more than a twisted materialist manifesto where he defines the Deen (religion) as the state. the hereafter as amassing possessions for the future. and the congregational prayer as a gathering for mutual consultation. “For almost fifty years. His greatest contribution in its study is his discovery of coherence in the Qur'aan… . The selfless philanthropist however.Shirk. which remained his chief interest and the focal point of all his writings. 'Aakhirah' is to save and store provisions for the coming generations. The one who works for immediate gains and stores some provisions for the coming generations is a believer (Mumin).126 - . 2) Farahi's principle of coherence and the result of not following it.b) According to Perwez's interpretation of the Qur'aan. who has dedicated himself totally to save for the future generations is condemned the utmost as a polytheist (Muskhrik) and Faithless! While the world honors such people. Ghulam Parwaz condemns them and finds them guilty of the worst crime . names streets and foundations after them and considers them role-models for the future generation.

are actually the result of disregarding thematic and structural coherence in the arrangement and mutual relationship of various Qur'anic verses and paragraphs. Farahi went on to enunciate certain principles necessary to understand and interpret the Qur'aan.Farahi demonstrated to all the western critics that with a sound understanding of the Arabic language one can appreciate the coherence in the Qur'aan which is certainly not a haphazard collection of injunctions… Serious differences in the interpretation of the Qur'aan. 'Hold fast to the Cable of Allah and be not divided. It is only then that the Qur'an can be truly regarded as a Mizan (Balance of Justice) and a Furqan (Distinguisher of Good and Evil). It is only the coherence of the Qur'an.127 - . The foremost among them was the principle of coherence. Shehzad Saleem is the editor of the magazine "Renaissance Monthly" that forwards the ideas of Hameed Uddin Farahi and his student. Amin Ahsan Islahi] . It is only then that the Qur'anic verse. which if considered leads to a definite and integrated understanding of the Divine Message. He was able to show that unless the Qur'aan is understood through a holistic approach a lot of its treasure of wisdom remains hidden… Farahi had adopted a very direct method in his study of the Qur'aan and his findings were as original as his approach…" [Hamid Uddin Farahi by Shehzad Saleem. Each sect has adopted its interpretation because isolating a verse from its context can associate multiple meanings to it.' (3:103). can become a manifest reality and the unity in the Muslim Ummah be achieved. Source: Official website of Amin Islahi). which have given rise to the menace of religious sectarianism.

2. 'Original' is but a euphemism to hide the ugly reality that such a manner of Tafseer does not have precedence from the earlier generations of Muslims and is a product of intellectual effort taken by a person from contemporary times.128 - . which if considered leads to a definite and integrated understanding of the Divine Message. 'It is only the coherence of the Qur'an.Comments: 1. . They expect all the sects to accept Farahi's principles in interpreting the Qur'aan to bring about unity in the Ummah and it is only then that the Qur'aan will be "truly regarded as a Mizan (Balance of Justice) and a Furqan (Distinguisher of Good and Evil). They claim that without Farahi's holistic approach 'a lot of its treasure of wisdom remains hidden' this after they have discredited the hadeeth as an interpreter of the Qur'aan. 4.' This shows that Farahi's research on the 'coherence of the Qur'an' is the Islahi group's substitute for the Hadeeth and the Sunnah. 'His (Farahi's) findings were as original as his approach' this is not a praiseworthy attribute but a serious imperfection and a perversion from the true manner in which the Qur'aan ought to be understood." 3.

not accepting them or rejecting any of the narrations from the Messenger of Allah r. what is good and bad and of this world and the Hereafter through the narrations. the Qur'aan. His Messenger r. since we have only come to know of Allah. we reflect on the wise words of Imam al-Barbaharee (rahimahullah).In Conclusion. He is indeed attacking the Messenger of Allah r and his companions.' [Sharhus-Sunnah by Imam Barbaharee (point no: 69)] . 'If you hear a man criticizing the narrations. doubt his Islam since he is a person having a despicable opinion and saying.129 - .

1. to accurately ascertain each individual's memory. Jarh and Ta'deel cannot be considered correct in its entirety. “…Rather our intention is to clarify that those (the Muhadditheen) who have criticized or praised individuals were after all human. They too had human weaknesses.A Response to Doubts raised by on the science of hadeeth verification Maulana Mawdudi expounds his views extensively on hadeeth and the science of hadeeth verification in his book Tafhimaat (vol. etc.130 - . good intention and self-restrain.” .. he says. 'Maslak-e-Eitidaal (The Moderate Position)'. Is it necessary that those whom they have declared as trustworthy were trustworthy beyond doubt and trustworthy in all their narrations… Moreover.359–362 / Islamic Publications Limited. Lahore 2000 CE). but it is not of the status that it may be relied upon completely. Under the heading. p. is further difficult… It is due to this and similar reasons that the knowledge of isnad. This material is reliable to the extent that it helps in the research of Prophet's Sunnah and Aathaar and it may be given due consideration.

Secondly. Nafs (desires) accompany everyone and there is a strong possibility that personal opinions interfered in forming an opinion. careless in narrating narrations. "The first thing that is examined in judging a narration is the status of the narrators. it is difficult to accurately know the biography of the narrators. In this regard.On page. dubious or weak in his memory. This is why the texts of other nations were subjected to distortions and fabrications. and it became impossible for them to . and they thus presented a glorious collection on Asmaa' ar-Rijaal (the study of the narrators) which are beyond doubt invaluable. By all these conditions the status of the narrators were examined by the Muhadditheen. No other nation paid attention as this ummah did to the chains of narration through which their books and their religion were transmitted. sinner or heretic. their memory and their other inner qualities. each and every narrator is examined through various manners. about individuals…" Clarification Firstly: The science of hadeeth and isnads (chains of narrators) is one of the special characteristics of this ummah. But what amongst this is not prone to mistakes? Firstly. good or bad. those people themselves who formed an opinion about them were not free from human weaknesses. whether his condition is unknown or his condition is known.131 - . 356-57 he writes. whether he is a liar.

132 - . and that which was added to their books of narrations transmitted from inauthentic sources. and who spent less time. We ask Allah to inspire us to thank Him for this blessing and we ask Him to make us steadfast and to guide us to that which will bring us closer to Him and make us adhere to obedience to Him. "Allaah has honoured this ummah and favoured it over others by blessing it with the isnaad. No other nation has this blessing. and they do not distinguish between that which was revealed in the Tawrah and Injeel and was brought by their Prophets. then they would write down the hadeeth from more than twenty chains of narration. so that they could be sure that they had eliminated any mistake or error from it. This is one of the greatest blessings that Allaah has bestowed upon this ummah. and who spent more time with the one from whom the report was transmitted. and so on until the end of the chain of narrators. The scholars of hadeeth have striven hard and reached a prominent position in that field. This ummah narrates hadeeth from a trustworthy individual who was known at his own time for sincerity and honesty." [End quote from Sharaf Ashaab al-Hadeeth (40)] . from another of similar character. Then they researched very carefully to find out who had the stronger memory and was more precise. as Allaah has honoured them with efforts to preserve His religion and the Sunnah of His Prophet r. Muhammad ibn Haatim ibn al-Muzaffar (rahimahullah) said. and they wrote it exactly as it was narrated.know the pure religion and to find out about the stories of the Prophets in a sound and authenticated manner.

"None of the people of hadeeth should show any favoritism with regard to the science of hadeeth. Al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadi (rahimahullah) said. So we see 'Ali ibn al-Madeeni ruling that his father was da'eef (weak). 'We asked you. and they were the ones who strove the most to avoid errors and mistakes to the extent that they set the highest example of fairness and avoiding favoritism when it comes to preserving the religion of Allah. but that did not prevent him from stating his opinion concerning him. and he knew that this ruling regarding his father would guarantee an end to his position as a scholar." [End quote from Sharaf Ashaab al-Hadeeth (41)] Ibn Hibbaan said in al-Majrooheen (2/15). This has to do with religion.Secondly: They are the best people who strove the most to ensure that their judgement and transmission of hadeeth was done on the basis of honesty and sincerity. 'Ali ibn 'Abd-Allaah al-Madeeni.133 - . He paused then he raised his head and said. whether it is to his father or his son. 'Ask someone else. never narrated even a letter to suggest that his father was strong in hadeeth. who was a prominent scholar of hadeeth in his time. my father is da'eef (weak)." [end quote] . They said. "Ali ibn al-Madeeni was asked about his father and he said. rather what was narrated from him was the opposite of that.

But that enmity did not prevent him from accepting and narrating his hadeeth. because they paid heed to the Words of Allah. “O you who believe! Stand out firmly for Allaah as just witnesses. The fact that a narrator was a follower of bidah did not prevent them from judging him on the basis of fairness. He tells lies when he talks to people. They would accept hadeeth from those who held different opinions and beliefs to their own – if it was proven that (the narrator) was honest and sincere. Muhammad ibn Yahya al-Dhuhali in spite of the harm that he was subjected to as a result of a misunderstanding between him and the Shaykh who forsook him. and he is dear to us. Be just.Yahya ibn Ma'een spoke about a friend of his whom he loved. he is our friend. Verily." and he said. and let not the enmity and hatred of others make you avoid justice. "By Allaah. that is nearer to piety. but there is no way to praise him and I do not recommend anyone to narrate from him or encourage others to do so. and alHusayn ibn Hibbaan narrated that he said of Muhammad ibn Saleem al-Qaadi. Tareekh Baghdaad (5/325)] Jareer ibn 'Abd al-Hameed said concerning his brother Anas.” [Soorah al-Maidah (5): 8] ." [Al-Jarh wal-Ta'deel (2/289)] Imam al-Bukharee narrated a great deal in his Saheeh from his Shaykh. “By Allaah. rather he includes things that he did not hear. but he does not limit himself to what he heard. he heard a great deal and he is well known. "No. "He should not be narrated from. Allaah is Well Acquainted with what you do. "Should he be narrated from?" He said." I said to him.” [See.134 - . and fear Allah.

" [Narrated by Muslim in the Introduction to his Saheeh] Ibn Daqeeq al-Eid said. . Two groups are standing at the edge of this pit. a trustworthy Qadari. "Is he Shi'i?" He said. so watch from whom you learn your religion. "The one who is trustworthy in his narration but dubious in his religious commitment. Muhammad ibn Sireen said. because it could affect the issue of accepting or rejecting the hadeeth of the Messenger of Allah r from them. This is what was stipulated by the scholars for everyone who wants to examine narrators and pass judgement concerning them. he is trustworthy. they also understood the seriousness of speaking badly about any of the narrators. "A trustworthy Shi'i. told us… " Thirdly: Just as they understood the seriousness of tarnishing people's honour unlawfully. "The honour of the Muslims is a pit of Hellfire. 'Abbaad ibn Ya'qoob. See: Tadreeb al-Raawi (2/369)] Such great piety and awareness must inevitably have a great effect of fairness and seeking to be right when judging narrators. "This knowledge is the (foundation of) religion.135 - .Yahya ibn Ma'een was asked about Sa'eed ibn Khuthaym and he said. "He is a Kufi and there is nothing wrong with him." [Tahdheeb al-Kamaal (10/414)] Abbaad ibn Ya'qoob al-Rawaajini al-Kufi was a fanatical Shi'i. the muhadditheen and the judges." [End quote. but despite that Ibn Khuzaymah said in his Saheeh (2/376)." It was said to Yahya.

Whatever the motive was. but they differ with regard to that.136 - . "The imams of hadeeth are knowledgeable and careful. "Judging narrators requires a great deal of piety and freedom from whims and desires and bias. envy or a difference of madhhab. they would reject unfair judgements and would issue fair judgements concerning a specific narrator. so it is unfair to overlook that because of a few mistakes. whether it was enmity. 2 – Because the scholars highlighted these mistakes and pointed them out in their comments. Some things of that nature did indeed happen." [end quote] Fourthly: Yes. for no human being can be entirely free of that. none of them is infallible and it is possible that there may be mistakes in what some of them say. the vast majority of which is based on honesty and fairness. But that should not be a reason for doubting all of their judgements. and this is for the following reasons: 1 – Because these are a few mistakes when compared with the great legacy that the leading scholars of hadeeth and aljarh wa'l-ta'deel have left behind.Al-Dhahabi said in al-Mooqizah (82). . It is also possible that the cause of some of these mistakes may be love or hate for someone. along with complete experience in the science of hadeeth and the faults and narrators thereof." [end quote] Al-Mu'allimi (rahimahullah) said in al-Tankeel (1/54). andthey strive to avoid mistakes.

a good narrator) and the leading scholars of hadeeth used his reports as evidence..e. al-Raf' wa'l-Takmeel (409-432). Abu Hatim al-Raazi (rahimahullah) said. the author of al-Maghaazi." Then he said. See. "There has never been in any nation since Allah created Adam safekeepers who preserve the legacy of the Messengers except in this ummah.Hence none of the scholars accepted the view of Imam Malik concerning Muhammad ibn Ishaaq. that he was one of the fabricators." [Sharaf Ashaab al-Hadeeth (43)] You should understand that Allah has preserved this religion by His grace and blessing and that the Sunnah has been preserved as Allaah guaranteed to preserve His religion. "O Abu Hatim. rather they judged him as “hasan al-hadeeth” (i. by Allah he strove very hard to preserve the legacy of the Messenger of Allah r. And they did not accept the view of al-Nasaa'i concerning Ahmad ibn Salih al-Masri. when they realized that this statement was based on resentment and personal reasons. or the view of Rabee'ah concerning Abu'l-Zinnaad 'Abd-Allaah ibn Dhakwaan. A man said to him. So they preserved this science (of hadeeth) so that the people who came after them were able to distinguish between reports and preserve them. "Their scholars will recognize the sound from the unsound.137 - . "May Allah have mercy on Abu Zur'ah. So it is not possibl e for the schol ars to unanimously agree to authenticate a weak narrator or to criticize or condemn a . perhaps there were narrations which have no basis and are not sound?" He said.

sound narrator. If it so happens that he makes a mistake in judging. or a sound narrator as weak. Imam al-Dhahabi (rahimahullah) said in alMooqizah (84). strength and knowledge. either deliberately or by mistake. then he will have a single reward. experienced and sincere. and its scholars will never agree on misguidance. But it is only the Prophets who are infallible.138 - . may He be exalted. Rather you will inevitably find that truthfulness and fairness are very apparent in the views of the majority of scholars and in most issues of religion." [end quote] Ibn Katheer said in al-Baa'ith al-Hatheeth (1/11). "As for the words of these imams who took on this task (of examining hadeeth). Rather their differences will be with regard to how strong or weak a narrator is. "The same Imam may be more generous or more kind with regard to a report that is in accordance with his madhhab or the madhhab of his Shaykh than with regard to other reports that say the opposite. But this religion is supported and protected by Allah. So no two scholars will agree on classing a weak narrator as sound. religiously committed. they should be accepted without questioning or mentioning the reason because of their knowledge of it and their deep understanding of this field and because of their being known to be fair. And Allah is the source of strength. The one who passes such judgements speaks on the basis of his own effort. especially if they agree unanimously that a narrator is weak. or matrook (to be ignored) or a liar and so .

Hence alShaafa'i said in many instances when commenting on ahaadeeth. Even the Orientalist Margoliouth said. and do not get carried away with doubts about the saheeh ahaadeeth. The skilled muhaddith will not hesitate to agree with them when they take a decision of that nature because of their honesty.com. "The Muslims may boast about their science of hadeeth. (slightly abridged and adapted) . “None of the scholars would regard this hadeeth as sound. one should be content with the blessing that Allah has bestowed upon this ummah by means of this noble branch of knowledge.139 - .on.” [end quote] Finally. To appreciate the science of Hadeeth verification. trustworthiness and sincerity. one must strive to read the numerous books on the subject. and one cannot help but be astonished by the huge efforts that were put into verifying a single hadeeth.” Courtesy: islamqa. Reason dictates that we should not reject the efforts of thousands of sincere scholars throughout the centuries on the basis of a few mistakes here and there.” so he would reject it and not quote it as evidence on that basis.

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