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LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT

LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT

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Published by: Veronica Yu on Mar 08, 2011
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In Economics, labor force is all the nonmilitary people who are officially employed or unemployed.

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Normally, the labor force of a country (or other geographic entity) consists of everyone of working age (typically above a certain age (around 14 to 16) and below retirement (around 65) who are participating workers, that is people actively employed or seeking employment.

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People not counted include students, retired people, stay-at-home parents, people in prisons or similar institutions, people employed in jobs or professions with unreported income, as well as discouraged workers who cannot find work.

daily or monthly wage that employers may legally pay to employees or workers. .` Low Wages is the lowest hourly.

inadequate leave benefits.and unstable employment status .if not absence of opportunity for personal and professional growth. exposure to hazardous chemicals.` Poor Working Conditions-Inadequate physical facilities and occupational safety measures.unreasonable work schedule.limited.unjust compensation.

` Inhumane Treatment. .physical abuses.sexual harassments.and other problems emanating from poor working conditions.Inhumane practices of employers include failure to implement wages and compensations as prescribed by law. illegal dismissals.

.` Absence of Job Security. Second is the advent of automation that displaced and replaced many workers because employers choose speed and accuracy in production rather than the creative efforts that shall flourish once labor is relieved from the drudgeries of work.First is the escalating number of unemployed workers who command cheap wages for limited and small number of employment opportunities.

` Underemployment.messengers.clerks.even domestic helpers are not an uncommon sight nowadays.Thousands of workers take fobs that neither utilize nor enhance their skills and academic training. .drivers.College degree holders performing functions that used to be reserved for janitors.

.the trade union movement is still weak.` Unor ganized Labor Force. with a fluctuating and unstable membership covering only a small percentage of the workforce.The organized sector of the Philippine labor force is still a minority.6 M actual labor force. As a result. Although the number of unionized workers is rising.it has not gone beyond 13%of the 22.

` Discrimination.many establishments still prefer employing workers who are neither too young not too old. Finally. Although the Labor Code defines the legal age brackets for employment.Some deprive women of equal opportunities for careeradvancement.the issue of racial discrimination has become a disturbing reality for Filipino overseas workers who are forced to take menial jobs as domestic helpers and laborers even if their educational attainment and experience prove that they are over-qualified for the work they take. . Age consideration is another discriminating factor.

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3 18.5 92.116 34.238 2.854 63.3 92.208 38.657 37.102 2.3 .2 7.829 64.992 7.262 6.820 35.Labor Force Statistics Indications Household Population 15 Years Old and Over (000) Labor Force (000) Employed (000) Underemployed (000) Unemployed (000) Labor Force Participation Rate (%) Employment Rate (%) Underemployment Rate (as % of Employed) Unemployment Rate (%) 2009 58.7 7.7 2010 60.7 19.

` Unemployment.a condition wherein an employed individual¶s work is insufficient to fulfill his needs .a jobless condition ` Underemployment .

as measured by the gross domestic product (GDP). The lack of employer demand comes from a lack of spending and consumption in the overall economy. When economic output falls. .the result of businesses not having enough demand for labor to employ all those who are looking for work.` CYCLICAL. When business cycles are at their peak. the business cycle is low and cyclical unemployment will rise. cyclical unemployment will be low because total economic output is being maximized.

.Unemployment resulting from changes in the basic composition of the economy. Computers may have eliminated jobs. but they also opened up new positions for those who have the skills to operate the computers.` STRUCTURAL. An example of structural unemployment is the technological revolution. These changes simultaneously open new positions for trained workers.

resulting from temporary transitions made by workers and employers or from workers and employers having inconsistent or incomplete information.always present in the economy. a first-time job seeker may lack the resources or efficiency for finding the company that has the job that is available and suitable for him or her. . For example.` FRICTIONAL. temporarily holding out for the better-paying job. As a result this person does not take other work.

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no matter what the reason. such as willingly quitting a job. ` . is caused by the worker being unwillingly laid off (fired). on the other hand.` Voluntary unemployment is unemployment caused by the worker choosing to be unemployed. Involuntary unemployment.

. usually financial. received by workers in exchange for their labor.` A wage is a compensation.

Each country sets its own minimum wage laws and regulations.` The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. . and many countries have no minimum wage.

00 per day basic wage increase to all minimum wage workers in the private sector in the region. NCR-15 b/ Effective 01 July 2010 Grants a P22.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES National Capital Region (NCR) a/ Per Wage Order No. .

00 COLA per day. RB-CAR-14 b/ (Effective January 1. 2011) Grants an additional P12.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) a/ Wage Order No. .

O No.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION I (Ilocos) a/ Per Wage Order No.00 or P8.00 per day wage increase to all private sector workers and employees receiving the minimum wage rates in the region. .00 COLA under W. and integration of the existing P10. RB1-13 into the basic pay. RB 1-14 b/ Effective 20 January 2011 Grants a P5.

` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION III.00 COLA under W.O. No. . RBIII-14 into the basic pay. RBIII-15 b/ Effective November 22.00 per day to all minimum wage earners/workers and employees in the private sector in the region. 2010 Grants an integration of P10. and a new COLA increase of P14. Central Luzon a/ Per Wage Order No.

` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION IV-A.00 per day wage increase to all minimum wage workers and employees in the private sector across the area classification . CALABARZON a/ Wage Order No. IVA-14 b/ Effective 15 January 2011 Grants a P17.

. 2010) Grants a P12. MIMAROPA a/ Per Wage Order No. RB IV-B-05 b/ (Effective: November 11.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION IV-B.00 wage increase to all private sector minimum wage workers in the Region.

00 effective March 1.O. RBV-14 b/ Effective: 01 November 2010 Upon effectivity . RBV-13 into the basic wage Non-Agriculture . BICOL a/ Per Wage Order No.00 effective March 1.00/day wage increase and integration of the P7. No.P5.` ` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION V.P6.P8. 2011 Agriculture . 2011 .00 COLA under W.

00 basic wage increase to all minimum wage earners in the private sector in the region. RBVI-18 b/ Effective 12 August 2010 Grants a P15. Western Visayas a/ Per Wage Order No. .` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION VI.

00 basic wage increase per day to all minimum wage workers in the region. Central Visayas Per Wage Order No. 2010 Grants a P18. ` .` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION VII. ROVII-15 a/ Effective September 1.

00 COLA under W. RB VIII-15 b/ Effective 16 June 2008 Provides a P10. Eastern Visayas a/ Per Wage Order No.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION VIII. No. RB VIII-14.O. .00 COLA per day in addition to the existing P8.

00 COLA under W. . Zamboanga Peninsula a/ Per Wage Order No. No. RIX-15 into the basic wage.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION IX. and the integration of P15. RIX-I6 b/ Effective 09 September 2010 Grants P15.O.00 per day wage increase.

RX-15 b/ Upon effectivity: P12.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION X.00 COLA under W. RX14 shall be integrated into the basic pay .O.00 wage increase per day .Effective October 1. Northern Mindanao a/ Per Wage Order No. 2010: P13.

O. RB XI-15 to all private sector minimum wage earners in the region. RTWPB-XI-16 b/ Effective 01 September 2010 Grants a P21. Davao Region a/ Per Wage Order No. .` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION XI. No.00 per day wage increase in addition to the existing COLA under W.

O. RB XII-16 b/ Effective: 31 October 2010 .Integration of COLAs under W. RBXII13 (P11. Nos.00/day upon effectivity and additional P5.` ` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION XII Central Mindanao a/ Per Wage Order No. RBXII-14(P5.00).00) into the basic pay .00) and RBXII-15 (P5.New COLA of P10.00 COLA per day effective 01 April 2011 .

O No.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION XIII Caraga a/ Per Wage Order No. RXIII-10 b/ Effective 25 August 2010 1.00 per day wage increase. A P10.00) COLA under W.00 from the Twenty Three Pesos (P23. RXIII-09 shall be integrated into the basic daily minimum wage. 2. . The P10.

00 wage increase in the basic wage . ARMM-12 b/ Effective 20 August 2010 Provides P12.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao a/ Per Wage Order No.

an employee¶s salary is paid in 26 even paychecks over the course of the year. in a bi-weekly paycheck to an exempt or professional employee. In most years.` Salary is a fixed amount of money or compensation paid to an employee by an employer in return for work performed. . most frequently. Salary is paid.

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