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Tension tension axial fatigue of E-glass ﬁber-reinforced polymeric composites: fatigue life diagram
Cornelia E. DemersU
Ci¨ il Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, Ci¨ il Engineering Bldg 72, Room 206B, Uni¨ ersity of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
Received 5 October 1996; revised 13 December 1997; accepted 20 December 1997
Abstract Fiber-reinforced polymeric ŽFRP. composites have been under analytical and experimental investigations for approx. 40 years in the context of aerospace, marine and mechanical applications. Now the use of FRP composites in civil engineering applications is steadily increasing. For civil engineering structures subject to cyclic loading, one important limit state in design is fatigue. Thus, a review of the existing data is necessary to determine the applicability to civil engineering structures. This review will focus on E-glass FRP composites under tension tension axial fatigue with test frequency of 5 Hz or less, without environmental concerns. Test and material parameters, which deﬁne the data, are identiﬁed as R ratio, test frequency, load control, specimen shape, type of reinforcement and resin. A fatigue life diagram summarizing the E-glass FRP composite tension tension axial fatigue data is plotted for normalized stress Žmaximum fatigue stress divided by ultimate tensile strength. vs. log of fatigue life. This plot reveals a lower bound conﬁdence level, regardless of test parameter combination, such as reinforcement, resin, or R ratio. This lower bound conﬁdence level was challenged via laboratory testing of an E-glassrvinylester composite in tension tension axial fatigue for R ratios 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 0.9, and test frequencies 1, 3 and 5 Hz. The laboratory test data support the lower bound conﬁdence level. This lower bound may be used in designing E-glass FRP composites for use in civil engineering structures conservatively estimating tension tension axial fatigue life with test frequency 5 Hz or less. This lower bound may be used until further studies reﬁne the effects of the individual test parameters on fatigue life. 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: E-glass ﬁber-reinforced polymeric composites; Composites; Fatigue; Axial fatigue
1. Introduction In recent years, an interest in utilizing ﬁber-reinforced polymeric ŽFRP. composites in civil engineering applications has been steadily increasing. This is primarily due to the ever-increasing demand for materials, which are characterized by high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios at an effective installed or life cycle cost. However, the use of such advanced materials in the construction industry may be hampered due to the lack of adequate data representing their
Corresponding author. Tel.: q1 520 6216550; fax: q1 520 6212550; e-mail: email@example.com 0950-0618r98r$19.00 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII S0950-0618Ž98.00007-5
short-term as well as long-term behavior under various loading and environmental conditions. For composite structures subjected to cyclic loading, fatigue becomes one of the most important limit states that needs to be considered by the designer. The subject has been under analytical and experimental investigations for almost 40 years in the context of aerospace, marine and mechanical applications. Over this period of time, fatigue design data have been generated for a wide range of composite material systems under axial and ﬂexural fatigue loading as well as environmental conditions. The fatigue loading conditions model tension tension, tension compression and compression compression state of stresses with frequencies of loading as high as 30 Hz, i.e. application to a helicopter
of Table 1. Thus. The fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature in stress control with R ratios of 0. which are not reported in an original reference. Coupons were dry cut with ﬁnal dimensions obtained using a water-lubricated diamond saw. All tests were performed on a servo-hydraulic MTS machine.1. E-glassr ¨ inylester composite Test 17. 2. by Owen and Rose w3x were periodically stopped. A conservative lower bound to the test 1 16 data for fatigue life less than 10 000 cycles is .2..27 cm thick = 25. "45. All fatigue design data of Table 1. was used to monitor the specimen surface temperature during testing. frequency and resin.1. Test parameters The following sections discuss the test parameters and their potential effect on fatigue life according to the test data 1 16 in column Ž1. are not reported in Table 1. is included.05. Demers r Construction and Building Materials 12 (1998) 303 310 rotor blade w1x. Varying combinations of the test parameters exist such that only two tests Žtests 6 and 7. and are further discussed below. A tension tension axial fatigue test program was undertaken to evaluate the effects of R ratio and test frequency on fatigue life of an E-glassrvinylester composite of combination unidirectional ﬁbers interspersed with ﬁve mat layers of reinforcement. The data are.4 kN Ž50 kip. and then reloaded to resume fatigue testing. the specimens unloaded to examine damage. plotted according to ﬁber reinforcement. A temperature voltmeter. 0r90. identiﬁes the current laboratory testing of an E-glassrvinylester composite.. number of tests representing each data point and failure strain. polyester and vinylester. R ratio. which is applicable to civil engineering structures. load control.5 and 0. 1 as a fatigue life diagram. E-glass ﬁber reinforcement and resin Examples of ﬁber reinforcement include continuous ﬁber Žunidirectional.304 C. A 222. The current laboratory testing of the E-glassrvinylester composite. specimen shape. Experimental procedure The material is comprised of vinylester resin with E-glass reinforcement. by Agarwall and Dally w2x are shown in Table 1 for which the singular varying test parameter is load control. All data are from tests conducted at ambient room temperature Ž. These test parameters are ﬁber reinforcement. column 1 of Table 1. 2.1.1 C. composites plot on steep slopes. 0. 3. failure criteria. This action assumed no difference in fatigue life compared with uninterrupted fatigue testing.54 cm wide= 1. 3 and 5 Hz. gage length. vs. The coupon shape remained bar form. column 1 of Table 1. The actuator speed was the same for both the ramp-up to mean load and to ultimate load. are plotted in Fig. This summary of fatigue design data. resin systems and reinforcing schemes comprise the composite material systems. 3. resin. 2. capacity load cell was used to monitor the fatigue load and a uniaxial extensometer was used to measure the specimen strain over a 2. which deﬁned the individual tests. The E-glassrvinylester composite was supplied in plate form.24 cm Ž6 inch. presented according to ﬁber reinforcement. Varying combinations of ﬁbers. E-glass FRP composite tension–tension axial fatigue 2. Examples of resins include epoxy. The objective of this survey is to assist in recognizing the fatigue potential of E-glass FRP composite as an independent structural material for infrastructure application. this study focuses on tension tension axial fatigue data with frequency of fatigue load 5 Hz or less for E-glass FRP composites without environmental concerns. The coupon dimensions were 2. weave. The data are graphically represented as normalized stress Žmaximum stress divided by ultimate tensile strength. The combined ﬁber weight is 38%. As a result of the diversity of the fatigue design data.E. and test frequencies of 1. however. The reinforcement is comprised of continuous unidirectional ﬁbers with ﬁve mat layers placed throughout the thickness.. Table 1 identiﬁes the previous research fatigue design data utilized in this study in column 1 as tests 1 16. Tabs were not utilized in this study. A computerized data acquisition system was used to record the loadrstrain data. and short ﬁber ŽCSM.. sensitivity "0. Other parameters of interest are percent ﬁber volume or weight ratio.4 cm long Ž1 = 0.9. Test parameters. test data 17. 0. The fatigue tests Žtests 9 14.54 cm Ž1 inch. Pre¨ ious research The process of reviewing the fatigue data revealed signiﬁcant test parameters. Various combinations of resin and ﬁber reinforcement are shown in Table 1. frequency. 20 30 C. with the clear distance between grips 15. Both weave and short ﬁber reinforcement Žisotropic properties.5= 10 inch. log of fatigue life which are referred to as fatigue life diagrams. is augmented by laboratory testing of an E-glassrvinylester composite in tension tension axial fatigue with frequency of fatigue load 5 Hz or less. no true evaluation of the effect the individual test parameters have on fatigue life may be ascertained from the fatigue data due to the dependent nature of the data on the test parameter combinations.3.
1.6 wt. The nylon or polycarbonate resin composites provide a conservative lower bound to the data for fatigue life between 10 000 and 1 000 000 cycles.5. Frequency of fatigue load The magnitude of test frequency affects the internal heating of the composite in tension tension axial fatigue. 70. Mandell et al. a conservative lower bound to the data is provided by the short ﬁber reinforcement composites Žanisotropic properties. Owen and Rose w3x 13. combination continuous unidirectional ﬁbers interspersed with ﬁve mat layers reinforcement. 45 vol. w4x 4. 40 wt. A conservative lower bound to the data for fatigue life less than 10 000 cycles is provided by the epoxy resin composites.1 0. For fatigue life between 10 000 and 1 000 000 cycles.5 wt. Mandell et al. Unidirectionala Unidirectionala Unidirectionala Unidirectionala 0r90 Ž5 ply.g Nylon 6r6 Polycarbonate Vinylester 0. internal heating of the composite increases and fatigue life of a composite decreases. 2k 2k 2k 3l 2k Testsr sample Ž10.1 2. Agarwall and Dally w2x 7. Five-layer eight-end satin weave: aligned. and "45 continuous ﬁber reinforcement composites. Mandell et al.E.75 1. 0. w7x 16. Thus. Mandell et al. Load control Ž7.3 3.1 0.66 1.66 1. The effect the percent ﬁber composition has on fatigue life cannot be ascertained from the data.66 1 2 1 2 1. 35. 50 vol. Demers Žthis study.1 0.1 Range 50. 5 5 5 5 5 0.a "45r0r45 Ž5 ply. b provided by the unidirectional continuous ﬁber reinforcement composites. Stress Stress Stress Stress Stress Stress Strain Stress Stress Stress Stress Stress Stress Stress 1j 1j Stress Percent ﬁber Ž8.01 2i 5 1. c Chopped strand mat: random.g Polyester Ž50. h Reduced gage.2 2.05 2 1.2. d Short ﬁber oriented with melt ﬂow pattern. 60 vol. l 20% decrease in material stiffness. Failure mode Ž9. of Table 1.a 0r90 Ž15 ply. 305 Failure strain Ž11.g Polyester Ž50. Mandell et al. Frequencies of fatigue load under 4 or 5 Hz have been reported to produce negligible internal heating in glass FRP composites w4. j Constant strain rate. column Ž1. 0. 24. Owen and Rose w3x 11. Ž5. discontinuous ﬁber representing isotropic sheet laminate. continuous ﬁber representing orthotropic sheet laminate.05 0.5 2.4 wt.66 1.85 2. The effect of resin on fatigue life was evaluated for test data 1 16. Mandell et al.1 0.5x.g Polyester Polyester Ž30.67 0 0 0 0 0 0 0. Agarwall and Dally w2x 8. 2k 2k 2k 2k 10 10 10 10 10 10 1 1 1 5 1. percent ﬁber composition varies as shown in Table 1.C. Mandell et al. plot within or near the lower bound. In addition to resin and ﬁber reinforcement. 3.5 R Ž6.4 wt. Owen and Rose w3x 12.85 1. w4x 2. 52. only the data for which the frequency of fatigue load . Owen and Rose w3x 14. anisotropic sheet laminate. 2. f Rubber modiﬁed.1. Dogbone Dogbone Dogbone Rodh Dogbone Dogbone Dogbone Necked Necked Necked Necked Necked Necked Necked Dogbone Dogbone Bar Freq. Specimen shape Ž4. 38 wt. 70. Epoxy Epoxyf Polyester Polyester Epoxy Epoxy Epoxy Epoxy Polyester Polyester Ž30. k Complete specimen separation. 33. i 1 10 000 cycles.1 0. g 30% or 50% ﬂexibilizer by wt.01 2i 0. e Continuous unidirectional ﬁber with ﬁve mat layers reinforcement. The test data 17. As frequency of fatigue load increases. 52 wt.4 wt.1 0. Type of reinforcement Ž2.3. Demers r Construction and Building Materials 12 (1998) 303 310 Table 1 Tension tension axial fatigue of E-glass FRP composites Reference Ž1. 49 vol. this evaluation suggested that modifying polyester resin with ﬂexibilizer or epoxy resin with rubber does not signiﬁcantly affect fatigue life as compared to the unmodiﬁed resin for these E-glass FRP composites.9 2. ŽHz.05 0. w11x 9.5 wt. Also. 40 wt. a Weaveb Weaveb Weaveb CSMc CSMc CSMc Short ﬁberd Short ﬁberd Combinatione Resin Ž3.a 0r90 Ž15 ply. w4x 3.66 1.9 a Continuous. Owen and Rose w3x 15. Jessen and Plumtree w10x 5.05 4 min 1. w7x 17. 23 vol.9 wt. w4x 6.66 1. as shown in Fig. Owen and Rose w3x 10.
. for example. 3 according to frequency of fatigue load. Fatigue life diagram. 2.. log N according to resin. The data suggests greater fatigue life was obtained with test frequencies 0 2 Hz than with test frequency 5 Hz and the difference decreases as fatigue Fig. remains equal to or below 5 Hz is utilized in this study. column Ž1. Demers r Construction and Building Materials 12 (1998) 303 310 Fig. are replotted in Fig. bridge members are designed to accommodate a frequency of loading of approx.306 C. 1 Hz or less.E. The data for tests 1 16. 1. Normalized maximum stress vs. Table 1. This test frequency limit comfortably encompasses civil engineering applications.
5 3. Fig.8 0. no distinct trend in this data suggested a signiﬁcant effect on fatigue life. 3. R ratio and test frequency. or 5 Hz. w4.1 0. For R ratios 0.5 5 1 Difference between room temperature and specimen surface temperature. and 11 C for normalized maximum stress of 0. However. A conservative lower bound to the data is provided by test frequency 5 Hz data over all fatigue life..8x conclude that constant or varying frequency does not signiﬁcantly affect fatigue strength or fatigue life.6. although no signiﬁcant difference in fatigue strength or fatigue life is apparent for fatigue tests conducted with either constant frequency or varying frequency.5 3 5 0. . Mandell et al. however. 3 and 5 Hz testing frequency fall within or near the lower bound.4 0. 3.a a 0.6 0. the maximum difference between specimen surface temperature and room temperature was recorded as: 12 C for normalized maximum stress of 0.7. max dT Ž C. and plots lower bound for fatigue life between 1000 and 1 000 000 cycles compared to all other data for stress control.6 0. The test data 17. life increases.1 1 3 5 8 11 11 0.6 or 0.4 0. Sims and Gladman w6x favor a constant rate of applied load Žvarying frequency.5 3 0. the remaining data with stress Žconstant frequency.8x. w7x data is identiﬁed in Fig. 1 illustrates the Mandell et al.6 0. The Mandell et al. the maximum difference between specimen surface temperature and room temperature was recorded as 8 C for normalized maximum stress of 0.5 0.7. Sims and Gladman w6x and Mandell et al.6 0. heating of the specimen surface was observed.8 0. For other combinations not shown.1 0. For test frequencies of 1. The concept of type of load control affecting fatigue strength is discussed by Agarwall and Dally w2x. The E-glassrvinylester composite specimens for 1. Normalized maximum stress vs.8.8 0. control. Table 2 shows the combinations of normalized maximum stress.1 and test frequency 3 or 5 Hz.E.8 0.1 and test frequency 1 Hz.6 0. This previous research suggests type of load control is not a critical test parameter. it would appear more reasonable that the lower bound nature of the Mandell et al. for which heating of the specimen surface was observed. 3. due to previous research results as discussed above. E-glassrvinylester composite. 24 C for normalized maximum stress of 0.C.4. Demers r Construction and Building Materials 12 (1998) 303 310 307 Fig. w4. log N according to frequency of fatigue load.1 5 5 4 12 0. 1 as short ﬁber reinforcement Žanisotropic properties. w7x data is inﬂuenced by the type of reinforcement or the resin rather than the type of load control. which affects fatigue life or fatigue strength.3.1 1 3 5 8 24 21 0. heating of the specimen surface was not observed.5 0.1 0. For R ratio 0. Agarwall and Dally w2x concludes that no signiﬁcant difference in fatigue strength or fatigue life is achieved for fatigue tests conducted with either stress control or strain control Žboth at constant frequency. w7x test 15 and 16 data from Table 1 with constant strain rate vs. was evaluated for the effect on fatigue life according to frequency of fatigue load.8. Type of load control in fatigue testing Table 2 Observed heating of E-glassrvinylester composite Sma xrSult R Frequency ŽHz.
3.6. The criteria deﬁning fatigue failure is reported as complete specimen separation or 20% decay of initial tensile fatigue modulus. the grip failures achieved: greater fatigue lives than that for a uniaxial stress state failure. 3. with reduced gage.. Echtermeyer et al. failure initiates: in the grip region under biaxial stress state. R ratio The R ratio is deﬁned as minimum applied load divided by maximum applied load.. The bar shape specimens of Eglassrvinylester composite fall within or near the lower bound data. on fatigue life. or in combination via biaxial stress state in an outer mat layer and uniaxial stress state in the inner mat layers. Jessen and Plumtree w10x observed the decay of tensile fatigue modulus with fatigue life on Rs 0. as R ratio increased. w9x observed the decay of tensile fatigue modulus with fatigue life on Rs y1 axial fatigue tests of glassrneopentyl glycolriso polyester for constant load rate at frequency 2 5 Hz. and rod Žcircular . Failure criteria The specimen condition or criteria deﬁning fatigue failure varies among the fatigue tests utilized in the fatigue life diagrams.. Thus. Generally. necked Žbar. The data suggests increasing fatigue life for dogbone shaped specimens. E-glassrvinylester composite. Typical cross-sections of test specimens at failure. were evaluated for specimen shape of dogbone Žbar.308 C. Tests per sample The number of repetitions conducted per test set-up vary as shown in Table 1. regardless of test frequency. The fatigue maximum stress was 25% ultimate tensile strength to 100% ultimate tensile strength. Specimen shape The test 1 16 data. necked shaped specimens and rod shaped specimens. All the E-glassrvinylester composite data are utilized and plot within or near the lower bound level of the fatigue design data. or fatigue lives within the span of the other data.05 axial fatigue tests of unidirectional E-glassrpolyester for constant load at frequency 5 Hz. The fatigue maximum stress was 50% ultimate tensile strength to 88% ultimate tensile strength. six are considered grip failures. Of ﬁfty specimens tested.7. For the data plotted. Demers r Construction and Building Materials 12 (1998) 303 310 3.5. lower fatigue lives than that for a uniaxial stress state failure.E. 3. Reporting the average fatigue life of the tests is not sufﬁcient. All values should be reported including the lowest fatigue life achieved per test set-up. with the majority of the test specimens failing near the grip region. at an inherent ﬂaw in the microstructure under uniaxial stress state. The specimen condition deﬁning fatigue failure for the E-glassrvinylester composite is complete specimen separation Žor signiﬁcant separation such that load is no longer maintained. In dupliFig. A conservative lower bound to the data is provided by dogbone shaped specimens over all fatigue life. Fig.4. column Ž1. cate tests. the effect R ratio has on fatigue life is best given by the test data 17. 4. The mat layers are easily seen. fatigue life increased. This is necessary to determine a conservative lower bound to all data. This work demonstrated that deﬁning the failure criteria as 10% decay of initial tensile fatigue modulus effectively deﬁned the fatigue life of these specimens. 4 shows three typical Eglassrvinylester composite specimen cross sections at failure. This data was evaluated for the effect of R ratio on fatigue life. For all data in Table 1. Table 1. The fatigue life diagrams reﬂect the deﬁnition of specimen failure due to fatigue life being deﬁned upon that failure. a horizontal arrow on a data point indicates the specimen condition which deﬁned fatigue failure not yet achieved at the fatigue . This work demonstrated that deﬁning the failure criteria as 20% decay of initial tensile fatigue modulus effectively deﬁned the fatigue life of these specimens. The grip region represents a constrained biaxial stress state while between the grips a uniaxial stress state exists. Often the failure criteria of test specimens is not clearly reported.
However. A fatigue life diagram of all the E-glass FRP composite data. A ‘fatigue limit’. Discussion All the tension tension axial fatigue E-glass FRP composite data of Table 1 form an extended band as shown in the fatigue life diagram of Fig. Georgia. The test data for the E-glassrvinylester composite veriﬁes that for frequency 1.E.1 Žor less. and test frequency 3 or 5 Hz. A lower bound 95% conﬁdence level is deﬁned for all the E-glass FRP composite tension tension axial fatigue data. Rs 0 necked specimens for fatigue life between 1000 and 1 000 000 cycles. regardless of test parameter combination. 0. These two data points did not signiﬁcantly alter the lower conﬁdence level achieved without the E-glassrvinylester composite data. 5. and applies for fatigue life less than or equal to one million cycles. Acknowledgements This research was funded by the National Science Foundation Visiting Professorships for Women Program.5.000 cycles and by the short ﬁber reinforcement Žanisotropic. 3.5 and test frequency 1 Hz or R ratio 0.5.0. and test frequency 1 Hz. Rs 0. 0. thus.078 log N q 0. And no distinct trend in loss of fatigue life was noticed using increased test frequencies 3 or 5 Hz compared to 1 Hz.05 dogbone specimens for fatigue life less than 1000 cycles and by the short ﬁber reinforcement Žisotropic. With further fatigue testing.1.790 Ž1.4. percent ﬁber. Atlanta. Conclusion Tension tension axial fatigue data with frequency of fatigue load 5 Hz or less for E-glass FRP composites without environmental concerns are reviewed in this study.1. resin and failure criteria in fatigue testing. respectively for: R ratios ŽF 0. data band is formed by the 0r90 continuous ﬁber reinforcement Rs 0.9 and test frequency 1 and 5 Hz. No surface heating was observed for R ratio 0. This lower bound can be used to estimate E-glass FRP composite fatigue life in tension tension axial fatigue. or 5 Hz. A lower bound to this band is formed by the unidirectional continuous ﬁber reinforcement Rs 0. specimen shape. The axial fatigue data may also be represented by a lower bound 99% conﬁdence level by the linear relation SmaxrSult s y0. regardless of normalized maximum stress.737 Ž2. This frequency limit minimizes selecting fatigue life results adversely affected by internal heat generation. test parameter combination. 0. The ex- . the E-glassrvinylester data did show increasing fatigue life for increasing R ratio.1 dogbone specimens and the "45 continuous ﬁber reinforcement necked specimens at test frequency 5 Hz for fatigue life 10 000 1 000 000 cycles. The E-glassrvinylester composite specimens tested at normalized maximum stress 0. ﬁber reinforcement. and which fall slightly outside the 95% lower conﬁdence level. until further fatigue testing reﬁnes the effect of the individual test parameters on fatigue life. Surface heating decreased.C. these specimens would have achieved failure. 1.1. the given 95% lower bound conﬁdence level effectively represents all data as shown in Table 1. 0. The fatigue design data include the effects of various combinations of the test parameters: frequency of applied load. fatigue life increases. when examining several stopped fatigue test specimens. regardless of varying and applies for fatigue life less than or equal to one million cycles. as R ratio increases.1 dogbone specimens at test frequency 5 Hz for fatigue life less than 10.9 and for fatigue life less than or equal to one million cycles. is not evident. as Table 2 shows. The Eglassrvinylester composite data falls within or near the overall data band indicating the combinations of test parameters not greatly changing the fatigue life characteristics. However. 4. The lower R ratios represent large stress ranges and thus form a conservative data group. R ratios Žs 0.05. This lower bound is represented by a linear relation. Mandell et al. with R ratio and fatigue life restrictions. does present an extended data band for which a lower bound 95% conﬁdence level is established. and test frequency 3 or 5 Hz achieved the greatest surface heating. An upper bound to the Rs 0. were observed to have surface heating.078 log N q 0. specimen surface heating was observed. w4x noted signiﬁcant specimen damage Žsufﬁcient length and through-thickness cracking. The host institution for this program was the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering. R ratio. Demers r Construction and Building Materials 12 (1998) 303 310 309 life for which the test was stopped. Too many combinations of these test parameters exist among the fatigue tests to distinguish the effect of an individual parameter on fatigue life. Georgia Institute of Technology. deﬁned as the normalized stress below which failure does not occur. Low R ratios ŽF 0. The lower bound is a conservative estimate of E-glass FRP composite fatigue life in tension tension axial fatigue for R ratios 0. This lower bound level is represented by the linear relation SmaxrSult s y0.
674:137 148. Developments in reinforced plastics 2. Society of Plastics Industry. Plumtree A. 35th Annual Technical Conference. Huang DD. Session 10A.. Smax s maximum tensile fatigue stress in fatigue load cycle. Composite Materials: Testing and Design ŽFifth Conference. Buene L. Fatigue Behaviour of ﬁbre-resin composites. Signiﬁcance of damage caused by fatigue on mechanical properties of composite laminates. In: Pritchard G. Failure Modes in Composites. w5x Jones CJ. ASTM STP 1979. 1981:1 6. 1980:1 11. w9x Echtermeyer AT. Fatigue data on a variety of nonwoven glass composites for helicopter rotor blades. AIME. Section 20D.20:559 567. Fiber orientation. Reiter H. London. Sr s stress range. graduate student.E. McGarry FJ. Im J. Polyester ﬂexibility versus fatigue behavior of RP. NY: Applied Science Publishers. w7x Mandell JF. w10x Jessen SM. Prediction of low-cycle fatigue behaviour of GFRP: an experimental approach. Sundsrud GJ. Harris B. Composites 1989. w8x Mandell JF. References w1x Davis JW. Special thanks also to Dennis Senal for his assistance with the graphics. cellent laboratory work was conducted by Patrick Bair. Fatigue of glass and carbon ﬁber reinforced engineering thermoplastics. Gladman DG. and cyclic loading effects on the mode of crack extension in ﬁber reinforced plastics. 1993:38-B-1-38-B-10.A 396:315 338. crack velocity. w6x Sims GD. and Sult s ultimate tensile strength. McGarry FJ. Sund OE. Dickson RF. The environmental fatigue behaviour of reinforced plastics. Appendix 1: Notation The following symbols are used in this paper: N s fatigue life measured in cycles. Tensile fatigue performance of glass ﬁber dominated composites. Metallurgical Soc. Fatigue damage accumulation in pultruded glassrpolyester rods. Demers r Construction and Building Materials 12 (1998) 303 310 w3x Owen MJ. Plastics and Rubber: Materials and Applications. J Mat Sci 1975. All the above are gratefully acknowledged for support of this project. SAMPE.47:130 138. Effect of test conditions on the fatigue strength of a glass-fabric laminate: Part A frequency. w2x Agarwall BD. Huang DD. w11x Mandell JF. Dally JW. Society of Plastics Industry. II. w4x Mandell JF.10:193 199. Properties of laminates. Adam T. Reinforced PlasticsrComposites Institute. Modern Plastics 1970. Reinforced PlasticsrComposites Institute. editors. 1978:41 48. .310 C. McGarry FJ. Engh B. 36th Annual Technical Conference. 1974:33. Meier U. Proc Roy Soc London 1984. 1982:67 107. Rose RG.
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