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EEL 6593 Fall '95 Paul Flikkema USF

1

Introduction

The purpose of analog modulation is to impress an information-bearing analog waveform onto a carrier for transmission. The purpose of digital modulation is to convert an information-bearing discrete-time symbol sequence into a continuous-time waveform perhaps impressed on a carrier. Key concerns | bandwidth e ciency and implementation complexity. These are a ected by: baseband pulse shape phase transition characteristics envelope uctuations channel non-linearities?

EEL 6593 Fall '95 Paul Flikkema USF

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**Example Modulation Schemes for Wireless
**

FM | AMPS MSK minimum-shift keying | CT2 GMSK Gaussian MSK | GSM, DCS 1800, CT3, DECT QPSK | NADC CDMA - base transmitter OQPSK | NADC CDMA - mobile transmitter

**=4-DQPSK | NADC TDMA, PDC Japan, PHP Japan
**

M-ary PSK some wireless LANs

EEL 6593 Fall '95 Paul Flikkema USF

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Frequency Modulation

Angle modulation: transmitted signal is

**xt = A cos !c t + t = fAej !c t+t g
**

with instantaneous phase i t = !ct + t; and instantaneous frequency

!i t = di t = !c + dt : dt dt

t is the instantaneous phase deviation, and dt is the dt

**instantaneous frequency deviation.
**

EEL 6593 Fall '95 Paul Flikkema USF

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For phase modulation, t = kp mt where mt is the message signal, and kp is the phase deviation constant rad volt. For FM, we have dt = kf mt or dt Zt t = kf msds + t0

to

where kf is the frequency deviation constant rad sec volt. With t0 = ,1 and t0 = 0, we have

**xt = A cos !c t + kp mt PM Zt xt = A cos !c t + kf msds FM
**

,1

EEL 6593 Fall '95 Paul Flikkema USF

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FM using integrator and phase modulator

v(t)

Integrator

Ph. Modulator

EEL 6593 Fall '95 Paul Flikkema USF

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If modulating signal is a sinusoid, mt = Am cos !m t, then

**xt = A cos !ct + sin !m t
**

where = kf!Am , the modulation index de ned for single-tone m modulation only. In this case, it can be shown that xAt is

J0 cos !ct+

1 X

n=1

,1n Jn cos!c ,n!m t+,1n cos!c +n!mt

For small , we have

2 J0 1, 2
n 1 Jn n! 2 ; n 6= 0

7

EEL 6593 Fall '95 Paul Flikkema USF

This implies

xt cos ! t , cos! , ! t + cos! + ! t c c m c m A 2 2 or using a trig identity xt cos ! t , sin ! t sin ! t c m c A General rule: if 0:3, the bandwidth of the modulated signal is approx. 2!m ; and we have narrow-band FM NBFM. This is the modulation scheme used in AMPS.

EEL 6593 Fall '95 Paul Flikkema USF

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FM Demodulation Methods Limiter-discriminator FM feedback FMFB

**Phase-locked loop PLL
**

FM Performance Characterized by signal-to-noise ratio SNR: the demodulator input CNR carrier-to-noise ratio for AMPS is speci ed to be 18 dB, resulting in an output SNR of 40 dB.

EEL 6593 Fall '95 Paul Flikkema USF

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Digital Modulation

Criteria for selection: BER performance Mobile personal channel severe fading Cellular architecture interference Typically, req't is 10,2 or better speech Spectral e ciency Adjacent channel interference Power e ciency esp. at mobile Implementation complexity cost may require dual-mode mobile

EEL 6593 Fall '95 Paul Flikkema USF

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Digital Modulation | Classi cation Constant-envelope methods: Allow use of less expensive

ampli cation not dependent on signal amplitude at the expense of out-of-band emissions. Limited to a spectral e ciency of about 1 bit sec Hz. Examples: MSK, GMSK Linear methods: Higher spectral e ciency, but must use linear ampli ers to maintain performance and to limit out-of-band emissions. Examples: PSK, QAM

EEL 6593 Fall '95 Paul Flikkema USF

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Spectral E ciency

Spectral occupancy per channel is roughly

SO = B + 2f

where B = bandwidth occupied of RF signal power spectrum and f is the maximum one-way carrier frequency oscillator drift. Remark: Per-channel spectral e ciency for narrowband systems only We can express the bandwidth as B = Rd n where Rd is the channel data rate and n is the spectral e ciency in bits sec Hz.

EEL 6593 Fall '95 Paul Flikkema USF

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Combining,

Thus, to minimize spectral occupancy thus maximizing capacity in number of users we can: 1. Lower speech encoder rate trade: cost, delity, or 2. Improve spectral e ciency of modulation trade: complexity, or 3. Improve transmitter receiver oscillators trade: cost.

SO = Rd + 2f n

EEL 6593 Fall '95 Paul Flikkema USF

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State of the technology: Bandwidth e ciency: 1 n 2 Speech encoder rate: Rd 4 8 kb sec Oscillator stability: 1 10,6 year implying f 1 kHz at 900 MHz long-term Examples: NADC TDMA: 48.6 kbps in 30 kHz GSM: 34 kbps in 25 kHz

EEL 6593 Fall '95 Paul Flikkema USF

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- Gsm and Gprs Security
- GPRS Tutorial
- Gprs on White Paper
- gprs in gsm
- 5988-2598EN
- 2002 Gprs Overview
- Smart Messaging in CDMA v1 1 En
- Introduction to CDMA
- Intro to Spread Spectrum
- Cellular Communication
- CD Ma Cap
- CDMA Overview
- Browser MIME Types in Nokia CDMA Devices v1 4 En
- Browser Characteristics in Nokia CDMA Devices v1 3 En
- Basic Note on Spread Spectrum Cdma Signals
- 1tdmacdma
- lecture10_RRM
- lecture9_PacketAccess
- lecture8_Planning
- lecture7_RadioInterfaceProtcols
- lecture6_ch6
- lecture5Lansisalmi001103
- lecture4_Intro_to_WCDMA
- lecture3

- Modulation, Transmission and Demodulation
- ADC_UNIT-1,2 MLM
- Notes on AM FM and PM Modulation
- CPM part I
- Effects of Nonlinearity on DFT-OFDM and DWT-OFDM Systems
- GMSK
- 2nd Term Assignments
- W2019
- Comparison of Modulation
- 5 Simulation of OFDM Systems
- AM Mod Matlab
- Analog Manual
- DC 04 Signal&System
- chapter5-2_Mobile Basics
- It 1202 - Principles of Communication
- Constant Envelope
- DC 03 Digital Modulation Scheme
- Principles of Communication Engineering
- Carrier Modulation 1
- qam
- It 1202 Principles of Communication
- W2060
- OFDM, QPSK
- diversity
- Ch1 Modulation
- EE370_Final_091
- Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
- ADC2marks
- phase shift keying-POC

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