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FOR T H E ARTIST
FOR THE ARTIST
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86
Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip
Objects and Instruments
TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan
Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions
90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds
26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128
Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64
Discover more at
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top
174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes
220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152
Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains
198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216
Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments
240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172
Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND
US, we learn to see it. By using our imaginations, we learn
to feel truly alive. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life, be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity; a sculptor, fashion designer, architect, or engineer; a composer notating a musical score; a cartographer charting the land; or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. For me personally, drawing is the immediate expression of seeing, thinking, and feeling. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge, and a reflector of experience. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world, and through which I can see how I think. I will always draw, not only to make art, but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. It makes me feel excited to be alive. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. Others can be held in the h a n d or, by invitation, are made outside as discreet installations, perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail, where I expect them to be discovered by some people, remain unseen by most, and be slowly washed or worn away. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. I also make drawing books, especially as travel journals. They occupy a shelf in my studio, and I refer back to them for years after they are made. It is my love of these, and their importance to so many artists, that inspired the title and structure
MEMORY T H E A T E R S
This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. I was training in anatomy and studying how, through history, we have looked at, understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. Augustine his notes on memory, in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. These inspirations led me to invent museums, where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them.
of Sketch Book for the Artist. Chosen in any color, texture, shape, and size, a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing, as a visiting professor at universities, art schools, and local c o m m u n i t y classes. I work with people of diverse ages, aspirations, and experience, from schoolchildren to senior citizens, undergraduates to fellow professors, night security staff, doctors, geologists, and makers of special effects. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer, still standing by the door, who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong, and in a few sessions they will be flying. We can all learn how to draw. The very first step is to believe it.
Where We Begin
There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow, inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect, like a great canvas for them to mark. At home and at work we doodle, scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone, in lectures, and in meetings. Sometimes we draw because we are bored, but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives, not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps, signs, graffiti, logos, packaging, and patterns on our clothes. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information, and we spend our lives reading it. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word, is not afforded us by drawing. Drawing is international, irreverent to language barriers. We can always read each others drawings.
"CAVE OF THE HANDS"
In this drawing, a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting, waving to us from many thousands of yearsago.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. Cueva de las Marios, Rio Pinturas
WHERE WE BEGIN
FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason, the hair of my first portrait was most important. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. I now think this is a picture of proximity, reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone.
MAKING OUR MARK
It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. In cave paintings like the one opposite, we see our oldest surviving images, created by societies of hunter-gatherers, who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life, an expression of existence, power, and belonging to place. On a particular afternoon in September 1974, at age two-anda-half, I was sitting with my mother. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy." Until this day, I, like all toddlers, had happily scribbled, enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper, and the appearance of my strikes of colors, but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. The image above is what I gave back to my mother, and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl.
PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin.
T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line, then drag o u r line into a loop, and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. Young children love to draw. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination, and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . But as adolescents, most of us stop. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. At this point many will insist they cannot draw, yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map, for example, to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw, it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing, h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. As you progress, b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else
A UNIQUE SIGHT
This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats, harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes.
Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse
c. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS
prefers and tells you is better. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes, remember that all advice is only advice. After experimenting and trying each new idea, you must decide whether to keep or discard it. Enjoy the control of your own journey.
Occasionally, I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. Someone once told them they must draw in this way, and they have never questioned why. I ask them their reasons for drawing, what they most want to achieve, and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals, The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline, but it does help to set out facing in the right direction.
All artists see the world differently. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich, author of The Story of Art, wrote as the opening line of this great work, "There really is no such thing as Art. There are only artists." The clarity and empowerment of these words, is, I hope, embedded in this book. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. 11), it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye, but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing, clear-minded understanding of the sea, boats, and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard, we can drive out its spirit, and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life, be visionary, and inspire others. The observed world may be our subject, but it should be the experienced world we draw. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. We all see differently. We also see differently ourselves, depending on the occasion and our purpose. There are countless reasons for drawing. We
The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. Below, the breast- and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves.
IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S
These active machines, right, all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel, the page bristles with the focus of ideas. His notes visually balance his drawings. They are also always written backward, not for disguise but as a personal choice, perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge.
Screws and Water
LEONARDO DA VINCI
should not try to know how every finished picture will look, but it is important to be clear why we are making it. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up, or to discover the best use of a new material, to express the beauty in a moment's play of light, conduct an experiment, make a calculation, shout against a terrible injustice, or illustrate a dream. Opposite, I drew to understand the apparatus of flight, while below, Leonardo drew to invent a machine. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. We have both covered our paper with focused,
stripped-down parts, drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture; when it looks tired and still feels wrong, it may be best to start afresh. Don't be disheartened; time spent is not lost. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing.
At school, and sometimes beyond, we are advised or even required to plan our pictures, declare the idea, explain the composition, and practice each part before putting the final image together. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. However, excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination, the unknown, and what you discover in the process of making. It denies the importance of accident, which can offer keys to other things. These two brush drawings, created centuries and cultures apart, are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. The physicality, balance, and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips, and allowed to flow through the brush. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush, ink, water, and paper. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks, and at speeds beyond conscious thought. As you draw any subject—something you see, feel, or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape, size, and position in space. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose, meaning, and how it feels to the touch. Know the texture, temperature, depth, and opacity of your subject. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. Whatever the material— wood, silk, bone, metal, fire, or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark, it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. If you can do this, your marks will become the subject on the paper. This is the alchemy of drawing.
T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush, trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body.
This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. Our position asvieweris unsteady. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid, and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains, mists, and an island brushed with trees.
Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY
PLACE A N D MOMENT
The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room, left, lives on, more than 100 years after its making. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow, which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment.
Woman at her Toilet
41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm)
RIB-CAGE D R A M A
Thus drama, right is set inside a rib cage, one of many luminous works in watercolor, acrylic, pastel, gold leaf and spray paint, made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. W a l t e r also makes books: some, like folded insects, stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket.
Focusing on the Negative 2004
22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm)
J O H N WALTER
FREEING THE HAND
If you are just beginning to learn how to draw, try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. Choose other materials and do the same. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings, just through the act of making. With no help and advice at all, you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. As you follow lessons in this book, take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. Drawing is exploratory, and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. Try to keep all of your first drawings, even those you dislike. Put them away and look at them later, at a point when you feel you are not making progress; you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. It is yours. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment; potential ideas still forming; diary-like observations; and miscellaneous items of inspiration.
THE THINKING EYE
Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. However, it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately, when they are more experienced, comes from within. Imagination needs nourishment. It rarely flourishes in isolation. As you draw, seek ideas in the life around you. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed, adapting its form and occupation, and enfolding new media. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing, and many more reasons for drawing the world. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects, but not confined to them. In the total wealth of these pages, we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. Once there, the path is yours. The real drawing book has yet to come; it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision.
A N ARTIST'S HANDS
These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. 150).Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing, and became a great subject for me. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination, caught between action and repose.
With a penlight, Picasso has just finished his drawing, which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke, threedimensionally. Picasso is poised smiling, staring straight through his image of a bull, which of course he cannot see.
Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery
Drawing Books and Papers
T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g , y o u n e e d a
lifetime; cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. Alternatively, study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well, ties on either side to keep your papers in place, and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. Drawing boards are invaluable. They can be very expensive in art stores; it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. Smooth plywood, thick enough not to flex, is perfect. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance, be sure they fit comfortably under your arm.
drawing book. There are dozens to choose from. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format, binding, color, texture, thickness, quality, and cost. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers, which are also sold in an enormous range. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw, cut, and collage their ideas. It is also useful to own a portfolio. A high-quality one will last a
Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. F o r e v e n i n g classes, c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . F o r traveling, c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d - b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag; t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d - b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e ; t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d .
1. C A N V A S - C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d ; a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . 2. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. 5. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels, catalogs, a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d - h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. 4. R I N G - B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. Purchase a h i g h - q u a l i t y r i n g - b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils, pastels, a n d crayons, b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. 6. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded, stitched, and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve.
Tantalus o r The Future of Man
81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER
Papers differ in thickness (weight), size, texture, color; absorbency, Ph, and cost. They are hand-, mold-, or machine made in sheets, blocks, or rolls. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free, resisting deterioration. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic, turning brown and brittle. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . 2 5 6 - 5 9 ) for explanations of rough, cold, not, and hot pressed papers.
7.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. 8. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. 10. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. 11. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue, yellow, red, and white, used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. 12. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. 13. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong, fine, and translucent, it is made from rice, bamboo, mulberry, and other plant fibers. Use for brushwork drawings. 14. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. 15. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media, from pencil to paint 9. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors, printed on one side only. 16. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. 100% cotton and sold in sheets, blocks, and rolls. For use with any media. 17. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy, tough, white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. 18. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white, and cream sheets or rolls. 20. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors, also good for drawing with colored pencils. 21. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin, smooth, pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. 22. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. It is available in white or cream.
Posture and Grip
T o DRAW WELL, your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. There are also parallels to dance. You do not have to dance to draw, but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder, arm, a n d h a n d to the fingertips. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely, your drawing will reflect this. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. Examples are shown here, b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. If using an upright easel, place it on the correct side: if right-handed, place it on your right, a n d look to the left of it at your subject; if left-handed, place it on your left, and look to the right. There should be an open, flowing space between your hand, body, and subject. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey), or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair, don't sit too close to the paper. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body, your lines will distort. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. 116-17). should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. Ideally, you
Drawing classes can be cramped places, but wherever possible, make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong.
SPACE TO WORK
Cramped grip. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small, strangledlooking drawings.
Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. With your hand in this position, you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement.
This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended, roughly marking out a large-scale work. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head.
POSTURE AND GRIP
U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual
movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. To stop this, find an unfamiliar, alternative way of holding the pencil, or change to the wrong hand. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making.
There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. As long as your fingers, arm, and body are not restricted, hold your material as you find most comfortable, depending upon what it is and how large you are working.
Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand, liquid will run down your hand, not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. This can be used to great effect, or it can spoil your work if not anticipated.
Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. But be careful not to tense your fingers. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India.
Brush calligraphy: This comfortable, upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp.232-33). Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat.
UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS
from the beginning of our time. After the subject of
ourselves, they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. We have drawn
them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. In medieval England, the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts, each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period, and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches, or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions, we turn and take the features of beasts. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness, from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. O v e r the centuries, bats, birds, fish, dogs, and snakes have between them engendered harpies, mermaids, werewolves, and dragons.
JOHN WHITE British artist, cartographer, and pioneer born c. 1540. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh, White's commission was to "...drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot, who described in words what White drew. Together they made maps and documented animals, insects, plants, and people. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed, out are now oxidized and so appear black
W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves, we have employed artists on expeditions, to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery, and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish, which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing, and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. For the novice artist, animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation, their different speeds and patterns of action, which are so unlike ours, offer challenges and delights to draw. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects, and learn how to
J O H N WHITE
capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese, sleeping dogs, floating turtles, and silent, m u s e u m - m o u n t e d skeletons of birds.
11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm)
horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515, a gift to the Portuguese King. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. Sailing to Rome, the ship was lost, but the drowned animal washed ashore. Carefully stuffed, it continued its journey to Rome. Meanwhile, a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg, the home of
ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter, draftsman, printmaker, naturalist, writer, and mathematician. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art, filled journals with ideas and observations, and wrote four books on proportion.
DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal
Durer. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. Converted into a print, Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years, inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later, when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales, they were rejected. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. Unsurpassed, it is still consulted by veterinarians today, years after its publication.
Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn.
Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros
103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm)
B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter, naturalist, a n d anatomist. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England, L o n d o n . Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication, Anatomy of the Horse, c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin, in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t , a n d s i d e .
Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse, dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. The entire project was developed over ten years. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings, composed from notes and observations. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication.
Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international
acclaim, which has never diminished.
is no other work like it. He composed makes each horse appear so real and
each plate from his three-dimensional.
knowledge of parts, and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals.
Table of the
III of the Horse (rear
Skeleton view) mm)
1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS
Presence and Mood
THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. By contrast, Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity, the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink, it silently rises to the light, conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e , snarl, and turn, drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin, her b o n y frame, her sharp teeth, and her distinctive temperament.
VICTOR HUGO Poet, novelist, playwright, and leader of the French Romantic movement. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media, drama, and a love of accident.
The Hunchback of Notre
Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing, linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths.
Mixed media Here, Hugo used graphite powder, ink and linseed oil on paper. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments, saying "... I've ended up mixing in pencil, charcoal, sepia, coal dust, soot, and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind...". more or less what I have in view, and
1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O
C o n t r o v e r s i a l , fiery, s h o r t - l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught; horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting, The Raft of the Medusa, displayed in the Louvre, Paris.
Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different
the importance subject Remaining
enough to isolate parts of a
views, and keep trying again.
focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study, and it can be applied
any subject (see
Beneath these graphite studies we see
Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast, parallel, diagonal strokes of his pencil. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well, since it can lead to a flattened form. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. 124-25 and p. 144.
of drawings Gericault
erased. At the center of the page is crammed drawings
the outline of a horse, standing sideways, facing right. Before paper became so cheap, artists reused sheets and them full of studies. Here, undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. of previous
Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat
121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT
M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e
their lines and the power of their beasts. In Picasso's drawing, noise is everywhere. His powdery, dissolving faun kneels stranded, overwhelmed by a screeching bird, the whinnying of a frantic horse, and waves breaking distantly below. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting.
identify an animal: the fast cheetah, slow tortoise, flapping bird, or proud, quivering horse. Artists commonly focus on such actions, taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. In these two drawings, made only a year apart, we see semi-abstract, flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of
A prolific Spanish painter sculptor, draftsman, printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. Picasso cofounded Cubism, the first abstract movement of the 20th century, with George Braque (see p90).
Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid, hooked, and scrolled lines. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue, gray, and brown. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast.
Faune, Cheval et Oiseau
1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m )
Swiss painter; sculptor, draftsman, printmaker, violinist, and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923), well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools.
Layers of marks
In this pale
Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch." They chatter around bodies in groups, turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper-
on pictorial space.
all happily of each other in the
Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still.
der Komischen of Comical
161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . N e u m a n n Family Collection, Chicago PAUL KLEE
Icon and Design
THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS
we discover diagrammatic
and mackerel's tail" (full bow, slim stern), it would achieve greater speed, balance, and steerage. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory, which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought, Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. His birds stare, seemingly looking for our attention, and to assess our next move.
drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull, and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship, later called a galleon. He studied the anatomy of fish, and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head
Master shipwright, mathematician, and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586), t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations, plans, and s e c t i o n s o f ships. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s , b a s e d o n his studies o f fish.
The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink, adding washes of color with a fine brush. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish, the expression of its eye, and the carefully observed gills, fins, and scales.
The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. Baker did not intend this. It is simply how we read his perspective. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry
An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds, w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian
Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil, firmly outlined, numbered, and filled evenly with tone. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. The text, written last of all, appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the
The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks
UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm)
and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image.
circle and the birds.
Pen and Ink
W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS, s t i c k s , a n d m e t a l p o i n t s ,
from the acacia tree, and first used by the Egyptians. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. Today, high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. Masters choose brands of long, distinguished manufacture, the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. In the Far East, ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp.246-47). Dip pens began their history in the Nile River, where reeds were gathered. Quills were later cut from feathers, while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry.
you can have great fun drawing the world around you. Intricate or dramatic lines, spots, and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink, simultaneously 4 , 5 0 0 years ago, and it is still in use today. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle, light it, and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it; then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. That is an ink." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted
Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools, which range greatly in their handling and character of line. Responsive to slight changes in pressure, they are associated with rapid, expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter
1. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. Each pen has a unique character, producing a different line. 2. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. The best are goose or swan. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. 3. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. Only fill with suitable inks. 4. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. They fit into wooden holders. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens, which scratch rather than draw.
PEN AND INK
Four types of ink were common before the 20th century, and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian), iron-gall, bistre, and sepia. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast, waterproof or non-waterproof, and most can be homemade.
5. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black), roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). charred bone (Ivory Black), or charcoal, suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. Waterproof types contain shellac. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. dated. from are not 6. I R O N - G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. Crushed, boiled, reduced, and sieved, they produce a golden dye for drawing. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p.36. 8. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia, an often misused term, is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. Beechwood soot is best.
9. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS:
Available in black and a range of colors. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging, and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. They are the easiest inks to use.
Drawing With Ink
MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN,
keep all your fingers behind
basis of iron-gall ink, can also be collected from affected trees, crushed, and boiled to make a golden ink. For centuries, galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. Running fresh, it was gray-purple. It dried black, and turned brown with time. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless, always be cautious when experimenting with recipes.
the blade and cut away from you. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave, then cut a final nib (feathers, for example, are surprisingly tough.) You can make ink easily from the boiled, reduced, sieved, fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. Walnut ink is gloopy, red-brown, and delicious to draw with. Oak galls, forming the
R e e dpens dispense ink quickly, giving a s h o r t , d r y mark. U n d e r heavy pressure, t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. Rembrandt, V a n G o g h , a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages, finding reed p e n s unwieldy, r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s , a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead.
Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . T h e y give a finer, m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . Quills are also called D u t c h pens, since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand.
Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing, drawn to glisten with a dryer nib, appears broken to show paper beneath. of a loaded nib. The lighter right
than strokes and for as
reeds, giving longer lines. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head
first. Paler strokes were made
where the mark has
the legs and antennae the ink ran out.
Metal pens give long, sharp, clean strokes, withstanding great pressure without sticking, breaking, o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. Loaded with ink and pressed hard, they splay to make thick o r double lines. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down, marks become fine and needle-sharp.
DRAWING WITH INK
Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined, particles then filled with a droplet of ink. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape, giving a graded, tonal
Ink layers The wings of this beetle
drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. White markings were drawn last
Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. When using dip pens, it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib.
GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. That said, there is no obligation to prepare a quill; steel nibs are fine. Geese are nosy birds, so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. Study them before drawing. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap, waddle, and bellyflop off the waterside. Dip your pen in ink, touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess, and boldly plunge into your drawing. Focus on the geese, not on your drawing. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow, I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. Experiment, test your limits, and be brave. You cannot break the nib, and there is no "wrong." If you don't like a stroke, make another one. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible.
Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink, to absorb blots when drawing. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones, and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind.
Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. Focus on it. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye, and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. Empathize, draw what the bird is doing, be bold and press firmly, Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. Cover a sheet.
With growing confidence, look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water, running, flapping, and diving. Use more lines than before to express these. Again, draw the feeling of what you see. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy.
Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it.
R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER, a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s
town. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture, form, and personality. For this class you will need one oblivious dog, your drawing book, a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp.34-37),
engaged in his and everyone else's business. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping, and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the
together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark.
MAKING A PALE LINE
To make a pale line, first dip your pen in ink, and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. This will give a medium-gray line. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. Now it will make a pale line. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib.
Ras Curled Up Asleep
"Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness."
DRAWING YOUR DOG
Be bold in this exercise. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly, c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. First lines are first thoughts; second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive.
Fix your eyes at the center of the dog.
Then, ignoring all detail, see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. W i t h pale lies, quickly draw what you see. Trust your intuition. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness.
Reload your pen with ink, this time to create a line a little darker in tone. Remain focused on the whole dog and, in bold layers, add more detail. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters, to emphasize how he is curled up.
Gradually introduce darker tones. Here, I added ink to Ras's nose, ears, tail, and the shadows in his coat. To add texture, alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line.
to observe. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium, they stretch and paddle, swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. A perfect subject for the beginner, turtles often pause unexpectedly, as if caught in a camera freeze-frame, offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose.
THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating
THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e -
martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen, India ink, and water. Beginning with very pale tones, I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. With speed, I sought to capture the form, balance, and sharp, dry, weightlessness of the kiwi. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight.
Plants and Gardens
E SHARE THIS PLANET
with the more ancient, robust, infinitely vivid, and diverse
kingdom of plants, on which our lives depend. We collect, nurture, and
hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range, to catalog our knowledge, and to ornament our lives. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus, to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. The revolution came in the 1530s,
B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. Plants seventeenth century. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613.Morethan 1,000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. Classifications were set in367copperengravings, Chapters are arranged by out. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative, as opposed to only herbal, season. Conrad von Gemmingen, PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition, and the drawn pages ofthesame name. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form, color, where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. and beauty. Later, the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation, we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. an
There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape, form, and texture; the punctuation of space with structure and mass; manipulations of light and shade; and the
constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. In this chapter, we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space, shape, and focus.
187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER
PLANTS AND GARDENS
THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its
were specimens that often refused to stay still,
o p t i m i s m , Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s , stems, leaves, flowers, fruit, and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . Here, M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume.
subtle union of beauty, detail, and meticulous precision. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . B e h i n d detailed, measured drawings, s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida,
o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio, or that were diseased, insect-ravaged, and wilted. W i t h bright
F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. Sir Joseph Banks, naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists.
Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones.
Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single, delicate, petal tip over a lower leaf
Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER
49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH
Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter; a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t - g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a , a n d he inspired, a m o n g o t h e r s , G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants.
Lines and shadows
This lush, sensual pencil drawing is later works. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly,
found among Mackintosh's
than reality, it is small and discreet, and it shows how design, imagination, and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. Pencil lines cling to, and follow shadow.
Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH
A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s , K e w , L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . H e r Drawings of British Plants, p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 - 7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s , is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3,000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings, Curtis's Botanical Magazine, as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig
Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed; and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant... and perfect coordination of hand and eye." This line drawing is one of 1,286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants.
Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG
PLANTS AND GARDENS
the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja), which he personally created near Kabul, Afghanistan, in the early 16th century, is remembered in the pages of his journal. Below, in miniature, Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. Envoys chatter outside the gate, anticipating their view. Every fiber of
AMONG DRAWINGS FROM
BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design, and Nanha, a notable portrait painter drew the faces.
paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature, urgent attentive human activity, and miraculous growth. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed; the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. Drawing, painting, and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. By Muslim tradition, roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey.
Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA
Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. Upright shallow perspectives, fluctuations in scale, uniform focus, and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings.
AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH
This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h - c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin, G e r m a n y . t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. It is n o w k e p t in
Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition, so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance.
Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. However, look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower, fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers.
Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape, and how the shape has been repeated freehand.
The Rose of
9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH
PLANTS AND GARDENS
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.
R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.
Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell
us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.
Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN
Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.
Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.
Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.
Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.
Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.
(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.
3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.
HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.
ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents
GRAPHITE AND ERASERS
s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.
Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.
11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.
P U T T Y RUBBER:
W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing
13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e
that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.
paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square
CHOOSING A VIEW
A Single Fig
"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."
T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole, t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. U s e it as a starting point, a device to help you decide what t o draw.
CROPPING AND COMPOSITION
Off-center and diagonal
Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space, its stem and shadow framing a white center. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing, running corner t o corner, bottom-left t o top-right.
Touching the edge
the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. Here the left fig is attached to, and therefore apparently suspended from, the uppermost edge of the drawing. When subjects touch two or more edges, as also shown here, they establish a tension and unity with the paper.
Space as the subject
Inallpictures, spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs, its illumination, and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit
PLANTS AND GARDENS
UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. But how often do we look at the air between things; shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree, do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape, position, tone, and a role to play. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space, but if the artist does, their subject and composition will become more real, unified, dynamic, and engaging. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right; a foundation stone in picture-making. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know, rather than what you see in front of you. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. In following this class, you will need a similar large-leaved plant, a sharp H B pencil, an eraser, and a fresh page in your drawing book. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible.
WHERE TO START
Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head; this ensures a consistent view.The box opposite isolates an area, which is shown in the three steps below. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf, erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right, then added a second shape, third, fourth, and so on. In your own version, remember to draw only space, not leaves. It helps to start at the center and map outward.
Draw a complete shape
Map outward from the center
Erase and adjust lines until correct
Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.
Spaces between leaves
Either view will
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,
Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.
S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus
drawn with an H pencil by observing the
negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.
As we LOOK AROUND, our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another, gathering less distinct information on the way. We never see everything at once. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention, interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion, they emulate our experience of seeing. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. 62-63).
of architecture, film-set design, and computer game
imaging, we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. Computer
programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. Through the animation of the screen, architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. once there, add and subtract ideas, drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients, they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. At the core of their practice, to help them create new form, they have the Golden Section. It was the mathematicians, philosophers, and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion," reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. This harmony, which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture, was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy, the formula for perfection spread through Europe, and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective, the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. 74-75). Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century, architects, designers,
VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris, Baltard designed the Church of St. Augustin, which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone.This is a pencil drawing, with gray and brown watercolor wash, of the west facade of St Augustin, made by the architect himself.The church is still in use today.
composers, filmmakers, fine artists, and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape, mass, balance, space, time, and sound. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. to 20th-century film fantasy; from political commentary to musical abstraction; and from
West Facade of the Church of St Augustin, Paris
the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. Linear perspective is a marvelous device, invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter, coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. each
EVERY NEW BUILDING, embodying a massive investment of ideas, materials, and labor, marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas; evoke presence; describe a finished look to a client; calculate function, structure, and balance; and ultimately to show builders what to do. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums, a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights, testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. Below it, densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR
One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College, Oxford, and six London churches. A student of Wren's, and later an assistant to Vanbrugh, he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral, Hampton Court Palace, Blenheim Palace, and Castle Howard.
Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape.
On the left the finished
surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns, pilasters, and an inscribed entablature.
On the right a section
cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses, relative levels, and the shapes of interior domes and apses.
Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor.
St Paul's Baptistry c. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR
Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt
ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona, churches, and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art, The Art Nouveau movement, and his love of music. unique organic manipulation of high shapes, light, embellishment.
Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate
Above is a drawing form in the made
withlinkedwires and weights. Gaudi air than on paper. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun.
Crypt of its
c. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI
The Order of Sound
B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r ,
been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. We can see, and in a sense hear, such a rapport in both of these drawings. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing, before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. Satie draws quietly throughout, and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in
h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti, p.223).
upright pictorial space. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail, while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. There has always
DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. He also produces urban and landscape designs, theater sets, installations, and exhibitions of his drawings. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York.
This drawing has
been made with a rapidograph, a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls, corridors, and rooms, and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors.
Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles, short curved poles, flat boards, and dotted lines.
Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND
F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano, theater, a n d ballet. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o .H i s witty, minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets, dressed eccentrically, lived a l o n e , and founded his o w n church, o f which he was the sole m e m b e r
Satie has drawn
this fantasy hotel using a ruler, a conventional dip or fountain pen, and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that
to be at hand.
upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle
pictorial space and subject of this European
the even and and the shape wall to the
elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p.50. the perimeter
Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright,narrowshape of its paper. Onpp.56—57 we discussed important the shape, andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage.Edges are how are of orientation,
additional lines in a work. They definespaceand pictorial balance.
Suzonnieres c. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE
T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS
invite us to
soaring above normal life. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner.
enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. Within it, antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. This is the work of an architectural theoretician; the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis, made in 1926, we find other Utopian visions
Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment, experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation.
French architectural theorist, painter; and draftsman. Boullee lived in Paris, and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids, spheres, arched vaults, cylinders, and dramatic lighting.
Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p.96.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky, and the reverse is true on the right. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional.
153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE
ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director; draftsman, and m o d e l - m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis, Kettlehut and his c o - a r t director O t t o Hunte, together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund, used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters.
Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black, gray, and white ink on brown-gray paper. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper.
Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. 1926
PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l , intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography, architecture, mythology, and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. and are
Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread.Building shapes are works can be read as text.
ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E
Pathways of Sight
LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. We use it to structure illusions of depth. It can be applied to any subject, but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art), linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East, and those of Naive artists and children. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. 206-07). All forms of perspective are of equal value. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. Piranesi an example of two, and age eight, I contribute the child's perspective. Sometimes shared with Naive artists, this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life.
LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists, scientists, inventors, and thinkers ever to have lived. In his notebooks, Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas, observations, and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds.
Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point, found at the center of all converging lines. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint.
Study of Perspective Adoration of the
1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm)
LEONARDO DA VINCI
I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other, including all they recall about the subject. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise.
Scale Our farmhouse my experience
was in the woods. This drawing Young children typically
maps ignore on
of the nearby village; a points in
logical narrative of memories.
issues of scale when making room for important
their story. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants
the hills, which I saw from home every day.
Breamore Village, New Forest, England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET
GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI
Italian artist, architect, and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings, visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome, and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism.
Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. Lightly marked
Two Courtyards c. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI
points are located on either side of the drawing, at the top of each lateral column base. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread.
MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y
First read through, then follow the ten steps below, using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards, corresponding to a single vanishing point. Next, try composing your own space. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point, you will amplify the illusion of distance.
imagine. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene, discovering the image as it progressed. In contrast, Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. This is where we will begin.
Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil, draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line; this is your vanishing point. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle.
Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing.
corners must each touch a dotted line. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and
Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. Erase the dotted construction lines. You have completed your first box. (See p.98 for an important note on oscillation.)
Draw a new rectangle. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future, when inventing your own compositions, you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point.
As in step 2, draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing.
As in step 3, draw a second, larger rectangle. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. The larger you make your second rectangle, the closer it will appear to the viewer.
Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4, and erase the dotted lines. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. Connect this to the vanishing point— again, with two dotted lines.
Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top, bottom, andfarside of this first board. The board's sides should be parallel. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition.
0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes
Thickeningtheiredges,asIhavedonehere,willhelptomake them appear more solid.
Creating an Imaginary Space
T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e
to you and if you listen to it, it will take you places you never dreamed of; it is interaction that makes the work richer."
imaginary room. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. As David Lynch, artist and film director, once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do, w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. Every work talks
In this class, let simple lines suggest a simple space, then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo, p . 7 4 ) . O n
a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k , draw a b o x as shown opposite. Then follow the three given steps. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing, you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea.
An Imagined Scaffold
"Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real."
DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM
Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away; parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point; and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon.
CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE
1First,drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical, horizontal, and leaning surfaces. This initial space will be transparent and open to change.
2 first before adding furniture. Here, additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. The space has become more solid and real.
Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. With some practice, you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them.
Further Aspects of Perspective
W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. From our normal eye level, verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d , a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. 76-79). Only when y o u might employ t h r e e - p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite, showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish, located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other, o r to the h o r i z o n . T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. our eye level is very high and we look down, or low and we look u p , do verticals appear inclined. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. To draw such a view
Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done.
Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. That is where we e to find them, but they are not confined to this level. Potentially, they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image.
Free vanishing points
On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. Here, I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental.
81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF
This drawing depicts three-point perspective, useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p.75, you will see how, by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline.
Here, three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. Giving curvature, and therefore tension, tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture.
floor.Istarted with two parallel lines. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. Where thelinescross, they mark the corners of the floor tiles.Finally,I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor
RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D , I
visited many anatomical
theaters and museums, making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy. These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied.
sitting point buildings
ThisP E N - A N D - I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice. The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.
Objects and Instruments
HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. C o m m o n items, from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles, are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made, for example, to record an observed detail, or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed, planned, and made. Previously, craftsmen had held plans in their memory, passing them on to others through the act of making. With the sudden onset of mass production, drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools, each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. Today, even more advanced drawings are made on computers. Birds follow instinct to make a nest, and some apes use simple tools, but humans
LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning, or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. H e has described a casting through metaphor. A chair, for example—whether, drawn, sculpted, or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. r an equestrian statue. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition, design, color, hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form, texture, and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. H e has described contour and function at drawings. In past eras, these, too, have often carried great weights of allegorical once, making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist; fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . that test our logic with a sense of mystery. In this chapter, we look at the importance
are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things.
of light in the creation of pictorial illusions, and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts
Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse
to visual stimulus and optical illusions. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels, illuminating snail shells, and a wire violin.
drawing c. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I
OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS
THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n
we can. still feel this projected moment. Opposite, Mucha's drawing glistens with possession, not of place but of things; perfect i n their newly made availability. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china, silverware, and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation.
representing still life. Below, Braques image is a Cubist collage. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card, wood-look wallpaper, charcoal, and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe, steaming with music and conversation. Even today
GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions.
Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism, "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction, a colored canvas. ...Braque marshals all the forces of perspective, texture, and shading, not to work in harmony, but to clash in virtual deadlock." La Cuitare, Statue D'Epouvante
1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0.73 x 1 m)
ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. Pans. Chicago, and New York. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. and also stamps and bank notes. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style.
Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds,fruit,flowers, and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush.
Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount
paper. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color.
Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA
OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS
SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. In the graphic work of these two great men of science, we see drawing
Instruments of Vision
found among his letters. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. He counted 1 4 , 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres, each reflecting a view of his own world—his window, a tree outside, and his hand moving across the light.
shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight, drawing is there to pin the moment down. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is
ISAAC N E W T O N
English scientist, alchemist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society, and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e , w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion, the law o f gravity, and the nature o f light and color.
Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. via a second mirror, into the eyepiece. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube, offering a transparent view. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look.
Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters, each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity.
Newton's 1672 ISAAC
An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm, universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance, and anchor escarpment, and calculated the theory of combustion.
ROBERT H O O K E
Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing
is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. 1665), a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. It is an exhilarating read.
The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly
111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm)
W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair, its character, craft, and place in the world are truly seen. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e , this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid, while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out.
W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do, and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t , Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e , it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen.
SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools, and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. Woodfine exhibits internationally, has published several catalogs of her work, and has drawings in numerous public and private collections.
Two-dimensional was made
This highly finished
using a sharp pencil and
on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known
Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced
in the world, each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility.
Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE
Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases
are Trees, Cornfield and Sunflowers, and Starry Cypress
Night. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest
and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him.
direct in their he saw and describing his
Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly;hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. The floor few as engagement with the chair. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair, drawn opposite way of plan. Van
VINCENT VAN GOGH
O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S
Light and Illusions
SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. U p s i d e - d o w n patterns of light on our retinas, transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses, are translated into a world of space, atmosphere, form, a n d m o v e m e n t . To interpret visual s t i m u l u s , o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things, a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. We only need small prompts; hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines, a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. The outermost edge of our vision, less developed than the center, reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door, perhaps; w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation, a n d we can be fooled. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making.
W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject, think about its illumination. Are you happy
LIGHT AND SHADOW
with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. Below, a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing.
The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. your eye around the circumference of the egg. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light.
The perceived tone of a black white, gray, or colored surface is never constant. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives; the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light); and the proximity of contrasting tones. Here, two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. The small squares are identical in tone, but do not appear so. We perceive one to be lighter than theother.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings.
To further examine changes in tone, try this experiment. On acloudyday, cards the same size, one blackandone white. Tape them to the glass. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one.
LINE VERSUS TONE
In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s , t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g , l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing, start o u t w i t h one.
T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter, respectively, by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. B o t h are identical in length, b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) .
LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS
T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t , In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black.
Bending straight lines Linear distance
These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e - p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals.
O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S
PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. Yet many illusions, including some shown here, are still not agreeably understood. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw, and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art; others adjust works to avoid their effects. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle, and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. Michelangelo, among others, perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp.116-17) to make
painted figures look correct when viewed from below. In the 1960's, Op(tical) artists, such as Bridget Riley, made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions.
SEEING TWO OPTIONS
Sometimes, w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form, w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces, it oscillates between t w o possibilities. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once; w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image, their picture could be ambiguous. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r
Closing the surface
W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n , such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left, it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us, as s h o w n o n t h e right. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces.
Two ways of seeing
T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p.76. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e ; o r as a s l o p i n g - s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t )
"The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work."
T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . T h e a r t i s t M. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings.
F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s
T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h - c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots, clouds, smoke, e t c . — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing.
Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e
H e r e o n t h e left, w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . N e i t h e r triangle exists, b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky.
P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines
T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s , 1 6 t h - c e n t u r y Italian painters. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above, this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks.
OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS
W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS, such as bowls and cups,
How to Draw Ellipses
for example, (see p.90) takes a different
as essentially circular, since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. However, w h e n seen at an angle, circles change into ellipses, and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space, w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. Be aware, though, that this is o n l y o n e w a y
view, describing many sides of an object simultaneously. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly, smoothly, a n d in o n e bold stroke, even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow, hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim.
W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective, for example plates or bowls on a table, there are three common errors people stumble upon. I have drawn these for you here.
The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses, giving the cylinder four corners, like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand.
The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles, suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. I have exaggerated this error here.
third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures, as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel, while its upper rim remains level.
WHERE TO START
In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper; spin your hand in a relaxed circle. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins, not the paper!) As the pen touches down, keep it spinning. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again; you will achieve steadiness with practice. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning, springlike forms like those I have drawn below.
Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs, you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel.
HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S
A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together
Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. Draw quickly, working from top to bottom, enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume.
Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side.
Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form, you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces, thereby hiding lines that show the other sides.
W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING, t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y
Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour, making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white, and strong contrasts are easier to draw. Remember that shadows, beams of light, and solid objects are all of equal importance. In the finished drawing there should be few, if any. outlines, simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. Gradually hone your drawing, leaving detail until last. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail.
two opposite methods of achieving the same result. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top), or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom).
Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp.22-23). Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp
placed very close and directed away from your eyes; if light shines in them, it will inhibit your perception of tone.
LIGHT TO DARK
DARK TO LIGHT
LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE)
Using a sharp HB pencil, draw a rectangle. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells, Remember that its size, shape, and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp.56-57). Use quick, loose, pale lines with equal importance. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. until you are happy frame.
Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details.
DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE)
Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil, Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. with broad sweeps of the eraser. boldly
Keeping your eyes out of focus, look at the main areas of darkness. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. Draw in the details last of all.
OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S
Drawing with Wire
DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. They can also be made in space. On p.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights, and on p.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. On p. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light, and on p. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. The second is that after achieving this simple example, you can create your own more ambitious works. Third, three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space, and physical relationships between them. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper, our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once.
Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite), try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold, smooth, continuous lines. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows.
DRAWING WITH WIRE
Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing, but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners.
Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire; thin wire will make a smaller drawing, and thick wire a larger one. Cut a length, and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument
Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape.
If needed, brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge.
Once you have completed the body, begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. Here, I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs.
Artifacts and Fictions
with a group of schoolchildren who were responding
to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum, Oxford, England. Using found materials, they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions, some of which are shown here.
UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE, a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . W e
are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. The human body,
clothed or nude, is the most c o m m o n subject in art. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives, myths and fables, history paintings and other stories, portraiture, and anatomical and erotic art. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. In this period, the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church, and because the female was deemed inferior. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. During this time, artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body; Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square, while Durer took his research further—
A. R. WILLIAMS
he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four
Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form, while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes, giving physical foundation undulating land. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum, but the study of a controlled, sculptural description of her form. She the body is still essential. These classes are popular around the world, and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o , the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines.
much Western contemporary art. Strangely, in our privileged and comfortable society, focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged, diseased, and surgically rebuilt. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and
Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. R. W I L L I A M S
technology, from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing, explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making.
x 7 in (300 x 180
T H E BODY
THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper, while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand, while supporting the weight of their body with the other. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they
Postures and Poses
were m a d e contrast greatly. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see
anatomy, and human defeat. By way of contrast,
Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n , we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs, filling the page with her presence.
RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL)
Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child, altar pieces, and Vatican frescos. He trained under Perugino, and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked.
Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space, so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body.
Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL
French painter: draftsman, printmaker,sculptor,designer writer; teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element, Matisse became an artist after studying law. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter, as his w o r k matured.
freer, and more energetic
Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes, foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair. his pattern, fabric, and Islamic art. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings. Matisse
Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter...which might be...like an appeasing influence, a mental soother...or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue." of is an art of balance, serenity, devoid of troubling
Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE
T H E BODY
T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s .
velvet d a r k n e s s . Below, in a perfect e x a m p l e , it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible, agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy, w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. Opposite, Beuys's magician, scratched in seconds, stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols, like small birds attendant on the meditation.
Here, we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t , Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . Typically, he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid
GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line, form, and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local, reflected, and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues.
Tone and light In this black conte drawing, there are no outlines, only tones blending into, or abruptly meeting, other tones. Light is given by the paper alone. If Seurat had added white, it would have mixed with unseen black dust, turned gray, and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn.
Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84
91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT
JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. Beuys gave performances, taught workshops with a cult following, and made installations, video art, and drawings. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force.
the profound power materials with spiritual or
Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey, iodine,gold, and blood. This figure is drawn intuitively, free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph
Focus Beuys's hand
quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement, in different positions. transience, and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. Our focus joins
The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm)
SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. In Rodins work, the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. Opposite, Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh; its soft, flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. In both drawings, the women are framed and caressed by long, sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements.
AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life, Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. Inspired by Michelangelo, his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion.
This is one of about
7,000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin, Paris, and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. As here, he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor.
Rodin's public audience
understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines," as seen here, was perceived as scandalous, and went on to inspire generations of artists.
125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN
Two Women 1911
ANITA T A Y L O R Painter, draftsman, professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. London. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model, intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity, exposure, scrutiny, and gaze.
Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick, textured paper. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed, and rework rich depths of light and tone. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making.
Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. Taylor has drawn, erased and drawn again, leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. the impression of luminosity
All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR
T H E BODY
Measurement and Foreshortening
FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space - limbs happily receding, or coming forward, without taking off, plummeting, or shrivelling at odd, unfathomable angles. It is not so hard; patience, persistence, and a few measured comparisons are key. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel, Rome, with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work, we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted, elongated as if stretched across the plaster. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective, which is imperceptible from below. Smaller, more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment, to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room; for example, the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery, London).
Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. It can also be a little demon in the life room, when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page.
This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. It is not complicated, and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil.
Hold your arm straight. Lock your shoulder; elbow, and wrist joints. If your arm is not straight, you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. Return to this posture every time.
Hold your pencil upright. Align the top with a point on your subject. Close one eye. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement.
Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. There is no need to mark them all down on paper; just making them helps you see.
"Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion, helping us to see more clearly, and to draw what we see, rather that what we believe we know from experience."
To discover h o w this w o r k s , t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t , y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect, which feels strange. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing.
MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING
Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . A t a c e r t a i n angle, h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct.
T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above, looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us.
To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure, y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure, adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space, pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d .
C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m , belly, a n d thighs. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life.
DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential, propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds, working from her center to her feet and to her head. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form, balance, and height. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . Layered lines give d e p t h , feeling, and energy. Leave first thoughts in place, and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s .
SEQUENCE OF POSES
H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline, height, and stance before honing her balance and expression.
To outline a figure, work back and forth across the body. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other, because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart.
When a model stands upright on both feet, her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. To see this, imagine holding up a plumb line.
This pose leans away into space above our eye level. To draw this effect, make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist, and slightly enlarge her legs and feet.
The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure, and this should be avoided
A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here).
Here, the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive.
Hands and Feet
THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and
of form. W h e n starting, it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes, especially the lengthwise divisions between them. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. These planes, drawn in relation to each other, express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes.
feet, and they need not be daunting to draw. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet, or those of a friend. A mirror increases your range of views, and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths
GESTURES OF THE HAND
Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes, starting with the largest. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small, general to specific. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help.
Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand, swiftly marking its essential gesture. Draw large shapes and their orientation. Group the fingers together as one mass. Do not separate them yet, and ignore all details.
Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions, but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish.
HANDS AND FEET
MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT
Let your first marks be light, loose, and rapid. Leave aside all detail, and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks.
Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper,as though out o f wood. Hew it roughly in broad, flattened planes, as if with a chisel. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail.
Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. It can be a mistake, however, t o remove t o o many early lines; these are what give a drawing its tangible structure, depth, and spontaneity.
T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE
in compressed charcoal. Compare
its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp.204-05. Opposite, I also used white ink with a steel dip pen. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading."
HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence, length, and posture of the model, before honing his or her shape (see pp. 118-19).
The Visual Detective
DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS
was once a staple component of an artist's education.
It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. Forms, characters, perspectives, and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study, feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand.
At17V i a Romana, Florence, there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts, each modeled from dissection. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. 126-27.
IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E
usually strangers from past times, who, having been
documented and preserved, look directly at us, or past us, or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant, live, and lucrative genre for artists. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed, single or of groups, abstract or figurative, and satirical or metaphorical. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example, Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines, bells, buttons, and a handprint (see
a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. W h e n drawing a person, the meaning of their face, their stance, and their posture can be changed with just one line. Equally, a single line can deliver an entire expression. Goya, in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite, gathered all that he knew
FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter, draftsman, and p r i n t m a k e r . Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s , historical, religious, and secular narratives, and social and political commentaries. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and
about himself, and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots, is here to both meet and look through us. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant, compliant subject to scrutinize. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits, made as he passed through the ages of man, became more poignant as he progressed. For centuries, painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra, or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop.
his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait.
Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice, and it is very rewarding. In this chapter, we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head, neck, throat, and shoulders. Once you understand
Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A
and memorize the basic structure that we all share, you can capture the subtlety, character, and expression of the individual.
THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed, length, breadth, and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. Without faltering, Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil, whisking a timeless girl onto the page. While with longer consideration, Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks, stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass, adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. It is the portrait of a countrywoman, caught in her last moments of youth, teetering on the brink of older age, one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life.
PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p.30). Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. Through exhibitions and copies in books, we can enjoy and learn from them. For the beginner, they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image?
The simplicity of
Picasso's line is breathtaking. He makes his flair and skill look easy. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. The truth is often the opposite. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. hand to capture something well in only
Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO
HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER
German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman, and designer f r o m Basel. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil, he designed c o u r t costumes, made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death, and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here.
Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper, Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip, which, gently flushed, presses against the binding across her face.
Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge, and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above.
Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser
1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER
These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . It floats in space, solid above and almost hollow below. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid, while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision, its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. In fact, the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . Nerves, blood vessels, and glands also complicate form. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x , confusing, distorted, and unpleasant to see. Anatomically, Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes, but they are irrelevant here.
British sculptor painter and draftsman. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960, taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77, continues to exhibit regularly, and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery, London.
Sharp, dark lines made with a pencil
against smooth, dark tones of graphite blended into the paper, perhaps applied using a tortillon. Highlights of white gouache were dry
late in the making, using a fine and relatively
13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME
brush. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind, or defined by, the contours of a grid.
Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings, and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head
Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists, Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers, which, w h e n contracted, pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other
THESE ARE DRAWINGS
of shoulders, necks, and heads, each locked into a visionary gaze. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. Without paint and with very little tone, each portrait is inscribed onto the page. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. The camera watches him at work, and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model, while his hand stabs and thrusts
like a conductors baton. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. Opposite, Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven; close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath.
ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor; painter draftsman, and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy, Giacometti settled in Paris. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form, which are characteristically elongated. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed, as if seen from a distance.
Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form, cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy.
began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. Then, with speed and urgency, he drew over the whole image at once.
Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI
G I O V A N N I BELLINI
A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters, Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o , a n d b r o t h e r in-law, Mantegna. H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s , a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm, lyrical, a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian.
Transfer This delicate humorous
drawing is a cartoon—not
image but a type
of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. These are pinholes, transferring which
were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp.25 6 - 5 9 ) .
Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. Sometimes different narrative
same character was reused in compositions.
Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED
THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of, and confrontations with, their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny, political outcry, humor, and indulgence. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette; a tribal, skull-
headed, spear-brandishing warrior. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks, scrolls, scratched lines, bells, and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing.
JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT
Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend, Al Diaz, signing their work SAMO. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts, postcards, and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France.
Signs and symbols with symbols
that ore written, drawn, and everything flux.
scratched into its surface. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and
figure we would elegant
belookingat a sophisticated
painting of signs, marks, and attitudes, similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p.221). Islands of graphic marks, made with great energy, float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space.
Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT
American surrealist photographer, painter, printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. During the 1920's and 30s, Man Ray lived and worked in Paris, where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper
Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together, while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. Black ink was printed next and then white. The handprint appears to be made directly, last of all. Man Ray probably used his own hand, caked in thick printing ink or paint.
Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous.
Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY
Silver P o i n t
SILVER OR METAL POINT
A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m , and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e , w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape, o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place.
was familiar to
or eggshells with animal glue, laid on paper, p a r c h m e n t , or wood. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point." Lead, copper, platinum, and gold have also been used, and alloys work on matt emulsion. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin, key, or ring; an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. Opposite, I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. This is called a three-tone drawing. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. 144-45.
illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s , who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. 156). Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. Drawn across a prepared surface, it leaves a deposit, which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp.54-55). Metal point does not work on ordinary paper; the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. Historically, artists mixed white lead, bone,
To begin, you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite), purchase silver wire, and make o r buy a holder. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall, choose a silver object.
1. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h , c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. 2. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use, s e e p . 1 4 4 . 5. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface, s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . S i l v e r is b e s t . Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. b e f o r e priming stretched paper. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . 3 . SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p.54) can also b e used.
Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d , b u t d o n ' t w o r r y .
Straighten the w o r s t buckles. W e t o n e length o f g u m - s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side, and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . Be swift and firm.
Leave the paper to dry flat.
It will slowly straighten and become taut. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying, as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash.
LAYING A WASH
It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). Make enough to cover your paper; any extra will keep. Prop up your board of dry, stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. The next step will make a small mess, so put newspaper under the lower edge. Dip a soft, full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner, Make an even line across to the right. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. Keep adding smooth, overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. Runs blend into each other evenly, leaving a smooth surface. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. is necessary to lay a wash
Three-tone When coloring ground, slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube, v e r y little at a time. Keep testing on spare paper, and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. Here, I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. T h r e e - t o n e silver point drawing of a skull
Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.
This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.
Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.
Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.
Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.
Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)
After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.
143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.
The skull and the frame of the throat
HEAD AND NECK
Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.
Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.
Three useful generalizations
General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.
In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.
The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.
The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT
(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for
such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.
small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone
Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser
Seeing that the face is never flat
Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.
General measurements, side
General measurements, front
View from above
Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.
This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear
Portrait of a Young Girl
Building up the portrait
Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. Keep your first lines light; avoid drawing too dark, too soon.
Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face, neck, and throat. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing, so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled, they are also still sweeping and confident.
Place the eye beneath the cranium. Here, I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. The nose and ear begin to shape the head.
Moving from the back of the neck, over the cranium, down the face to the throat, I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this.
T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES, a n d t h o s e w h o a r e
asleep (see overleaf), be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface, the texture of hair, muscular tension, and gravity. Above all, empathize.
DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM,
Madrid, with a steel dip pen
and acrylic ink, I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely, seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression.
E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC, outrageous, intriguing, and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. Like it or not, it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d , and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste, personality, c u l t u r e , a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color, w a r m t h , and e x u b e r a n c e , or calm u s w i t h chic, cool, a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . Previously, o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity, while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein, for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s , a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. Cities c h a n g e d all, so that c h o i c e , variety, and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines, shapes, and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture
H o l l y w o o d stars, fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs, w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. Samoylovich Rosenberg, known as Leon Bakst, was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. toParis,As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe, he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. of Scheherazade. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist, c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r , b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor,This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality, woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. In psychology, and intent. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment, arichand unusual combination of pencil, charcoal, and gouache, theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying, g l o s s y folds, caricatured p l u m e s , c r u m p l e s , dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. or b u l g e s . In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone, articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e , and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. Practical classes
l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes, a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns, e m u l a t e textures,
st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T
and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t , gesture, and atmosphere.
Cloth and Drapery
EACH OF THESE FIGURES
is ninety percent cloth. Sculpted
one, and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. Opposite, Keisai Eisen's intense, swirling printed fabrics, with their jagged edges, dragons, and snakelike marks, resonate with their wearers startled expression. Below this, Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line.
folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. In Van Eyck's drawing below, the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner; her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. Above them, the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. Church and deities are drawn as
Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g , best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning.
Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate
of traditional drawing media (see pp.140-41). With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here, it is only possible to create very thin, delicate lines. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one.
Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor, bands around the columns, and implied striation in the stone of the architecture.
Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. However, the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble.
11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK
Japanese draftsman, writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints, he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World), an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists.
CLOTH AND DRAPERY
Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. Images are drawn onto smooth, flat sheets of wood, which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately, one over the other, each delivering a different part and color of the design.
Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN
JOHN F L A X M A N
English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor; designer, draftsman, and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer, Dante, Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation.
Position In this pen and ink drawing, the angle of the head, the cloak sliding to the ground, and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary.
Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm)
an extreme form of the clothed figure. A flamboyant territory, where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion, cartoon, theater, cinema, and even formal portraiture. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. The metal, cloth, lace, and feather were all
CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT
observed with closely crafted conviction. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. Opposite is a dangerous drawing, a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird, all ruffs and wrinkles. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it, for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck.
A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE
Flemish painter and draftsman. A s a y o u n g man, Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years, b e f o r e traveling t o Italy, w h e r e , t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions, he c o o l e d and redefined his style. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n , a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I.
Pen and wash
In the graphic accuracy of this armored
knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing.
Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. Its color is also reflected in the metal.
Leg section Compare mid-shin
the section of white boots
to the section of similarly cropped
trousers in drawings
Gruau's drawing on p. 160. Leg sections in both
support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above.
1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE
WILLIAM W O D A L L
A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized, manuscript
six c a n t o s . T h e
poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a , t h e Ridolfi Plot, t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot, t h e Jesuit Mission, t h e Rising, and her pride. Northern
Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion, she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird, hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us, while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. A
Ruffs and feathers
Starched white ruffs worn at court and by
society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. here dark tawny owl. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age, it was customary to
Iron-gall ink Wodall's
dangerous caricature steps daintily
the written lines of her dedicated page. Top-heavy, the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened, bitten nature, and saturations showing through from the other side, suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p.35).
51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4
THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure, elegant chic and svelte, muscular aggression. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white, studio-like rectangle of paper. His model is outlined, as is Spider-Girl opposite, and both share the power of scarlet and black. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. 5 8 - 5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect, diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed.
I t a l i a n - F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h - c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. Harpers & Queen, a n d L'Officiel de la couture. Vogue. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture.
India ink and gouache
This swish of confidence and style our
enters the page turning everyone's head. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride, demanding attention with gesture and flair. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache, possibly over a pencil outline. The black red, and gray pigments were applied separately. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other.
Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge
spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be
outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head
thesidesoftheimage,and tilted to the same de
a little deeper than sp
kneestogivehergravity. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. 158.
ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w
L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU
RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years, beginning with Star Wars. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones, and Amazing Spider-Man. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998, and has been the title's regular artist since 2003.
this drawing create a
dynamic. Buildings, sky. moon, and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. Airbrushed color and with tonal
focus. This s
modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of
gravity; a great characteristic superhero comics.
created up therefore
the effect of steeply between
howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single
vanishing point lies. It is outside the picture frame, not far above the drawing, to the right of its center. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. at
Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see
Free-Falling Through City
R O N FRENZ, MARVEL C O M I C S
ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y
wherever permitted, I suggest you do so. Often, there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar; you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. Before making substantial investments, purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you.
colored materials available. Seemingly infinite choices of texture, hue, size, shape, quality, and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. The higher the quality (and cost), the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials, and
Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work, allowing it to fix slightly from behind. Degas built his pastels in layers, fixing each layer on the front, except the final layer, which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. wash. They work well on
Pigments, used to make colors, are derived from many sources: rocks, minerals, plants, animals, insects, and synthetics. They vary hugely in cost, intensity, and subtlety. Beware—some are toxic. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment.
1. OIL PASTELS: Many colors, including iridescents, quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous, soft, oily pigment. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. Children's wax crayons are relatives, and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. 2. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. Pastels are finer; chalkbased but very subtle, slightly oily to the touch, crumbly, paper-wrapped, and sold in many colors. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. C o n t e crayons are square-formed, unwrapped harder pastels, made in about 80 colors. 3. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk, clay, or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. 4. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses.
Oil-based, these work best when slightly warm, and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly, mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper; though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash.
the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family, great for
These are wax- or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. Some give richer lines than others, so it is best to test them before buying. Some are nonsoluble, others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. Fine lines can be achieved (as above). Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure, leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below).
Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. Think of
Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. 111).
Although not made with felt-tip pen, it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use.
Study and Design
they reflect our age, personality, style, values, social and economic status, the era in which we live, and how we stand and walk. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table, and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. As artifacts in museums, they record and reflect our common history, while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials.
S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES;
This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function, structure, and volume in space (see pp. 100-01 and pp. 104-07). Here we go one step further, and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. To set up, you will need several large sheets of drawing paper, a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips, and a selection of shoes.
T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class, I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s , e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. You, t o o , will discover m o r e , a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s , if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w .
Using fine pens, c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . D r a w each o n e first as a solid object, t h e n again as if transparent, imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it.
STUDY AND DESIGN
study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.
Design Your Own
Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.
The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY
rich resource for the artist and
information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.
designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.
Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.
Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.
Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a
THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME
In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.
The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.
and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.
TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Silk and braid
O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS
researching the work of Francisco de
Goya at the Prado Museum, Madrid. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp.126-27, 172-73, and 252-53). These
characters, selected from different pages of my original book, look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture, shape, identity, and motivation of an individual.
T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES,
also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see
of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh, and visible, and tangible, as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth. To understand how he did this, I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines.
LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES,
but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly.
We read tensions and exchanges between people, and instantly engage with the
action of the scene. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. Blockbuster movies, television documentaries, soap operas, paintings depicting scenes from history, daily newspapers, comics, and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. Here, Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife, Saskia, stares out from her gloomy sickbed. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband, presumably while he is making this drawing. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. Later in their lives, Saskia died after childbirth, and so. in spite of how it may seem, this is not the portrait of an old woman. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes, we, too, are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. As artists, we can
R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman, the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition, the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines, and its illumination. We can also use clothes, furniture, and other masters of Western Art. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground, vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. It middle, and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. types. First, the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse, while a quill contact with, and therefore seem to see, the viewer. Second, the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene, even up her were laid with a brush.
heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. We can direct
close. Third, a crowd tells the story from a distance; there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these
Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal, R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN
in the delivery of narrative. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people, finding
corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page.
SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. Here, garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. F o r e a c h w o r k , t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w
of the h e a p o n t o a wall. Below, c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m , h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland, a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. Pans fly oft
the stove, plates shatter, hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet, and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess, the C o o k , the Cat, and Alice. In both works, narrative is delivered through the air, via the animated clutter of o u r material lives.
TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R
British artists who collaborate using neon, refuse, and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life."Anything that...kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing." (Tim Noble)
with light it is important
to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in
can draw with, and on, and in. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility
space, junk, and
projector. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke, for example, or even the office photocopier.
Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable
TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER
British watercolorist and book illustrator. by vivid children's
Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy, humor, a n d
an unmistakable graphic style. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle,Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks, and Poe's Tales Imagination.
Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. are very large compared to on p. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground, Rackham
Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen, ink, and watercolor, we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. Find the singleperspective pp.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene, amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. beams, tabletop, and
Alice's shoulder. See how the
In the Duchess's
77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM
we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers, perhaps these two are the most extreme. In culture, meaning, and composition they are polar opposites. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. This is an ironic drawing from Moore, a sculptor, expressing his dry humor about
O F ALL THE CONTRASTS
HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A , London. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man, a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist.
sculpture, audiences, and art in the landscape. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. Opposite, as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched, a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color, heat, and action of a buffalo hunt. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time, which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation.
Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given, and we, as fellow watchers, join in the waiting. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object
SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. Stylized hunters, horses, tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene, creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration.
and helping our eye to dart around.
Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched
ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently.
Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL
The Human Condition
IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e , w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n , a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality, a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . We also see qualities of line, m a r k , color, texture, a n d f o c u s , w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d , w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . Misted in translucent layers of paint, pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y - f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. era as Kollwitz, and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. Opposite, a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string, inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r .
W I L L I A M BLAKE
British visionary, p o e t , w r i t e r a r t i s t , a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy, t h e Bible, a n d o t h e r w o r k s . Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels.
Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works.
The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of
Lustful Lovers) mm)
143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE
German printmaker, sculptor and draftsman, who lived in a poor district of Berlin. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars, and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture, poverty, and the impact of death and war upon women, children, and the family home.
THE HUMAN CONDITION
Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines, and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal.
Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm)
humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. British
Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. With masterful gentility, Heath Robinson shows England in a past era, plodding along with hazy, stoical bemusement. He created sincere, humor by making his characters earnest, and clearly focused, however meager or ridiculous their activity.
The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm)
(ballpoints, fibertips, rollerballs, gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. Unlike pencils, which can snap or pierce through your clothes, a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere, dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. So many stores sell them, they can be obtained within minutes. I keep quantities at home, in the studio, in the car, and in most pockets so I can always record a thought
O n a c o l d day in Venice, t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next.
or idea. Quick-drying, these pens enable you to sketch, jot notes, turn the page, shut your book, or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. Available in blacks and ranges of colors, they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. For example, a ballpoint will make faint lines, indent paper, build to a rich, dark sheen, blob when old, or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray.
Drawing with a fine fiber-tip
pen, I swiftly focused on gesture, trusting shape and form to follow. At a time like this, aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment.
T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . R e m e m b e r , if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light, c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast."
1. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. 2. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s , t h e y a r e lightfast, w a t e r - r e s i s t a n t , p e r m a n e n t , a n d pressure-sensitive. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . 7 6 - 7 7 and 214-15).
4. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e , a n d ranges o f colors, including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers.
is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e .
Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir.
crowd of fellow
Fast lines These
the mass and shadows of heads belonging
into the boat. Fast
lines focus on action, not form. Compare this
The Travel Journal
I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place, activity, and companionship. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. However, when out drawing, life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. Exaggeration helps; if a person was stout, make them stouter, if animated, animate them more. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. Above all, focus on the action of the event, not its outline. You will make outlines, of course, but they should not be what you dwell on. Each line acts its part in the narrative; let it enter the stage and perform. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang, Don't worry about measuring angles, just draw the action; angles will happen as a matter of course.
Walking through Venice with a small, black, pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen, I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen.
Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right); all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose.
A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. In turn, I am watched by the aggravated guard, eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility.
THE TRAVEL JOURNAL
The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines.
Catching the Moment
On A BITTERLY COLD November day, I took refuge in a church in Venice, and there met this sullen custodian. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in, forcing me to remain at the back and look at them, rather than the works of art they guarded. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. When your attention has been caught, and you decide to draw the moment, start by focusing on its action, emotion, and reason for happening. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. Place the person carefully. For example, if they are being haughty, elevate them in the pictorial space; if they are being devious, you might place them lower down. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image.
ACTION AND DETAIL
W h e n drawing people, focus on action, not outline, and let every detail speak by its size, placement, and involvement in the story. For example, decide how faces and bodies contort; furniture leans, pulls, or pushes; and clothing or bags hang, flap, or bulge.
Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. D r a w their action, together with any immediate props they are using, such as the desk and pamphlets seen here.
CATCHING THE MOMENT
Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. Draw their action and props. Here, I added t h e assistant, who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. If drawing a more complex scene, continue adding characters. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk, which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. W i t h a few strokes, a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space.
T H E CANALS OF VENICE
are bustling places full of occupation, where
vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly, and buildings. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. I developed
detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen.
DURING THIS RUSH HOUR,
Venetians flow across a stepped
bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. Characters in the foreground were drawn first, then the bridge beneath them, followed by the streets. Each person was glimpsed in an instant, and drawn immediately from memory. To catch characters like this, note only their most essential action and feature. Caricature each person slightly.
T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s
part of circus life, and a great subject to draw. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. Sitting at a distance on a hot, quiet afternoon, I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes.
Earth and the Elements
T MAY SEEM PERVERSE
to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image
of the Moon, but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. It is Earths
satellite, our companion, and its draws the tides of the seas. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home, so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum, Oxford, England, surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation, speculation, and experiment. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. The forces of nature, as opposed the physicality of Earth, are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills, trees, rivers, and the sea. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean; how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit; how the soil is scorched, or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water; and even how the Sun illuminates, and meteor impacts have scarred, the face of the Moon. By drawing such momentous and everyday events, artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal.
A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England, a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . Russell d r e w this, t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface, t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres, a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings; pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations.
William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. 199). Richard Long, a contemporary environmental artist, makes his work by the act of walking, marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones, arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it, the sun comes out to blind it, or the wind carries it away. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. Beginners will often choose calm, sunny days, when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. These conditions are very difficult to express well. It is better to get up before dawn; to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog; they are the animators of your subject. In this chapter
Moon Pastel 1795
we experiment with charcoal, learning to draw light out of dark, and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water.
5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL
EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S
Air in Motion
THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . By
Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. T h e ship, a scratched ghost, is already lost. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught, undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism.
seeing how it shakes, lifts, and gives motion to each image, and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment, we can soon learn to draw its force. Below, Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. This wife, like an umbrella forced inside-out, has b e c o m e a hysterical kite, fluttering heavily; a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage.
H O N O R E DAUMIER
French satirical cartoonist lithographer, painter, sculptor, and pioneer ofexpressionism.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king, the government, the bourgeoisie, and the legal profession, serving a prison sentence for his views.
Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions
crayon of lire
and depths of tone conspire to give volume, distance, speed, and solidity. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus.
Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED
J.M. W . T U R N E R British landscape, seascape, and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods, including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm.
AIR IN MOTION
Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed, absorbent watercolor and are
splashed, into this very as
sheet The paper's through
own coior is brought
banks of mist and fog. A outline scratched of a skeletal into
ship is while and
the waves, leans
the whole composition swells around its fateful
Ship in a Storm c. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J.M.W. TURNER
KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d - b l o c kprintmaker, painter, d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r ;i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects, a n d his b e s t - l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga.
Wind direction wood-block
This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. from left
wind, Hokusai direction (from clothing from
has chosen which it
the right), horizontally
then and of the
it into the stream
Plants also bend and flow right to
Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm)
STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first, as a subject and second, as a gestural storm on the paper. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements, inks, marks, water, and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves, grab their b r u s h , ink, or charcoal, and swim into the page. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing, it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. Opposite, Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. It looks so contemporary, as if drawn j u s t this year. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds, lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs, this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s .
EARTH AND THE
French novelist and artist (see also p.28). In periods b e t w e e n writing, drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. His subjects include ruins, fantasy palaces, h a u n t e d shadows, and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands.
Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink, composing banks of waves and dense, active surfaces of water. Then, with a brush, he blanketed the drawing in darkness, leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. Turner (see p.198) admires the majesty of nature. By contrast, this is a writer's narrative of terror.
Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O
LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives, envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles, for example). He bequeathed his drawings to a friend, and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier
Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake, a hook, a bell, and a wheel, together with half the contents of our garage. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. He was left-handed
and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right.
Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI
THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. Whether land-, sea-, or cityscape, it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location, and we can imagine standing over his shoulder, watching his hand and eye at work together, rapidly layering contours to shape place, atmosphere, and mood simultaneously. Even distilled from all other detail, a horizon line can trigger our recognition.
Opposite below, Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs, and after tracing her captured line, transferred it to a scroll. Drawing with a scalpel, she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. In a very different work (opposite above), made inside a book,
EARTH AND THE
Bryan cut the profile of a city. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption).
C L A U D E LORRAIN
French classical landscape painter draftsman, and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. Claude is distinguished by, and famed for, his unsurpassed handling of light, which he used to unify his compositions.
The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the
valley. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little, and across to the right. Over first lines, rich, thick, and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. Paler, cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush.
Views from Velletri
85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN
Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912, then hunted destroyed. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led
historical plans and aerial growth
of London showing its population
since Roman times. On turning the pages of City, progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel
CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN
3ritish artist, printmaker graphic designer, specialty bookbinder, and visiting professor at numerous art schools. Her recent paper photographic, and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces."
Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1.5-m)scroll.The horizon was drawn with a
Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm)
workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a
E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S
CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air, so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. Artists have also used lime, b e e c h , maple, vine, a n d p l u m . B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser, a piece of fresh bread, the heel o f y o u r h a n d , a rag, feather, or fingertip. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. Smooth paper accepts few particles, resulting in a pale line. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded, and offers a rich, black finish. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. It c a n be m a d e duller, b l a c k e r , a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. Alternatively, you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e - m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. As its name implies, it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure, resulting in a stick that gives a blacker, harder line. It does n o t erase easily, leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts.
This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp, fine, white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser.
Suspend a length of masking
tape, sticky side down,
between your middle finger and
thumb. Hold it over your drawing
Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result.
1. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. 2. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made, cylindrical, blacker, and heavier than willow. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. 162) or graphite (see p.54). 6. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically, this does not exist. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. In use, it looks gray and feels like chalk. 7. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold, but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. A great find when available.
without touching the surface.
The same as above, only a little thicker. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. 3. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL:
Keep the tape above your drawing. Use any fine-point
pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the
Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. 4. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. Essentially, they are all intended for fine work.
tape. Then lift it away.
A white line is lifted out by the tape. Slightly dull the
tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend.
Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective, as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. Here, I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal.
Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal.
8 . T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal, graphite, pastels, or any other dry media. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. Cotton swabs also work. 9. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. Here we used a ballpoint. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. 10. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource, sold in several widths. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out.
EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS
TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. They are also good markers of receding space, especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance, details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground; a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures; and an abstract, hazy distance. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. On p p . 9 8 - 9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus, our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. Ironically, the less you describe, the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement, but is often less evocative and engaging. At its worst, it results in flat planes of clutter. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal, pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp.212-13).
Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal, a reel of masking tape, an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray), and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. When you arrive, begin by marking out several small squares on your paper, to contain each of your compositions.
In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. The long view is hidden behind trees. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived.
In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft, rounded, dark trees with bright, horizontal regions of grass. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below).
Exploring the view
Redrawing the scene above, I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth, shadows, the trunk of a bare tree, and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. Remember, your view is your inspiration, full of information you can use to create what you want!
Drawing in the Round
WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE, s e e k places in light
After my first drawing, I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. For example, making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. Similarly, on p p . 2 1 4 - 1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day, which was the flow of water over rocks.
shade out of the glare of the sun, so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival, settling my concentration, and seeing what the real choice of subject is.
EARTH AND THE
FINDING THE SUBJECT
Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye, England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat, bare ribs, engine, and tiller still standing proud. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp.164-65) and a wire violin (pp.104-05), your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape, taking with you your drawing book and pen.
"Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject, observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole."
SERIES OF STUDIES
This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day, w h e n t h e sea recedes. W h e n you have found your subject, make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight.
DRAWING IN THE
Here, I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper, marking straight, careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form, character, and structure.
In this tail-end view, I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew.
This impression notes the angle of the broken boat, its overall balance, and the order and shape of its component parts. I drew with quick, unfussy lines, looking more at the boat than at the paper
From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. Overleaf: Decaying Boat
THIS STORM DRAWING, m a d e on s m o o t h , hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal, was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper, I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away.
Notes of Force
T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER
has cut through Rome, shaping the city, since
ancient times. On the pages of a small, black, pocket-sized notebook, I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen, focusing on the river's eddies, pulse, and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city.
SITTING IN THE SHADE
of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos,
I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond.
HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N
abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century
significantly paralleled major changes in world thought, belief, and history. The
growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. Afterward, picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. However, abstraction is not so easy to define, and it has always been with us. It was not invented in the 20th century, only rediscovered. From one point of view, all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. From another viewpoint, many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art, and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy, for example,
One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman, poet, writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. Swirling, writhing torrents of color, fictional language, drawn sound, and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation, Museum of Fine Arts, Berne.
Indian mandalas, and Aboriginal art. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. Outsider artists, such as Adolf Wolfli, opposite, and young children show us that abstract, expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural, spontaneous image-making. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks, sounds, actions, or gestures. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling, precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object; it is simply itself. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. My own work is firmly centered in figuration, yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. I begin every image by feeling its meaning, direction, and emotion. First marks, which are essentially abstract, strike the paper to find form. As you approach the classes in this chapter, don't be timid; be brave and enjoy them.
1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI
Abstraction is a direct, liberating, and independent means of communication. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work.
A B S T R A C T LINES
Process and Harmony
SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE
sings on the surface of its support.
and patient watching. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. Moisture produced rust, staining redbrown lines into the white surface. Five forged steel shapes, akin to stones in a Zen garden, sit in silent harmony, quoting ink marks on a page. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature, rhythmically engaged with itself, scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo.
Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. It can proclaim mood, silence, and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. A line can be finished in a second, or, as Twombly shows us opposite, it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. Below, Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron, water,
MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist, and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. Abe works with materials such as soil, forged steel, brass, ice, salt, and plaster in galleries and landscapes. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites.
Lines, tone, and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath
Pillars of the gallery are made
of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. This the paper rest within the
of the floor from the ceiling. Iron rods in tone, texture, and temperature
rim of floor space. Changes
paper, iron, and wood are also part of the work.
The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE
ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone, such as the Rosetta stone, the Babylonian world map, and American Indian petroglyphs (see p.241). This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit, close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire,England.Thesite's purpose is unknown; theories suggest astrological observations, burials, and the worship of the sun and ancient gods.
PROCESS AND HARMONY
Cut lines Chalk carves easily. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines.
Neolithic Chalk Tablet
x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN
Language Over the course of fifty years, Twombly has language works
CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. At the 2001 Venice Biennale,Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement.
evolved a raw, energetic, emotive, and sensuous drawing from painting. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements.
that challenges the separation of word from image, and
might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line.
SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY, abstract artists and composers
unique, abstract, music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise, interpret, and participate in the composition. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. Hugo, below, said, "There is nothing like dream to create the future." An innovator who never fails to surprise, here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made.
have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. Bussotti, opposite, broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme, beautiful, and inventive of his time. A graphic score is a
V I C T O R
H U G O Hugo's abstract
French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p.28). Gestalt, drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t , o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . Gestalt o f an unnameable thing, a configuration, o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts.
Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon, brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment, pressed them face down, and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas.
Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p.28. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here, too, he mixed graphite into ink, and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers.
Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk
W R I T I N G TIME
SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. This is a page from Due Voci, Bussotti's first mature work. His later works become increasingly abstract; a far cry from any recognized musical notation.
Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. Following the notes, we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right.
Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI
A B S T R A C T LINES
Chants and Prayers
WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition, they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. This takes a form in most cultures. Visually, it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g , for e x a m p l e . T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries, cultures, centuries, and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . In the late 1 9 t h century, Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum, Germany. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. O p p o s i t e , an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e , d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits.
Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens, social outcasts, and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed, making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. Compositional rightness (see pp.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection.
Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth
1894 MARIE LIEB
STEPHEN P.HUYLER Photographer art historian, cultural anthropologist, lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity, at the University of London and Ohio State University, among others. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers, and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200,000 images.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions.
Designs and motifs
Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual
drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. Materials such as rice flour, chalk, lime, or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes, and in places of worship and celebration. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. In daily practice, women pride themselves on never repeating a design. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants, animals, and birds.
Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER
ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY
or entirely free from
using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture; rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. With no depth of field, it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders.
figurative representation—that is, free from the direct imaging of known physical things. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making, but similarities in mood, structure, and choice of hues. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion,
BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet, performance and installation artist, filmmaker Professor of Fine Art, Ruskin School, and Fellow of Linacre College, Oxford. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making.
Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink; gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water; and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations.
153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G
PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p.31). Klee painted, drew, philosophized, and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music.
Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen, ruler, watercolor, and brush. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center.
Line and surface
the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp.97-99. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time, whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole, and might be read as active or passive.
Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung, Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE
A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain, but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard, or home, or on a page, there is a clear feeling when, after being continuously adjusted, they reach a perfect position. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions, angles, and elements settle in definitive balance. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener, the late garden designer Russell Page explains, "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. Take, for instance, a glass, a b u n c h of keys, and an apple, and put them o n a tray, As y o u m o v e them around, their impact, the impression y o u receive from t h e m , w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t , M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless, s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s , b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just."
Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. It is found in all great art and design, regardless of style, culture, media, or degree of figuration. It is also found in nature. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. Feel for it when youdraw.Thisexercise will help you start. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it, and ten straight sticks painted black.
"Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance, they are just."
WHERE TO START
Take ten sticks of equal length, painted black. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. W h e n the composition falls into place, fix it with glue.
B E I N G "JUST"
Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five, as shown here. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp.56-57).
Move the sticks out into the rectangle, which now becomes a tight frame. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame.
In the step above, horizontals dominate the lower area, suggesting a horizon. Here, horizontals dominate the top, making the composition seem to float beneath. In the final step (left) there is an even balance.
H E R E W E EXPERIMENT
with collage, which is the shifting,
ready-made depths and surfaces; an infinite range of voices and meaning. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. Returning to Russell Page, he went on to say "... you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d , hard or soft, harmonious, or even strident."
overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. Cut or torn layers and shapes, found or made items, colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony, or discordance, feels "just" (see pp.228-29). This principal
also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p.69 and Abe's installation on p.220. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of
This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place, they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures, colors, and tones. To prepare for this lesson, stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink.Youwill also need spare white paper; scissors, glue, a compass, correction fluid or white paint, and black ink.
"My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself."
WHAT TO DO
Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p.228) in front of you. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image, and with a compass and scissors, draw, then cut out, four circles of blue tissue paper.
Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. Glue them in place once they feel "just"
Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone, solidity, and shadow to thepicture.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat.
Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. Obscuring the blue disks, they deepen pictorial space. In the last step (left), correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions.
HITSUZENDO, A MODERN JAPANESE
meditative art form inspired by the teachings
of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888), is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought, emotion, and expectation." [Tanchu Terayama,
IN THIS QUARTET
of semi-abstract drawings made with
India ink, discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects.
Gods and Monsters
OUR SACRED AND SECULAR
need to visualize demons, beasts, aliens, angels, and the
faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life, paradise, and damnation are found in most world faiths. In the Christian churches of Europe, thousands of paintings, sculptures, and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. Today, our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous, impossible, or strange. Feeding this demand, movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. When creating monsters, we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features, serpentine tails, scales, wings, feathers, and deep fur—and we alter their scale. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. Monsters take advantage of both. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally, a human-animal mix that implies this could
MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. Schongauer is best known for his prints, which were widely distributed and influential in his time. Here, our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings, a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint.
happen to us. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids, for example. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly, Star Wars, Lord of the Rings, and the Alien trilogy, all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. To learn to flex your imagination, look for images in the folds of clothing, in the cracks of walls, or in smoke. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. For example. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton, England. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning, which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p.247. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. Perhaps the
Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER
most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. Neither should be slave or master; a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality.
GODS AND M O N S T E R S
Marks of Influence
marking the influence of one artist upon another. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing, quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. In this ass, below, we see the international icon of stupidity. Opposite, Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. Compare his dark, rushing, barren land rising like
MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY,
a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector, to Picasso's similarly tight, noisy seascape on p.30. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p.220. Opposite below, a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides.
F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A
Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman, whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons, portraits, and church murals. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation, and exposed the superstitions, vanity, and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints, Los Caprichos. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches, hags, deranged masses, his lover a dog, Saturn devouring his son, and men clubbing each other to death.
Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass, reading from a book of asses. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know, such asinine behavior can be hereditary. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome, crammed tightly at his desk. He would be graceless if he stood. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait
The aquatint process has been used
to great effect in making a gritty toned background. The high, plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. Pictorially, it allows the mule to stand forward. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work, which can swamp the subject Here, Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject.
Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA
MARKS OF INFLUENCE
PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity, values, ideals, and personal and social struggles. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology.
Here Achilles chases Hector around the
walls of Troy before killing him. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath.
Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS
SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. meaning "place of power." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky, of the earth, or of the water
Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake, Wind River Reservation. Wyoming. It was made with a sharp implement, perhaps a stone, by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power.
Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN
of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up, lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. If it were to turn and stare this way, the shock would be extreme.
T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION
Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th- and 16th-century Holland. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions, which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride, crawl, and scuttle over all known reality.
ODILON REDON French painter draftsman, graphic artist, and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism, Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. H e was influenced by his friends, the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme.
In this charcoal drawing, to the
right of the balloon, we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. 115.
Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser, as he did the grass, below left. Techniques demonstrated on pp.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal.
The Eye Like a Strange Mounts
165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON
J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications, Les Animaux (1840), which is still available today. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828), and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe.
This is an engraving made so
that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. Light shines from the right. Smiling, grimacing, sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear.
A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE
HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings, teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy, include The Haywain, Garden of Earthly Delights, Last Judgment, and Ship of Fools. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum, Madrid.
Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly.
Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH
GODS AND MONSTERS
THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. However, sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb, topple, and play with its perfection and meaning. Michelangelo's dragon, below, a stunning hybrid of a swan, lion, snake, and dog, wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. Opposite, Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals, as we might expect, but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. In her studio, remembering the cavernous, pinnacled, and mist-swathed land, she formed a series of ghostly pale, gamboling copulations.
Florentine painter sculptor; poet, architect, and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel, the dome of the Vatican, St Peter's square, and marble sculptures including Pieto, David, and dying slaves.
Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. Scaly, muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered, hatched lines, phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. Dragon
10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI
O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School, Oxford, and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art, London. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth)
and gouache brushed drawing on
This is a and was hot-pressed
The dark shadow of the Other the
earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. her under heavy here. boards finished
paper. The image
formed directly without first making a pencil outline. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks, each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster.
How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES
GODS A N D M O N S T E R S
T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS
weights, thicknesses, materials, all perfect for drawing and, between them, giving a variety of lines, washes, and effects, How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. Always clean them thoroughly, return them to their pointed shape, and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule.
drawing tool extending the arm, fingers, and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. The living marks of a wet, ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear; the very opposite of pencil or silver point. Brushes vary in size, shape, and texture. Some are bold, dense, and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint; others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. The brushes shown here are a mixture of
This is a selection of riggers, liners, and writers, ideally suited to drawing.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous, flowing, and very fine lines. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly.
1. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair; this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. 2. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. It has exceptional painting characteristics. 3. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs, it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible, with a fine point for delicate work 4. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong, needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. S Y N T H E T I C - H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap." 6. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill, which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. 7. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. 10. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C - H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch, and has a fine tip for detailed work. 12. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair, it has good wash capabilities, making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. 13. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. It is capable of very fine pointing.
M T RA S AEIL
GODS A N D M O N S T E R S
A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width, length, softness, and type of its hairs. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held, the degree of pressure applied, the speed of the s t r o k e , the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry), and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves, splashes, and spatters, and to make pools and stains o n the page.
Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp.246-47). I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow, unglazed earthenware dish. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve.
T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and, w i t h m y face close, b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this.)
T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink, a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e .
Wet and dry strokes
A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines, a n d b r u s h , w e see fine lines and s p o t s , b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left, t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink.
THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n
out of animal and bird studies. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History, Oxford, and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar, until we look again.
W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE,
Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other
painters' works, showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum, Madrid, are two long, thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. Isidore. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long, thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. Here, two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. With further research, I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes, formal composition, and narrative twists.
THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago,
little comments on politeness and sexual politics, drawn rapidly and with great joy. Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist.
Accidental drawing Random,
chance mark-making. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m , p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush, a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . See also Hotpressed papers. p r i n t i n g press face up. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p , t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. Engraving 1. A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . 2. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y .
Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a
neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age.
Aerial perspective The effect of the
a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon.
Camera lucida A n optical device
t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced.
Air brush A mechanical, pressurized
t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s .
Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d
c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface, s u c h as a s c r e e n , r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate.
Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f
t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole.
Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a
range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e .
Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g
a n i m a g e f r o m a surface.
Anamorphic distortion Stretching
an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d , o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l , w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point, usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. Also called accelerated perspective. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n , a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example, linseed oil o r egg y o l k
Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s
t h e s h a p e o f a surface.
Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l
p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line.
in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect.
Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m
m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e , w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w , t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her.
Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h - c e n t u r y
painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d , o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse.
Cartoon 1. A f u l l - s i z e d r a w i n g
m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting, tapestry, o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. 2. A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody.
Crosshatching Parallel lines
d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g .
Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e
t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials.
Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t
colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e .
Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h - c e n t u r y
Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects, in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro.
Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e
o f a s h e e t o f m o l d - m a d e paper, as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed.
Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e
neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon, for example.
Field In a t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e ,
s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting, t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t
Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less
Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t
m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid.
Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such
as c o l o r e d p a p e r s , p h o t o g r a p h s , n e w s p a p e r cuttings, and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller, m e a n i n g " t o stick"
Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t
w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e , charcoal, pastel, a n d g r a p h i t e .
Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel
lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . A l s o called r i n g l e t shading.
Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d
l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y - m e d i a d r a w i n g . Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e
Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d
directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag, so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. It is p u t o n a
Body color See Gouache. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g .
F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos, m e a n i n g "beauty". W o r d s o r symbols are
Cold-pressed papers P a p e r
manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t
metal line. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. Focus 1 .The degree to which detail is defined. 2. A point of interest in a drawing. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture, so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. This effect emulates what we see in real life. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. F o r m a t T h e size, shape, and orientation of the image. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"),while secretion of the acacia tree, upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface, then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists, including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable, and that will "escape" or change over time. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin, glossy, and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage, or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors, enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. It is a strong adhesive, and is also used as a size. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board, or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. After several intervening processes, the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise, and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel, Padua, are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows, and it has a history in enamel work. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-, oil-, or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium, but each print will be unique. Alternatively, oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal, glass, or plastic surface. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. Monochrome Usually refers to a black, white, and gray drawing, or a drawing made in any single color
Linear perspective A form of
perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging, to give the illusion of depth and distance.
Negative space The space
between things. This may be disregarded in real life, but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves.
format" (abbreviated to "portrait").
Objective drawing Refers to
the concept of objectivity. Usually an academic drawing observed from life, aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject.
Masking fluid Clear or opaque
latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further
Optical blending See Pointillism.
Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image.
Hot-pressed papers (HP)
Paper made using hot cylinders, which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper, which has a rough surface).
work. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid, with the area beneath remaining unaffected. It is then peeled away.
Picture plane In the imaginary space
of a picture, it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example, the finely ground particles of plant, rock, mineral, or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react
Masking tape Invaluable, multiH u e A term for a color, or a family of colors. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example, cadmium yellow hue. purpose, sticky paper tape, used for fixing paper to walls and boards, lifting out charcoal and other dry media, and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. Impressing Stamping or printing. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. materials that produce marks on a surface, or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example, graphite, ink, pastel, or even a beam of light. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color
Golden Section A proportion in
which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole.
together optically, creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush.
Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing.
Stylus A sharp, pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example, paper or canvas.
Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself.
Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. wall or tapestry, a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat, cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image.Thedrawing is removed, sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. Named paper in place. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician, Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67), whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. plaster or cloth surface beneath. Printmaking The act of making a picture, design, or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface, such as an inscribed sheet of metal, or wood, or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple, which are then called editions. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. A term borrowed from the theater; meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper, or the right-hand page in a book. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint, plaster; or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point, or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment, in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another, by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls, glasses, fruit, and flowers. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks, using a brush, pencil, or pen. Strip Core of a pencil, commonly referred to as the lead.
Wash A technique using ink, watercolor; or gouache, usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. Although drawings can be made with wash alone, Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images.Technicaldrawing has been example, to model areas of light and shade. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. compound of water-soluble pigment. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through, giving it a brilliance. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. Tortillon A short, tight, pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. Alternatively, a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. The crude material is called oleoresin. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. Vanishing point In linear perspective, a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper; or the left-hand page in a book. W e t media Any liquid media— for example, ink, acrylic, or watercolor paint. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo, orchids, plum blossom, and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size, carbon ink, an ink stone usually cut from slate, fine paper, and paperweights.
Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and
bread (as eraser) 205, 242 Brunelleschi, Filippo 67, 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan, Clare 203 City 202, 203 Landline 202, 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178, 179 Bussotti, Sylvano 222, 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223
children's art 9, 9, 74, 75, 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180, 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202, 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202, 202 cloth, to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200, 201 collage 111,226, 230-231 Cubist 90, 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162, 163,169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91
Abe. Mamaru 104, 220, 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219, 222, 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22, 98. 116,117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240, 241 action, to express 39,184,186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74, 74, 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160, 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51,51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114,115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221, 221 animals, to draw 25, 38-39, 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26, 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28, 29 Hugo's octopus 28, 28 Klee's horses 30,31 Picasso's horse and bird 30, 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26,27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12, 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70, 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138, 139
Nanha) 50,50, 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst, Leon: Bacchante 155 balance, center of 118 ballpoint 182, 182, 189, 193 in lifting out 204, 205 Baltard, Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. Augustin 67 Basquiat, Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision, Le (Hugo) 200, 200 Bauer; Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini, Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136, 137 Besler; Basilius 47 Beuys, Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112, 113 bird bones 12,13,44-45 bird studies 12, 13,44-45, 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50, 50, 71 Blake, William: The Circle of the Lustful 180, 180 blending: color 133,163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110, 111,163 body, to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch, Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242, 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee, Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72, 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque, Georges 67, 90 La Guitare, Statue d'Epouvante 90
blended 133,163 graded 227 composition 56-57, 71 conte 112,162 Conte, Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146, 165, 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96, 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52, 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198, 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156, 157 cropping 56-57, 133, 158, 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178, 178 Cubism 67, 90, 90,100 curves, to draw 80, 81 cut-out model plan 94, 94 cylindrical objects, to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. (Ross-Craig) 49
to hold brush for 23 caricature 159,184, 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198, 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159,198, 198, 247-248 carving see lines, cut Catling, Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8, 8 cave paintings 8, 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94, 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94, 94 chalk(s) 53,89,133, layers 53 chalk pastels 162, 162 character: to capture 38-39, 41 principal 186, 186 charcoal 114, 204-205, 206, 242 to blend 205 compressed 122, 128, 204,212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114, 206 checkered floor 80, 81 135, 244 and graphite 178
Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198,198 Degas, Edgar 162 depth, to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34,37, 40, 122,216, disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs, Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90, 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36,244,244 drawing(s): abstract 219, 222, 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102,103 with eraser 103,112,115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73,160, 161 fashion 160, 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102,103,146 from masterworks 126-127, 170-173,252-253 from memory 183,189, 190 Middle Eastern 50-51, 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39, 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202, 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68, 69, 104-105,230 three-tone 140,141, 141 tonal 96,97,102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144, 220 dry brush 234 234 57,207,216
Durelli, Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134, 135 Duren Albrecht 26,109 Rhinoceros 26, 26
Flying Fish (White) 25, 25 focus 65, 113, 124, 125, 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52, 52 foreground 208, 216 foreshortening 110,116,117 fountain pens 34, 37
Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242, 243 graphic score 222, 223, 223 graphite 54, 73, 134, 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28, 222 Grimes, Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244, 245 Gruau, Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath
easel, position of 22 Eisen, Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156,157 ellipses 100,101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55, 55, 205 drawing with 103, 112, 115 Escher, M. C . 99 etching, drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92, 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity, The 242, 242 eyes, position of 143, 144
Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32, 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132, 132 Frenz, Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161
Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68, 69 Guitare, Statue d'Epouvante, La (Braque) 90, 90
Gaudi, Antonio 68, 69,104, 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68, 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68,69 Gerard, Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault,Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28, 29
hands, to draw 78, 120, 122 Hawksmoor, Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136, 137 heads, to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91, 134, 163, 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai, Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198, 799 Holbein, Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132, 7 33 Hooke, Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92, 93 horizon 52, 79, 202, 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70, 77 How Clever of God #84 244, 245 Hugo, Victor 200, 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200, 200
fabric, to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face, proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73,160, 161 fashion drawings 160, 160 Faune, Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30, 30 Fauves/fauvism 90,111 feet, to draw 120,121 felt-tip pens 162, 163, fiber-tip pen 182,184 165,166 170-173
Gestalt 222 Giacometti, Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136, 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich, Sir Ernst 12, 90 gouache 30,91, 134, 160 as ground for metal point 140,141,144 and ink 30, 245 layers 30 Goya, Francisco de 131, 240 Black Paintings 152, 240, 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130, 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240, 240 170-173
five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11,12 fixative 54, 55, 55, 162 Flaxman.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156, 157
Pieuvre (Octopus) 28, 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225
Kinecar,The (Robinson) 108, 181 Klee, Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226, 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30, 31 Klimt, Gustav 49 Knopf, Johan 32,33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7, 72,96,102,104,120,167 line(s) 132, 220,227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202, 203, 220, 221 endless 31 free 113, 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49,124, 166, 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69, 74-77, 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110, 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51, 77 Miller; Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28, 226 Modernism 67, 219 Mondrian, Piet 52, 53 Tree II 52, 53 monoprint 787,182 Moore, Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178, 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79, 184, 185 Mucha, Alphonse 90,91 Study for Plate 59 of
illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160, 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176, 177 influences, artistic 240-241, 252 ink 16, 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35,243 carbon 35 Chinese 30, 34, 35, 248, 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35,276, 234 iron-gall 35, 36, 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36, 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176, 176, 220, 220. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89, 99,
Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz, Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180,181
Landline (Bryan) 202, 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28, 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31, 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length, apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74,109, 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12, 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200, 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74, 76 Libeskind, Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb, Marie 244 cloth drawing 244, 244
lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180, 181 luminosity 115 Lynch, David 78
Mackintosh, Charles Rennie 48, 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156, 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158, 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156, 757 mandalas 219, 225 masking tape 204, 205 masterworks, drawing from 126-127, 170-173, Matisse, Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110, 111, 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory, drawing from 183, 789, 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25,141, 756 priming for 140,141 Metropolis (film) 72, 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48,112,115 98,109, 244 Dragon 36, 244, 244 ink 36 252-253
Documents Decoratifs 90, 97 Murillo, Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252, 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134, 135 museums 44,166 La Specola, Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers, Oxford 106 Prado, Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History, Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32, 33
naive art 74 negative space 53, 58-59, 60, 63, 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220, 227 Newsome, Victor 134 Profile Head 134,134
Kettlehut, Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72, 73 Kigell, Phyll: hands 18
lifting out 204, 205, 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176
Newton, Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72, 72 Noble, Paul 73 Nobson Central 72, 73 Noble,Tim, and Webster; Sue 104,176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176, J 76 nudes 114-115
to make 36 metal see dip quill 34, 36,36, 38,759, 243, 244 reed 34, 36, 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70, 34-35, 40-41,52 pen and wash 158, 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762, 1 6 3 , 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 - 2 3
age and youth sleeping subjects
Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26, 26 Riley, Bridget 98 Robinson, Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 181 Rodin, Auguste 114 Two Women 114, 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48, 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50, 57 Ross-Craig, Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens, Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing
pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 , 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140,141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181, 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134, 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48, 4 8 putty eraser 55, 205 157,199 Profile Head (Newsome)
oil pastels 162, 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33, 160, 161, 164, 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48, 91 outsider artists 33, 219, 224
pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 , 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 , 9 8 , 1 1 6 , 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69, 74-77, 78 single-point 74, 74, 76-79, 97, 7 77 three-point 80, 81 two-point 74, 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221,240, 241 Physical Space, The (Abe) 220 Picasso, Pablo 6 7 , 9 0 , 1 3 2
quill pens 34, 36, 36, 38, 159, 243, 244
Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 68 Satie, Erik 70,71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70, 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158, 759
Page, Russell 228, 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144, 212 Japanese 2 1 , 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21,226, 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 ,37,37, 216, 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162, 163, 165, 166 fiber-tip 782,184 fountain 34, 37 38,40, 122,
Faune, Cheval et Oiseau 30, 30 Fran<;oise au Bandeau 132, 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78,104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28, 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141, 141 Piranesi, Giovanni Battista 74, 75 Two Courtyards 75, 76 plastic eraser 55, 103, 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226, 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132, 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136, 736 portraits, to draw 146-147
Rackham, Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176,7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110, 7 70 Ray, Man 131,139 Autoportrait 138, 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176, 7 76 receding space 206 Redon, Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242, 242 reed pens 34, 36, 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52,131 Cottage Among Trees 52, 52 pens 36
drawing with 202, 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30,37
instruments 9 2 - 9 3
Schongauer, Martin 238, 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238, 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112, 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland,The (Beuys) 112, 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138, 7 38 Ray 138, 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat, Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112, 772 234-237 Sesshu,Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku
Sforza Horse, h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28, 49, 57, 96,120, 2 3 4 , 2 4 4 , 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 , 199 shoes 1 6 4 - 1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178, 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240, 241,241 s i l k - s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 - 1 4 1 , 1 4 4 - 1 4 5 , 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140,141 S i m b l e t , Sarah: child's m a p 75, 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26,27 skull 747, 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 , 7 6 1 spots, b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89, 9 0 - 9 1 storms, t o d r a w 2 0 0 - 2 0 1 , 2 1 2 - 2 1 3 Stubbs, G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26, 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 , 1 3 , 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125,
Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 , 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 , 9 2 Tesshu.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 , 249 t o describe 39,41, 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s , Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 , 2 4 7 t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68, 69, 104-105, 230 t h r e e - t o n e d r a w i n g 140, 1 4 1 , 141 Three Male Figures, Study of (Michelangelo) 110, 7 70 Tiber 214-215
Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 , 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g )
W h i t e , John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28, 2 9 wind, t o draw 1 9 8 - 1 9 9 wire, drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68, 6 9 Wodall, William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress
Van Dyck, A n t h o n y 152, Man in Armor 1 5 8 , 158 V a n Eyck, Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 , 156 Van Gogh, Vincent 95 Chair 94, 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74, 74, 75, 76, 77, 79, 161, 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e , v i e w s o f 85, 182, 1 8 4 , 1 6 , 186, 7 9 0 vessels, t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152,158
158, 159 Wolfli, Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219
Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157,199
tissue p a p e r 21, 2 2 6 , 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 , 97, 102-103 tonal marks, phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33, 115,125
W o o d f i n e , Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94, 9 4
Z e n calligraphy
contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c , H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92, 164, 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142, 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 , 1 8 4 - 1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52, 53 trees, t o d r a w 5 2 - 5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 , 206-207
violin, t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 - 1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242,243
Leonardo's machines 12,13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110, 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63, 65 symbols 138, 2 4 2
Wallis, A l f r e d 1 1 , 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71,12 W a l t e r ; John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h , t o lay 1 4 0 , 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25, 69, 7 1 4 , 1 4 0 , 7 77, 199,216 W e b s t e r ; Sue see N o b l e , T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9
Turner,J. M . W . 1 9 9 , 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 , 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75, 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 , 243 (Bosch)
Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 , 240
Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114, 174 T w o m b l y , C y 138, 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220, 221
T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help, support, a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe, Rocio Arnaez, Carole A s h , Diana Bell, Roddy Bell, Clare Bryan, L e n , Flossie, F i n n , J a c k a n d Brian Catling, Andy Crawford, Antonia Cunliffe Davis, Christopher Davis, Sammy De Grave, Jackie Douglas, Sarah D u n c a n , M a n d y Earey, Sir Brinsley F o r d , Natalie G o d w i n , O o n a G r i m e s , T o n y G r i s o n i , D a w n Henderson, P h y l l Kiggell, B e m d Kunzig, Sophie Laurimore, S i m o n L e w i s , Peter L u f f , H e a t h e r M c C a r r y , George M c G a v i n , Julie O u g h t o n , R u t h P a r k i n s o n , Angela Palmer, A n n a P l u c i n s k a , Paula Regan, J o h n Roberts, J o n Roome, G i n a R o w l a n d , Jean Pierre Roy, R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r , H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h , R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet, K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby, Patty Stansfield, Anita Taylor, Paul T h o m a s , Agnieszka Mlicka, Kirsten Norrie, J o h n Walter, Angela W i l k e s , K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n , Sarah Woodfine, and Tamsin Woodward Smith. B e r l i n , Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht; 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. H . O. Havemeyer, 1929 (29.100.939); 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust; 6 6 : w w w . b r i d g e m a n . c o . u k / L o u v r e , Paris, F r a n c e ; 68: www.bridgeman.co.uk/Guildhall Library, Corporation of London, U K ; 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl), Productions Clovis Prevost (c); 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d ; 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie; 72: akg-images; 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t), Maureen Paley Interim Art (b); 74: Corbis; 75: © The British Museum (b); 88: www.bridgeman.co.uk /Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid; 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P , Paris a n d D A C S , L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 ; 9 1 : www.bridgeman.co.uk/Mucha Trust; 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y ; 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library, L o n d o n ; 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine; 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m , Amsterdam; 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection, H a y w a r d Gallery; 1 1 0 : www.bridgeman.co.uk/Private Collection; 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005; 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks, B . A . 1901, Fund; 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 ; 114: Musee Rodin, Paris; 115: Anita Taylor; 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection, 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . 1 . 9 7 6 ) ; 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso, Paris; 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett, K u n s t m u s e u m , Basel; 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum; 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library, L o n d o n ; 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI, Paris; 137: © The British Museum; 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP, Paris and D A C S , London 2005; 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P , Paris a n d D A C S , L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 ; 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne; 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina; 157: U C L Art Collections - Strang Print Room ( b ) , Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t); 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Lisbon, Portugal; 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library, University of Oxford; 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s.a.r.l./Galerie Sylvie Nissen; 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . ; 174: Artothek/Munich, Graphische Sammlung; 176: Modem Art, London/courtesy of Stuart Shave; 177: Mary Evans Picture Library; 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n ; 179: www.bridgeman.co.uk/Private Collection; 180: www.bridgeman.co.uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery; 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin, B e r l i n , Germany/Joerg P. Anders./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) , Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b); 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science; 1 9 8 : Dover Publications; 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet,Paris ( b ) , © Tate, L o n d o n (t); 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France, Paris; 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I ; 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum; 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t); 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung, Kunstmuseum Bern; 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe; 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b), Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) ; 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection; 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi, B M G , Italy, 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection, Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg, Germany; 225: Stephen P Huyler; 226: Brian Catling; 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung, K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ; 2 3 8 : akg-images; 2 4 0 : w w w . b r i d g e m a n . c o . u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle, H a m b u r g , G e r m a n y ; 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) , Paul T h o m a s ( t ) ; 2 4 2 : Photo Scala, Florence/MoMA, NY; 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett, Berlin (b), Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t); 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum, Oxford; 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes.
Also, T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t , Wolfson College, a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford.
Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution, Pamela Ellis for compiling the index, Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t , A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . C o r n e l i s o n & Son, L o n d o n , for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books, papers, a n d brushes o n pp.20-21 a n d 246-47.
8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler; 11: www.bridgeman.co.uk/Kettle's Yard, University of Cambridge, U K ; 13: www.bridgeman.co.uk/Private Collection; 1 5 : w w w . b r i d g e m a n . c o . u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m , Japan; 16: www.bridgeman.co.uk/Musee des Augustins, Toulouse, France; 17: J o h n Walter; 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 ; 2 4 : © T h e British Museum; 2 6 : Topfoto.co.uk/British Museum; 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts, London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer, R . A . , 1879; 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France, Paris; 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. Winthrop; 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso, Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005; 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. Inc./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005; 3 2 : Pepys Library, Magdalene College Cambridge; 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection, Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg, G e r m a n y ; 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library, L o n d o n ; 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m , L o n d o n ; 49: Hunterian Museum (t), Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, K e w ft)); 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1), (r); 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu
A l l other images © Sarah Simblet
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