HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Recruitment and Selection Acquiring Staff for the Flexible Firm

Chris Jarvis


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Sample Examination Question

A large business wants its HRM recruitment staff to specify the quality of the recruitment service they will deliver to departments and to establish service level agreements for recruitment. a) How will you specify the quality of recruitment services. b) What issues, procedures and practices will you research? c) What problems will you encounter in specifying recruitment service quality? d) How can service quality be defined in terms of 
  functions and activities to be carried out and the potential strategic contribution of recruitment to organisational success and changing culture?

Chris Jarvis

HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Descriptive-Functional View

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Chris Jarvis

standardisation, risk reduction when filling vacancies maintaining and delivering a quality service? strategic, proactive? prescriptive - model best practice systematic analysis of requirements: organisational + job levels transaction processing system: - advertising, applications and engagement - internal and external markets ethics and equal opps policies - large + small firms who does it? selection methods - reliability, validity and utility (cost effective) legal constraints and contracts of employment what could go wrong?

HRM: Recruitment and Selection

I'm from recruitment ....... Here¶s what I can do for you´

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Chris Jarvis

Specifying the vacancy Quality of these authorisation to recruit Services job/role analysis and specification agree terms and conditions sourcing/attracting (target groups) in-house vs. external recruitment, design and administrate communications (boundary transactions) recommend and use recruitment methods/techniques process applications and responses organisation the "programme" selection: apply the methods (incidental techniques, questionable cohesion?) make the decisions and administer the offer finalise the contract receive/induct

HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Normative view? 

How we recruit and select reflects organisational culture?  Presentation of organisational FACE  orientation to competitive forces  hire and fire versus ³we value our staff´  the lean, flexible firm - out-sourcing and sub-contracting  our ³core staff´ and our core competencies

Chris Jarvis


HRM: Recruitment and Selection


Focus on 

and line managers Behaviour in front of audiences - on-stage, back stage, off stage 

actual recruitment experience/behaviour of personnel specialists 

Critical Evaluative  

How does behaviour compare with textbook normative rhetoric?  Are the techniques reliable, valid, cost effective?  Is the process objective or prone to subjective bias?  Why?
Decision-making processes 

Psychometric-objective versus  Subjective, social action process

Chris Jarvis

HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Vacancy Processing 


intra-organisational bargaining Job/role and competence analysis  observation, interviews, knowledge of roles, skills, imperatives  Title, reports to, tenure, compensation package, scope of responsibilities and duties, authority, priorities, budget, staff team, location, conditions, knowledge, skills, experience, values, performance standards, problems/objectives, results/priorities, ideal candidate profile. copy writing and internal/external advertising

Chris Jarvis


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Recruitment assumptions

«based on a psychometric-objective model. 
define job requirements  ascertain personal qualities ± traits and competencies  match job requirements to person's profile.  Use techniques to Routinise and objectivise the process Reduce the risks Maximise predictive power

Chris Jarvis


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Job description - what use? 

how can the manager operate effectively if he/she does not understand & cannot define the jobs of their staff?  shared understanding about what the job is  reliable, factual definition of scope of job and responsibilities??  useful for organisational design and analysis of change?  it helps to minimise conflicts???  reference point for induction, performance assessment & grading  a basis for the job advert & recruitment literature  indicates competencies required - generic + job specific
Dull, boring Over-bureaucratic Out-of-date Written by??? Contractual?
Chris Jarvis

"Burn the lot of 'em" Robert Townsend, "Up the Organisation"

HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Job analysis products 

Job description 


Title, reporting relationships (up, down, sideways, external) job summary, responsibilities, duties, MbO/R: key result areas, scope of authority. Position of ³organisation chart´. Career/promotion path.  working conditions Competencies specification  levels, range of situations, performance indicators, knowledge/wisdom, experience, skills (psycho-motor, technical, analytical, literary, spoken, numeric, social and emotional), personal orientations and motivators. Personnel specification (person profile)  characteristics of ideal candidate. Essentials - desireables disqualifiers Applicant profiles  built up from evidence/data from forms, interviews, other tests, references

Chris Jarvis


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Job Analysis Orange: Label the Key Result Area segments

Now define the key tasks of KRA 5



‡ role demands ‡ choices, constraints ‡ ambiguities ‡ possible overload ‡ pressures/conflicts ‡ organisational change

Chris Jarvis

HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Personnel Specification: Rodger's 7 Point Plan 

physique, health and appearance  height, build, hearing, eyesight, health, looks, grooming, voice, disability?  attainments  education/qualifications (school, HE), job training, experience & learning  conceptual and reasoning ability  knowledge-base, perception, intellectual & conceptual capacities, wisdom  special aptitudes  physical, verbal (speech/writing), technical, figures, art, music, social?  interests  intellectual, cultural, practical, physically active, international, aesthetic  disposition 
Chris Jarvis

acceptability, relationships, leadership/initiative, motivation and drive, reliability, stability/adjustment, proactivity, influencing circumstances Essential?  age, plans, domestic ties, mobility, domicile, other Desireable? 


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Core Competencies (example from major software house) 

People relationships  Customer relationships management  Communication and persuasiveness We sell our  Business and financial judgement skills and  Knowledge sharing/management abilities!  Vision, change and accountability  Drive, motivation, planning and organising  Problem-solving and decision-making  People management capabilities  Role specific technical and specialist capabilities  Professional standards and values
Chris Jarvis


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Finding and attracting candidates 



internal: word of mouth, internal vacancy notifications, staff newsletters. Staff analysis. Career planning external: where are the candidates located, in what type of job? Local, national, overseas. Do they want to move? Schools, colleges, careers centres, job shops, employment fairs. recruitment consultants/agencies, head hunters, media: newspapers, journals, radio, WWW/Internet advertising  advertising accounts, writing & designing the copy, targeting the advert, proof reading, publishing deadlines, costs The emergence of on-line recruitment - suitable for all jobs?

Chris Jarvis


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Attract Candidates - Internal vs. external sources 

Nature of vacancy and open access?  Internal 

External - time consuming, uncertain, new blood, socialisation

known qualities, locals vs. cosmopolitans fluid internal market and contribution to culture, rewards/expectations staff database, career support planning - quicker/cheaper, incestuous? inexpensive, limited choice approaches?  staff recommendation, on-spec applications, school-college links etc. expensive, wider access approaches  head-hunters, general/specialist recruitment agencies, local/national press, professional & trade journals poaching/fishing 

Come and live/work in our house - forming, fight/flight, norming & performing
Chris Jarvis


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Recruitment Information System 

data in/out flows       
Chris Jarvis

security vetting, invitations for interview + joining instructions, offer letters, rejections, contract documentation sources and sinks  candidates, dept. managers, receptionist, security, referees, clients data capture/storage? Find/collate, candidates in progress. Printing volume, handling, copying & distribution, short-listing, briefing. use of IT - PC networks,word processing, databases, Intranet/Internet, Data Protection Act, Asylum & Immigration Act filtering & co-ordination of selection decision-makers? expenses, agency fees, costing the whole process 

inquiries, application packs (out/in +CVs), requests for references,


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Skeletons in cupboards: References & testimonials 

Obligation at law to provide a reference?  Importance/value of references?  Reciprocity, validation and reliability. Security  Costs?  Consequences for employee (job, mortgage, bank loan).  Legal issues? Where could it go wrong?  
Chris Jarvis

receiver will act on the reference)  negligence - duty of reasonable care in compiling the reference, accuracy (sue for damages/loss) Organisational policy on giving references? Right to see what is written about you? 

defamation (false statement & reputation), deceit (intention that


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Selection - Statutory rights and requirements 

discrimination in advertising,    
Chris Jarvis

selection methods (direct or indirect), TU. membership and activities, pregnant women in employment + failing to offer job Remedy to EOC or CRE or ET, GOQs Sex: physiology, decency/privacy, living in, singlesex establishments, personal services, working outside UK (culture) GOQs Race: dramatic performance, authenticity, restaurants, personal services

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Rehabilitation of Offenders Act 1974 Sex Discrimination Act 1975 Race Relations Act 1976, 2000 Employment Rights Act 1996 Disability Discrim. Act 1997 Asylum and Immigration Act

CRE/EOC Codes of Practice for advertising and selection (RRA and SDA)


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Selection Tests 

Application form  Biodata analysis  Interviews 

References/security screening  Ability tests  paper-based, practical/trade, social  Aptitude, intelligence and personality  Group methods & assessment centres  Work experience/short term contracts  Medical
Chris Jarvis

one-to-one, panel formal and informal settings

‡ reliability ‡ validity ‡ utility ‡ acceptability


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

The Psychometric-Objective Model

Characterised by Eternal optimism Smoothly administered/programmable Measured, controlled, predictable, systematic search often using psychometric techniques Match evidence of competences & stable qualities to job demands 


Compare with "social process" approach 

Interplay between selection events  Candidate & selector feelings/responses  organisational negotiations and mutual adjustments
Chris Jarvis


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Why an Interview? 

Exchange sufficient & necessary information to decide suitability  Social and ritual aspects. Audition. Group/power vetting  Candidate asserts abilities & presents experience.  Communicate relevant information about job/organisation - objective & subjective  Seduce candidate to become an organisational member  Satisfy candidate - give fair opportunity  Importance of not over-selling

Chris Jarvis


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Interview Strategies 

Frank and friendly  Problem-solving - ³imaging yourself in the job...what would you do if...?  Behavioural event - critical experiences - what, why, how, options, plans, outcomes  Simulate stress. Put on the spot? Validity? Spurious appeal?  Strengths and weaknesses of  individual interviews  sequential interviews  panel interviews

Chris Jarvis


HRM: Recruitment and Selection


Schedule for the day  candidates, Cooks Tour, guides & interviewers, domestics & catering  receiving applicants  site security, car parks  travel and subsistence arrangements  waiting place

Chris Jarvis


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

The GASP Interview

Interviewer Preparation 

Chris Jarvis


cquiring Information upplying Information arting


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

GASP Interview - Greeting 

Move towards  genuine welcome, positive regard  Calm, neutral, with no interruptions  Put at ease, build and maintain rapport  seating voice, eye contact, warmth and body   
Chris Jarvis

posture.....NVC Preparation and ³contract of interest and expectation´ Opening conversation CHANGING GEAR - Moving smoothly into main substance of the interview.

HRM: Recruitment and Selection

GASP - Acquiring Information 

Listen more - talk less. Ratio % interviewer/interviewee.  Objectivity vs. personal preference, stereotyping & early judgement  Not adversarial. Halo, horns and doppleganger effects  Taking notes (on application form or interview plan)  Question strategy (preparation)  Emphasise biography and experience, explanation and analysis  Mental agility and hypothetical questions  Let interview flow but control it: - use space/time  Non-verbal signals and skills.  Cover key points (interview plan)  Summarise periodically and conclude
Chris Jarvis 

Structured conversation  open-ended questions, probe and link  direct, leading, trick and taboo questions


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

GASP - Acquiring Information - the Journey 

Recent and significant past jobs/projects 

Competence embedded in REAL experience

contributions, events/phases, initiatives, products, achievements and decisions. Evaluation of strengths and gaps knowledge/understanding, analytical skill, written/numeric, specialist attitudes and values, drives and motivation 

Interpersonal relations - the candidate as a person with others  Education, training, learning and development  Personal and domestic topics - relevance/irrelevant  Applicant¶s questions about 

the organisation and job - current + prospects the terms of employment

Chris Jarvis


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

GASP - The Good Interviewer

«.at times ‡ well-prepared, sharp & in focus, specific & rational ‡ at other times intuitive, picking up nuances and rationalisations ‡ at others stepping back to see the whole interaction, fitting things together and noting the time left and areas to cover.... ‡ Interviewer "genuine regard for the other" helps to relax the candidate ‡ clear perception ‡ allows productive silences & easy asking of questions. ‡ counteracts habituated boredom in interviews ‡ intuitive processes as well as the usual thinking, evaluating ones. ‡ Legge - descriptive behavioural research interest

Chris Jarvis

HRM: Recruitment and Selection

GASP Interview: Supplying Information 

cutting it short (horns/halo, premature judgement)  equal opportunity to all candidates  intimation of success/rejection (verbals and non-verbals)?  beware misunderstandings over contractual terms. No promises.  Communicating a decision  giving career advice to rejected candidates?
Chris Jarvis 


hints to attractive candidates (in a competitive situation) intra-organisational bargaining the decision in writing subject to references


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

GASP Interview: Parting 

Signal closure - NVC plus statement  requires as much skill as opening the interview  clarify future steps - the remaining interview schedule  verify  stand up, move, exchange parting courtesies 

dates - holidays and availabilities phone, post

Chris Jarvis


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Utilised properly; depending on its exact purpose, the interview emerges as a valid reliable tool in candidate assessment. Moreover its flexibility to act as a medium for mutual preview or as a final stage forum for negotiation between the parties, renders the interview more useful in selection than narrowly focused definitions of validity and reliability can convey´

Anderson and Shackleton, Successful Selection Interviewing, Blackwell, 1993 pp 69

Chris Jarvis


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

GASP Interview Issues 

premature decision 

Chris Jarvis

impression  Weak candidates make average candidates look good  Unstructured interviews vs impression management and random selection propositions  interview practice does not improve performance  training does dramatic performance may not reflect job. Interviewee actors. panel interviews - defer to most influential member. Poor correlation of views when choice is confidential psychometric tests - weak evidence but belief and practice strong. psychometric-objective model vs. social process?

Tentative, pre-determined views seldom altered at interview  accept/reject within 3-4 min. Gather evidence to confirm first

HRM: Recruitment and Selection


What is it? What form does it take?  How and why does it occur?  Common stereotypes  Positive and negative value?  Problems of signs, signifiers, interpretation.  Body language.  Presentation of self - "Front" - stage and audience  What dangers for fairness and equity?

Chris Jarvis


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Assessment Centre Methods 

Group work:  

Competence of observer-testers  Presentations: 

Problem-solving in team situations, interpersonal skills, listening, thinking on feet, influencing and coordinating. Realistic/unrealistic scenarios. Organising/prioritising. Emotional resilience. 

Work Demo or Simulation - news reader, drivers, brick-layers, chair meetings, computer programming, counselling, typing/shorthand,  Portfolio ‡ reliability  Psycho-tests ‡ validity
‡ utility ‡ acceptability
Chris Jarvis

verbal/non-verbal skills, use of media, presentation content. Analysis differentiation of higher/lower order issues, ability to construct a case. Influencing and argument. Awareness of wider issues and implications.


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Assessment Centre Programmes 

Programme (battery) of different tests  Systematic job analysis: performance criteria, skills & behaviours  Select valid, reliable, cost effective exercises  Validate the exercises on a sample of subjects  Train tester-assessors to observe and rate  Feedback to candidates  Evaluate the techniques and process outcomes
External & internal candidates? Psychometric-objective model vs social process

Chris Jarvis


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Assessment Centres - identifying promotion potential 

Superior assessments?  High degree of validity?  Recognising formal & informal qualities - not all job-related required for organisational success  Post-assessment centre judgments coloured by knowledge of individual's performance in the assessment centre  Assessment centres define and construct potential > discover it.

Chris Jarvis


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Competitive advantage and core competencies 

Skill, capability, competence as "keys" to competitive advantage  Job demands arising from performance oriented organisational change, TQM & IT initiatives  Emphasis on managerial competences for performance  Boyatzis (1982), Bethell-Fox (1992), MCI (1990)  Communication, leadership, group and decision skills, project management, entrepreneurship  Outward-looking, market-focused, team-oriented  Psychometric assessment techniques e.g. tests of cognitive
ability to identify potential

Chris Jarvis


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Intelligence and Aptitude Testing 

verbal fluency & comprehension  logical & numerical What is IQ?  spatial & mechanical Tests for  memory  clerical, apprentice & general staff
GMAT Graduate Management Admissions Test 


selection health, fitness, mental agility verbal & numerical problems IT skills honesty, neurosis, tolerance, ethics?

What employability tests would you use for airline cabin crew?
Chris Jarvis


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Personality Tests 

Cattell 16 PF  
warmth intelligence emotional stability dominance impulsiveness conformity boldness sensitivity 


suspiciousness imagination shrewdness insecurity radicalism self-sufficiency self-discipline tension 

Introvert Intuitive Feeling Perceptive

(Type Indicator)
Extrovert Sensing Thinking Judging


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Testing industry - sales + training the testers Administration? interpretation? Supplementary information for decision-making? Predictive value?

Chris Jarvis

HRM: Recruitment and Selection

The Decision and Follow-up 

Job criteria & information on candidates  Reaching a consensus, taking a risk?  Zombie theory of recruitment  Letters of   
Chris Jarvis 

hold  rejection  the offer (risks and uncertainties) Contract finalisation & documentation Commencement & induction plan Organisational communications & reassurances

HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Evaluation of the Recruitment Process 

costs/methods/effort involved by stage  DROP-OUT: inquirers applications seen candidates  ³quality´ of short-list per post  service indicators & client satisfaction/dissatisfaction  in-house process vs. out-sourcing and agencies  quality of Equal Opps provision  job criteria vs. criteria used in action (actor behaviour)  added PR value - image projected  SURVIVAL: number retained after 6 months  recommendations for improvement
Evaluate reliability, validity and utility of methods used Psychometric-objective model versus social process
Chris Jarvis


HRM: Recruitment and Selection

Evaluation of Selection Process 

candidate feedback on selection methods & experience  observation and incident analysis e.g. re-equal opportunities  selector ³self-evaluation´?  relevance, reliability, validity and utility of selection methods/tests  recommendations for improvement

Chris Jarvis


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