American Society of Plumbing Engineers

Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook
A Plumbing Engineer’s Guide to System Design and Specifications

Volume 2
Plumbing Systems

American Society of Plumbing Engineers 2980 S. River Road Des Plaines, IL 60018

The ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information for the design and specification of plumbing systems. The publisher makes no guarantees or warranties, expressed or implied, regarding the data and information contained in this publication. All data and information are provided with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, consulting, engineering, or other professional services. If legal, consulting, or engineering advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be engaged.

American Society of Plumbing Engineers 2980 S. River Road Des Plaines, IL 60018
(847) 296-0002 • Fax: (847) 296-2963 E-mail: aspehq@aspe.org • Internet: www.aspe.org

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Plumbing Engineers All rights reserved, including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any means, including the making of copies by any photographic process, or by any electronic or mechanical device, printed or written or oral, or recording for sound or visual reproduction, or for use in any knowledge or retrieval system or device, unless permission in writing is obtained from the publisher.

ISBN 978-1-891255-17-5 Printed in China 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook
Plumbing Systems
Volume 2 Chair: James Rodgers, CPD Volume 2 Coordinator: Sarah A. Balz, PE, CPD, LEED AP Editor: Gretchen Pienta Graphic Designer: Rachel L. Boger CONTRIBUTORS Chapter 1 Sanitary Drainage Systems Kenneth M. Grabske Chapter 2 On-site Wastewater Reuse and Storm Water Harvesting Lynita M. Docken Tom Braun Bruce Meiners Chapter 3 Vents and Venting Systems Steven P Skattebo, PE . Chapter 4 Storm Drainage Systems Lynita M. Docken Tom Braun Bruce Meiners Chapter 5 Cold Water Systems Harold L. Olsen, PE Chapter 6 Domestic Water Heating Systems Thomas J. Breu, PE, CPD, LEED AP TECHNICAL REVIEWERS James A. Brune, PE, CPD Michael Frankel Stephen Jerry McDanal, CPD, CET, FASPE James T. Zebrowski, PE, CPD

Volume 2

Chapter 7 Fuel Gas Piping Systems Dennis F. Richards Jr., CPD

Chapter 8 Private On-site Wastewater Treatment Systems Robert M. Mutsch, PE, LEED AP Chapter 9 Private Water Wells James M. Delain, PE Chapter 10 Vacuum Systems Sarah A. Balz, PE, CPD, LEED AP Chapter 11 Water Treatment, Conditioning, and Purification Dennis F. Richards Jr., CPD Chapter 12 Special Waste Drainage Systems Sarah A. Balz, PE, CPD, LEED AP

William F. Hughes Jr., CPD, LEED AP

About ASPE
The American Society of Plumbing Engineers (ASPE) is the international organization for professionals skilled in the design and specification of plumbing systems. ASPE is dedicated to the advancement of the science of plumbing engineering, to the professional growth and advancement of its members, and to the health, welfare, and safety of the public. The Society disseminates technical data and information, sponsors activities that facilitate interaction with fellow professionals, and, through research and education programs, expands the base of knowledge of the plumbing engineering industry. ASPE members are leaders in innovative plumbing design, effective materials and energy use, and the application of advanced techniques from around the world.

WorldWide MeMbership — ASPE was founded in 1964 and currently has 6,500 members. Spanning the globe,
members are located in the United States, Canada, Asia, Mexico, South America, the South Pacific, Australia, and Europe. They represent an extensive network of experienced engineers, designers, contractors, educators, code officials, and manufacturers interested in furthering their careers, their profession, and the industry. ASPE is at the forefront of technology. In addition, ASPE represents members and promotes the profession among all segments of the construction industry.

Aspe MeMbership CoMMuniCAtion — All members belong to ASPE worldwide and have the opportunity to

belong and participate in one of the 61 state, provincial or local chapters throughout the U.S. and Canada. ASPE chapters provide the major communication links and the first line of services and programs for the individual member. Communications with the membership is enhanced through the Society’s magazine, Plumbing Systems and Design, the newsletter ASPE Report, which is incorporated as part of the magazine, and the e-newsletter "ASPE Pipeline."

teChniCAl publiCAtions — The Society maintains a comprehensive publishing program, spearheaded by the

profession’s basic reference text, the ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook. The Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook, encompassing approximately 50 chapters in four volumes, provides comprehensive details of the accepted practices and design criteria used in the field of plumbing engineering. Recent additions to ASPE’s published library of professional technical manuals and handbooks include the Plumbineering Dictionary, Engineered Plumbing Design II, and The Hunter Papers.

Convention And teChniCAl syMposiuM — The Society hosts biennial Conventions in even-numbered years and

Technical Symposia in odd-numbered years to allow professional plumbing engineers and designers to improve their skills, learn original concepts, and make important networking contacts to help them stay abreast of current trends and technologies. In conjunction with each Convention there is an Engineered Plumbing Exposition, the greatest, largest gathering of plumbing engineering and design products, equipment, and services. Everything from pipes to pumps to fixtures, from compressors to computers to consulting services is on display, giving engineers and specifiers the opportunity to view the newest and most innovative materials and equipment available to them.

Certified in pluMbing design — ASPE sponsors a national certification program for engineers and designers of

plumbing systems, which carries the designation “Certified in Plumbing Design” or CPD. The certification program provides the profession, the plumbing industry, and the general public with a single, comprehensive qualification of professional competence for engineers and designers of plumbing systems. The CPD, designed exclusively by and for plumbing engineers, tests hundreds of engineers and designers at centers throughout the United States biennially. Created to provide a single, uniform national credential in the field of engineered plumbing systems, the CPD program is not in any way connected to state-regulated Professional Engineer (P .E.) registration.

Aspe reseArCh foundAtion — The ASPE Research Foundation, established in 1976, is the only independent,

impartial organization involved in plumbing engineering and design research. The science of plumbing engineering affects everything… from the quality of our drinking water to the conservation of our water resources to the building codes for plumbing systems. Our lives are impacted daily by the advances made in plumbing engineering technology through the Foundation’s research and development.

American Society of Plumbing Engineers

Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook
(4 Volumes — 47 Chapters)

Volume 1
Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Fundamentals of Plumbing Engineering (Revised 2009)
Formulas, Symbols, and Terminology Standards for Plumbing Materials and Equipment Specifications Plumbing Cost Estimates Job Preparation, Drawings, and Field Checklists Plumbing for People with Disabilities Energy and Resource Conservation in Plumbing Systems Corrosion Seismic Protection of Plumbing Systems Acoustics in Plumbing Basics of Value Engineering Ensuring High-quality Plumbing Installations Existing Building Job Preparation and Condition Survey

Volume 3
Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Special Plumbing Systems (Revision date: 2011)
Fire Protection Systems Plumbing Design for Healthcare Facilities Treatment of Industrial Waste Irrigation Systems Reflecting Pools and Fountains Public Swimming Pools Gasoline and Diesel Oil Systems Steam and Condensate Piping Compressed Air Systems Solar Energy Site Utility Systems

Volume 4
Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Plumbing Components and Equipment (Revision date: 2012)
Plumbing Fixtures Piping Systems Valves Pumps Piping Insulation Hangers and Supports Vibration Isolation Grease Interceptors Cross-connection Control Water Treatment Thermal Expansion Potable Water Coolers and Central Water Systems Bioremediation Pretreatment Systems Green Plumbing

(The chapters and subjects listed for these volume are subject to modification, adjustment and change. The contents shown for each volume are proposed and may not represent the final contents of the volume. A final listing of included chapters for each volume will appear in the actual publication.)

Table of Contents

1 Sanitary Drainage Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Codes and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Flow in Stacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Flow in Building Drains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Flow in Fixture Drains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Pneumatic Pressures in a Sanitary Drainage System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Fixture Discharge Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Drainage Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Stack Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Capacities of Sloping Drains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Steady, Uniform Flow Conditions in Sloping Drains. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Slope of Horizontal Drainage Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Loads for Drainage Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Components of Sanitary Drainage Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Sumps and Ejectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Cleanouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Floor Drains and Floor Sinks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Grates/Strainers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Flashing Ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Sediment Bucket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Backwater Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Oil Interceptors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Fixture Wastewater Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Piping Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Joining Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Noise Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Building Sewer Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Sanitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Kitchen Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Waterproofing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Floor Leveling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

ii

ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Thermal Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protection from Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alternate Sanitary Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sovent and Provent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single-stack System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reduced-size Venting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vacuum Drainage System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 16 16 17 18 18 19 19

2 On-site Wastewater Reuse and Storm Water Harvesting . . . . . . . . . . 21
Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Water Balance Equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Codes and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Graywater Reuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Criteria for Graywater Supply and Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Estimates for Commercial Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Graywater Design Estimates for Residential Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Estimates for Graywater Irrigation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Graywater Treatment Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Economic Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public Concerns and Acceptance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Storm Water Harvesting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 21 22 22 22 22 23 24 24 25 27 27 27 28 29

3 Vents and Venting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Trap Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Types of Fixture Vents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Common Vent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wet Venting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Circuit Vent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Waste Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Combination Drain and Vent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Island Vent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vent Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vent Stack Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sizing a Vent Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Offsets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suds Pressure Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Main Vent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fixture Vent Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alternative Vent Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air-admittance Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sovent Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 32 32 32 32 33 33 34 34 35 35 37 37 37 38 39 39 39 39

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Booster Pump Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Roof Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 59 59 60 60 60 61 63 63 64 64 65 67 68 69 70 . . . . . . . . . . Pressure-regulating Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accessibility and Maintenance . . . . . . Cross-connection Controls . Elevated Water Tank System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Runoff Patterns . Appendix 4-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Expansion Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Domestic Cold Water Meters . . . . . . . . . . Assumptions and Notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Code and Standards . . Materials . . . . . . . . . Pump Economy . . . . . . . . . . Collection Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Excess Water Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Runoff Volume Calculation for Typical Wisconsin Commercial Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Infiltration .Table of Contents Jurisdictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydropneumatic Tank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interior Pipe Sizing and Layout Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Rational Method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Guidelines for Cross-connection Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vector Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alternate Applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Estimating Time of Concentration and Rainfall Intensity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interior Building Drainage System Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Meter Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Booster Pump Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Design Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sizing the Water Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 iii 4 Storm Drainage Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conveyance . . . 59 Codes and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rainfall Rates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Hammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Storm Water Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Site Drainage and Infitration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 42 42 43 43 43 44 46 46 47 48 48 48 49 49 49 51 53 53 54 56 56 56 56 5 Cold Water Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Types of Gas Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Thermal Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Factors Affecting Domestic Water Pipe Sizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Legionella Hot Spots . . . . Darcy-Weisbach Formula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System Opperating Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Heat Recovery—Electric Water Heaters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Testing . . . . 97 Domestic Water Heater Sizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Mixed Water Temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Codes and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Efficiency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Codes and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Self-regulating Heat Trace Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Hot Water Temperature Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 7 Fuel Gas Piping Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Hot Water Circulation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Hot Water Temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 114 115 115 115 . . . . . . . . 70 72 73 73 74 75 84 89 89 90 90 94 95 6 Domestic Water Heating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Information Gathering . . . . . 106 Sizing Pressure and Temperature Relief Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Stratification in Storage-type Heaters and Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Legionella Control Recommendations . . . 98 Basic Formulae and Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Varying Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Approvals . . . . . . . . 98 Water Heater Sizing Methods . . . Pressure Loss in Pipe Fittings and Valves . . . . . . . 109 Controlling Legionella . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Legionnaires' Disease . Velocity Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Relief Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iv ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Shock Intensity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Thermal Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Water Heaters. . . . . . . . . 111 Scalding. . . . . . . . . . Hazen-Williams Formula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cleaning and Disinfecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step-by-Step Guide to Sizing Water Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sizing Water Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data to Be Obtained . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 116 116 117 117 118 118 118 118 118 118 119 121 121 121 122 122 123 124 124 125 125 125 126 126 126 127 128 128 128 130 131 131 131 134 134 135 135 136 v 8 Private On-site Wastewater Treatment Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metallic Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plastic Pipe and Tubing . . 139 Primary Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metallic Tubing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Meter Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Piping System Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents Gas Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appliance Control Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure-regulating Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control Valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquefied Petroleum Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interlocks and Solenoid Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In-ground Conventional Soil Absorption System . . . . . . . . Appliances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Venting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Environmental Effects of Propane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 139 140 142 142 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laboratory Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Soil Absorption Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flexible Hose Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas Regulator Relief Vents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fittings and Joints. . . . . . . . . Pressure Droop and Peak Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquefied Petroleum Gas Sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Meter Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High-rise Building Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Excess Flow Valves . . . Propane Vaporization Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Altitude Derating Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References. Interior Natural Gas Pipe Sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Propane Storage Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural Gas Boosters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas Laws for Boosters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grounding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Estimating Soil Absorption Rates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Materials and Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Soil Absorption System Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Considerations . Allowable Gas Pressure . . . . Natural Gas Pipe Sizing Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sizing a Gas Booster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inspection . . . Softening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sewage Disposal Systems for Institutions and Small Establishments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure Regulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Septic Tanks . Estimating Sewage Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Storage Tank Suction Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cleaning Septic Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Operation . Bored Wells . . . Prophylaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 144 144 145 145 145 145 146 148 148 149 149 149 149 149 150 150 153 154 9 Private Water Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . Radon Contamination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Taste and Odor Control . . . . Water Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alternatives to Gravity Collection and Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disinfection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distribution Boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Collection and Treatment Alternatives . . . . Driven Wells . . . . . Individual Aerobic Wastewater Treatment Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Septic Tank Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scale and Corrosion Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 155 155 156 156 157 157 157 158 159 159 159 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 161 162 163 163 164 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions of the Septic Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protection of Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alternatives to Conventional Primary and Secondary Treatment. . . . . . . . . . . . . References. . . . . . . . . Water Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Site Preparation and Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sources of Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jetted Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alternative Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Performance Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydraulics of Wells. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Fixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Codes and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dug and Augered Wells . . . . Filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Septic Tank Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Submersible Well Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Storage Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time for a Pump to Reach the Rated Vacuum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vacuum Source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adjusting the Vacuum Pump Rating for Altitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Purification . . . . Simplified Method of Calculating Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Codes and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 vii 10 Vacuum Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Separator Selection and Sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Initial Operation and Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vacuum Producer Sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ancillary Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standard Reference Points and Conversions . . . . . . . . Piping System Friction Losses . . . . . . . . . 165 165 165 166 166 166 166 167 168 169 169 169 169 170 170 171 171 171 172 173 173 174 174 176 178 178 178 178 180 181 183 184 186 186 11 Water Treatment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Turbidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 187 188 188 188 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Microorganisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laboratory Vacuum Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Codes and Standards . . . . . Flow Rate Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Codes and Standards . . . . . Seal Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vacuum Cleaning Systems . . Sizing the Piping Network . . . . . . 164 Additional Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pipe Sizing Criteria . . . . . . . . . Vacuum Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vacuum Pressure Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Impurities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Piping Network Sizing . . . . . . . Vacuum Pumps and Source Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Types of Systems and Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents Corrosion Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vacuum Work Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detailed System Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distribution Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Fundamentals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adjusting Pressure Drop for Different Vacuum Pressures . . . Units of Measurement . System Components . . . . . . . General Vacuum Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic Water Chemistry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conditioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General System Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total Organic Carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scale . . . . Distillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chemicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Iron . . . . . Decarbonation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Langelier Saturation Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total Dissolved Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Silt Density Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dissolved Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Analysis and Impurity Measurement. . . . . . Alkalinity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sludge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prediction Scale Formations and Corrosion Tendencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Volatile Organic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Membrane Filtration and Separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calcium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aggressiveness Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium and Potassium . . . . . . . . . . . Aeration . . . . Silica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 189 189 189 189 190 190 190 190 190 190 190 190 190 191 191 192 193 193 193 194 194 194 195 195 195 195 196 196 196 196 197 197 198 199 199 199 199 201 201 208 211 213 213 214 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hardness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnesium . . . . . Total Suspended Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trace Elements . . Ion Exchange and Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dissolved Minerals and Organics . . . Treatment Methodologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deposits and Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dealkalizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chlorides and Sulfates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Biological Fouling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specific Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specific Conductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service Deionization . . . . . . . Ryzner Stability Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deaeration . . Clarification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nitrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Microbial Control . . . . . . .viii ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Other Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 215 216 217 217 218 218 219 219 221 221 223 224 ix 12 Special Waste Drainage Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pipe Material and Joint Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Codes and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents Utility Water Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feed Water . . . . . . . . . . . Chemical Waste Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 227 228 228 228 229 229 229 230 232 234 235 235 236 237 237 238 238 238 240 241 241 241 242 242 242 242 242 243 243 243 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pH Definiton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pretreatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pipe Sizing Considerations . Radiation Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boiler Feed Water Conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Purification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cooling Water Conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System Design Considerations . Pipe Material and Joint Selection Considerations . . . . . . . . . Fire Suppression Water Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System Design Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General System Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radioactive Waste Drainage and Vent Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pharmaceutical Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laboratory Systems . . . . Radioactive Materials . . . . . . . . . The Nature of Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Purification System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effluent Decontamination System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Codes and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Codes and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shielding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central Purification Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Biological Safety Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Codes and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Common Types of Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selection of Laboratory Waste Piping and Joint Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acid Waste Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allowable Radiation Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Infectious and Biological Waste Drainage Systems . . . . System Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acid Waste Drainage and Vent Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Potable Water Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System Approval Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . System Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health and Safety Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . Methods of Separation and Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Flammable and Volatile Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 244 245 246 Index . Oil in Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

and Sediment Bucket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Figure 4-6 Crown Alignments on Storm Sewer Piping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (D) Cast Drain Body with Sump. . (E) Sediment Bucket (optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Figure 3-10 Suds Pressure Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Figure 3-2 Common Vent for Two Sinks or Lavatories . . . . . . . 34 Figure 3-6 Stack Vent Joined to a Drain Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .and Post-construction Hydrographs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Figure 4-5 Outlet Control Shown for a Pipe or Culvert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Figure 1-5 Types of Floor Drain: (A) Typical Drain with Integral Trap that May Be Cleaned Through Removable Strainer at Floor Level. . . . . . . . . (B) Floor Drain with Combination Cleanout and Backwater Valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (C) Drain with Combined Cleanout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (C) Integral. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Figure 1-8 Spigot Outlet Drain Body . . . . . 33 Figure 3-3 Circuit Vent Designs . . . 18 Figure 2-1 Wastewater Designations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Backwater Valve. . . . . . . . . . . 9 Figure 1-4 Basic Floor-Drain Components: (A) Removable Grate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Figure 4-2 Time of Concentration. . . 5 Figure 1-2 Typical Ejector Pump Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Figure 3-4 Vent Blocked by a Wye Fitting . . . . . . . . (B) Rust-resistant Bolts. . . . . . . . . . 12 Figure 1-7 Inside Caulk Drain Body. . . . . . . . .Table of Contents xi Figures Figure 1-1 Procedure for Sizing an Offset Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Figure 4-1 Pre. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Figure 1-10 IPS or Threaded Outlet Drain Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Figure 1-9 No-hub Outlet Drain Body . . . . . . . . 36 Figure 3-9 Relief Vents at a Drain Stack Offset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Figure 2-2 The Constructed Environment Water Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Figure 3-5 Two Vent Pipes Joined Above the Sink Rim . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Figure 4-3 Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Figure 1-12 Typical Sovent Single-stack System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Figure 4-4 Inlet Control Shown for a Pipe or Culvert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Figure 3-8 Drain Stack Offsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . One-piece Flashing Ring. . . for Use Where Possibility of Backflow Exists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Figure 3-1 Sink Trap with Three Different Pressure Levels . . . . . . . . . . 14 Figure 1-11 Combination Floor Drain and Indirect Waste Receptor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Figure 3-7 Vent Stack Joined to a Drain Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Figure 1-3 Typical Submerged Sump Pump Installation . . 11 Figure 1-6 Types of Backwater Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . 142 Figure 8-2 Disposal Lines Connected by Headers to Circumvent Stoppages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Figure 5-5 Illustrations of a Shock Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Figure 4-9 Example of a Controlled-flow Drain . . . 88 Figure 5-20 Establishing the Governing Fixture or Appliance. . . . . . . . . . . . Smooth Pipe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Figure 5-11 Pipe Sizing Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Figure 7-2 Variations of a Basic Simplex Booster System: (Standby Generator Application with Accumulator Tank Having a Limitation on Maximum Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Figure 5-7(b) Piston. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiple Dwellings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Figure 8-3 Transverse and Lineal Sections of Drain FieldShowing Rock and Earth Backfill around Drain Tile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Figure 5-19(c) Horizontal Turbine Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fairly Rough Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Figure 5-7(a) Bellows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Figure 4-8 Typical Roof Drain and Roof Leader . . . . . . . 86 Figure 5-17 Domestic Water Piping Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . to gpm (L/s) . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Figure 5-14 Pipe Sizing Data. . . . 95 Figure 6-1 Occupant Demographic Classifications . . . . . . . . 90 Figure 5-22 Typical Resistance Coefficients for Valves and Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (C) Heat Exchanger Loop Example—Required for High Flow Range with Low Minimum Flow . . . . . . . 74 Figure 5-8 Water Supply Graph . . . . . . . 120 Figure 7-3 Gas Demand for Multiple-unit Dwellings with More than 50 Apartments123 Figure 7-4 Gas Demand for Multiple-unit Dwellings with Less than 50 Apartments 124 Figure 8-1 Three Legs of Disposal FieldFed from Cross Fitting Laid on Its Side . . . . . . . . . . . CV Values for Valves . . . . . . . . . . 87 Figure 5-18 Method for Conducting a Water Flow Test . . . 62 Figure 5-2 Simplified Downfeed Water Supply System with Simplified Elevated Water Tank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Figure 5-13 Pipe Sizing Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Figure 8-4 Graph Showing RelationBetween Percolation Rate and AllowableRate at Sewage Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Figure 5-16 Form to Track WFSU and Other Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Figure 5-1 RPZ Discharge Flow Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Figure 7-1 Altitude Correction Factor . . . . . . . . 93 Figure 5-23 Flow Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Figure 5-19(b) Compound Magnetic Drive Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Figure 5-15 Conversion of Fixture Units. . . . . 79 Figure 5-12 Pipe Sizing Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rough Pipe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Figure 5-3 Piping Arrangement of an Elevated Water Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Figure 4-7 Clear Water Waste Branches forConnection to Storm System . . . . . . . . . . 67 Figure 5-4 Estimated Water House Tank Storage Capacity. . . . . . (d) Rechargeable Air Chamber. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Figure 7-2 (cont. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .) Variations of a Basic Simplex Booster System: (B) Dual Booster System for Critical Systems Like Those in Hospitals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Figure 5-21 Determining Pressure Available for Friction . fu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (c) Standpipe Air Chamber. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Figure 5-9 Kinematic Viscosity and Reynolds Number Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Figure 5-6 (a. . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Figure 5-10 Friction Factors for Any Kind and Size of Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Figure 5-22 (cont. . . . . . . . . . 87 Figure 5-19(a) Disc-type Positive Displacement Magnetic Drive Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .) Typical Resistance Coefficients for Valves and Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . b) Plain Air Chambers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fairly Smooth Pipe . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Figure 9-3 Typical Gravel Filter Well with a Vertical Turbine Pump(Note the concrete seal adjacent to the outer well casing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Figure 11-13 Plate-and-Frame Reverse Osmosis Configuration . . . . . . 236 Figure 12-4 Typical Oil Interceptor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Figure 9-4 Graph Indicating Minimum Storage Tank Size . . . . . . . . . 192 Figure 11-2 pH of Saturation for Water . Granular-activated Carbon Filter . 207 Figure 11-8 Typical Mixed-bed Ion Exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Figure 10-5 Acceptable Leakage in Vacuum Systems . . . . . . 212 Figure 11-11 Spiral-wound Reverse Osmosis Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Figure 11-3 Detail of Vapor Compression Still. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Figure 10-2 Schematic Detail of a Typical Laboratory Vacuum Pump Assembly . . . . 214 Figure 11-15 Principle of Corona Discharge Ozone Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Figure 11-9 Schematic Operation of a Continuous Deionization Unit. 177 Figure 10-6 Vacuum Cleaning Piping Friction Loss Chart . . 182 Figure 10-7 Schematic of a Typical Wet Vacuum Cleaning Pump Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 Figure 12-5 Typical Gravity Drawoff Installation: (A) Plan and (B) Isometric. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (B) Anti-vortex Alternate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents Figure 9-1 Well Under (A) Static and (B) Pumping Conditions . . . 209 Figure 11-10 Hollow-fiber Reverse Osmosis Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Figure 11-1 Typical Water Analysis Report . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Figure 11-14 UV Wavelength Spectrum. . . . . . . . . 245 xiii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Figure 11-4 Detail of Multi-effect Still . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Figure 11-6 Typical Single-bed Ion Exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Figure 10-3 Typical Process Vacuum Pump Duplex Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Figure 9-2 Typical Pitless Adaptor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Figure 11-12 Tubular Reverse Osmosis Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Figure 12-1 Typical Acid-resistant Manhole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Figure 9-5 Storage Tank Suction Piping Detail: (A) Sump Suction Alternate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Figure 12-3 Typical Continuous Acid Waste Treatment System . . . . . . . . . . 215 Figure 11-16 Typical Pharmaceutical Water Flow Diagram. . . . . . . 233 Figure 12-2 Typical Large Acid-neutralizing Basin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Figure 10-4 Direct Reading Chart Showing Diversity for Laboratory Vacuum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Figure 10-1 Conversion of Vacuum Pressure Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Figure 11-5 Schematic Detail of Large-scale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Figure 11-7 Typical Dual-bed Ion Exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xiv ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Table 1-6 Slopes of Cast Iron Soil Pipe Sanitary Sewer Required to Obtain Self-cleansing Velocities of 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Table 2-4 Minimum Horizontal Distances for Graywater System Elements . . . . . 25 Table 2-3 Design Criteria for Graywater Irrigation of Six Typical Soils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .015 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Table 1-2 Capacities of Stacks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Table 5-1 Displacement-type Meters Meeting AWWA Specifications—Flow Pressure Loss Averages . . . . . . . . . . . . AF . . 26 Table 2-7 Contaminant Concentration in Urban Storm Water . . . 7 Table 1-8 Recommended Grate Open Areas for Various Floor Drains with Outlet Pipe Sizes . . . . . . 34 Table 3-2 IPC Sizes of Individual Vents and Vent Branches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n = 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Table 2-8 Water Balance Worksheet. . . 26 Table 2-5 Graywater Treatment Processes for Normal Process Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and AH . . . 54 Appendix A Table 1 Rainfall (inches) for Selected Municipalities . . . . . . . . . 61 Table 5-2 Compound-type Meters Meeting AWWA Specifications—Flow Pressure Loss Averages . . . . . .5 ft/sec. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (based on Manning formula with n = 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Table 1-7 Building Drains and Sewers . . 39 Table 3-3 UPC Sizes of Any Vent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Table 4-4 Windows TR-55 Capabilities and Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Table 4-6 Sizes of Roof Drains and Vertical Pipes . . . 26 Table 2-6 Comparison of Graywater System Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . R2/3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 and 2. . . 10 Table 1-9 Relative Properties of Selected Plumbing Materials for Drainage Systems 14 Table 2-1 Water Reuse Issues of Concerns . . .Table of Contents xv Tables Table 1-1 Residential Drainage Fixture Unit (dfu) Loads . 28 Table 3-1 Maximum Distance of a Fixture Trap from a Vent Connection. . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Table 4-3 Sources of Pollutants in Wisconsin Storm Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Table 5-3 Turbine-type Meters Meeting AWWA Specifications—Flow Pressure Loss Averages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Table 1-5 Approximate Discharge Rates and Velocities in Sloping Drains. . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Table 2-2 LEED 2009 Baseline for Plumbing Fixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Table 1-3 Maximum Permissible Fixture Unit Loads for Sanitary Stacks . . . . . . . . . . 4 Table 1-4 Values of R. . . . . 51 Table 4-7 Size of Horizontal Storm Drains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Table 4-5 Design Infiltration Rates for Soil Textures Receiving Storm Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Table 4-2 Contaminant Concentrations in Urban Storm Water . . . . . . .012) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Table 4-1 Coefficients for Use with the Rational Method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and High Guidelines: Hot Water Demand and Use for Multifamily Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Table 5-21 Water Distribution System Design Criteria Required Capacity at Fixture Supply Pipe Outlets . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Table 5-11 Expansion Tank Pressure Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Table 5-13 Water Hammer Arrester Sizing . . . . . . . 150 . . . . . . . . . . . P (continued) . . . . . 127 Table 8-1 Maximum Soil Application Rates Based on Morphological Soil Evaluation (in gals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Medium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P (continued) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Table 5-12 Required Air Chambers . . . . . . ./ sq. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Table 6-6 Recommended Water System Temperatures. . . . . . . 68 Table 5-10 Water Expansion Above 40°F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Table 7-2 Physical and Combustion Properties of Commonly Available Fuel Gases 114 Table 7-3 Approximate Gas Demand for Common Appliances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Table 7-4 Equivalent Lengths for Various Valve and Fitting Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Table 7-7 Conversion of Gas Pressure to Various Designations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Table 5-9 Standard Wood House Tanks . . . 100 Table 6-3 Typical Hot Water Temperatures for Plumbing Fixtures and Equipment 101 Table 6-4 Hot Water Multiplier. . . . . . . . . . . 66 Table 5-8 Size of Gravity Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P . . . . . . . . 126 Table 7-6 Specific Gravity Multipliers . . . . . . . . . 63 Table 5-6 Hydropneumatic Tank Volume Ratios. . . 83 Table 5-20 Minimum Sizes of Fixture Water Supply Pipes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Table 5-7 Tank Size Varying by Its Location in a Building. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Table 5-16 Values of ε (Absolute Roughness). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Table 8-5 Allowable Sludge Accumulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ./day) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Table 5-5 Pressure Losses Through RPZs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Table 8-4 Liquid Capacity of Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Table 6-7 Time/Water Temperature Combinations Producing Skin Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Table 8-3 Recommended Setbacks for Soil Absorption Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Table 5-15 Surface Roughness Coefficient (C) Values for Various Types of Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Table 6-4 Hot Water Multiplier. . . . . . . . . . . 83 Table 5-19 Estimating Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Table 8-2 Maximum Soil Application Rates Based onPercolation Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xvi ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Table 5-4 BFP Flow Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Table 5-17 Average Values for Coefficient of Friction. . 86 Table 5-22 Allowance for Friction Loss in Valves and Threaded Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Table 6-5 Thermal Properties of Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Table 6-1 Hot Water Demand per Fixture for Various Types of Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Table 6-2 Low. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Table 8-6 Average Wastewater Flowsfrom Residential Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Table 7-1 Average Physical Properties of Natural Gas and Propane . . . 74 Table 5-14 Densities of Pure Waterat Various Temperatures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Table 5-6(SI) Hydropneumatic Tank Volume Ratios. . . . . . . . . . .3 inch (7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Table 7-5 Pipe Sizing for Pressure Less than 2 psi (14 kPa) and Loss of 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 mm) of Water Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Table 6-4 Hot Water Multiplier. . . . . . 78 Table 5-18 Load Values Assigned to Fixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Table 11-13 AAMI/ANSI Water Quality Standards . . . . . . . . . . . Hg) . . . . . . . . 184 Table 11-1 Important Elements. . . . . . . . . 183 Table 10-16 Classification of Material for Separator Selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Table 8-10 Quantities of Sewage Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Table 8-12 Allowable Rate of Sewage Application to a Soil Absorption System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acid Radicals. . . . . . 175 Table 10-9(A) Pressure Loss Data for Sizing vacuum Pipe. 168 Table 10-5 Factor for Flow Rate Reduction Due to Altitude. . . . . . 220 Table 11-14 ASTM Electronics-grade Water Standard . . 181 Table 10-14 Pipe Size Based on Simultaneous Usage . . . . . . 221 Table 12-1 Drainage Pipe Sizing. . . 174 Table 10-9 Pressure Loss Data for Sizing Vacuum Pipe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 . . . . . . . . . . 166 Table 10-2 Expanded Air Ratio. . . . . . . . . . . 150 Table 8-8 Typical Wastewater Flows from Institutional Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P (in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Table 11-4 Prediction of Water Tendencies by the Langelier Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Table 11-2 Converting ppm of Impurities to ppm of Calcium Carbonate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Table 8-11 Estimated Distribution of Sewage Flows. . . . . 205 Table 11-8 Comparison of Reverse Osmosis Polymers . . . . . . . .as Table 10-3 Direct Ratio for Converting scfm to acfm (sL/s to aL/s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Table 11-15 USP XXII Purified Water andWFI Water Purity Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Table 11-12 NCCLS Reagent-grade Water Specifications . . . . for Finding Mean Air Velocity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents Table 8-7 Typical Wastewater Flows from Commercial Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Table 10-10 Vacuum Pump Exhaust Pipe Sizing. . . . . . . . . . . 169 Table 10-7 IP and SI Pressure Conversion . . . . 151 Table 8-9 Typical Wastewater Flows from Recreational Sources . . . . . . andAcids in Water Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Table 11-3 Resistivity and Conductivity Conversion. 181 Table 10-13 Recommended Velocities for Vacuum Cleaning Systems . . . . 218 Table 11-11 CAP and ASTM Reagent-grade Water Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Table 10-8 Diversity Factor for LaboratoryVacuum Air Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92/P a Function of Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Table 10-1 Conversions fromTorr to Various Vacuum Pressure Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High Vacuum Pressure System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Table 11-10 Water Treatment Technology for Small Potable Water Systems . . . 230 Table 12-1(M) Drainage Pipe Sizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Table 10-12 Flow Rate and Friction Loss for Vacuum Cleaning Tools and Hoses. . 213 Table 11-9 Recommended Boiler Feed Water Limits and Steam Purity . . . . . . . . 168 Table 10-4 Barometric Pressure Corresponding to Altitude. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Table 11-5 Numerical Values for Substitution in Equation 11-3 to Find the pHs of Saturation for Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . 176 Table 10-11 Recommended Sizes of Hand Tools and Hose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Table 11-6 Prediction of Water Tendenciesby the Ryzner Index . 183 Table 10-15 Equivalent Length (ft) ofVacuum Cleaning Pipe Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Table 11-7 Typical Cations and Anions Found in Water . . 231 xvii . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29. . . . . . . 168 Table 10-6 Constant. . . . . Low Pressure Vacuum System . . . . . . . . . . . .

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but some states and large cities have adopted their own plumbing codes. and creating undue noise. A variety of different codes are used to lay out and size interior sanitary drainage systems. FLOW IN STACKS A stack is the main vertical pipe that carries away discharge from water closets and urinals (soil stack) or other clear water waste from equipment and nonsanitary fixtures (waste stack). . sizing procedures. From that point on. which may be a long-turn tee-wye or a short-turn or sanitary tee. and before it falls very far. the sheet remains unchanged in thickness and velocity until it reaches the bottom of the stack. Each of these fittings permits flow from the drain to enter the stack with a component directed vertically downward. the force of gravity rapidly accelerates it downward. To economically design a sanitary drainage system. generating excessive pneumatic pressures at points where the fixture drains connect to the stack (which might cause the reduction of trap water seals and force sewer gases back through inhabitable areas). The ultimate vertical velocity the sheet attains is called the “terminal velocity. A sanitary drainage system generally consists of horizontal branches. the type of stack fitting.0(Q/d)2/5 Equation 1-1b (terminal length) LT = 0. including sanitary drainage. the following discussion centers only on the design of drain and waste systems. and the information pertaining to sanitary design for a specific project appears in the approved local plumbing code. and the flow down the stack from higher levels (if any). Because of this non-standardization. leaving solids in the piping. the discharge from the fixture drain may or may not fill the cross-section of the stack at the level of entry. and design methods and should not be used for actual design purposes. which must be the primary method used for the accepted methods and sizing. as soon as the water enters the stack. the diameter of the stack. This sheet of water continues to accelerate until the frictional force exerted by the wall of the stack on the falling sheet of water equals the force of gravity. it assumes the form of a sheet around the wall of the stack.” The distance the sheet must fall to attain this terminal velocity is called the “terminal length.052V T2 where CODES AND STANDARDS Plumbing codes establish a minimum acceptable standard for the design and installation of systems. if the distance the water falls is sufficient enough and provided that no flow enters the stack at lower levels to interfere with the sheet. Depending on the rate of flow out of the drain into the stack. the actual plumbing code used for each specific project must be obtained from a responsible code official. leaving the center of the pipe open for the flow of air. There are various model codes. Flow in the drain empties into the vertical stack fitting.” Following are the formulae developed for calculating the terminal velocity and terminal length: Equation 1-1a (terminal velocity) V T = 3. a building drain inside the building. Since vents and venting systems are described in Chapter 3 of this volume. and a building sewer from the building wall to the point of disposal. In any event.1 Sanitary Drainage Systems The purpose of the sanitary drainage system is to remove effluent discharged from plumbing fixtures and other equipment to an approved point of disposal. the designer should use the smallest pipes possible according to the applicable code that can rapidly carry away the soiled water from individual fixtures without clogging the pipes. vertical stacks. rather than the ones usually associated with the region. The tables and charts appearing in this chapter are used only to illustrate and augment discussions of sizing methods.

Flow in Building Drains When the sheet of water reaches the bend at the base of the stack. The air is then vented through the main street sewer system so dangerous pressures do not build up. with a fixture such as a toilet. it turns at approximately right angles into the building drain.57 meters per second). gallons per minute (gpm) (liters per second) d = Diameter of stack. The importance of this knowledge is that it conclusively abolishes the myth that water falling from a great height will destroy the fittings at the base of a stack. It cannot be assumed. and a slug of water is formed. but the use of low-flow and dual-flush toilets requires the design of the horizontal piping to be reconsidered. so the air can flow freely with the water. When air enters the top of the stack to replace the air being carried with the water. If the sheet of water falling down the stack passes a stack fitting through which the discharge from a fixture is entering the stack. the pressure inside the stack decreases. the pipe will flow full for part of its length. The entrained air in the stack causes a pressure reduction inside the stack. filling the drain at that point. however. In the past. the water from the branch mixes with or deflects the rapidly moving sheet of water. This phenomenon is called a “hydraulic jump. An excess pressure in the drain from which the water is entering the stack is required to deflect the sheet of water flowing downward or to mix the branch water with it. that the surge caused by the discharge of a toilet through a fixture drain reaches the stack or horizontal branch with practically the same velocity it had when it left the fixture. This occurs for several reasons. The vertical component of the flow out of the trap into the drain tends to make the water attach to the upper elements of the drain. this pressure reduction is negligible. The slope of the building drain is not adequate to maintain the velocity that existed in the vertical sheet when it reached the base of the stack and must flow horizontally. amounting to only a small fraction of an inch of water. a lavatory drain capable of carrying the flow discharged from a lavatory may still flow full over part or all of its length. which is caused by the frictional effect of the falling sheet of water dragging the core of air with it. because of the head loss necessary to accelerate the air and to provide for the energy loss at the entrance. If insufficient air is aspirated through the overflow.2 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Less hydraulic jump occurs if the horizontal drain is larger than the stack. PNEUMATIC PRESSURES IN A SANITARY DRAINAGE SYSTEM Due to the pressure conditions in a stack and a building drain. with the average flow velocity being less than the normal velocity for the flow rate in the drain at a given slope. and this velocity is attained within 10 to 15 feet (3. feet per second (fps) (meters per second) LT = Terminal length below the point of flow entry.” The critical distance at which the hydraulic jump may occur varies from immediately at the stack fitting to 10 times the diameter of the stack downstream. The concern is the weight of the stack. since the fixture drain must be adequate only to carry the discharge from the fixture to which it is attached. it is advisable to select a diameter large enough that the drain flows little more than half-full under the maximum discharge conditions likely to be imposed by the fixture.05 to 4. The result is a back-pressure created in the branch. After the hydraulic jump occurs and water fills the drain. feet (meters) Q = Quantity rate of flow.05 to 4. for all practical purposes. A supply source of air must be provided to avoid excessive pressures in the stack. However. Because of the problem of selfsiphonage. At the center of the stack is a core of air that is dragged along with the water by friction. The velocity of the water flowing along the building drain and sewer decreases slowly and then increases suddenly as the depth of flow increases and completely fills the cross-section of the drain. wastewater does not fill the cross-section anywhere. inches (millimeters) Terminal velocity is approximately 10 to 15 fps (3. This still is generally true. Flow enters the horizontal drain at a relatively high velocity compared to the flow velocity in a horizontal drain under uniform flow conditions. Flow in Fixture Drains Determination of the required drain size is a relatively simple matter. which increases with the flow rate and flow velocity down the stack and with the flow rate out of the drain. which must be supported by clamps at each floor level. For example. The generally accepted pressure is ±1 inch of water column. the surge of water from the toilet continued almost without change even along a very long drain until it reached the stack. The usual means of supplying this air are through the stack vent or vent stack. the pipe tends to flow full until the friction resistance of the pipe retards the flow to that of uniform flow conditions. Appreciable pressure reductions are caused by the partial or complete blocking of the .57 meters) of fall from the point of entry. VT = Terminal velocity in the stack. The water flowing down the wall of the stack drags air with it by friction and carries the air through the building drain to the street sewer. The velocity at the base of a 100-story stack is only slightly and insignificantly greater than the velocity at the base of a three-story stack.

Chapter 1 — Sanitary Drainage Systems stack by water flowing into the stack from a horizontal branch. and washing machine. Hunter. but some show a much lower peak and a longer period of discharge. Drainage Loads Single-family dwellings contain certain plumbing fixtures. it provides a definite law of variation of stack capacity with diameter. These include studies of reduced flow from water-saving fixtures. did not occur until the stack flowed one-quarter to one-third . Dr. and bathtubs. Hunter conceived the idea of assigning a fixture unit value to represent the degree to which a fixture loads a system when used at its maximum assumed flow and frequency. However. and are tabulated in Table 1-2. Roy B.6-gpf gravity tank) Toilet (1. in entirely independent investigations. If this law can be shown to hold for the lower part of the range of stack diameters. in sets of two or three Shower (each head) Kitchen sink (including dishwasher and garbage disposal) Toilet (1. Assigning drainage fixture unit (dfu) values to fixtures to represent their load-producing effect on the plumbing system originally was proposed in 1923 by Dr. gpm (liters per second) rs = Ratio of the cross-sectional area of the sheet of water to the cross-sectional area of the stack D = Diameter of the stack. but they do not have the same effect as water closets. such as sinks. it should be valid for the larger diameters. This is due to the decrease in cross-sectional area available for airflow when the water flowing in the drain has adapted to the slope and diameter of the drain. came to the conclusion that slugs of water. Other plumbing fixtures. and actual fixture use. The fixture unit values were designed for application in conjunction with the probability of simultaneous use of fixtures to establish the maximum permissible drainage loads expressed in fixture units rather than in gpm of drainage flow. The purpose of the fixture unit concept is to make it possible to calculate the design load of the system directly when the system is a combination of different kinds of fixtures. may produce similar surging flows in drainage systems. branch. and house drain flows. as suggested by earlier investigations. each consisting of a toilet. a kitchen sink. they are used with irregular frequencies that vary greatly during the day.6-gpf flushometer tank) Toilet (1. Hunter. Consequently. A small increase in pneumatic pressure will occur in the building drain even if the airflow is not completely blocked by a hydraulic jump or by submergence of the outlet and the building sewer.8 x rs5/3 x D8/3 where Q = Capacity.M. Dawson and Dr. single Lavatory. the probability of all the fixtures in the building operating simultaneously is small. particularly for low-flow toilets. Stack Capacities The criterion of flow capacities in drainage stacks is based on the limitation of the water-occupied crosssection to a specified fraction (rs) of the cross-section of the stack where terminal velocity exists. Equation 1-2 Q = 27. Flow capacity can be expressed in terms of the stack diameter and the water cross-section. inches (millimeters) Values of flow rates based on r = ¼. The discharge characteristics for various types of bowls. The plumbing engineer must conform to local code requirements. with their accompanying violent pressure fluctuations. Current or recently conducted studies of drainage loads on drainage systems may change these values. models of stack. Large buildings also have other fixtures. It should be remembered that both F. In addition. lavatory. such as slop sinks and drinking water coolers. dishwasher. The important characteristic of these fixtures is that they are not used continuously. Rather. the various fixtures have quite different discharge characteristics regarding both the average flow rate per use and the duration of a single discharge. Table 1-1 gives the recommended fixture unit values. have a significant impact on estimating the capacity of a sanitary drainage system. lavatories. with each having a unique loading characteristic. and bathtub or shower stall. 7/24. Whether or not Equation 1-2 can be used safely to predict stack capacities remains to be confirmed and accepted. Table 1-1 Residential Drainage Fixture Unit (dfu) Loads Fixture Bathtub Clothes washer Dishwasher Floor drain 1¼-inch trap loading 1½-inch trap loading 2-inch trap loading 3-inch trap loading 4-inch trap loading Laundry tray Lavatory. such as one or more bathroom groups.6-gpf flushometer valve) IPC 2 3 2 3 – – – – – 2 1 2 2 3 4 5 4 UPC 3 3 2 – 1 3 4 6 8 2 1 2 2 3 4 5 4 3 FIXTURE DISCHARGE CHARACTERISTICS The discharge characteristic curves—flow rates as a function of time—for most toilet bowls have the same general shape.

which permits only 90 fixture units to be introduced into a 4-inch (100-millimeter) stack in any one-branch interval. This is done by totaling the fixture units connected to each branch and using the corresponding figure in column 2 of Table 1-3.0) 2.6) 1.400 2.5 (1.77) 70 (4. The procedure for sizing a multistory stack (greater than three floors) is to first size the horizontal branches connected to the stack. the stack as originally determined must be increased at least one size.35) 261 (16. The water flowing out of the branch can enter the stack only by mixing with the stream flowing down the stack or by deflecting it. gpm (L/s) r = 7⁄24 r = 1⁄3 23. or the loading of the branches must be redesigned so the maximum conditions are satisfied.800 5. in. Such a deflection of the high-velocity stream coming down the stack can be accomplished only if there is a significant hydrostatic pressure in the branch. If an attempt is made to introduce an overly large flow into the stack at any one level. That is. Immediately check the next column. total all the fixture units connected to the stack and determine the size from the same table.8) 1.400 1. since a force of some kind is required to deflect the downward flowing stream and change its momentum.900 350 1.068 (130. the corresponding maximum permissible flow for the various sizes of pipe in gpm can be determined.500 3.5) 2.3) r = 1⁄4 17. Most model codes have based their stack loading tables on a value of r = ¼ or 7/24. This hydrostatic pressure is created by the water backing up in the branch until the head changes the momentum of the stream already in the stack to allow the flow from the branch to enter the stack. the inflow will fill the stack at that level and will back up the water above the elevation of inflow.44) 424 (26.200 3. .655 (104.4) 2. Next. The table was created by taking into account the probability of simultaneous use of fixtures. Table 1-3 shows the maximum permissible fixture unit loads for sanitary stacks.07) 205 (12. This problem was solved in a study of stack capacities made by Wyly and Eaton at the National Bureau of Standards for the Housing and Home Finance Agency in 1950. This is the total load from all branches. if 500 fixture units is the maximum loading for a 4-inch (100-millimeter) stack. (mm) 1½ (40) 2 (50) 2½ (65) 3 (80) 4 (100) 5 (125) 6 (150) 8 (200) 10 (250) 12 (300) 15 (380) full. Diameter of Pipe. By substituting r = 7/24 into Equation 1-2. (mm) 2 (50) 3 (80) 4 (100) 5 (125) 6 (150) 8 (200) 10 (250) 12 (300) ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Capacities of Stacks Flow. This load is limited by column 5 of the same table. It should be noted that there is a restriction on the amount of flow permitted to enter a stack from any branch when the stack is more than three branch intervals.300 (82. it is the head measured at the axis of the pipe that will cause the branch to flow full near the exit.900 6. consider a 4-inch (100-millimeter) stack more than three stories high. “Total at One Branch Interval.082 (131.82) 710 (44. For example. For example. b No more than two water closets or bathroom groups within eachbranch interval or more than six water closets or bathroom groups on the stack.000 – – – a Does not include branches of the building drain. It is half of the diameter of the horizontal branch at its connection to the stack.41) 85 (5. which will cause violent pressure fluctuations in the stack—resulting in the siphoning of trap seals—and also may cause sluggish flow in the horizontal branch.5) 324 (20.100 200 620 960 1. the water has a greater vertical velocity when it enters the stack than it does when a sanitary tee is used. The maximum loading for a 4-inch (100-millimeter) branch is 160 fixture units.45) 28 (1.3 liters per second) is equivalent to 500 fixture units.36) 145 (9.600 600 2. The stack would have to be increased in size to accommodate any branch load exceeding 90 fixture units. then 147 gpm (9.692 (170) 3.8) 530 (33.000 3.14) 180 (11. When a long-turn tee-wye is used to connect the branch to the stack.28) 112 (7.365 (212. Table 1-3 lists the maximum permissible fixture units (fu) to be conveyed by stacks of various sizes.93) 330 (20.140 (72) 1.4) Table 1-3 Maximum Permissible Fixture Unit Loads for Sanitary Stacks Maximum dfu that May Be Connected Stacks with more than One stack three branch intervals Any of three horizontal or fewer Total at fixture branch Total for one branch brancha intervals stack interval 3 4 8 2 6 10 24 6 12 20 42 9 b b b 20 48 72 20b 160 240 500 90 360 540 1.600 1. The maximum hydrostatic pressure that should be permitted in the branch as a result of the backing up of the spent water is based on this consideration: The backup should not be of a magnitude that would cause the water to back up into a shower stall or cause sluggish flow. If it is exceeded.” and determine if this maximum is exceeded by any of the branches.43) 913 (57. in.500 7.0 (1.000 8. under column 4.1) 52 (3. The back-pressures should be smaller in this case for the same flows down the stack and in the branch. The recommended maximum permissible flow in a stack is 7/24 of the total cross-sectional area of the stack. as shown in column 2 of Table 1-3.4 Table 1-2 Pipe Size.

water. According to Table 1-3. Size the portion of the stack above the fifthfloor offset. assume 1.6 meter) above the offset. 1. After falling down the vertical stack. In this case. 2. from the top floor down (in this case. 1. surging condition. Size and slope the offset below the street floor are complicated by surging flow.6 meter) below the offset. Size the offset on the fifth floor. run the fixture drain . Determining drain size is based on highly fluctuating or surging flow conditions in the horizontal The fixture on the sixth floor should be connected branches carrying the discharge of fixtures to the soil to the stack at least 2 feet (0. but still in a the stack at least 2 feet (0.200 fixture units are connected to the stack from the street floor through the top floor. 400 fixture units require a 4-inch (100millimeter) stack. or waste stack. The lower porFigure 1-1 Procedure for Sizing an Offset Stack tion of the stack must be large enough to down to the fifth or fourth floor and connect to the serve all of the fixture units connected to it. column 4.Chapter 1 — Sanitary Drainage Systems 5 To illustrate the requirements of a stack with an offset of more than 45 degrees from the vertical. the same as a building drain.200 fixture units). with one offset between the fifth and sixth floors and another offset below the street floor.200 CAPACITIES OF SLOPING DRAINS fixture units require a 6-inch (150-millimeter) The characteristics of sewage are the same as plain stack. If this is not possible. Sizing is computed as follows: 1. An offset is sized and sloped like a building drain. 4. According to Table 1-3. There are 400 fixture units from the top floor down through the sixth floor. Figure 1-1 shows the sizing of a stack in a 12-story building. Compute the fixture units connected to the stack. If this is not possible either. Size the lower portion of the stack from the fifth floor down through the street floor. then connect them separately to the water is assumed to enter the building drain with surge peaks leveled off somewhat. The capacities of horizontal or sloping drains 5. 3. stack at that point.

24) 0.1040 (3. feet (meters) f = Friction coefficient L = Length of pipe.1910 (5.318 x C x R0. which is similar to the Hazen and Williams formula. Hence.0081) 0.62) 0.78540 (0. Thus.1200 (3. 32. If the secondary branch is long enough and if the drain serves a large number of fixtures.486 x R0.1570 (4.0063) 0.53) AF (CrossAH (Cross-sectional sectional Area for Area for Half-full R2/3.81) 0. three of the commonly used formulas for flow in pipes will be considered: Hazen and Williams. The flow quantity is equal to the cross-sectional area of the flow times the flow velocity obtained from the above three equations.0046) 0.2500 (7.0364) 0.67 x S0.78) 0.0040) 0.27) 0.00065) 0. is meant for open-channel flow and usually is written as follows: Equation 1-5 1. Hazen-Williams Formula This formula usually is written as follows: Equation 1-3 V = 1.486 x R x S½ n This is the formula used by many plumbing engineers to deal with sloping drain problems.2500 (7. feet (meters) V = Mean velocity of flow.22700 (0.08730 (0.0182) 0. and AH Pipe Size. R2/3. the quantity of flow in variously sized drains of the same material can be calculated as: Equation 1-5b Q = A x 1.59) 0.54 where V = Mean velocity of flow.54) 0.01704 (0.0335 (1.03408 (0.3030 (9.0506) 0.17460 (0. and Manning.82) 0.66) 0.0127) 0.0625 (1.17) 0.05) 1.0162) 0.0833 (2.39270 (0.0253) 0.02) 0.3125 (9.01090 (0. feet (meters) D = Diameter of pipe.06820 (0. After the water enters the building drain.09820 (0. square feet (square meters) V = Velocity of flow. fps (meters per second) g = Acceleration of gravity.0091) 0. which varies with the roughness of the pipe and the pipe diameter.0417 (1. the flow may become substantially uniform before it reaches the street sewer.1396 (4.8 m/s2) Manning Formula The Manning formula.6 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 and the roughness of the walls. Table 1-4 Values of R.61350 (0. The A large building covering considerable ground area probably has several primary branches and certainly at least one secondary branch. the dimensionless friction coefficient f varies with the diameter of the pipe. particularly after the hydraulic jump has occurred. ft (mm) 0.1670 (5.3510 (10. the velocity of flow. n is the Manning coefficient.13640 (0. the kinematic viscosity of the fluid flowing. Uniform Flow Conditions in Sloping Drains Although the equations of steady.23) 0.34920 (0.0009) 0.0521 (1.04910 (0. Steady. ft (mm) Full Flow). ft2 (m2) Flow).00706 (0.19640 (0.0730) 0.09) 0. This can be expressed as: Equation 1-5a Q = AV where Q = Quantity rate of flow. Darcy-Weisbach.63 x S0.70) 0.0013) 0.27270 (0. becoming more and more nearly uniform. It usually is written as follows: Equation 1-4 hf = FLV2 D2g where hf = Pressure drop or friction loss.62) 0.0023) 0.33) 0.1040 (3. feet (meters) S = Slope of pressure gradient The exponents of R and S in Equation 1-3 have been selected to make the coefficient C as nearly constant as possible for different pipe diameters and for different velocities of flow.10) 0. Darcy-Weisbach Formula In this formula.2 fps2 (9. C is approximately constant for a given pipe roughness.02455 (0. uniform flow in sloping drains should not be used to determine the capacities of sloping drains in which surging flow exists.486 V= x R⅔ x S½ = 1. flow computations based on these formulas afford a rough check on values obtained by the more complicated methods that are applicable to surging flow.02180 (0. fps (meters per second) By substituting the value of V from Manning’s formula.0031) 0.50 n n In this formula.04365 (0.0379) 0. in. cubic feet per second (cfs) (cubic meters per second) A = Cross-sectional area of flow.74) 0.0324) 0. fps (meters per second) C = Hazen and Williams coefficient R = Hydraulic radius of pipe.3970 (12.54540 (0.90) 0. (mm) 1½ (40) 2 (50) 2½ (65) 3 (80) 4 (100) 5 (125) 6 (150) 8 (200) 10 (250) 12 (300) 15 (380) R = 1⁄4.4610 (14.1250 (3. the surge continues to level off.2080 (6.17) 0.01412 (0. AF .2210 (6. ft2 (m2) 0.0020) 0.0570) .0015) 0.

7) 2 (50) 21 26 2½ (65) 24 31 3 (80) 20 42b 50b 4 (100) 180 216 250 5 (125) 390 480 575 6 (150) 700 840 1.10) 157 (10) 340 (21. (based on Manning formula with n = 0.21) 3.1) 75.0029 154.15 0.0291 11.0017 349.5) 3 (76.0043 89.0 2.0054 59. Table 1-6 Slopes of Cast Iron Soil Pipe Sanitary Sewer Required to Obtain Self-cleansing Velocities of 2.0013 523.0010 826.6) 1.52 0.04 (128.23 (0.0023 231.49) 1.77 0.83 Slope (ft/ft) 0.15 0.64) 4.0107 0./ft (6. in.20) 3.11) 37.0019 Full Flow (gpm) 18.0186 0.0026 453.54) 5.920 2.0) 10.36 172.0045 0.6) 5 (127) 6 (152.600 6.0114 0. The minimum slopes are as follows: • Pipe 3 inches (80 millimeters) and smaller: ¼ inch per foot (6.5) 4.2) 480 (30.68) 17.5 2.61 678.2 millimeters per meter) • Pipe 8 inches (200 millimeters) and larger: 1/16 inch per foot (1.5 2.28) 1.8) 21.700 15 (380) 7000 8300 10.25 (0.56) 53.8) a 7 1 ⁄16 in.0313 4.64 385.1) 6.83) 170 (10.0026 436.0012 550.3 (3.7) 35.42 (0.2) 2.0085 32.5 2.28) 2 (50.0073 38.31 0.19 (81.0021 654.34 0.0178 10.0133 40. .72 215.4) 1⁄2 (12.0141 37.0 and 2.0026 0.64 76.50 (0.26 0.79 0.96) 3.14) 436 (27.0021 0.0167 26.23 0.015a Actual Inside Diameter of Pipe. Velocity.36) 2.2) 1.15) 8.46) 1.0042 86.000 8 (200) 1400 1600 1./ft (12.8 (1. n = 0.6 (1.86 (98.42 (0. Velocity.93 (0.04 95.0 2.09) 4.5 ft/sec.30) 111 (7.0048 77. The designer must confirm the required slopes with the local code On-site sewers that serve more than one building may be sized according to the current standards and specifications of the administrative authority for public sewers.69 604.43 (61.7) 222 (14.0 5.91 53.0489 5.0085 0.29 0.5 2.0019 688.0291 0.0 2.41) 1.0107 21.9) 15⁄8 (41.95 0.0191 23.32) 5.6 millimeters per meter) These slopes are not a hard and fast rule and might be less under unusual conditions.5 (4.0021 241.Chapter 1 — Sanitary Drainage Systems Table 1-5 Approximate Discharge Rates and Velocities in Sloping Drains. fps gpm (L/s) (mm/s) 1 Actual Inside Half-full Flow Discharge Rate and Velocity 1 ⁄8 in. 1 (mm) ⁄16 (1.6 (6.0058 57.0066 0.59 0.5 2.0085 74.9 (0./ft (mm/m) of Pipe.42 0. Check the local codes in the area served for exact requirements or restrictions.70 (1.0) 7.9) 872 (55.90 0.81 (0. fps Discharge.2) 137 (8.44 (0.015 and divide by n of another pipe.53 (0.8) 13⁄8 (34.0 2.0054 0.13 (0.13 (155. in.79 0.9) 11.43) 500 (31. For full flow: Multiply velocity by 1.5 1/4 Full Slope Flow (ft/ft) (gpm) 0.0 2. For smoother pipe: Multiply discharge and velocity by 0.99 0.67 0.1) 2. fps gpm (L/s) (mm/s) gpm (L/s) (mm/s) 3.0021 275.0045 192. except in single-family dwellings.17 (55.34 (1.52 0.0 2. fps gpm (L/s) (mm/s) 3.0028 174.0 12. Velocity.90 (48.3 (4. where no more than three water closets or three bathroom groups may be installed.94) 3.012) Pipe Size (in.53) 15.62 0.3) 6.55) 1.0073 0.92 0.0056 151.5 2.72 (0.67 0.54 0.0034 129.to 6-inch (100.0071 43.83) 3.0) 5.59 (0.37 0.89 0.0042 0.69) 2.03 0.3) 2.37) 96.44 0.0) 1./ft (3.36 (34.30) 8.78 (45.07 (0.09 0.05) 78.04 0.78 (45.0036 289.61) 2.43) 1./ft (1.3) 4 (101.4 (3.12 (181.0036 120.05 119.0012 0.82 (71.01 (1.7 mm/m) Slope Discharge.0148 14. Table 1-7 Building Drains and Sewersa Maximum Permissible Fixture Units for Sanitary Building Drains and Runouts from Stacks Diameter Slope. Velocity.55 3/4 Full Slope Flow (ft/ft) (gpm) 0.0015 1032.2) 10 (256) 12 (304.47 0.73) 26.12 (53.0066 101.0231 17.09) 4.4) 8 (203.6 (1.71 0.5 2.0075 96.68) 48.56 (1.0053 161.8) 2½ (63.9) 999 (63.99 (0.73 (0.0029 0.0186 9.68) 2.26 0. (mm) 1¼ (31.74 0.52) 1.3) 5.6 mm/m) Slope Discharge.40 0.000 a Slope of Horizontal Drainage Piping Horizontal drains are designated to flow at half-full capacity under uniform flow conditions to minimize the generation of pneumatic pressure fluctuations.000 12.38) 2.68 1377.0 3.22) ⁄2 in.9) 1½ (38.0 6.500 4.0091 71.29 0.59) 2.85 0.0) 1 n = Manning coefficient.97) 24.4 millimeters per meter) • 4.06 0.35) 2.0067 111.5) 616 (38. in.47 (113.5 2.60) 1.0 10.80 (0. For full flow: Multiply discharge by 2.46 0.76) 3.0278 13.5 (4.07 612.93 0.18 0.02 (204.0 15.1 (2.0 8.36 0.50 0.300 10 (250) 2500 2900 3.20 0.40 (0.0032 344.0090 29.) 2.52 (0.58 1101.16 (0.43) 1.4 mm/m) Slope Discharge. which varies with the roughness of the pipe.200 12 (300) 2900 4600 5.04 (1.77) 3.73) 308 (19.10 significant hydraulic parameters used in the above equation are listed in Table 1-4.49 149.2) 1⁄4 (6.21) 1.28 1/2 Full Slope Flow (ft/ft) (gpm) 0.0 2.0114 47.46 0.76 23.0 2.62 0.67 (1.0 Velocity (ft/sec. b No more than two water closets or two bathroom groups.75) 2.03 0.0033 0.0033 302.91 (0.247) 4.01 0.0017 362.0) 1.8 (2.50) 707 (44.00) 240 (15.84 0.52 (64.3 (0.8 (0.90 308.58 0.0 2.0167 0.38) 68.98 0.0111 53.83 (72.45 42.) 2.0122 19.55 0.79 483.0044 218.01 (51.41 (0.413 (89.6) 1⁄8 (3.2 mm/m) Slope ⁄4 in.0017 0.0 4.57 (1.to 150-millimeter) pipe: ⅔ inch per foot (3.34 (0.58 (40.32 0.

6 liters per second) is equivalent to 200 x 2 = 400 fixture units. A sump pump is designed to transport clear. an offset below the lowest branch with 1. This table shows the maximum number of fixture units that may be connected to any portion of the building drain or building sewer for given slopes and diameters of pipes. Table 1-6 has been prepared to give the size of a pipe in conjunction with the flow rate to maintain a self-cleansing velocity of 2 fps. If one pump breaks down. a vent is required to relieve the air in the basin as wastes discharge into it and also to supply air to the basin while the contents are being discharged to the sanitary gravity drainage system. It is airtight to prevent the escape of foul odors generated by sanitary waste from the sub-drainage system. the control system will alert the second pump to start. non-sanitary wastewater with some turbidity and suspended solids no larger than sand grains. For example. An ejector pump is designed to transport sanitary waste and larger solids suspended in the effluent. For devices that provide continuous or semi-continuous flow into the drainage system. a value of 2 fixture units can be assigned for each gpm (liter per second) of flow.015. such as sump pumps. Building drains that cannot flow directly into a sewer by gravity must be discharged into a covered basin. slopes.8 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 An ejector basin must be of airtight construction and must be vented. and diameters of horizontal drains based on the Manning formula for half-full pipe and n = 0. When a duplex unit is used. A duplex pump system shall be used. the fluid is lifted into the building’s gravity drainage system by automatic pump equipment or by any equally efficient method approved by the administrative authority. the system will remain in operation. and no damage will be caused by the cessation of system operation. but it has the same hydraulic characteristics as water.4 millimeters per meter) requires an 8-inch (200-millimeter) pipe. These minimum slopes are required to maintain a velocity of flow greater than 2 fps for scouring action. ejectors. From there. Thus. Figure 1-2 Typical Ejector Pump Installation . Since it is airtight. A flow velocity of 2 fps will prevent the solids within a pipe from settling out and forming a system stoppage. each pump should be sized for 100 percent flow. For example. All effluent is a liquid with solids suspended in it. COMPONENTS OF SANITARY DRAINAGE SYSTEMS Sumps and Ejectors The distinction between sump and ejector pumps is more terminology than actual fact. Loads for Drainage Piping The recommended loads for building drains and sewers are tabulated in Table 1-7. and air-conditioning equipment. Table 1-5 gives the approximate velocities for given flow. authority. a sump pump with a discharge rate of 200 gpm (12. and it is good practice to automatically alternate the operation of the pumps.300 fu at a slope of ¼ inch per foot (6.

Incoming water is collected in the sump before it is pumped to the gravity drain pipe. A typical ejector pump installation is illustrated in Figure 1-2. The size of the cleanout within a building should be the same size as the piping. Recessed covers are available to accommodate carpet. and be designed to support whatever traffic is directed over them. Most manufacturers make their basins with bottom. be attractive in appearance. permitting quick and certain removal when necessary. Outlet connections are made to accept pressure-type pipe joints. 4-inch (100-millimeter) cleanouts are adequate for their intended purpose. greasy wastes. side. thereby creating more head pressure on the pipe inlet. the traffic load must be considered when the construction materials are selected. Where the sewer line is at some distance below grade and not easily accessible through extensions. When cleanouts are installed in traffic areas. No-hub pipe and fittings are not acceptable on 9 pumped discharge piping due to the pressure limitations of the pipe joints. 6-inch (150-millimeter) cleanouts are recommended to allow for a Figure 1-3 Typical Submerged Sump Pump Installation . A typical submerged sump pump installation is illustrated in Figure 1-3. have a means of adjustment to finished surfaces. or screwed connections. This will prevent sewerage infiltration into the clear water system. in general. small pits or manholes with access covers must be installed. and hair. Some cleanouts are designed with a neoprene seal plug. Cleanouts then are brought up to floor level by pipe extension pieces. Sump and ejector systems normally use a wet pit. must be gasand water-tight. which prevents it from “freezing. and other surface finishes and are adjustable to the exact floor level established by the adjustable housing or by the set screws. They are controlled with a float switch or electronically with control switches mounted inside the basin. It is good practice to install the sump basin’s rim a minimum of 1 inch above the finished floor in case the sanitary building drain backs up. Waste lines typically are laid beneath the floor slabs at a distance sufficient to provide adequate backfill over the joints. tile. or angle inlets and with inside caulk. Cleanouts A cleanout provides access to horizontal and vertical lines to facilitate inspection and provide a means of removing obstructions such as solid objects. with the pumps either above the slab or submerged. Cleanouts. however. spigot.” or binding. Heavy-flow drains require large sumps to retain greater-than-usual amounts of water. terrazzo. allow ample space for the operation of cleaning tools. nohub. All plugs are machined with a straight or running thread and a flared shoulder for the neoprene gasket. push-on.Chapter 1 — Sanitary Drainage Systems A sump basin need not be airtight or vented because of the lack of objectionable odors. A maximum opening is provided for tool access. For larger size interior piping. up to 4 inches (100 millimeters). to the ferrule. provide quick and easy plug removal.

However. pipediameter ratio method is that all drain manufacturers do not list the total open areas of grates in their catalogs. Greasy waste piping shall have a maximum distance of 40 feet (12.1) 5 (125) 19.06 (4. Figure 1-4 Basic Floor-Drain Components: (A) Removable Grate. (E) Sediment Bucket (optional) . economics do not allow the designer to arbitrarily select the largest available drain when a smaller. in. (D) Cast Drain Body with Sump.2a Area.4) 50.7) 19.24 (32. in.4) a Based on extra-heavy soil pipe.3) 2 (50) 3.14 (2.5 meters) outside or inside the building at the point of exit • At every change of direction greater than 45 degrees • At every change of direction and every 150 feet (45. (C) Integral. the capacity of a drain is not extremely critical because the drain’s primary function is to handle Table 1-8 Recommended Grate Open Areas for Various Floor Drains with Outlet Pipe Sizes Recommended Minimum Grate Open Area for Floor Drains Nominal Transverse Area Minimum Inside Pipe Size. Floor Drains and Floor Sinks A large-diameter drain with a deep sump connected to a large-diameter pipe passes more water faster than a smaller drain.30 (18.60 (12.2 meters) between cleanouts. such as malls. Cleanouts should be provided at the following locations: • Five feet (1. which can be pre-manufactured with cleanout plugs.30 (18. When sizing floor drains for most indoor applications. However. and certain industrial applications.3) 2.6) 4 (100) 12. nominal internal diameter. Table 1-8. in.04 (1.6) 7.06 (4.7) 6 (150) 28.25 (32.9 meters) for larger piping. less-expensive unit will do a satisfactory job.1) 12. One-piece Flashing Ring.7 meters)for underground sanitary sewer piping larger than 10 inches (250 millimeters) in diameter • At the base of all stacks—it is good practice to install cleanouts a minimum of 6 inches above the flood rim of the highest fixture served on the lowest level • To comply with applicable codes • Optional locations include: • At the roof stack terminal • At the end of horizontal fixture branches or waste lines • At fixture traps.06 (8. (B) Rust-resistant Bolts.0) 3.10 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 larger variety of access needs such as for sewer video equipment. of Pipe. wash-down areas.14 (2.04 (1.1 meters) should be maintained for piping 4 inches (100 millimeters) and smaller and of 75 feet (22. this information usually can be obtained upon request. is offered as a guide for the selection of drains where the drain pipe diameter is known.60 (12. although some codes prohibit the installation of this kind of trap • A maximum distance between cleanouts of 50 feet (15.3) 28.2 (mm) (× 10 mm2) (× 10 mm2) 1½ (40) 2.3) 8 (200) 50.0) 3 (80) 7. High-capacity drains are intended for use primarily in locations where the flow reaches high rates. which shows the minimum ratio of open grate area based on pipe diameter. The only drawback to using the open-area.60 (8.

the passageways from shower areas into locker areas need extended-length drains to prevent runoff water from entering the locker areas. ¼-inch (6. consideration must be given to pro- . Sediment Bucket A sediment bucket is an additional internal strainer designed to collect debris that gets by the regular strainer. a sediment bucket shall be used. automatic or manual trap primers should be installed to maintain a proper trap seal. theaters. while mechanical areas may have a large. and where flushing of the floor is required for sanitation. patios. Shower-room gutters and curbs have become undesirable because of code requirements and the obvious dangers involved. Thus. • Boilers require drains with sediment buckets. which prevents water from passing around the drain to the area below. In school gymnasium shower rooms. Grates or strainers should be secured with stainless-steel screws in nickel-bronze tops. trash. Figure 1-5 illustrates several types of drains that meet these conditions. Floor drains or drains installed to anticipate a failure may not receive sufficient water flow to prevent the protective water seal or plumbing trap from evaporating. A deep-seal trap or an approved automatic priming device should be provided. Grates/Strainers The selection of grates is based on use and the amount of flow. where automatic fire sprinklers may deluge an area with large amounts of water. dome grates in the corners of the room or angle grates against the walls can be specified in addition to the regular shower drains. water chillers. cases where equipment discharges to the drain. Figure 1-5 Types of Floor Drain: (A) Typical Drain with Integral Trap that May Be Cleaned Through Removable Strainer at Floor Level. • Where a residential garage requires a floor drain. rather than on the ramp slope. for Use Where Possibility of Backflow Exists. promenade decks. Flashing Ring This component makes an effective seal. (A small amount of vegetable oil will dramatically reduce the evaporation rate of infrequently used floor drains and floor sinks. and Sediment Bucket minor spillage or fixture overflow. If the seal does evaporate. heat exchangers. boilers. The wearing of spike-heeled shoes prompted the replacement of grates with a heel-proof. passageways. where pumps. Ramp-drain gratings should be slightly convex because rapidly flowing ramp water has a tendency to flow across flat grates. when it moves out of position the skirt catches the side of the drain body.Chapter 1 — Sanitary Drainage Systems 11 tecting vent openings from vandals. sewer gases will enter the space. • Floor drains with sediment buckets must be provided in mechanical equipment rooms. stores. The exceptions are. The trap shall be accessible either from the floor-drain inlet or by a separate cleanout within the drain.) Figure 1-4 shows the basic components of a floor drain. of course. where the blocking of flat-top shower drains with paper towels can cause flooding. With these grates. Backwater Valve. corridors. If the public may access the roof. and the grate slides back into its original position. heavy-duty. it is recommended to install nontilting and/or tractor-type grates. A better solution to this problem is to place flat-top grates on a level surface at the bottom of the ramp. Strategically located floor drains also are required in buildings with wet sprinkler systems to drain water in case the sprinkler heads are activated. HVAC equipment requires the drainage of condensate from cooling coils using indirect drains. and vandal-proof fasteners are available from most manufacturers. such as the following situations: • Toilet rooms in industrial/manufacturing buildings should be equipped with floor drains with sediment buckets to facilitate cleaning. and markets. its safety feature makes it well worth the change. (B) Floor Drain with Combination Cleanout and Backwater Valve. The maximum temperature of liquids discharged should be 140°F (60°C). Though this type of grating has less drainage capacity than typical grates. Where grates are not secured and are subject to vehicular traffic. or grit that could plug piping. and HVAC equipment regularly discharge and/or must be periodically drained for maintenance and repairs. Therefore. ductile iron grate.4-millimeter) square grate design in public toilet rooms. Floor drains shall connect to a trap that can be readily cleaned and sized to efficiently serve the purpose for which it is intended. (C) Drain with Combined Cleanout. It is required wherever the drain can receive solids. Light-traffic areas may have a nickel-bronze grate.

12 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 phate. and PVC. and other sediment frequently present in industrial waste and could clog the drainage system. Sediment can accumulate on the flapper valve seat. A backwater valve reacts similarly to a check valve. Backwater Valves A backwater valve can be installed on a building sewer/house drain when the drain is lower than the sewer line. are copper alloy. galvanized steel. Figure 1-6 Types of Backwater Valve Oil Interceptors In commercial establishments such as service stations. these devices must be placed to provide a free area and access for maintenance. Figure 1-6 illustrates two types of backwater valves that may be installed where there is a possibility of backflow. paraffin. Oil interceptors are designed to separate and collect oils and other light-density. laundries. Also. and process industries having machine shops. naphtha. installed aboveground within buildings. hard-temper cop- . many valves employ a spring or mechanical device to exert a positive pressure on the flapper device. to specify the appropriate drain accessories. particles. flammable or volatile liquids may enter the drainage system. The interceptor is furnished with a sediment bucket. removable cover permits access for cleaning. When building settlement may be significant. To protect them from damage by building occupants. A gasketed. Underground building drains should be cast iron soil pipe. kerosene. aircraft fuel. To eliminate pressure buildup inside the interceptor. special hanging arrangements may be necessary. which collects debris. Fixture Wastewater Type These devices are mounted on the trap of frequently used fixtures. Volume 4. which have widely accepted approval. Oil interceptors are sized in accordance with the maximum anticipated gpm (liter per second) flow rate of wastewater that could be discharged through a tailpiece and typically are protected from back-siphonage by a vacuum breaker mounted at the tailpiece entrance. etc. Automatic trap primers can be obtained as preengineered devices. which requires a certain amount of maintenance. auto repair shops. infrequently used drain as the trap surges during use. or when old municipal sewers incur high rates of infiltration. All direct connections between the sewer system and the potable water system must be protected from potential contamination. An oil interceptor is required wherever lubricating oil. The designer must know the construction of the building. See Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook. small parts. allow at least a 250-pound (113. dry cleaners. the rigidity of pipe and joints and the possibility of creep and bedding settlement are primary considerations. which would otherwise be discharged into the drainage system. Underground piping should be continuously and firmly supported. gasoline. chips. They are located to maintain a slope that is as uniform as possible and will not change with time. copper. which also may be used as a building sewer cleanout. volatile liquids. tri-sodium phos- PIPING MATERIALS The materials recommended for soil and waste piping. diesel fuel. garages. In this regard. when unusual sewer discharges may occur due to combined storm water and sanitary sewer systems. particularly the floor and deck structures. which can contaminate the sewer line and cause a serious fire or explosion. The device consists of a mechanical flapper or disc. a connection on each side of the body allows venting of the interceptor. but blocking below metal pipe is usually acceptable. cutting oil. A tapping at the overflow line will allow small amounts of wastewater to enter an adjacent. Seismic restraint also must be considered.4-kilogram) safety factor when designing hangers. Hangers should be designed adequately. Supports The location of pipe supports usually is specified by code. Consult the manufacturer for recommendations for piping materials not covered in the code and for special problems. Primers can be manufactured or fitted with devices that are approved to prevent cross-contamination. preventing the flapper from closing tightly. Most manufacturers of backwater valves provide an access cover plate for maintenance. cast iron (hub-and-spigot or hubless). which requires occasional lubrication. Chapter 6 for further information on hangers and supports. or other light-density and volatile liquids are present in or around the drainage system. therefore.. Accessories A variety of accessories are available to make the basic drain adaptable to various types of structures. metal-treating process rooms. industrial plants. chemical process or mixing rooms.

borosilicate glass. Polished brass or bronze for floor service will discolor unless there is constant traffic over it. the pipe extends up into the drain body. it should be bronze. Figure 1-7 Inside Caulk Drain Body IPS or Threaded Outlet The threaded type is a tapered female thread in the drain outlet designed to accept the tapered male thread of a downstream piece of pipe or fitting. in turn. or DWV pattern Schedule 40 with compression joints or couplings. In the selection of materials for top surfaces. In a swimming pool. A ribbed neoprene gasket is applied to the accepting pipe. Where a sediment bucket is used. galvanized iron. such as rugs. (Note: Some blood analyzers discharge sodium azide. Other piping must be used. which forms a very dangerous. Molten lead then is poured into this ring and later stamped or caulked to correct for lead shrinkage.) The materials used for the pipe fittings must be compatible with the piping materials. which maintains its attractive appearance. See Table 1-9 for relative noise-insulation absorption values. where floor drains are visible in finished areas. Inside Caulk In the inside caulk arrangement. explosive compound with copper pipes. accepts a downstream piece of pipe or headless fitting. or other acid-resisting material should be selected. or polypropylene. stainless steel. the preferred material is solid. See Figure 1-10.Chapter 1 — Sanitary Drainage Systems per tube. Fittings should slope in the direction of flow and have smooth interior surfaces without ledges. except that the spigot outlet is caulked into the hub or bell of the downstream pipe or fitting. See Figure 1-9. shoulders. which. a ductile iron grate with or without a nickel-bronze veneer is recommended. high-silica cast iron. As cast iron will rust and galvanizing and chrome plating eventually will be worn off by traffic. ABS. Push-seal Gasketed Outlet The push-seal gasketed outlet utilizes a neoprene gasket similar to standard ASTM C564 neoprene gaskets approved for hub-and-spigot cast iron soil pipe. and oakum is packed around the pipe tightly against the inside of the outlet. or stainless steel. or reductions that may obstruct the flow in the piping. Spigot Outlet The spigot outlet utilizes the caulking method as outlined above for the inside caulk. Current installation methods use a flexible gasket for the caulking material. plastic. See Figure 1-7. such as grates. For large grates that will be subject to hand-truck or forklift traffic. or insulation may reduce noise transmission to the building. Using heavier materials generally reduces noise transmission through pipe walls. borosilicate glass. No-hub Outlet The no-hub type utilizes a spigot (with no bead on the end) that is stubbed into a neoprene coupling with a stainless-steel bolting band (or other type of clamping device). Noise Transmission Avoiding direct metal-to-metal connections may reduce noise transmission along pipes. polypropylene. PVC. galvanized. thus allowing the drain outlet to be pushed onto the pipe. 13 however. Where extra corrosion resistance is required. JOINING METHODS Drain and cleanout outlets are manufactured in five basic types. Figure 1-8 Spigot Outlet Drain Body . chlorine necessitates the use of chlorineresistant materials. cast nickel-bronze. PVDF. See Figure 1-8. belts. Corrosive wastes require suitably acid-resistant materials such as high-silicon cast iron. Isolating piping with resilient materials. or the sodium azide must be kept out of the system. Enameled sediment buckets are impractical because they chip when cleaned. appearance is a prime consideration. installed with a minimum cover of 12 inches (300 millimeters). Drains specified with cast iron or PVC bodies should be suitable for most installations. Cast aluminum has also been found inadequate for certain floor-service applications due to excessive oxidation and its inability to withstand abrasion.

with each lift compacted to ensure optimum compaction of the bedding. Following are some guidelines for installing building sewers.14 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 that is easily compacted. with physical depressions in the surface. crushed stone. Bedding should be installed in lifts (layers). who will perform soil borings to determine the depths at which soils with proper bearing capacities exist. Landscaped areas are more forgiving of improper backfill placement than hard surface areas such as concrete or bituminous paving. The soil-bearing weight determines trench widths and bedding thickness. or similar material Table 1-9 Relative Properties of Selected Plumbing Materials for Drainage Systems Materials ABS Cast iron Clay Concrete Copper Glass borosilicate Polypropylene PVC Silicon iron Steel. Consult manufacturer for resistance to particular chemicals. Mechanical compaction of the first layer above the pipe by vibrating or tamping devices should be done with caution. d Susceptible to corrosion from hydrogen sulfide gas. this is not applicable. Compacting the soil in 6-inch (150-millimeter) layers is recommended for a good backfill. Figure 1-9 No-hub Outlet Drain Body Figure 1-10 IPS or Threaded Outlet Drain Body BUILDING SEWER INSTALLATION The installation of building sewers is very critical to the operation of the sewer. • Care must be taken when using mechanical means to compact soils above piping. Inadequate bedding in poor soils may allow the sewer to settle. galvanized a Noise Absorption Fair Excellent b c Fair b Fair Fair c Good Corrosion Resistancea Good Good Excellent Faird Good Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Fair This refers to domestic sewage. the trench can be over-excavated to accept a bed of sand. It is recommended that pipe joints or bell hub depressions be hand-prepared due to the coarse crushed stone. The settlement of sewers interrupts flow. the engineer should consult a geotechnical engineer. b Since these materials are used only aboveground for chemical waste systems. the trench must be excavated in alignment with the proposed pitch and grade of the sewer. and creates a point where solids can drop out of suspension and collect. reduces capacity. Improper backfill placement can dislodge pipe and cause uneven sewer settlement. The pipe settles into the bed and is firmly supported over its entire length. • Where natural soil or compacted fill exists. A layer of sand or pea gravel is placed as a bed in the excavated trench because it is easily compacted under the pipe. causing dips and low points in the sewer. • Backfilling of the trench is just as critical as the compaction of the trench bed and the strength of existing soils. c This material is usually allowed only belowground. • Where shallow amounts of fill exist. • Where deep amounts of fill exist. Solutions include compacting existing fill by physical means or removing existing fill and replacing it with crushed stone structural fill. The type of backfill material and compaction requirements must be reviewed to coordinate with the type of permanent surface. diminishes minimum cleansing velocity. allowing more accurate alignment of the pipe pitch. The bed must be compacted in alignment with the proposed pitch and grade of the sewer. Depressions need to be cut out along the trench line to accept the additional diameter at the piping joint or bell hub. .

which merely keeps the drain sides clean. Seepage to the floor below is also a possibility. a common practice on indirect waste receptors. In any flushing water-supply line to a drain. receptors must be specified with removable sediment buckets made of galvanized or stainless steel. and animal dens. where blood or other objectionable materials might cling to the sidewalls of the drain. The rough surfaces of brass and iron castings collect and hold germs. Dishwashing machines. chipping. while indirect drains are neatly tucked away. steamers. Placing the drain on top of the curb and under the equipment makes connection of indirect drain lines difficult and the receptor inaccessible for inspection and cleaning. the flashing ring should lock the membrane to the flange. a shallow bucket that can be removed easily is recommended. adjustable drains that use sliding lugs on a cast thread may be enameled. Where equipment is on the floor level and an indirect waste receptor must be provided under the equipment. and other locations where sanitation is important. WATERPROOFING Whenever a cast-iron drain is cemented into a slab. The most practical approach is to enamel them. however. Many kitchen planners mount kitchen equipment on a 5-inch (125-millimeter) curb. particularly those in markets. sometimes referred to as “floor sinks. The solution to this problem is a stainless-steel or nickel-bronze rim and grate over the enameled drain body. and fine debris that usually accompany drain waste. Weep holes in the flashing flange direct moisture into the drain. The solution requires close coordination between the engineer and the kitchen designer. and when used. hospitals. If any amount of solid waste is to be drained. caulked joints should be specified on enameled drains. autopsy laboratories. (This option may not be allowed by certain codes. Most adjustable floor drains utilize threaded adjustments. However. However. A valve in the water line to the drain is the best way to operate the flushingrim drain. a vacuum breaker installed according to code must be provided. Also. Mounting the receptor in front of the curb takes up floor space. morgues. round sinks with square tops are available. eventually. pipe threads themselves cannot be enameled. A grate or the top ledge of a drain can be enameled. One prevalent misconception about the flashing flange is that it can have weep holes when used with cleanouts. Figure 1-11 shows an arrangement whereby any spillage in front of the curb can be drained by half of the receptor. they are not as convenient or effective KITCHEN AREAS When selecting kitchen drains. A seepage or flashing flange can correct this problem. Also. but the round receptor is easier to clean and has better antisplash characteristics. this flange accepts membrane material. indirect waste receptor.) A 2-inch (50-millimeter) trap flushes more effectively than a 3-inch (80-millimeter) trap because it allows the flushing stream to drill through the debris rather than completely flush it out. 15 as a shutoff valve. Flush valves have been used and can save water. SANITATION All drains should be cleaned periodically. the designer must know the quantity of liquid and solid waste the drains will be required to accept. For sanitation purposes. slaughterhouses. In applications such as hospital morgues. it is recommended to fit the enameled drain with a flushing rim. pipe threads cannot be cut into enameled metals because the enameling will chip off in the area of the machining. and the improved sanitation compensates for the added expense. an acid-resisting enameled interior in floor drains is widely accepted. as well as which equipment emits waste on a regular basis and which produces waste only by accidental spillage. fungus-laden scum. but the enamel will not tolerate traffic abrasion without showing scratches and.” Specifiers seem to favor the square. so cast iron piping or coolers may be required in these cases. sufficient vertical clearance over these drains must be provided to conveniently remove the sediment buckets for cleaning. animal shelters. One is the constant wet area in the crevice around the drain that promotes mildew odor and the breeding of bacteria. therefore. there can be no weep holes into . Where the waste being drained can clog the trap. food-processing areas. For cases where the choice of square or round is influenced by the floor pattern. booster heaters.Chapter 1 — Sanitary Drainage Systems Proper sewer bedding and trench backfill will result in an installation that can be counted on for long. cystoscopic rooms. Also. Floor-cleaning procedures should be ascertained to determine the amount of water used. and there is no easy or satisfactory way to clean these rough surfaces. separation due to expansion and contraction occurs and creates several problems. so these drains cannot be enameled. and the myriad of indirect drains that discharge into it create a potential hazard for employees who may trip over them. a heel inlet on the trap with a flushing connection is recommended in addition to the flushing rim. however. trouble-free service. and other kitchen equipment may discharge waste of 180°F or higher into the sanitary drain.

Approximately s inch (16 millimeter) per floor is adequate for typical frame constructions. Piping or mechanical engineering ALTERNATE SANITARY SYSTEMS The design and installation of alternative engineered plumbing systems are permitted in all codes. Weep holes also should be eliminated from the flashing flanges of drains. using expansion joints. where an overflow standpipe to maintain a certain water level shuts off the drain entrance. loops. ignoring the fact that the addition of tile on the floor will cause the drain or cleanout to be lower than the surrounding surface. • Settlement: Use sleeves or flexible joints. The term “non-puncturing.4 kilograms) hanging from the moving pipe. THERMAL EXPANSION When excessive thermal expansion is anticipated. To solve the problem. Floor drains can be furnished with adjustable tops to attain an installation that is flush with the finished floor. • Nails: Use ferrous pipe. such as reflection-pool drains. this bolting method allows the greatest squeeze pressure on the membrane. pipe movement should be controlled to avoid damaging changes in slope. Some jurisdictions require metal piping within 2 feet (0. or using expansion loops or bends may accomplish this.6 meter) of an entry into a firewall. • Seismic activity: Brace pipe and provide flexible joints at connections between piping braced to walls or the structure and piping braced to the ceiling and between stories (where differential movements will occur). • Fire: Use an appropriate building construction around the pipe.2 percent. ring-securing methods. When anchoring. When embedded in concrete. • Vandals: Install pipe above reach or in areas protected by building construction. or offsets. • Sunlight: Protect thermoplastic pipe by insulation and a jacket or shade it to avoid warping. as securing bolts have been moved inboard on flashing L flanges. • Abrasion: Use plastic or rubber sleeves or insulate where copper pipe leaves the slab. Chapter 8: “Corrosion. swing joints.8-kilogram) felt. • Corrosion: Use methods recommended in Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook Volume 1. avoid excessive stress on the structure and the pipe. based on 4 percent shrinkage perpendicular to wood grain.” used in reference to membrane-flashing. • Heat: Keep thermoplastic pipe away from sources of heat or use insulation. Figure 1-11 Combination Floor Drain and Indirect Waste Receptor a cleanout to which moisture can run. so long as they are designed by a licensed professional engineer who is responsible for the proper operation of . All materials must conform to the appropriate fire ratings. • Condensation: Insulate the piping. • Wood shrinkage: Provide slip joints and clearance for pipe when wood shrinks.16 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 handbooks should be consulted if stress analysis is to be performed due to excessive stresses or to the differing expansion characteristics of materials. cleanouts can be specified with tappings in the cover rim to jack the top part of the cleanout up to the finished floor level. or steel plates or do not locate pipe near possible nail penetration areas. Anchoring. PROTECTION FROM DAMAGE Following are some common hazards that may damage drains and drain piping and some methods of protection.” • Heavy earth loads: Use stronger pipe or pipe sleeves. and the membrane need not be punctured to get a seal. • Expansion and contraction: Use flexible joints. Shrinkage along the grain usually does not exceed 0. Piping must be supported to withstand 250 pounds (113. steel sleeves. Of the various arrangements. is now obsolete. cover piping with three layers of 15-pound (6. FLOOR LEVELING A major problem in setting floor drains and cleanouts occurs when the concrete is poured level with the top of the unit.

The maximum fixture units that may be connected to a branch or stack are also similar to that of conventional systems. and quality of materials. Submit enough technical data to support the proposed alternative design and prove that the system conforms to the intent of the code. A deaerator fitting is required at the bottom of the stack and is designed to overcome the tendency of the falling waste to build up excessive back pressure at the bottom of the stack when the flow is decelerated by the bend into the horizontal drain. Face entry and top entry are used in special cases. Alternative systems are characterized by. safety. Provide assurance that the manufacturer’s installation instructions will be followed. Fixtures may be connected into a horizontal offset in a stack below the deaerator fitting. An aerator fitting is required at each level where a soil branch. All of the alternative systems discussed have combined sanitary and vent systems. the following steps are suggested. 17 lines connect to the stack. The Provent system is similar to the Sovent system. using a single stack for both sanitary and vent or no vent at all. and an indication of the proposed flow. indicate on the permit and all construction applications that an alternative engineered design is part of the approved installation. submission to and approval by the authority having jurisdiction must be obtained. A typical Sovent single-stack system is illustrated in Figure 1-12. but not limited to. It is not the intent of this chapter to provide specific design criteria for a Sovent or Provent system. The fixture units and branch sizes are similar to those figures found in conventional systems. 4. To expedite approval. but rather to discuss the individual component characteristics that will enable a plumbing engineer to obtain a working knowledge of how these systems work. a mixing chamber. 3.Chapter 1 — Sanitary Drainage Systems the systems. equivalent level of performance compared to traditional installations. • When three 90-degree changes in direction occur in a horizontal branch. If an alternative system is contemplated. This provides a chamber where the flow from the branches may gradually mix smoothly with the air and liquid already flowing in the stack. a waste line the same size as the stack. Two stacks can be connected at the top above the highest fixture or at the bottom prior to entering the building drain. the horizontal branch shall be increased in size at the upstream side of the third change. 5. The starting point is the horizontal soil and waste branches. It also limits the turbulence and velocity of the incoming water. A 2-inch (50-millimeter) horizontal branch may enter the stack with no fitting. unconventional system with only limited usage in the United States. The deaerator consists of an air separation chamber. Include floor plans. • A second vertical drop or a vertical drop of more than 3 feet (0. The Sovent system uses cast iron and/or copper pipe and is suitable only for multistory buildings because it allows substantial economy in piping installation. The aerator consists of an upper stack inlet. Two basic styles of aerator fitting meet the needs of most design conditions: the double-side entry fitting and the single-entry fitting. or a waste branch one size smaller than the stack is connected. The size is based on the total fixture units. the soil line shall be increased to 4 inches (100 millimeters) at the point where one water closet and one additional fixture are connected. If approval is given. Although installed in many countries throughout the world. 2. A Sovent or Provent system consists of three principal parts: piping for all branch wastes and stacks.6 meters) in horizontal length. but it uses PVC. a nose piece. • The branch must be increased one size when a waste line exceeds 15 feet (4. This shall include suitability for the intended purpose. combination drainage and vent system that uses a single stack instead of a conventional two-pipe drainage and vent stack. One exception is a conventional drainage. All of the following systems have been used successfully in the United States and around the world for many years and have proven effective in actual use. it remains an alternative. Indicate on the design documents that the plumbing system (or parts thereof) is an alternative design. • When a branch serves two water closets and one or more additional fixtures.9 meter) requires an increase in the downstream side of the connection. reduced-vent system. a pressure relief outlet at the top connected to the SOVENT AND PROVENT The Sovent system was developed in 1959 in Switzerland. 6. • The branch must be increased one size when a soil branch exceeds 12 feet (3. strength. Branch sizes must be adjusted according to the following. and a baffle in the center of the fitting. riser diagrams. It is a patented. 1. and a deaerator fitting at the base of the stack where it enters the house drain.7 meters) in horizontal length. an aerator fitting at each floor level where the branch waste . Stacks must be carried full size through the roof.

the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) conducted a laboratory study of one-story and splitlevel experimental drainage systems where the vents varied from one to six pipe sizes smaller than those for conventional systems. The configuration of the fitting causes part of the air falling with the liquid to flow through the pressure relief line. The results also indicated that the vents in a two-story housing unit can safely be made smaller than previously allowed without jeopardizing the trap seals. installation savings are achieved by reducing the amount of vent piping required. REDUCED-SIzE VENTING In 1974. Although the pipe sizing is larger in a single-stack system than in a conventional one. This system may allow economies of pipe size in the venting design of low-rise residential buildings. Consideration has been made by code bodies to include this system as an engineered design. this unconventional system has operated successfully for more than 100 years with no problems. The purpose of the deaerator is to separate the airflow from the stack to ensure the smooth flow of liquid into the building drain and to relieve the positive pressure generated at the stack’s base. To relieve internal air pressures. The trap arm length is limited to reduce any suction buildup. Figure 1-12 Typical Sovent Single-stack System . and a stack outlet at the bottom. A complete set of contract documents shall be provided to the owner to allow proper alteration or expansion of the project in the future. the drainage stack serves as both a single-stack drainage and vent system when properly sized.18 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 The plumbing engineer must explain the special requirements of the Sovent or Provent system to the installing contractor. The major components of the one-pipe system are oversize. In this drainage system. which allows it to be used providing the engineer has designed it in accordance with code. At the same time. SINGLE-STACK SYSTEM The single-stack system is a combination drainage and vent system consisting of a single stack instead of conventional separate drainage and vent stacks. They showed satisfactory hydraulic and pneumatic performance under various loading conditions. building drain. Often referred to as the Philadelphia stack. and the remainder of the air goes directly into the building drain. the one-pipe system must be larger than that required for drainage purposes alone. The engineer also should make regular inspections of the project to ensure that the design conditions are met. unvented S traps instead of the conventionally sized and vented P traps and fixtures that allow water to run off after the tap is closed to fill the traps with water to maintain the trap seal. and the stack is oversized to limit internal air pressure and vacuum buildup. The drainage stack and branch piping shall be considered vents for the drainage system as a whole. the 10-story wet vent system at the Stevens Institute Building Technology Laboratory had been modified by reducing the vents one to three pipe sizes in accordance with the plans and specifications of the NBS.

Chapter 1 — Sanitary Drainage Systems although this particular system has not been accepted by authorities. It is limited to special conditions and requires the vent pipes to be of a material such as copper or plastic that will resist the buildup of corrosion products.

19 The vacuum generation system includes vacuum pumps, which create a vacuum in the piping and storage tanks that collect and discharge the waste into the sewer system. The vacuum pumps run only on demand, and redundancy is provided. They also have sewage pumps that pump the drainage from the storage tanks into the sewer. The vacuum interface is different for sanitary drainage than for clear waste. Vacuum toilets operate instantly upon flushing, and when a vacuum toilet is cycled, a discharge control panel assembly is activated, sending the discharge to the tank. A valve acts as an interface between the vacuum and the atmosphere. The tank will discharge into the sewer when a predetermined level of discharge is reached. When clear water is discharged, the water goes into an accumulator. When a controller senses that sufficient waste is present, it opens the normally closed extraction valve, which separates the atmospheric pressure from the vacuum and removes the waste from the accumulator. Because vacuum toilets use 0.5 gallon per flush, the holding tanks can be smaller than those for conventional toilets. A flush control panel is designed to provide all of the control functions associated with the vacuum toilet. The control panel consists of a flush valve, flush controller, water valve, and vacuum breaker. All controls are pneumatically operated. The flush controller controls the opening of the flush valve and the rinse valve as well as the duration of the time the flush valve is open.

VACUUM DRAINAGE SYSTEM
Vacuum drainage operates on the principle that the majority of the system is under a continuous vacuum. The system is proprietary and is made by various manufacturers, all of which have different names for devices performing similar operations, so generic identification is used here. Various designs are capable of sanitary and waste disposal, either separate or in combination, and are used for various projects such as prisons, supermarkets, and ships. There is no direct connection from the sanitary waste to the vacuum system. The one big advantage is that piping is installed overhead and no pipe is required to be placed underground. The system consists of three basic components: a vacuum network of piping and other devices that collects and transports waste from its origin, vacuum generation pumps, and a vacuum interface device at the point of origin that isolates the vacuum piping from atmospheric pressure. When the system serves water closets, the water closets must be purpose made, designed to rinse and refill with 0.5 gallon (2.2 liters) of water. The piping network for a vacuum waste system is held under a constant vacuum between 12 and 18 inches of mercury (in Hg) (40–65 kilopascals) and generally is fabricated from PVC, copper, or other nonporous, smooth-bore material. Horizontal piping shall slope at a rate of 8 inch per foot (1.18 millimeter per meter) toward the vacuum center. This piping slope is the same as in conventional systems. If this slope cannot be maintained, the traps created in the piping runs when routed around obstacles would be cleared because of the differential pressure that exists between the vacuum center and the point of origin. The discharge of the piping system is into the waste storage tanks.

REFERENCES
1. Daugherty, Robert L., Joseph B. Franzini, and E. John Finnemore, Fluid Mechanics with Engineering Applications, McGraw-Hill, 1985. 2. Dawson, F.M. and A.A. Kalinske. Report on Hydraulics and Pneumatics of Plumbing Drainage Systems, State University of Iowa Studies in Engineering, Bulletin No. 10, 1937.

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ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2

2

On-site Wastewater Reuse and Storm Water Harvesting
Appropriately treated water also may be used for the following proposes: • Flushing water for water closets and urinals • Landscape irrigation • Cooling tower makeup • Decorative pool and fountain fill water • Floor and general hard-surface washdown • Laundry water supply Less frequently, storm water is collected and used for potable purposes, but the public does not widely accept this process. Note: This chapter is written primarily to familiarize the reader with the general subject area. It is not intended for system design without reference and adherence to other technical data and local code requirements.

In many regions, water is a limited natural resource, so extreme measures to optimize the use of water are necessary. Water reuse and storm water use offer considerable savings of water resources, which is appealing in localities where underground aquifers are in danger of depletion or where adequate supplies of water are not available. Storm water use (and wastewater reuse) is sometimes attractive when compared to the treatment required for groundwater sources to achieve potable or drinking water standards. For example, numerous Wisconsin wells contain some of the highest arsenic concentrations in the world (15,000 parts per billion [ppb], when the drinking water standard is 5 ppb). In such an instance it may be more reasonable to treat storm water for potable use. Wastewater management is also a significant reason for water reuse and storm water use systems. On-site recycling of relatively clean, nonpotable water and storm water use are considered for the following reasons. • The availability of potable water is in short supply or restricted, and codes require reuse or storm water use. • The public liquid sewage disposal capacity is either limited or inadequate. • Obtaining potable water or disposing of liquid waste is very costly. • Payback typically occurs in less than five years, and the system can reduce sewer and water usage fees, electrical costs, or water heating costs, resulting in operating cost savings. • The 2009 LEED certification has options for plumbing. Reuse could earn a facility up to four points in the LEED system by reducing water usage by 40 percent. A 35 percent reduction earns three points, and a 30 percent reduction earns two points. The most common reuse of water is for the flushing of urinals and water closets, especially in high-rises, hotels, schools, office buildings, and large dwellings.

TERMINOLOGY
In plumbing, wastewater is the general term for water that has been discharged or collected from a fixture, receptor, or appliance (see Figure 2-1). The terms for a variety of recycled waters often are used interchangeably. In general, graywater is intended to include appropriately treated water that has been recovered from fixtures such as lavatories, bathtubs, showers, and clothes washers. In some jurisdictions, waste potentially containing grease, such as that from dishwashers, and waste from food disposals in kitchens are excluded due to the possibility of solid particles in the water. Black water, on the other hand, is water recovered from plumbing fixtures discharging human excrement, such as water closets and urinals. Storm water includes the wastewater from precipitation events (and sometimes groundwater).

THE WATER BALANCE EQUATION
On-site water efficiency, whether mandated or an ecologically minded choice, requires plumbing system designers to evaluate the constructed environment water balance prior to completing a plumbing design (see Figure 2-2).

22

ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Some jurisdictions allow irrigation with untreated graywater, and this typically is accomplished subsurface. This chapter assumes that the irrigation system is provided with treated graywater to the standards listed in Table 2-1.

The constructed environment water balance equation is: Equation 2-1 P + PS + NPS + GW = E + T + U + TP + SW + STW + R + I where P = Precipitation PS = Potable source NPS = Nonpotable source GW = Groundwater E = Evaporation T = Transpiration U = Usage in product (personal use carried off site) TP = Treated product water (as marketable water) SW = Sanitary sewer STW = Storm water sewer R = Storm water runoff I = Infiltration The water balance is impacted by storage; however, the long-term balance is always maintained. When reuse or storm water harvesting is included in the plumbing design, the water balance equation can be modified to: Equation 2-2

GRAYWATER REUSE
Graywater reuse systems collect water discharged from fixtures, devices, and appliances that do not contain human excrement. This water can be treated to a level of quality consistent with its intended use. A graywater system requires modifications to the standard plumbing systems throughout a facility—in particular, duplicate drainage systems and duplicate water supplies. Rather than all plumbing fixture discharge going to the sanitary sewer, the effluent from selected fixtures is routed for recovery by the graywater treatment system. The remainder goes to the sanitary sewer. Potable water goes to lavatories, sinks, and showers, and the graywater supplies water closets, urinals, irrigation systems, and other fixtures, depending on the quality of the graywater treatment. Special care must be taken during the installation of a graywater system. Clear identification and labeling of the graywater system and piping are mandatory to minimize the risk of cross-connection during installation or repair of the system. Many newly formed, planned communities have adopted graywater systems for their irrigation systems. Warning “nonpotable water” signs or colored piping is now visible across city landscapes. Blue dye has become a clear identification of the use of graywater.

CODES AND STANDARDS
The number of jurisdictions requiring water reuse or storm water harvesting is increasing. Even the Great Lakes areas are considering supplementing withdrawals from the lakes with these and other conservation practices. However, no national model codes mandate storm water use or wastewater reuse. The Uniform Plumbing Code discusses graywater, but limits the discussion to single-family dwellings. The International Plumbing Code includes graywater recycling systems in an appendix. Many specific local areas have established standards and guidelines for the use of graywater in facilities and homes. Where graywater use is permitted, the authority having jurisdiction may have established minimum treatment standards. In these localities, you must check for regulations applicable to reuse and storm water use as is done for plumbing and building codes. Table 2-1 is from the Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation’s Research Report, which includes a summary of international treatment standards for water reuse. The limitations represented in Table 2-1 illustrate concerns that you should address when developing a water reuse plan. Since such requirements are constantly undergoing revision, you must contact the local authorities for current standards.

System Components
The following components generally are used for most systems. Their arrangement and type depend on the specific treatment system selected. • A separate graywater collection piping system • A primary waste treatment system consisting of turbidity removal, storage, biological treatment, and filtering • Disinfecting systems consisting of ozone, ultraviolet irradiation, chlorine, or iodine • Treated water storage and system distribution pressure pumps and piping

Design Criteria for Graywater Supply and Consumption
It is estimated that two-thirds of the wastewater discharged from a typical household in one day is graywater. The remaining wastewater is black water from water closets. The discharge from the separate piping systems supplying the graywater system should be sized based on the applicable plumbing code. The following issues should be considered in the design of any graywater system:

Chapter 2 — On-site Wastewater Reuse and Storm Water Harvesting

23

Wastewater

Sanitary wastewater

Storm water

Groundwater

Clear water

Black water

Graywater

Figure 2-1 Wastewater Designations

Transpiration

E vaporation

Use

Groundwater Storm water

Sanitary sewer

T reated product Potable source Nonpotable source Storm sewer Storm runoff

Infiltration

Figure 2-2 The Constructed Environment Water Balance

• The design flow is based on the number of people in the home or facility. • Lavatory use is estimated at 0.25 gallon (0.95 liter) per use. • Men use urinals 75 percent of the time and water closets 25 percent of the time. • The average person uses a toilet three times a day. The LEED 2009 baselines for plumbing fixtures that affect the design of reuse and water conservation systems when you apply for LEED credit are shown in Table 2-2.

Design Estimates for Commercial Buildings
Graywater Supply Estimates of graywater supply sources vary in commercial buildings. In an office building, fixtures such as lavatories, water coolers, mop sinks, and coffee sinks are estimated to generate 1 gallon (3.79 liters) per person per day. Thus, for an office building with 500 employees, you could expect to recover 500 gallons (1,893 liters) per day for graywater reuse. Based on five working days per week and approximately 50 working

24 weeks per year, 125,000 gallons (473,177 liters) per year could be available for graywater reuse.

ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Table 2-1 Water Reuse Issues of Concerns Parameter
BOD5c mg/L

Units

Low Riska
< 30

High Riskb
< 10

Graywater Demand TSSc mg/L < 30 < 10 The demand for fixtures served Turbidity NTU <5 <2 by treated graywater in an office Fecal coliformsc CFU/100 mL < 200d < 1 CFU/100 mL building is estimated based on c d three toilet or urinal uses per Total coliforms CFU/100 mL < 1,000 < 1 CFU/100 mL c person per day. For calculation E coli CFU/100 mL < 200 < 1 CFU/100 mL purposes, assume that the popuViruses lation is 50 percent male and 50 Worms percent female and that men use urinals 75 percent of the time Total nitrogen mg/L and water closets 25 percent of Total phosphorus mg/L the time. (This assumption is Cl residual mg/L 0.1 to 1.0 general and may be adjusted for Units: mg/L = milligrams per liter; NTU = nephelometric turbidity units; CFU = colony-forming units any particular installation.) aLow-risk applications include toilet flushing and subsurface irrigation. In shopping centers, flow bHigh-risk applications include landscape surface irrigation and laundry. cMedian values rates are based on square feet dRecreational water quality standards (square meters) of space, not Source: Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corp. the number of persons. The flow demand is 0.06 gallon (0.23 liter) per day per square foot (meter). The calculations for food serExample 2-2 vice resemble those for grease interceptor sizing. The Calculate the flow of graywater for a single-family number of seats, hours of operation, single-serving dwelling with four bedrooms and only the clothes utensils, and other, similar factors change the equawasher connected to the graywater system. tions for graywater calculations. 1. Total number of occupants=2 + 1 + 1 + 1=5 Graywater Design Estimates for 2. Estimated graywater flow = 5 x 15 = 75 gallons Residential Buildings per day [5 x 57 = 285 liters per day] The number of occupants of each dwelling unit shall Design Estimates for Graywater be calculated as follows: Irrigation Systems • Occupants, first bedroom: Two • Occupants, each additional bedroom: One Graywater irrigation system design and selection The estimated graywater flows for each occupant depend on a variety of elements: location, soil type, shall be calculated as follows: water supply source, type of treatment facility, and • Showers, bathtubs, and wash basins: 25 galapplication of reuse. Additional requirements are lons (95 liters) per occupant per day noted for the reuse of graywater systems for irrigation • Laundry: 15 gallons (57 liters) per occupant systems. Some of the parameters are groundwater per day level, geological stability of the region, plot plan, disThe total number of occupants shall be multiplied tance of irrigation from adjacent properties, lakes, lot by the applicable estimated graywater discharge as lines, drainage channels, water supply lines, surface provided above and the type of fixtures connected to slope, wells, and the interaction of graywater systems the graywater system. with private sewage disposal systems. Inspection and testing are an inherent part of the design. Example 2-1 System components must be securely installed, Calculate the flow of graywater per day for a singleand the manufacturer must be properly identified. family dwelling with three bedrooms, showers, The holding tanks must be installed in dry levels, and, bathtubs, wash basins, and laundry facilities all conif underground, contamination issues must be taken nected to the graywater system. into consideration. The authority having jurisdiction 1. Total number of occupants = 2 + 1 + 1 = 4 shall review all plans, and qualified and experienced 2. Estimated graywater flow = 4 x (25 + 15) = contractors shall install the system in accordance with 160 gallons per day [4 x (95 + 57) = 608 liters per day] the contract documents.

Chapter 2 — On-site Wastewater Reuse and Storm Water Harvesting Table 2-2 LEED 2009 Baseline for Plumbing Fixtures Fixture
Toilets Urinals Lavatory faucets, privatea Lavatory faucets, public Lavatory faucets, metering Residential kitchen faucets Showerheads Pre-rinse spray valves
a

25

LEED 2009 Baseline
1.6 gpf (3.5 gpf for blowout closets) 1.0 gpf 2.2 gpm at 60 psig 0.5 gpm at 60 psig 0.25 gallons per cycle 2.2 gpm at 60 psig 2.5 gpm at 80 psig 1.6 gpm (no psig specified)

Private lavatory faucets include both residential and private commercial applications such as hotel guest rooms and hospital patient rooms.

Table 2-3 Design Criteria for Graywater Irrigation of Six Typical Soils Soil Type
Coarse sand or gravel Fine sand Sandy loam Sandy clay Clay with considerable sand or gravel Clay with small amounts of sand or gravel

Minimum Irrigation Area per 100 Gallons of Estimated Graywater Discharge per Day, square feet
20 25 40 60 90 120

(1.5 meters) of the highest known seasonal groundwater table, and it shall not extend to a depth where graywater may contaminate the groundwater or ocean water. The design of the graywater distribution in subsurface drip systems is based on the emitter manufacturer’s recommendations. The soil type and loading criteria from Table 2-3 are also applicable to drip irrigation systems. Table 2-4 identifies the location and separation distance from a variety of structures and environments. For example, any building or structure shall be a minimum of 5 feet (1.5 meters) from a graywater surge tank. The minimum distance from any property line to a graywater surge tank is also 5 feet (1.5 meters). Critical areas such as streams, lakes, seepage pits, and cesspools shall be a minimum of 50 feet (15.2 meters) from surge tanks and 100 feet (30.5 meters) from irrigation fields. Similarly, the distance from the public water main to a surge tank shall be a minimum of 10 feet (3.1 meters). The table also identifies additional restrictions.

Graywater Treatment Systems
The graywater treatment system conditions the recovered water to a level consistent with both the intended use of the conditioned water and the design requirements of the design engineer, applicable code, or responsible code official—whichever is the most stringent. Typical wastewater (graywater and black water) treatments used for various types of projects include sedimentation, aeration, filtration, and disinfection. The size of the treatment systems available vary from those installed for individual private dwellings to those serving multiple facilities. As the treatment facility becomes more complex, the number of treatment activities increases, and the quality of the water improves. Some of the treatment activities are basic screening, flow equalization, biological treatment, filtration, coagulation, sedimentation, disinfections, reclaimed water tank, membrane filtration, and activated carbon filtration. The selection of a treatment system also depends on the quality and type of the influent water. To decide which treatment method is most appropriate, the type of fixture discharge to be reclaimed and the treatment requirements of the authority having jurisdiction must be determined. Table 2-5 describes the types of filtration and water treatment processes most commonly used for graywater treatment. Depending on the type of filtra-

To design a graywater system, you must estimate the water supply source. Separate design parameters become important for reuse in buildings or in irrigation systems. For irrigation systems, the required area of subsurface must be designed based on soil analysis. Table 2-3 gives an example of the design criteria for the use of graywater systems in various soil types (coarse sand or gravel, fine sand, sandy loam, sandy clay, and mixed clay). As the soil weight decreases and the soil becomes less porous, the minimum square feet (square meters) needed for leaching increases. Coarse sand or gravel needs a 20-square foot irrigation area per 100 gallons (1.86 square meters per 379 liters) of estimated graywater discharge per day. Clay with a small amount of sand or gravel requires 120 square feet per 100 gallons (11.15 square meters per 379 liters) of estimated graywater per day. The area of the irrigation field shall be equal to the aggregate length of the perforated pipe sections within the valved zone times the width of the proposed irrigation field. Each proposed graywater system shall include at least three valved zones. No excavation for an irrigation field shall extend within 5 vertical feet

26

ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2

Table 2-4 Minimum Horizontal Distances for Graywater System Elements Element Distance Distance from Distance Distance from from Treated Untreated from Treated Untreated Graywater Graywater Graywater Graywater Holding Tank, feet Holding Tank, feet Irrigation System, Irrigation System, feet feet
5 5 2 2

Buildings with below grade foundations
Buildings with no below grate foundations Property line Water supply wells High water level of water body Sanitary private on-site infiltration system (drain field) Sanitary treatment tank or lift station (septic tank) Water service

5 5 8 8 25

5

None 2 8 8 None

None 2 25 25 None

5 25 25 25

25 10

8 25

None None

None None

Table 2-5 Graywater Treatment Processes for Normal Process Efficiency
Process Filtration Coagulation/filtration Chlorination Tertiary treatment Absorption (carbon filtration) Suspended Solids 80 90 0 95 0 Biological Oxygen Demand 40 50 20a 95 60–80 Chemical Phosphates, Oxygen Demand P0-4 35 0 40 85 20a 0 910 15–60 70 0 Nitrogen 0 0 0 50–70 10 Total Dissolved Solids 0 15 0 80 5

a Nominal, additional removals possible with super chlorination and extended contact time.

Table 2-6 Comparison of Graywater System Applications
System Conventional Type A (minimal treatment) Type A (enhanced treatment) Type B Piping Base Separate gray-water riser/separate WC stack Separate gray-water riser/separate WC stack Separate graywater riser Potential Gray Treatment Water Uses None N/A Filtration, Water closets chlorination, color Water Savings a Savings a 0 20,000 gal/day (75,708 L/day) 26% 35,000 gal/day, (132,489 L/day) 46%

0 20,000 gal/day (75,708 L/day) 17% (inc. irrigation), 22% (without irrigation) Chemical Water closets 35,000 gal/day, filtration, cooling towers, (132,489 L/day) chlorination, irrigation (pos.) 30% (incl. irrigation), color 38% (without irrigation) Tertiary All nonpotable 61,000 gal/day, sewage uses (230,909 L/day) treatment 52% (incl. irrigation)

a Values for savings noted are based on the 250-room resort hotel example. Percentages are based on normal usage of 117,850 gal/day, including irrigation, and 91,150 gal/day, without irrigation.

MPN = most probable number . cross-connection precautions must be taken. the degree and types of components filtered vary. This has resulted in rejection of the systems or long delays during the approval process of projects while the quality of the water is in question. but no nationally or internationally recognized standard has been created. costeffective alternative to the use of potable water in various systems. Some reasons include the following: • No generally accepted standard currently exists for the quality of recycled water. or carbon filtration. One of the greatest dangers is the possibility that the graywater will be inadvertently connected to the potable water system. the piping material should be different so Fecal coliform bacteria MPN/100 mL 3. To avoid this possibility. Several U. Although the use of graywater is a proven. Precautions Since graywater poses a potential health hazard.450 and interconnecting the two Petroleum hydrocarbons mg/L 3. The color of Cadmium ug/L 2 reuse piping is frequently purple to alert future installers. plumbing and facility engineers.S. many authorities are reluctant to approve these systems. the water itself and the piping must be made easily distinguishable. and appropriate alarms must be installed.5 systems is unlikely. alarms and automatic solenoids may be critical for high-risk installations. alarms and monitors are important components of the reuse system. an economic and energy analysis should be performed prior to committing to the project (see Table 2-6). Tertiary treatment includes filtration of all categories.Chapter 2 — On-site Wastewater Reuse and Storm Water Harvesting tion. To maintain water quality. Absorption. Coagulation helps solids filtration and also absorbs phosphates. ug/L = micrograms per liter. Total suspended solids mg/L 80 The piping system itself must Total phosphorus mg/L 0. Frequent monitoring may replace alarms on low-risk installations. but whose officials impose special standards due to their lack of experience. Economic Analysis Any alternative plumbing system will pose an additional cost. where the local code mandates dual or graywater systems in all occupancies. A plan from storm water hotspots are two to 10 times higher than those shown here. Fixtures can be purchased in the Table 2-7 Contaminant Concentration in Urban Storm Water color of the water if the color of Contaminants Found in Runoff Units Average Concentrationsa the water is found objectionable. concentrates primarily on biological and chemical oxygen demands. Chlorination is significant only in oxygen demand issues. coli bacteria MPN/100 mL 1. An explanation of the dangers and proper Insecticides ug/L 0.1 to 2 operating instructions helps enHerbicides ug/L 1 to 5 sure that an informed staff will a Concentrations represent mean or median storm concentrations measured at typical sites and operate and maintain the system may be greater during individual storms. 27 one employee to the next should be included in the maintenance plan for the system. however. a great deal of care must be exercised once such a system is installed. to transfer information from Units: mg/L = milligrams per liter. If possible. • Many regulatory and plumbing codes do not have any specific restrictions against using graywater or have ambiguous language that could be interpreted for its use.600 that the possibility of mistaking E. Also note that mean or median runoff concentrations in the correct manner. Copper ug/L 10 The most important considerLead ug/L 18 ation is educating the occupants Zinc ug/L 140 and staff of a facility with a Chlorides (winter only) mg/L 230 graywater system. but it does not absorb nitrogen or phosphates. Japan.30 be clearly identified with labels Total nitrogen mg/L 2 placed visibly along the run of Total organic carbon mg/L 12. Thus. Treated water could be colored by biodegradable food dye. An exception is the Bahamas.7 the pipe. they are still unfamiliar to many city and county governments. and the general public. Public Concerns and Acceptance Although graywater systems have been approved for general use in different parts of the world and have been designed in a variety of forms. states. Basic filtration concentrates on reducing suspended solids. and the Caribbean have adopted codes and guidelines.

Also.000 Although the use of graywater is ideal in certain circumstances. A water balance can be 37. traffic. Table 2-8 provides an example of a water balance worksheet.85 to take into account some loss over the impervious area. the general public is now fully aware of the dangers of electricity. the presence of viruses.316 74. the application of graywater systems in healthcare facilities may be a less-attractive option because of the possibility of biological contamination.48 to convert to gallons. galvanized roofs. Multiply this figure by the number of acres and then by 43. The economic analysis of storm water harvesting or graywater reuse systems can become the decisive issue that determines whether a system is even considered for a project.000 50. yet life without electricity is considered to be abnormal. and population growth will be the primary motiva- Table 2-8 Water Balance Worksheet Rainfall Available.387 Atmospheric Administration’s website (noaa. Storm water harvesting is becoming an economical alternative in some areas. bathtubs. there is legitimate concern regarding the spread of disease through graywater systems that must not be overlooked. and sinks) may increase the cost of water treatment.933 74. use the following steps: 1.100 87. bacteria. Carryover. and biological contamination in healthcare graywater systems (through lavatories.560 to convert the acreage to square feet.000 24. showers. Frequently. An economic analysis of graywater systems in healthcare facilities may favor dual-plumbing systems. gallons 24.546 salt or sand usage on roads and sidewalks. This analysis can be extrapolated for any other projects and variations. Multiply this number by 0.000 71. To determine the amount of rainfall available. Therefore.933 as lead flashings. 4.000 The runoff in different geographical areas is af23.158 the National Oceanic and 1.387 50. gallons* January February March April May June July August September October November December 23.546 Anticipated Water Usage.313 71. building materials (such 37. government subsidies. Divide the rainfall depth by 12 to convert the depth in inches to feet.000 (800 gpd) 24. educating the users of graywater is imperative. Storm water typically requires less .313 fected by building patterns.000 50.000 24. and that requires an adequate educational effort. 2. Multiply this figure by 7. the facility limitations of local governments.000 24. or galvanized gutters 24. Thus.550 use. gallons Table 2-7 contains an example of storm water con-459 taminant constituents.541 18. The use of colored water in water closets may not be attractive to the occupants of a newly occupied high-rise. Treatment options may be similar to graywater for plumbing systems. An understanding of the source and the associated dangers and limitations of graywater is essential to acceptance by the general public.550 87.316 and downspouts) and con24.925 47.698 storm water collection by using the information from 16. land 21.gov).28 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 treatment than graywater for toilet and urinal flushing and for irrigation. 3. 21. This information will provide water balance inputs. To draw a parallel. The storm water harvesting system design frequently requires cooperation between the civil and mechanical design specialist.100 nected imperviousness. tax incentives.000 50.158 25.933 54.933 conducted of the expected 30. STORM WATER HARVESTING Storm water harvesting and use for plumbing purposes is an additional option for sustainable design.000 24. The pervious area rainfall available will be based on the soil type. Water shortages. More detailed information may be obtained from regional or local climate centers.698 40. However.000 50. -5. a cartridge or bag filter and UV light system are adequate for storm water use for toilet and urinal flushing and lawn irrigation. the success of graywater systems depends solely on public acceptance.000 50.

S. U. U. J. C. General Services Administration. July/August 1986. Commercial Water Use Research Project. 13. 29 REFERENCES 1. Department of Commerce. 4.. F. International Code Council. “Research Report: Water Reuse Standards and Verification Protocol. G. 7. “Naturally Occurring Arsenic in Well Water in Wisconsin. 6.” Heating/Piping/Air Conditioning. . Siegrist. 9. International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials. by Wisconsin University. D. B. Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation. LEED AP “Changes in .” Los Angeles Times. Water Uses Study.. “Graywater Systems. January 1987. and J.. Baltimore Department of Public Works. and J. Water Management: A Comprehensive Approach for Facility Managers. Buildings. Uniform Plumbing Code. August 1997.” Wisconsin DNR. Gray. June 1976. P Linaweaver.” 3. 2..” Journal of the Environmental Engineering Division. 11. “Plumbing Efficiency Through Graywater Recycling. 1995. Lehr. Atienze. 14. Konen. 8. Center. Wolf.S. Woodcock. and J. J. Huff. Thomas P “Water Use in Office . June 1966. LEED 2009 for Plumbing Fixtures and Process Water.Chapter 2 — On-site Wastewater Reuse and Storm Water Harvesting tors for designers and project engineers to consider reuse or storm water harvesting system selections in their designs. Dumfries Triangle and OccoquanWoodbridge Sanitary District. R. Boyle.. National Information Services. Craytor. CPD.” Plumbing Systems and Design. 10.” Plumbing Engineer. Winston. March 1995. Valentine A. “Characteristics of Rural Household Waste Water.” ConsultingSpecifying Engineer. 1978.C. June 2009. and W. . Management of Small Waste Flows. International Plumbing Code. 12. 5. J. “Water: Use of Treated Sewage on Rise in State.

30 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 .

Venting is not limited to sanitary drainage systems. and the venting portions of plumbing codes vary greatly. except those with an intentional siphon action. which allows the atmospheric pressure of the room side of the trap to depress the water level by 1 inch (25 millimeters).5 millimeters). The water level rises on the room side by an equal amount. and clear water waste. Typically. Nonetheless. venting is a separate piping system joined to the drainage system at certain connection points and sized to keep the air pressure in the drain from disturbing the water seals of fixture traps. venting is a parallel arrangement of piping that limits the air pressure within the drain. The next trap shows the effect on the water levels if the atmospheric pressure on the drain system side increases by an amount that displaces the water downward by a ½ inch (12. In the first trap in Figure 3-1.3 Vents and Venting A component of a gravity drainage system. If the pressure increases to more than 2 inches (50. That is.8 millimeters). If sink drains are nonstandard or if the vertical distance between a fixture outlet and its trap outlet is excessive. vent sizing requirements are expressed as ratios of a vent diameter to the drain diameter. Because they have no moving parts. the permissible velocities in the drainage system and its peak flow rates affect the diameters in the venting system. the permissible air pressure can be achieved. These errors typically are related to the elevation of the horizontal portion of the venting. Venting design principles are applicable to other drainage systems such as those for chemical waste. TRAP DESIGN A fixture trap provides a water seal without significantly impairing flow. air and other sewer gases will pass into the room. Figure 3-1 illustrates a sink trap with three pressure levels within a drain system. which prevents the accumulation of volatile substances in a drainage system. these two virtues can disguise a fault in a drain and vent system if particular errors in the venting are unknown. The last trap in the figure shows the effect of negative pressure in the drainage system. a variety of interpretations exist regarding the details of venting. If the negative pressure is subsequently more than 1½ inches (38 millimeters). Venting also allows air circulation. When the pressure in the . and some municipalities that have sewer problems warranting a house trap for each building require it. vent systems are quiet. local plumbing codes should be consulted for the final requirements of a vent system design. presents the engineering basis for venting. the water levels will be 1½ inches (38 millimeters) above the dip point. the water level is even on both sides of the trap. giving a 1-inch (25-millimeter) pressure difference. Such circulation is necessary for the installation of an interceptor. such as a water closet. however. The principles of its trap design can apply to most other fixtures. By definition. That is. air will be pulled from the room. the air pressure limit is 1 inch (25. with no drainage occurring from the sinks and a fully open sink outlet. Generally. the air above the water on the drain system side has an atmospheric pressure identical to the air inside the room.4 millimeters) of water column. and they generally operate flawlessly for decades. Hence. This design handbook. graywater waste. When the pressure in the drainage system returns to neutral. as well as the sizing tables of some model plumbing codes commonly enforced in the United States. then velocities in the entire drainage system will be greater than those assumed when vent sizing tables were tabulated. above or below atmospheric pressure. The design of a venting system is closely tied to the design of the drainage system. Another trap issue occurs when the momentum of water flowing from the sink causes most of the water to evacuate from the trap. The development of plumbing occurred across many broad geographical areas and at a time when communication was slow. The 1 inch of water on the other side is lost down the drain. However. When the vent piping is of a sufficient diameter or limited in length.

including circuit venting. called a vertical wet vent. if the diameter between the two fixture connections is increased. hence. and others require a relief vent downstream of two bathroom groups. Codes vary in the details of the permissible design. With a generous diameter. venting of the lower fixture is compromised. the orientation of the vent pipe at its connection to a fixture drain is generally vertical or.4millimeter) deflection of water is 0. An individual vent is connected only to the lavatory. A similar design may serve water closets. usually with a limit of eight floor-outlet fixtures. loop venting. Some codes permit a lavatory fixture branch to serve as either or both of the vent connections. Traditional alternative vent designs are generally part of most plumbing codes. a private bathroom is less likely to have two or three fixtures discharging into the drainage system simultaneously. The loss of a trap seal is prevented by providing a fixture vent. and its drain is the vent for the other fixtures. the fixtures of the circuit vent are also wet vented. Some are mechanical. In a good vent system design. the fixture branch of the water closet is downstream of the other fixtures and upstream of a stack or fixtures unrelated to the wet venting. Restricted to a water closet. Other codes permit a sink connection to the group. The vent is sized for the combined drainage fixture units of both fixtures. one vent connects between the two upstream fixtures. and sewer gases will move freely from the drain system to the room. the upper half of the cross-sectional area of the common horizontal branch is sufficient to prevent excessive pressures from affecting the trap seal of any non-flowing fixture in the group. the water level may be below the dip point. compared to public restrooms. and one recognizes the use pattern of private bathrooms. and floor drains. Typically. and battery venting. However. If two wall-outlet fixtures connect at different elevations. a lavatory. and a bathtub or shower. Common Vent Figure 3-2 shows a common vent. The pressure difference that causes a 1-inch (25. TYPES OF FIXTURE VENTS Individual fixture vents and various alternative vent designs are commonly employed in plumbing systems. rather than what is shown in Figure 3-2. The two fixtures connect at the same elevation with a vertical double-wye fitting. Some codes permit a double-sanitary tee. It is suitable for lavatories. others use larger-than-normal drain diameters. at most.0361 pounds per square inch (psi) (0. some codes permit this design. Still another addresses the vent connection limitations of island sinks. and some codes permit two bathroom groups with backto-back lavatories connected with a common vent. Figure 3-1 Sink Trap with Three Different Pressure Levels . That is. Various codes regulate the size of the wet vent.32 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 drain returns to neutral. and the other vent connects downstream of the last fixture. sinks. Public toilet rooms typically use this design for venting floor-outlet water closets and floor drains. and others permit a horizontal branch with a horizontal double-wye whereby the vent connects downstream of the double-wye. Various names are used for such venting. while other alternative vent designs require a technical submission to the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ). many fixtures can be vented by one or two vents as shown in Figure 3-3. Circuit Vent Through a horizontal branch. 45 degrees from vertical.249 kilopascals [kPa]). The branch is of uniform size for its distance between the connected fixture drains. Wet Venting Another wet vent design recognizes the usage of private fixture groups.

but it does not accommodate varying wall locations between floors. but some permit a limited number of water closets. Called a waste stack. However. Depending on the code. or a vent stack as a vertical extension from the building drain. other traditional venting designs are devised by employing a larger drain diameter. . other codes limit the types of fixtures connected to it. are not possible if the stack contains offsets. Codes usually prohibit a water closet from being connected to a waste stack. The design is commonly used for venting the basement floor drain in residential construction. Vent pipes at the upstream ends of a building drain are the only requirement. and possible downstream relief vents are prescribed in plumbing codes. the advantages of a larger stack diameter. the vent pipe may be a drain stack. Unlike a drainage system served by individual vents. connection points. Diameters. the building drain diameter in the combination waste and vent generally is increased by one commercial pipe size. Codes usually require each fixture to connect individually to the stack and the diameter to be constant from the base to the stack vent. a vent is required only at the top of the drain stack. which limits air pressure within the core of air inside the stack.Chapter 3 — Vents and Venting Systems 33 Figure 3-4 Vent Blocked by a Wye Fitting Figure 3-2 Common Vent for Two Sinks or Lavatories Waste Stack For circumstances with limited walls or little opportunity to provide a vertical vent pipe. Combination Drain and Vent Circuit Vent Loop Vent Figure 3-3 Circuit Vent Designs Another design employed for circumstances with limited walls is called the combination drain and vent. floor drain branch lengths. Some codes permit a combination drain and vent in systems other than the building drain. The design is ideal for a column-free warehouse and for a basement that only has floor drains. a single wall-outlet fixture. The waste stack serves building designs that have identical wall layouts on multiple floors.

Similarly.5) 4 (1. This elevation restriction preDiameter. drainage flow would 1 divert to the vent of the lower fix3 (76) /8 (1) 10 (3. while the connection of two or more fixture vents is called a branch vent. clear water system. In addition.8) the fixture rim. the horizontal pipes joining them are called vent headers or vent branches. is generally above the roof. Unlike an individual vent that rises above the sink rim level before turning horizontal. with a few differences. and the obstruction would 4 (102) ¼ (2) 10 (3.4) If the vent branch were at or below 3 (76) ¼ (2) 8 (2. The vent is not blocked. 2 (51) ¼ (2) 6 (1. the elevation of the horizontal portion of its vent is generally 2 to 6 inches (50. The open end of the pipe at the outdoor location. ft (m) vents the fixture from functioning 1.4) ture. Depending on the code.8 to 152 millimeTable 3-1 Maximum Distance of a Fixture Trap from a Vent Connection ters) above the rim elevation of the highest connected fixture (see Figure Fixture Drain Slope. or steam vent system. Drainage basins that are pumped of their contents require a vent to replenish the lost volume with air that is at atmospheric pressure. doors. This vent pipe allows the basin to be sealed from the building’s air.4) 6 (1.0) 8 (2. it connects to a building drain that serves the sink. graywater system. if the location of the vent connection is less than the distances listed in Table 3-1. Figure 3-4 shows a vent blocked by backed-up water and a wye fitting. ft (m) Fitting.5 (38) ¼ (2) 5 (1. Where two vent pipes are connected. provision is made for expansion and contraction of the vent terminal relative to the roof membrane. and promenades. VENT SYSTEMS The connection of a vent to a fixture drain should not be so close as to become clogged with debris washed through the trap. an island vent turns horizontal just below the rim and drops below the floor. the elevation of a branch vent is 2 to 6 inches (50. All parts of a vent system. The pressure test for the drain system often is applied to the vent system at the same time. about 1 foot (300 millimeters) from its surface.0) 1. a sink in casework that is not located near a wall requires an island sink vent. The connection of two or more stack vents is called a vent header.5 (0. the sanitary vent system does not share its parts with the vent system of a chemical waste system. Insulation that may be applied on drain piping that is prone to condensation is not applied to the vent piping. For a fixture drain. A vent terminal location generally is restricted away from air intakes. the vent pipe in a conventional system extends to the outdoors generally through a network of vent pipes. (mm) (%) Sanitary Tee. Other codes require a connection to the horizontal drain branch that serves the sink and to a vent stack in the nearest wall.4) correctly when an obstruction occurs 1. From the vent connection.5 (1. in.8) 4.5 (1. Interceptors also may require an individual vent. Figure 3-5 Two Vent Pipes Joined Above the Sink Rim These vents may be combined to the other vents unless the interceptor requires isolation such as with chemical wastes. called a vent terminal.34 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Island Vent Similarly. windows.25 (32) ¼ (2) 3. and its diameter is of a generous size to prevent closure caused by frost buildup. including the vent terminal. Codes usually prescribe cleanouts and a pipe slope in the vent piping.6) 10 (3. The piping material for vent systems can be identical to the drain system. are independent of similar vent system types.8 to 152 millimeters) above the rim of the fixture. and the radii of elbows and tees are usually sharper than on drainage fittings.4) continue to be unnoticed. for various connection orientations.0) 8 (2.2) downstream of its vent connection. 1 4 (102) /8 (1) 12 (3.0) . nor should it be so far away that it becomes blocked by water that will accumulate if downstream piping is obstructed. inch per foot Distance with Distance with Wye 3-5). That is.

such as with certain interceptors or in city sewers. Sizing a Vent Stack To size a vent stack. favoring the drain stack so water is never trapped within the vent. The hydraulic jump also may isolate the core of air. The major portion of the transition consists of a rapid shallow channel that abruptly converts to a deeper channel. For buildings with 10 branch intervals or more. the pressure change due to friction along its length is no more than 1 inch (25. if any. a vent is connected at the top of each drain stack and extends upward to a vent terminal or a vent header (see Figure 3-6). this has been disproven. called yoke vents.4 millimeters) of water column. . In approximately 50 feet (15 meters). and air occupies the upper half of the building drain pipe. find the flow rates of water and air in the drain stack. and a hollow core of air in the center. However. the film transitions into an open channel flow in the lower half of the building drain. In plumbing. Continuous airflow is required only if volatile substances are present. Such branch intervals are used as the basis for venting requirements. The downward moving air velocity in the core is equal to the terminal velocity of the water film. Before the jump. are made at every 10 branch intervals. At the base.Chapter 3 — Vents and Venting Systems 35 Figure 3-6 Stack Vent Joined to a Drain Stack Figure 3-7 Vent Stack Joined to a Drain Stack A horizontal vent pipe is installed with its slope. For buildings with four branch intervals or less. This top connection is sufficient to relieve the air pressure in the core. the vent diameter and length are determined from the maximum flow rate of the water and air flowing in the drain stack and passing toward its base. the film dropping from the inside portion of the pipe bend creates a curtain that isolates the core of air in the stack from the air in the building drain. It connects at the base of the drain stack before the drain sweeps to a horizontal plane. air pressure builds up in the core unless it’s relieved. the flow rate of the air passing into and up the vent stack can be determined. From the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the water to the entire pipe diameter. The top end of the vent stack joins the vent that extends from the drain stack (see Figure 3-7). a film of water around its interior surface. those with five or more branch intervals. Example 3-1 For a 4-inch (102-millimeter) drain stack with water flowing at terminal velocity and covering 7/24 of the stack cross-sectional area. the velocity reaches a maximum and remains constant for the remaining descent. This abrupt elevation change is called a hydraulic jump. the distance between floors can be regarded as an interval between branches connected to the drain stack. In a high-rise building. When the vent stack is of a sufficient diameter. Various restrictions on the horizontal length were based on an earlier belief that continuous airflow was required in venting to maintain trap seals. and the term allows some liberty regarding floors not having a connection to the stack. VENT STACK DESIGN Recall that the flow in a vertical drain stack consists of solids. intermediate vent connections. Hence. a vent pipe is placed parallel to each drain stack to relieve the core air pressure.

S.6 – 3.292.563 square millimeters) The flow of air is the product of velocity and crosssectional area. L = (0. we have: Equation 3-5 L= (P1/d) x D f x (q/D2pi/4)2/2g) L= (P1/d – h2) x D d = h2 + f x ( 2g x D ) Simplify this equation by recalling the density of standard air as 0.14 liters per second. the water flow rate is 27. 231 cubic inches = 1 gallon. and P1= 0. applicable in any consistent units of measurement: Equation 3-1 P1 v12 P2 v22 + h1 = + h2 + + d 2g d 2g where P = Pressure d = Specific weight h = Height v = Velocity g = Gravitational acceleration In an actual flow stream. From Chapter 1. hf. for h2 = 0. and f is dimensionless. For the friction term expressed as hf = f x ([v22 ÷ 2g] x [L ÷ D]).29171. Point 1 to Point 2 D = Pipe diameter of the vent stack Rearranging the terms to find the maximum length of a vent stack for a given diameter. the equation is: Equation 3-3 P1 v22 L where f = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor L = Pipe length. the velocity terms can be omitted. For Point 1 of a vent stack being at the lower connection of a drain If the vent diameter is unchanged along the length of the vent stack. the stack flow of water is 9.8 x 0. A vent stack is sized based on the conservation of energy of the air circulating in a drain stack and a vent stack. a friction term.563 ÷ 2. air flow is in gpm (liters per second).0119) x 2 x 9.000) ÷ (fq2)] or Equation 3-6 L= 2. Thus. .000044 pounds per cubic inch (0.854 – 2.6 square inches (1002 x pi ÷ 4 = 7.0361 psi (248. Alternatively. the airflow rate is 12.) From the same chapter.4 = 12.66 square inches (7. the terminal velocity is 3 x (144 ÷ 4)0.0119 Newton per liter).2 x D5 x (pi ÷ 4)2 x (60 ÷ 231)2 ÷ (fq2) [L = (248. (From the stack capacity table in Chapter 1.291 square millimeters) Cross-sectional area of air = 12.93 x 12 x 60 ÷ 231 = 349 gallons per minute (gpm) (9.226 D5 fq2 [ 2.8 ÷ 0.53x108 D5 f q2 ] Figure 3-8 Drain Stack Offsets The unit for length is in feet (meters). Thus.854 x 0. Recall the following from Bernoulli’s equation for an ideal flow between any two points along a flow stream.6 x 0. we find Equation 3-4.292 = 3.2 liters per second). Thus. Equation 3-4 may be expressed in terms of the flow rate of air.291 = 22.0361 ÷ 0. is added to the right side of the equation to represent the friction between the two points.6 x 8. q. Thus: Total cross-sectional area = 42 x pi ÷ 4 = 12. which is for an adequate pipe length and diameter for the given air velocity and the permissible pressure drop.667 x 42. the equation can be revised as follows: Equation 3-2 P1 d + v12 2g = h2 + v22 2g + hf The ratio of the cross-sectional area is 7/24 = 0.14 x 5. Equation 3-4 fv22/2g This general equation is applicable in U. Sanitary Drainage Systems. diameter is in inches (millimeters). customary units and SI units.854 square millimeters) Cross-sectional area of water = 12.6 feet per second (fps). derive the water flow rate in the stack from the stack flow capacity equation.66 = 8.000044) x 2 x 32. Recall that v = q ÷ (D2pi ÷ 4). The crosssectional area of the air core is found by subtracting the area of the water from the total area.291 = 5. Thus.8 pascals).93 square inches (7.67 = 144 gpm.824 x D5 x (pi ÷ 4)2 x (1.36 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 stack and Point 2 being at the top of the vent stack.292 = 2.

and 45-degree offsets.000091 ÷ 0. in a stack offset. .102 = 0.0000004 lbf-s/ft2 (0.0760 lbf/ft3 (and its density is 1. At the upstream end of each offset. Assume air at standard pressure and a temperature of 50°F (10°C). At 50°F (10°C). from transient water flows.029 x 22. • The air velocity in the vent stack is the same as in the drain stack. Hence. a vent connection point.000091) (twice that of new steel pipe). In a technical submission to the authorities having jurisdiction. the viscosity of air is 0. • The circulation of air is down the drain stack and up the vent stack. Hence. for a rough steel interior surface and find the maximum length of the vent pipe for 1 inch (25.4 millimeters) of water column between the two end points of a vent stack. and in a bend of the building drain. the air is blocked in the same way it is blocked at the base of a drain stack. the specific weight of air is 0. the air velocity in the vent stack may vary from the velocity in the drain stack.2 x 12) = 17. Other changes in the volume of air in the drain stack.218 kg/m3). An actual diameter will greatly affect length determinations since the diameter is raised to the fifth power in Equation 3-6. a relief vent is provided upstream and downstream of the horizontal portion of the offset as shown in Figure 3-9. • Pressure drop is 0.00090 [0. Thus.4 millimeters) of water column.53 x 108 x 0. a drain stack or vent stack qualifies as the main vent.000019 N-s/m2). Figure 3-8 illustrates several types of offsets of a drain stack. is added to the drain stack if there are drain branch connections below the offset.029 x 3492) = 645 feet [L = 2. Suds Pressure zones Another air restriction in plumbing occurs from detergents whose suds collect at the base of a drain stack. For 30. it relieves any pressure variation in the building drain.02) = 195 meters] Assumptions for this solution are as follows: • The properties of air are at standard pressure and with a temperature of 50°F (10°C). branches should not be connected to these zones.0000004 x 32. other air pressure-restricting conditions will occur where the stack changes direction.000019) = 17. The suds are displaced by water and solids. Figure 3-9 Relief Vents at a Drain Stack Offset Example 3-2 For a 4-inch (102-millimeter) vent pipe with terminal air velocity flowing at 349 gpm (22 liters per second). At standard pressure. Connecting from the building drain to a vent terminal or vent header. The diameter of the relief vent matches the vent stack. Actually. For 90-degree offsets. f = 0.226 x 45 ÷ (0. Main Vent A vent for the building drain is referred to as the main vent. the Reynolds number. • Pipe is straight and of uniform diameter. is: R = 4 x 8. The connection of the upper end of the two reliefs generally is prescribed to be a certain distance above the floor.029.1025 ÷ (0.91 fps (2. find the friction factor. and an additional vent connection is required at the base of the stack above the suds-pressure zone.102 x 2. but not by air. will involve airflow in or out of the vent terminal.218 ÷ (0. Thus: L = 2.00030 ÷ 0. f.68 meters per second).Chapter 3 — Vents and Venting Systems 37 • Pipe diameter is a nominal value rather than the actual inside diameter.4085 x 349 ÷ 42 = 8.8 pascals) or 1 inch (25.500] The roughness to diameter ratio is: 0.00090) From the Moody diagram. • A terminal velocity is occurring.91 x 0. these assumptions may be adjusted to the actual conditions to provide a more accurate determination of the vent length. Offsets If the drain stack is not vertical from its top branch to the building drain. R.68 x 1. • Stack height is negligible relative to the permissible pressure drop.0760 ÷ (0. The affected areas are called suds pressure zones as shown with double lines over the pipes in Figure 3-10. and the interior roughness is 0. The velocity is 0.333 = 0. there are no fittings.00030 (0. for stacks loaded with laundry discharges.0361 psi (248. In some codes. called a relief vent.500 [R = 0. a vent relief is provided upstream of the offset.

53 x 108 x 0. vent diameters.0381 x 2.0024 [0. A corresponding load on the vent system is determined in the same way. drainage fixture units can be matched to the gpm (liters per second) values of water flow and equal amounts of airflow. For two fixtures with individual vents. are calculated by the Manning formula.84 liters per second). Like the horizontal branch. the flow rates are identical. its actual length plus the equivalent lengths is the developed length.000091 ÷ 0. A capacity table for fixture venting can be formulated with drainage fixture units. The Reynolds number. equivalent lengths of straight pipe are added for each vent fitting. Equation 3-6 provides the relationship between airflow. vent diameter. for each commercial pipe diameter.0385 x 452) = 210 feet [L = 2.49 x 1.218 ÷ (0. FIXTURE VENT DESIGN The nature of water flow in a drain system is transient regarding which fixtures are flowing and the pattern of the flow with respect to time. Example 3-3 Find the maximum length of a 1.84 liters per second). assuming such a rare event is random. If the fixture in Example 3-3 were connected to the building drain rather than a horizontal branch. and vent lengths. is: R = 1. the airflow in the vent branch serving them is determined from combining the air flow rates of each fixture. The upper half is occupied with air moving at the same velocity. Building drain pipe diameters are selected based on drainage fixture units. the water flow rate and air flow rate are identical at 45 gpm (2.125 = 0.00030 ÷ 0. the size of an individual fixture vent is determined from the air flow rate.49 meters per second).0381 = 0. is found in the same way. The vent length is selected for the fixture furthest from the vent terminal. Thus. When the bulk of the water passes. f = 0.2 x 12) = 6.52 = 8. Hence. At each fixture. by using Equation 3-6. For venting with changes in direction.0760 ÷ (0.0385. The water flow stabilizes into a steady flow occupying the lower half of the drain pipe. However. the maximum developed length of the vent pipe.4085 x 45 ÷ 1. and the vent pipe length to the vent terminal.-millimeter) vent serving a water closet connected to a 3-inch (10-millimeter) horizontal drain branch.0000004 x 32. The velocity of the air in the vent is 0.842) = 65 meters] Vent pipes on fixtures connected to the building drain are not different than those connected to a horizontal branch.17 fps (2.5 x 8. air pressure drops below ambient and the air flow rate matches that of the water flow rate. drainage fixture units can be noted at each section of vent piping from the accumulation of fixture units served by that section of vent piping.03815 ÷ (0. Since the drain branch is half full.0024].5-inch (38.5 ÷ (0. Hence.000019) = 6.4 millimeters) of water column. the determination of the vent length. Assume that the drain branch is sloped at 1 percent and its flow rate is no more than 45 gpm (2. air pressure at the vent connection increases as a discharge of water and solids approaches the connection.38 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 into a uniform pattern occupying the lower half of the pipe. at properties similar to Example 3-2. This rate is generally at the start of a fixture discharge.000] The roughness to diameter ratio is: 0. in gpm (liters per second). the vent pipe diameter. It can be applied to any grouping of fixtures or the entire building. and vent length. Hence. That is.000 [R = 0. The tabulation of drainage fixture units from each connected fixture provides an easy determination of drain loading.17 x 0. The composite effect of multiple fixtures for any part of the drain system generally is decided on a 99 percent probability. Air in the upper half flows at the same velocity as the water in the lower half. As in vent stack sizing. the water flow in the building drain branch stabilizes Figure 3-10 Suds Pressure Zones . Drain capacities.0385 x 2. This behavior pattern of the water and air is recognized especially in long horizontal branches. From the Moody diagram.226 x 1. is: 5 L = 2. before its air pressure exceeds 1 inch (25. the concern of the designer is the maximum flow rate.

and building drain sizing. Table 3-2 IPC Sizes of Individual Vents and Vent Branches Drainage Fixture Units 1 2 3 6 12 20 160 360 39 Minimum Permitted Vent Diameter.5 (38) 2 (51) 2. Other features include fixture fittings that replenish water in the trap. in. or it may be a submission of each building using the alternative design. many of the individual vents.5 (38) 1. Drainage sumps also require traditional venting.013. the air core is relieved inside the stack and. The vent can be located within casework but not within a wall without a louver. branch capacities.25 (32) 1. these individual vents can connect to the Sovent drain stack rather than a vent stack. with n = 0. allows air into the drain branch when negative pressure conditions occur.78 liters).25 (32) 1. which effectively relieves the pressure surge. JURISDICTIONS Vent requirements vary geographically depending on the authority having jurisdiction. the vent branch for all of the fixtures contributing to the 390 drainage fixture units can be sized at 77 gpm using Equation 3-6. the compatibility of the chemicals must be within the recommendations of the admittance valve manufacturer. When positive or neutral pressure occurs. through larger branches and traps.5 (38) 2 (51) 2. A butylene bladder expands inside the device up to 1 gallon (3. Pressure attenuators also are installed every three to five floors for buildings with more than 10 floors. The Manning formula.5 (38) 1. fixture trap seals are maintained.25 (32) 1. Air-admittance Valves A design method employing a special check valve at an individual vent connection and a pressure attenuator near the base of a drain stack is an alternative vent system. (mm) Developed Length Less than 40 ft (12 m) 1. Otherwise. a main vent with a vent terminal and a connection to the building drain are required to relieve positive vent pressure. However. For vent systems using air-admittance valves. When positive pressure occurs at the base of a drain stack. a pressure attenuator momentarily absorbs the pressure increase before any nearby fixture trap is affected. For chemical waste systems. This proprietary design is suitable for a multistory building. or Philadelphia stack.25 (32) 1. The aerator fitting. Single Stack The design of the single stack. The International Plumbing Code (IPC) is published by the International Code Council. stack capacities. and the Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC) is published by the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials. Manufacturers and code officials have various other specific installation limitations. Where a water closet is not connected to a stack. and fixtures on horizontal branches require individual vents if they are beyond the limits of the Sovent Design Manual. individual vents are eliminated from the design. A deaerator fitting at the bottom allows the air core pressure to be relieved into the building drain.25 (32) 1. Vent stacks can be sized to IPC requirements using a table in the code when you know the drain Sovent Systems The high velocity in a drain stack is prevented significantly in the Sovent design through special fittings.5 (64) Developed Length More than 40 ft (12 m) 1. In the United States. The submission includes all of the technical engineering requirements that are necessary for the intent of the code to be recognized by the authority. determines the stabilized water flow rate and air flow rate to be 77 gpm (4. The deaerator fitting also is installed at the upstream end of a horizontal offset.5 (38) 1. a 5-inch (12-millimeter) building drain sloped at 1 percent is permitted no more than 390 drainage fixture units. A stack vent with a vent terminal also is eliminated for stacks of six branch intervals or less. vent header sizing.5 (38) 1. two model codes predominate. The location of an air-admittance valve is at each fixture or group of fixtures. the terminal velocity is controlled at that floor level by installing two 45-degree stack offsets or an inline offset.5 (64) 3 (76) ALTERNATIVE VENT SYSTEMS Nonstandard alternative vent designs require a technical submission to the authority having jurisdiction. spaced at each floor. The submission may be a one-time submission of a product. Vent stacks and many individual vents are eliminated.86 liters per second). similar to traditional venting. Through larger stack diameters. the check valve closes. The check valve. Thus. The fittings eliminate the vent stack and . provides an installation economy and saves space in multistory buildings. Fixtures connected to the building drain require individual vents.Chapter 3 — Vents and Venting Systems For example. or air-admittance valve. prevents the occurrence of a terminal velocity and allows a water closet flow stream to join the stack flow without disrupting the air core. The design manual also has various other requirements including fixture unit assignments.

5 (64) 3 (76) 4 (102) 5 (127) 6 (152) 8 (203) 10 (254) Crosssectional Area of Pipe. Table 3-3 UPC Sizes of Any Vent Vent Size with Length Restrictions Drainage Fixture Units 1 8 24 48 84 256 600 1.3) 100 (30.57 (8. Sovent systems.4 millimeters) of water column above or below atmospheric pressure.5 inches (38 millimeters).3 (32.170) 7. The cross-sectional area of the pipes in column five are provided in column six as a convenience to meeting the additional UPC requirement that the sum of the area of all vents of a building shall not be less than the area of the sewer serving the building.030) 4. drainage fixture units at the base of the stack. circuit vent. and combination waste and vent. the values for 24 drainage fixture units must be used since the row above is less than 12.5 (38) 2 (51) 2.700) .7) 60 (18. Example 3-4 For a vent branch serving a group of fixtures with 12 drainage fixture units.6 (50. and developed length of the vent.8) 250 (76.600) 28.110) 19. Table 3-2 provides a convenient reference. and the single-stack system. waste stack. developed length.6 (12. CONCLUSION As part of a gravity drainage system.5) 130 (39.400) 78. which should be consulted in a final design.14 (2.600 Minimum Diameter. The third column shows a one-increment pipe size increase. It is a separate pipe joined to the drain at certain connection points and generally is sized to avoid an air pressure in the drain system beyond 1 inch (25. (mm) 1.1) 40 (12. Vent piping can be sized to UPC requirements using Table 3-3.5 (38) 2 (51) 2.40 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 From Table 3-3. Because the permitted horizontal length is less than 45 feet. Economy in the amount of vent piping is achieved by alternative designs such as a common vent.07 (4.2) 120 (36.560) 12. From Table 3-2.2) 70 (21. ft (m) 15 (4. venting is a parallel arrangement of piping that limits the air pressure within the drain system. per IPC.6) 180 (54. Particular requirements in a vent system design vary greatly with local plumbing codes. refer to column five for the minimum vent diameter of 2. for 12 drainage fixture units.6) 300 (91.2) 60 (18. wet vent. given the drainage fixture units.380 3.140) 3. find its minimum diameter in the IPC code and the UPC code given a developed total length of 100 feet of which 45 feet are horizontal.2 (mm ) 1.77 (1. Stack vents are sized similarly. Columns four and five are derived from specific UPC requirements.3 (18.2 in. For ease of sizing a vent for an individual fixture or a branch vent for a group of fixtures. (mm) 1. in. Vent pipe sizing varies between vent stacks and fixture vents. in.6) 170 (51.25 (32) 1.200) 50.25 inches (32 millimeters). when the developed length is greater than 40 feet (12 meters).5) 20 (6. ft (m) 45 (13.5 (64) 3 (76) 4 (102) 5 (127) 6 (152) 8 (203) Maximum Length. stack diameter. When the vent piping is of sufficient diameter or its length is limited. It was created by relating drainage fixture units to drain diameters and the IPC requirement for vent diameters to be one-half of the drain diameter but no less than 1.2) Minimum Vent Diameter Without Length Restrictions. the minimum vent diameter is 1.9) 212 (64.5 inches (64 millimeters).4) 390 (119) 510 (155) 750 (229) Maximum Horizontal Length.91 (3. the range of air pressure can be achieved in the drainage system. Other alternative vent systems include air-admittance valves. and horizontal length.

The environmental protection laws establish authority for groundwater and surface water protection. on-site infiltration. and because of this . implemented by the U. or reuse. ground surface. parking lots. and standards. Where this is not possible. a redundant (or backup) pump system may be mandatory. The Clean Water Act. may impact storm water designs. The model plumbing codes establish a minimum acceptable standard for the design and installation of storm water systems. ejector. and all other areas where the storm water could damage a structure or present a health or safety hazard to the public. subsoil drains. transpiration. Some AHJs require a system to be provided to safely pass the 100-year. For more information on the NPDES system and the Clean Water Act. These discharges should not include contaminants that exceed applicable ground or surface water standards established by the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ). The NPDES permit includes the erosion control requirements to be used during the construction phase until final stabilization of the building is achieved. or infiltration allows the storm water to disperse into the environment. elevating the storm water for discharge (using a pump. The plan must address the control of overland runoff from the site and of storm water within the storm water conveyance and infiltration systems (as these systems also provide a means for the storm water to exit the property). The NPDES permit language includes a requirement for a post-construction storm water management plan. subsurface dispersal. contact the AHJ or visit the EPA websites (cfpub. or piping also are used to store rainfall and release the storm water over a designed period.gov/npdes and epa. Some jurisdictions allow (or require) the discharge from clear water drainage systems to be included in the storm water system. area drains. tanks. subsurface.gov/watertrain/cwa). Environmental agencies regulate watersheds based on specific local conditions. etc. Some AHJs allow depressed areas on the site where the storm water is collected and allowed to remain until evaporation. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).S. so the plumbing engineer must verify and review any local requirements during the design phase of the project. CODES AND STANDARDS Storm water system design is one area of plumbing engineering that relies on several different types of laws. all storm water inlets are protected from construction site sediment. roof systems. combined sewer. Building sites may be provided with conveyance piping for draining paved areas. During the construction period. codes. These owners are required to file a Notice of Intent to obtain a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit prior to land disturbance.epa.) for storm water systems. etc. impacts construction site owners where one or more acres of land are disturbed during a construction project or where the land disturbance is part of a common plan of development. The plumbing engineer is part of a design team that uses all of the codes and standards to comply with site-specific conditions and rules. The AHJ also regulates the discharge point (municipal sewer. Storm water systems may be designed for gravity flow to a point of discharge. as well as approved management plans. Storm water subsurface dispersal is controlled to protect groundwater quality and sometimes to enhance groundwater quantity (aquifer recharge). Building codes and the architectural design of the structure are limiting factors in the storm water design. Depending on the AHJ’s requirements. Frequently these releases are required to replicate the hydrograph for the pre-construction site. Some states and large cities have adopted plumbing codes other than those usually associated with the region. Detention basins. or storm water harvesting may be considered. 24-hour storm.4 Storm Drainage Systems Storm water systems may convey rainwater from building roof drains.). and foundation drains to a point of discharge. vegetated areas. Local ordinances and the design of the municipal sewer.

many design manuals recommend a smaller time of concentration for small sites. Webster’s defines hydrology as “a science dealing with the properties. so the designer does not need to calculate the peak flow rate. fixtures. Five. For example. MATERIALS Materials include piping. ordinances.9 0. Materials must be acceptable to the AHJ. that principle does not adequately address current storm water issues.80 Coefficient of Runoff (c value) Composite land uses Flat residential.5 – 0. While creating the material specifications. about 50% impervious Flat commercial. 15-minute storm has a rainfall intensity of approximately 4 inches per hour. industrial. Rainfalls and snowstorms occur as a series of events that have characteristics including rainfall Table 4-1 Coefficients for Use with the Rational Method Type of Surface or Land Use Individual soil covers Forest Turf or meadow Cultivated field Steep grassed area (2:1) Bare earth Gravel or macadam pavement Concrete or asphalt pavement 0. and commercial design. one of the basic plumbing principles required system designs to conduct storm water quickly from the site inlet to the point of discharge. the science of hydrology and the calculation of runoff for each particular site are necessary considerations. may show that a 10-year. infiltration and reuse systems require the volume of the storm event to be determined.gov). For instance. as the time of concentration for a small site may be 10 to 20 minutes. Different design storms also are used for varying situations or purposes. the actual plumbing code used for each specific project must be obtained from the AHJ. However. lack of standardization. when recommending a 10-year storm. about 30% impervious Flat residential.35 – 0. The tables and charts appearing in this chapter are used only to illustrate and augment this discussion and may not be appropriate for actual design purposes. corrosion.3 0.8 – 0.1 – 0. One. When no typical conditions exist. intensity. For the purpose of system design. Wisconsin.65 0. research and follow all manufacturer requirements and limitations. See other Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook chapters on materials and joining methods for more information. In the same city. distribution. To design a storm water system. Codes are being revised to change the drain system requirement from “quickly” to “efficiently. and every combination imaginable. Exposed leaders or downspouts should be capable of withstanding all anticipated abuses. and treatment devices. detention. a particular storm event must be chosen. the Minnesota Urban Small Sites Best Management Practice Manual states that two. The hydrology of a storm event is the basis for all storm system designs including pipe sizing.4 0. about 60% impervious Sloping residential. The 100-year storm defines the limits and flood plains and is used to consider the impacts of major floods. Such precipitation and frequency information can be found on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Weather Service website (nws. treatment devices and methods.42 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 amount.4 0. fittings. a design frequency of 10 years typically is used for an average site. and laws are the primary sources used for the storm water design. most plumbing codes provide pipe sizing charts based on geographic area and time of concentration.and 10-year events are used for adequate flow conveyance and minor flooding consideration.3 – 0. this is probably a logical number for estimation. and expected expansion and contraction. SITE DRAINAGE AND INFILTRATION In the past. an intensityduration-frequency curve for Madison. about 90% impervious .2 – 0. detention systems.55 0. For small sites.” The hydrology of a storm event limits this study to a particular precipitation event and the fate of the water that falls during that event. and duration.and two-year storms are used to protect channels from sedimentation and erosion.1 – 0. The applicable local codes. such as 5 minutes. and circulation of water. However. to design infiltration.” The plumbing engineer’s involvement with storm water management has been expanded to address the evaluation of the precipitation and runoff from the site.9 0. This is known as the design storm. infiltration systems. weather. supports and hangers. bedding. it’s necessary to also specify the duration of the storm.40 0.noaa. or smalldiameter piping systems.7 0. a 10-year. Fortunately. Thus.and 10-year storms are used for subdivisions. However.7 0. 60-minute storm has a rainfall intensity of 2 inches per hour. All methods used to determine volumes and peak flows use historical data.

the banks of the stream widen. storm water does contain pathogenic (disease-causing) bacteria such as Shigella (causes bacillary dysentery).” or tend to flash flood because high flows occur quickly and affect stream levels. Flooding occurs downstream at higher elevations than prior to urbanization. and pathogenic E. a rate in cubic feet per second (cfs) can be calculated once the intensity is entered into the Rational Method formula. However. surface water. cfs A = Drainage area.4 cfs (448.90 x 4 = 5. Storm Water Quality Impervious areas such as roofs. Table 4-1 is an example of such a table. a stream develops a channel to accommodate a twoyear storm (a storm that usually occurs no more than once every two years). inches per hour (There’s a hidden correction factor of 1.5-acre site with a concrete or pavement cover (0. according to Groundwater Contamination from Storm Water Infiltration.423. As peak flows increase. or soil unless a treatment device is used. It’s also evident in Figure 4-1 that the peak flows are higher in a developed area than in predevelopment conditions. can be found in the applicable local code or design manual. Using it.and Post-construction Hydrographs Post-construction The Rational Method Many jurisdictions accept the Rational Method for calculating peak flow rates. viruses have been found in groundwater below infiltration ponds where no indicator bacteria are present. Table 4-3 contains mean values that are specific to the state of Wisconsin. galvanized roofs. and the other shows the runoff pattern after development on the same site. and connected imperviousness. • Base flow is reduced because the infiltration of storm water into shallow aquifers that provide the dry period feed for small streams is reduced./hr. a dimensionless number i = Rainfall intensity. It translates peak intensity of rainfall directly into peak intensity of runoff. Development along the stream increases impervious area and runoff. The equation would be: Q = 1. When using the Rational Method for pipe sizing on small sites. so it does not provide any information for the designer of a detention or infiltration system. Table 4-2 lists common urban contaminant levels in runoff. For example. As illustrated by Tables 4-2 and 4-3. Runoff Patterns The runoff coefficient. One shows the runoff pattern prior to construction. . consider a 1.8 x 5. building materials (such as lead flashings. the number of bacteria in storm water is lower than the number in domestic wastewater. land use.5 x 0. or c value.90 runoff coefficient) and a 4-inches/hour rainfall. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (causes swimmer’s ear and skin infections). Typically. The Rational Method was developed to identify peak flow for pipe and culvert sizing. Streams that once flowed yearround disappear. The runoff in a specific geographical area is affected by building patterns. Flow Rate Pre-construction • Nearby streams become “flashy.5 gallons per minute [gpm]) The Rational Method provides a peak flow rate. or galvanized gutters and downspouts). Equation 4-1 Q = Aci where Q = Runoff. and roads accumulate contaminants from vehicles. and animals.) Example 4-1 As an example. traffic. Viruses also can travel in storm water runoff. salt or sand usage on roads and sidewalks. the atmosphere.Chapter 4 — Storm Drainage Systems 43 Figure 4-1 Pre. For a small site. In fact.560 square feet) c = Coefficient of runoff. as those parameters create the highest peak flow rate. a designer can size a piping system to safely carry the peak flow to a treatment device or to a point of dispersal or discharge. these changes in hydrology affect the local environment in the following ways: • The frequency and severity of flooding increases because peak flows are two to five times higher than before development.008 cfs per a-in. The Rational Method is illustrated in Equation 4-1. The Rational Method was not intended to be used to calculate volume. It’s evident that the flow rate increases and decreases more quickly in areas that have been developed. Under normal conditions. Rainfall washes these contaminants from the impervious surface and deposits them into the groundwater.4 = 2. coli. acres (1 acre = 43. the time of concentration should equal the intensity. parking lots. Figure 4-1 illustrates two hydrographs.

including those shown in Table 4-4.5 0. The FAA (Federal Aviation Agency) has developed a simple formula for use with the Rational Method that can be used to define the time of concentration for a site. the rainfall intensity that would be used in the Rational Method is approximately 5.0 Units: mg/L = milligrams/liter.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Slope G along hydraulic length. Also note that mean or median runoff concentrations from storm water hotspots are two to 10 times higher than those shown here. the Rational Method assumes that a storm duration matching a drainage area’s time of concentration produces the greatest runoff rate.1 0.0 1 – 5. so to be more accurate than simply assuming a number.3 1. coli bacteria Petroleum hydrocarbons Cadmium Copper Lead Zinc Chlorides (winter only) Insecticides Herbicides a b Estimating Time of Concentration and Rainfall Intensity As previously stated.5 1.9 C 1.5 inches per hour.9 0. however.1 0.6 0.0 0.30 2. For instance. TR-55 is a model.6 0.7 3.0 12. the length of the design storm is based on the control intent.8(1.2 0.5 0. Figure 4-3 shows the intensityduration-frequency curves for Madison. Equation 4-2 tc = [1.2 0.7 1.1 – 2.8 0. feet G = Slope along the hydraulic length.8 C 0.600 1.7 0.2 1. Using a time of concentration of approximately seven minutes and a 10-year storm. the intensity would be about 4 inches per hour.3 0.1 1. it must be applied to the design storm for the site. minutes c = Cover factor in the Rational Method formula Lh = Hydraulic length. Other Resources for Calculating Runoff Technical Release 55 (TR-55): Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds by the U. The new Windows version has specific capabilities and limitations.4 0. Department of Agricul- 0.0 0 FAA time of concentration These time of concentration equations are depicted in chart format in Figure 4-2.5 2 10 18 140 230 0. Frequently the 10-year storm is used. and storage volumes required for storm water management structures.8 1. American Society of Civil Engineers Figure 4-2 Time of Concentration 1. Source: Manual on the Design and Construction of Sanitary and Storm Sewers. If one were designing for the two-year storm. hydrographs.450 3.6 1.S. percentage This formula was further simplified by Bruce Ferguson in his text Introduction to Storm Water. feet cg = Factor combining everything except hydraulic length cg Unita mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L MPN/100 mL MPN/100 mL mg/L ug/L ug/L ug/L ug/L mg/L ug/L ug/L Average Concentrationb 80 0. minutes Lh = Hydraulic length. percent ture’s Natural Resources Conservation Service was designed to provide a simplified procedure to calculate storm water runoff volume. After the time of concentration has been calculated. as stated before.1 – c)Lh1/2]G-1/3 where tc = Time of concentration.44 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Table 4-2 Contaminant Concentrations in Urban Storm Water Contaminant Total suspended solids Total phosphorus Total nitrogen Total organic carbon Fecal coliform bacteria E.7 0.4 1. the time of concentration could be estimated by using an appropriate procedure. MPN = most probable number Concentration represents the mean or median storm concentration measured at typical sites and may be greater during individual storms. ug/L = micrograms/liter. Another way to estimate figures in the Rational Method equation is to use rainfall intensity-duration-frequency curves. peak flow. .4 0.3 0. Wisconsin. Equation 4-3 tc = Lh1/2cg where tc = Time of concentration.

This worksheet can be found in Appendix 4-A.nrcs. These data include: • Identification information (user.16 17 17 107 34.554 --------------958 763 1. Note: The relatively large concentrations of zinc in roof runoff indicate that galvanized roofing materials were a source of the zinc.627 879 690 0.67 13 -59 42. cfu = colony forming unit a Single dash indicates source area is not in the land use. the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources provides a simple worksheet that may be used on 5-acre or smaller sites.39 41 38 304 2.Chapter 4 — Storm Drainage Systems Figure 4-3 Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curve 10 9 8 45 Certain data requirements must be entered into the TR-55 main window.15 15 21 149 294 112 15 0. Concentrations of dissolved copper and total recoverable copper and lead were slightly larger in the residential roof runoff than in runoff from driveways and lawns.587 Lawns Driveways Roofs Parking Lots 0 127 58 0.usda.093 --------------306 173 1.34 28 25 265 5. visit the website at wsi. in.106 --------------267 146 0.11 6 8 1. Source: “Sources of Pollutants in Wisconsin Storm Water.html.94 74 60 575 4. county.5 76 86 479 8.338 -a 373 232 0.294 91 27 0. One-third of the residential roofs had galvanized downspouts.705 Outfall Residential Source Areas Total solids (mg/L) Suspended solids (mg/L) Total phosphorus (mg/L) Total recoverable copper (ug/L) Total recoverable lead (ug/L) Total recoverable zinc (ug/L) Fecal coliform (cfu/100mL) Total solids (mg/L) Suspended solids (mg/L) Total phosphorus (mg/L) Total recoverable copper (ug/L) Total recoverable lead (ug/L) Total recoverable zinc (ug/L) Fecal coliform (cfu/100 mL) Total solids (mg/L) Suspended solids (mg/L) Total phosphorus (mg/L) Total recoverable copper (ug/L) Total recoverable lead (ug/L) Total recoverable zinc (ug/L) Fecal coliform (cfu/100 mL) 600 397 2. double dash indicates insufficient data.061 - Collector Arterial Streets Streets 493 326 1. ug/L = micrograms/liter.31 24 33 220 92./hr 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 2 10 100 yr recurrence interval 50 Duration of storm (minutes) Table 4-3 Sources of Pollutants in Wisconsin Storm Water Geometric mean concentrations of contaminants in runoff from source area and storm sewer outfalls Contaminant Feeder Streets 796 662 1.66 16 32 203 175.47 46 50 508 9. To learn more about TR-55. Wisconsin Rainfall intensity i.117 78 41 0. triple dash indicates values are shared with those above for the same source area. project.20 9 9 330 1. state.114 Commercial Source Areas Industrial Source Areas Units: mg/L = milligrams/liter.” Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources . and subtitle) • Dimensionless unit hydrograph • Storm data • Rainfall distribution • Sub-area data A user of TR-55 must be familiar with the entry information.758 531 312 0.155 144 369 262 0. Roofing materials also might be a source of copper and lead in the runoff from residential roofs. Madison.19 15 22 178 1.07 56 55 339 56.gov/products/W2Q/H&H/ Tools_Models/WinTR55. As another resource.

46 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Table 4-4 Windows TR-55 Capabilities and Limitations Some codes require inlet calculations. The user should carefully examine results from sub-areas less than 1 acre. and several hydraulic issues must be considered when designing inlets—not only the design of the inlet itself. Today. II. square feet C = Orifice coefficient. usually taken as 0. Variable Minimum area Limits No absolute minimum is included in the software. entrapped by. III. high-volume safety hazards by separating flow into inlets rather than concentrating flow at the surface. storm conveyance systems were the exclusive approach to storm water management until about 1965. 0 – 50 inches (0 – 1. Figure 4-4 shows an illustration of inlet control. Inlet control occurs where water is backed up at the pipe or culvert entrance.2 feet/second/second h = Head. 25 square miles (6. Other conditions may exist that affect flow when an outlet is submerged. NM75.60 g = A constant. catch basins. including manhole grates. in feet on the inlet or depth of water on top of the inlet. PE. and multiple inlets. gutter inlets. with . Advanced Plumbing Technology by Dr. Inlets come in many shapes and sizes and are critical to a responsible storm water system design. with the increased head creating an increased pressure that increases the discharge rate. IA. Alfred Steele.1 hour < tc < 10 hours 0 – 10 Channel or structure Muskingum-Cunge Storage-Indication Pipe or weir 1–3 Default or user-defined. and maintained to conduct the wastewater or sewage quickly from the fixture to the place of disposal. The submerged inlet behaves like an orifice. which also affects the capacity of the system. it seems strange that some codes state: “Drain systems shall be designed. combination inlets. curb inlets. Q = 2/3AC(2gh)½ where Q = Inlet capacity. NM65. or user-defined 24 hours Standard peak rate factor of 484 or user-defined 2 (average) Maximum area Number of sub-watersheds Time of concentration for any sub-area Number of reaches Type of reaches Reach routing Structure routing Structure type Structure trial size Rainfall depth Rainfall distribution Rainfall duration Dimensionless unit hydrograph Antecedent moister condition Figure 4-4 Inlet Control Shown for a Pipe or Culvert Equation 4-4 HW Figure 4-5 Outlet Control Shown for a Pipe or Culvert H HW Collection Systems It is possible for a person to get sucked into. cfs 2 /3 = A factor to correct for assumed blockage of one-third of the inlet’s net open area A = Net open area of the inlet. but also the surface condition where the piping is installed. or drown in a storm water collection system due to a vortex or high-velocity flow. 32. The designer can help eliminate high-velocity. They come in many types. NM70. and curb inlets can provide the designer with more accurate information on the volume of flow through inlets when the variable of water height about the inlet is known. constructed. At the very start of any storm water collection system is the inlet.270 mm) RNCS Type I.500 hectares) 1 – 10 0. Conveyance According to Introduction to Storm Water. A conveyance system was designed to handle the peak flow rate during a design storm. Figure 4-5 depicts one type of outlet control. usually not more than 2 or 3 inches Manufacturers of manholes. includes an equation for calculating the capacity of a catch basin or manhole-style inlet. NM60. Outlet control occurs where the pipe outlet is submerged due to ponding or a slow flow rate.

and the depositing of solids. or paved areas. Steele wrote: “The primary objective of a site drainage system is to collect and convey all excess storm water from the site to a convenient and safe discharge point.” At the time that basic plumbing principle was written. Several arrangements may be used as subsurface detention. the drainage system had one purpose: to drain water quickly from a site. tank systems. or subsurface gravel beds that are lined to prohibit infiltration. fps 47 n = A coefficient representing roughness of pipe surface. This installation promotes a smooth water flow and helps prevent backwater in the upstream piping. the following equations and methods are acceptable for sizing conveyance piping: • FlowMaster • Manning’s equation for gravity flow • Hazen-Williams equation for pressurized flow Piping Alignment When a change in pipe diameter occurs at a manhole or catch basin.486/n x R⅔ x S½ Once velocity and capacity are known. A detention system poses no risk to the groundwater. As the requirements of municipal storm water plans and NPDES permits become more widely used. This is called “peak shaving. Sizing Conveyance Piping The designer may use the tables in the local code or a formula such as Manning’s (Equation 4-5) to calculate flow velocity. tanks. the system must have access ports for cleaning or an equivalent method for removing solids. The velocity of water from discharge points also is frequently controlled by environmental protection agencies. In fact. Piping systems designed to “detain” storm water may be designed to create less than the 1-fps velocity. not the inverts. Although currently most codes have no stated velocity maximums. and shall have adequate cleanouts so arranged that the drain pipes may be readily cleaned. Detention Detention systems are designed to modify the conveyance system to slow the rate of flow from an area. square feet V = Velocity of flow. the alignment of the incoming and the outgoing pipes should be such that the crowns of the pipes. Other plumbing systems perform the joint function of collection-infiltration systems.” Dr. Some systems are designed to detain storm water in the conveyance piping so the post-construction runoff hydrograph closely resembles the pre-development hydrograph of the site. This can be expressed as: Equation 4-6 Q = AV where Q = Quantity of rate of flow. feet per foot The quantity rate of flow is equal to the crosssectional area of flow times the velocity of flow. more of these systems will be designed and installed. fps By substituting the value of V from Manning’s formula. A downstream restriction should occur in a manhole or be accessible. Figure 4-6 illustrates this rule. In fact. Piping systems designed to detain storm water may be installed with a slope of less than that required for drainage piping. Many codes state: “All horizontal drain piping shall be installed at a pitch which will produce a computed velocity of at least 1 foot per second when flowing full. feet S = Hydraulic slope of flow surface.486/n x R⅔ x S½ where V = Velocity of flow. Detention systems may be designed using piping systems. line up.” What’s changed in collection systems since the earlier codes? Most importantly. If the velocity is less than 1 foot per second. oversized piping grids. degree of fouling. Because such systems are meant to detain storm water.” The detention system may include controlled-flow roof drainage systems. one obtains the following: Equation 4-7 Q = A x 1. and that information can be used to calculate the capacity of the conveyance piping. fouling. reservoirs or surface ponds. as the groundwater and the storm water do not interact in a detention system. and pipe diameter R = Hydraulic radius (hydraulic mean depth of flow). Equation 4-5 V = 1. Detention on parking lots by restricted piping systems or inlets should not allow ponding more than a height of 6 inches and should not allow water to .Chapter 4 — Storm Drainage Systems velocities which will prevent clogging. today’s storm water systems have many objectives. manufacturers of pipe materials have permitted maximum velocities. cfs A = Cross-sectional area of flow. references the design of “site drainage. the required slopes for most plumbing drainage piping aren’t required for detention systems. the storm water system’s primary objective isn’t always to collect and convey storm water quickly to a discharge point. written in 1984. even Advanced Plumbing Technology.” Piping designed to “drain” is required to be installed to produce the minimum velocity of 1 foot per second (fps).

and it is recommended to load at less than 5 inches per hour for basins or trenches. A lined. Load rates should be based on Table 4-5. Detention Tanks Several designs including tanks currently are used. This is a groundwater quality consideration. enter the building. Also. The design also should take hydraulic restrictions into account. Another is the concrete structure.07 0. loamy fine sand. The U. or the suspended solids must be reduced by 80 percent prior to infiltration.04c 0. Table 4-5 Design Infiltration Rates for Soil Textures Receiving Storm Water Soil Texturea Coarse sand or coarser Loamy coarse sand Sand Loamy sand Sandy loam Loam Silt loam Sandy clay loam Clay loam Silty clay loam Sandy clay Silty clay Clay a Design Infiltration Rate Without Measurement (inches/hour)b 3. Many options are available for these designs. Total suspended solids (TSS) must be treated to less than 35 milligrams per liter. No substances should be discharged into the infiltration system that would exceed groundwater standards. it’s a more complicated situation. 1978.60 3. manufactured filters.60 1.13 0. b Infiltration rates represent the lowest value for each textural class presented in Table 2 of Rawls.63 0.03 0. the AHJ should be consulted for the established setback to wells. but it still needs repair and maintenance. c Infiltration rate is an average based on Rawls. EPA for requirements for class V injection wells.S. Groundwater mounding. even though there is no setback for quality. very fine sand. The load rate as shown on Table 4-5 is suggested for infiltration. Other treatment requirements for runoff from parking lots or other contaminated areas prior to infiltration may be required by the AHJ. detention basins.S.50 0. Figure 4-6 Crown Alignments on Storm Sewer Piping Treatment Match crowns Catch basins. gravel-filled void is one example.24 0. and even grass filter strips can provide storm water treatment. Check with the U. This restriction for rooftop runoff applies only to saturated-flow systems. Designers must plan for that maintenance. Vertical setbacks to zones of seasonal soil saturation are 5 feet for water from any source other than rooftops and 1 foot for rooftop runoff. It does not apply to subsurface drip irrigation or surface spray irrigation.60 3.48 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 A sand blanket consisting of engineered soils to treat storm water may be added to an in situ soil that doesn’t meet the vertical setback requirements. Infiltration A subsurface infiltration system could look like a conventional gravity dispersal system (septic system) or it may resemble a subsurface created wetland. and many more designs most likely will appear in the future. 1998. regardless of the source. or the local rise of the water table above its natural level. Other treatment performance may be documented by manufacturers. EPA provides a list of best management practices and assigns treatment values to some common practices. should be taken into account when designing an infiltration system more than 15 feet wide.07 Use sandy loam design infiltration rate for fine sand. The AHJ may have more stringent requirements for detention. subsurface. All devices and safeguards that are discussed in this chapter shall be maintained in good working order. Although storm water and its impact on the environment is a fairly new concept. 1982 and Clapp and Hornberger. Considerations for Infiltration System Design A soil and site evaluation should be performed by a person acceptable to the AHJ. Note that Table 4-5 assumes rooftop quality. . the groundwater laws in many states require groundwater protection. Accessibility and Maintenance All plumbing systems require maintenance.11 0. It seems to be a given that when the toilet doesn’t flush.04 0. The draindown time should be less than 24 hours for surface ponding and 72 hours for subsurface drainage. and loamy fine sand soil textures. When a storm water detention system becomes filled with silt or groundwater contamination occurs when an infiltration system fails. someone fixes it.

emergency drain requirements and locations. Secondly. Methods of detention are usually code-mandated requirements. It was evident that requiring storm water devices has allowed many species to greatly expand their range and increase their numbers. pipe space allocations in the ceiling space. Even small breeding areas combine to make big problems. snow depth. more cleanouts or accessibility ports (e. siphonic roof drainage. such as controlled-flow roof drainage. All designs must meet or exceed the local code requirements. must be determined. • Rainfall rate.g. and Anopheles mosquitoes are most often associated with storm water devices. destroying the integrity of the roof waterproofing by tearing the flashing and the waterproofing membrane. This problem can be more apparent in high-rise buildings and buildings where the exposed leader is subject to cold rainwater or melting snow and ice that enter piping at the ambient temperature of the building. proximity to surface water. rain gardens. topography. parapet heights. Special local conditions. • Expansion and improper anchoring of the vertical pipe have caused roof drains to be pushed above the roof deck. green roofs. snowmelt. If the code is not available or if a longer rainfall period is permitted. the AHJ can provide the required information for local conditions. including roof type. the industry and storm water regulators should keep in mind that the construction of new habitats has the potential of making a bad situation worse. frost line. five-minute storm for the building roof and site unless other factors are involved that require greater protection from flooding. The book The Coming Plague says: “For most insect experts it came as no surprise that even a one-year slackening in mosquito control efforts could result in a surge in the bugs and the microbes that they carried. Culex. The designer should keep in mind that the codes are minimum standards only. manholes) could be included in the design. detention basins. extent of overflow pipe and discharge requirements. The former lays its eggs in quiet water. including location. • The building’s construction. soils. and wall and chase locations must be determined. In 1998. vertical wall heights. elevation. If such requirements are not available. and method of connection to the public sewer are all code-related items. location of existing manholes. With recent concerns about the West Nile virus and continuing issues with LaCrosse encephalitis.Chapter 4 — Storm Drainage Systems As velocity decreases or contaminant load increases. the California Department of Healthcare Services Vector-borne Disease Section conducted a study to learn whether storm water practices supported vector populations. The results proved that mosquitoes use the standing water in storm water devices as homes. The research done in California shows that the Aedes. The most dangerous vector related to storm water is currently the mosquito. Rarely is a shorter minimum economically justifiable. A third way to prevent surface standing water is to fill the area with rock to eliminate the mosquito habitat. and the latter lays eggs on damp soil where the next flooding event will allow a hatch. infiltration basins. the design should be for a 10-year. scupper sizes and locations (if provided). Several available methods. Also. freezing conditions. building and site characteristics. • Site conditions. INTERIOR BUILDING DRAINAGE SYSTEM DESIGN The design of storm water drainage systems shall be based on local code requirements and sound engineering judgment.. subsurface system inlets can be sealed or screened to prevent mosquito entry. and code requirements may necessitate a unique design. and other conditions usually can be found in NWS or NOAA publications. There are two types of mosquitoes: the permanent water species and the flood water species. . • The local code shall be consulted to determine the rainfall rate that is applicable for the design area. overflow requirements. location and pipe material of public storm sewer. 49 General Design Criteria The following items should be considered when establishing the storm water system. groundwater table. use good engineering practices as outlined in this chapter. An expansion joint at the roof drain or a horizontal section of the branch line should be considered to Vector Control Vector control is an important issue that’s tied to maintenance. and infiltration trenches could be used. Maintenance schedules that ensure a system’s operation as designed is critical for vector control.” How can plumbing designs be modified to reduce mosquito breeding sites? First of all. draindown times should be reduced to less than 72 hours. A current proposal for infiltration devices is a maximum draindown time of 24 hours. drainage slope patterns. • Minimum pipe size and slope. and location of other utilities within the site.

clear water wastes. where exposed. Figure 4-7 Clear Water Waste Branches for Connection to Storm System Source: Reprinted. The horizontal section of the pipe and the roof drain body should be insulated. per cold water installations with a vapor barrier. which acts as a support. At the lower floors. pressure pipe may be considered for the piping system. should be protected by metal or concrete guards or recessed in the wall and constructed of a ferrous alloy pipe. If interior floor/hub drains. drip marks on the flooring. also may be affected. Clear water wastes should be properly trapped and vented. and the elbow should be properly supported. If backwater valves are used. However. and air. If the offset is greater than 45 degrees. and freeze protection.50 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 • Because of the excessive pressure that may exist in the leader. drains sometimes connect to a stack at a lower level. Above an offset. See Figure 4-7.5 meters) above the paving or loading platforms. or areaway drains are connected to the storm system inside the building (if allowed by the AHJ). safety. the piping system may be subject to a head pressure greater than the joining system is designed to withstand. • If leaders are to be located at building columns. Past this distance. the column footing design must be coordinated with the structural engineer to take into consideration the leader location. • If an offset is 45 degrees or less. by permission. leaders located on the exterior can be installed at a much lower cost and do not take up valuable floor space. • A riser clamp should be provided at each floor line to support the leader. the leader can be sized as a vertical pipe. all exterior leaders that may be damaged. clear water wastes. Also. the drains must connect at least 10 pipe diameters (10 feet [3. they can cause the areas affected to not drain. The elbow may rest directly on the column footing. To avoid stoppages. drains from lower roofs. possibly causing stain damage to the ceilings or. • If blockage occurs in the drainage system and backs up in the vertical leader. the water is no longer cold enough to cause condensation. Horizontal piping of clear water wastes and vents should be sized as a sanitary drainage branch. and a buildup of water may occur. the pipe must be sized as a horizontal pipe. such as cast iron. to 5 feet (1. This condensation usually extends 15 feet from the roof drain. the drain becomes the vent to relieve the pressure. The piping layout must be coordinated with other design team disciplines that are affected. Other utilities. to control condensation. an upright wye should be utilized if possible. such as the architect providing chase locations at proper columns for vertical leaders (also known as conductors or downspouts) and the structural engineer for pipe support and footing depths. appearance. from The Illustrated National Plumbing Code Design Manual (Ballanco & Shumann 1987) • • • • accommodate the movement of the leader without affecting the roof drain. a cleanout shall be provided at the base of all stacks (although caution must be exercised when opening these cleanouts because full leaders create a high hydraulic pressure situation).05 meters) beyond the elbow or offset. such as ductwork and conduit runs. This method is especially beneficial in keeping the costs of high-rise buildings contained. When such piping is tied to a leader. The plumbing engineer must include the additional flows when calculating the leader size. Locating the vertical leaders within the building has several advantages: convenience. blowing water.05 meters] minimum) downstream of the last offset fitting. such as occurs in parking or truck-loading areas. See Figure 4-8 • To keep the number of leaders to a minimum. Traps must be the same size as the horizontal drain to which they are connected and should be provided with at least 4-inch (102-millimeter) deep-seal P-traps. These drains are subject to backflow and should be routed separately to tie to the system 10 feet (3. . To prevent joint failure. combine flows from more than one roof drain. The base elbow should be a long sweep bend to help alleviate any excess pressures in the downstream pipe. Low-temperature liquid flow in the piping causes condensation to form on the outside of the piping. or any combination thereof.

5) 25.6) 8.5) 30 (1.2) 8.3) 6 (152. (45-mm) head of water at the drain construction.1) 15. Live loads include snow. chase locations.00 (71. roof CrossSectional Area.7) 18.4) 9.5) 2½ × 2½ (63.00 (309.6) 7.75 (24.6) 5 (127) 4 × 5 (101.7) 18.00 (116.2 (cm2) gpm (L/s)a 6.7) 8 (203.8 × 101.0) 20.208 (76.4) 30.4) 9. and to minimize the horizontal piping runs.2 × 107. The roof structure must be able to support the weight of ponded water by design or by nature. in.00 (51.7) 6.6) 1.1) 192 (12.5 × 76.2) 1.6) 3½ × 4 (88. and maximum allowable roof loading. minimum footing depths. in.4) 92 (5. The plumbing engineer also should ensure that the drains are located in the low points of the roof to limit deflection.1 × 63.5 × 63.2) a 51 Roof Drainage Coordination The building roof transfers the combined weight of live and dead loads (with the proper additional safety factor) to the supporting structure.91 (31.85 (50.42 (60.5) 22. Double-wye fittings should be avoided. parapets.00 (77.4) 5 × 6 (127 × 152.00 (51. Figure 4-8 Typical Roof Drain and Roof Leader Source: Reprinted.5) 30. walls.3) 192 (12.3) 48.6) 30 (1. structural engineer.1) 14.7) 18. ceiling space requirements.5) 22.2) 7.4 × 203.2) 28. Vertical leaders should be tied to the horizontal main with single-wye fittings.5) 3 (76. wall.3) 19.1) 360 (22. in.6) 54 (3.00 (90.3) 14.00 (180. and the possible benefits of ponding.0) 92 (5.75 (82.06 (123.Chapter 4 — Storm Drainage Systems the leader cannot be reduced in size in the direction of flow throughout its length.50 (93. by permission.25 (40. 1976) .0) 20.28 (40. and plumbing engineer.1) 54 (3.00 (90.2) 50. The plumbing engineer can provide information concerning the maximum roof areas per drain.3) 7. Table 4-6 Sizes of Roof Drains and Vertical Pipes Diameter of Leader.25 (130.7) Water Maximum Contact Discharge Area. and waterproofing membrane. • Flashings must be installed to prevent moisture from damaging the structure.3) 4.1) 12.00 (141.1) 360 (22. Dead loads include all mechanical and electrical equipment and the roof deck. (mm) Dimensions of Leader.8) 12. roof slopes. Most codes require the installation of two roof drains to serve each roof.2) 4.27 (183.07 (97.14 (162.00 (193. even if Table 4-6 requires a smaller size for the vertical leader.8) 11. The roofing material and roof structure must be designed in accordance with the local code in force. which could cause ponding and shifting of the roof low point.50 (48. and column furring-out requirements.8) 92 (5. The architect is familiar with the building construction.00 (116.6 × 127) 4½ × 4½ (114. in.208 (76. wind.7 × 139. Drain Location Drain location must be coordinated with the architectural design of the building.8) 3. • Accessible inlets may need protection from vandalism.2) 8.2) 4 (101.8) 2 × 2 (50.25 (195. available headroom for pipe runs. rain. from Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings Engineering Manual (Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute.8 × 50. an 8-inch (203-millimeter) horizontal line must tie to an 8-inch (203millimeter) vertical leader. Capacity.6) 192 (12.2 (cm2) 3.4) 12.6) 30 (1. For example.6) 2½ × 3 (63.5) 2½ (63. and water on the roof.85 (121. column orientation.3 × 114.2) With approximately 1¾-in. Locating the roof drains should be a cooperative effort among the architect.9) 563 (35.9) 563 (35.14 (20.00 (25.2) 6 × 8 (152.2) 2 × 4 (50.8) 1½ × 2½ (38.00 (141.00 (58.00 (51. (mm) 2 (50.8) 12.07 (45.00 (129.6) 563 (35.57 (81.27 (324.1) 14.9 × 101.6) 28.57 (81.2) 360 (22. footing sizes and depths.4) 5½ × 5½ (139. The structural engineer is familiar with the structural support layout. headroom requirements. Some things to consider include the following: • Roof decks should be covered with an approved roof covering.6) 3 × 4¼ (76.

used as a terrace. An underdeck clamp should be utilized to secure the drain to the metal or wood decking. Roof drains. if a rainfall heavier than the design rainfall occurrs. Adjacent Surfaces Roof drains also receive rainwater from other roof areas such as penthouses that discharge onto the roof area being calculated and from the adjacent vertical walls. which allow the entrapped rainwater to overflow the roof. should have dome strainers that extend a minimum of 4 inches (101. and placement of secondary roof drains are mandated by local code requirements. the engineer must know the roof construction and thickness.6 millimeters) above the roof surface immediately adjacent to the drain. The primary drainage system must be designed for the local code value based on the roof area (in square feet). but these drains shall be installed separately from the primary system as mandated by code requirements and discharge to several possible disposal points. These formulas typically are excessive for roof areas that have more than one vertical wall or multiple-story walls with runoff directed to the horizontal roof surface. This will require larger grates to compensate for the smaller drainage holes in the strainers. areaways. and parking decks). for use on sun decks. Rain seldom falls in a totally vertical direction. Roof Drain Design Standard roof drains have three basic parts: strainer. size. For instance. Wind. Some codes may require secondary drainage systems to be designed for more stringent values. promenades. The secondary drainage system shall handle any overflow that occurs when the primary drain is clogged.7 millimeters) above the maximum designated head or 4 inches (101.5 times the area of the leader that serves the drain. the roof may be flat or pitched. If scuppers are utilized. Another should discharge directly into the main drainage system adjacent to the primary drain. and drain body or sump. The impact on the sewage treatment plant for a combined storm/sanitary sewer (where allowed) is considerably lessened by the use of controlled-flow roof drainage systems. When selecting the type of drain to use. birds. The flashing ring is used to attach the roof waterproofing membrane to the drain body to maintain the watertight integrity of the roof. and small animals. Secondary drainage systems may be either scuppers. Poured concrete roofs do not require these clamps. Depending on wind conditions. particularly with high-rise buildings. can blow rain off a vertical wall and away from building surfaces. used as a parking deck with heavy traffic. These systems also help alleviate flooding in overtaxed public storm sewers or drainage canals during heavy rainfalls. and parking garages where regular maintenance may be expected. Additionally. or be flat (for sunroofs.52 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 receive sand and grit should be provided with sediment buckets. The structural engineer shall be advised that scuppers will be installed to be able to accommodate for the additional weight of the water. Some codes require 50 percent of two adjacent vertical wall areas to be added to the horizontal roof area. Dometype strainers are required to prevent the entrance of leaves. Strainers for roof drains shall have available inlet areas not less than 1. have a polyethylene dome (for use where leaves may accumulate). and smaller-diameter storm sewers. the two systems should work together to carry the increased load. Other codes use complex formulas for various wall configurations. smaller-diameter piping. One disposal point should be above grade so building personnel can see that the primary drainage system is blocked. One scupper or secondary drain should be provided for each roof drain. or a separately piped drainage system. flashing ring with gravel stop. Heel-proof strainers may be required if the roof is subject to pedestrian traffic. The secondary piping system shall be designed similarly to the primary drainage system. The design. or used to retain rainwater to limit the effluent to the storm sewer system. used to retain water for cooling purposes. such as those required when the primary drainage system is clogged. Flat-deck strainers. but drain receivers should be used on drains for concrete roofs. debris. shall have available inlet areas not less than two times the area of the leader that serves the drain. Drains that may . the angle of rainfall could be as much as 60 degrees to the vertical or more. Secondary Roof Drainage Systems Secondary (emergency) roof drainage often is mandated by the local AHJ in case the primary drains becomes blocked. have a sprinkler system for cooling purposes. These systems can provide significant installation savings because they require smaller roof drains.6 millimeters) above the roof level. Controlled-flow Storm Drainage System Controlled-flow systems collect rainwater on the roof and release the flow slowly to the drainage system. Strainers may be coated with cast iron. A third possibility is connecting a separate system to the main house drain before or after it leaves the building. This drainage system can consist of either scuppers through the sides of the building or separate roof drains installed at a higher elevation than the primary roof drain. other than for flat decks. they should be placed ½ inch (12.

2-millimeter) design depth of water.44-kilopascal [kPa]) loading to provide a safety factor above the 15. The resulting flow or siphonic action requires the installation of level drainage manifold pipes serving multiple roof drains.Chapter 4 — Storm Drainage Systems 53 curb at least 4 inches (101. This means that rainwater will pond on the roof. from the Jay R. The flashing should extend at least 6 inches (152.or 100-year return period with durations of five. The following points should be considered. either mathematically interpolate between the figures shown or refer to recommendations by the local code officials. Using available tables. and 45-degree cants should be installed at any wall or parapet. Smith catalog Controlled-flow systems should not be used if the roof is used for functions precluding water storage. The roof design for controlled-flow roof drainage should be based on a minimum 30-pound-per-squarefoot (1.4 millimeters) above the roof level. If the code for roof drains provides this information. Flowcontrol devices should be protected by strainers. Doors opening onto the roof must be provided with a Interior Pipe Sizing and Layout Criteria Interior storm drainage systems are designed utilizing architectural and engineering design information. Holding the water on the roof increases structural costs and may require a different roofcovering material. such as a sundeck or a parking level. Then go to the code chart and use this figure for sizing purposes. The hydraulic balance in a siphonic roof drain system is achieved by employing engineering calculations to ensure that the piping system fills automatically when there is moderate to heavy rainfall. The rates for various rainfall intensities that often are used without calculation—duration. a designer can select a precipitation frequency value for a 10. It also may be possible to find a rate one-half of the value of the actual rainfall as provided in the code for roof drains. The flow-control device should be installed on the drain so the rainwater discharge rate does not exceed the rate calculated to discharge into the site system. The roof should be level. first establish the closest city and determine the rainfall intensity in inches per hour. The selection of the duration and frequency of a storm for the site as a whole is discussed later in this chapter under the site drainage requirements.6 millimeters) high. This is an advantage for large buildings where the traditional slope of the drains is problematic. If exact figures are not found. Figure 4-9 Example of a Controlled-flow Drain Source: Reprinted. Other return periods and durations can be interpolated between the values listed. or if not allowed by the AHJ. Roof drain manufacturers have done much research on the engineering criteria and parameters regarding the head of water on the roof for the weir design in controlled-flow roof drains. and in no case should the roof surface in the vicinity of the drain be recessed to create a reservoir. . causing full-bore flow and higher flow volumes and velocities. and they have established suggested design procedures with flow capacities and charts.75 kilograms per square meter) represented by the 3-inch (76. by permission. Rainfall Rates The rainfall rate for roof drain sizing shall be established by the local code. The depth of the water on the roof depends only on the resistance value assigned to the drain by the manufacturer. 15. and 60 minutes. • The contributing area of each roof drain shall be calculated and noted. AHJ. or the NOAA. and return period—also are listed.6 pounds per square foot (0. Siphonic Roof Drains A siphonic roof drain contains a baffle that allows and sustains negative atmospheric pressure in the drainage piping and inhibits the admission of air. length. A typical controlled-flow roof drain is illustrated in Figure 4-9.

ft2 1 ⁄8-inch slope 1⁄4-inch slope 1⁄2-inch slope 250 350 500 357 505 714 690 930 1. Some areas of the country require the secondary drainage system to spill onto grade to indicate that the system is operating. The discharge pipe should connect to the horizontal storm main at least 10 feet (3.120 3.000 . but is normally the same as the discharge pipe size of the pump. REFERENCES 1. to the floor above. Both may be routed to the same manhole. and debris. A pipe rupture above one of these areas could cause major damage and contamination. especially in northern climates. • Where there is an adjacent vertical wall. The code assigns a square foot equivalent for each gpm for sizing purposes. Table 4-7 Size of Horizontal Storm Drains Diameter of Drain.700 3. in.61-meter per second) velocity should be maintained to properly scour the pipe of grit.100 8. or similar devices. Locating cleanout plugs above ceilings may cause damage to the ceiling when the pipe must be cleaned. The cleanouts should be extended up to grade. After layout and sizing. and food-preparation areas. the designer should review the proposed system to determine if revisions to the layout would improve the system from the standpoint of ease of installation.600 23. either on the roof if the discharge is onto the roof or in the piping if the discharge ties directly into the drainage system. Local code dictates the size. Piping under building slabs should be avoided if feasible. • If the storm-drainage system receives continuous or intermittent flow from sump pumps.500 33. (Some authorities recommend a minimum 3-fps [0.91-meter per second] velocity to keep the sediment suspended.000 47. the combined discharge capacity should be used. and/or coordination with other trades.) The sizes of a typical horizontal storm drain for various slopes are given in Table 4-7.54 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 • Roof drains and vertical pipe are sized as indicated in code requirements.300 6. it may be necessary to tie the secondary system into the public storm sewer separately from the primary drainage system.05 meters) downstream of the base of any stack. • The sizes of the horizontal mains are based on the accumulated flow of the drains and leaders upstream as indicated in code requirements. Cleanouts should be provided at any change in direction exceeding 45 degrees and at any change in pipe size and to meet any applicable local code requirements for distances between cleanouts.300 13. the size of the building storm drain is based on the accumulated flow from the drain leaders upstream. The vertical wall area is referred to as sidewall flow. A minimum 2-fps (0. The method used to dispose of the overflow drain discharge must meet local code requirements. Often the code assigns a square foot equivalent for each gpm of discharge to be used in sizing mains. • The pipe size of the sump pump discharge is based on the capacity of the pump. air-conditioning units. kitchens. Concrete Pipe Handbook. • Avoid running horizontal piping above the ceilings of computer rooms. • The sizes of mains downstream of sump pumps are based on the accumulated flow of gravity drains upstream plus the discharge capacity of any sump pumps upstream.000 95. American Concrete Institute. • When a separate secondary system is required. cost of materials. the drain size is based on the horizontal collection area plus a percentage of the two adjacent vertical wall areas. For duplex pumps operating simultaneously.400 16. depending on the square footage of the contributing roof area. • Horizontal piping must be supported properly.000 18. the flow should be added to the drainage system.700 9.500 2. or out to the wall face with a wall plate. Manufacturers provide sizing and flow rate information for their products on their websites.600 67. as high pressure can exist in this zone due to hydraulic jump.320 1.700 37. but with separate inlets. sand. as pipe leaks could erode the fill below the slab and cause the slab to crack.500 53.800 5.000 26. 2 2½ 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 15 Maximum Projected Roof Area for Various Slopes of Drains. therefore. with bell holes provided for underground bell-and-spigot piping.320 4.000 2. Local codes may not allow open discharge onto the street.

.. Julius and Eugene R. Introduction to Stormwater. Facility Piping Systems Handbook. Frankel. 55 20. Frankel. National Weather . 30. Publication No. Standard Plumbing Code. NTIS Publication PB-272 112. 2002. Garrett. Shumann. 3. 11. Stormwater: The Dark Side of Stormwater Runoff Management. 8. U. Gribbin. Church. James C. “Siphonic Roof Drains. 1987. 26. Ann Arbor Press Inc. 2002.” NWS Technical Memo HYDRO-35. Metropolitan Council/ Barr Engineering Co. 28. 27. Ballanco. 1976. 5. Hydraulics and Hydrology for Stormwater Management. Meyers. 1988. Plumbing Engineering and Design Standard 45: Siphonic Roof Drainage. pp. Illustrated. McGraw-Hill. 32.Chapter 4 — Storm Drainage Systems 2. McGraw-Hill. March/April and May/June 1981. ASAE. “Rainfall Rates: How Much Rain Is Enough in Design?” Plumbing Engineer. “Estimating wastewater loading rates using soil morphological descriptions. “A Simple Method for Retention Basin Design. 22. McGraw-Hill.” Proceedings of the Fifth National Symposium on Individual and Small Community Sewage Systems. Warren. 1964.01. 204. 31. Practical Plumbing Design Guide. Steele. Service 5-60 Minute Precipitation Frequency for the Eastern and Central United States. Alfred. John Wiley & Sons Inc.” Plumbing Engineer. PE. “Storm Drainage Design and Detention Using the Rational Method.. Delmar Publishers. Plumbing Design and Installation Reference Guide.” Plumbing Engineer.” Proceedings of the Sixth National Symposium on Individual and Small Community Sewage Systems. Manas. 36.. 23. ASAE. 18. Ferguson. Claytor. 25. Manas Publications. Schueler. 7. Department of the Army. Sansone. 9. 1993.. 1986. PE. Yrjanainen. Richard A. Ralph H. The Coming Plague. “Sources of Pollutants in Wisconsin Stormwater.W.” SPM 1104. July/August 1978. Bruce K. Misc. Co. pp. 1994. Jay R. Thornton. Advanced Plumbing Technology. Vance A.S. Glen and Alan W. Building Officials and Code Administration. Maryland Stormwater Design Manual. No. Minnesota Urban Small Sites Best Management Practice Manual. Engineering Manual of the War Department. American Society of Civil Engineers.” Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 1982. pp. 19. Ballanco. 34.. 1981. 179–190. Volume 1. . Technical Release No. 1996. Plumbing Design Manual. National Plumbing Code. May 1992. “Filling In the Missing Rainfall Data. 4. Laurie. 14. 192–200. 3. 35. 5. SBCCI. Musgrave. McGraw-Hill. Design of Stormwater Filtering Systems. Maryland Department of the Environment. 25. 1994. Construction Industry Press. Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. 55. 1984. NTIS Publication PB87-101580. Delta Communications. U. 17. 6.” Water and Sewage Works. “Stormwater Retention Methods. The Center for Watershed Protection. Ballanco and Shumann—Illustrated Plumbing Codes Inc. and Eugene P Auciello. Larry. National Technical Information Service. Groundwater Contamination from Stormwater Infiltration. The Illustrated National Plumbing Code Design Manual.N. Smith Mfg. “Hydraulic loading rates for soil absorption systems based on wastewater quality. 24. Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute. 16. and H. Steele. Michael. 1996. Engineered Plumbing Design. and Thomas R. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers. 33. “Estimation of Soil Water Properties. John R. 10. 29. Penguin Books. 1987. 2007. Julius.” Vol.. December 1973. Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings Engineering Manual. Handbook of Applied Hydrology. G. American Society of Plumbing Engineers. 12. Manual on the Design and Construction of Sanitary and Storm Sewers. 1328. 1968. No. 1991. 21. “NOAA. John E. Frederick. National Technical Information Service. 1979. PE. 1316–1320. Forester Communications Inc. Holtan.S. Alfred.. Vincent T. 15. Michael. PE. War Department.” Plumbing Engineer. 13. BOCA Basic Plumbing Code.

For these calculations. This worksheet assumes the following conditions: • Pervious areas are assumed to be under average antecedent moisture conditions. parking lots. However. Step 2 Determine the impervious and pervious contributing areas. and other paved areas where water is unable to effectively infiltrate. • To help account for the effects of soil compaction. the infiltration device must infiltrate 10 percent of the total runoff volume for commercial sites and 25 percent for residential sites as calculated using a two-year. Second Ed.56 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 • C: Soils characterized as loamy or sandy clay loams that have moderate runoff potential and low infiltration rates. silt clays. refer to TR-55 to calculate the runoff volume. 24-hour storm were obtained from TP-40 for seven municipal areas to account for the variation in rainfall patterns across the state. loamy sand. • This worksheet assumes that impervious areas are directly connected. the textural class listed above provides an adequate means of determining the hydrologic soil group. Impervious area (ft2) x Impervious runoff (feet) = Impervious volume (ft3) ___________ x ____________ = _________________ Pervious area (ft2) x Pervious runoff (feet) = Pervious volume (ft3) ___________ x ____________ = _________________ Total = Impervious volume + Pervious volume = __________________ (ft3) Note: Per NR 151. June 1986) can be obtained at the NRCS website. • Pervious areas are characterized as grass under fair conditions modified by the soil class. Curve numbers of 69. If an alternate land use is required. but may not be needed when determining the amount of water required to infiltrate. Information on a soil’s specific hydrologic soil class can be obtained from soil surveys.. 79. 1 acre equals 43.12. Due to compaction. Pick the hydrologic soil group that best represents the site. Areas that are offsite that contribute runoff also must be accounted for during the design. pervious areas are characterized by urban grass cover in fair condition overlaying soils from one of the hydrologic soil groups listed below. and 84 are used to characterize A–B. or piped flow. Definitions Impervious area constitutes rooftops. 24 hour design storm. the numbers utilized in this worksheet will adequately characterize grassed areas and small planting areas.560 square feet. ditched flow. type A soils are rarely encountered on construction sites. • D: Soils consisting chiefly of clays. Assumptions and Notes This worksheet is based on TR-55 and provides a simple and quick method to calculate runoff volumes from commercial sites. • Rainfall values for the two-year. Calculation of runoff peaks and flow times (time of concentration) requires use of TR-55. Impervious areas are considered connected if runoff from them flows directly into the drainage system. Unconnected impervious is defined by runoff that flows over pervious areas before discharging to the drainage system. or silt loam and having low runoff conditions and moderate infiltration rates. and clay loams that have high runoff potential and very low to no infiltration capacity. . sandy clays. Step 1 Select the runoff values from Table 1 for the municipality closest to the site. C.) Impervious Area: ______________ (square feet) Pervious Area: ______________ (square feet) Step 3 Determine runoff volumes. (Note: For conversion purposes. • A–B: Soils characterized as sand. group A soils have been combined with group B soils and utilize group B curve numbers. For these calculations. APPENDIX 4-A Runoff Volume Calculation for Typical Wisconsin Commercial Sites The purpose of this worksheet is to calculate runoff volumes from pervious and impervious areas using a simplified TR-55 approach. Contributing areas are areas from which runoff enters the device via overland flow. impervious areas are assigned a curve number of 98. Impervious areas have one value while pervious areas have three different values depending on the hydrologic soil group. and D soils respectively. The complete version of TR-55 (210-VI-TR-55. For most commercial applications.

087 0.048 0.087 0.035 0. 24-hour) Municipality Madison 2.4 Eau Claire 2.7 Duluth 2.032 0.113 .099 0.048 0.087 0.231 0.8 Corresponding Runoff Quantities (feet) Runoff impervious area Runoff pervious area (A–B soils) Runoff pervious area (C soils) Runoff pervious area (D soils) 0.099 0.206 0.081 0.093 0.076 0.070 0.127 0.214 0.039 0.5 La Crosse 3.198 0.043 0.181 0.189 0.0 Wausau 2.064 0.8 Milwaukee 2.106 0.Chapter 4 — Storm Drainage Systems 57 Table 1 Rainfall (inches) for Selected Municipalities Parameters Rainfall (2-year.056 0.113 0.6 Green Bay 2.214 0.

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Whether a utility company’s meter or a meter from another source is used. which indicates direct flow and records water passage in gallons (liters) or square feet (square meters). the meter characteristics (type. from the utility water meter and backflow prevention to inadequate or excessive pressures. code compliant. • Disc meter: These meters are normally ½. a meter in an outside pit or manhole should be watertight against both surface and groundwater conditions. and 2 inches (16. Electric tape heating also may be required. ¾. Water meters for plumbing use usually are classified as the positive-displacement type.1. a utility may request a particular type of meter (e. compound meter vs. size. are manufactured to meet the requirements of 150-psi (1. and measure flow in one direction. cost-effective. This is common whether the water service and fire protection use the same water lateral or not. the above-mentioned characteristics must be taken into consideration. 4. including cold water. costs. Some jurisdictions want the meter immediately adjacent to the tap to prevent illegal connections between the meter and the tap. the actual plumbing code used for each specific project must be obtained from a responsible code official. In such locations. Because of this non-standardization. 25. pressure. pressure drop. and volume suitable for use at every device that uses water. etc. 80. 19. There are various model codes. This type of meter is common for residential and small commercial installations and is adaptable for remote readout systems.034-kilopascal [kPa]) maximum working pressure. sizing procedures.g. and 50 millimeters) in size. 3. velocity and sizing issues. To discourage tapping of the piping ahead of the meter. turbine meter). remote readouts. and safe manner. the meter may be located directly inside the building wall. flow. are manufactured to have a 150-pounds-per-square-inch (psi) (1. This type of meter is used when most of the flow is low. • Compound meter: These meters are normally 2. Plumbing codes establish a minimum acceptable standard for the design and installation of various systems. Where job conditions mandate such a location. and 6 inches (50.. 1. and final testing and cleaning. but high DOMESTIC COLD WATER METERS Many major municipalities furnish and/or install a particular type of water meter. The meter shall not be subjected to freezing or submerged conditions. The tables and charts appearing in this chapter are used only to illustrate and augment discussions of sizing methods. even when the system is at peak demand. The designer’s task is to ensure that this is done in a reliable.) can be obtained from the local water department.5 CODES AND STANDARDS Cold Water Systems The primary task of a building cold water service and distribution system is to provide adequate flow. and measure flow in one direction. but some states and large cities have adapted plumbing codes other than the ones usually associated with the region. and 150 millimeters) in size. .034-kPa) maximum working pressure. 100. This chapter presents the major flow and pressure-related components of a cold water distribution system. Backflow prevention at the building meter discharge is required by most codes and municipalities. Meter Types Domestic cold water meters are available in the following types. and design methods and should not be used for actual design purposes. The location of the meter is of prime importance. The information pertaining to cold water design appears in the approved local plumbing code and must be the primary method used for the accepted methods and sizing. 40. 1½. Depending on the type of project being contemplated.

• Turbine meter: The sizes of this meter are 2. hydrostatics applies. It is capable of recording low flows and has the capacity for high flow rates. viscous forces. This can be avoided with a properly installed and selected mechanical shock arrestor or the use of supplemental checks. A strainer with only a pipe plug may not be cleaned regularly and needlessly adds to the pressure drop. etc. 80. First. Design Guidelines for Cross-connection Controls Thoughtful consideration should be given to the anticipated emergency discharge of backflow preventers. velocity. Controls to prevent reverse flows recognize basic static pressure conditions while accommodating for dynamic factors.through 2-inch strainers typically are bronze. prevent contaminants from being drawn into the piping by devices or piping design. low pressures may occur that can draw contaminants into the supply piping if no controls are provided. The designer may wish to include a blowdown valve with the strainer to make maintenance easier. The design should include a minimum of 8 pipe diameters of straight pipe upstream of the meter before any change in direction or connections. 4. These contaminants then may emerge in other parts of the piping when the pressure is restored. In most cases. (A strainer should be installed upstream of the meter. the use of a Y-type strainer is strongly encouraged to help prevent debris from entering the valve and fouling the checks. 3. strip-chart recorders. the control device may be a backflow preventer. When water supply pressure is lost. it is only briefly described here as it relates to cold water systems. or dislodged relief valve O-ring will cause the RPZ to discharge from the atmospheric vent (located on the relief valve). such as industrial facilities and car washes. Various types of meter can be equipped with optional accessories. If the outlet from a water supply is located above its receptor. flows are anticipated. and valves 2½ to 10 inches are stainless steel or cast iron with an FDA coating. clogged sensing line. If pressure immediately downstream of the device is greater than atmospheric (a situation defined as back-pressure). as in a faucet spout. 150. Conditions such as a leaking check valve. the control device may be a vacuum breaker. CROSS-CONNECTION CONTROLS Preventing reverse flows at hazardous connection points of a water supply system is referred to as crossconnection control. In some cases. If pressure immediately downstream of the device is less than atmospheric (a situation defined as back-siphonage). and the pressure within a given volume depends only on elevation.) • Propeller meter: The sizes of this meter are 2–72 inches (50–1. the type of control typically used is called an air gap. and 10 inches (50. Chapter 9). It is recommended Sizing the Water Meter The following design criteria may be used as a guide for selecting the proper meter: • Building occupancy type • Minimum and maximum demand (in gallons per minute [gpm]) • Water pressure available at meter • Size of building service • Piping. with the exception of fire protection due to the overriding urgency of not compromising water flow to the sprinkler system. and momentum add other factors to consider. the designer should consider how to minimize these potential conditions. ruptured relief valve diaphragm. 100.through 2-inch strainers. the screen should be 20 mesh. In such a case. the installation must meet the requirements of the local fire official and the appropriate insurance company. Since the topic is covered in its own chapter in this series (PEDH Volume 4.60 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 and hydrodynamics. and the perforated screen for 2½. The strainer body material should be consistent with the valve to prevent electrolysis. Propeller meters are used where low flows never occur. and elevation pressure losses • Meter costs and tap fees • Maintenance costs and fees Tables 5-1 through 5-3 from AWWA M22: Sizing Water Service Lines and Meters are provided here as additional guidelines for water meter sizing and selection. When water is motionless. When water is in motion. Controls. This type of meter has the characteristics of a compound meter. such as the reduced-pressure zone (RPZ) and reducedpressure detector assemblies. water hammer can cause a spitting type of discharge.to 10inch strainers should be no larger than ⅔ inch. but it is more suitable for encountering a variety of flows. are available for specific applications. valve. Remote-readout systems.830 millimeters).) For ½. (The ½. and 250 millimeters). Water meters are listed in American Water Works Association (AWWA) standards. • Fire-line meter or detector-check meter: One of these types of meter may be required by local codes in a water service that feeds a fireprotection sprinkler system or fire-hydrant system. The fundamental principle for selecting a cross-connection control is based on the sciences of hydrostatics . however. 6.

discharge from a typical RPZ 5 ⁄8 × 3⁄4 can be found in Figure 5-1. Meters flow prevention program.75) 7.6 (66.05) 8.93) 0.0 (6.59) 3 flowing full at different pitches Source: AWWA Standard M22 is found in Table 5-4. entire building. the system is considered.6 (73.24) 6 to the drain system to ensure 1 (25.4 (92. The pressure losses through often-used RPZs are The required capacity of the pump system is degiven in Table 5-5.4) 50 (3. Maximum Capacity— Criteria—80% of Continuous Flow— 50% Brands of such as outside in a heated Maximum Capacity of Maximum Capacity Meters enclosure.27) 150 (9. The gpm (L/s) gpm (L/s) gpm (L/s) gpm (L/s) gpm (L/s) gpm (L/s) (mm) Avgs. Without 4 (100) 600 (37. causing water zones. The peak flow is determined as BOOSTER PUMP SYSTEMS described for the water service.5) 4 properly installing and sizing domestic water expansion 6 (150) 1.9 (61.04) 2.04) 1.51) 6.46) 5.9) 5 such as this will result in a 3 (80) 350 (22.28) 2.66) 3. (mm) gpm (L/s) gpm (L/s) gpm (L/s) gpm (L/s) gpm (L/s) gpm (L/s) Avgs.000 (63. high-pressure requirements.34) 50 (3.46) 1.5 (24. a booster pump h+p/d+v2/2g is a constant.0 (82.8 (5.6 (59.15) 480 (30. If a drain Table 5-2 Compound-type Meters Meeting AWWA Specifications— is not capable of accepting the Flow Pressure Loss Averages flow.5 (31.63) 1.25) 4 to the drainage system.8 (53.8) (80. a number of annoy.94) 3 fittings should be specified to 3 (80) 320 (20.82) 800 (50.69) 175 (11.08) 4. This can include a buildup of unusually high pressure.09) 2.05) 128 (7.8 (40.98) 5 capture the majority of the dis4 (100) 500 (31.37) 4. termined when the building demand is evaluated in terms of peak flow.3) 4 closed piping system.1 (42.76) 128 (8.09) 80 (5.85) 3.9) 4 tanks.1 (7.08) 6.85) 80 (5.8) 160 (10.00) 6.43) 0.1) 100 (6.13) 24 (1.7 (4.26) 10.250 (78.48) 128 (8.0 (13.09) 9.9 (47.15) 0. including both fun.3 (64.0 (20.57) 2.30) 11.8 (19.15) 1.Source: AWWA Standard M22 ing or potentially dangerous problems can result.46) 4.14) 8.2 (28.0 (27.19) 13.04) 1.54) 2.8) 625 (39.36) 160 (10. Flow Pressure Loss Averages Before an RPZ is located. Recommended for consideration should be given Recommended Design Continuous Flow— to both how much water Maximum Capacity— Criteria—80% of 50% of Maximum Brands of will be discharged as well AWWA Flow Criteria Maximum Capacity Capacity Size.Source: AWWA Standard M22 nel and sink styles.5 (24.47) 25 (1.3 (43.10) 80 (5.1) 20 (1.2 (8. In a more realistic flow.600 (100.60) 3 variety of air gap designs are available.74) 280 (17. A wide 8 (203) 1. Table 5-3 Turbine-type Meters Meeting AWWA Specifications— Thermal expansion probFlow Pressure Loss Averages lems should be anticipated Recommended for when water utilities require Recommended Design Continuous Flow— Maximum Capacity— Criteria—80% of 50% of Maximum Brands of a containment method backAWWA Flow Criteria Maximum Capacity Capacity Size. Meters as where it will drain. minimum.77) 8.4 (71. Thus.14) 40 (2.86) 3.5 (44. in one or more .5 (3.0 (6.6 (31.77) 3. in. in.76) 16 (1.9) 6 that the drainage system can 1½ (38.58) 1.24) 400 (25. could be made.21) 6 handle the load. for the upper floors.07) 6.1 (90.47) 250 (15.9) 6 Consideration must be given ¾ (19. Mainline valve applications 2 (50) 160 (10.15) 5 charge and then be connected 6 (150) 1.52) 6.1 (42.3 (43.04) 0.1 (14.45) 6 The discharge of drains 3 (76.6 (17.08) 4.19) 10 (0. in.93) 13.15) 9. AWWA Flow Criteria (mm) gpm (L/s) gpm (L/s) gpm (L/s) gpm (L/s) gpm (L/s) gpm (L/s) Avgs.54) 9. The pump system may be for the friction head and pump head are considered. 2 (50.000 (69.Chapter 5 — Cold Water Systems 61 to use a spring-loaded and soft-seated check design and install it directly downstream Table 5-1 Displacement-type Meters Meeting AWWA Specifications— (outlet side) of the RPZ. At a Size.95) 1.3 (57. (16 × 19.9 (6.86) 800 (50.2) 300 (18.61) 15 (0.4 (71.3 (77. Recall or well pump pressure is not sufficient to meet the that between any two points of an ideal flow stream.5) 300 (18.08) 9.1) 30 (1. the proper air gap 2 (30) 160 (10.5 (24.02) 500 (31.05 (7. or for select equipment connections having heater failures and other plumbing issues.32) 80 (5.23) 6.94) 12. water supply demands of a building.46) 250 (15.5 (17.89) 10.4 (64. other choices regardRecommended Design Recommended for ing the location of the valve.08) 10.0 (6.39) 240 (15.2 (63. The pressure requireWhen it is determined that the city water pressure ment is derived from the Bernoulli equation.

pounds per square foot (kPa) d = Flow stream’s density. but they may be multiple stages if high head is required. connecting piping.6 meters) above the pump.49 meters) respectively. and various controls such as pressure-reducing valves. Rotational speed choices are generally 1.500 rpm. hp = h2 – h1 + 380 760 The design of a booster pump system generally consists of one or more electrically driven centrifugal pumps. GPM. Thus. the equation can be rearranged to derive the required pump head to adequately supply that fixture. or other similar synchronous speeds.5 cm/m) 1⁄4"/ft (1. pounds per cubic foot (kilograms per cubic meter) v = Flow stream’s velocity. motor controls. The maximum pump head is generally the top fixture of the most remote riser. • The street pressure is 25 psi (172 kPa) as read from a gauge near the pump.62 Equation 5-1 p p v2 v2 h1+ 1 + 1 + hp = h2 + 2 + 1 + hf d 2g d 2g ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Table 5-4 BFP Flow Rate Drain size In Dn 2 50 3 75 4 100 6 150 8 200 10 250 Drain Size Flowing Full Maximum Flow Rate.22 meters) and up to 18 feet (5. The pump impellers are generally one stage. feet (meters) When Point 1 is the location of a known pressure such as the street main and Point 2 is a fixture. you can omit the two velocity terms. l/m 1 ⁄8"/ft (0. 200 Flow Rate (L/min) 1500 2300 3000 1400 150 Pressure in PSI 1000 Pressure (KPa) 100 700 50 350 0 0 30 100 200 400 600 Flow Rate (GPM) Figure 5-1 RPZ Discharge Flow Rate 800 0 . fittings. tanks. treatment devices. meters.2 feet/second2 (meters/second2) hf = Friction head loss between Points 1 and 2.0 cm/m) 13 100 18 135 36 275 51 390 77 585 110 835 220 1670 314 2385 494 3755 696 5290 934 7100 1300 9900 where h = Flow stream’s elevation above a datum. The head loss through the booster pump system piping and its control valves also is added. Equation 5-2 (p2 – p1) + hf d The friction head includes various losses such as friction from straight pipe. and a possible hydropneumatic tank. 32. Various fixtures in a building can be selected to derive various pump heads. and backflow preventers. valves. 3. feet per second (meters per second) hp = Pump head (total dynamic head) g = Acceleration of gravity.750 revolutions per minute (rpm). • The total equivalent length of pipe is 400 feet (120 meters). if the velocities are similar between Points 1 and 2. Additionally. Example 5-1 Determine the required total dynamic head of a booster pump system for a building with the following assumptions: • The most remote fixture is a pressure-balancing shower valve (assumed 20 psi [138 kPa]) located 48 feet (14. feet (meters) p = Flow stream’s static pressure. and the uniform pressure loss of this length is 5 psi (35 kPa) per 100 feet (30 meters). These are typically 4 feet (1.

In this way. its sensitivity to friction requirements decreases.9 8. overcurrent control. a high-pressure switch avoids excessive pressures on the building’s plumbing. The number of pumps in the system may be as few as two and up to any number.8 3" RPZ – Friction Loss Through Device WTTS AMES CONB FEBB CLAV HERS 11.1 8. A low-suction-pressure switch detects suction pressure below the pump’s net positive suction head (NPSH) limit or perhaps a regulatory limit.1 11.4 meters Pump Economy When using centrifugal pumps on a building water supply.70 meters] • Total dynamic head = 48 – 11. • The pressure loss through the water softener is 9 psi (62 kPa).9 12. Similarly. combined with the static amount for elevation.6 8.2 12. Less obvious is the operating penalty of an oversized constant-pressure pump.5 12. Hence.05 + 6 + 9) x 144 ÷ 62. At low building demand.9 4" RPZ – Friction Loss Through Device WTTS AMES CONB FEBB CLAV HERS 8.4 9. • Using Equation 5-2.5 9.5 + 80.6 + 6.9 7.4 11. the next pump is brought online. involves reducing the rotational speed of the pump impeller as building flow demand decreases. Pressure Losses Through RPZs WILK 11. not only at maximum flow but also more significantly at the lower flow.4 11.6 meters] • Pump system friction head = 4 + 18 = 22 feet [1. A common control method to stage the pumps is to measure motor current.1 5.3 7.8 7. For example. Further economy of either system type is obtained by multiple pumps. A triplex arrangement may distribute the building flow demand at 33 percent for each pump or two pumps at 40 percent and the third at 20 percent.6 6. such drives are chosen for this speed reduction.0 9. variable-speed drives.8 8.22 + 5. At this location. motor-overload control. with all but one pump operating at its most efficient flow and pressure.6 11.7 Figures denote psi friction losses for specific flows. Another method of control.8 WILK 10.1 10. The discharge Booster Pump Features Pump systems generally have a variety of features.8 = -3.1 10.9 11.9 12. the pump adds the appropriate amount for friction.0 10.3 10.8 feet [(120 x 35 ÷ 30 + 41 + 62) ÷ 9. With the trend toward decreasing costs of adjustable-frequency drives. as faucets and valves close throughout the system.4 = -11.5 10.Chapter 5 — Cold Water Systems Table 5-5 GPM 100 200 300 GPM 200 300 400 500 GPM 300 400 500 63 of each pump in the pump system flows through a pressure-reducing valve. whether the excess size is derived from an overestimate of the building flow demand or an erroneously low indication of the typical street pressure.7 10.0 6.3 11.5 6" RPZ – Friction Loss Through Device WTTS AMES CONB FEBB CLAV HERS 10. Motor control includes under-voltage control. Other methods include power measurement and flow measurement.7 10. manufacturer's pressure loss curves must be consulted. In addition.6 13.3 10.1 12. the split of a triplex may be each pump at 50 percent. pump pressure increases until the pump dead-heads.9 11.5-horsepower (hp) (5. and electric power disconnect.50 meters] • Building friction head = (400 x 0.4 = 80. This head variation will cause flow variations from each plumbing fixture.9 7.4 10.0 11.2 10. When the current reaches the pump motor’s rating.3 10.6 9.0 7.50 + 24.8 10.1 7.0 9. Do not interpolate between flows.6 – 3.0 10.2 7.70 = 42. the calculation is as follows: • (p2 – p1) ÷ d = (20 – 25) x 144 ÷ 62. pump systems with a constant pressure feature have been developed.2 12.14 meters) on a 7.8 8.5 7.5 feet [(138 – 172) ÷ 9.5 9.2 WILK 10. Obviously.7 10.6 8. When the sensor is located near the pump. the size of each pump may be identical or may vary.7 13.60-kilowatt [kW]) pump. many pumps operate to meet the building demand.5 7.2 10.49 = 6. the pump system will adjust for this set point. Variable-speed pumps do not have a penalty from either cause. Low-flow shutdown senses either temperature increase or flow decrease. A high-temperature control either relieves discharge or shuts down the pump motor.9 10.0 10. The best economy of a variable-speed pump is obtained when its pressure sensor is located at the top of a riser. such as 20 psi (138 kPa) for a shower valve. the sensor’s set point is merely what is desired of a fixture. the difference in pump head from maximum flow to no flow may be 30 feet (9.8 + 22 = 139 feet [14.6 14. variable-speed pump systems have a lower operating cost than constant-pressure pump systems.2 11. When redundancy is desired.3 12.8 = 24.0 13. The last pump then takes up minor demand variations. which may be objectionable to building occupants as well as faucet and valve manufacturers.0 12.7 10. Key WTTS: Watts model #909 AMES: Ames model #4000-ss CONB: Conbraco model #40-200 FEBB: Febco model #860 CLAV: Cla-Val model #RP-1 HERS: Hersey model #6CM WILK: Wilkins model #975 • The pressure loss through the service meter is 6 psi (41 kPa). An alternator control switches .3 9. As demand grows.

371 0.758 0.415 0.802 0.652 0.590 0.586 0.515 0.822 0.425 0.708 0.873 0. referred to as a break tank.764 0. a booster pump is required.866 0.840 0.596 0.236 0.343 0.642 0.885 0.401 0.402 0.719 0.546 0.440 0. A smaller version of a break tank may be substituted elsewhere in the building for any type of backflow preventer or vacuum breaker.236 0.561 0.388 0.537 0.760 0.802 0.573 0.669 0.259 0.489 0. kPa 69 0.464 0.346 0. an inlet float valve.684 0.309 0.241 0.830 0.634 0.646 0.458 0.885 138 0.528 0.207 0.722 0.668 0.523 0.548 0.478 0.458 0.433 0.515 0.565 0. 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 0.739 0.191 0.668 0. The amount of water in the tank switch on each pump detects pump failure.745 0.764 0.323 0.517 0.382 0.106 0.559 0.687 0.646 0.411 0.514 0.582 0.371 0. The additional components to complete the arrangement.622 0.354 0.462 0.276 0.582 0.402 0.401 0.739 0.697 0.354 0.096 0.704 0.523 0.287 0.520 0.812 0.183 0.616 0. psi status to be remotely monitored or Pressure controlled.486 0.546 0.478 0.118 0. and water in the tank feeds the pump.349 0. Minimum Pressure.789 0.635 0.719 0.436 0. a hydropneumatic tank can be chosen to meet a low-flow demand without operating a pump. This law is applied to the air inside the tank as the volume changes to serve minor demands in the building during minimal occupancy.699 0.276 0.776 0.262 0.572 0.223 0.561 0.087 0.642 0.722 0.859 0.268 0.879 0.729 0.541 0.607 0. Alternate Applications A booster pump system also may be used when code regulations only permit an air gap as the cross-connection control method for the water service.729 0.191 0. Another application of a booster pump system is when a high-rise building is zoned by floor levels.487 0.789 0.148 0.174 0.288 0.207 0. Since the air gap destroys the utility pressure.288 features involve a dozen input sensors 30 0.520 0.317 0.309 0.801 0.304 0.155 0.586 0.668 0.812 0.697 0.829 0. 0. Typically the flexible partition is clock controls operating times according an occupancy schedule.080 0.606 0.382 0.650 0.447 0. This is used to decrease the static head at the lower levels. The pump head can be minimized if the break tank is located on an upper floor or even a penthouse.838 207 276 345 414 483 552 621 690 Hydropneumatic Tank As part of a booster pump system.297 0.317 0.183 0.553 0.758 0.594 0.366 0.733 0.792 0.287 0. kPa 138 207 276 345 414 483 552 621 690 758 827 896 965 1034 1103 1172 1241 1310 1379 Minimum Pressure.487 0.548 0.364 0. with water on one side and air on Minimum run timers avoid pump short cycling.484 0.573 0.453 0.607 0. A building management Table 5-6 Hydropneumatic Tank Volume Ratios control interface allows pump system Max.472 0.517 0.087 0.618 0.634 0.708 0.687 0.565 0.160 0.445 0.134 0.610 0.323 0.668 0.447 0.840 0.669 0.652 0.635 0.559 0. flexible partition.691 0.268 0.879 0.436 0.262 0.464 0.711 0.422 0.134 0.610 0.541 0.364 0.155 0. the other.528 0.630 0.489 0.744 0.349 0.425 0.668 0. Pressure.223 0.770 0.486 0.259 0.148 0.321 0.770 0.241 0.481 0.817 0. include a tank open to atmosphere.801 0.733 0.343 0.742 0.630 0.850 0.422 0.512 0. The amount of air can be varied during Proof timers delay pump staging to avoid a pump installation through a port and then is assumed to be start that may not be needed.760 0.782 0.106 0.850 0.484 0. The float valve is connected to the water service.472 0.411 0.433 0.379 0.691 0.744 0.415 0.590 0.704 0.445 0.481 0.366 0.792 0.776 0. A microprocessor control 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 psi is economically attractive when these 20 0.616 0.838 0.512 0.785 0.211 0.669 0. an overflow pipe. The fundamental principle for sizing hydropneumatic tanks is based on the ideal gas law.606 0.388 0.785 0.742 0.466 .297 0.224 or more.830 0.669 0.684 0.224 0.401 0. A differential pressure constant thereafter.596 0.304 0.668 0.462 0.699 0.174 0.572 0.859 0.622 0.096 0.618 0.514 0.711 0.817 0.866 0.211 0.594 0.118 0.466 Table 5-6(SI) Hydropneumatic Tank Volume Ratios Max.321 0.829 0.650 0. and a time varies continuously.822 0.536 0.64 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 which pump first operates on rising demand so that The design of the tank is a pressure vessel with a each pump of the system receives uniform wear.080 0. A hydropneumatic tank also may provide a method to shave peak flows on an existing water service or a distribution main.453 0.379 0.160 0.537 0.873 0.536 0.745 0. with storage tanks at multiple levels.782 0.553 0.401 0.346 0.440 0. and perhaps a low water sensor.

The tank is smaller when positioned upstream of the pump’s pressure-reducing valve than when downstream because of the larger range of pressures upstream of the valve. and its temperature is assumed to be constant.Chapter 5 — Cold Water Systems a rubber diaphragm. when you define (dV/dt)(tp) as the drawdown volume Vd.9 kPa). it is an absolute pressure and must include the local prevailing atmospheric pressure (14. ( ) . • A smaller pump capacity is required than for either of the other two systems. cubic feet (cubic meters) Vt = Total tank volume. tanks are chosen larger than as calculated to avoid a completely empty tank. Other buildings generally fall in between these extremes. For average near-sea-level conditions. The average flow during low system demand is taken as a fraction of the building’s peak flow. ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) V1 – V2 = Vt – (p p p ) 2 2 Rearranging and combining this with the average low flow. The height of the tank provides additional static head. Hence. or 2 2 2 65 In Table 5-7. which moves as pressure varies. For tanks on private wells. Since the air is captured in the tank. the pressure increases 1 psi (6. The disadvantages of the elevated water tank system compared with the other two systems are as follows: • An exposed tank (or the enclosure around it) may be considered unsightly. which turn the pump on and off when the water inside the tank reaches preset levels • Alarms. you get the tank volume formula: Equation 5-4 V Vt = p2 –dp1 p2 The pressure ratio is a convenient volume ratio of drawdown volume to tank volume. Table 5-6 shows this ratio between any two levels of air pressure in a tank. The advantages of an elevated water tank system are as follows: • It is less complex than either of the other two systems. you have: p p p V1 – V2 = V1 – V1 p1 =V1 1 – p1 =Vt 1 – p1 . which alert operating personnel that a malfunction exists • Safety devices. Elevated Water Tank System In an elevated water tank system. V1 – V2 = Vd Designating V1 as the tank with all water expelled from it and applying the ideal gas law.7 meter) of elevation. • Maintenance requirements are minimized. two pressure levels of 50 psi (345 kPa) and 40 psi (276 kPa) for a tank to draw out 60 gallons (227 liters) require a tank volume of 60 ÷ 0. • The efficiency is greater and operating costs are lower than for the other systems. • Pressure fluctuation in the system is minimal. The time period typically is chosen to be 10 to 30 minutes. you can examine the tank volume between two pressure levels in the tank and equate it to the drawdown volume. The product of pressure and volume of an ideal gas is proportional to its mass and temperature.155 = 387 gallons (227 ÷ 0. which operate when a malfunction occurs to avoid potential accidents The piping arrangements between the various components of an elevated water tank system are illustrated in Figure 5-3. typically 0. or: Equation 5-3 (Boyle’s Law) p1V1 = p2V2 where p = Tank air pressure. water is pumped from the street main to an elevated water storage tank (commonly called a gravity tank or house tank) located above the highest and most hydraulically remote point in the water supply system of the building. When it is located at a high elevation. its mass is constant. an example of a four-story building with a 10-gpm (37. In practice. which results in a higher pressure in the water distribution system. p2 – p1 typically is taken to be 20 psi (138 kPa). It effectively isolates the air from the water.8-liter-per-minute) requirement for 10 minutes is shown with a hydropneumatic tank selected in three different locations. For example.465 liters). That is. pV = a constant. An elevated water tank is made up of the following components: • A gravity tank.7 psi [100 kPa] at sea level). cubic feet (cubic meters) dV/dt = Average flow over time period tp during low system demand Then. For each 2.155 = 1. and p2 – p1 is 10 psi (69 kPa). which stores water at atmospheric pressure • Pumps (commonly called house pumps). pounds per square inch absolute (psia) (kPa) V = Volume of air in the tank. which fill the tank by pumping water into it from the source • Controls. Note that since p2 is derived from the ideal gas law. such as that illustrated in Figure 5-2.31 feet (0. the tank is smaller than it is when located at a low elevation such as near the booster pump. • The least number of components is required to control and operate the system.5 percent for apartment buildings and 4 percent for hospitals.

Standard wood roof tank sizes are given in Table 5-9. booster pump or hydropneumatic system only for the To use Table 5-8.66 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Table 5-7 Tank Size Varying by Its Location in a Building Minimum Pressure.830) 765 (2.584) • The building structure will require reinforceThe capacity of the house pump is determined ment to support the additional weight of the by the quantity of water stored for domestic use. Then multiply the number of people by the gallons (liters) required per person to find the domestic storage capacity of the house tank. Then select a standard Figure 5-2 Simplified Downfeed Water Supply System with storage tank size equal to or larger than the Simplified Elevated Water Tank required amount. such as HVAC makeup and any process requirements if necessary. To this.131 0. refer to Figure 5-4. Refer to Table 5-8 to find a floors of the building unless the tank is elevated to an recommended minimum domestic storage volume of impractical height. first determine the total number top several floors can be used. an approximate number can be found by using two people per bedroom or four people per apartment. from the tank are subject to freezing where with one hour being a generally accepted value.134 0. If the building’s occupants are predominantly women.e. If the actual number of people is not available. add 15 percent to the water storage requirement. whichever is larger. general. failure would flood the roof with water. one pump to be out of service without impairing the • The possibility exists that a catastrophic tank system. In tank and water. psi (kPa) 50 (345) 85 (586) 70 (483) Maximum Pressure. A dutanks are installed in cold climates. Under these conditions. . For multiple system comprised of the elevated tank plus a small dwellings.895) 947 (3. add 10 percent for constant uses of water. two pumps in parallel) • The water pressure on the highest floor may with each pump full size should be provided to allow be inadequate. of fixtures. plex pump arrangement (i. such as HVAC makeup. regardless of type. gal (L) 747 (2. a house pump should be capable of replacing • The water in the tank and the supply pipes the domestic reserve in about one-half to two hours. psi (kPa) 60 (414) 100 (690) 80 (551) (p2-p1)/(p2) 0. To this add 10 percent for constant uses of water. Fire protection water storage is also additional. use Figure 5-4 to find the number of gallons of storage per person depending on the number of apartments. Multiply the number of fixtures by the gpm per fixture. and multiplying by that number.106 Tank Location Top floor Before pressurereducing valve After pressurereducing valve Example Tank Size. Select a standard tank size equal to or exceeding the storage required. Then multiply the resulting figure by the tank size multiplier. a hybrid gravity tanks for various building types. if any. Add an additional number of gallons for fire protection water storage. A common problem with a gravity tank system The capacity of a house tank depends on the type is the lack of adequate water pressure on the upper of facility it will serve. For multiple dwellings.. This figure is the domestic storage only.

Without the expansion tank. the change in volume between any two points of time can be set to equal: Figure 5-3 Piping Arrangement of an Elevated Water Tank 12 45 11 Water consumption. (kilograms per cubic meter) The volume change of water in the system is the same as the volume change of the air in the expansion tank. The design of the expansion tank is generally the same as the hydropneumatic tank. psia (kPa) . Its initial charge of air should correspond to the building’s minimum water pressure. psia (kPa) V2 = Volume of air in the tank at pressure p2 (cubic feet [cubic meters]). this constant mass is equal to the product of volume and density. A sufficient increase will open the water heater pressure relief valve. between any two points of time: Equation 5-5 VS1d1 = VS2d2 where VS1 = Volume of system at density d1 (cubic feet [cubic meters]). L/person 40 10 35 9 8 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Number of apartments in building 800 900 30 1000 AND ABOVE Figure 5-4 Estimated Water House Tank Storage Capacity. A water heater requires a check valve on its cold water inlet. gal/person Water consumption. Hence. pounds per cubic foot (kilograms per cubic meter) VS2 = Volume of system at density d2 (cubic feet [cubic meters]). Multiple Dwellings VS2 – VS1 = V1 – V2 where V1 = Volume of air in the tank at pressure p1 (cubic feet [cubic meters]). Hence. together with the density change of water in the system and the ideal gas law applied to the air in the tank. another fundamental principle of sizing an expansion tank includes the density change of water. Temperature changes of the water in the heater tank and hot water distribution pipes cause volume changes of this water.Chapter 5 — Cold Water Systems 67 Expansion Tank Besides the ideal gas law. and an expansion tank connection typically is installed between the inlet connection to the heater and the check valve. An ideally sized expansion tank will allow an initial charge of cold water at minimum pressure to rise up to a temperature set point of the water heater without the pressure relief valve opening. In a water heater and its related piping. a temperature rise will add pressure to the heater tank and distribution system. but typically of smaller volume. From the definition of density. the mass of water is constant during times of no demand.

2 25 3.000 30 51–100 0. and Table 5-11 shows pressure ratios for average sea-level conditions. the minimum size of expansion tank will be Vt = V1.5 25 3.000 100 251–500 0.000 140 501–750 0.0171 ([1 – 0.000 20 × 20 50.25 25 3.65 25 3.201 and above 0.7 25 3. (d1 – d2) ÷ d2 is (62.4 25 3.0171).000 270 1.3 m 1 in = 25. from a given volume of water in the pipe system and water heater.38 = 0. fixture.3°C) to 140°F (60°C).200 0. To ensure this.3 25 3.68 Table 5-8 Size of Gravity Tanks ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Table 5-9 Standard Wood House Tanks Dimension. or operation requires a specified high pressure.6 30 2. the volume of water in the hot water distribution is rarely significant compared to the tank volume. capacity. With the use of backflow preventers on the water service.000 65 201 and above 0.45 25 3.65 25 3.275 25 3.425 – 61.000 11 × 16 12.55 30 2.000 10 × 10 5.9 30 2.000 13 × 12 10.000 125 401 and above 0. * gal Diameter × Stave 5.8 30 2.000 300 Hospitals 1–50 1 30 2.000 165 Office Buildings and Laboratories 1–25 1. it is encouraged to include the volume of both the cold and hot water distribution piping.000 50 101–150 0.000 25 51–100 0. EXCESS WATER PRESSURE One of the main sources of trouble in a water distribution system is excessive pressure.000 11 × 10 7.9832] ÷ 0. + ++ Therefore.5 30 3.000 75 151–250 0. ft+ Capacity.000 20 × 20 * Minimum Minimum domestic pump Number of gpm per Tank size capacity. a pressure-regulating valve (PRV) should be installed if the pressure on the outlet side Hence.9832 = 0.000 13½ × 16 20.000 35 51–100 0. it is an absolute pressure and must include the local prevailing atmospheric pressure (14. Finding the density ratio is fairly simple.55 25 3.000 9 × 12 5.000 11½ × 10 7. a water system should not exceed a maximum of 80 psi (551.500 11 × 12 8.000 18 × 18 40.000 0.000 230 751–1.35 25 3.25 30 2.000 35 101–200 0.000 12 × 12 10.000 60 201–400 0.8 30 2.000 210 Schools 1–10 1.000 85 201–400 0.000 12 × 16 15. Manufacturers regard V1 – V2 as an acceptable volume. In practice.5 30 2. From Equation 5-6.000 15 26–50 0.000 14 × 14 15.000 25 26–50 1 30 2.35 25 3.000 310 Number of dunnage beams 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 6 6 7 7 6 7 8 8 9 9 10 11 Dunnage.000 100 401–800 0.000 150 801–1.75 30 3. Co.000 13 × 14 12. or: Equation 5-6 V1 = Vt = VS1 – ( d d d )(p p p ) – 1 2 2 2 2 1 tank is found from the product of a water density ratio and a pressure ratio.8 L 1 ft = 0.001 and above 0.4 mm Source: Isseks Bros.000 80 151–250 0.000 11 × 8 6. Note that since p2 is derived from the ideal gas law. fixtures fixture multiplier gal gpm Hotels and clubs 1–50 0.38) ÷ 61. expansion tanks are chosen slightly larger than as calculated to avoid a completely empty tank.6 25 3. a minimum size expansion .4 30 3.7 psi [101 kPa] at sea level).6 kPa) (check the local code).275 25 3.000 12½ × 10 9.000 17½ × 16 30.000 16 × 16 25.5 30 2.000 225 1.000 55 101–200 0. and p2 is the pressure rating of the water heater. VS1 (D ) – V D 1 2 s1 =V1 – V1 (P ) P 1 2 VS1 VS1 (d d 1 2 p – 1 =V1 1 – p1 2 ) ( ) – – ( d d d ) =V (p p p ) 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 When you choose d1 and p1 as the conditions of the system at minimum temperature and pressure and d2 and p2 as the conditions at maximum temperature and pressure.7 30 2.000 12 × 14 10.000 25 26–50 0.45 30 3.000 14 × 12 12.000 40 51–100 0.000 110 Industrial buildings 1–25 1.000 45 101–200 0. Table 5-10 shows water density ratios for several maximum temperatures.000 110 251 and above 0.6 25 3.500 12 × 10 7.000 10 11–25 1 30 2. Unless a piece of equipment. As an example for the temperature range from 38°F (3.000 60 101–150 0.65 30 2. in 4×6 4×6 4×6 4×6 4×6 4×6 4×6 4×6 4×6 4×6 4×6 4×6 4×6 4×6 4×6 4×6 4×6 6×6 6×6 6×6 6×6 6×8 ++ 1 gal = 3.000 25 51–100 0.

64 125 (862) 50 (345) 1. The advantage of this installation is that neither valve is subjected to an excessive range of pressure reductions. 100 gpm at 60 psi is desired. or where the initial pressure fluctuates greatly. and specific project requirements regarding flow rates and pressures should be used to determine which PRV is suitable for a particular application.73 125 (862) 40 (276) 1. In addition to the economic advantages. Ratio psi (kPa) psi (kPa) 100 (690) 40 (276) 1. Also.87 100 (690) 70 (483) 3. PRV size can be selected according to the manufacturer’s capacity tables if it is remembered that each PRV should exceed the total capacity of the system.0142 140 (60.0307 69 Table 5-11 Expansion Tank Pressure Ratios Maximum Minimum Pressure Pressure. The first PRV could reduce from 250 to 150 psi (1. where initial pressures exceed 200 psi (1.10 150 (1.65 150 (1. For example. Initial cost.034) 70 (483) 2.034.0115 130 (54. Table 5-10 Water Expansion Above 40°F Temperature. Falloff pressure is the pressure drop through the PRV at full flow (subtract from set pressure). reduce operating costs.2) 0. the set pressure will be held.9) 0.82 100 (690) 80 (552) 5. Water °F (°C) Density Ratio 100 (37.Chapter 5 — Cold Water Systems of the meter and backflow preventer is more than 80 psi. or where the initial pressure varies considerably.034) 40 (276) 1.0171 150 (65.2 kPa) and the second from 150 to approximately 50 psi (1. appliances. Pressure. A PRV sized to accommodate both low and high flows generally is very noisy during operation.83 150 (1. it is advisable to include more than one regulating valve. or when extreme pressure reductions are expected. maintenance cost. direct operated or pilot operated Single-seated PRVs are used for dead-end service and when the flow to be regulated is intermittent. for a self-contained valve.7 to 1. For example. Selecting and Sizing PRVs Selecting and sizing a PRV can be performed after the following criteria are estimated: inlet pressure. Outlet pressure is the pressure required downstream of the regulating valve. low flows will produce wiredrawing of the seat and possible chatter. Two-stage reduction is the use of two PRVs to reduce high service pressure proportionately and to eliminate an extremely wide variance between the initial and reduced pressures.0069 120 (48. ensuring close and accurate performance. direct operated or pilot operated • Double-seated.7 kPa]). For large-capacity systems.1) 0. Inlet pressure is the maximum pressure expected upstream of the regulating valve.7) 0.2 to 344. or there could be some similar division. proper application of PRVs can greatly influence the overall performance of the system. this type of installation reduces the flow velocity (less pressure drop across two regulators than across one). Installing PRVs Where there is a wide variation of demand requirements and where it is vital to maintain a continuous . Double-seated PRVs are used for continuous-flow conditions.0) 0.4) 0. and capacity (flow rate).0235 170 (76. For remote-sensor automatic PRVs.0270 180 (82.91 100 (690) 50 (345) 2. outlet pressure.. providing longer valve life.7 kPa). It is recommended where the initial pressure is 200 psi (1. twostage reduction is beneficial.g.034) 50 (345) 1.0202 160 (71.50 150 (1.8) 0.379 kPa) or where there is a wide variation between the initial pressure and the reduced pressure. If you pick the value at 100 gpm of 80-psi set pressure with 20-psi falloff pressure.034) 80 (552) 2.35 Pressure-regulating Valves The purpose of a PRV is to reduce water pressure from higher supply-main pressures to desirable and adequate flow pressures when water is required at fixtures. 60 psi will be the pressure.034. and ensure a longer life expectancy for regulators.54 125 (862) 80 (552) 3. or equipment. Direct-operated PRVs reduce the outlet pressure in direct proportion with the increase of the flow rate (falloff pressure). In addition. For dead-end service. Under most circum- stances.15 125 (862) 70 (483) 2.723. the valve must be able to shut tight and not permit the passage of any water when there is no demand.379 kPa) or more and where the ratio of initial to reduced pressure is more than 4 to 1 (e.06 150 (1. assuming that the valve was sized properly.29 100 (690) 60 (414) 2.6) 0. Selection of PRVs and pressure settings is fairly simple.86 125 (862) 60 (414) 2. They are not suited for dead-end service and never should be used for this purpose. a good application can increase system performance. which may experience periods of low flow.379 to 344. All PRVs fall into the following general categories: • Single-seated. 200 to 50 psi [1. This seems to stabilize the final reduced pressure. Pilot-operated PRVs maintain a close fluctuation of the outlet pressure independent of the flow rate.034) 60 (414) 1.

water supply as well as provide greater capacity.6 liters per second). when low volume is required.8 liters per second) and set at 70 psi (482. each rated at 200 gpm (12. cavitation. take an apartment building requiring 300 gpm (18.7 kPa). For a given piped system. depending on installation circumstances. Water hammer (or more formally hydraulic shock. pounding noises. This installation improves valve performance for widely variable demands and permits the servicing of an individual valve without the complete shutdown of the line. the main PRV would open to satisfy the system demand. Another possible choice is to install two PRV combinations of different sizes. calculated by Equation 5-7. the total capacity of the valves should equal or exceed the capacity required by the system. like thunder and lightning. Shock Intensity The intensity of a pressure wave is related directly to valve closure time.2 liters per second) and the set pressure required is 50 psi (344. The dynamic pressure wave generated at the point of impact travels back and forth through the piping system until the wave energy is dissipated (see Figure 5-5). both flow and pressure change. all will exhibit water hammer for the same reasons as a cold water distribution system. and these sounds also are commonly known as water hammer. Thus. One valve should be set at a 10-psi (69-kPa) higher delivery pressure than the other. As valve closure time from fullopen position to full-closed position approaches zero. the higher-set valve operates alone. thus preventing costly shutdowns. Parallel installation is the use of two or more small PRVs serving a larger supply main. may cause water hammer. known as Joukowsky’s formula: Equation 5-7 (Joukowsky’s formula) Pr = wav 144g WATER HAMMER A well-designed cold water distribution system minimizes velocity-related problems in a cost-effective manner. Although sound generally is associated with the occurrence of hydraulic shock. as if someone was hitting the pipe with a hammer.70 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Excessive velocity-related problems include erosion. the maximum pressure rise is reached. Common devices of concern include quick-closing electrical solenoid valves and pneumatic valves and pumps. if present. The sound may be annoying. This type of installation should be employed wherever there is a wide variation of reduced-pressure requirements and where it is vital to maintain a continuous water supply. entrained air separation. whistling. are effectively controlled. the absence of such noise does not necessarily prove that hydraulic shock is nonexistent. Select two valves. A pumped waste system. these hydrodynamic changes can be destructive.6 kPa). assume that the system requires 400 gpm (25. producing the characteristic sound associated with this phenomenon. This is practical on large installations where supply lines are 2 inches (50 millimeters) and larger and where there are frequent periods of small demand. water closet flushometer valves (flush valves) also frequently act as the source of water hammer. steam system water hammer is caused by either a too rapid condensation of steam or a slug of condensate captured by high-velocity steam and then forced through the pipe until slammed into an elbow. but when excessive velocity is also present. Manufacturers provide tables indicating the recommended capacities and valve sizes for use in parallel installations. Water hammer can occur in any non-compressible liquid piping system. The selection might be a 4-inch (100-millimeter) PRV rated for 240 gpm (15. as examples.0 kPa) higher at 60 psi (413.7 kPa) and a 1½-inch (40-millimeter) PRV rated for 60 gpm (3.9 liters per second) at a 60-psi (413.7kPa) set pressure. It also has the advantage of providing increased capacity beyond that provided by a single valve where needed.1 liters per second) (80 percent of total maximum flow rate) and set at 60 psi (413. For a two-valve parallel installation. However. but it is not inherently dangerous. . For an open system. For example. with one valve set at 50 psi (344. every time a valve opens or a fixture is used. When a larger volume is demanded. and vibrations that develop in a piping system when a column of non-compressible liquid flowing at a given velocity is stopped abruptly. the designer should verify that the circumstances that produce water hammer are either not present or. delivering full-line capacity. both valves open. For example. which reminds the designer that there are nonaudible components) is the term commonly used to describe the destructive forces.7 kPa) and the other valve set 10 psi (69. such as urinals and drinking fountains. the cause of the sound is the dangerous part. Steam systems can produce sounds similar to that caused by hydraulic shock. parallel installation is recommended. closed hydronic system. Because of their high instantaneous flow and therefore accompanying high fluid velocity. and water hammer. The smaller PRV would have the 10-psi (69-kPa) higher delivery pressure and thus operate alone to satisfy small demands.7 kPa). Any device that abruptly stops the flow of water will generate a shock wave and. or purified water system. When a larger volume is needed. as well as the quick hand closure of quarter-turn valves or fixture trim.

a 4. which lowers the velocity of the pressure wave and therefore lowers the overall . say.4 meters per second).Chapter 5 — Cold Water Systems where Pr = Pressure rise above flow pressure. and polypropylene have thicker walls than metal pipe. however. with a beginning static pressure of 25 psi (170 kPa).000 kilograms per cubic meter]) a = Velocity of pressure wave. with no difference in the time of closure. shock intensity Pr is independent of flow pressure. with a beginning flow of at least 15 percent of fullopen flow.500 fps (1. CPVC. quick valve closure can produce a shock pressure of 480 psi (3. the pressure wave velocity averages 4. A standard hose bibb flows more water at high pressure than at low pressure. Quick valve closure may be defined as a closure time equal to or less than 2L/a seconds. When a valve closes in a time equal to or less than 2L/a seconds. where L is the length of pipe from the point of closure to the point of reflection (typically a point of relief. the maximum pressure rise is approximately 60 times the change in velocity. reflecting the full force of the wave back into the system.8 m/s2) The value of the pressure wave velocity (a) can be determined by Equation 5-8: Equation 5-8 a= where Aw = Velocity of sound in water (at room temperature approximately 4.000-fps (1. feet per second (fps) (meters per second) v = Change in flow velocity. From Equations 5-7 and 5-8. definitely within the audible range. fps (meters per second) g = Acceleration due to gravity. the initial wave returns to hit the now completely closed valve. Thermoplastic pipe materials such as PVC.490 meters per second]) K = Ratio of the fluid’s modulus of elasticity to the pipe’s modulus of elasticity B = Ratio of pipe diameter to pipe wall thickness For an installed cold water system.6-gallon-per-flush (gpf) (6-liter-perflush) flushometer. an open system operating at high flow pressure is likely to have high flow velocity and will generate intense water hammer. Subjecting a system to repeated pressure surges of almost 500 psi (3. 32 ft/s2 (9. and at a typical maximum design velocity of 8 fps (2.200–1. For a typical metal pipe water system. for an open system this can be misleading. At 80 psi (550 kPa).450 kPa) can cause serious damage.400 meters per second).000–4.900 fps [1. 20 feet (6 meters). the velocity of the pressure wave can be taken to be a constant.000 kPa). Clearly.4 pounds per cubic foot [1. psi (kPa) w = Specific weight of liquid (water = 62. This oscillation continues every 2L/a seconds until the wave Figure 5-5 Illustrations of a Shock Wave Aw (1 + KB)½ 71 energy is dissipated. For a standard 1. but their modulus of elasticity is about 100 times lower (105 versus 107 psi). it is seen that the magnitude of the pressure wave is some function of pipe elasticity and wall thickness. The time interval required for a pressure wave to travel from the point of closure (origin) to the point of reflection and back again is denoted by 2L/a. such as a pipe at least two sizes larger or a water tank) and a is the velocity of a pressure wave as already defined. PVDF. It is interesting to note that for a common branch length of. Plastic pipe cold water systems are becoming more common. Most valves and fittings used in a water distribution system are designed and constructed for normal maximum working pressure of 150 psi (1. Using Equation 5-7. the same flushometer will deliver 75 gpm (280 liters per second) with closure only eight seconds later.200-meter-per-second) pressure wave would complete this oscillation at a rate of 200 hertz.300 kPa). the maximum instantaneous flow reaches 40 gpm (150 liters per second) with full closure about 12 seconds after peak flow. as defined in PDI-WH201: Water Hammer Arrestors. As can be seen by reviewing Equation 5-7.

Without diminishing the value of Table 5-13. Two primary reasons for the depletion of the entrapped air are entrainment caused by turbulence at a shock event and the increased solubility of gas under pressure. and limiting surge pressures to less than 150 psi. Air Chambers For hydraulic shock system protection. a spring-loaded check valve could be installed at the discharge of a pump. It has been said that the existence of water hammer simply means that the pipe is too small. Water hammer arresters can rapidly attenuate shock pressure and confine its effects to the section of piping in which it was generated. and other trace gases of air . Water Hammer Arresters The appropriate use of engineered water hammer arresters. This larger size branch line to a water closet flushometer. fixture unit values change. Figure 5-6 shows some examples of air chambers. is an integral part of an overall cost-effective design.5 times that of a 1-inch (25-millimeter) pipe. commercially available water hammer arresters have a sealed gas chamber separated from the non-compressible fluid by either a bellows or piston arrangement. The certified size is based on successful completion of tests under specific experimental conditions. also known as water shock absorbers. A pipe branch to a troublesome fixture could be up-sized. air chambers essentially have been replaced by pre-manufactured water hammer arresters. but of course it also would be difficult to economically justify this unusually large pipe. Table 5-13 was devised by PDI. such as pipe size. A water PRV could be installed. for example. purified water. the detrimental stagnant water and dead-end nature of a water hammer arrester must be weighed against the hydraulic shock-relieving benefits. or other specialapplication water hammer arrester models are available with varying construction materials and field-adjustable gas chamber contents and pressures. The SFU values used to complete Table 5-13 were taken from a certain edition of the National Plumbing Code. nitrogen. Where water hammer is a concern in a plastic pipe system. Iowa Institute of Hydraulic Research. some with fittings to facilitate draining and recharging. Engineered water hammer arresters can be certified in any of six sizes. based on industry experience and the supply fixture unit (SFU) sizing method for single and multiple fixture branch lines. as illustrated in Figures 5-7(a) and 5-7(b). Air chamber capacity requirements are shown in Table 5-12. or the outlet pressure of an existing PRV could be lowered. The entrapped air charge is rapidly depleted for a number of reasons. For instance. once gone. would decrease the water velocity and therefore shock wave intensity Pr by 60 percent. pipe length. magnitude of the shock pressure wave. and. or air chambers or water hammer arresters could be installed.72 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 being absorbed into the water (Dalton’s law of partial pressures combined with Henry’s law of proportional solubility). ranging from Type A through Type F. For a purified water system or an application where bacterial control is required. High-pressure. The two main components of any shock absorber are variable displacement and energy dampening. properly sized air chambers are suitable only for the temporary control of shock. To ensure consistent. carbon dioxide. to help the designer rapidly choose appropriately sized water hammer arresters. The air chamber device consists of a capped piece of pipe of various lengths. flow pressure. is thus better able to use the tool appropriately. each having a different capacity to control shock. the cross-sectional area of a 1½-inch (38-millimeter) pipe is about 2. by understanding its history and purpose. Water hammer arrester sizing and placement guidelines according to PDI-WH201 include the following: • Size water hammer arresters for use on cold and hot water branch lines according to Table 5-13. For the same reason that the opening of a can of soda releases carbon dioxide or freshly drawn hot water forms white milky clouds of tiny bubbles. long-term operation. holding air at pressure against unsaturated water results in oxygen. Air chambers exhibit superior variable displacement and rely on the naturally occurring dampening effects of the piping medium for their effectiveness. System Protection The layout of the distribution system along with the designer-controlled parameters of Equations 5-7 and 5-8 must be manipulated to minimize velocity-related problems in a cost-effective manner. A set of 1½-inch (38-millimeter) supplies to a lavatory would surely eliminate all possibility of dangerous water hammer on that branch. even as the system sits idle. taken from Dawson and Kalinske. After all. This depletion of the air charge occurs continuously. As plumbing codes evolve. However. the pipe manufacturer should be contacted for appropriate design constants. Manufacturers of engineered water hammer arresters may obtain industry-accepted certifications from the American Society of Sanitary Engineering (ASSE) and the Plumbing and Drainage Institute (PDI). the waterlogged device provides no shock protection. endurance. • When water flow pressure exceeds 65 psi (450 kPa). select the next larger size water hammer arrester. the designer.

6 × 102. inches (millimeters) This formula is most accurate for water flow in pipes larger than 2 inches (50.2) flow at various velocities.71) 100 (30. is approximately midway along the branch line.1 × 68.6) 1¼ × 27 (3.8655 centistokes at 212°F (100°C).25) 60 (414) 5 (1. when required.1) 200 (61. For calculations involving high temperature (above 200°F [93.62) 60 (414) 10 (3.2 × 184.3°C]). you 1¼ (31. it is desirable to take into account the changes in density.0) points. therefore.3 multipliers that should apply to the 3 in. the Hazen-Williams equaEquation 5-9 yields accurate results only when tion is widely used for fire protection and city water the kinematic viscosity of the liquid is about 1. vapor pressure.52) 300 (49. a b c d Figure 5-6 (a.5) 30 (207) 10 (3.0) 30 (207) 5 (1.6 × 113.. f.25) 30 (207) 10 (3. • The preferred location for the second water hammer arrester. However. Velocity.04) 108 (17.8) 100 (30.4 pounds per cubic foot (1 kilogram per liter).2082 100 4. Pipe Length. for Table 5-12 Required Air Chambers various types of pipes.8 millimeters) and at Among the empirical formulae for piping friction losses velocities less than 10 fps (3 meters per second).8) 200 (61. 73 SIzING WATER PIPING Water can be regarded as a non-compressible fluid. in. it reads as follows: tistokes.04) 170 (27.2 × 137. • A water hammer arrester for a branch serving a piece of equipment with a quick-closing valve should be placed as close as possible to the equipment isolation valve. which may increase the friction loss by as much as 20 percent at 32°F (0°C) and decrease it by as much as 20 percent at 212°F (100°C).25) 60 (414) 10 (3.3) gpm typically is used as one of the 2 (50. (mm) ft (m) psi (kPa) fps (m/s) (cm ) Phys. and. the kinematic viscosity of water varies with Equation 5-9 (Hazen-Williams Formula) temperature. (cm) values of the head loss.29 1.1 × 128.85 1.5) Figure 5-8 is a copy of N 1.7) graph paper used to analyze water ¾ (19.52) 19 (3. (d) Rechargeable Air Chamber where f = Friction head. gpm (liters per second) d = Inside diameter of pipe.6) connect a line between them.9) 2 × 50½ (5. Pressure.52) 13 (2.0) 1¼ × 54 (3.1) 1 × 5 (2.7) 2 (50.5) 60 (414) 5 (1.7) 1¼ × 72½ (3. Hazen-Williams Formula ( ) ( ) .2) 3 × 40½ (7.52) 90 (14.62) 30 (207) 10 (3.6°C).8) 50 (15. an additional water hammer arrester should be used.1) 50 (15.04) 329 (53.04) 110 (18.8) 25 (7.5 × 176. that have been developed. which holds nearly constant through a temperature range of 32–60°F (0–15. in.9) flowing. it is customary to assume that water has a uniform density of 62.9) 3 × 44½ (7. ½ (12. b) Plain Air Chambers.5) 60 (414) 10 (3.1 censystems.2 × 68. • The preferred location for the water hammer arrester is at the end of the branch line between the last two fixtures served.0) 30 (207) 10 (3.04) 60 (9. Volume. and viscosity with temperature. feet of liquid per 100 feet of pipe (meters of liquid per 100 meters of pipe) C = Surface roughness constant (dimensionless. (c) Standpipe Air Chamber.9 × 38.4 × 78.1) 50 (15. are shown in Required Air Chamber Nominal Flow Table 5-15 with the corresponding Pipe Diam. Static head at 0 1½ (38.25) 60 (414) 10 (3. from 1. each sized for half the total fixture unit load.8) 2 × 27 (5.6) 1½ (38.04) 150 (24.4) 50 (15. which is the case for water at 60°F (15.3) know two points on the graph and 1 (25.5 × 12. for various ½ (12.0) 60 (414) 5 (1.8) 1 × 69½ (2. In a convenient form.85 ¾ (19.04) 40 (6.1) temperatures. see Table 5-14) q = Fluid flow. Size.2 × 32.3) ¾ × 15 (1. Values of C.85 q f = 0. for calculations. the tables C d using Hazen-Williams are subject to this error. If you 1 (25. and the other point is at a residual pressure with a certain gpm 2 (50.71) 25 (7.1) 1¼ × 12 7⁄10 (3.8 centistokes at 32°F (0°C) to 0.4) 100 (30.1) 200 (61.2) can determine the pressure at any other flow in gpm.6°C).Chapter 5 — Cold Water Systems • When the branch line exceeds 20 feet (6 meters) in length.6) 2½ × 31 (6.04) 8 (1.

pipe roughness. feet (meters) D = inside diameter of pipe.000). Figure 5-7(b) Piston Table 5-14 Densities of Pure Water at Various Temperatures Temperature. fps (meters per second) g = gravitational acceleration. In a convenient form.217 Temperature.300 80 82.843 Equation 5-11 (Colebrook Formula) ε 2. Density. and Reynolds number. cold or hot water distribution systems.F. For turbulent flow. f may be obtained from a graph developed by L.719 140 61.51 1 = -2 log 10 3. 32.586 200 60.74 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Table 5-13 Water Hammer Arrester Sizing Size Fixture Units A 1–11 B 12–32 C 33–60 D 61–113 E 114–154 F 155–330 Darcy-Weisbach Formula The more popular equation used by the plumbing and process piping industry is the Darcy-Weisbach formula. round pipe or duct. feet (meters) V = average velocity of flow.421 39.7D + R√f √f [( ) ( )] To get the Reynolds number. Colebrook formula. Moody diagrams.408 60 62.2 82.388 70 62. °F lb/cu. °F lb/cu. or from manufacturer data or various handbooks.ft. Moody (see Figure 5-10).F. dimensionless (from Colebrook equation or Moody diagram) L = length of pipe. psi (kPa) f = coefficient of friction or friction factor. it reads as Source: Plumbing and Drainage Institute follows: Equation 5-10 (Darcy-Weisbach Formula) V2 hf = f L D 2g To convert to psi. ft2/sec Since the Colebrook equation is complicated. dimensionless ε = Absolute roughness. and f becomes 64/R. and turbulent flow (more than Reynolds number 4. 32 62.ft. the roughness of the pipe has no effect on friction. This graph shows the relation . in ft D = Inside diameter of pipe. For laminar flow (less than Reynolds number 2. ft/sec v = Kinematic viscosity.000). p = hf × ϕ ( 144 ) ( )( ) Figure 5-7(a) Bellows where hf = friction head loss. Density.423 50 62. The factor f takes into account viscosity (temperature).424 40 62.2 ft/sec/sec ϕ = pounds per cubic foot (kilograms per cubic meter) The assumptions made for deriving this formula from test data are uniform flow. feet (meters) of fluid p = friction head loss. the equation is: Equation 5-10a Also. from Figure 5-9 f = Friction factor.386 160 61.008 180 60.135 212 59. 100 61.418 35 62.988 120 61. the equation is: R = VD v where R = Reynolds number. f can be determined by the C. ft V = Average pipe velocity.

and the relative roughness ε/D. This includes fittings.Chapter 5 — Cold Water Systems between the friction factor f. design tables or graphs can be found in local code documents or various ASPE publications or obtained from the pipe manufacturers (see Figure 5-11 through 5-14). New Pipe for Design Purposes 160–140 150 140 — 150 140 160–130 — 150–120 145–110 150–80 — 150–80 150–80 145–80 — 152–85 — — — — — 130 0. Note: This chapter uses the most current technical information sources available. pipe size. and velocity. well-laid Average Value for Good. gaskets. When picking a product for 75 your design.54 Range (High = Best. you must keep in mind all four items. you must use the latest manufacturer literature.62 120 0. The graphs. If an exact fixture is not listed in the applicable table.50 140 140 130 110 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 90 60 70 1. Demand To size piping.93 60 2. show the relationships of pressure drop (in psi or feet of water head) per 100 feet of equivalent length (actual length plus allowance for valves and fittings).57 .84 100 1.71 110 0. you must know the maximum gpm (liters per second) in the pipe at each size location. pick a fixture that has similar water usage. tin or glass pipe and tubing Wood stave Welded and seamless steel Continuous-interior. However. Note that the fixtures are listed as flush valve or flush tank depending on their water control device.22 80 1. riveted steel (no projecting rivets or joints) Wrought iron Cast iron Tar-coated cast iron Girth-riveted steel (projecting rivets in girth seams only) Concrete Full-riveted steel (projecting rivets in girth and horizontal seams) Vitrified clay Spiral-riveted steel (flow with lap) Spiral-riveted steel (flow against lap) Corrugated steel Value of C Multiplier to Correct Tables 150 0. Factors Affecting Domestic Water Pipe Sizing The three factors affecting the sizing of a water line are the maximum demand flow rate (gpm [liters per second]). Value Commonly Used Low = Poor or corroded) Clean. See Table 5-16 for some values of ε (absolute roughness) and Table 5-17 for some values of f. To size piping. To determine this. The WSFU can be found in the various plumbing codes (see Table 5-18. Also. brass. Make sure that the piping material used is compatible with the water quality and chemistry. Private fixtures are those used only by the space occupant Table 5-15 Surface Roughness Coefficient (C) Values for Various Types of Pipe Values of C Type of Pipe Asbestos cement Fiber Bitumastic-enamel-lined iron or steel centrifugally applied Cement-lined iron or steel centrifugally applied Copper. You must know two items to plot on the graph.0 148 150 140 120 140 139 130 130 130 130 120 115 115 110 110 60 90 1. lead.47 140 0. which are preferred to be used. They also are listed as public or private. the Reynolds Number R. and the pressure available for piping friction loss per 100 feet (psi [kPa]). maximum velocity desired (fps [meters per second]). the manufacturer information provided in this chapter should not be used for your design. use the water supply fixture units (WSFU) for the various plumbing fixtures. and a graph shows them best. smooth. which was taken from the International Plumbing Code). gpm or liters per minute. For domestic plumbing. etc. The f obtained is valid for any selected fluid and fluid temperatures since viscosity and density are accounted for in the Reynolds number. you must use the latest code that applies to the location of the building. valves.

After you know the gpm of all branches and mains as well as the pressure drop per 100 feet to be allowed (to size the pipe). You must check this information with the manufacturer’s requirements for the fixtures that are being used on the project. Add all the WSFU (hot and cold separately) from the ends of the piping to the meter or water heater (for hot water). Figure 5-17 illustrates a piping sketch showing the typical code definitions of a domestic water piping system. For piping systems that have both domestic plumbing fixtures and process equipment that has a certain infrequent gpm. Most codes tell you the minimum pipe size to the final fixture connection and also its maximum length (see Table 5-20). Thereafter. the use of modern fixture units to gpm conversions is recommended. divide the domestic plumbing-related gpm by 7. the information must be used. The one that has the greater gpm is predominant. as listed in other codes. Figure 5-16 shows a form you can use to keep track of WSFU and other data. For process equipment that has continuous or semicontinuous flow. Even 8 fps (2. you must use the predominant fixture type. The IPC currently uses the Hunter’s curve fixture unit conversion to gpm. you must use the plumbing code that applies to your project’s location. to get the total gpm for branches with both flush valves and flush tanks. Then. A maximum velocity of 10 fps (3 meters per second). They also tell you the minimum flow rate and the minimum flow pressure (see Table 5-21). Then convert the WSFU to gpm separately for hot and cold water (do not exceed the WSFU fixture total). You must determine the total WSFU for flush tank and flush valve fixtures separately. determine the gpm of each (flush tank and flush valve separately).5 gpm per WSFU and add that to the total. is much too high for domestic plumbing installations. many authorities have determined that use of the curves leads to oversized piping.76 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Figure 5-8 Water Supply Graph (such as a hotel room) and are not open to the public for walk-in use. you then can go to the pipe graphs.4 meters per second). however. If this code is not the approved code for the local area. If you are designing a facility where this code requirement is in effect. is very high for many types of domestic water piping and subject to water hammer. which is suggested by some model plumbing codes. The IPC table examples are used in this chapter for no particular reason. As stated previously. which was developed in 1924. Since that time. Velocity The second factor affecting the sizing of a water line is velocity. see Table 5-19 or Figure 5-15). mainly due to the reduced water flow and different life patterns of modern fixtures. add the gpm where it occurs when sizing the pipe. . (For gpm conversions.

Chapter 5 — Cold Water Systems 77 Figure 5-9 Kinematic Viscosity and Reynolds Number Chart .

021 0. The first step in ascertaining pressure available for friction loss . clean.2 meters per second) can erode some piping material.044 0.018 0. inches ½ ¾ 1¼ 1½ 1 2 2½ 3 4 Brass.78 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Figure 5-10 Friction Factors for Any Kind and Size of Pipe Table 5-16 Values of ε (Absolute Roughness) Type of pipe (new.017 0.001-0.00015 0.01 0.035 0.00085 0.0004 0. plastic Commercial steel or wrought iron Cast iron—asphalt dipped Galvanized iron Cast iron—uncoated Wood stave Concrete Riveted steel Absolute roughness (in feet) 0. and pH of the water.8 or 2.03 Table 5-17 Average Values for Coefficient of Friction. Suggested maximum velocities for various pipe materials are presented below: Steel: 4 – 8 fps Copper (K. Galvanized Copper or Iron or Lead Steel 0.031 0. f Nominal Pipe Size.020 0.040 0.016 0.033 0.022 0. Also. contained air bubbles.020 0.000005 0. L): 5 – 8 fps cold 2 – 3 fps > 140°F 4 – 5 fps < 140°F PVC: 4 – 6 fps CPVC: 5 fps Polyethylene: 6 – 8 fps RFP: 4 – 6 fps Pressure The third factor affecting the sizing of a water line is the pressure available for piping friction loss.031 0.003-0. velocities above 4 fps (1.0006-0.030 A velocity above 6 or 7 fps (1.019 0. See the pipe manufacturer’s information for the specific type of pipe. brass. hardness.1 meters per second) normally creates noise.038 0. maximum desired flow rates.0005 0. depending on the piping material used and the temperature.036 0.017 0.0003 0. condition) Drawn tubing—glass. and chemical resistance.

Chapter 5 — Cold Water Systems 79 Figure 5-11 Pipe Sizing Data. Smooth Pipe .

Fairly Smooth Pipe .80 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Figure 5-12 Pipe Sizing Data.

Chapter 5 — Cold Water Systems 81 Figure 5-13 Pipe Sizing Data. Fairly Rough Pipe .

82 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Figure 5-14 Pipe Sizing Data. Rough Pipe .

000 208.5 11.0 10.61356 35 44.566656 20 19.5 0.2 4.4 Hotel. The assigned loads for fixtures with both hot and cold water supplies are given for separate hot and cold water loads and for total load.5 12.88344 4.4 Drinking fountain Offices.3 8.42964 200 90.058672 12 16.7 1.6 3.0 4.0 2.4 Urinal Public 1” flush valve 10.446 2.464912 19 34.0 1.4 2.0 Laundry trays (1 to 3) Private Faucet 1.61976 180 61.0 27.0 6.80544 1.7984 3.250 239.5 7.8 4.0 1. loads should be assumed by comparing the fixture to one listed using water in similar quantities and at similar rates.0 23.4 4.181216 90 64.0 10.2 8.76644 250 101. 3⁄8” valve 0.3 3.0 4.0 — 10.8 2.0 1.0 35.0 8.0 1.0 Public or Flushometer Water closet private tank 2.7 Lavatory Public Faucet 1.0 7.5 5.0 4.823248 13 29.0 1.0 1.88344 4.0 43.4 2.0 Water closet Public Flush valve 5.515784 45 27.0 5.0 — 10.27256 15 17.25 2.70296 2.951728 11 15.0 1.0 2.25 3.4 2.5 1.0 Dishwashing machine Private Automatic — 1.6944 300 85.75864 140 77.25 2.0364 500 124.930192 14 30.0 27.5 13.0 14.0 2.6 Bathroom group Private Flush valve 6.5 0.595624 100 67.80544 1. etc.328632 40 26.0 50.459712 18 18.114744 35 24.0 10.0 3. The separate hot and cold water loads being three-fourths of the total load for the fixture in each case.0 Service sink Offices.8 1.0 3.0 70.0234 120 73. Faucet 2.3628 400 105.0 Bathtub Private Faucet 1.0 3.0 — 5.3394 16 18.6788 25 38.8 1.0 9.0684 3 6.0 1.0 1.5 2.4 mm.357968 18 33.182 Supply Systems Predominantly for Flush Valves Load Demand Water supply Gallons fixture per Cubic feet units minute per minute — — — — — — — — — — — — 5 15.0 5.0 16. etc.0 7.241024 17 32.43744 400 127.2 2.11624 750 177.75344 80 61.21872 70 58.000 433.0182 160 57.13888 13 16.5 2.8 3.0 10.967696 9 24.0 Bidet Private Faucet 1.0 8.29336 160 81.50168 275 104.88192 40 46.000 325.684 60 54.446 2.0 22.86892 4 8.0 39.25 — 0.60936 11 27.95992 1.0 5.0 Washing machine (8 lb) Private Automatic 1.2 Water closet Public Flush valve 10.82808 180 85.000 535.0 Water closet Private Flush valve 2.0 14.0 Water closet Private Flush valve 6.0 39.0 11.0 — 5.0 8.4 Bathtub Public Faucet 3.500 269.70296 2.5 2.81508 120 48.6 2.0 9.97736 500 143.326032 7 19.41664 50 50.0 5.5 0.0 13.0 50.1 3.5 1.3576 250 75.0 4.000 208.7256 1.750 297.4 1.15448 200 65.0 35.716304 12 28.182 .87412 30 23.711104 9 13.7984 3.95992 1.4 3.5 2.0 Shower head Private Mixing valve 1.0 Washing machine (15 lb) Public Automatic 3.0 Combination fixture Private Faucet 2.0 19.0 — 2.9 3.0 6.0 1.0 12.0 5.66136 1.2 4.25 Kitchen sink Private Faucet 1.250 239.57632 750 170.94952 1.000 325.14928 45 48.0 1. Kitchen sink restaurant Faucet 3.0 For SI: 1 inch = 25.0 4.513184 19 19.6 4.571856 20 35.90624 17 18.07984 30 42.14408 16 31. For fixtures not listed .0052 6 17.4 1.620128 25 21.0312 225 95.0 31.7 1.04104 2 5.5 2.Chapter 5 — Cold Water Systems Table 5-18 Load Values Assigned to Fixturesa Load Values.27776 70 35.000 433.890088 60 32.6892 225 70.5 9.41664 140 52.256592 6 10.0 2.96956 300 108.0 16.0 7.0 — 3.0 4.4 Washing machine (8 lb) Public Automatic 2.94952 1.0 57.0 6.288528 10 27.7 1.0 3.000 525.25 3.6 1.3 3.037136 15 31.7 3.4 Lavatory Private Faucet 0.0 — 6.2 2.750 297.0 Urinal Public Flush tank 3.500 380.0 57.026 275 80.6 3.25 2.831416 10 14.500 380.702936 50 29. 1 pound = 0.0 31.0 4.0 Shower head Public Mixing valve 3.0 0.0 3 Urinal Public ⁄4” flush valve 5.0 0.0 4.577424 8 12.6788 80 38.2 — 2.0 6.0 70.0 3.646364 8 22.07984 90 41.25 3. in Water Supply Fixture Type of Units (wsfu) Supply Cold Hot Total Fixture Occupancy Control Bathroom group Private Flush tank 2.454 kg a.8 2.20572 14 17.0 43.500 269.48088 100 43.430376 7 11.0 3. Source: International Plumbing Code 83 Table 5-19 Estimating Demand Supply Systems Predominantly for Flush Tanks Load Demand Water supply Gallons Fixture per Cubic feet units minute per minute 1 3.5 3.06944 5 9.

Determine the outlet pressure at the meter from the values obtained in Steps 1 through 3. The backflow preventer has a 16-psi (110. above or below the meter.8 kPa per meter) of elevation difference. You must account for the elevation difference between the city main and the meter. The difference in elevation is usually a pressure loss to the system. 5-19(b).4 kPa) and has no static loss. For example. Examples include the water softener or other water treatment devices. If there is an elevation difference between the meter and the governing fixture or appliance. The effective pressure point is where flowing and non-flowing water meet. with all of the above considerations taken into account. add the flow pressure drops of all appliances and devices in the critical circuit. An allowance should be made for future development of the area where the project is located. The flush valve water closet needs 15 psi (103. Some iteration will be required to find the one place with the highest pressure drop. This holds true when you calculate the meter outlet pressure. 7. Calculate the pressure drop allowed for the piping using the values obtained in Steps 5 and 6. Select a water service pipe size and type (to the meter) and calculate its pressure drop. Determine the pressure needed at the final fixture or appliance.66-psi (59. You also must determine the flow rate from the most hydraulically remote fixture or piece of equipment that has the highest total pressure drop from the outlet of the meter when all flow pressure losses are added. 6. as fixtures are normally at a higher elevation than the source. The pressure required at each fixture or appliance can be determined from the applicable code and/or the manufacturer’s information (refer back to Table Step-by-Step Guide to Sizing Water Pipe 1. Care must be taken to handle the high pressure as well as the low pressure. Therefore. etc. If the maximum pressure is more than 80 psi and a pressure-regulating device is installed. Determine the lowest effective pressure available at the city water main connection. Manufacturer’s information governs. PRV . 3. The residual pressure. To do so. You now must determine the most hydraulically remote point (the piping main and branch) using the greatest amount of needed end pressure and the total pressure drops of the appliances and devices in the circuit piping to the end fixture or appliance when flowing. is determining (from the local water department or by a hydrant flow test) the maximum and minimum water pressures at the street connection (or the stop valve at a well system) at the flow rate to be encountered at the project site. the static pressure loss required to reach the governing fixture or appliance must be calculated. control valve or solenoid. which includes the tapping sleeve and valve or a curb stop. and 5-19(c). the piping to the dishwasher is the governing critical circuit because it has the highest total pressure required when the needed flow pressures and static losses are added. water heater. hour of the day.5-kPa) loss through the water heater plus a 10-psi (69-kPa) loss through the softener.3-kPa) pressure drop and a 8. as well as the static pressure drop or increase due to elevations. the pressure regulator will introduce an additional pressure loss (falloff) in the piping system when water is flowing. Select (or obtain from the jurisdiction) the water meter type and size and determine its pressure drop. the available pressure after the falloff pressure must be used (on outlet side of meter or backflow preventer). determine which final fixture or device requires the most pressure (from the meter outlet). so the static pressure is added to the initial pressure. excluding that for the piping. which is taken as close to the site as possible and includes static and residual pressures at the desired flow rate (above normal use with your building added) (see Figure 5-18). (Do you want the drop to be high or low?) 4. The city water pressure should be determined from a fire hydrant flow test. generally 5 psi.433 psi per foot (9. To find the critical circuit. The dishwasher has a total loss of 40 psi (275. This is known as the residual pressure of the main. and reduced-pressure backflow preventer. The water meter creates a loss of pressure. see the system shown in Figure 5-20. .7-kPa) static loss for a total loss of 24. and the pressure drop is available from the manufacturer’s flow charts. Several circuits may need to be analyzed.84 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 5-21). If the fixture is lower than the source. is the pressure to be used as a starting point in calculating other pressure requirements. type of adjacent buildings. Valves and fittings are omitted at this step. the pressure will increase. 5.66 psi (170 kPa). The maximum and minimum pressures may be nearly the same or they may vary greatly depending on the time of year. You must decide if you want to lose or preserve the water pressure available at the street. See samples of such charts in Figures 5-19(a). The static loss (or gain) is figured at 0.8 kPa)—25 psi (172. (Do you want the drop to be high or low?) Also determine any pressure drop or increase due to elevation change (water main to water meter) plus the service losses through the service pipe. If a pressure-regulating device is installed. 2.4 kPa) for the dishwasher plus a 5-psi (34.

fu. to gpm (L/s) .Chapter 5 — Cold Water Systems 85 Figure 5-15 Conversion of Fixture Units.

the minimum size of an individual distribution line supplied from a manifold and installed as part of a parallel water distribution system shall be one nominal tube size smaller than the sizes indicated. 1. hose bibb Sink.8 mm. psi 8 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 20 8 8 8 15 25 15 15 8 20 For SI: 1 inch = 25. in. tank. temperature controlled Sillcock. flushometer tank Water closet. flushometer tank Water close. valve Water closet.75 0. 1 gallon per minute = 3. close coupled Water closet. For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 6. and the available pressure at the meter is a minimum of 35 psi. residential Sink.75 4 2 3 3 5 2. gpm 4 2 4 2.86 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Table 5-20 Minimum Sizes of Fixture Water Supply Pipes Fixture Bathtubsa (60" × 32" and smaller) Bathtubsa (larger than 60" × 32") Bidet Combination sink and tray Dishwasher. residential Drinking fountain Laundry tray Lavatory Shower Shower. tank. flushometer valve Water closet. service Urinal. flush valve Wall hydrant Water closet. 2 or 3 compartmentsa Lavatory Shower. Where the developed length of the distribution line is 60 feet or less.5 3 15 35 1. flushing rim Sinks.6 25 3 6 Flow Pressure..895 kPa. one piece Flow Rate. blow out. service Urinal.785 L/m Figure 5-16 Form to Track WFSU and Other Data . siphonic. single heada Sinks.895 kPa a. flushometer valve Water closet. flush tank Water closet. 1 foot = 304. one piecea Minimum Pipe Size. ½ ½ 3 ⁄8 ½ ½ 3 ⁄8 ½ ½ ½ 3 ⁄8 ½ ¾ ½ ½ ¾ ½ 3 ⁄8 1 3 ⁄8 ½ Table 5-21 Water Distribution System Design Criteria Required Capacity at Fixture Supply Pipe Outlets Fixture Supply Outlet Serving Bathtub Bidet Combination fixture Dishwasher. domestica Drinking fountain Hose bibbs Kitchen sinka Laundry.4 mm. flush valve Water closet. flush tank Urinal. 1 pound per square inch = 6.

You now must determine how to size all the come very small. The allowable presNew equivalent length] x 100). pressure drop for all piping.Chapter 5 — Cold Water Systems 87 8. and then add the pressure drops Section A–B has an equivalent length of 10 feet not to exceed the total allowable (used for (3. rate). Don’t go above the maximum desired velocity.25. the pipe sizes for the branches be11. However. and the velocity becomes too other piping using one of several methods: high at the branches near the meter (available • Uniform pressure loss method: Use the same pressure is too high). 9. Figure 5-18 Method for Conducting a Water Flow Test When you get to the maximum velocity line. to the governing fixture or calculate a new equivalent length for each appliance. Assuming that • Total pressure loss method: Every circuit uses precisely sized pipe is selected (for this theoretical all the available pressure from the meter to case) to give a pressure loss (due to friction) of exactly the end user. Some codes suggest 1. Using gpm totals.5 meters) from A to L. including the Example 5-2 critical circuit. This is the most commonly Figure 5-21 illustrates how to determine the pressure used method. velocity only. This is very difficult to do by . follow it to the left (the maximum flow hand. measure the actual length of the critical circuit. but some computer programs can help. starting from the farthest connection back to the meter. multiply the actual length by some factor.2 kPa per 100 meters). To do so. use the higher Figure 5-17 Domestic Water Piping Sketch number. refer to the pipe graphs (Figures 5-11 through 5-14) and select the pipe sizes for the most hydraulically remote point. This pressure drop per 100 feet ([Step 7 value ÷ includes an allowance for fittings. The first • Constant velocity method: Base the size on tabulation is the friction loss in the system. others 1. circuit) based on the new equivalent length for a total of 100 feet (30. If the critical circuit has many fittings. point A.1 meters). Then from the meter.5. available for friction. point L—the critical circuit). You now must determine the equivalent length (sometimes called developed length) of pipe to which the available pressure drop will be applied and the allowable pressure drop per 100 feet of equivalent length.1 meters) in equivalent length. 100 feet (226. 10. each section branch and size the branches (not the critical of the line is 10 feet (3. Determine the available flow pressure drop per 100 feet for the critical circuit by dividing the Step 7 value by the Step 8 value and multiplying by 100. To get the equivalent length. The uniform pressure drop is 10 psi per short lengths and/or few connections). sure drop for pipe friction is 10 psi (69 kPa). and using the allowable pressure drop per 100 feet. • Branch length method: Use the uniform presIn the system shown (with a main line running sure loss for the critical circuit piping.

5%) 4 to 120 GPM 4 to 160 GPM Maximum Continuous Operation 120 GPM 160 GPM Maximum Intermittent Flow 120 GPM 160 GPM Figure 5-19(c) Horizontal Turbine Meter NOTE: Performance curves are typical only and NOT a guarantee of performance. Unless the pressure to each of the other fixtures is used up as piping friction loss or fixture pressure drop.5 kPa). At point M it is 1 psi (6.9 kPa).88 Figure 5-19(a) Disc-type Positive Displacement Magnetic Drive Meter ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Figure 5-19(b) Compound Magnetic Drive Meter HEAD LOSS – 1½" AND 2" LOSS OF PRESSURE (P. the pressure loss in this section (A–B) is 1 psi (6. GPM Flow Characteristics Meter Size 2" 3" 4" 6" 8" Typical Low Flow (95%) Minimum) ¼ GPM ½ GPM ¾ GPM 1½ GPM 2 GPM Typical Operating Range (100% ± 3%) 1 to 160 GPM 4 to 320 GPM 6 to 500 GPM 10 to 1000 GPM 16 to 1600 GPM Maximum Continuous Operation 80 GPM 160 GPM 250 GPM 500 GPM 800 GPM 10 psi per 100 feet (226. The pressure available for friction at the end of each branch is not zero.I.5%) 5 to 100 GPM 8 to 160 GPM Maximum Continuous Operation 50 80 RATE OF FLOW – U. This is the governing fixture (and the critical circuit). and the pressure for friction at point B is 9 psi (62. and at point U it reaches a maximum of 8 psi (55. Flow Characteristics Meter Size 1½" 2" Typical Low Flow (95%) Minimum) 1½ GPM 2 GPM Typical Operating Range (100% ± 1.S.S. at point L. there is no pressure left for friction.1 kPa). Method A uses the same uniform pressure loss in the branches as was used in the critical circuit line to the governing fixture. In section K–L.) Flow Characteristics Meter Size 1½" 2" Typical Low Flow (95%) Minimum) 2 GPM 2½ GPM Typical Operating Range (100% ± 1.2 kPa per 100 meters). at point R it is 5 psi (34.2 kPa). more water than necessary flows through the branches nearest the meter to use the excess available .9 kPa).

They take into account the effect of velocity on the pressure drop through the fitting or valve. you can determine the pressure drop in all piping from the piping graphs (Figures 5-11 through 5-14). At section M–J. you can use equivalent lengths (see Table 5-22). These pressures are less than those resulting from Method A. In this case. This sometimes is used for small systems with few connections of similar type. you can determine the actual pressure drop of the installed fixtures and appliances and the pressure at the meter outlet. Note that these are not affected by the flow velocity and therefore are very inaccurate. The critical circuit is sized on the uniform pressure drop of the critical system (Method A). By going through all the branches in the same manner and working out the pressure drop for the new equivalent length. Pressure Loss in Pipe Fittings and Valves Figure 5-20 Establishing the Governing Fixture or Appliance It is not unusual for a designer to need to determine the pressure drop in an existing system. However.4 or 181 kPa per 100 meters).1 psi (7.2 kPa) to a maximum of 4. refer back to Table 5-5. In actual practice. Equation 5-12 Dh = KV2/2g Also. the main line is conservatively sized.9 psi (6. By measurement or other manufacturer information. Method C is the branch length method. and an unused frictional pressure of 0. . In this method. which can be calculated using Equation 5-12.66 psi (32. Usually the branches are close together. Method C frequently is used by designers. pressure. water = 1. Dh x 0. = Specific gravity. In actual practice.2 kPa). the total pressure drop of the system cannot exceed the allowable piping pressure loss for friction. Q = Cv √(DP/SG) DP = (Q/Cv)2 S. Consequently.43 = psi) K = Coefficient Cv = Flow through a valve where a pressure loss of 1 psi occurs See Figure 5-22 for the K values to typical valves and fittings. and the branches are sized on their own allowable friction pressure drop.9 psi (6.1 kPa). For a more accurate pressure drop. far higher than normally is accepted. the branches can be sized. in a complex piping system this is the typical method used.G. and 6-inch reduced-pressure-zone backflow preveters. (10/90) per 100 feet (30.or 1. For the approximate pressure loss through 3-. See Figure 5-23 for the Cv values for valves. For fittings and valves. this method cannot be utilized. All the available friction piping pressure in each of the branches is used. gpm (liters per second) S.G. Many engineers and designers would be concerned with the high pressure loss as well as with the resulting high velocity in the small pipe. and the average pressure drops are less than those resulting from Method B. This gives an allowable pressure drop of 11. The next-to-last column shows the pressure drop that must be used for each branch. particularly if an equipment change is made. the lines are sized on the basis of a 4. Dh = Fluid head (ft) where V = Velocity. However.to 6-fps (1.4 meters) from point A. The average pressure loss in each section closer to the meter is very high. and the short branches may slightly exceed the average pressure drop. and the changes in the average pressure drop are very small. The average pressure drop available for piping friction is calculated. Method B illustrates the total pressure loss method.Chapter 5 — Cold Water Systems 89 Velocity Method Another method designers use to size water piping is the velocity method. 4-. you should use K values or Cv values (design coefficients). a designer may wish to confirm the pressure drop in a critical system just sized.5 meters). fps (meters per second) g = Acceleration of gravity DP = Pressure. Point M has an equivalent length of 90 feet (27. psi (kPa) Q = Flow.0 (for water.2. Also. It is the most common method for design purposes. if it is greater than 7 or 8 psi per 100 feet (158. the total allowable pressure drop over the entire system (point A to point M) is 10 psi (69 kPa).8-meters-per-second) velocity.6 kPa). You can see that the unused frictional pressure varies from 0. and. it is not necessary to calculate the average pressure drop for each branch.

4) 7 (48.8) S–D 70 (1583.1) 1.6 kPa) is the maximum pressure allowed by most designs and codes for the distribution piping.8) 3 (20.25 (8.9) 8 (55. ft Section (m) A–B 10 (3.75 (12.1) 2. This can be accomplished by connecting an air compressor to a metal pipe system. Friction in psi/100 ft in Section. filling the system with water. and ready for operation.5 (17.1) G–H 10 (3. bringing the system up to 40 psi (275. checking for leaks with liquid soap.1) H–J 10 (3.2) 1 (6.2) 6 (41.2) 9 (62.7) 0 (0) 12.9) 1 (6.9) 0 (0) METHOD B Developed Developed Friction Friction Length in Length Pressure Loss.1) J–K 10 (3.2) 20 (6.1) 70 (21.9) 3 (20.7) Q–F 10 (3.2) 100 (30.1) 10 (226. repairing any leaks.2) 1. Under conditions where systems are subject to freezing and with the approval of the authority having jurisdiction.2) T–C 80 (1809. CLEANING AND DISINFECTING Pressure at End.4) 2 (13. at End. • Cleaning and disinfection applies to both hot and cold domestic (potable) water systems and should be performed after all pipes.5) 6 (41. psi (kPa) 1 (6.2) 10 (226.57 (17. tested.2) 0 (0) 33.1) 10 (69) Pressure at End of Section for Friction.6) 10 (226.5) 10 (226. particularly PVC or CPVC.9) 5 (34.1) 10 (226.9) 1 (6. The aforementioned test requirements are acceptable to most inspectors.5 kPa] minimum) for a minimum of two hours. and installation of pipe insulation.2) 1 (6.66 (32.8 kPa).6) 3 (20.2) 10 (226. Any equipment that may be damaged by these tests should be disconnected or isolated and shut off from the system.3 (753.1) 10 (226.4) 2 (13.1) 60 (18. and then pumping a static head into the system at a minimum 1. Friction Loss Pressure Friction Loss. psi/100 ft Section.4) 2 (13.4) 3 (20.9) 2 (13.8) 10 (226.1) E–F 10 (3.5) R–E 60 (1357.1) 0 (0) 50 (1131) 5 (34. fixtures.3) 10 (226.8) 4 (27.1) 50 (15.5 (282.9) 2 (13. Faucet . • All domestic hot and cold water piping should be thoroughly flushed with clean.3) 8 (55.2) 1 (6.1) 10 (226. valves.9) 1 (6 9) 1 (6. and other components of the systems are installed. Length psi/100 ft from Point (kPa/100 A.2) 1 (6.5) 1.5) 7 (48.5 times the working pressure (100 psi [689.9) 1 (6.66 (11.9) 1 (6.9) N–H 10 (3.1) 9 (62.2) 7 (48.9) 1 (6.2) 1 (6.5) 0 (0) 16.1) 90 (27.9) 6 (41.3) 5 (34.1) F–G 10 (3.5 times the working pressure (100 psi [689.6) Figure 5-21 Determining Pressure Available for Friction New or repaired potable water systems shall be cleaned and disinfected prior to use whenever required by the administrative authority.2) 10 (226.2) 70 (21.2) 7 (48.4) 10 (226. but note that 80 psi (551.1 (7. in Pressure Section.7) 2 (13.2) 60 (18.7) 10 (226.9) 1 (6.3 (323.2) 1 (6.2) 40 (12.6 (375.5) 1.4) 0 (0) 20 (452.3) 10 (226.8) 1.4) 5 (34.1) 4 (27.9) Total Pressure Loss from Friction. ft (m) m) 10 (3.8) P–G 10 (3.5) Prior to disinfection. psi Section (m) A.7) 3.1) 80 (24.1) Friction Loss in Section.7) 4 (27.6) 4.1) 30 (9.3) 6 (41. psi Section (kPa/100 m) psi (kPa) psi (kPa) (kPa/100 m) (kPa) M–J 20 (452.90 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 TESTING METHOD A Friction Developed Loss.9) 9 (62.2) 6 (41.3) U–B 10 (3. at Start.3) 0 (0) 25 (565.6) R–E 10 (3.1 (251.9) Q–F 50 (1131) 5 (34. and then subjecting the system to a minimum 1.2) 90 (27.5) 4 (27.3) 3.90 (6.3) 4 (27.5 (31) 4. psi/100 ft Section.5 kPa] minimum) for a period of not less than two hours.9) 1 (6. connection to faucets and equipment.5) S–D 10 (3.1) 8 (55.1) B–C 10 (3. psi (kPa) 0.2) 30 (9.2) 1 (6 9) 4 (27.2) 50 (15.9) 7 (48.4) 10 (226.1) K–L 10 (3.6) N–H 30 (678. A typical test for interior piping is accomplished by capping all system openings.6) 5 (34. ft (m) psi (kPa) (kPa/100 m) psi (kPa) (kPa) M–J 10 (3.8) 0 (0) 11. the domestic water system should be hydrostatically tested for leakage.34 (23) 4 (27.1) D–E 10 (3.6) P–G 40 (904. ft from Point at Start. psi (kPa) 9 (62.9) 1 (6.8) 1 (6. Do not use an air test for most plastic piping.7) 8 (55.33 (23) U–B 90 (2035.6) 0 (0) 14.1) C–D 10 (3.1) 8 (55.5) 2. an air test may be substituted for the water test.5) 10 (226.1) 40 (12. psi (kPa) 1 (6.43 (9.4) 10 (226.3) 10 (226.2) 80 (24.2) 1 (6.2) Developed Length in Section. potable water prior to disinfection to remove dirt and other contaminants. The methods to be used should be per AWWA or as follows (or as required by the administrative authority).4) T–C 10 (3.2) METHOD C Friction Loss.6) 3 (20.1) 20 (6.

• • • • • • • Table 5-22 Allowance for Friction Loss in Valves and Threaded Fittings Diameter of Fitting.8) 1½ (38.2) 4 (101.6 (0. All outlets should be fully opened at least twice during injection and the residual checked with orthotolidine solution.3) 17 (5.1) 10 (3.8) 6 (1. the name and location of the job and the date the samples were obtained.27) 0. potable water until residual chlorine by the orthotolidine test is not greater than that of the incoming water supply (this may be zero). The laboratory report should show the name and address of the approved laboratory testing the sample.5) 4 (1. Certification of performance should indicate the job name and location and the date when disinfection was performed.5 (0. During disinfection.4) 0.8) 2½ (63.1) 1 (25.3 (0.4) 10 (3.Chapter 5 — Cold Water Systems and strainer screens should be removed before flushing and reinstalled after completion of disinfection. Calcium or sodium hypochlorite or another approved disinfectant may be used.5) 3. Use nonhazardous materials that can be drained to the city sewer.4) 12 (3. then all fixtures should be flushed with clean. when the chlorine residual concentration.5) 65 (19. • All work and certification of performance should be performed by approved applicators or qualified personnel with chemical and laboratory experience. .8 (0.6) 1.18) 0. Make sure the pipe material is compatible with chlorine. If chlorine is used.6 (0. a statement that disinfection was performed as specified.4) 8 (2.7) 6 (1.4) 55 (16.5) 1 (0. calculated on the volume of water the piping will contain.7) 12 (13.09) 0.15) 20 (6.24) 35 (10.5 (0.3 (1) 140 (42.2 (0.5) 12 (3.7) 3 (0.7 (0. Samples should be taken from faucets located at the highest floor and furthest from the meter or main water supply.6 (0. • Upon completion of final flushing (after the retention period).5) 0. (mm) 3 ⁄8 (9. the material used for disinfection.8) 15 (4.5 (0. ppm (mg/L) of chlorine during retention.4) 1. in. 91 • If the residual level is satisfactory.8) 125 (38.5) ½ (12.4) 3 (0.2 (0.8) 1.4) 21 (6.12) 15 (4.4 (0. the coliform organism count.4) 1¼ (31.2 (0.3 (0. the contractor should obtain at least one water sample from each hot and cold water line and submit the samples to an approved laboratory.2) 0. Disinfection should be done using chlorine. If it is less than 5 ppm. and some codes require an acceptable test for two consecutive days.2) 20 (6.8) 4 (1.7) ¾ (19. the retention period of the disinfectant in piping system.3) Angle Valve 4 (1.1) 2 (50.8) 3 (0. and the signature and address of the person performing the disinfection. and any other tests required by local code authorities.1) 1.9) 7 (2.4 (0.5) 0.2) 1. the residual should be at least 5 ppm.1) 25 (7.6) 5 (1.2) 165 (50. Use ½ the allowances for recessed threaded fittings or streamline solder fittings.3) 2 (0.5 (0.6) 18 (5.1) 14 (4. ppm (mg/L) of chlorine after flushing.5 (0. The residual chlorine should be retained in the piping systems for a period of at least 24 hours.1) 6 (1.2) 10 (3.24) 0. The disinfecting agent should be injected by a proportioning pump or device through the service cock slowly and continuously at an even rate.8) 5 (1.7) 30 (9.4) 90° Standard Elbow 1 (0.8 (0.7) 15 (4.6 (0.6) 5 (127) 6 (152.4) Note: Allowances based on nonrecessed threaded fittings. either gas or liquid. Note that an acceptable test shall show the absence of coliform organisms.5) 3 (76.4) 40 (12.1) 1.5) 22 (6.6) 2.7) 28 (8.5) 34 (10. flow of the disinfecting agent into the main connected to the public water supply is not permitted. A service cock should be provided and located at the water service entrance.1) Equivalent Length of Pipe for Various Fittings.1) 8 (2.6) 5 (1. ft (m) 45° Coupling Standard Standard or Straight Gate Globe Elbow Tee 90° Run of Tee Valve Valve 0.6) 2. indicates not less than 50 parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per liter (mg/L) at all outlets.2) 5 (1.06) 8 (2.6) 1.3) 80 (24.2) 2. then all valves should be closed and secured. After the retention.18) 25 (7.2) 8 (2.6) 80 (24.2) 55 (16.8) 70 (21.9) 0. then the process should be repeated as described above.6) 3 (0.5 (0. The disinfecting agent should be injected into and through the system from this cock only.9 (0.9) 4 (1.4) 4 (1.1) 2 (0.8 (0.5) 7 (2.7) 2.7) 4 (1.8) 1.9) 2 (0.3) 45 (13. All sectional valves should be opened during disinfection.

92 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Figure 5-22 Typical Resistance Coefficients for Valves and Fittings .

Chapter 5 — Cold Water Systems 93 Figure 5-22 (cont.) Typical Resistance Coefficients for Valves and Fittings .

Effective pressure The lowest anticipated residual pressure at the connection to the city water main (or the stop valve at a well system) when water is flowing. No-flow pressure The pressure maintained in the system when the pressure-regulating valve is shut tight so that high pressure at the inlet of the valve is not permitted to enter the system.4-kPa) falloff had been selected. Backflow Any reversal of the flow of water from its intended direction. the disinfection procedure must be repeated. Falloff The amount that the pressure-regulating valve pressure is decreased from set pressure to . the greater the falloff. If the valve is too sensitive and quick to respond. A falloff of 20 psi (137. GLOSSARY Accuracy (regarding pressure-regulating valves) The degree of falloff in the outlet pressure from the set pressure at full-flow capacity.433 psi per foot or 2. Sometimes called dynamic pressure drop as compared to pipe friction pressure drop. Reduced-flow pressure The pressure maintained at the pressure-regulating valve outlet when water is flowing.3-kPa) pressure (no flow) would deliver a reduced-flow pressure of 30 psi (206. PRV Abbreviation for pressure-regulating valve. Flow pressure The pressure required at the fixture or appliance.9 kPa) is considered to be the maximum desirable. Set pressure (regarding pressure-regulating valves) The pressure at the outlet of the pressureregulating valve at which the valve will start to open. Also the capability of producing the same results for repetitive operations with identical conditions of flow. RFP Abbreviation for reinforced fiberglass plastic. The amount of falloff depends on the quantity of flow: the greater the flow. Note: It should be understood that local code requirements. Back-siphonage Backflow caused by a lowering of normal pressure on the upstream side. Dead-end service A type of service in which the pressure-regulating valve is required to close bottletight when there is no demand on the system. flushed. Static pressure The pressure measured at any point in a system when no water is flowing. RPz Abbreviation for reduced pressure zone backflow preventer. • Before acceptance of the systems. Fixture supply The final piping connection from the water distribution system to the plumbing fixture. Residual pressure The pressure measured at any point in the system when water is flowing.8 kPa) at peak demand if a 15-psi (103. Branch length method A pipe sizing methodology that uses the uniform pressure loss for the critical circuit piping to calculate a new equivalent length for each branch and then size the branches (not the critical circuit) based on the new equivalent length pressure drop per 100 feet. • Under no circumstances should the contractor permit the use of any portion of the domestic water system until it is properly disinfected. Constant velocity method A pipe sizing methodology based on velocity only plus the pressure drop not to exceed the total allowable (used for short lengths and/or few connections). if more stringent than above suggested procedures. and certified. The no-flow (closed). Not enough sensitivity results in operation that is sluggish and has great variations in the outlet pressure. shall be included in the specifications. CPVC Abbreviation for Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride. AWWA Acronym for the American Water Works Association. Response (regarding pressure-regulating valves) The capability of a pressure-regulating valve to respond to changes in outlet pressure. the contractor should submit to the architect (engineer) for his review three copies of the laboratory report and three copies of the certification of performance as specified. PVC Abbreviation for polyvinyl chloride. A pressure-regulating valve that is set to open at 45-psi (310. Flow pressure drop The pressure drop through a device or fitting in a flowing system.94 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 meet demand. the results are over-control and a hunting effect. Elevation pressure The pressure change due to a change of elevation (0. Sensitivity The ability of a pressure-regulating valve to sense a change in pressure. Total pressure loss method A pipe sizing methodology in which every circuit uses up all of the available pressure from the meter to the end user. set-point pressure of a pressure-regulating valve is always higher than the reduced-flow (open) pressure.31 feet per psi for water). It is very dif- • If the analysis does not satisfy the minimum requirements.

96 .525 2.250 — 315 — — — — 195 435 665 605 505 595 315 465 675 1.98 .00 1.21 3. Water distribution All piping in the building that carries water to the fixtures.3 2. including the hydraulically most remote point.6 4.99 1.90 .1 .68 1.00 1.93 . Some computer programs can do this. CV Values for Valves Fig.65 6.35 . GATES S & T-22 S & T-180 S & T-111-113-131-133 134-135-136-174-176 (T & F-617-619-667-669 607-609) (CS-102-103 302-303-602-603) (F-637-639-DI-102) GLOBES S & T-211 (BWY)-235Y 275Y T-275-B F-718-(CS-132-133 332-333-632-633 (738) CHECKS S & T-413-433-473 (Swing) S & T-480 (Poppet) F-908 (Swing) T & F-918-968-938 (Swing) W-900-W (Wafer) W-F-910-960 (Poppet) 1 95 ⁄8 1 ⁄4 3 ⁄8 1 ⁄2 3 ⁄4 1 40 50 54 11⁄4 65 95 97 Valve Size 11⁄2 2 95 130 135 175 220 230 21⁄2 3 31⁄2 4 5 6 .1 11.000 1.1 20 20 28 28 48 48 45 — 1.00 .16 2.250 215 .90 .035 .8 14.400 (THROTTLING FACTORS) For throttling use with disc partially open.5 3.35 .200 950 1.16 .584 975 1.32 .64 3.06 .00 1.073 1. but the pipe sizes for the branches become very small and the velocity too high. Multiply CV by factor.00 .93 .86 16. Nos. Note: Gate valves are not throttled.6 17.70 4.98 .6 22 32 32 337 536 710 960 1.9 10.Chapter 5 — Cold Water Systems Figure 5-23 Flow Data.7 9. Uniform pressure loss method A pipe sizing methodology using the same pressure drop for all piping.64 6.99 1.7 10.5 — — 2 5. .3 24 30 43 49 60 72 102 130 150 137 335 70 70 70 150 243 221 510 111 111 105 238 356 327 330 710 — 945 198 1.2 2.65 11.525 2.47 .16 1. 0 0 0 0 10 20 30 Percent Open 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 .440 806 1.96 .00 1.1 17.03 .65 .3 6.61 — 1.24 . Vacuum breaker A check valve device that lets air into a piping system to prevent a vacuum.00 ficult to calculate by hand. Water service (water lateral) The water pipe from the city water main to the building.65 .6 5.

.

steam. and solar thermal. Contamination of the domestic hot water system is prevented by many of the same methods used with the domestic cold water system. installed at the hot water source and/or the point of use. Cross-contamination is prevented by using appropriately selected backflow preventers for both hazard type and temperature. thermal expansion tanks are to be used. or thermostatic mixing valves. As with the domestic cold water system. 5. Safety must be built into any hot water system. Utilize an economical heat source. Waterborne bacterial control measures should be included in the design whenever hot water is supplied to high-risk occupancies. An economical heat source will save money. and storage-type water heaters at low temperatures. Double-wall heat exchangers are required for use with indirect-fired water heaters. 3. Provide a cost-effective. such as hospitals or nursing homes. Again. Excessive temperatures and pressures are avoided by using correctly sized temperature and pressure (T&P) relief valves at water heaters. conform to all applicable codes plus the regulations of the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ). Provide an economical operating system with reasonable maintenance. of course. liquefied petroleum gas. electricity. low-temperature circulating loops. The availability and cost of any of these sources or combinations of these sources dictate equipment and . uncirculated hot water dead-end legs should be 100 feet or shorter. allow easy monitoring of the system. oil. perhaps wired back to the building automation system (BAS). The balance between near-instantaneous hot water delivery and incremental project cost must be maintained. It is also good engineering practice to address waterborne bacterial control in hotels. day or night. efficient. Typical energy sources include natural gas. and durable installation. Warm water. most notably Legionella pneumophila. National standards recommend additional methods. such as that present in dead-end legs. excessive temperature. Provide adequate amounts of water at the prescribed temperature to all fixtures and equipment at all times of use. while not having the force of law. The hot water should be available at any time of use. nevertheless are accepted as good engineering design practices. waste heat. thereby satisfying the users plus avoiding the wasteful running of water until the desired temperature is achieved. Strategically placed pressure gauges and thermometers. water hammer arresters should be used to mitigate anticipated pressure spikes at quick-closing solenoidoperated valves. A properly designed system must. Plumbing codes provide some guidance here—for example. A well-designed system should deliver hot water at the prescribed temperature to the outlet with very little delay. The three paramount dangers to be guarded against are excessive pressure. and during low-demand periods as well as peak flows. The risk of scalding and thermal shock can be reduced by using many types of mechanical. as on hot water circulation systems and backflow preventers. Health concerns from waterborne bacterial growth must be considered in all hot water designs. Provide a system that will perform its function safely.6 Domestic Water Heating Systems Proper design of the domestic hot water supply system for any building is extremely important. boiler hot water (hydronics). and contamination. Careful planning on the basis of all available data will ensure a safe and adequate supply of hot water. meeting this code minimum may be unsatisfactory to users. the designer must balance the need for reasonable public safety with excessive project costs. and the plumbing codes require specific methods that must be used to achieve certain levels of safety. The objectives for a domestic hot water design and distribution system include the following: 1. which. 4. However. 2. Where check valves are present. provides the ideal environment for waterborne bacterial growth. pressure-balanced.

adequate valving. The design of a domestic water-heating system begins with estimating the facility’s load profile and identifying the peak demands. An economical operating system with reasonable maintenance depends on all of these considerations. and experience plays a big part. already gathered as part of the domestic cold water system design. Two buildings might have the same number and type of fixtures. Other . Every system is different. Information Gathering The first step to sizing a domestic hot water heater system is to collect the information needed to define the system parameters. an apartment building for retired people would have different hot water needs than one that primarily houses families or college students. you must talk to the users of the space. lavatories. it’s not reasonable to simply go to a table or chart and make a selection. water heater manufacturers maintain substantial water heater sizing guidelines and instructional manuals. joining methods. etc. ASPE’s Domestic Water Heating Design Manual covers virtually every type of facility and heating system available. they contain only generalizations such as “Provide adequate amounts of hot and cold water to all sinks. and one method is not always better than another. Where an especially economical energy source is available but not adequate to satisfy the total demand. To accomplish these steps. food service. all kept current with industry standards and trends.98 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 system selection. To help with sizing. For instance. total dissolved solids and other water quality parameters? • Will the system be inactive for long periods? • How far from the heater will the furthest fixture be? • How many showers will be used simultaneously and for what duration? DOMESTIC WATER HEATER SIzING Sizing a domestic water heater is as much an art as a science. pH. it might be used to preheat the cold water supply to the heater. Several methods for calculating the load of a building are available. hangers. such as hot tubs? • Are there plans to expand the facility in the future? • Will there be laundry. extra capacity and redundancy need to be tailored to each application. • In what type of building will the system be installed? • Where is the building located? • What codes should be followed? • Do any local code amendments apply? • Does the owner or operator of the building have any unusual requirements? • Does the owner or operator of the building prefer a particular type of system? • Are there any other hot water systems in the building? • What area of the building will the system serve? • What is the area used for? • How many plumbing fixtures will there be? • Who will be using the plumbing fixtures? • Are there any high-usage fixtures. and learn any owner requirements. The information thus gathered will establish the required capacity of the water-heating equipment and the general type of system to be used. showers. Instead. The location of piping. For anything other than a small residential system. Two methods from the American Society of Plumbing Engineers (ASPE) are outlined here. Water Heater Sizing Methods With the correct information gathered. provide information about minimum and maximum flow rates to fixtures and address safety concerns such as maximum temperatures and required water heater safety devices. or health club areas? • How many areas will be used simultaneously? • How much space is available for the system? • What energy sources are available? • Where in the building will the equipment be placed? • Will flues or combustion air be a problem due to the location? • What is the building cold water source? • What are the water hardness. ease of circulation. determine the building type. A number of factors must be considered when sizing a system. Some of the information will be readily available. accessibility and provisions for the future all are items affecting the operation and maintenance of a system. and insulation all must match the project’s needs and will determine the cost as well as the ease of replacement and repair. however. Codes do not indicate how much hot water is required. so the path that leads to final selection varies for each system. Finally. As with the domestic cold water system. the load profile and peak demand can be calculated. A cost-effective and durable installation begins with the judicious selection of the proper materials and equipment. but some may require further investigation. Once again. but the water requirements could be vastly different.” Codes do. Following is a partial list of sample questions. the pipe materials and layout. this is not necessarily a straightforward process. bypasses around pumps and tanks.

90 1. • It does not consider the types of occupants.6) 6 (23) 15 (57) 8 (30) 20 (76) 30 (114) 15 (57) 20-100 (76. if this is known. There is a separate method for calculating the load for each building type. prescribe which method should be used.6) 2 (7. CA: Author. and add them. Westlake. or semi-instantaneous heater. 1 stays home All occupants work Reprinted from Domestic Hot Water Heating Design Manual (p. b Ratio of storage tank capacity to probable maximum demand per hour. count the fixtures. but those that are can be accurately calculated using this method. The sizing chart is shown on Table 6-1. American Society of Plumbing Engineers. CA: Author. but it has limitations: • It can be applied only to the types of facilities listed. It addresses specific occupancies (see Figure 6-1 and Table 6-2) and tailors the calculation process to the type of building. and notably government projects. • It does not address high-use or high-volume fixtures. This is a simple method.6) 2 (7. government sources.Chapter 6 — Domestic Water Heating Systems Table 6-1 Hot Water Demand per Fixture for Various Types of Buildings (gallons [liters] of water per hour per fixture. Copyright ©1998.25 0. American Society of Plumbing Engineers. .6) 12 (45. or water heater manufacturers.00 0.270) Leg baths 100 (380) Arm baths 35 (130) Sitz baths 30 (114) Continuous-flow baths 165 (625) Circular wash sinks 20 (76) Semicircular wash sinks 10 (38) Demand factor 0. Service Hot Water Systems.6) 8 (30) 20 (76) 50-200 (190760) 3 (11) 30 (114) 28 (106) 10 (38) 75 (284) 30 (114) Industrial Plant 2 (7. American Society of Plumbing Engineers. • It is to be used only for the sizing of storage tank systems.6) 2 (7.6) 2 (7. American Society of Plumbing Engineers.60 Hotel 2 (7.6) 2 (7.00 0.520) Hubbard baths 600 (2.6) 4 (15) 6 (23) 8 (30) 6 (23) 20 (76) 20 (76) 30 (114) 20 (76) 15 (57) 50-150 (19050-150 (190570) 570) Foot basins 3 (11) 3 (11) 12 (46) 3 (11) Kitchen sink 10 (38) 20 (76) 20 (76) Laundry. methods are available from other societies. Reprinted from ASPE Data Book: Vol. Not all types of facilities are addressed. The minimum recommended storage volume then is calculated by multiplying the total demand by the storage factor. Storage capacity may be reduced where an unlimited supply of steam is available from a central street steam system or large boiler plant.40 1. based on its individual operating characteristics.40 0. 1989.30 2. Method 1: Average Hourly Demand The first method utilizes average hourly data in gallons per hour (gph) for various types of buildings and occupancies. and they are valuable resources as they include building types not addressed by the following two methods.6) 2 (7. Copyright ©1989. 24).30 0. It also addresses additional concerns such as high-usage or high-volume fixtures. stationary tubs 20 (76) 28 (106) 28 (106) Pantry sink 5 (19) 10 (38) 10 (38) Showers 30 (114) 150 (568) 225 (850) 75 (284) Service sink 20 (76) 20 (76) 20 (76) Hydrotherapeutic showers 400 (1.00 0.25 b Storage capacity factor 1.30 0.40 1.40 1. Method 2: Occupancy Type The second method of calculating hot water usage is outlined in Domestic Water Heating Design Manual.5) 20-100 (76380) 12 (46) 20 (76) 225 (850) 20 (76) 99 Office Private Building Residence School YMCA 2 (7.00 a Dishwasher requirements should be taken from this table or from manufacturers’ data for the model to be used. To calculate using this method. Then multiply this total by the simultaneous usage factor to get the maximum hourly demand for the system.30 0.70 30 (114) 15 (57) 0. Figure 6-1 Occupant Demographic Classifications No occupants work Public assistance and low income (mix) Family and single-parent households (mix) High Demand High number of children Low income Families Public assistance Medium Demand Singles Single-parent households Couples High population density Middle income Low Demand Seniors one person works. It can be used to establish the sizing for systems using a storage tank. public lavatory Bathtubs Dishwashersa Apartment Club Gymnasium Hospital 2 (7.20-100 (76380) 380 3 (11) 3 (11) 12 (46) 20 (76) 10 (38) 20 (76) 20 (76) 20 (76) 28 (106) 10 (38) 5 (19) 10 (38) 10 (38) 30 (114) 30 (114) 225 (850) 225 (850) 20 (76) 15 (57) 20 (76) 20 (76) 20 (76) 10 (38) 0. instantaneous. private lavatory Basins. 1998. 4. multiply the number of fixtures by the gallons per hour for the fixture in the particular type of building.80 30 (114) 15 (57) 0. Westlake. Some owners.25 0. calculated at a final temperature of 140°F [60°C]) Fixture Basins.00 20 (76) 10 (38) 0.

Equation 6-1 q = r w c DT where q = Time rate of heat transfer.188 kJ )( 999.0 (76.0) 1.33 lb/ gal (999. then it would take 1 kilowatt of electrical power to raise 410 gallons (1.13 (19. gal Average Day.9 (11.0) 54. Westlake. °F (°C) 110 (43) 3.15 K) ] h m /K = 475 374 kJ/h } 3 3 Note: You should be aware that water heaters installed in high elevations must be derated based on the elevation. .7 (6. 25).0) 19. represented as Th – Tc.5) 0. °F (°C) gph = Gallons per hour of hot water required L/h = Liters per hour of hot water required Equation 6-3 can be used to establish a simple table based on the required temperature rise.0 (11.5) 1.4 (1.02 L= kW required ) DT Equation 6-5 gph = kW required gal of water per kW at DT where DT = Temperature rise (temperature differential).55 (17.0) 20.86 (22.10 (15.85) 50 (10) 8.6 kg ) (DT)]} kg/K h m q = gph 3 3 ( ) Equation 6-4 gph × DT = kW required 410 gal (1552. From Equation 6-2.413 Btu and 1 gallon of Note: These volumes are for domestic hot water delivered to the tap at 120° F (49° C). q = 600 gph Btu [( 8.0 (72.6 kg/m3). gal Maximum per hour.5) 3.1 (23.0 (340.6) 14.5 (17.27 m [(4188. and High Guidelines: Hot Water Demand and Use for Multifamily Buildings Demand Low Medium High Demand Low Medium High Peak 5-min. The water heater manufacturer’s data should be consulted for information on the required modifications. the specific heat of water is constant.52) 90 (32) 4.73 (14.5 (32. American Society of Plumbing Engineers.5) 5.0 (185.27 m3/h from 283.5 (55.0 (41. gph (liters per hour) w = Weight of heated water.0) 1.5) 8.15−283.820 Btu/h gal {q = 2.12) 100 (38) 4. Gal (L) of Water per kW DT.25 (38.0) 4.1 (19.0 (205.100 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 water weighs 8.32 kJ) (333. gal (L)/person gal (L)/person (L)/person gal (L)/person 4. Medium.15°K). Maximum 3 Hours. 1998.0 (54. This can be expressed in a series of formulae. and the weight of water is constant at 8.42) 70 (21) 5.7 (2. gal Peak 30-min. Temperature Rise.552.0) 11. The fundamental formula for this expresses a steady-state heat balance for the heat input and output of the system. Maximum Day.0) 14.22) 80 (27) 5.33 /°F ) (140−50°F) ]= 449.2 (4.83 (25.15°K to 333.8 (10. Reprinted from Domestic Hot Water Heating Design Manual (p. Table 6-2 Low. Copyright ©1998. c = 1 Btu/lb/°F (c = 4.4) 2.02 liters) of water 1°F. gal Peak 15-min. (L)/person (L)/person (L)/person gal (L)/person 0.20 (31.0) 90.0) HEAT RECOVERY— ELECTRIC WATER HEATERS It takes 1 Btu of energy to raise 1 pound of water 1°F.5) 2.0 (113. American Society of Plumbing Engineers.33 lb) (DT) ] gal { q = m [( 4. CA: Author.0 (4.02 L = L of water per kW at DT DT BASIC FORMULAE AND UNITS The equations in this chapter are based on the principle of energy conservation. British thermal units per hour (Btuh) (kilojoules per hour) r = Flow rate.0) 49.0) 30. Btu per pound per °F (kilojoules per kilograms per °K) DT = Change in heated water temperature (temperature of leaving water minus temperature of incoming water. as follows: Equation 6-3 410 gal = gal of water per kW at DT DT 1552.0) 8.18) 60 (16) 6.5) Maximum 2 Hours. °F [°K]) For purposes of this discussion. pounds (kilograms) c = Specific heat of water.7 (6. Since 1 kilowatt is equal to 3. Equation 6-2 Btu [( 1lb/°F )(8.19 kJ/ kg/K).0) 6.0 (31.8) ( L of water L/h kW at DT = kW required ) per Example 6-1 Calculate the heat output rate required to heat 600 gph from 50°F to 140°F (2.33 pounds.8 (18.6) 1.04) 40 (4) 10.

61 140 – 50°F P = 41 – 10°C = 0. (71 min. higher-temperature hot water must be blended with cold or cooler-temperature water to obtain a desired mixed water temperature. The incoming water supply during winter is 40°F (4°C). we find the following: 40 gph 4.8 kW required 151. ˚F (˚C) Tc = Inlet cold water temperature. occasionally will differ from those shown. but currently available models have much improved electronic modulating control. In Equation 6-6.42 L/h ( 15. with the heating of the water spread over the design hour. inexpensive to install. Using Equation 6-5 and the above table.61 60 – 10° ( ) . owners. WATER HEATERS Many types of domestic water heaters are available. The most commonly used type of water heater for homes. Therefore. multiple-unit dwellings. or regulatory agencies.8 kW required ) 101 Table 6-3 Typical Hot Water Temperatures for Plumbing Fixtures and Equipment Use Lavatory: Hand washing Shaving Showers and tubs Therapeutic baths Surgical scrubbing Commercial and institutional laundry Residential dishwashing and laundry Commercial. such as swimming pools.) 180–195 (82–91) 160 min. Instantaneous water heaters have near zero standby losses.) 140 (60) 75 min.or multipletank hood or rack type: Wash Final rinse Single-tank conveyor type: Wash Final rinse Single-tank rack or door type: Single-temperature wash and rinse Chemical sanitizing glassware: Wash Rinse Temperature °F (°C) 105 115 110 95 110 140–180 120 (40) (45) (43) (35) (43) (60–82) (48) 150 min. and it can be used to determine the percentage of supply hot water that will blend with the cooler water to produce a desired mixed water temperature. Both temperature and pressure should be verified with the client and checked against local codes and the manuals of equipment used. ˚F (˚C) Tm = Desired mixed water temperature.61 (1. as dictated by codes.25 gpm of 140°F water required[0. MIXED WATER TEMPERATURE Frequently.Chapter 6 — Domestic Water Heating Systems This table can be used with Equation 6-5 to solve for the electric element (in kilowatts) needed to heat the required recovery volume of water. spray-type dishwashing (as required by the NSF): Single.1 gal (100°F) = 9. Commonly used energy sources include electricity. and similar establishments is the direct-fired automatic storage water heater. P = 105 – 50°F = 0. P is a hot water ratio or multiplier. office buildings. Such heaters are simple.61 (25 gpm) = 15.58 L/s) = 0. Example 6-2 An electric water heater must be sized based on the following information: 40 gph (151. and gas. Instantaneous-type water heaters must have sufficient capacity to provide the maximum instantaneous flow rate of hot water. (66 min. (24 min. ˚F (˚C) Values of P for a range of hot and cold water temperatures are given in Table 6-4. Determine how much 140°F (60°C) hot water must be supplied to the showers when the cold water temperature is 50°F (10°C). where P = Hot water ratio. (74 min.) HOT WATER TEMPERATURE The generally accepted minimum hot water temperatures for various plumbing fixtures and equipment are given in Table 6-3. Example 6-3 A group of showers requires 25 gallons per minute (gpm) (1. fuel oil. and industrial processes. certain dishwasher booster requirements.42 liters per hour) of hot water at a temperature of 140°F (60°C) is required. or where space conditions are a prime consideration. In such a case it is useful to have a quick method for determining the relative volumes of all three water temperatures involved.58 liters per second) of 105°F (41°C) mixed water temperature. unitless Th = Supply hot water temperature. and low maintenance. Equation 6-6 T – Tc P= m Th – Tc Note: Be aware that temperatures. equipment manufacturers. Table 6-2 also may be used to determine P .96 L/s of 60°C water required]. Historically. 0. a gas-fired instantaneous heater finds its best application where water-heating demands are constant.) 180–195 (82–91) 165 min. They generally have a low Btu input.52 L (38°C) = 9.

86 0.00 0.80 0. Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (°F) 135 130 125 120 115 110 105 100 0.77 0.52 0.50 0.63 0.52 0.63 0.53 0.84 0. (°F) 45 50 55 60 65 150 1. (°F) 45 50 55 60 65 Th = 140°F Hot Water System Temperature Tc.94 0.96 0.69 0.80 0.60 0.81 0.90 0. (°F) 45 50 55 60 65 140 1.74 0.57 0.94 0.41 Th = 160°F Hot Water System Temperature Tc.73 0.86 0.47 100 0.47 0.95 0.67 0.85 0.82 0.75 0.55 Tm.67 0.63 0.00 0.78 0.50 0.95 0.53 Tm.00 0.64 0.58 0.86 0.63 0.92 0. (°F) 45 50 55 60 65 160 1.93 0.00 1.67 Th = 120°F Hot Water System Temperature Tc.87 0.53 0.79 0.70 0.87 0.00 155 0.89 0.76 0.73 0.83 0.89 0.60 0.55 0.83 0. P Th = 110°F Hot Water System Temperature Tc.00 1.71 0.67 0.95 0.44 0.55 0.88 0.55 0.73 0.64 1.71 0.75 0.62 0.93 0.71 0.59 0.00 0.67 0.90 0.71 0.50 1.61 0.74 0.102 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Table 6-4 Hot Water Multiplier.47 .78 0.85 0.75 0.84 0.47 Tm.73 0.56 0.60 0.61 0.92 0.82 0.47 0.81 0.76 0.62 0.70 65 1.79 0.00 1.54 0.91 0.60 0.74 0.94 0.80 0.00 0.64 0.65 0.81 0.53 110 0.71 0.74 0.50 0.70 0.92 0.68 0.80 0.95 0.62 0.87 0.79 0.65 0.56 0.00 0.67 0.77 0.00 1.94 0.71 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.81 0. (°F) 45 1.84 0.82 0.58 1.00 1.69 0. CW Temp.00 0.76 0.71 0.79 0.83 0.89 0.59 1.95 115 0.80 0.93 0.00 0.76 0. Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (°F) 140 135 130 125 120 115 110 0.80 0.53 1.59 0.53 0.73 60 1.00 95 0.91 0.77 0.65 0. Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (°F) 110 105 100 95 Temp.69 0.88 0.94 0.65 0.92 0.44 0.79 0.73 0.95 0.85 0.40 Th = 150°F Hot Water System Temperature Tc.72 0.78 0.76 0. CW Temp.72 0.77 50 1.67 1. CW Tm.87 0. Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (°F) 130 125 120 115 110 105 100 95 1.67 0.00 1.68 0.50 0.00 1.86 0.90 0.85 0.65 0.58 Th = 130°F Hot Water System Temperature Tc.90 0.56 0.00 0.83 0.75 0.00 145 0.00 1.68 0.00 1.65 0.64 0. CW Temp.94 0.57 0.85 0.57 0.59 0.56 1.88 0.94 105 0.92 0.67 0.91 0.82 0.46 Tm. Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (°F) 120 115 110 105 100 95 1.88 0.53 0.00 0. CW Temp. Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (°F) 150 145 140 135 130 125 120 0.61 0.93 0.00 0.95 0.69 0.00 0.82 0.95 0.63 0.82 0.89 0.75 0.68 0.00 1.90 0. CW Temp.78 0.93 0.89 0.00 1.70 0.83 0.00 0.91 0.75 55 1.62 1.58 0.88 0.50 0. (°F) 45 50 55 60 65 Tm.57 0.86 0.89 0.

75 0.80 0.73 0.43 0.78 0.83 0.50 0.57 0. (°C) 7 10 13 16 18 Th = 60°C Hot Water System Temperature Tc.86 0.65 0.53 1.96 0.90 0.65 0.76 0.00 1.95 0.63 0.83 0.25 0.73 0.61 0.80 0.62 0.88 0.58 0.00 0.92 0.83 0.00 0.85 0.85 0.64 0.92 0.57 0.75 0.91 0.69 0.00 1.40 0.36 0.54 0.38 0.67 0.60 0.50 0.67 0.00 175 0.13 — 0.92 0.89 0. CW Temp.93 0.93 0.94 0.Chapter 6 — Domestic Water Heating Systems Table 6-4 Hot Water Multiplier.73 0.58 0.68 0. (°C) 7 10 13 16 18 Tm.00 1.73 0.50 0. P (continued) Th = 180°F Hot Water System Temperature Tc.00 0.77 1. CW Temp.72 0.73 0.90 0.94 0.81 0.83 0.93 0.87 0.96 0.92 0.79 0.75 0.87 0.33 0.42 0.75 0.94 0.00 1.89 0.00 0.53 0.68 0.89 0.75 0.83 0.64 0.78 0.00 0.88 0.85 0.72 0.58 1.93 0.79 0.85 0.00 1.69 0.00 1.62 1.47 135 0.88 0.93 0.70 0.96 0.60 0.20 0.81 0. CW Temp.50 0.17 — — — — 103 Th = 43°C Hot Water System Temperature Tc.69 0.80 0.87 0.93 0.88 0.79 0.76 0.92 0.94 0.00 0.70 0.67 Tm.17 — — — 0.64 1.81 0.00 1.75 1.63 0.69 0.84 0.92 0.00 0.80 0.00 1.85 0. Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (°C) 54 52 49 46 43 41 38 35 1.89 0.33 0. CW Temp.67 0.82 0.63 0.70 0.71 0.61 0.71 0.87 0.91 0.71 0.71 0. Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (°C) 49 46 43 41 38 35 1.44 0.74 0.64 0.30 0.00 0.80 0.83 0.10 — — — 130 0.57 0.55 Th = 54°C Hot Water System Temperature Tc.69 0.00 35 0.60 0.78 0.88 0.00 1.47 0.71 0.60 0.75 0.86 0.00 0.56 0.00 0.62 0.50 0.77 0.59 1.82 0.81 0.82 0.00 1.00 0.50 0.77 0.67 0.00 1. (°C) 7 10 13 16 18 Th = 49°C Hot Water System Temperature Tc.67 0.00 0. (°C) 7 10 13 16 18 60 1.56 0.00 1.74 0.88 0. CW Temp.96 0. Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (°F) 170 165 160 155 150 145 140 0.67 0.00 1.64 0.53 0.74 0.93 0.53 0.65 0.92 0.00 0.92 0.73 1.25 — — — — — Tm.50 1.29 0.67 1.67 0.82 0.77 0.63 0.96 0.00 0.46 Tm.71 0.91 0.40 . (°F) 45 50 55 60 65 110 120 130 140 150 160 180 1.70 1.59 0. Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (°C) 43 41 38 35 1.84 0.88 0.83 0.00 1.50 0.86 0.58 0.76 0.00 0.79 0.79 0. Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (°C) 58 54 52 49 46 43 41 38 0.78 0.65 0.80 0.67 0.63 0.94 0.50 0.25 0.63 0.75 Tm.56 1.88 0.92 0.

00 63 0.70 0.83 0.71 0.00 1.77 0.47 Booster heaters are used to raise the temperature of the regular hot water supply to some higherthan-normal temperature needed to perform special functions.67 0.25 — — — — — — 54 0.93 0.95 0.50 0.86 0.76 0.78 0. The distinction between water heater outlet temperature and plumbing fixture delivery temperature is critical.89 0.00 1.79 0.91 0.79 0.75 0.00 1.88 0.60 0.59 0.00 1.75 0.63 0.78 0. and acceptable outlet temperature variations differ as well.70 0.94 Tm.57 0.00 1.57 0.00 1.00 1.88 0.41 Th = 71°C Hot-Water System Temperature Tc. Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (°C) 77 74 71 68 66 63 60 58 0. Water heater controls are provided by the equipment manufacturer.68 0.83 0.96 0.00 79 0. Semi-instantaneous heaters contain approximately 10 to 20 gallons of storage.57 0.75 0.59 0.74 0.86 0.70 0.50 0.70 0.74 0.43 0.104 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Table 6-4 Hot Water Multiplier.65 0.67 0.80 0. Controls The purpose for having controls on a hot water generator is to ensure a safe and sufficient volume of hot water at the desired temperature.13 — — 0.83 0. taking advantage of copper’s superior thermal efficiency. ASSE 1017: Temperature-actuated Mixing .71 0.29 0.50 0.96 0.76 0.55 0.96 0. boiler or solar collector) from the hot water storage tank.53 0.86 0.68 0.g.82 0.89 0.76 0.52 0.93 0.67 0.55 0.71 0.58 0.50 0.85 0.84 0. This modular design permits efficient and economical servicing.73 0.67 0. The temperature control system is almost always included with this type of heater as a package.50 0.00 Tm.67 0.63 0..90 0.80 0.92 0.92 0.44 0. Booster heaters are utilized in applications such as commercial dishwashers with a limited use of very hot water.55 0.95 0.74 0. the various regulatory and testing agencies have requirements for controls that depend on the size and type of equipment used.62 0.87 0.63 0. (°C) 7 10 13 16 18 43 49 54 60 66 71 82 1.79 0.61 0.38 0.95 0. CW Temp. The control components for water heaters differ depending on the type of heater and the manufacturer.40 0.70 0. This small quantity of water is adequate to allow the temperature control system to react to sudden fluctuations in water flow and to maintain the outlet water temperature within ±5°F (2. varying according to their rated heating capacity.33 0.92 0.83 0.84 0.20 0.92 0.65 0.10 0.63 0.81 0.86 0.84 0.95 0.80 0.00 1.7°C).00 1.56 0.60 0.58 0.81 0.73 0. P (continued) Th = 66°C Hot-Water System Temperature Tc.78 0.58 0.69 0. Copper-type heat exchanger boilers can be used in conjunction with a storage tank when a high-temperature circulating loop is used to prevent condensation.60 0.58 0.00 1.87 0.82 0.74 0.17 — — — — 43 0.57 0.90 0. Indirect-fired water heaters.65 0.83 0.88 0.00 1.81 0.95 0. Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (°C) 68 66 63 60 58 54 52 49 46 0.72 0. including solar thermal systems.00 1. Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (°C) 60 58 54 52 49 46 43 41 0.90 0.95 0.65 0. (°C) 7 10 13 16 18 66 1.80 0.75 Tm.75 0.76 0.33 0.79 0.53 Th = 82°C Hot-Water System Temperature Tc.47 38 0.50 0. Also.70 0.68 0.90 0.88 0.61 0.85 0. They can be located near their point of intended use and have simple controls.25 0.52 0.00 1.50 0.77 0.94 0.67 0.62 0.85 0.91 0.81 0.67 0.96 0.71 0.30 0.83 0.89 0.71 0.90 0.00 1.88 0.00 1.62 0.36 0.53 0.64 0.96 0.17 — — — — 0.75 0.78 0. Steam indirect-fired water heaters generally are used where large quantities of hot water are needed and are able to efficiently tap into the building steam supply.89 0.64 0.25 0. have the advantage of physically separating the production of the necessary heating energy (e.50 0.50 0.95 0.68 0.74 0.91 0.47 0.42 0.60 0. CW Temp.00 1.65 0.63 0.64 0.00 1.72 0. CW Temp.96 0.00 1.85 0.61 0.65 0.57 0. (°C) 7 10 13 16 18 71 1.

This is particularly true in systems using low-flow and electronic faucets where the wait time can be very long. users may become frustrated waiting for the desired temperature water. (Listings for ASSE 1016-1996 were deactivated and are superseded by the above standards. repeat Steps 2 through 6 as a check on the assumptions made.2–3. and other ASSE standards apply to the various plumbing fixtures. however. if the heat loss is not addressed.5 gpm (1. Stratification during recovery periods can be reduced significantly by mechanical circulation of the water in the tank.8 centimeters]). and radiation. and drench showers. With the sizes as established in Step 6. Insulation reduces but does not eliminate this heat loss. warm water rises to the top of a storage tank. If the two layers were completely mixed. It has been found that the amount of usable water in stratified horizontal and vertical tanks could be as low as 65 percent and 75 percent respectively. and ASSE 1070: Performance Requirements for Water Temperature Limiting Devices. 4.8 liters per minute) is assigned for each small hot water riser (¾–1 inch [1. 3. In large systems. 6. known as stratification. Stratification in Storage-type Heaters and Tanks Because of its lighter density. Calculate the heat loss rates of the hot water supply piping. 1. it might be useful to have stratification since this increases the availability of water at a usable temperature. which in most cases is an unusable temperature. HOT WATER TEMPERATURE MAINTENANCE Hot water of a desired temperature should be readily available at any fixture. sizing the supply and recirculation piping. Calculate the rates of flow for various pipe sizes that will give the uniform pressure drop established in Step 4. 105 Hot Water Circulation Systems The sizing of the hot water circulation system includes selecting the pump. occurs in all uncirculated tanks.54 centimeters]). and tabulate the results. this tank. As a guide to sizing circulation piping and circulation pumps. The result of this rising action. Oversizing will cause the system to lose additional heat and result in unnecessary expenditures on equipment and installation. Two common methods used to achieve satisfactory remote temperature maintenance include a hot water circulation system or a self-regulated electrically heated system. and the associated energy and wastewater utility costs are incurred. ASSE 1069: Performance Requirements for Automatic Temperature Control Mixing Valves. This type of system utilizes self-regulating cable installed on the hot water supply pipes underneath the standard pipe insulation. The procedure for sizing the hot water circulating piping is as follows: 1. 7. 1 gpm (3. but they are not recommended in lieu of the more accurate procedures outlined above. An allowance of 0. During periods of high demand. Three primary ASSE standards addressing fixture delivery temperature include ASSE 1016: Performance Requirements for Automatic Compensating Valves for Individual Showers and Tub/Shower Combinations. Size the system based on the tabulation set up in Step 5.) ASSE 1071: Temperature-actuated Mixing Valves for Plumbed Emergency Equipment was established for emergency eyewashes. 5.Chapter 6 — Domestic Water Heating Systems Valves for Hot Water Distribution Systems addresses source distribution temperature requirements. if a tank were equally stratified between 140°F (60°C) at the top and 40°F (4°C) at the bottom. It produces more heat if the temperature drops and less heat if . Water is wasted. 2. and 2 gpm (7. Proper sizing of the hot water circulating system is essential for the efficient and economical operation of the hot water system. convection. Determine the allowable uniform friction head loss and the total head required to overcome friction losses in the piping when the water is flowing at the required circulation rate. depending on design. Hot water supply piping transmits heat to the surrounding lower-temperature air by conduction. still could deliver half its volume at 140°F (60°C). For example. Undersizing will hamper circulation and thus starve the fixtures of the desired water temperature. in theory. Calculate the circulation rates for all parts of the circulating piping and the total circulation rate required.8 liters per minute) is assigned for each group of 20 hot watersupplied fixtures. Calculate the heat loss rates of the hot water circulating piping. The cable adjusts its power output to compensate for variations in water and ambient temperatures.9–2. the tank temperature would drop to 90°F (32°C).6 liters per minute) for each large-size hot water riser (2 inches [5 centimeters] and larger).8 liters per minute) for each medium-size hot water riser (1¼–1½ inches [3. and selecting the insulation type and thickness. An allowance of 1 gpm (3. 2. Self-regulating Heat Trace Systems A heat trace system is used for hot water temperature maintenance. face washes. the following empirical methods are given.

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the temperature rises. The heating cable replaces supply pipe heat losses at the point where heat loss occurs, thereby providing continuous hot water temperature maintenance and eliminating the need for a recirculating system. Heat trace systems are practical for small systems, systems where added flexibility of terminal runs is needed, or situations where recirculation piping is impractical. Hybrid circulation and heat trace systems are possible. Selection variables affecting the performance of the heat trace system include the system temperature range, time to tap, water wastage, and energy efficiency. Installation and life-cycle costs also should be considered. All heating cable components are UL listed for use as a part of the system to maintain hot water temperature. Component enclosures are rated NEMA 4X to prevent water ingress and corrosion. Electronic control modules are available, permitting programmed temperature profiles, including bacteria-killing hightemperature nighttime programs.

Sizing Pressure and Temperature Relief Valves
The following information applies to heaters with more than 200,000-Btu (211,000-kilojoule) input: Temperature relief valves shall have the capacity to prevent water temperature from exceeding 210°F (99°C). They shall be water rated on the basis of 1,250 Btu (1,319 kilojoules) for each gph of water discharged at 30-pounds (13.6-kilograms) working pressure and a maximum temperature of 210°F (99°C). The temperature rating is the maximum rate of heat input to a heater on which a temperature relief valve can be installed and is determined as follows: Equation 6-7 gph water heated × 8.33 × DT(°F) = Btu valve capacity 0.8 required kJ valve ( L/h water heated × 1 kg/L × DT(°C) = required capacity ) 0.8 Pressure relief valves shall have the capacity to prevent a pressure rise in excess of 10 percent of the set opening pressure. They shall be set at a pressure not exceeding the working pressure of the tank or heater. The pressure rating is the maximum output of a boiler or heater on which a pressure relief valve can be used and is determined as follows: Equation 6-8 gph water heated × 8.33 × DT(°F) = Btu valve capacity required

RELIEF VALVES
Water-heating systems shall be protected from excessive temperatures and pressures by relief valves. Temperature and pressure relief valves are available either separately or combined. A combination T&P relief valve offers economical and effective protection. A relief valve on a water supply system is exposed to elements that may affect its performance, such as corrosive water that attacks materials and deposits of lime that close up waterways and flow passages. For these reasons, the minimum size of the valve should be ¾ inch (19 millimeters) for inlet and outlet connections, with the waterways within the valve of an area not less than the area of the inlet connection. Relief valves should be tested on a regular basis to ensure safe and proper operation. All relief valves should have a discharge pipe connected to their outlets and terminate at a point where the discharge will cause no damage or injury. The discharge pipe size shall be at least the size of the valve discharge outlet, be as short as possible, and run down to its terminal without sags or traps. Typically, T&P relief valves are tested to comply with the standards of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), American Gas Association (AGA), or National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors (NBBPVI) and are so labeled. The designer should verify which agency’s standards are applicable to the water-heating system being designed and follow those standards for the sizes, types, and locations of required relief valves.

[ L/h water heated × 1.0 kg/L × DT(°C)= kJ valve capacity ] required
Determine the Btu capacity required and then refer to the manufacturer’s catalog for valve size selection. Note that on high Btu systems, multiple T&P relief valves may be required at the storage tank.

THERMAL EXPANSION
Water expands when heated, and this expansion must be accommodated in a domestic hot water system to avoid damage to the piping, fixtures, and accessories. Use of a properly sized thermal expansion tank will accomplish this. Plumbing codes require some type of thermal expansion compensation, especially when there is either a backflow prevention device on the cold water service to the building or a check valve in the system. Relying only on the T&P relief valve to relieve the pressure is not good practice. Most local codes now require expansion tanks for systems more than 4 gallons (8.8 liters) in capacity. The relevant properties of water are shown in Table 6-5.

Chapter 6 — Domestic Water Heating Systems Table 6-5 Thermal Properties of Water
Temperature Saturation Pressure Specific Volume °F °C psig kPa ft3/lb m3/kg 32 0.0 29.8 3,019.6 0.01602 0.00100 40 4.4 29.7 3,009.5 0.01602 0.00100 50 10.0 29.6 2,999.4 0.01603 0.00100 60 15.5 29.5 2,989.2 0.01604 0.00100 70 21.1 29.3 2,969.0 0.01606 0.00100 80 26.7 28.9 2,928.4 0.01608 0.00100 90 32.2 28.6 2,898.0 0.01610 0.00100 100 37.8 28.1 2,847.4 0.01613 0.00101 110 43.3 27.4 2,776.4 0.01617 0.00101 120 48.9 26.6 2,695.4 0.01620 0.00101 130 54.4 25.5 2,583.9 0.01625 0.00101 140 60.0 24.1 2,442.1 0.01629 0.00102 150 65.6 22.4 2,269.8 0.01634 0.00102 160 71.1 20.3 2,057.0 0.01639 0.00102 170 76.7 17.8 1,803.7 0.01645 0.00103 180 82.2 14.7 1,489.6 0.01651 0.00103 190 87.8 10.9 1,104.5 0.01657 0.00103 200 93.3 6.5 658.6 0.01663 0.00104 210 98.9 1.2 121.6 0.01670 0.00104 212 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.01672 0.00104 220 104.4 2.5 253.3 0.01677 0.00105 240 115.6 10.3 1,043.7 0.01692 0.00106 260 126.7 20.7 2,097.5 0.01709 0.00107 280 137.8 34.5 3,495.9 0.01726 0.00108 300 148.9 52.3 5,299.6 0.01745 0.00109 350 176.7 119.9 12,149.5 0.01799 0.00112 400 204.4 232.6 23,569.4 0.01864 0.00116 450 232.2 407.9 41,332.5 0.01940 0.00121 500 260.0 666.1 67,495.9 0.02040 0.00127 550 287.8 1030.5 104,420.6 0.02180 0.00136 600 315.6 1528.2 154,852.5 0.02360 0.00147 Density lb/ft3 kg/m3 62.42 999.87 62.42 999.87 62.38 999.23 62.34 998.59 62.27 997.47 62.19 996.19 62.11 994.91 62.00 993.14 61.84 990.58 61.73 988.82 61.54 985.78 61.39 983.37 61.20 980.33 61.01 977.29 60.79 973.76 60.57 970.24 60.35 966.71 60.13 963.19 59.88 959.19 59.81 958.06 59.63 955.18 59.10 946.69 58.51 937.24 57.94 928.11 57.31 918.02 55.59 890.47 55.63 891.11 51.55 825.75 49.02 785.22 45.87 734.77 42.37 678.70 Weight Specific Heat lb/gal kg/m3 Btu/lb-°F-h J/kg-°C-h 8.345 1,001.40 1.0093 4,225.74 8.345 1,001.40 1.0048 4,206.90 8.340 1,000.80 1.0015 4,193.08 8.334 1,000.08 0.9995 4,184.71 8.325 999.00 0.9982 4,179.26 8.314 997.68 0.9975 4,176.33 8.303 996.36 0.9971 4,174.66 8.289 994.68 0.9970 4,174.24 8.267 992.04 0.9971 4,174.66 8.253 990.36 0.9974 4,175.91 8.227 987.24 0.9978 4,177.59 8.207 984.84 0.9984 4,180.10 8.182 981.84 0.9990 4,182.61 8.156 978.72 0.9998 4,185.96 8.127 975.24 1.0007 4,189.73 8.098 971.76 1.0017 4,193.92 8.068 968.16 1.0028 4,198.52 8.039 964.68 1.0039 4,203.13 8.005 960.60 1.0052 4,208.57 7.996 959.52 1.0055 4,209.83 7.972 956.64 1.0068 4,215.27 7.901 948.12 1.0104 4,230.34 7.822 938.64 1.0148 4,248.76 7.746 929.52 1.0200 4,270.54 7.662 919.44 1.0260 4,295.66 7.432 891.84 1.0440 4,371.02 7.172 860.64 1.0670 4,467.32 6.892 827.04 1.0950 4,584.55 6.553 786.36 1.1300 4,731.08 6.132 735.84 1.2000 5,024.16 5.664 679.68 1.3620 5,702.42

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Example 6-4 Using Table 6-5, determine the thermal expansion of a typical residence. Assume the initial heating cycle has incoming water at 40°F (4°C) and a temperature rise of 100°F (38°C). The water heater has 50 gallons (189 liters) of capacity, and the piping system volume is 10 gallons (38 liters). 1. Specific volume of water at 40°F (4°C) = 0.01602 cubic foot per pound (0.00100 cubic meter per kilogram) 2. Specific volume of water at 140°F (60°C) = 0.01629 cubic foot per pound (0.00102 cubic meter per kilogram) 3. 0.01602 ÷ 0.01629 (0.00100 ÷ 0.00102) = 1.66 percent increase in volume 4. Total volume = 50-gallon (189-liter) tank + 10-gallon (38-liter) system = 60 gallons (227 liters) 5. 60 gallons (227 liters) x 1.66 percent volume increase = 1-gallon (3.79-liter) expansion

6. 1 gallon (3.79 liters) x 8.33 pounds per gallon (1 kilogram per liter) x 0.01628 cubic foot per pound (0.0010 cubic meter per kilogram) = 0.1356 cubic foot (0.0038 cubic meter) = 19.5 cubic inches (380 cubic centimeters)

THERMAL EFFICIENCY
No water heating process is 100 percent efficient. The actual input energy is always higher than the usable, or output, energy. The four primary measurements of water heater efficiency (among the common 12 to 15 measurements) are combustion efficiency, thermal efficiency, energy factor, and annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE). Combustion efficiency (for fuel-fired water heaters) is a misnomer, as it has little to do with the efficiency of the combustion process. Rather, combustion efficiency is simply the total input energy minus the flue losses.

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ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Equation 6-9 Et =

Thermal efficiency is a refinement of combustion efficiency, also accounting for jacket losses. In equation form, thermal efficiency = combustion efficiency – jacket losses. Energy factor and AFUE are continued refinements, attempting to bring real-world meaningful values to consumers. Not every efficiency measurement is applicable to every water heater. For example, AFUE only applies to water heaters with input of 300,000 Btuh or less. Similarly, the testing protocol used to obtain an energy factor rating includes a 19-hour standby period, obviously benefiting instantaneous and tankless water heaters. New government-mandated energy-efficiency rules are issued through the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is an industry leader in promoting part-load efficiency ratings for modulating equipment and seasonal efficiency information. The Air-conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) is the primary testing and certifying organization. Direct-fired gas water heaters lose part of their total energy capabilities to heated flue gases, inefficiencies of combustion, and radiation at heated surfaces. Their thermal efficiency, Et, is defined as the heat actually transferred to the domestic water divided by the total heat input to the water heater. Expressed as a percentage, this is:

where Et = Thermal efficiency ratio, unitless B = Internal heat loss of the water heater, Btuh (kilojoules per hour) q = Time rate of heat transfer, Btuh (kilojoules per hour) Refer to Equations 6-1 and 6-2 to determine q. Many water heaters and boilers provide input and output energy information. Example 6-5 Calculate the heat input rate required for the water heater in Example 6-1 if this is a direct gas-fired water heater with a thermal efficiency of 80 percent. From Example 6-1, q = 449,820 Btuh (475,374 kilojoules per hour). Thus, the heat input is: q = 449,820 Btu/h = 562,275 Btu/h 0.80 Et

q−B q × 100%

(E

q
t

= 475,374 kJ/h = 594 217.5 kJ/h 0.80

)

LEGIONNAIRES’ DISEASE
Legionnaires’ disease is a potentially fatal respiratory illness. The disease gained notoriety when a number of American Legionnaires contracted it during a convention. That outbreak was attributed to the water vapor from the building’s cooling towers. The bacteria causing Legionnaires’ disease are widespread

Table 6-6 Recommended Water System Temperatures
CDC Store DCW (maximum) Favorable for Legionella Growth Maximum DHW Discharge Temperature (patient care areas) Maximum DHW Discharge Temperature (behavioral health) Recirculating DHW (minimum) Store DHW (minimum) Flush (thermal shock treatment) Minimum Time ASHRAE 68˚F 77–108˚F FREIJE 68˚F 68–122˚F ASHE/JCAHO CCBC/ ISPC IDPH ASPE

90–105˚F

77–108˚F 115˚F 110˚F 100˚F 115˚F

150˚F @ 5 minutes

124˚F 140˚F 160–170˚F @ 5–30 minutes

122˚F 140˚F

124˚F 140˚F 158˚F @ 5 minutes

CDC = Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ASHRAE = American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers Guideline 12–2000: Minimizing the Risk of Legionellosis Associated with Building Water Systems FREIJE = Matthew R. Freije, Legionella Control in Healthcare Facilities: A Guide for Minimizing Risk ASHE = American Society for Healthcare Engineering JCAHO = Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations CCBC = City of Chicago Building Code ISPC = Illinois State Plumbing Code IDPH = Illinois Department of Public Health ASPE = American Society of Plumbing Engineers

Chapter 6 — Domestic Water Heating Systems in natural sources of water, including rivers, lakes, streams, and ponds. In warm water, the bacteria can grow and multiply to high concentrations. Prevention and control of Legionella bacteria is a major concern in healthcare facilities. While there are several potential sources of the bacteria in hospitals, for the purposes of this section, only Legionella in domestic hot water systems is addressed. The Legionella bacteria can be found in many domestic hot and cold water systems in trace amounts. There are no health concerns with the bacteria until it colonizes (forming higher concentrations), and the bacteria are atomized and inhaled or aspirated. In most documented cases of Legionnaires’ disease, transmission occurred when water containing the organism was aerosolized in respirable droplets (1–5 micrometers in diameter) and inhaled or aspirated by a susceptible host. No data indicates that the bacteria are of concern when swallowed, and no data supports Legionella being spread through person-toperson transmission. Legionella has been shown to most greatly affect immunosuppressed people. In a hospital, the following patients are most susceptible to Legionella infection: organ transplant patients, cancer patients receiving radiation or chemotherapy, patients with HIV and surgical patients. ,

109 of Legionella control is to maintain the domestic hot water system temperature above 130°F (54°C), with a preferable distribution system temperature of 140°F (60°C) and a return hot water temperature of at least 124°F (51°C). However, on older piping systems not having thermostatic mixing valves at all outlets, a system cannot be operated at 130°F (54°C) or above and still maintain code compliance. As mandated by most local codes, the maximum hot water temperature to plumbing fixtures in patient care areas is 115°F (46°C). This is to minimize scalding potential due to excessive water temperature. Often, the shower valves in a hospital facility are not of the thermostatic mixing valve type, which would allow the system to be operated at an elevated temperature. As a result, a hospital’s domestic hot water systems are operated at approximately 115°F (46°C), with a return hot water temperature of 105–110°F (41–43°C). Unfortunately, no matter what code you use, this temperature range is in the Legionella bacteria growth temperature range. Bacterial growth is most prominent in stagnant areas such as storage tanks and dead ends of piping. Bacteria typically grow in the biofilm, scale, slime, and sediment found in these locations. It tends to not grow in sections of the piping distribution system that are actively flowing and have little biofilm or sediment buildup. Increased water velocity in a piping system can help reduce biofilm, but excessive water velocity can be detrimental to a piping system. Care should be taken to not exceed 7 feet per second of velocity in the pipe, or erosion could take place, causing pipe failure. Legionella bacteria also can reside in the scale buildup on showerheads. The showerhead provides a sieve effect, and the additional rough surface of the scale provides additional area for biofilm. Other locations of bacterial growth include spas and whirlpools. There also have been reports of bacterial growing on natural rubber washers.

Varying Standards
Many different temperature ranges for Legionella bacterial growth are published. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) lists a favorable bacterial growth range of 90–113°F (32–45°C). ASHRAE lists a favorable bacterial growth range of 77–108°F (25–42°C), and Matthew Freije, author of Legionellae Control in Healthcare Facilities, lists the optimal temperature range for bacterial growth at 68–122°F (20–50°C) (95–115°F [35–46°C] ideal). The American Society for Healthcare Engineering (ASHE) and the Joint Commission list a range of 77–108°F (25–42°C). Combining these ranges would indicate a potential range of growth of 68–122°F (20–50°C). All available information indicates that almost all bacteria die at temperatures above 130°F (54°C). The higher the temperature, the faster the bacteria die. Table 6-6 lists domestic water system temperatures as they relate to Legionella from the various agencies and organizations. Included on the table are three additional sources of temperature information: the City of Chicago Building Code, State of Illinois Plumbing Code, and ASPE. These were included as a sample of additional requirements from local jurisdictions and recommendations from plumbing organizations.

Controlling Legionella
Many methods of controlling the colonization of Legionella bacteria are available. These include elevated temperature maintenance, heat and flush cycles, copper-silver ionization, chlorine dioxide injection, halogenization, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, ozonation, hyper-chlorination, filtration/rechlorination, and combinations of these. Elevated Temperature Maintenance This involves keeping the system temperature continually at or above 140°F (60°C), as recommended by several of the agencies noted previously. However, it is frequently impractical in large, old facilities.

Legionella Hot Spots
As mentioned, available information indicates almost all Legionella bacteria die at temperatures above 130°F (54°C). Therefore, a common method

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ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Halogenization The use of halogens (chlorine, bromine, and iodine) at dosages ranging from 0.3–1 part per million (ppm) is a viable option only if the water pH is controlled precisely. As the water pH drops, so does the efficiency of the halogen as a biocide. A final but critical consideration is the issue of carcinogenic halogenated compounds being dumped into the waterway. A byproduct of chlorine treatment of water is total trihalomethanes (TTHM), which may elevate the risk of certain cancers. While the risk may be small, the EPA is attempting to reduce TTHM concentrations in U.S. water systems. Halogens therefore are seldom recommended for use in healthcare facilities. Ultraviolet Radiation UV radiation is effective in killing the bacteria as it flows through a single point in the system. It is effective only for use on small, localized systems and short runs of pipe. It is ineffective in large systems and does not eliminate the growth of existing colonies in other portions of the system. The effect of UV on Legionella within protozoan vesicles (protozoan bodies loaded with Legionella cells) is also not known. Ozonation Ozone is effective in killing the bacteria in the immediate vicinity of the ozone generator. Its advantage is that TTHMs are not produced by ozone treatment. Its disadvantages are that decomposition of the ozone in the system quickly dissipates the concentrations required to kill bacteria; it can cause corrosion problems in old piping; it is ineffective in large systems; and it does not eliminate the growth of existing colonies in other portions of the system. This is also an expensive option. Hyper-chlorination This method is effective in killing the bacteria, but it has several very important negative aspects. First, high chlorine concentrations are required to kill the bacteria. Second, chlorine byproducts are TTHMs, which are potential carcinogens. Third, chlorine is corrosive and can cause degradation leading to potential failure of the piping. It therefore is not recommended for regular use in most hospital facilities. Filtration/Rechlorination This involves the use of 5-micron filters in conjunction with a rechlorination system. It first filters foreign matter being introduced into the piping system from an unfiltered water supply, thus reducing the scale and sediments in which the biofilm can propagate. Rechlorination then is used to maintain a chlorine level more conducive to inhibiting biofilm growth. Chlorine concentrations should be closely monitored to prevent over-chlorination. This type of system typically is used on non-municipal-type water systems

Heat and Flush This is a method of disinfecting the piping system by elevating the system temperature to 150°F (66°C) or higher and flushing the high-temperature water through every outlet for at least 30 minutes. This method has proven effective in killing the bacteria present in most domestic hot water systems. Large quantities of biofilm in the piping system might require additional contact time with the high-temperature water. The advantages of this method are that it involves no capital expenditures for equipment and can be implemented immediately. Disadvantages include increased labor, difficulty coordinating the flushing of the system without risking a scalding injury to patients, and inefficiency on fixtures having thermostatic mixing valves. There is no residual protection, so this is a non-permanent solution to Legionella contamination. The bacteria will eventually return and colonize in the system. Copper-silver Ionization This method involves installing a flow-through ionization chamber containing copper-silver electrodes. As electrical current is applied to the electrodes, positively charged copper and silver ions are released into the water system. The positively charged ions bond to the microorganisms, causing them to die. The optimal concentration of copper-silver ions is said to be 400 parts per billion (ppb) for copper and 40 ppb for silver. The advantages of this alternative are that the equipment is relatively easy to install and maintain and it provides permanent, continuous disinfection. The disadvantages are the initial equipment costs and continuing operating and maintenance costs. Copper-silver ionization often is recommended as an option for use on domestic hot water systems serving immunodeficient patient care areas. Chlorine Dioxide Gas Injection This is effective in the control of Legionella bacteria in domestic hot water systems. It penetrates biofilm and slime and kills bacteria at its growth sites. Its advantages are that it stays in solution for long periods, and since it requires low concentrations, it minimizes chlorine-induced corrosion concerns. The disadvantages are that the equipment is best suited for use in small to medium-size applications; the equipment is fairly expensive; a chlorine dioxide gas generator is required for each hot water system; and water chemistry must be monitored closely. For large facilities, it might be necessary to install multiple injectors. Chlorine dioxide is a viable option for use on domestic hot water systems serving immunodeficient patient care areas if closely monitored.

Chapter 6 — Domestic Water Heating Systems and does not apply to hospitals receiving a central water supply.

111 If the disease is detected and confirmed, disinfection of the piping system will be required. Of the above methods, the most immediately available form of disinfection is usually the heat and flush method. This will involve the least capital investment; it can be quickly implemented; and when properly executed it is effective in eradicating most existing bacteria colonies. After disinfection, a Legionella control system should be installed, and a program should be instituted to monitor bacteria levels in the piping. It is also advisable to get concurrence from the medical facility’s relevant committees, such as the infection control committee.

Legionella Control Recommendations
For hospitals, Joint Commission Environment of Care Standard EC.1.7 requires the facility to develop a management plan establishing and maintaining a utility systems management program to “reduce the potential for organizational illness.” This management plan shall provide processes for “managing pathogenic agents in…domestic water and aerosolizing water systems.” Two approaches are recommended in the CDC guidelines for Legionella prevention and control. The first approach involves periodic, routine culturing of water samples from the hospital’s potable water system. For large hospitals, the CDC does not recommend random sampling. For large hospital facilities, the second approach listed is more practical to implement. The recommended approach follows: 1. Educate the hospital staff to increase their awareness of the symptoms of Legionellosis. Maintain a high index of suspicion for Legionellosis and appropriately use diagnostic tests for Legionellosis in patients with nosocomial pneumonia who are at risk of developing the disease and dying from the infection. 2. Initiate an investigation for a hospital source of Legionella upon identification of one case of definite or two cases of possible nosocomial Legionella disease. 3. Routinely use only sterile water for filling and terminal rinsing of nebulization devices. For high-risk areas such as operating rooms, ICU, AIDS, and cancer treatment areas, it often is recommended that the hospital install chlorine dioxide or copper-silver ionization equipment on the domestic hot water systems feeding these areas. Following is a checklist for existing domestic hot water piping systems to help minimize system-wide Legionella growth. 1. Remove dead legs in the domestic hot water system. Establish a policy of removing leftover piping. 2. Replace heavily scaled showerheads. 3. Extend hot water recirculation lines to the furthest point from the supply to ensure full system circulation. 4. All new piping should be copper, which is more corrosion resistant than galvanized iron piping. The formation of rust pockets is conducive toward biofilm proliferation and Legionella growth. Corrosion also leads to slime and scale buildup. 5. Change the water and sanitize the integral piping in whirlpools and spas frequently.

SCALDING
A research project by Moritz and Henriques at Harvard Medical College looked at the relationship between time and the water temperature necessary to produce a first-degree burn, which is the least serious type of burn and results in no irreversible damage. The results of the research show that it takes a 3-second exposure to 140°F (60°C) water to produce a first-degree burn. At 130°F (54°C), it takes approximately 20 seconds, and at 120°F (49°C) it takes 8 minutes to produce a first-degree burn. The normal threshold of pain is approximately 118°F (48°C). A person exposed to 120°F (49°C) water would immediately experience discomfort, so it’s unlikely that the person would be exposed for the 8 minutes required to produce a first-degree burn. However, people in some occupancies (e.g., hospitals), as well as those over the age of 65 and under the age of one, may not sense pain or move quickly enough to avoid a burn once pain is sensed. If such a possibility exists, scalding protection should be considered, and it often is required by code. (For more information on skin damage caused by exposure to hot water, see Table 6-7.) Table 6-7 Time/Water Temperature Combinations Producing Skin Damage
Water Temperature °F Over 140 140 135 130 125 120 °C Over 60 60 58 54 52 49 Time, seconds Less than 1 2.6 5.5 15 50 290

Source: Tom Byrley. 1979. “130 degrees F or 140 degrees F.” Contractor Magazine (September). First published in American Journal of Pathology. Note: The above data indicate conditions producing the first evidence of skin damage in adult males.

112

ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 • National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) listings • AGA listings for gas-burning components • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) standards • National Electrical Code • U.S. Department of Health and Environmental Control • American Society of Sanitation Engineers (ASSE) standards In addition, the federal government, agencies with jurisdiction over public schools and public housing, and many other agencies have specific requirements that must be observed when designing projects and selecting equipment for them.

CODES AND STANDARDS
The need to conform to various codes and standards determines many aspects of the design of a domestic hot water system as well as the selection of components and equipment. Some of the most often used codes and standards follow: • Regional, state, and local plumbing codes • ANSI/ASHRAE 90.1: Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-rise Residential Buildings • ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code • ANSI Z21.22: Relief Valves for Hot Water Supply Systems • Underwriters’ Laboratories (UL) listings for electrical components

7

Fuel Gas Piping Systems

This chapter describes low- to medium-pressure fuel petroleum gas both are colorless and odorless, so an gas systems on consumer sites from the property additive called mercaptan is injected into both types line to the final connection of the most remote gas of gases for leak-detection purposes. appliance or piece of equipment, with supply presMany types of gases are used as a fuel gas. Natural sures of 7 inches of water column to 5 pounds per gas and liquefied petroleum gas are preferred where square inch gauge (psig). This system is intended to easily and cheaply obtained. (These are the two preprovide sufficient pressure and volume for all uses. dominately used types.) However, other gases may be Since natural gas is a nonrenewable energy resource, used based on availability. For the properties of gases you should design for its efficient use. The direct commonly available throughout the world, refer to utilization of natural gas is preferable to the use of Table 7-2. electrical energy when electricity is obtained from TYPES OF GAS SERVICE the combustion of coal, nuclear, natural gas, or oil. Natural gas is obtained from a franchised public utilHowever, in many areas, the gas supplier and/or local ity obligated to provide gas to all who request this governmental agencies may impose regulations that service. There are different types of services a utility restrict the use of natural gas. Refer to the chapter may provide, each with a different cost. They include “Energy and Resource Conservation in Plumbing Systhe following: tems” in Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook, Volume 1 for information on Table 7-1 Average Physical Properties of Natural Gas and Propane appliance efficiencies and energy conservation recommendations. Natural Gas Propane (methane) The composition, specific gravity, and Formula C3H8 CH4 heating value of natural gas vary dependMolecular weight 44.097 16.402 ing on the well (or field) from which the gas is extracted. Natural gas is a mixture Melting (or freezing) point, °F – 305.84 – 300.54 of gases, most of which are hydrocarBoiling point, °F – 44 – 258.70 bons, and the predominant hydrocarbon Specific gravity of gas (air = 1.00) 1.52 0.60 is methane. Some natural gases contain Specific gravity of liquid 60°F/60°F (water = 1.00) 0.588 0.30 significant quantities of nitrogen, carbon Latent heat of vaporization at normal boiling point, Btu/lb 183 245 dioxide, or sulfur (usually as hydrogen Vapor pressure, lb/in2, gauge at 60°F 92 sulfide). Natural gases containing sulfur Pounds per gallon of liquid at 60°F 4.24 2.51 or carbon dioxide typically are corrosive. Gallons per pound of liquid at 60°F 0.237 These corrosive substances usually are Btu per pound of gas (gross) 21591 23000 eliminated by treating the natural gas Btu per ft3 gas at 60°F and 30 in mercury 2516 1050 ± before it is transmitted to the customBtu per gallon of gas at 60°F 91547 ers. In addition, readily condensable Cubic feet of gas (60°F, 30 in Hg)/gal of liquid 36.39 59.0 petroleum gases usually are extracted Cubic feet of gas (60°F, 30 in Hg)/lb of liquid 8.58 23.6 before the natural gas is supplied to the Cubic feet of air required to burn 1 ft3 gas 23.87 9.53 pipeline to prevent condensation during Flame temperature, °F 3595 3416 transmission. Octane number (isooctane = 100) 125 The physical properties of natural gas Flammability limit in air, upper 9.50 15.0 and liquefied petroleum gas are given Flammability limit in air, lower 2.87 5.0 in Table 7-1. Natural gas and liquefied

• Light or heavy process service: This service is provided for process or other industrial use.6 1407 0. inspect.811 21.3 106. • Interruptible service: This service allows the utility to stop the gas supply under certain conditions and proper notification and to restart service when the conditions no longer exist.6 1821 0.7 107.266 10.8 105.016 4.476 19.9 1425 1.) .3 129.084 23.420 4.02 116.849 18. APPROVALS The American Gas Association (AGA).295 51.8 106.783 Hydrogen 325 Methane 1. Therefore.4 135.5 1713 0.63 0.64 0.011 Natural (Birmingham.678 19.7 • Firm service: This service provides a continuous supply of gas under all conditions.876 323 508 514 621 1.566 15.780 4.95 0.976 19.52 0. volume air Per lb air gravity lb per ft3 ft3/lb 125. or certify fuel gas installations. they should be consulted at the start of any design.990 14.054 18.161 20.7 1809 0.5 1420 0.650 21.80 0.07 14.6 1595 0.71 0.4 108 1440 1.837 1.63 0.077 Carbon monoxide 323 Carburetted water gas 550 Coke oven gas 574 Digester (sewage) gas 690 Ethane 1.365 2.021 971 879 849 902 156 2.046 21. procedures.84 0.048 20. CA) 1.628 21.129 Natural (Los Angeles.550 4.61 0.9 106. or materials.500 2.9 1492 0. while incorporating any additional governing requirements and regulations.048 20.45 0.97 0.) 1.184 20.181 443 239 Gross 21.178 21.6 1435 1.844 24.0 1533 0.046 21.148 6.7 1423 0.032 31.002 Natural (Pittsburgh.61 108. 0.60 0.500 20.8 115. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Gross Gas Acetylene 1.035 Producer (Wellman-Galusha) 167 Propane 2.4 106.111 9.572 Propylene (Propane) 2. (Refer to the “Interior Natural Gas Pipe Sizing” section later in this chapter for additional information.74 135.6 1408 0.630 275 910 904 1.368 10. Such a letter contains information the supplier may require such as supply pressures.073 Natural (Kansas City.94 0.K.5 136.116 8.065 20.569 1.042 23.44 0.7 106.433 19.42 0. PA) 1.0054 186.07 0. In some municipalities.8 1677 0. All such items must comply with the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ).158 18.7 1423 0.074 13.498 Blast furnace gas 92 Butane 3.034 29.078 12.8 1411 1. equipment.3 1804 1.70 0.55 0.065 15. and equipment load information that will be anticipated for use in a facility. It is up to the plumbing engineer to determine the various agency requirements to design a code-compliant system. The gas is actually carried in the utility company’s mains. AL) 1.047 21.114 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Table 7-2 Physical and Combustion Properties of Commonly Available Fuel Gases Heating value Btu/ft3 Btu/lb No.05 0.640 20. • Transportation gas service: This is used when the gas is purchased directly from the producer (or wellhead) and not directly from the utility company. The most common reason for this interruption is when the ambient temperature falls below a predetermined point.080 12. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).447 92 2.149 6. lengths of piping. The utility supplier then may dictate the necessary parameters for the design based on the information provided by the plumbing engineer.440 17.977 2.178 19.259 19.881 Net 20.8 1451 1.707 21. and American Na- tional Standards Institute (ANSI) do not approve.8 111. and there is a charge for the use of the piping system. local utility suppliers and administrative authorities having jurisdiction may have established their own set of guidelines and requirements.062 16. U.02 0.054 18.770 19.3 1551 0.8 1424 0.71 107.8 106.91 0.283 17. Btu Specific Per ft3 Specific Density.030 13.1 1415 0.048 11.609 2.332 Sasol (South Africa) 500 Water gas (bituminous) 261 Net 1.5 119.9 1732 0. the plumbing engineer may be required to provide a letter of service request to the utility supplier at the beginning stages of the project.048 20.61. • Commercial or industrial service: This service is used for heating and/or cooling loads for commercial and industrial building classifications. The quantity of gas must meet specific utility company requirements.198 61.8 128. Although certain model codes provide information with respect to natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas requirements and regulations. MO) 974 Natural (Groningen.225 Butylene (hutene) 3. Netherlands) 941 Natural (Midlands Grid.469 Heat release.368 11.7 105.599 22.316 22.

Cooking and laundry equipment is typically 75 to 85 percent efficient. Under certain conditions. It could be placed indoors or on a slab outdoors either aboveground or underground in a vented pit. and ratings are given for both input and output. the plumbing engineer shall determine the primary model code that will be referenced.3: Gas Utilization Equipment for Large Boilers. and flue gases. (Note: Some jurisdictions also may require welded joints to be x-rayed to verify continuity. The distribution piping is welded. or mechanical equipment rooms. Pipe runs are enclosed for protection and located in a ventilated place that will not allow gas to accumulate. the utility company will reduce the incoming pressure to a figure that is requested by the design engineer at the start of the project or to conform to local code requirements. Other codes and standards that may be applicable are ANSI/ NFPA 30: Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. heat exchanger. warehousing. GAS METERS Meters are required in all services. and the engineer should consult the local AHJ prior to the design of any system. 4. ANSI Z83. local codes may vary. Systems often are designed with meter outlet pressures of 2 to 5 psi (13.8 to 34. The maximum allowable operating pressure for natural gas piping systems inside a building is based on NFPA 54: National Fuel Gas Code.Chapter 7 — Fuel Gas Piping Systems 115 SYSTEM OPERATING PRESSURE The gas pressure in the piping system downstream of the meter is usually 5 to 14 inches (125 to 356 millimeters) of water column. and electrical outlet adjacent . combined with pressure regulators to reduce the pressure for appliances as required. In most cases. and American Gas Association standards. Water-heating and space-heating equipment is usually 75 to 85 percent efficient (although high-efficiency equipment in the upper 90 percent range is also available). but in some cases it can be as much as 2 to 5 pounds per square inch (psi) (13. EFFICIENCY The difference between the input and the output of any equipment is the heat lost in the combustion process (burner).5 kPa) unless all the following are met: 1. Most appliances typically require approximately 3. ANSI/NFPA 58. and relief valves. A maximum liquefied petroleum gas pressure of 20 psig (138 kPa) generally is allowed. promulgated by the National Association of Plumbing-Heating-Cooling Contractors The primary code may reference NFPA 54. the pressure into the meter must be regulated. but all model codes allow the engineer the opportunity to take a greater pressure drop. provided the building is used specifically for research or industrial purposes and is constructed in accordance with NFPA 58: Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code.) 3. slab. Chapter 7. Insurance carriers such as Industrial Risk Insurers and FM Global also may impose standards and requirements that may be more stringent than the applicable code. To achieve optimal accuracy. except when approved by the AHJ or when insurance carriers have more stringent requirements. along with the specific year edition of that code.5 inch (5 and 13 millimeters) of water column. engineering practice will limit the pressure losses due to friction in the piping system to a range between 0.5 inches (89 millimeters) or water column. However. regulators. The AHJ will allow a higher pressure. promulgated by the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO) • International Fuel Gas Code. The plumbing contractor is usually responsible for a pit. promulgated by the International Code Council (ICC) • National Standard Plumbing Code. The pipe is installed within areas used specifically for industrial processes. it will be necessary to increase the volume of gas to account for the loss of its listed efficiency. The following model codes should be viewed for provisions regarding natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas regulations. Natural gas system pressures generally are not permitted to exceed 5 psig (34. 2. and standards: • Uniform Plumbing Code.5 kPa). In some areas of the country. thereby allowing economy of pipe size. requirements. When only the output required for an appliance is known.5 kilopascals [kPa]). The assembly could consist of filters. NFPA 88A: Standard for Parking Structures.2 and 0. valves. Where appliances require higher operating pressures and/or where long distribution lines are encountered. telephone outlet. with input ratings that take into consideration internal losses. but certain appliances such as water heaters and boilers may require higher gas pressures to operate properly.8 to 34. research. gas pressures on both sides of the meter are in inches of water column. CODES AND STANDARDS At the beginning of any given system design. ANSI/UL 144: Pressureregulating Valves for Liquefied Petroleum Gas. it may be necessary to select a higher pressure at the meter outlet to satisfy the appliance requirements or allow for greater pressure losses in the piping system. Requirements for various utility suppliers differ regarding the placement and arrangement of the meter assembly.

3) the expense of actually having to travel to the meter Revolving oven. The maximum flow rate of the gas being metered .000 (52.1) from a meter located in a secure area.8) Meter Types The three basic types of meters are diaphragm.7) (52.5) eas or tenants within a larger facility may be necessary or where meter information might need to be obtained Coffee urn. four-burner 24.2) (26.000 (63.000 (103. The pressure of the gas being metered 2.000 (52. The utility company typically runs the service on the consumer’s site up to the meter location. portable/ handheld devices.4) (31.000 40. consisting of Meter Selection Deciding which type of meter is the best choice for a particular application depends on the following: 1.6) location. Pulse Large broiler 60.4) (52.3) 10.000 (36. Different styles are available. rotary.4 kg) of fat 50. A small pressure drop across the meter causes it to cycle.8) odometer wheels or a stored electronic reading. By counting the number of cycles. the rotor turns at a speed that is proportional to the rate of gas.3) meters typically send a digital or analog electronic Combination broiler and roaster 66.000 (105.4 to 189.000 (76) geous to the local utility company because it allows Two-deck baking and roasting oven 100. As gas flows through the meter.6) pulse to a recording device.8 L) 84.000 50.000 (52.000 (79. twin.000 25. and direct Appliance Input. Encoder registers have Coffee maker.000 (5. Input.000 (63.5) reading. Clothes dryer (Type I) 35. so the compartments alternately fill with gas at the inlet and then empty at the outlet.000 30. Wi-Fi.7) storage devices. 75 lbs (34.000 (88.7 W) Steam boiler. 50.000 (95.5) offered by the local utility company for remote meter Range with fry top and oven 100. and turbine. Nevertheless.000 (19) an electronic means for an external device to quesCoffee maker. a pair of hourglass-shaped impellers forms the fixed-volume compartments. 200 lbs (90.6) (42. per horsepower (745. Manufacturers have Btuh mJ/h developed pulse or encoder registers that produce Commercial kitchen equipment electronic outputs for radio transmitters.5) utility personnel to obtain meter information without Three-deck baking oven 96.3-L) water heater Log lighter Barbecue Miscellaneous equipment Commercial log lighter Bunsen burner Gas engine.0) always investigate the different options that may be Range with hot top 45.8) this option such as where submetering of individual arCoffee urn. 10 gal (37. power line transmission types.8 kg) of fat 72.3) tion the meter register for either the position of the Deep fat fryer.9 L) 56.1 kg) of fat 75.116 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Table 7-3 Approximate Gas Demand for Common Appliancesa radio frequency (RF) and fixed networks.000 (68.9) Range Stove-top burners (each) Oven 30-gal (113.3) real-time consumption rather than on estimates based Residential equipment on previous or predicted consumptions. 5 gal (18. 15 gal (56.000 50.6) vantage is that customer billing can be based on near Stackable convection oven.000 (105. terminating with a shutoff valve. The utility company also may install wireless radio frequency or encoder-type meter-reading equipment at the meter so that gas consumption data can be obtained remotely by utility company personnel.000 (29.000 (31. When downstream demand initiates the flow of gas.000 (69. remote meter reading is advantaDoughnut fryer. single. the impellers rotate to receive a fixed volume of gas at the inlet and then discharge it at the outlet. Deep fat fryer. per horsepower (745.8) 5. the meter provides a measure of gas volume. Rotary meters are also positive-displacement measurement devices.6) 50. however. twin.9 L) 28.000 (25. It has a rotor in the gas stream in lieu of fixed volume compartments. as a particular facility might specifically desire Range with fry top 50.000 (47. four or five trays 210.6-L) water heater 40.1) In most cases.000 (221. A turbine meter is classified as an inferential meter.8) See manufacturer’s data The values given in this table should be used only when the manufacturer’s data is not available.000 (52. per section of oven 60.to 50-gal (151. In their case. reading Small broiler 30. three-burner 18. the plumbing engineer should Range with hot top and oven 90.7 W) Commercial clothes dryer (Type II) a 65.000 (10. to the meter if required. 45 lbs (20.8) (26. the utility company provides the meter.000 25. Diaphragm meters are positive-displacement devices that have fixed-volume measurement compartments formed by a two-sided convoluted diaphragm. Remote reading is becoming more common and is most often done through an electronic pulse output assembly mounted on the meter. and data-logging devices. In most cases.000 (59. Another adCoffee urn. mobile systems.

The vents from individual regulators may not be combined. incorporating vent-limiting devices should be evaluated carefully for each specific project design to ensure that the proper safety measures have been accounted for and that local jurisdictional requirements have been met. The minimum flow rate of the gas to be metered Depending on the specific model. 100 to 285 psig • Turbine meters: 325. this regulator usually is installed outside. the following meter choices are typical: • Diaphragm meters: 10 to 1. upstream of the meter assembly.000 to 18. 100 psig or less • Diaphragm. For most projects. a project’s maximum flow rate may fit into the “typical” range indicated in a manufacturer’s product data listing for a diaphragm meter. a dedicated relief vent pipe will need to be connected at the regulator’s vent connection and routed to the exterior of the building per the local AHJ. Regardless. The line regulator is used to reduce supply line pressures. Range ability is the ratio of maximum flow rate to minimum flow rate that can be measured within the specified accuracy of the meter. specifically on equipment that may include a gas train. a turbine meter should be selected. a small rotary meter would be selected. backpressure regulator.000 cfh. Regulators with vent-limiting devices are in many cases allowed only within ventilated spaces to ensure that any gas escaping from the vent is dissipated safely.Chapter 7 — Fuel Gas Piping Systems 3.000 cfh. Figure 7-1 Altitude Correction Factor regulators are zero governor. PRESSURE-REGULATING VALVES A pressure regulator is a device used to reduce a variable high inlet pressure to a constant lower outlet pressure. 100 psig or less • Rotary or turbine meters: 50. Therefore. Ratings for these meter types may overlap with respect to capacities and pressures. Rotary meters can operate up to 285 psig. If installed inside a building. rotary. However. most diaphragm meters provide an accuracy of ±1 percent of reading with a range ability of more than 100:1. a vent to the outdoors is not required for regulators equipped with and labeled for utilization with an approved vent-limiting device installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. also referred to as gas-train vents. This overlap allows for versatility when selecting the correct meter for certain applications. For example. When bottled gas is used. 117 The Altitude Correction Factor (ACF) should be multiplied by the gas input at sea level to determine the corrected input.000 cfh. the tank can have as high as 150-psi (1. such as those issued by Industrial Risk Insurers and the American Gas Association. Sizing of the equipment is then performed utilizing this corrected input multiplied by the full load efficency. In this case. For example.000. When regulators are installed inside a building and require venting.000 to 325. An appliance regulator connects the supply to equipment at the point of use and may be provided by the equipment manufacturer. The regulator typically is located at the tank for this pressure reduction.034. as well as in other publications of industry standards. and a differential regulator. a meter with a maximum rating of 250 cfh will provide ±1 percent accuracy for flow rates from 2. If used.000 cfh to 50. these vents must be routed to the atmosphere. can be found in the latest editions of NFPA 54 and FM Global Loss Prevention Data Sheet 6-4: Oil.6-kPa) pressure to be reduced to the burner design pressure of 11 inches (279. . and turbine meters: 1. 285 to 1. but the pressure of the gas being metered may be more than 100 psig.440 psig Range ability is another consideration when selecting a gas meter for a given project. Types of appliance Gas Regulator Relief Vents Guidelines for the use of relief vents from pressure regulators.4 millimeters) of water column. diaphragm meters have pressure ratings up to 100 psig.000 cubic feet per hour (cfh).5 to 250 cfh.and Gas-fired Single-burner Boilers. An intermediate regulator located downstream of the meter assembly may be used to further reduce pressure from 2 to 5 psig (13 to 35 kPa) or to a pressure suitable for use by terminal equipment of approximately 7 inches (178 millimeters) of water column. and it is provided by the utility company. For applications more than 285 psig.

(Note: Natural gas is nominally rated at 1. Appliance Control Valves An appliance shutoff valve shall be installed at all gas appliances. Bunsen burner or countertop coffee maker) or where an appliance has an exhaust system associated with the appliance (e. Where an appliance has a very low rate of gas consumption (e. Interlocks and Solenoid Valves An automatic interlock or gas solenoid valve can be interconnected with the automatic fire extinguishing system when required to shut off the gas supply to all equipment in a kitchen when sprinklers discharge in the event of a fire. it is very important to verify the actual Btuh content or rating to be used.. . gas clothes dryer or range) and the room size and ventilation are adequate. a seismic shutoff valve is necessary to shut off the supply of gas if a seismic event is of sufficient magnitude to potentially rupture the gas supply pipe or separate the pipe from equipment. Refer to the “Laboratory Use” section further in this chapter for more information. where danger exists for equipment such as large boilers. To find the flow rate of the gas required. it is mentioned here for reference purposes due to the fact that the plumbing engineer may be required to provide design input with respect to venting even though not responsible for the actual design of these systems. appliance venting requirements also are stipulated in NFPA 54. the International Fuel Gas Code (IFGC). and forced combustion. may require specific venting consideration. Valves at flexible hose connections are to be installed prior to the flexible connection that is used to connect the appliance to the building gas supply. Table 7-3 shows the approximate gas consumption for some common appliances (listed in Btuh). windows.000 Btu per cubic feet for design purposes. APPLIANCES Most manufacturers of gas appliances rate their equipment with gas consumption values in British thermal units per hour (Btuh). local utility supplier requirements.. appliance. or boiler. It is not uncommon for a local fire department to be summoned to investigate an odor of gas caused by a gas-train vent discharge. high efficiency. such as a gas compressor. It generally is not the plumbing engineer’s responsibility to design and specify gas vents.118 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 It should be noted that when pressure regulators discharge (or the diaphragm in the regulator ruptures). Although not within the scope of this chapter. which is used in determining the maximum gas flow rate to be supplied to the appliance via the piping system. such as non-condensing. However. They should be located on a side of the building that is not protected from the wind. particularly in areas where earthquakes may occur. VENTING Integral to the design of any natural gas system are the venting and combustion air requirements required for appliances to operate properly and efficiently. Appliances are listed by types and categories that shall be used in the design of flue/vent systems. and local codes for the exact requirements for vent termination locations. This is done by either the HVAC engineer or the manufacturer. installation should be considered. Large appliances and equipment may require specially designed venting or exhaust systems. a separate gas vent system may not be required. The products of combustion from an appliance must be safely exhausted to the outside. water heater technologies that are currently available.) In earthquake-prone areas. which in turn should be coordinated with the HVAC engineer to ensure that all aspects of the venting design have been coordinated. always use the consumption data listed by the manufacturer and divide it by the Btu per cubic feet content of the gas as provided by the utility supplier. (Note: Laboratories may utilize similar automatic shutoff capabilities. This is accomplished with a gas vent system in most cases. However. Along with the requirements for natural gas systems. Every attempt should be made to locate the terminal point of the vents above the line of the roof and away from doors.) CONTROL VALVES Excess Flow Valves An excess flow valve is a device that shuts off the flow of gas if there is a much larger flow through the pipe or service than that for which it was designed.g.g. could produce a vacuum or dangerous vacuum condition in the piping system. In other cases. large amounts of fuel gas may be released. A low-pressure cutoff shall be installed between the meter and the appliance where the operation of a device. In some parts of the country. as well as the altitude/ elevation necessary for deration purposes for a specific project design. and any specific requirements dictated by the local gas supplier as applicable. These valves typically are provided by the fire suppression equipment contractor and installed by the plumbing or mechanical contractor. excess flow valves are necessary to guard against the possibility of a break during such an event. Refer to NFPA 54. Current practice usually dictates the use of factory-fabricated and listed vents for small to medium-size appliances. and fresh-air intakes.

• Category IV: Appliance operates with a positive vent static pressure and a flue gas temperature that may cause excessive condensation within the vent (positive pressure/ condensing). • Category III: Appliance operates with a positive vent static pressure and a flue gas temperature that avoids condensation (positive pressure/non-condensing). a greater pressure drop can be allowed in the piping system. however. and you should consult the local AHJ prior to sizing any system. However.000 Btuh. but in some cases it can be as much as 2 to 5 psi (13 to 35 kPa). a multi-regulator system is often the best option. Reasons for this involve distribution pipe size.2 and 0. Therefore. may require higher gas pressures to operate properly. If the greater pressure drop design can be used. be aware that large appliances. In a situation with an extreme distance between the meter and the appliance location. Under certain conditions.Chapter 7 — Fuel Gas Piping Systems For reference purposes. such as boilers. Most appliances require approximately 3. If a greater pressure at the meter outlet can be attained. at a delivery pressure of 7 to 11 inches (177.5 inch (5 to 13 millimeters) of water column. Where appliances require higher operating pressures and/or where long distribution lines are encountered. a more economical piping system is possible. it shall comply with the typical demand of the type of appliance as indicated in NFPA 54. a general description of venting categories is as follows: • Category I: Appliance operates with a negative vent static pressure and a flue gas temperature that avoids condensation (negative pressure/non-condensing). 119 neer the opportunity to take a greater pressure drop. a main distribution system regulator (located at the ALLOWABLE GAS PRESSURE The gas pressure in the piping system downstream of the meter is usually 5 to 14 inches (125 to 356 millimeters) of water column.000.4 millimeters) of water column likely would benefit from a multi-regulator system because one single regulator (set at 7 inches [177. engineering practice will limit the pressure losses due to friction in the piping system to a range between 0.8 millimeters] of water column and located at the gas meter) would require a fairly large distribution pipe for that distance at the appliance demand.8 to 279. and appliance Btuh demand. a 700-foot equivalent length of distribution piping from the meter to an appliance located at the far end of a building with a total load of more than 1. local codes may vary. • Category II: Appliance operates with a negative vent static pressure and a flue gas temperature that may cause excessive condensation within the vent (negative pressure/ condensing). For example.5 inches (89 millimeters) of water column. Where the rating of the appliance is not known. This scenario generally involves designing a system that utilizes multiple regulators. but all model codes allow the engi- Figure 7-2 Variations of a Basic Simplex Booster System: (Standby Generator Application with Accumulator Tank Having a Limitation on Maximum Pressure . it may be necessary to select a higher pressure at the meter outlet to accommodate the appliance requirements or allow for greater pressure losses in the piping system. length of run.

120 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 (B) (C) Figure 7-2 (cont. (C) Heat Exchanger Loop Example—Required for High Flow Range with Low Minimum Flow .) Variations of a Basic Simplex Booster System: (B) Dual Booster System for Critical Systems Like Those in Hospitals.

with respect to natural gas.6 millimeters) of water column. you should consult with a facility’s owners (and users) to help determine the proper diversities that could be implemented. . natural gas. Note that each type of facility contains its own unique operational characteristics and. These systems can be designed such that secondary regulators are located at the roof.Chapter 7 — Fuel Gas Piping Systems meter and set at 5 psig [34. However. to be provided with emergency gas shutoff valves located at the main supply piping to each laboratory. They should be located inside the laboratory and used in conjunction with shutoff valves at the benches or equipment (which may be required by other codes). Some additional issues need to be considered with respect to designing multi-regulator systems. liquefied petroleum gas (propane) is used. should not be assigned a ALTITUDE DERATING FACTOR Natural gas has a lower density at higher altitudes than at lower altitudes. or step-down. A keyed service switch integrated into the design of the utility controller restricts the ability to activate services by unauthorized persons. Also. Utility controllers and laboratory service panels are manufactured. You should ensure that locations meet local code requirements. thus utilizing a smaller pipe size than would be required for a low-pressure delivery at the same length of pipe. The maximum pressure at the burner should not exceed 14 inches (355. PIPING SYSTEM MATERIALS The International Fuel Gas Code (IFGC). regulator (located at the appliance) then would lower the gas supply pressure sufficient to supply the appliance. they shall be done so with careful judgment and sound engineering principles. Where most appliances are located within interior building spaces. and electrical outlets within science classrooms and instructional.30 cubic meters per hour) for larger burners.000 feet above sea level. 121 global or standard set of diversity guidelines typically seen in various charts and graphs for other services such as compressed air and vacuum. and standards published by NFPA (54 and 58) list the approved materials for use in natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas (propane) piping systems. This altitude correction factor shall be multiplied by the gas input ratings at sea level to determine the corrected input at full-load capacity. Where flow diversity factors are allowable for implementation. model plumbing codes. pre-assembled safety devices that regulate the control of various services and devices such as domestic water. Valves for these applications should be normally closed and opened only when the gas is being supplied. The secondary. which must be considered when a project location is more than 2. secondary regulators can be located in a manner in which they can supply several appliances within a specific zone or area. but this generally requires the manufacturer to be advised due to the Bunsen burner requiring a smaller orifice. Prior to the start of any system design. and medical facilities. resulting in a safe environment for students or other occupants. NFPA standards (45. Certain local jurisdictions may require laboratory natural gas systems.15 cubic meters per hour) for small burners or 10 cfh (0.47 kPa]) would be used to supply a higher system pressure to the appliance. Where natural gas is not available.30cubic-meters-per-hour) capacity is most commonly used for design purposes. and you need to address all possible scenarios to design the most efficient system and accommodate the owner’s requirements as much as possible. 72 and 101) also contain requirements regarding emergency and automatic shutoff of gas systems. Flow diversity can be applied (relative to determining system pipe sizes) where natural gas is supplied to Bunsen burners. based on the facility’s unique programming requirements and use by its occupants. especially those in schools or universities. based on each individual facility type and operational characteristics. Refer to Figure 7-1 to determine the derating factors for natural gas. there are tradeoffs for every given situation. LABORATORY USE Natural gas is the primary gas used in laboratories at lab benches and within fume hoods for Bunsen burners. although requiring more low-pressure gas supply piping downstream of the secondary regulator. They typically contain solid-state electronic controllers with relays that activate these services. Typical Bunsen burners consume either 5 cfh (0. eliminating the need for associated vent piping and providing easy access for maintenance or replacement. research. Other facilities may have a mix of both interior appliances and gas-fired rooftop equipment that is exposed to the outside. The 10-cfh (0. Utility controllers also typically are equipped with a panic button that would deactivate the gas service upon being pressed. The most commonly used materials for these systems (along with additional notes and cautionary statements) are listed below for reference purposes. Simply stated. secondary regulators need to be strategically located so they can be properly vented to the outdoors and be maintained efficiently. both the acceptance and methodology for determining flow diversities for this purpose must be obtained by the local AHJ or utility supplier prior to the design of any system. minimizing the number of secondary regulators needed for use.

3 grains of hydrogen sulfide per 100 SCF of gas (0. it should be noted that galvanized steel piping is not approved for use in many jurisdictions for natural gas service. Aluminum alloy tubing shall not be used in exterior locations or underground. Metallic Pipe Cast Iron Cast iron pipe shall not be used. Aluminum alloy tubing shall be coated to protect against external corrosion where it is in contact with masonry. Black and Hot-dipped. In general. but they shall not be used if the gas contains more than an average of 0. stainless steel pipe with an exterior polyethylene (PE) jacket. Galvanized steel pipe is covered with a protective coating of zinc that greatly reduces its tendency to corrode and extends its life expectancy. Copper tubing shall comply with standard Type K or Type L of ASTM B88: Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Water Tube or ASTM B280: Specification for Seamless Copper Tube for Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Field Service. The standard requires a contractor to be certified by the manufacturer before installing CSST. detergents. which is ASTM E84: Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials rated (smoke and fire rated 25/50) to be installed in a plenum. Aluminum Alloy Aluminum alloy pipe shall comply with ASTM B241: Specification for Aluminum-alloy Seamless Pipe and Seamless Extruded Tube (except that the use of alloy 5456 is prohibited) and shall be marked at each end of each length indicating compliance. detergent. However.26: Fuel Gas Piping Systems Using Corrugated Stainless Steel Tubing. It most often is installed in a central manifold configuration (also called parallel configuration) or extended from steel pipe mains with home run lines that extend to gas appliances (also called a hybrid system). Zinc-coated Welded and Seamless: Black or carbon steel piping is generally the most commonly selected steel pipe material for natural gas and propane piping systems. Flexible gas piping is lightweight and requires fewer connections than conventional gas piping because it can be bent easily and routed around obstacles. aluminum alloy. Threaded copper. Steel. CSST systems consist of a continuous. CSST systems can be used from a-inch up to 2-inch tube sizes.7 milligrams per 100 liters). but shall not be used with gases that are corrosive to such material. flexible. • ASTM A106: Standard Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High-temperature Service Copper and Brass Copper and brass pipe is approved for use. Copper and Brass Copper and brass tubing shall not be used if the gas contains more than an average of 0. Steel and Wrought Iron Steel and wrought-iron pipe shall be at least of standard weight (Schedule 40) and shall comply with one of the following standards: • ANSI/ASME B36. Aluminum alloy pipe shall not be used in exterior locations or underground. plaster. or insulation or is subject to repeated wettings by such liquids as water. it should not be used in natural gas systems because corrosivity levels in natural gas can vary over time and can cause the zinc to flake off and clog the system.10: Welded and Seamless Wrought-Steel Pipe • ASTM A53: Standard Specification for Pipe.3 grains of hydrogen sulfide per 100 standard cubic feet (SCF) of gas (0. or insulation or is subject to repeated wettings by such liquids as water. brass. Aluminum alloy pipe shall be coated to protect against external corrosion where it is in contact with masonry.122 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Steel Steel tubing shall comply with ASTM A254: Standard Specification for Copper-brazed Steel Tubing. Corrugated Stainless Steel Tubing Corrugated stainless steel tubing (CSST) shall be listed in accordance with ANSI LC 1/CSA 6. or steel tubing shall not be used with gases corrosive to such materials. . Metallic Tubing Seamless copper. CSST is approved by all national plumbing and gas codes. some local jurisdictions and authorities may restrict its use. However. or sewage. This can amount to a substantial reduction in labor costs as compared to a conventional rigid piping system installation. Aluminum Aluminum alloy tubing shall comply with ASTM B210: Standard Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-alloy Drawn Seamless Tubes or ASTM B 241. CSST piping systems can be a good choice for a retrofit or renovation project where existing conditions could render a rigid piping system installation very costly or disruptive to existing building occupants. or aluminum alloy pipe is approved for use. The piping is produced in coils that are air-tested for leaks. or sewage. plaster. As an alternative to the installation of rigid steel or copper piping systems.7 milligrams per 100 liters).

52) 7. tubing.50 (1. Consequently. and installing CSST.96) 18. it would be prudent to stay the course for that project.83) 7.98) 9.00 (2. ft (m) 1.66) 15.50 (1.0 (7.0 (5.74) 12. By using the chosen manufacturer’s design and installation guide.49) 24.2) 4 (101.66) 17.52) 6.00 (0.0 (3.8) 2½ (63.00 (0.0 (5.15) 0.29) 9.00 (1.14) 28.00 (0.50 (0.83) 11.37) 6. Given the different flow characteristics between CSST and rigid pipe systems.0 (3. sizing.6) 5 (127) 6 (152. as with all natural gas and propane systems.02) Gas cock (approx.50 (2.07) 4.53) 37. in.68) 6.00 (1.0 (14.46) 2.74) 12.57) 0.00 (0. but due to the flexible nature of this system. Although you can design a CSST system the same way you design a rigid system.32) 30. it’s important to follow the strict guidelines set forth in the ANSI standard for safe routing and strike protection.75 (0. it’s important to understand that you cannot size CSST the same way you size rigid pipe systems.50 (1.50 (1. once a CSST manufacturer is chosen either by the contractor or engineer.07) 4.35) 13.91) 4.13) 2.1) 2 (50. it is not the most efficient way to use this material. (mm) Fitting 90° elbow Tee (run) Tee (branch) ¾ (19.2) Equivalent Lengths.3) 2. Figure 7-3 Gas Demand for Multiple-unit Dwellings with More than 50 Apartments .) 4. Tubing.0 (9.5) 3 (76.76) 3.91) 3.50 (1.00 (2.0 (4.4) 1½ (38.0 (3.3) 1.0 (6.37) 5.50 (0.00 (1.0 (11.0 (8. Installation. It’s necessary to understand that the CSST industry is very proprietary.00 (1.” Table 7-4 Equivalent Lengths for Various Valve and Fitting Sizes Pipe Size. should be done with care.50 (0.28) 46.Chapter 7 — Fuel Gas Piping Systems Precautions are necessary when designing.76) 3. and fittings used to supply fuel gas shall conform to ASTM D2513: Standard Specification for Thermoplastic Gas Pressure Pipe.22) 5.0 (3.00 (1.22) 5. since the various patterns of gas cocks can vary greatly.23) 1. Pipe to be used shall be marked “gas” and “ASTM D2513.00 (0.00 (2.50 (1. and Fittings.18) 20.00 (0.4) 8 (203.1) 1 (25. you will be able to size the system properly. which 123 will include sizing criteria.1) Note: The pressure drop through valves should be taken from manufacturers’ published data rather than using the equivalent lengths.61) 2. and all manufacturers have configured their systems differently.00 (1.50 (0. Plastic Pipe and Tubing Plastic pipe.61) 3.

or welded. A shutoff valve or listed quick-disconnect device must be installed where the connector is attached to the supply piping. Where nonferrous pipe such as copper or brass is brazed. Threaded connections are most commonly used for piping up to 3 inches.27: Connectors for Outdoor Gas Appliances and Manufactured Homes.8 meters). The connector must Figure 7-4 Gas Demand for Multiple-unit Dwellings with Less than 50 Apartments . Fittings and Joints Steel pipe joints shall be threaded. Always verify the exact requirements with the local AHJ.000°F (538°C). flanged. PE pipe installations typically require warning tape and/or tracer wire to be installed above the installed pipe for locating purposes and to protect the pipe from damage from digging equipment. A shutoff valve must be installed where the connector is attached to the building piping. In some jurisdictions the size of the piping determines whether the piping is required to be welded and.000°F (538°C). Welded or flanged joints become more practical above this size range as it is difficult to maneuver assembled sections of large screwed piping due to weight and space constraints. The connector shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions and shall be located in the same room as the connected appliance. Only one connector shall be used per appliance. In addition. Indoor gas hose connectors may be used with laboratory. ceilings. (Brazing alloys shall not contain more than 0. Tubing joints shall be made with approved gas tubing fittings. Outdoor hose connectors shall be a listed connector in compliance with ANSI Z21. The connector must be of minimal length.05 percent phosphorus. They may be used to connect portable outdoor gas-fired appliances if the hose connections and appliances are listed for such applications. shop. or made by press-connect fittings complying with ANSI/CSA LC4: Press-Connect Copper and Copper Alloy Fittings for Use in Fuel Gas Distribution Systems.124 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 not be concealed.05 percent phosphorus. but shall not exceed 6 feet (1. brazed.24/CSA 6. brazed with a material having a melting point in excess of 1. Only one connector shall be used per appliance. Non-stationary (mobile) commercial cooking appliances and other types of appliances that may be moved for cleaning and sanitation purposes shall be connected in accordance with the connector manufacturer’s installation instructions using a listed appliance connector complying with ANSI Z21. and must not pass through wall partitions. in some cases.10: Connectors for Gas Appliances. This connection must be made only in the outdoor area where the appliance is to be used. with piping installed in such a manner as to prevent the accumulation of water or foreign material. x-rayed at the welding points.) Flexible Hose Connections Indoor hose connectors shall be a listed connector in compliance with ANSI Z21. Brazing alloys shall not contain more than 0. Steel pipe and fittings 4 inches (100 millimeters) and larger shall be welded.16: Connectors for Movable Gas Appliances. the brazing materials shall have a melting point in excess of 1. must not extend from one room to another.69/CSA 6. or floors. and food service equipment.75/CSA 6. Movement Polyethylene plastic pipe may be used outside for underground installations only.

approximately 5 psi (34.000 cfh (283. Casings on standard boosters usually are constructed of carbon steel. The set point is usually about 3 inches (76 millimeters) of water column. unless the booster system is to be located in a hazardous area. The discharge pressure is the sum of the incoming gas pressure and the booster-added pressure at the selected flow rate. The booster can be equipped with an optional high/low gas pressure switch. Minimum Gas Flow Gas boosters normally require a minimum gas flow that serves as an internal cooling medium. which may have additional requirements. Inlet and outlet connections are threaded or flanged. This allows for a UL listing of the entire package. it deenergizes the motor control circuit and simultaneously initiates both audible and visual signals. may be 2. which require manual resetting. Therefore. rather than of individual components. It is important that all valves used are listed and approved for use on gas piping systems. This feature allows the booster to run only when adequate supply pressure is available. a booster sized at a flow rate of 10. Intrinsic Safety Electrical connections are made through a sealed. Group D classification with thermal overload protection. The switch shuts down the booster when it reaches the maximum discharge set-point pressure at the output line pressure.000 cfh (566. Additional consideration should be exercised where installations are located in regions prone to lightning. Installation of gas boosters must be closely coordinated with the utility company or gas supplier. When the switch opens. depending on the pipe connection size and manufacturer selected. The switch is designed to shut down the booster should the utilitysupplied pressure fall below a preset limit.5 kPa). Grounding Bonding and electrical grounding of all natural gas piping systems are required by NFPA 70: National Electrical Code and the International Fuel Gas Code. It is important to note that the gas service must be capable of the volumetric flow rate required at the boosted pressure level. Drive impellers are contained within the casing and always manufactured of a spark-resistant material such as aluminum.Chapter 7 — Fuel Gas Piping Systems of appliances with casters (in all cases) shall be limited by a restraining device installed in accordance with the connector and appliance manufacturers’ installation instructions to prevent damage if the appliance should move while the gas supply is connected. and the casings are leak-tight. Discharge check valves are furnished at the booster inlet and at the booster bypass. Other Electrical Ancillary Equipment Boosters are equipped with low-pressure switches that monitor the incoming gas pressure.2 cubic meters per hour) has an inherent minimum turndown based on the minimum flow required to cool the unit. It is used when the gas utility does not provide adequate pressure.000 cfh. The outlet pressure usually remains at a constant differential above the supply pressure within a reasonable range. Division 1. 125 skid-mounted package at the discretion of the designer. The heat exchangers normally rated for this use are water cooled. sealed inlet is necessary for wiring connections. A gas booster cannot supplement quantity where an inadequate volumetric supply of gas may exist. Electrical Components Motor housings for gas booster systems are designed for explosion-proof (XP) construction and are rated per National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) Class 1. A factory UL-listed junction box with a protected. The fan. Electrical bonding is required to prevent damage that could occur during an electrical storm. The incoming gas pressure typically has an upper safety limit as stipulated by the hermetic gas booster manufacturer. and inter-electrical connections can be specified as a . For example. piping. additional supplemental cooling systems must be incorporated within the gas booster design. valves. Gas boosters for natural gas are hermetically sealed and are equipped to deliver a specific volumetric flow rate (within the booster’s rated capacity) to an increased gas pressure beyond the supply pressure. for the booster in this example sized at 10. explosion-proof conduit to the XP junction box on the booster unit. The panel (as an assembly) must display a UL label specific for its intended use.3 cubic meters per hour). but they also are available in stainless steel and aluminum. Control panels are rated NEMA 4 for outdoor use and NEMA 12 for indoor use. but you should verify the limit with the local gas supplier. This rate. Materials and Construction Housing and Rotor Boosters used for fuel gas must be Underwriters Laboratories (UL) listed for the specific duty intended and shall be hermetically sealed. NATURAL GAS BOOSTERS A gas booster is a mechanical device that increases natural gas pressure. The switch must be UL listed for use with the gas service supplied. control panel. Should the unit be required to run below this turndown rate. you may encounter cautions or warnings about the upper limits of incoming pressure.

067 2.360 1. not an actual cfh (acfh) rating.060 1.30 0.090 1.867 1. which can readily be converted to cfh.50 0.962 1.740 1. outdoor location: This may be driven by the local code or the end user.026 17.740 4.980 1.633 0.70 0.700 1.817 1.030 195 400 600 1.040 1.10 0.680 2.580 5.120 109 224 336 648 1.050 3.790 2.400 131 269 403 777 1. its rising is dependent on this stack effect.780 2.895 1. the previously mentioned gas laws are affected by temperature.640 6.622 1 ⁄4 0.45 1.85 0. 1 11⁄4 11⁄2 2 21⁄2 1. ft 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 125 150 175 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 ⁄2 0.500 1. Outdoor locations are inherently safer. which is directly related to the piping system layout. if the gas system supplies a kitchen on the first level and a boiler in a penthouse of a 50-story building.50 1.380 2.680 2.660 8.860 353 726 1. Therefore.565 0.910 1. in the event the gas is to be heated or cooled. An indoor location involves a lower initial cost and lower costs for long-term maintenance. The temperature of the gas is usually constant.00 0. psi or inches of water column (kPa or millimeters of water column) V = Volume.20 0.340 284 583 873 1.290 215 442 662 1.80 0.170 1. the pressure multiplied by the volume is proportional to a constant R.240 119 244 366 704 1.80 0. In the booster application. However.100 0.049 1.577 0.250 1. That is: Equation 7-2 P1V1 = P2V2 where P1 = Pressure at a point prior to the booster P2 = Pressure at a point after the booster Table 7-5 Pipe Sizing for Pressure Less than 2 psi (14 kPa) and Loss of 0.5 mm) of Water Column Nominal Actual ID Length.820 1. • Indoor vs.3 inch (7.612 0.720 3.60 0.030 102 209 313 602 960 90 185 277 534 851 82 168 251 484 771 75 154 231 445 709 70 143 215 414 660 66 135 202 389 619 62 127 191 367 585 59 121 181 349 556 56 115 173 333 530 54 110 165 318 508 3 3. The standard law for compressed gas relationships is as follows: Equation 7-1 PV = RT where P = Pressure.470 2.460 4.068 8.000 2.230 2.040 4.594 0. Therefore. it may be necessary to boost the supply pressure to the kitchen but not to the boiler.824 3 131 90 72 62 55 50 46 42 40 38 33 30 28 26 23 21 19 18 17 16 15 14 14 273 188 151 129 114 104 95 89 83 79 70 63 58 54 48 43 40 37 35 33 31 30 29 Pipe Size.090 2.380 1.469 Capacity in Cubic Feet of Gas per Hour 514 1.841 1.580 157 322 482 928 1. but usually do not affect the relationship since the same mixture is boosted across the fan.775 1.00 0.35 1.330 6.10 0.926 1.000 9.547 0.610 2. Further.160 1. sizing criteria should be approached from a standard cfh (scfh) rating.280 2. .190 1.270 7.330 5.060 1.500 12.55 1.000 1.610 2.000 1.75 0. Gas rises to the penthouse through the piping system because of the density differential. Gas density changes affect the constant.590 3. High-rise Building Issues Consideration must be given to the rise effect in available gas pressure as gas rises within the piping located in a high-rise building.40 1.440 2.310 0. in.90 0.580 3.655 0. the volumetric rating of gas-fired equipment is listed in Btuh.830 Table 7-6 Specific Gravity Multipliers Specific Capacity Specific Capacity Specific Capacity Gravity Multiplier Gravity Multiplier Gravity Multiplier 0.680 243 499 747 1.090 3. °F (°C) Design Considerations Although a gas booster is a basic piece of mechanical equipment.460 3.050 3.707 2.840 179 368 552 1.680 5.030 982 937 897 4 4.60 1.050 4.65 0. significant design considerations should be taken into account when considering its use.230 0.900 4.560 2.110 5.110 2. Gas Laws for Boosters The gas laws apply to the relationship of the incoming gas supply and the boosted service.160 0. cfh (cubic meters per hour) R = Constant for the gas/air mixture used T = Temperature.070 2.480 148 304 455 877 1.260 3.90 0.40 0.690 167 343 514 989 1.535 In most cases.70 0. the pressure/volume ratios before and after the booster are proportional.126 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Usually the temperature of the gas remains relatively constant and can be ignored in the relationship.

0.0181 0. but the unit should not be so accessible as to creSizing a Gas Booster ate a security issue. the second is started au14.007 0.72 2.128 0.0289 0.2 Provide adequate volume so the 0.15 0.067 1.00 16. For example. This flow is not always associated with the the application should be controlled and smallest Btuh-rated piece of equipment.5 5.614 9.5 changer loop shown in Figure 7-2(C) 0.2 2.0072 0.00 0.221 0.0253 0.520 13.0 0. the larger Btuh.0 1. what demands the application will put on when evaluating a 75.7 to share the duty and to keep both 0.7 2.7 has a potential of up to 15 psi (103.0 0.07 0.037 0.60 18.17 0.2 In Figure 7-2(B).181 2.0217 0.22 0. smaller flow of 0.0 0.0325 0.0 0. While these illustrations obviously do not cover all the potential applications.0 0.0 be substituted for the tank itself.5 standby power back to the booster 11. which indicate variations of a basic simTurndown Ratio plex booster system for an emergency generator.650 10.404 system.7 3.04 27.442 0.361 5.2 4.36 0.77 0. Water Mercury Pounds Ounces Water Mercury Pounds Ounces kP kP Oversized piping (in this case) could 0.47 0.100 0. Unit operation is rotated 0. When specifying a booster.00 0.0 4.100 1.2 20.147 0.00 1.000.109 1.25 1.074 0. algas loads at the maximum capacity rating (MCR) for ways indicate the minimum flow required in all equipment downstream of the booster that could addition to other design parameters. they are provided to • Access: The location should be accessible for give the system designer some guidance. a dual booster 0.(watt-) rated boiler has the will vary based on the application.19 0. or low-fire. Keep the equipment out A gas booster’s main purpose is to increase the presof traffic patterns and protect it from heavy sure of a volume of gas to overcome a supply pressure equipment.05 0.515 0. the booster is controlled in a 0.505 8.049 0. 0.10 0.7 6.325 5.74 0.2 watt) at its minimum For some specific examples.4 1.2 5. input.144 2.10 0.066 0.00 0.12 0.00 0.31 kPa) and down to 28 inches (711.0 0. see the schematics in firing rate. an engineer needs • Minimum and maximum flow rates: Boostto understand the following terms and issues.60 0.50 3.0 millimeters) of water column supply 1. 0.289 4.00 16.00 0.90 0.9 diverts gas around the booster if suf27.9 4.491 7. When sizing a booster.75 Btuh (0.015 0.294 0.0 1.397 6.4 1.002 0.4 4.0 units in operating order.722 11.785 15. For delivered pressure.9 1.00 3.34 2.469 7.044 0.686 10.0036 0. Figure 7-2. The control philosophy.70 0. volumetric flow that could exist while the booster is • Controls and interlocking: Determine how operating.072 1.6 1.036 0.0 0.029 0.Chapter 7 — Fuel Gas Piping Systems Table 7-7 Conversion of Gas Pressure to Various Designations 127 pressure switch on the tank cycles the booster to ensure emergency Equivalent Pressure per Equivalent Pressure per inches square inch inches square inch startup pressure for the generator.7 pressure. devices and bypass loops may be required if the application requires a turndown in flow Minimum Design Flow (lowest flow expected) that is higher than the The minimum design flow (Qmin) is the minimum boosters’ minimum flow rate.25 0. method boiler with a 10:1 turndown ratio in comparison to a of electrically interlocking the system to the 1-Btuh (0.0577 8.18 0.4 booster fail.15 17.0 0.577 automatically via the control panel 0.059 0.368 0.40 0.2 The booster with a heat ex0.433 3. and a combination high/low . and physical hardware operation.86 3. the regulator controls the maximum to the equipment’s minimum.462 13.3 1. installation.231 10.3-watt) hot water heater that is on/off in gas-fired equipment.051 0.96 0.62 2.0 1.0 main power interrupt.4 6. Should one 0.81 0.0 1.022 0.84 0.346 13.578 9.5 6.76 3.500 8.115 9.01 0.77 2.0108 0. In The turndown ratio (TD) is the ratio of the MCR input Figure 7-2(A).46 25.903 14.0 6.0 0.73 19.662 0.33 0. deficiency.20 2.88 0.2 1.173 generator can activate and deliver 0.37 lead/lag control scenario.40 0.50 0.000-Btuh (22-megawatt) the system.5 2.588 0.30 0.0 1.253 4. Cooling possibly be required to operate simultaneously.5 tomatically.06 0. The system automatically 1. and maintenance.217 3.7 7.89 0.08 3.03 ficient supply pressure is available. ers typically have a minimum flow rate that Maximum Design Flow must be maintained so the booster’s motor The maximum design flow (Qmax) is the sum of all remains cool.74 0.8 4.0145 0.239 12.0 1.02 0.542 8. inspection.7 system to continue operation during 0.0 1.203 0.80 0.20 0.0 1.975 15.

Pressure Droop and Peak Consumption Pressure droop is the inability of a supply system to maintain a steady or consistent inlet pressure as an increase in volumetric flow is demanded. conditions. Typically. the maximum inlet pressure (PI-max) must be determined. Often. Pressure required at the equipment and or appliance . Test Block The test block is a factor of safety added to the design criteria. Define piping pressure losses (PPL in psi [kPa]) from the gas booster location to each piece of equipment.2 – 203. Allowable friction loss through the piping system 4.2 = 254 millimeters] of water column) unless other means of protecting the downstream equipment are provided. Maximum Outlet Pressure The maximum outlet pressure (PO-max) includes all maximum and required supply pressures for the various pieces of equipment being supplied with gas from the booster. Most often.128 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 (e. a bypass system or other means of protection is required. 6. 4. Establish the design Qmin and Qmax per the previously discussed definitions while evaluating TD requirements. Gas pressure available after the meter assembly 3. Test the block pressure boost: 1. Also.05 x Qmax). a minimum 5 percent added volume and 10 percent added static pressure should be applied to the design criteria. To perform an evaluation of system requirements. Determine the differential between the highest expected gas pressure supply to the booster INTERIOR NATURAL GAS PIPE SIzING Data to Be Obtained To accurately size all elements of the piping system.. ensure that you note both the design and test block conditions.. When specifying the equipment. The booster’s pressure gain should not exceed this differential (for the above example. example. It may be possible to exceed this rating during off-peak demand periods. Outlet Pressure Protection Several methods to protect equipment downstream of a booster are available if over-pressurization during off-peak periods occurs. 7. Establish PI-min and PI-max per the previously discussed definitions. not static. the supply system no longer can provide the gas efficiently.10 x DP = PI-eq + PPL – PI-min. and the pressure falls off. If this is the case. A booster is typically rated to about 5 psi (34.2 millimeters] of water column) and the lowest maximum supply pressure rating to a piece of equipment (e.9 watts) has a TD ratio of 5:1.5 kPa). Determine the design pressure boost (DP): PI-eq + PPL – PI-min. Information needed by both the utility company and the engineer 2. do the three boilers always operate in unison while another process machine always operates off peak and alone? Relationships among the equipment can significantly affect both maximum and minimum flow rates. If the equipment being serviced operates at various inlet pressures. a 100-Btuh (29. install a regulator on the inlet or outlet of the booster to maintain a controlled maximum outlet pressure. Calculate the test block flow (QTB): (1. Determine the design flow rate (QD): Qmin to Qmax in cfh (cubic meters per hour). review the equipment regulator’s maximum inlet pressure. therefore.05 x Qmin) to (1. It is also important to know how high the inlet pressure is expected to rise during off-peak periods. 18 – 8 = 10 inches [457. Often this pressure can be specified by the local gas company as the minimum guaranteed gas pressure from their supply system. 8 inches [203. This ensures that safety factors are not applied to criteria that already include safety factors. in areas where boosters are applied. it may be best to supply a regulator for each piece of equipment.g.3-watt) burner that can fire at a minimum rate of 20 Btuh (5. Define the maximum inlet pressure requirements to the equipment (PI-eq). Minimum and Maximum Inlet Pressure The minimum inlet pressure (PI-min) is the minimum supply pressure in inches (millimeters) of water column gauge. As the local demand for gas increases. calculate or obtain the following information: 1. 18 inches [457. Always evaluate during flow. the following procedure is suggested: 1. It is the booster’s function to overcome the droop (or excessive pressure drop) of the supply system during such times. 3.2 millimeters] of water column). or droops. 5.g. Flow Rate Relationships It is important that the flows for the separate pieces of equipment relate to each other. 8. the supply pressure in off-peak months when gas is not in such demand can be sufficient to run a system. If all the equipment being serviced operates at nominally the same pressure. In other words. 2. packaged equipment is supplied with its own regulator. This must be evaluated during peak flow demands for both the equipment and the local area.

Allowable Friction Loss Through the Piping This shall be established by the engineer and shall be determined by the following criteria: • Pressure provide by the utility company (from 5 inches (125 millimeters) of water column to 5 psi (34. The maximum demand 7. The utility will use its own diversity factor to calculate the size of the service line.5 psi (24. This conceivably could be from 0. the following information must be provided to them: • Total connected load. It is common practice to omit the vertical length because natural gas is lighter than air. The increase in pressure due to the height will offset any friction loss in the piping. in the form of a marked-up plan or description of the work. including the expected date of installation if no gas is available • Acceptable location of the meter and/or regulator assembly or a request to locate the meter at a particular location • Any work required by the owner/contractor to allow the meter assembly to be installed (such as a meter pit or slab on grade) • Types of gas service available and the cost of each For the utility company to provide this data.to high-pressure systems) Piping Layout The equivalent length of piping is necessary to indicate the layout of the entire piping system and all connected appliances and equipment. For the design of the project’s interior piping.6 meters) of elevation as the gas rises. and the pressure requirements and flow rates for each piece of equipment must be provided to the utility. For example. Refer to Table 7-4 for the equivalent amount of pipe length to be added for various valves and fittings.6 millimeters) of water column to 6 inches (152.5 kPa) • Required pressure at the equipment and or appliance (typically a minimum 3. allowing determination of the measured length of piping to the furthest connection 6. • Minimum pressure requirements for the most demanding equipment • A site plan indicating the location of the proposed building orientation on the site and the specific area of the building where the proposed natural gas service will enter the building • Preferred location of the meter/regulator assembly • Expected date for the start of construction • All specific requirements for pressure • Two site plans. The following criteria and information shall be obtained in writing from the public utility company and provided to the engineer: • Actual Btu content of the gas provided • Minimum pressure of the gas at the outlet of the meter • Extent of the installation work done by the utility company and the point of connection to the meter by the facility construction contractor • The location of the utility supply main and the proposed run of pipe on the site by the utility company. the engineer can determine the allowable pressure drop for a particular system. if a high-rise building contained 100 feet of equivalent . All gas–fired equipment and devices proposed for use on the project are to be submitted. you must tabulate the fittings and valves and add those to the measured length. the design engineer will select the diversity factor involved (as allowable by the governing code and/or local jurisdiction).1 kPa) for medium. A piping layout that indicates all connected equipment.4 millimeters) of water column for each 15 feet (4. It expands at the rate of 1 inch (25. If a very accurate determination of the equivalent length is required.3 inch (7. one to be marked up and returned to the engineer • The hours of operation for the different types of equipment • A list of all future or anticipated equipment and capacities Pressure Available After the Meter This shall be established in writing from the utility at the start of the project. Not all items will be necessary for all projects. A pipe sizing method acceptable to the AHJ or local code Information Needed by the Utility Company and the Engineer The following are intended to be complete lists of items.5 inches (89 millimeters) of water column for residential appliances and as much as 11 inches (280 millimeters) of water column for some rooftop equipment) • Allowable pressure drop either by code or the AHJ After receiving the necessary criteria. The equivalent length of piping is calculated by measuring the actual length of the proposed piping from the meter to the furthest connection and then adding 50 percent (for fittings) of the measured length to obtain the total equivalent length.5.4 millimeters) of water column (for a low-pressure system) and from 1 psi (7 kPa) to 3.

use no diversity factor for individual classrooms.horizontal pipe length and 200 feet of equivalent vertical pipe length.3 kPa) is the Spitzglass formula. Use no diversity factor for groups of classrooms if information on the proposed use is not conclusive or available from the owner. The methods used for sizing natural gas piping systems are as follows. allowing for future reconfiguration of the piping system without replacing entire branch lengths. This method is the simplest to use. These direct reading tables give flow rate use by using the number of apartments. which then is used in conjunction with the pipe sizing tables to determine the appropriate pipe diameter for all other sections of piping in the system. refer to Table 7-3. and a specific gravity of 0. The pipe size of each section of the longest pipe length (from the meter or delivery point to the farthest outlet) shall be determined using the longest equivalent length of piping and the associated cfh quantity listed in the tables for that section. pipe size. In addition.60. and length of piping. The pipe size from the pressure regulator to each outlet shall be determined using the length of piping from the regulator to the most remote outlet served by that regulator. Then. pressure drop through the piping system. . These formulae are referenced in numerous model codes as well as NFPA 54. The most commonly referenced formula for gas pressures below 1½ psi (10. Figure 7-3 (large multiple-unit residential projects) and Figure 7-4 (small multiple-unit residential projects) give a direct reading of the usage in cfh (cubic meters per hour). even though the actual equivalent pipe length in this example is 300 feet. the pipe sizes of each section of branch piping not previously sized shall be determined using the equivalent lengths of piping from the point of delivery to the most remote outlet of each individual branch and the associated cfh quantity listed for that particular section. and it generally yields the most conservative sizing because the short runs of piping located close to the meter can be somewhat oversized. The table Natural Gas Pipe Sizing Methods A number of formulae can be used to calculate the capacity of natural gas piping based on such variables as delivery pressure. Using these formulae for sizing can be very tedious and time consuming. However. For industrial use. In simple terms. only the cfh quantities listed in the tables for this pipe length are used to size each and every branch and section of pipe. The Plumbing Engineering and Design Handbook of Tables. Hybrid Pressure Method This method is used when it is necessary to design a piping system that utilizes multiple supply pressures within a single distribution system.3 kPa) and above is the Weymouth formula. For residential use. These tables are regarded as the most conservative method for sizing natural gas piping systems and should be referenced specifically for each project as dictated by the governing code. Branch Length Method This is an alternate sizing method that could permit slightly smaller pipe diameters in some segments of a piping system when compared with the longest length method. they were used as a basis for the sizing tables that are included in the model codes and NFPA standards. With this method. and popular spreadsheet programs currently available on the market also can be used. Maximum Demand The maximum demand is calculated by the engineer with input from the owner if necessary. One advantage to using this method is that it can provide some cushion in the branch piping. including natural gas and liquified petroleum gas (propane) systems. Sizing Tables Table 7-5 is based on Schedule 40 steel pipe. The friction loss allowable is indicated. For schools. contains pipe sizing tables for many systems. only the horizontal portion of piping (100 feet) would be considered for establishing the total equivalent length of pipe for design purposes. and low-pressure gas tables (7 to 11 inches of water column) are used to size the piping downstream of each pressure regulator. Another commonly referenced equation for pressures of 1½ psi (10. so they are rarely used. These tables contain sizing information for most of the commonly used piping materials including pipe sizes at various pressures and cfh requirements. a diversity factor generally is not used due to the possibility of simultaneous use by all connected equipment. pipe material. medium-pressure gas tables (up to 5 psig) are used to size the piping upstream of the pressure regulators. published by the American Society of Plumbing Engineers. The pipe size for each section of high-pressure gas piping shall be determined using the longest equivalent length of piping from the meter or delivery point to the farthest pressure regulator. proprietary tables and calculators are available from various organizations. For a listing of input requirements for common appliances. Longest Length Method This is the traditional method used to determine the longest equivalent piping length (from the meter or delivery point to the farthest outlet). cubic feet per hour of gas.

S. choose the figure closest to or greater than the calculated demand and select the associated pipe size. This very closely approximates the friction loss in the piping. there are no long-term effects of ignited propane that can be damaging to the environment. 5. a principal use is for heating in industrial projects. LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS Liquefied petroleum gas (propane) is a refined natural gas developed mainly for use beyond the utility’s gas mains. find the associated pipe size. including for automotive purposes. It will not cause harm to drinking water supplies. Starting at the most remote outlet. refer to Table 7-7. (For natural gas. (In Table 7-6.53 Propane Storage Tanks Propane storage tanks typically are provided by the vendor for the customer and are subject to the regula- . 100 percent propane has a specific gravity of 1.30) for ease of burning and ignition. determine the cumulative gas demand supplied by that section. For this reason. interruptible rate for heating purposes. • Propane vapor will not cause air pollution. Environmental Effects of Propane From an environmental standpoint. It is not a substitute for natural gas. 4. • Propane vapor is not harmful if accidentally inhaled by animals or people. To convert gas pressure to various designations. Propane is listed as an approved clean fuel by U. If the exact figure is not shown. 131 and a nominal rating of 2. it is the only row to use throughout the sizing process for all individual branches and cumulative sections of pipe. Add a fitting allowance of 50 percent of the measured length. Unlike natural gas. The exact blend is controlled by the liquefied petroleum gas distributor to match the climatic conditions of the area served. In addition. with traces of other hydrocarbons remaining from the production method. 3.) 2. Following are some environmental facts about propane: • Propane is not considered a greenhouse gas. • Propane is not damaging to freshwater or saltwater ecosystems or underwater plant or marine life. It is primarily a blend of propane and butane. Propane engine exhaust is clean and continues to power forklifts operated inside warehouses throughout the world.500 Btu per cubic foot (93 megajoules per cubic meter). the entire 600-foot row has been highlighted as an example. experience has shown that the mixing with air should produce a gas with the heating value of 1. Even then. obtain that figure from Table 7-6 and use this as a multiplier for the specific gas selected. Propane liquid and vapor are both environmentally sound and friendly in their unused states (prior to combustion) if released. When used for this purpose. the vertical portion of piping is not considered due to the pressure gained as gas rises. find in the table the calculated gas demand for that design point. Easy storage for relatively large quantities of energy has led to widespread acceptance and use of liquefied petroleum gas in all areas previously served by utilities providing natural gas to users. Use the columns in conjunction with the row previously selected to locate all gas demand figures for this particular system. energy policymakers and energy administrative bodies. the following steps should be used: 1. There are no long-term effects following a propane spill. To determine the size of each section of pipe in a gas supply system using the gas pipe sizing table. propane is nontoxic and non-caustic and will not create an environmental hazard if released as a liquid or vapor into water or soil. you must confirm the heating value of the supplied gas. even in large quantities. • Propane will cause bodily harm only if the liquid comes in contact with skin (boiling point -44°F). but it has proven to be competitive in areas not covered by mains in rural areas. but it provides an alternative energy source when owners want to use a low. • Propane is not harmful to soil if spilled on the ground. If the gas used for the system has a different specific gravity than natural gas. Measure the length of the pipe from the gas meter location to the most remote outlet on the system. using the longest length method of pipe sizing. With the demand figure (and corresponding length) selected. For each section of pipe. the only environmental damage that may occur is the freezing of any organism or plant life in the immediate area.) Once chosen. Select the row showing the distance that is equal to or greater than the equivalent length calculated.500 Btu per cubic foot (a specific gravity of 1. If spilled in large quantities. This represents the total equivalent length of pipe. Potential damage and danger occur only if the vapor is ignited following a spill. Use Table 7-6 for the factor to be used for sizing. Proceed for each design point and each branch of pipe. and it is not considered air pollution.Chapter 7 — Fuel Gas Piping Systems has been provided as a supplement to the pipe sizing methods indicated.

In addition. but they do not reduce variable tank pressures to appliancelevel pressure. A propane regulator must be covered and protected or pointed vertically down. The purpose of the regulator is to reduce the propane gas down to safe and usable system pressures. However. regardless of their size. It is not un- . Types of regulators include the following: • High-pressure regulators are propane liquid or vapor service regulators designed to reduce the pressure from the tank to a lower pressure in excess of 1 psig. Regulators generally are found under the tank dome (located on top of the storage tank). the higher the vaporization rate of the tank.S. the vent should have a screen that keeps insects out of the regulator. store liquefied petroleum gas in liquid form until it is used as either a liquid or vapor. Propane tanks are considered either portable or stationary. into the liquid. If the liquid in the tank receives heat for vaporization from the outside air. Tank manufacturers are required to adhere to ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) regulations for construction of propane pressure vessels intended for use within the United States. known as bottles or cylinders. while lighter colors reflect it. Consequently. These regulators often are used in combination with a second-stage regulator in a two-stage regulator system. through the metal surface of the tank. Tanks that are rusted often need to be sanded or scraped with a wire brush before they can be repainted. Dark colors absorb heat. rust is color and will contribute to the absorption of heat. If located outside the tank dome. the higher the outside air temperature. as well as NFPA standards. a second-stage regulator must be installed downstream (usually at the building entrance). However. (The area of the tank in contact with the vapor is not considered because the heat absorbed by the vapor is negligible. If a first-stage regulator is used in a propane piping system. A first-stage regulator cannot be installed independently in a propane piping system (reference NFPA 58: Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code). The heat lost due to the vaporization of the liquid is replaced by the heat in the air surrounding the tank. They simply lower the tank pressure before it enters the gas service line. • Tank color: All propane tanks are required to be painted a reflective color. and the outside air temperature is low. Also. and debris from entering the regulator. The required latent heat of vaporization is given up by the liquid and causes the liquid temperature to drop as a result of the expended heat. Propane tanks can be filled to only approximately 80 percent of total tank capacity and are for storing propane only. are used as a fuel source for items such as gas grills and forklifts. Basic Propane Tank Function The withdrawal of propane vapor from a tank lowers the contained pressure within the tank itself. Therefore. • First-stage regulators sometimes are referred to as high-pressure regulators. in an effort to restore pressure by generating vapor to replace the quantity that was removed. the greater the vaporization capacity of the tank. A second- tions of the U. Propane Tank Regulators Propane tank pressures can range from less than 10 psig to more than 200 psig. A first-stage regulator in a two-stage regulator system is installed at the propane tank and is connected directly to the service valve with a pigtail. This heat is transferred from the air. or vaporize. propane tanks need to be painted with colors that reflect heat. ASME is the governing authority for all stationary propane tanks manufactured and used in the United States. The nameplates are for identification and information concerning ASME propane tanks. This causes the liquid to boil. the regulator vent must be pointed down to prevent rain.) The surface area of the tank that is immersed in the liquid is referred to as the wetted surface. The worst conditions for vaporization rate occur when the tank contains a small amount of liquid. Portable tanks. Stationary propane tanks are located on facility sites and commercial businesses supplying multiple propane-powered appliances within the structures. The greater this wetted surface (or amount of liquid in the tank). Propane Tank Requirements Listed below are tank-related safety and compliance items: • Manufacturer’s nameplate: Containers without nameplates are not permitted to be filled. this can present a safety problem (as well as a serviceability problem) if the desired tank color is dark or non-reflective. tanks that have large wetted surface areas have greater vaporization capacities. Propane tanks. Department of Transportation (DOT) and the local authority. they also can be used independently in systems where appliance or gas equipment demands are high and the only way to satisfy demand requirements is with a high-pressure regulator. ice. The purpose of a first-stage regulator is to deliver propane at an adequate pressure to a downstream second-stage regulator.132 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 common for facility owners to want to paint their propane tanks a color that aesthetically blends with their facility.

Integral two-stage regulators are always installed at the tank and compensate for varying tank pressures on the inlet side. Secondstage regulators are not used to decrease tank pressure and always must be installed downstream of a first-stage regulator for safe and proper operation. creating the potential for a hazardous condition. Adjustable high-pressure regulators are commonly seen attached to bottles and tanks supplying roofing tar kettles. large tanks (for industrial or multiple building uses) have strict requirements governing their location in relation to buildings. One cannot be used without the other. These specialized propane tank parts consist of the following replaceable fittings and connections: • Fill valve: The point at which a hose from a delivery truck is attached to the tank for refueling • Relief valve: A safety relief assembly designed to vent propane in an over-pressure situation • Service valve: The point at which propane is converted to vapor for use with appliance(s). First. and property lines. they often will connect the vapor hose to the vapor return valve. Propane Tank Parts All of the parts listed below are attached to the tank by the manufacturer with threaded fittings. while delivering steady serviceline pressure and compensating for varying appliance demand on the outlet side. Simply stated. Direct-operated regulators are not designed to act as a service 133 valve.and second-stage regulators assembled into one unit. However. Storage Tank Location Small tanks (those for residential cooking and heating) are allowed to be located in close proximity to buildings. . another name for adjustable high-pressure regulators. Propane service valves are for vapor service only. These are used primarily when the gas service line to the facility or appliance is a relatively short distance and Btuh load requirements are not extremely high. A regulator located at the propane entrance into a facility is always a second-stage regulator. the heavier-than-air gas will accumulate close to ground level and form a fog. Similar to natural gas systems. • Second-stage regulators work with propane at a pressure supplied by the first-stage regulator (10 psig) and further decrease it to a pressure that can be used by the appliances (typically 11 inches of water column). • Integral two-stage regulators are a combination of both first. the reasoning behind having two separate regulators in a propane system is strictly for economy of the piping installation as previously explained in the natural gas section of this chapter. When propane companies fill tanks in hot weather. The propane service valve is the controlling mechanism allowing propane gas to flow into the facility by way of the gas piping system. • Fixed liquid level gauge: A gauge indicating that the level of propane is at or above 80 percent capacity • Float gauge: A gauge that presents a visible indication of the propane volume in the tank (also referred to as a dial gauge) • Vapor return valve: A connection used during propane delivery to remove excess tank pressure. asphalt mixers. Although other gas valves may be present throughout the gas piping system.Chapter 7 — Fuel Gas Piping Systems stage regulator also must be installed where the piping system enters the facility. • Adjustable high-pressure regulators: Propane gas flow pressure adjustment in high-pressure propane systems is made possible by direct-operated regulators. Second-stage regulators are designed only to operate in combination with first-stage regulators. • Liquid withdrawal valve: A valve used to withdraw liquid propane from the tank. an adjustable regulator compensates for the lack of vaporization by allowing more pressure through the outlet and into the downstream gas line. but rather to allow for the manual intervention in the regulation of delivery pressures as needed by the appliance. The first-stage regulator will compensate for fluctuating tank pressures and will deliver into the propane gas line at a pressure of 10 psig or less. The primary purpose of an adjustable regulator is to ensure that the required pressure is delivered to the appliance when the liquid level of the tank is such that vaporization is not fast enough to meet the gas demands of the appliance. the service valve on the propane tank is the valve that controls 100 percent of the gas flow into the piping system. Integral twin-stage regulators are used in propane vapor service only and are the most common type of regulators used in residential propane gas installations. If large leaks occur.and second-stage regulators must be properly matched to ensure that the entire gas system is safe and functional. This allows vapor to be safely recovered and contained in the delivery truck. public-use areas. and propane-powered torches.

Note: Some jurisdictions may have regulations that prevent the installation of a direct-fired vaporizer due to location constrains and/or concerns about surrounding activities or structures. to the tank's "wetted" surface. stationary propane tanks are listed in NFPA 58. With many gas systems. However. both the gas pressure regulator and fuel containers are installed adjacent to the buildings they serve.25 1. Direct-fired Vaporizers Direct-fired propane vaporizers contain a flame that directly heats the liquid propane. must be utilized when locating large liquefied petroleum gas storage tanks. vaporizers are used to supply the required amount of propane gas when the tank can’t keep up with the downstream demand on its own and placing a much larger tank or multiple tanks with higher vaporization capacity would be impractical. the equipment would still technically be an indirect-fired vaporizer. with liquid propane being piped to the vaporizing equipment for gas vaporization.134 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Commercial and industrial propane applications using high-demand propane gas equipment need propane vaporizers to satisfy Btuh demand requirements. high vapor demand equipment.00 Prevailing Air Temperature +5°F +10°F +15°F +20°F Multiplier 1.75 2. which converts it to gas for use in downstream. What makes a direct-fired vaporizer unique is that the gas used as the heat source is supplied by the same tank(s) supplying the liquid to be vaporized. Unlike direct-fired vaporizers. and then into the propane liquid. Indirect-fired Propane Vaporizers Indirect-fired propane vaporizers use heat from a supplemental source to heat liquid propane for its accelerated vaporization. vaporization must occur. Types of propane vaporizers are as follows. It is not the type of fuel being used that defines whether or not a vaporizer is direct or indirect—it is the fuel source that defines a vaporizer’s classification. Propane Vaporization Requirements Vaporization is the process of a liquid being converted into a gas (or vapor). Since the heavier-than-air gas tends to settle in low places. not with the propane gas from the same propane tank. this type of vaporization equipment heats the liquid propane with an external source of heat. This distance should be at least 3 feet (0. as well as good judgment. producing a temperature differential of 20°F for the transfer of heat from the surrounding air. if the liquid were heated with a flame generated from another propane tank.75 1.00 Figure 7-5 Determining the Vaporization Capacity of a Propane Tank . as its effect is negligible). Simply stated.91 Multiplier 0. Vaporizers are used when equipment or appliance demands exceed the vaporizing capacity of the tank. The lines also have to be purged of air prior to the startup of the facility. Vaporization Capcities for Other Air Temperatures Prevailing Air Temperature -15°F -10°F -5°F 0°F Design Considerations Liquefied petroleum gas systems should be located in such a manner that the hazard of escaping gas is kept to a minimum. the vent termination of relief valves must be located at a safe distance from openings into buildings that are below the level of such valves. You must verify such restrictions prior to the start of system design. Vaporization is related directly to the actual size of the propane tank as previously explained. in turn. Propane gas vaporizers work with liquid propane at a location separate from the tank. Liquid propane is piped from the tank to the vaporizer where it then is heated and. For a propane appliance to work. Where: D=Outside diameter (inches) L=Overall length.50 1.25 0. (The vapor space area of the tank is not considered. and the amount of vaporization must be sufficient to deliver the required amount of propane. (inches) K=Constant for percent volume of propane liquid in tank Percentage of Container Filled (%) 60-18 50 40 30 20 10 K Equals 100 90 80 70 60 45 *Propane Vaporization Capacity at 0° F (BTU/H) DxLx100 DxLx90 DxLx80 DxLx70 DxLx60 DxLx45 *This formula allows for the temperature of the propane liquid to refrigerate to -20°F (below zero). Proper safety precautions and equipment. Guideline for proper clearances and placement of large. the propane gas vaporization is accelerated.50 0.

5. or a mixture of gas and air. If the tanks proposed for use cannot provide GLOSSARY Boiling point The temperature of a liquid at which the internal vapor pressure is equal to the external pressure exerted on the surface of the liquid. Burner A device used for the final conveyance of gas. divide by approximately 91. Liquefied Petroleum Gas Sizing Propane gas piping systems shall be sized in accordance with the tables that have been developed by the model codes and NFPA 54 and 58. the process is similar to natural gas as previously explained in the natural gas section of this chapter. The total Btuh demand is the sum of all propane gas usage in the system. you may consider secondary containment for the supply piping. Diversity factor The ratio of the maximum probable demand to the maximum possible demand. 135 sufficient vaporization. prevent a back draft from entering the appliance. required for the operation of the appliance(s) supplied. 14 days between tank fillings is acceptable. For stationary propane tanks. Using the total Btu per day established in Step 2. and neutralize . Then add up the total. Dilution air Air that enters a draft hood or draft regulator and mixes with the flue gases. the required clearances vary according to the tank size and adjacent activities. (Note: This step can be performed first and. use the information contained in Figure 7-5 to determine (and verify) the vaporization capacity for the tank sizes proposed for use. more tanks will need to be added or a vaporizer will need to be incorporated to accommodate the appliance demands. vertical sections of piping must be considered in the calculation of equivalent pipe lengths for determining allowable pressure drops. Future appliances also must be considered during this process and added to the system demand. propane is heavier than air. Unlike natural gas systems. The total Btuh demand must be determined. whereby the gas pipe is installed within a larger pipe that is sealed and vented at both ends. back draft. 4. and activates an exhaust system to purge the escaping gas from the area upon detection of gas in the space due to a breach in the piping system. Obtain or request the pressure provided by the supplier and determine the pressure drop in the piping system that would be appropriate.) For sizing propane piping distribution systems. The AHJ shall be consulted regarding the acceptance of the pressure(s) selected. usually expressed in cubic feet per hour (liters per minute) or Btu (watts) per hour. Butane (C4H10) A saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon existing in two isomeric forms and used as a fuel and a chemical intermediate. or stoppage beyond the draft hood. and under a pressure equivalent to that of 30 inches of mercury (101. When liquefied petroleum gas piping is proposed for installation within crawl spaces or utility pipe tunnels. However. Cubic foot (meter) of gas The amount of gas that would occupy 1 cubic foot (cubic meter) at a temperature of 60°F (15. saturated with water vapor. Once the Btuh input quantities for all appliances are obtained. Tables based on higher outlet pressures are more suitable for site mains and distribution piping from the tank to the building entry point. A sniffer system also could be considered. once the tank sizes have been established. sounds an alarm. you will need to evaluate this figure based on the individual project requirements. The result will represent the Btu per day total for the system. Draft hood A device built into an appliance. Refer to local code requirements and NFPA 54 for these clearances. the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit. to the combustion zone.Chapter 7 — Fuel Gas Piping Systems meter) measured horizontally. Caloric value See heating value. Btu Abbreviation for British thermal units. Finally.502 (Btu per gallon of gas at 60°F) to obtain the gallons per day of propane required. determined by adding all of the Btu input ratings of the connected appliances. however. Condensate The liquid that separates from a gas (including flue gas) due to a reduction in temperature. Demand The maximum amount of gas per unit time. Tables based on an outlet pressure of 11 inches (280 millimeters) of water column would be suitable for interior piping. Chimney A vertical shaft enclosing one or more flues for conveying flue gases to the outside atmosphere. 3. 6.3 kPa). that is designed to provide for the ready escape of the flue gases from the appliance in the event of no draft. or made a part of the vent connector from an appliance. determine the Btu quantity used per day for each appliance. The gallons per day quantity then is used to establish the tank sizes in relation to tank filling schedules. in conjunction with the Btuh demand.6°C). which automatically shuts down the gas supply. however. Typically. Therefore. sizing is accomplished via the following steps: 2. 1. can be used to establish an estimation of the required tank size.

This pressure is always lower than the supply pressure at the inlet of the regulator. air-supervisory switches (pressure regulators). ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals. equivalent length The resistance of valves. Gas log An unvented. open-flame room heater consisting of a metal frame or base supporting simulated logs designed for installation in a fireplace. Fuel gas A gaseous compound used as fuel to generate heat. Vent connector The portion of a venting system that connects the gas appliance to the gas vent. 5. Professional Publications. 3. both measured under the same conditions. Excess air Air passes through the combustion chamber and the appliance flues in excess of that which is theoretically required for complete combustion. ASME B31. Heating value (total) The number of British thermal units produced by the combustion. NFPA 51B: Standard for Fire Prevention During Welding. It may be known variously as utility gas. and Other Hot Work. Ingersoll-Rand Company. and fittin gs to gas flow. In some cases.136 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 a piping system. Piping Handbook. butane. and all the necessary corrections have been applied. 1994. 6. Gas vent Factory-built vent piping and vent fittings listed by a nationally recognized testing agency. Vent gases The products of combustion from a gas appliance plus the excess air and the dilution air in the venting system above the draft hood or draft regulator. it consists of a combination of devices and may include pipe. 4. of 1 cubic foot (cubic meter) of gas when the products of combustion are cooled to the initial temperature of the gas and air. assembled and used in accordance with the terms of their listings. 1969. fittings. and safety shutoff valves. used for conveying flue gases to the outside atmosphere. the water vapor formed during combustion is condensed. It may be expressed in cubic feet (cubic meters) per hour. American Society of Heating. Specific gravity The ratio of the weight of a given volume of gas to that of the same volume of air. Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual. gas pressure A device for controlling and maintaining a uniform gas pressure. at constant pressure. the effect of stack action of the chimney or gas vent upon the operation of the appliance. Type B-W gas vent A gas vent for venting listed gasfired vented wall furnaces. Pressure drop The loss in static pressure due to friction or obstruction during flow through pipe. Typically. Gas train A series of devices pertaining to a fuel gas appliance located on the upstream side of the unit. a mixture of propane and butane. 1998. Compressed Air and Gas Data. International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials. This device may interrupt the flow of gas to the main burner only or to the pilot and main burner under its supervision. or a combination of the above. Type L gas vent A gas vent for venting gas appliances listed for use with type L vents. National Fire Protection Association. Regulator. fuel. Gas-train vent A piped vent to atmosphere from a device on a gas train. 9th ed. Type B gas vent A gas vent for venting gas appliances with draft hoods and other gas appliances listed for use with type B gas vents. controls. methane. Care must be exercised in determining the caloric value for design purposes. valves. Flue gases The products of combustion plus the excess air in appliance flues or heat exchangers (before the draft hood or draft regulator). found in petroleum. 2009. LPG Liquefied petroleum gas. it is referred to as the developed pipe length. 7. Pipe. regulators. liquefied petroleum gas. fittings. chimney. McGraw-Hill. natural gas. expressed as equivalent length of straight pipe. . Cutting. Meter set assembly The piping and fittings installed by the gas supplier to connect the inlet side of the meter to the gas servi ce and the outlet side of the meter to the customer’s building or yard piping. Loads connected The sum of the rated Btu input to individual gas utilization equipment connected to REFERENCES 1. and Air-conditioning Engineers. propane.2: Fuel Gas Piping. 2. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Propane (C3H8) A gaseous hydrocarbon of the methane series. and burners. Safety shutoff device A device that is designed to shut off the gas supply to the controlled burner or appliance if the source of ignition fails. It has a caloric value that corresponds to the specific compound or combination of compounds. or single-wall metal pipe. Uniform Plumbing Code. Refrigerating.

Conversions. Frankel. DISCLAIMER The material reproduced from the NFPA is not the official and complete position of the NFPA on the referenced subject. Army Corps of Engineers Manual. National Fire Protection Association. National Fire Protection Association. 15. Propane 101: propane101. 2002. NFPA 505: Fire Safety Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks Including Type Designations.S.Chapter 7 — Fuel Gas Piping Systems 8. and Operation. National Fire Protection Association. 12. 11. NFPA 59: Utility LP-Gas Plant Code. . NFPA 58: Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code.com. Areas of Use. NFPA 51: Standard for the Design and Installation of Oxygen-fuel Gas Systems for Welding. National Fire Protection Association. National Fire Protection Association. Engineered Controls International Inc. M. Maintenance. Facility Piping Systems Handbook. and Allied Processes. 14. Cutting. 9. U. which is presented only by the standard in its entirety.. 137 13. EM1110-34-166. NFPA 54: National Fuel Gas Code. LP-Gas Serviceman’s Manual. 10. 16. McGraw Hill.

138 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 .

and the area available for dispersal. slope. to the prescribed depth and known as the treatment/ dispersal zone. where it flows through the void area formed by stone aggregate and perforated pipe or leaching chambers and then passes into the underlying in-situ soil for treatment and dispersal to the environment. increased retention time. the soil’s hydraulic conductivity. and conversion of pollutants in the wastewater are important treatment objectives accomplished under unsaturated soil conditions. These systems are not designed to handle solids. The effluent from either process is a liquid. good design criteria. In the absence of code specifications. Pathogens contained in the wastewater eventually are deactivated through filtering. Dispersal primarily is affected by the depth of the unsaturated receiving soil. such as disposable diapers. and property lines as mandated by local codes. SOIL ABSORPTION SYSTEMS The soil absorption system receives the effluent from the primary treatment tank by means of gravity or via a pump system. In-ground soil absorption component operation is a two-stage process involving both wastewater treatment and dispersal. and separate other solids from the effluent stream.8 PRIMARY TREATMENT Private On-site Wastewater Treatment Systems application rate. including soil surveys and soil maps. and the nature of the receiving soil affect these processes. Most areas have extension offices that may provide valuable information. The physical characteristics of the influent wastewater. Treatment is accomplished predominately by physical and biochemical processes within the treatment/dispersal zone. The soil beneath the distribution cell. topography. or excessive oils. land slope. and allows oxygen transfer. Cover material over the geotextile fabric or leaching chamber provides frost protection and a barrier to excess precipitation or runoff infiltration. The examples given in this chapter are only general guidelines and illustrations of the criteria and methods and are not to be used for actual project design purposes. influent application rate. The primary emphasis of this chapter is on residential. and greases. and careful installation. Influent is discharged to the distribution cell. Physical entrapment. temperature. The in-situ soil within the treatment/dispersal zone provides the physical and biochemical treatment for the influent. When evaluating a site. decompose organic matter. The successful operation of a soil absorption system requires a comprehensive site evaluation. surface water. Most areas of the country have local regulations that must be followed regarding the design of sewage treatment and dispersal systems. effluent and gravity-soil absorption systems. and variations in the effluent quality directly affect the design of the soil absorption component. wells. anaerobic treatment (septic) tanks. Residential lots must be large enough to accommodate the projected area of the dispersal cell and primary treatment device while maintaining minimum setbacks from surface waters. fats. The two types of primary treatment generally used in residential on-site treatment are aerobic and anaerobic. is considered part of the cell. anaerobic treatment tank selection. influent . The wastewater discharge to POWTS must be controlled. The purpose of both is to collect sewage effluent. and the design of the dispersal cell. prevents erosion protection. feminine products. soil evaluation. and the seasonal high-water table. Every inground soil absorption component design ultimately is matched to the given soil and site. you must consider the lot size. food disposal wastes. soil characteristics. and adsorption by in-situ soil. retention. The in-ground soil absorption component consists of a distribution cell. Table 8-1 may be used as a guide when using the morphological Private on-site wastewater treatment systems (POWTS) provide an alternative to public sewers.

This is known as a soil profile description. Lighter or sandier soils have a gritty feel when rubbed between the thumb and forefinger. GR 2. LVFS – Loamy Very Fine Sand. 1– Weak.4 0.GR 1 PR. LCOS. LVFS Structure — 0 — 0 — 0 — OM 1 2. and redoximorphic features.6 0. S – Sand.7a 0. However.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.5 1. BK.3 — OM PL 1.5b 0. color.3 0. GR 2.2 0.0 0. SL FSL.0 0.3 0.ft.4c 0./sq. greasy feel when wet. BK.3 Maximum Monthly Average BOD5 30-<220mg/L BOD5<30mg/L TSS>30<150mg/L TSS<30mg/Lc 0.2 0.4 0. • Soil texture can best be judged by feeling. BK.140 evaluation of the soil. 0 – Structureless.8 0.GR 1 PR.6 0.7 0. 3 – Strong Table 8-2 Maximum Soil Application Rates Based on Percolation Rates Maximum Monthly Average BOD5 > 30 mg/L < 220 mg/L BOD5 < 30 mg/L TSS > 30 mg/L < 150 mg/L TSS < 30 mg/L (gals/sq ft/day) (gals/sq ft/day) 0. ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Table 8-1 Maximum Soil Application Rates Based on Morphological Soil Evaluation (in gals. FSL – Fine Sandy Loam.5 0.6 0. M – Massive. COS – Coarse Sand.0 0.2 0. GR 2. have no cohesion. BK.2 0.3 Estimating Soil Absorption Rates Soil Maps The capacity of a soil to absorb and transmit water is an important consideration in agriculture. drainage. structure.0 0. LFS – Loamy Fine Sand. S.5 0.7 0.0 0. SIC Note a: With < 60% rock fragments Notes b: With > 60 < 90% rock fragments Note c: Requires pressure distribution Note d: C – Clay./day) Soil Characteristics Texture COS.0 0.2 0. C. SCL – Sandy Clay Loam. SC – Sandy Clay. LS FS.0 0. and clay in the soil.0 0. 2 – Moderate.4 0. GR 2.2. silt. BK. Department of Agriculture.4 0. COSL – Coarse Sandy Loam.4 0.0 0. VFSL – Very Fine Sandy Loam Note e: BK – Blocky.2 0.2. while Table 8-2 may be used for the percolation test. particularly in relation to irrigation. clay-type soils are dense and hard when dry and have a slick. • Texture: Soil texture generally is defined as the relative proportion of sand.BK.0 0. GR – Granular. GR 2. Much of this information is included in soil survey reports and maps published by the U. Heavier.6 0.PR.6 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.3 1 PR. FS – Fine Sand. PL – Platy. Generally large soil particles create large pores and a faster infiltration rate.6 1.c 1.2 0. although the soil maps may be used for initial discussion. consistence. GR 1 PR. • The use of soil texture in determining infiltrative capacity has its limitations.3 PL.0 Percolation Rate (minutes per inch) 0 to less than 10 10 to less than 30 30 to less than 45 45 to less than 60 60 to 120 Greater than 120 . and other land management practices.0 0. PR – Prismatic.6 0. CL SICL SC. boundary characteristics.PR.0 0. SIL – Silt Loam. Through careful studies in these fields. Considerable information on the relative absorption capacities of specific soils in many areas has been accumulated.6 0.BK.8 0. BK. Silty soils have a floury feel and. BK. GR 2.3 — — — OM PL 1.0 0.2 0. VFSL L SIL SI SCL. a variety of aids have been developed for determining the absorption and water-transmission properties of soil that could be helpful in the sewage field.0 0.6 0.7 1. VFSL – Very Fine Sandy Loam .5 b. PR. SICL – Silty Clay Loam. The main properties indicative of infiltrative capacity are soil texture.4 0.6 0.3 1 PR.3 PL.2 0.6a 0.6 0.8 0. It is the first clue to the soil’s infiltrative capacity.5 0.3 0. when wet. LFS VFS. The value of such an inspection depends on the interpreter’s knowledge of the pertinent soil properties.6 0.9 0.3 — OM PL 1 PL. depth. VFS – Very Fine Sand.S.3 PL 1 PR. SI – Silt. LS – Loamy Sand. It is usually reliable COSL.6 0.3 — OM PL 2.3 — OM PL 2. Clues to Infiltrative Capacity Information about the relative absorption capacities of soils also may be obtained by a close visual inspection of the soil. the suitability of a soil for effluent treatment and dispersal should not be assigned based on these maps.

tests of the same soil give comparable results.3 meter) or more of permeable material above tight clay.8 millimeters) of tight clay. recognition of the type of structure is probably sufficient for a general appraisal.8 millimeters) of coarse sand or fine gravel to protect the bottom from scouring and sediment. if the soil has a uniform reddish-brown to yellow oxidized color. Thus. such as structure and soil color. Add 2 inches (50. or there may be no standards. are platy. which. This is a slow process. To save time. In sandy soils containing little or no clay. It is important to distinguish between saturation and swelling. Such a soil has some desirable infiltrative characteristics. prism-like. the infiltrative capacity is far greater than it is in a soil having the same kind of material lying within 2 inches (50. Remove all loose material from the hole. and the platy structure tends to provide the least favorable. This procedure ensures that the soil is given ample opportunity to swell and to approach the condition it will have during the wettest season of the year.8 millimeters) over the gravel. into uniformly sized units. Structure: Soil structure is characterized by the aggregation (or grouping together) of textural particles to form secondary particles of a larger size. possibly by means of an automatic siphon.4 millimeters) over the gravel.6 to 304. Mottled soils may indicate poor infiltrative characteristics. named according to the shape of the aggregate particles. you should consult the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) to ascertain whether the perc test is required.8 millimeters) and vertical sides to the depth of the proposed absorption trench. At the other extreme. and spherical. To conduct the test.6millimeter) auger. and water per test. you must look for additional clues. the percolation rate measurement may be taken after the water from one filling of the hole has completely seeped away. The spherical structure tends to provide the most favorable infiltrative properties. block-like. Carefully scratch the bottom and sides of the hole with a knife blade or a sharp-pointed instrument to remove any smeared soil surfaces and provide a natural soil interface into which water may percolate. Therefore. labor. whether they are made in a dry or wet season. the following method of conducting a percolation test may be used. with heavier soils (including sandy soils containing appreciable amounts of silt or clay). Color: Another clue to the infiltrative capacity of soil is its color. it may flow like beach sand or hold together like a massive block of clay. . to keep water in the hole for at least four hours and preferably overnight. spaced uniformly over the proposed absorption field site. the holes can be bored with a 4-inch (101. in these soils there is no need to refill the hole with water. Swelling is caused by the intrusion of water into individual soil particles. In the absence of standards. Depth (or thickness) of permeable strata: The quantity of water that may be infiltrated into the soil frequently is proportional to the thickness (or volume) of the soil horizon. and it is the reason that a prolonged soaking period is required. such as the size and stability of the aggregates in water. adjust the depth to approximately 6 inches (152. Six or more tests should be made in separate test holes. Most soils contain some iron compounds. Taft Co. With a soil having 1 foot (0. The structure can be recognized by the manner in which a clod. a clod will break with very little force. Thus. For sandy soils. Although other factors. This can be accomplished in a short period. or is structureless. along well-defined cleavage planes. If a soil has well defined structure.) Several types (procedures) of percolation test may be acceptable to the AHJ. if alternately exposed to air and water. carefully fill the hole with clear water to a minimum depth of 12 inches (304. Saturation means that the void spaces between soil particles are full of water. or lump. it is necessary to refill the hole by supplying a surplus reservoir of water. the percolation rate measurement should be made on the day following the procedure described above. If a soil has no structure. the four fundamental structural types. a dull gray or mottled soil coloring indicates a lack of oxidizing conditions or a very restricted movement of air and water through the soil. In most soils. 24 hours after water is first added to the hole. air and water most likely have been freely and alternatively moving in and through the soil. If the water remains in the test hole after the overnight swelling period. especially in clay-type soils. With the exception of sandy soils. oxidizes and takes on a reddish-brown or yellow color.Chapter 8 — Private On-site Wastewater Treatment Systems for lighter soils. 141 • • • • Procedure for Percolation Tests Although the requirement for a percolation test is being replaced by the soil evaluation report. the swelling procedure is not essential. In general. breaks apart. However. (Note: The procedure for percolation tests described in this chapter was developed at the Robert A. Dig or bore a hole with horizontal dimensions varying from 4 to 12 inches (101. also influence the infiltrative capacity of the soil.

or shallow subsurface irrigation. such as mounds. and you must consider alternative types of absorption systems. For areas where the percolation rates and/or soil Piping may be installed within the void to serve as a characteristics are acceptable. and vertical zone of provides the information for a possible modification influence—and data on geological formations and the of the procedure to suit local circumstances. Ordinarily. Private Well 50 feet 25 feet 25 feet From a fixed reference point. Selection of the appropriate absorption system depends to some extent on the location of the system in the area under consideration. POWTS Soil Treatment Tank or Lines and Pump Physical Feature Absorption System Holding Tank Discharge Lines This drop is used to calculate Building 10 feet 5 feet None the percolation rate. A safe distance should Figure 8-1 Three Legs of Disposal Field be maintained between the system’s site and any waFed from Cross Fitting Laid on Its Side ter supply source or other physical feature that may be impacted by the POWTS or may impact the operation of the POWTS. Since the distance that pollution may travel underground depends on numerous factors. refilling to 6 inches (152. In their absence. add clear High Water Mark of Navigable Water 50 feet 10 feet 10 feet water to bring the depth of Water Service or Private Water Main 10 feet 10 feet 10 feet the water in the hole to apPublic Water Main 8 feet 8 feet 8 feet proximately 6 inches (152. final 30-minute period is used to calculate the percolaDetails pertaining to local water wells—such tion rate of the soil. no specified distance is absolutely safe in all localities.4 Public Well 400 feet 400 feet 200 feet millimeters) over the gravel. The location ter level at approximately 30-minute intervals for four of the components of sewage disposal systems shall hours. Any drop during the prior period as depth. In either installation. a void is created Soil Absorption System Selection to allow for storage of the partially treated effluent. the installation of a traditional soil absorption system is impossible. For unsuitable sites. measure the drop in the wadistance means greater safety provided. The drop that occurs during the final 10 sists of a bed constructed of aggregate or placed within minutes is used to calculate the percolation rate.4 millimeters) of water seep away wells and subsurface disposal systems. If none of these alternatives is acceptable. the next step after conducting a soil and site evaluation is to determine the absorption system suitable for the site. a holding tank. The drop that occurs during the 8-3 may be used as a guide. a greater Figure 8-2 Disposal Lines Connected by Headers to Circumvent Stoppages . including the characteristics of subsoil formations and the quality of the sewage discharged. in fewer than 30 minutes after the overnight swelling In-ground Conventional Soil Absorption period—the time interval between the measurements System should be 10 minutes and the test should be run for An in-ground soil absorption system routinely conone hour. you may have to consider the use of a sewage lift station to pump the wastewater to a public sewer system or wastewater treatment plant. type of construction. measure the drop in the water Exterior Subsurface Servicing. a chamber. porosity of the subsoil strata should be considered In sandy soils—and in types of soil in which the when determining the allowable distance between first 6 inches (152. or a private wastewater treatment plant. Property Line 5 feet 2 feet 2 feet If no water remains in the hole after the overnight Swimming Pool 15 feet None None swelling period. at-grades. Suction level over a 30-minute period.142 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Table 8-3 Recommended Setbacks for Soil Absorption Systems From a fixed reference point. Table gravel as necessary.4 millimeters) over the be as required by local codes.

Chapter 8 — Private On-site Wastewater Treatment Systems 143 Figure 8-3 Transverse and Lineal Sections of Drain Field Showing Rock and Earth Backfill around Drain Tile distribution system for the effluent. A good design with poor construction results in component failure.5 feet wide and 100 feet long • 6 feet separating the trenches to allow for machine access • 15-foot width required for the system • 3 feet between the system and the replacement of equal dimension Thus. each 4. The area of the lot on which the system is to be constructed should be large enough to allow room for a replacement system. Consequently. The soil shall be worked only when the moisture content is low to avoid compaction and smearing. 8-2.8 millimeters) from the original grade will help reduce the ponding of partially treated wastewater near the system. For example. 33 feet + 33 feet + 3 feet separation = 69 feet is required for the width. limiting the width of the trenches to 6 ft (1. Absorption trench depths are based on the suitable soil depth on the site.5 gallon per square foot per day = 900 square feet erations such as the type of equipment and safety.5 meters) in length. the trenches should be separated by at least 3 feet (0. A minimum depth of 12 inches (304. If the soil application rate is 0. Site Preparation and Construction Procedures used in the construction of an in-ground soil absorption component are just as critical as the design of the component. the size of the system is calculated by dividing the design flow by the application rate: 450 gallons per day 0. or the topography of the installation site. The required absorption area is predicated on the results of the soil profile description or the percolation tests and may be obtained from Table 8-1 or 8-2. and 8-3. The width of the trenches on sloping sites is governed by two factors: the depth of suitable soil and the vertical separation distance required between the bottom of the absorption system and the limiting condition and the minimum depth of the system in in-situ soil. The wastewater discharged from a home may be calculated using the following equation: Equation 8-1 Estimated flow per day = 100 gallons x Number of bedrooms The estimated flow per day is multiplied by a 150 percent safety factor. on a site that would permit a system to be 100 feet (30.9 meter) to allow for the maximum infiltration area. such as wells and dwellings. With the width replacement area. for a threebedroom house the design flow is 450 gallons per day (150 gallons per bedroom per day x 3 bedrooms).8 m) allows for a conservative use of surface area and reduces groundwater mounding caused by excessively wide systems. and the resulting design flow is used to calculate soil application rates. Using the previous example. Refer back to Table 8-3 for the recommended distances to be kept between the disposal system and various site features. The spacing of the trenches generally is governed by local regulations or practical construction consid- . Many different designs may be used when laying out a subsurface absorption field. The choice may depend on the size and shape of the available disposal area. the capacity required. On a flat site. Perforated plastic is the piping material typically used. 33 feet (15 feet + 3 feet + 15 feet) is required for the width. Typical layouts of absorption trenches are shown in Figures 8-1.5. For serial distribution on sloping ground. the following assumptions are made: • 900 square feet ÷ 100 feet = 9 feet • Two trenches.

stones.67 percent based on a minimum velocity of 1. Alternatives to the typical gravity collection and distribution system that should be evaluated include small-diameter gravity sewers. using the Manning Formula. chamber. Reference stakes offset from the corner stakes are recommended in case corner stakes are disturbed during construction. a small submersible pump. Set up a construction level or similar device and determine all relative elevations in relationship to the benchmark. Proper equipment includes tractors or other equipment that will not compact the infiltrative surface.6 millimeters] nominal) may be used to reduce the cost of conventional gravity sewers. 5. Excavate the distribution cells to the correct bottom elevations. If stone aggregate is used. Smearing and compaction will result. place stone aggregate over the distribution pipe and the entire distribution cell until the elevation of the stone aggregate is at least 2 inches (50. a 4-inch (101. 10. If the site is too wet. Under these conditions. and small-diameter plastic mains. Place the distribution pipes.6-millimeter) pipe can carry more than 2. Each observation pipe is located one-fifth to one-tenth the length of the distribution cell measured from the end of the cell. pumped systems are used. lay out the absorption areas on the site so that the distribution cell runs parallel with the land surface contours. install the leaching chambers in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.2 milliliters per second] per person). If the soil at the infiltrative surface can be rolled into a ¼-inch wire. COLLECTION AND TREATMENT ALTERNATIVES Alternatives to Gravity Collection and Distribution If a gravity piping system is not possible. Placement of the stone aggregate is done in such a manner as not to compact the 7. 3.5 meter per second) at half-pipe flow capacity. If the soil at or below the infiltrative surface is frozen. do not proceed until it dries out. loosen them with the use of a rake or similar device.1 liters per second). If leaching chambers are used. 11. Construction costs are reduced because the sewer main can follow the contour of the land just below the frost line. Check the moisture content and condition of the soil. Vacuum transport systems consist of a vacuum pump. place geotextile fabric over the stone aggregate. or manifold to the pipe from the treatment or dosing chamber. a receiving tank (held at approximately 7. 4. Lay out the absorption area within the tested designated area. The 4-inch (101. and vacuum sewers. Connect the distribution box. Install a vent pipe.5 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) [51. and equipment traffic on or over the infiltrative surface should be avoided.8 millimeters) above the top of the distribution pipe. Foot traffic on the infiltrative surface should be minimal. the site is too wet. small-diameter pipe (4 inches [101. or fabric. The observation pipes are located at opposite ends of the distribution cell. Grinder pumps may be placed in the septic tank. installations are to be made only when the soil is dry enough to prevent compaction and smearing of the infiltrative surface. If the infiltrative surface or sidewalls are smeared. The construction plan to be followed includes the following procedures: 1.4 millimeters) of the pipe slotted for components using stone aggregate. If stone aggregate is used. do not proceed. Avoid backfilling the first 12 inches (304. Where possible. taking care not to smear the infiltrative surface. When leaching chambers are installed. or frozen material that could damage the pipe. place it into the excavated area until the top of the stone aggregate is at the elevation of the distribution piping. The infiltration surface can be left rough and should not be raked smooth. the observation pipe connects to the top of the leaching chamber. If the septic tank receives effluent other than raw wastes. 9. Place the cover material on top of the geotextile fabric and/or leaching chamber. 8.8 millimeters) with cobbles. Install observation pipes with the bottom 6 inches (152. drop box.7 kilopascals . Installation of the observation pipe includes a suitable means of anchoring so the pipes are not dislodged during inspections. if one is to be installed. 6.6-millimeter) mains should be installed at a minimum gradient of 0.5 feet per second (0.144 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 infiltrative surface. 2. thus reducing the infiltrative capacity of the soil. sufficient to serve 670 people (assuming a peak flow of 3 gph [3. Pressure sewer systems generally consist of septic tanks at each facility. as determined from the design. The individual septic tanks should partially treat the wastewater by decomposition of the larger particles and permit sand and grit to settle. and approximate component elevations critical to the installation.000 gallons per hour (gph) (2. If stone aggregate is used. It is necessary to determine the bottom elevation of the distribution cell. land surface contour lines. pressure sewers. on the stone aggregate.

Concrete. composed of inert solid materials. sludge and scum eventually will be scoured from the septic tank and may clog the disposal field. Sand filters have been used in sewage treatment for many years. thus ending the vacuum effect. which shows the recommended minimum liquid capacities of household septic tanks. Evapotranspiration as a means of disposing of domestic wastes has been researched at several locations. these solids. the beds or trenches eventually would clog.e. The slug of wastewater will move toward the receiving tank until the dispersal of the slug results in a break in the seal. When precast slabs are used as covers. Functions of the Septic Tank Untreated liquid household effluent consists of both solids and liquids. effluent is forced out of the tank into the drain field. hence the name of the tank. The residual material. Ordinarily. Space must be provided in the septic tank to store this residue between cleanings. This decomposition. Heavyweight concrete block should be laid on a solid concrete foundation. Some sludge and scum are decomposed. the valve will open. This action is retarded if a considerable amount of grease is in the scum layer. However. Biological treatment: Sewage effluent (fecal matter) is subjected to decomposition by natural. More recently. As wastewater enters the septic tank. Though this method is outside the scope of this chapter. and a vacuum valve. conditions is termed septic. During this process. Properly cured. has found wide acceptance for facilities. have a thickness of at least 4 inches . When there is sufficient sewage in the lateral and the vacuum is at the proper level. some solids remain in suspension. The use of self-contained sewage treatment plants. Scum is a partially submerged mat of floating solids that forms at the surface of the fluid in the septic tank. This effect is reflected in Table 8-4. Special attention should be given to job-built septic tanks to ensure that they are watertight.. The septic tank is a device that protects the beds by separating solids from liquids. if properly designed. SEPTIC TANKS If the lot is large enough to accommodate one of the previously discussed types of absorption system and construction of the system is permitted by the AHJ. To provide this protection. precast. fiberglass. two functions take place within the septic tank: 1.Chapter 8 — Private On-site Wastewater Treatment Systems (kPa)]).2 millimeters) and should be adequately reinforced to facilitate their handling. including all types of grease. If both were discharged directly into the seepage beds or trenches. These solids are digested further by the soil as the liquid effluent trickles out of the drain piping into trenches and the surrounding absorption field. The heavier sewage solids settle to the bottom of the septic tank. the vacuum effect is reestablished. Vacuum sewers flow full and provide many of the advantages of pressure sewers. including fat and grease. Although the effluent is liquid. and operated. and a portion settles again to the sludge blanket at the bottom. The lighter solids. After a period of time. gas is liberated from the sludge and carries some solids to the surface. The settling also is retarded in small septic tanks because of the gasification due to fluctuations of flow. Mortar joints should be surfaced with two ¼-inch (6. and cast-in-place reinforced-concrete septic tanks are acceptable by most jurisdictions. rise to the surface and form a layer of scum. A considerable amount of the sludge and scum is liquefied through decomposition or digestion. remains. forming a blanket of sludge. installed. standard systems have been modified to recirculating sand filter systems. 2. must be pumped out. of the sewage under anaerobic Septic Tank Materials Septic tanks should be watertight and constructed of materials not subject to excessive corrosion or decay. particularly the tertiary treatment type. they thrive in the absence of free oxygen). it is discussed briefly in the section on individual aerobic wastewater treatment plants. causing the slug to continue toward the receiving tank with the next operation of the valve. or treatment. When the trap fills.4-millimeter) coats of portland cement/sand plaster. which have demonstrated that. which are relatively wider in smaller septic tanks than in larger ones. they should be watertight. 145 Alternatives to Conventional Primary and Secondary Treatment The alternatives to conventional primary and secondary treatment include sand filtration and evapotranspiration. they can produce effluents that meet stringent effluent and stream-quality standards. where they accumulate with the scum. Traps should be placed at regular intervals in the mains to reshape the slugs. Solids removal: Sludge is defined as an accumulation of solids at the bottom of the septic tank. Precast septic tanks should have a minimum wall thickness of 3 inches (76. The bacteria present in the liquid are anaerobic (i. and its use has been accepted by various local jurisdictions. they undergo further digestion in the scum layer. The solids are retained in the septic tank so that only liquid is discharged to be percolated into the ground. and the sewage will enter as a slug. and coated metal commonly are used. this type of system is rarely used. the next step is the selection of a suitable septic tank. bacterial processes. otherwise.

Although some variation is to be expected. and Operation Backfill Backfill around septic tanks should be made in thin layers thoroughly tamped in a manner that will not produce undue strain on the septic tank. Otherwise.000 (3.2 millimeters) above its liquid level to allow for any momentary rises in the liquid level during discharges to the unit. approximately 15 percent of the total circle should be provided above the liquid level. Access to each tank compartment should be provided by means of a removable cover or a 20-inch (0. manholes and inspection holes should extend to the finished grade. it is recommended that the smallest plan dimension be a minimum of 2 feet (0. as approved by the AHJ. provided the material is thoroughly wetted from the bottom upward and the septic tank is first filled with water to prevent floating.4 meter) below the liquid level. For septic tanks having straight. Access Adequate access to each compartment of the septic tank should be provided for inspection and cleaning. for septic tanks of a given capacity. and be adequately reinforced. vertical sides.4 millimeters) below the liquid level of the septic tank. In addition to the provision for scum storage.6) 375 (1. the distance between the top of the septic tank and the liquid line should be equal to approximately 20 percent of the liquid depth. .5) 350 (1.135. However.1 meters). This condition is met if the liquid depth (the distance from the outlet invert to the bottom of the tank) is equal to 79 percent of the diameter of the septic tank.324. on average about 30 percent of the total scum accumulates above the liquid line. and other household appliances. A vertical section of a properly operating septic tank would show it divided into three distinct layers: scum at the top.4 millimeters) from the top of the septic tank.324. The outlet device should be extended above the liquid line to approximately 1 inch (25. gal (L) 1. the outlet device should penetrate 14.500 (5.785) 1. Tank Proportions Available data indicates that. shallow units function as well as deep ones. this distance should be reduced to 35 percent. For horizontal. part of the advantage of the capacity is lost.785) 1.7 inches (0. in a horizontal. Also. automatic clothes washers. Inlet Invert The inlet invert should enter the septic tank at least 3 inches (76. 1 inch (25. Outlet It is very important for the outlet device to penetrate just far enough below the liquid level of the septic tank to provide balance between the sludge and scum storage volume. The space between the top of the septic tank and the baffle will allow any gas to pass through the septic tank into the house vent. gal (L) 300 (1. Liquid depths may range between 30 and 60 inches (0. but proper attention must be given to any potential hazard involved (such as yard maintenance equipment) when manholes are extended close to the ground surface. for septic tanks of a given capacity and depth.146 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Table 8-4 Liquid Capacity of Tanka Number of Bedroomsb 2 or fewer 3 4 Recommended Minimum Tank Capcity. Installation. the extension can be made using a clay or concrete pipe.5 meters).419.678. b For each additional bedroom beyond four. cylindrical tanks.1) Equivalent Capacity per Bedroom. add 350 gal (1.9 L). sludge that can be accommodated without scouring (which results in the sludge discharging in the effluent from the septic tank).6 millimeters).8 and 1. a middle zone free of solids (called clear space). Settlement of the backfill may be done with the use of water.5-meter) manhole. but in no case should the penetration be greater than that allowed for the outlet device.6 meter) in length. Storage Above Liquid Level Capacity is required above the septic tank liquid line to provide for the portion of the scum that floats above the liquid. For example. Septic Tank Construction. the shape of the unit is not important. and a bottom layer of sludge. A vented inlet tee or baffle should be provided to divert the incoming sewage downward. This device should penetrate at least 6 inches (152. In horizontal. cylindrical septic tanks. but at the same time it limits the amount of a Provides for use of garbage grinders.000 (3. cylindrical septic tank having a liquid depth of 42 inches (1.9) (101. This free drop prevents backwater and stranding of solid material in the house sewer leading to the septic tank. In most instances. Where the top of the septic tank is located more than 18 inches (0.46 meter) below the finished grade. The outlet device retains scum in the septic tank. Both the inlet and the outlet devices should be accessible.4 millimeters) usually is provided at the top of the septic tank to permit free passage of gas back to the inlet and house vent pipe. All concrete surfaces should be coated with an acceptable compound to minimize corrosion. Observations of sludge accumulations in the field indicate that the outlet device should be extended to a distance below the surface equal to 40 percent of the liquid depth.

Inlet and outlet fittings in the septic tank should be proportioned (as they are for a single tank). both the soil and essential organisms might be susceptible to large doses of chemicals. and carry some of effluent may damage the soil structure severely and the solids into the outlet line. 147 cause accelerated clogging.8) 10 (254) towels. discharged into the sewage system. Paper 900 (3406.8) 5 (127) 6 (152.6) 4 (101.5) 4 (101. foundation drains. or placing harmful or toxic chemicals into the soil or waterways. Frequently. etc.2) 5 (1. it is usually more economical Chemicals to provide a single disposal system rather than two (or The operation of a septic tank is not improved by the more) with the same total capacity. added to the plumbing fixtures.2) rags. to have an advantage.8) 3 (0. may be used for odor control and will have no adverse effects on the system. ft (m) or other sources of oily waste also 2½ (0. though temporary relief may be experienced immediately after application of the product.6) 7 (177. Septic tanks with three or more equal compartments are at least as good as single-compartment septic tanks of the same total capacity. The same allowance should be made for storage above the liquid line (as is made for a single tank).a gal (L) tank. drain cleaners. none have proved.5) should be excluded from the septic Liquid Capacity of Distance from bottom of outlet device to top of sludge.4) 10 (254) 13 (330.4) 8 (203. Such large result in the sludge bulking. 750 (2838. and other materials commonly used in households have no appreciable adverse effects on the sewage system. However. If the septic tanks are as large as recommended. herbicides. and eral. varnishes. a . are not objectionable as far as the operation of the septic tank is concerned.2) Toilet paper substitutes should not be flushed into a septic tank.8 to 1. These compartments can be separate units linked together or sections enclosed in one continuous shell. in. the dilution of the lye or caustics in the unit will offset any of the harmful effects that otherwise might occur. recommended and actually may have an adverse effect Roof drains. Many commercial products containing enzymes have been placed on the market for use in septic tanks. In genwaste. which may be especially valuable for the protection of the soil absorption system.Chapter 8 — Private On-site Wastewater Treatment Systems Use of Compartments Although a number of arrangements is possible. the addition of chemicals to a septic tank is not kitchen. 1000 (3785. bath. An access manhole to each tank compartment shall be provided. septic tanks can receive the grease normally discharged from a residence. Grease Interceptors Grease interceptors (grease traps) ordinarily are not considered necessary on household sewage disposal systems.5 meters). The disposal system following the septic tank likewise will become flooded or clogged or both and Table 8-5 Allowable Sludge Accumulation may fail. however. Drainage from garage floors Liquid Depth. Available data indicates.6) 4 (101. wrapping paper. With the capacities recommended in this chapter. stir alkalinity may interfere with digestion. in properly controlled tests.9) 4 (1. Bulk quantities of chemicals (paints. Each tank compartment should have a minimum length of 2 feet (0. A single-compartment septic tank provides acceptable performance. interrupting the digestion process. Small quantities of lye or caustics commonly used in the home.6 meter) with a liquid depth ranging from 30 to 60 inches (0. including that from the laundry.6) 6 (152. As far as is known. bleaches. however. A large increase in the volumes of water will exceed the tank capacity. For household installations. (mm) Tank. Miscellaneous All sanitary wastes from a household should discharge into a single septic tank and disposal system. added ahead of the septic tank. pesticides. Use from other sources producing large intermittent or of commercial products containing sodium hydroxconstant volumes of clear water should not be piped ide or potassium hydroxide as the active agent may into the septic tank or absorption area.0) 4 (101. The discharge from a garbage grinder should not be passed through these units. and drainage on the bacterial processes necessary for digestion. Venting between the tank compartments should be provided to allow the free passage of gas. the harmful effects of ordinary household chemicals are overemphasized. should pass into a single system. Normal household addition of disinfectants or other chemicals. and sticks may not decompose Tanks smaller than the capacities listed require more frequent cleaning. resulting from a hobby or an industry. Small amounts of chlorine bleaches. detergents. The resulting up the contents of the septic tank. as these may cause significant problems by overloading the system. Soaps.) should not be introduced to the system. that a two-compartment septic tank (with the first compartment equal to one-half to two-thirds of the total volume) provides better suspended-solids removal. with watertight portions separating the individual compartments. the term “compartments” refers to the number of units in series. newspaper.

The stick should be lowered behind the outlet device to avoid scum particles. the distance to the bottom of the outlet device can be determined. After several minutes. Although it is a difficult task for most homeowners. the depth of the sludge and scum should be measured in the vicinity of the outlet baffle. A separate vent on a septic tank is not necessary. actual inspection of sludge and scum accumulations is the only way to determine when a septic tank needs to be pumped. a method of distribution is needed to prevent an excessive buildup of . in the septic tank and are likely to lead to clogging of the plumbing and disposal systems. septic tank installer. the tank should not be entered until it has been ventilated thoroughly and all gases have been removed to prevent the possibility of explosion or asphyxiation. Adequate venting is obtained through the building plumbing system if the septic tank and the plumbing system are designed and installed properly. if the stick is carefully removed. When a large septic tank is cleaned. Extension of the septic tank’s manholes or inspection holes to within 8 inches (203. With the same tool. When a septic tank is inspected. This chart will help acquaint homeowners with the necessary maintenance procedures that septic tanks require. including all performed maintenance.) Cleaning typically is accomplished by pumping the contents of the septic tank into a truck. the tank should be inspected at least once per year and cleaned as necessary. Abandoned tanks should be filled with earth or rock. (In some communities. When this condition occurs. Evidence indicates that distribution boxes may be harmful to a system. Septic tanks should not be washed or disinfected after pumping. or local health department. Waste brines from household water softener units may have an adverse effect on the action of the septic tank. 3. A small residue of sludge should be left in the septic tank for seeding purposes. and the hinged flap falls into a horizontal position. it is necessary to clean the septic tank. shortening the life of a sewage disposal field installed in a structured clay-type soil. A long stick wrapped with rough. Data indicates that. and it also may be necessary to construct a new disposal field. The stick then is raised until resistance from the bottom of the scum is felt. and the sewage may back up the plumbing fixtures. On sloping ground. solids will be discharged through the outlet device into the sewage disposal field and will clog the system. The tank capacities recommended in Table 8-4 provide a reasonable period of good operation before cleaning becomes necessary. the chart should contain instructions on the inspection and maintenance required for the septic tank. the sludge line can be distinguished by the sludge particles clinging to the toweling. 2. due to the wide range in the rates at which sludge and scum accumulate. The local health department can make suggestions on how to obtain this service. The distribution boxes may be eliminated from septic tank soil absorption systems for other methods of distribution without inducing an increased possibility of failure of the disposal field.2 millimeters) of the bottom of the outlet device or the sludge comes within the limits specified in Table 8-5. Whether furnished by the builder. on level ground. equal distribution is unnecessary if the system is designed so that an overloaded trench drains back to other trenches before a failure occurs. When a disposal field is clogged in this manner. white toweling and lowered to the bottom of the septic tank will show the depth of sludge and the liquid level of the septic tank. Cleaning Septic Tanks Septic tanks should be cleaned before too much sludge or scum accumulates. All methods of sewage disposal must be approved by the local health authority. In most communities where septic tanks are used. companies are engaged in cleaning septic tanks. eventually the liquid may break through to the ground surface. A chart showing the location of the septic tank and disposal system should be placed in a suitable location in the buildings served by the system. the service is offered on a limited basis and paid for by property taxes. The stick is forced through the scum mat. Anyone who must enter the septic tank should wear a self-contained breathing apparatus and be attached to the surface by a stout rope. Records must be retained. Distribution Boxes It is recommended that distribution boxes not be used for individual sewage disposal systems for the following reasons: 1.2 millimeters) of the ground surface will simplify maintenance and cleaning. The tank should never be emptied into storm drains or discharged directly into any stream or watercourse. thus forestalling failures of the unit by ensuring satisfactory operation.148 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Scum can be measured with a stick to which a weighted flap has been hinged or with a device used to feel the bottom of the scum mat. If the sludge or scum approaches the bottom of the outlet pipe. However. The material removed from the septic tank is a regulated waste requiring proper handling according to laws and rules imposed by federal or state agencies. The septic tank should be cleaned if the bottom of the scum mat is within 3 inches (76.

Anyone contemplating the use of such a system should employ an engineer qualified to design it. Consideration should be given to providing larger-than-required tanks. flow restrictors. requiring greater clarity of effluent. alternative systems can be evaluated to determine the conditions under which such systems may be accepted. Because regulations at all levels changing frequently. microfiltration. automatic dosing by a siphon or pump is desirable to ensure that the whole system is effectively used. the treatment options are clarification. Jurisdictional authorities should develop policies whereby innovative. restaurants. housing projects. either as a central grease trap located outside the building or. Special Design Special design features are desirable for large institutional-type systems. Water Conservation In most institutional systems. and user education programs aimed at wastewater reduction. study. For systems designed for more than 2. under the federal Clean Water Act and related state water-quality regulations. aerobic digestion. The first item to be determined from the AHJ is whether or not this method of sewage disposal is suitable for the type of establishment under consideration. supermarkets. an important factor in preventing overload of wastewater disposal systems is water conservation. Special Fixtures A number of failing septic tank systems at highway safety rest stops. water (gray and/ or black) recycling programs. Such systems can be successful when appropriate experience. Means of conserving water include automatically closing faucets on all public wash basins. It is doubtful that distribution boxes can provide an equal distribution. This option should be evaluated in system design. consumption. Any institutional septic tank system should incorporate appurtenances and supplemental design features to meet the requirements of the establishment and the varying site conditions. and camps—where the quantities of sewage involved are larger than those discharged from an individual home. Openings should be conveniently accessible for tank cleaning and maintenance. and planning are employed in their choice and development. especially for occupancies where water closets and urinals produce the majority of wastewater at sites where soil porosity is limited. parks. and two or more properly designed baffles often are preferred over a dual-tank system. each seepage trench should not exceed 100 feet (30. The use of 1. Allowing for 100 percent expansion or having two separate absorption areas for alternating between seepage systems also is a possibility for institutions. for restaurants. and a multitude of other problems. Seepage systems also must be properly designed.6-gallon. Depending on the exact institutional or regional treatment requirements. disinfection. and other establishments producing appreciable amounts of grease. water closet and urinal fixtures designed to minimize water . In general.000 gallons (7.1-liter-) per-flush water closets is certainly a major factor in wastewater reduction. grease interceptors commonly are required. based on the various factors involved. the usefulness of a septic tank system decreases as the size of the facility served increases. and service stations have been corrected by installing water closets that use 2 quarts (2. excessive costs.570 liters) per day.Chapter 8 — Private On-site Wastewater Treatment Systems head and the failure of any one trench before the capacity of the entire system is reached. Numerous states and localities are implementing. For instance. where applicable. A lack of sanitary engineering advice during the design of such a system generally leads to failures. Some effective alternatives to soil absorption-based systems are hydromechanical and membrane-based systems. 149 SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS FOR INSTITUTIONS AND SMALL ESTABLISHMENTS Septic tank systems are used to provide sewage treatment and disposal in many types of small establishments—such as schools. as separate grease interceptors located at each grease-producing fixture. Alternative Systems Institutional wastewater management for sites without sewers presents unusual challenges. large private estates. Special consideration should be given to the maintenance and operational needs of these systems as part of the selection process. For gravity flow. This section describes the most generally successful procedures and practices as a guide for designing institutional systems. anaerobic digestion. Some service stations and similar occupancies utilize specially designed units to effectively recycle wastewater so health officials permit its reuse for toilet flushing. you should be sure to contact all of the agencies that may be involved. For occupancies covered by this section.(6. trailer parks. motels. hotels. preventive maintenance. ultrafiltration. reverse osmosis. Special dosing should be designed to fill the entire seepage trench piping to about three-fourths capacity.5 meters) in length.3 liters) per flush or less. and discharge/dispersal. or studying the implementation of. institutions. it is common that applications must be made for discharge requirements in addition to obtaining the normal approvals. preferably.

Environmental Protection Agency secondAverage home Person 50–92 (190–350) 74 (280) ary treatment guidelines. gal (L)/unit/day templated.6 (40) Automobile service ability of the area reserved for station Employee 9.6–15. and percolation (self-service) Wash 47. the soil Machine 475. Approval unRange Typical Source Unit der NSF/ANSI Standard 40: Residential Wastewater Apartment Person 53–90 (200–340) 69 (260) Treatment Systems may be required.9–13.9–13. These requirements design of systems for apartments.2 (30–50) 10.8-50. Where codes and actual usage data are not available.1–4. Semi-modern home Person 26–66 (100–250) 53 (200) Stabilization ponds or lagoons.2 (30–50) 10. When soil absorption systems most reliable criteria are readings from water meters are contemplated.1 (190) tests as required.8 (200) legal aspects of securing apOffice Employee 7. Source Unit Range Typical It is essential to determine Airport Passenger 2.S. department Employee 7. It is recommended soil as a first step toward design. In estimating the water flows.1 (190–220) 52. This data is useful for the given to local code requirements. This includes checking the required separaGuest 39.. Better home Person 66–106 (250–400) 82 (310) Septic tanks may require the installation of interLuxury home Person 79–145 (300–550) 100 (380) mittent.0 (150–220) 50. including minimum and maximum flow quantity of sewage.1 (90–190) 39. If there are no code requirements. water flows that do tests are completed. the first consideration must be and frequency distribution.2 (50) future expansion. the quantity of the sewage to be not pass through the sewage system (e. either conventional Trailer park Person 32–53 (120–200) 40 (150) or aerated.5–52. room for Bar Employee 10.7 (120) fully explore all technical and Motel with kitchen Person 50.2 (50) the subsurface disposal system. irrigation) discharged should be estimated to determine the size should be excluded. as required. it is necessary to use other methods of estimating ESTIMATING SEWAGE QUANTITIES the amount of sewage to be discharged.3 (5–20) 2.0 (2195) Laundry evaluation.6 (40) ties of the disposal units.1 (190) Hotel tion from wells and surface Employee 7.9–13.2–15. This standard Hotel.0 (2000) is necessary to make a someStore.6 (40) waters. residential Resident 40–58 (150–220) 50 (190) requires compliance with Class 1 effluent standards to Individual dwelling meet U.6 (150) site is developed.1 (4) contemplated site occupancy to Shopping center determine the sizes and capaciEmployee 7.g.9–13. Refer to Tables 8-7 above average.2 (30–50) 10. mobile home parks. may be accepted by some jurisdictions when soil Table 8-7 Typical Wastewater Flows from Commercial Sources absorption systems are conWastewater Flow. The builder of the that a safety factor of 10 percent be added to the quanestablishment should explore this feature of a proposed tity of water obtained to account for any additional site before the site is purchased.0–634. the .9–17.0 (1600–2400) 528.5 (55) proval of an acceptable method Restaurant Meal 2.8 (180–200) 50.5 (55) industry and on groundwater levels and cafeteria] impermeable layers.8–39.6 (10) the characteristics and suitVehicle serviced 7.1 (2–8) 1.6 (40) what detailed plan of the total Parking space 0.2 (3–65) 14. it is essential at similar existing buildings. You should Motel Person 23. and capacity of the disposal units. After the percolation unknown requirements.0 (8–15) 2. However. To do so. usually result in design flows that are considerably and similar residential facilities. or recirculating sand filters.2 (30–65) 14. refer to Table 8-6 for average daily wasteactual construction of a facility. it Toilet room 423.9–17.6–58.2 (30–50) 10.5–2.2–58.1–4.6 (10) of sewage disposal before the Rooming house Resident 23.6 (90–150) 31.0 (8–15) 2. Customer 1. For residential Disposal systems typically are designed prior to the facilities. the topography. gal (L)/unit/day Where surface discharge is authorized by the AHJ.1 (8) including. which can be obtained to determine the characteristics and suitability of the from the water utility company. conventional. data [excluding Industrial building Employee 7. individual treatment plants can be used.0 (1800–2595) 580.0–686.8 (35–60) 13.3–5.150 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Table 8-6 Average Wastewater Flows from Residential Sources Individual Aerobic Wastewater Treatment Plants Flow.8 (40–60) 13.

6 (40) tary from the different disposal systems. showers Student 5.0 (10–15) 2.3–17. case of restaurants and recreational facilities.2 (15–50) 7.6 (10) the total per-capita flow must be broken down Store resort Employee 7. gal (L)/unit/day to the waste. If the building is used as a restaurant.4 (150–240) 52.5 (350) establishments where experience Rest home Employee 5. sepaDining hall Meal served 4.6 (40) indicates a need to do so. and some allowance Customer 5. and they Prison Employee 5. gal (L)/unit/day number of meals served may be Range Typical Source Unit the best criteria.9–30.3–15. the kitchens may Customer 1.0–132.6 (40) ties for general establishments. Person 19.2 (130–190) 42.3 (20) Coffee shop als for occupancies served by on-site disposal Employee 7.8–74.2 (50) (no meals) producing special types of liquid waste. Person 52.6 (40) of waste at a given establishment. the kitchen and central dining faApartment.0 (450) available at this time. resort Person 39.3–5.Chapter 8 — Private On-site Wastewater Treatment Systems Table 8-8 Typical Wastewater Flows from Institutional Sources 151 plumbing fixtures.9 (20–60) 10.600) 581.3 (160) Under such circumstances.6–4. Table Theater Seat 2.3–50. while many authorities discourage Cocktail lounge Seat 13.3–15. gym.9 (20–60) 10.9 (20–60) 10.3–172.8 (200) Separate systems also may be used for Laundromat Machine 476–687 (1.3–13. mercial. showers Student 15.2 (30–50) 10.200) community bathhouses.3 (20) no definite data regarding exact distribution flow is available.9 (15–30) 5.6 (150) designed to meet the particular requirements bunkhouse of the establishment.2 (30–50) 10.1–2. conditions of terrain. late the flow on the basis of the number and kinds of seating capacity.6–15. For Member present 66.2–26.0 (280) The decision regarding the number of disposal systems may be influenced by topography.6–63. you may not be able to obtain from the client accurate Where measurements of water consumption are estimates of the number of patrons to be served by not possible. it is necessary to use other methods of the disposal system.0 (400) Hospital. type of menu.9 (20–60) 10. boarding Student 52. When this is done.2 (75–175) 39.0–7.9–13.1 (80) wise to construct separate disWith cafeteria only Student 10.6–21.0 (650) Hospital.0 (300–650) 106.6 (40) are merely the best averages Inmate 79.6 (40) systems.6 (40) should be modified in localities or Resident 52.2 (20–65) 10.8 (75) the use of garbage disposal units or disposCustomer 4.6 (40) into its component parts. (developed) Also.9 (15–30) 5.0 (300–600) 119. such One method is to base the estimated flow on the as picnic areas and country clubs.1 (220) cilities may be located at appreciable distances resort from the living quarters.3–15.800–2.1–39.9–13.8–106.6 (80–150) 31.6–15. School.2 (50) and for food processing and poultry or animal Day camp slaughtering establishments and other units Person 10.9 (40–60) 13. hours of operation per .6 (40) designed especially for kitchen waste.9–13. day It is sometimes economically With cafeteria. For example.0–7.1 (40–80) 15.6 (40) should be made for the amount of sewage tribuSwimming pool Employee 7. School.4 (60–115) 21. mental The quantities given in the table Employee 5.9 (60) posal systems for different types Without cafeteria. resort Person 34.8–46. medical 8-10 to estimate sewage quantiEmployee 5.0–251.0 (200–450) 92.0 (200–400) 74.2 (30–50) 10.3–15.0 (250–500) 106.2 (20–50) 10.4 (50–100) 19.3–159.6 (6) Cafeteria be provided with separate disposal systems Employee 7.8–119. For restaurants. Table 8-9 Typical Wastewater Flows from Recreational Sources and the locations of the buildings contributing Wastewater Flow. Cabin. and recreational sources.0 (200–280) 58. such disposers are still used. the number of bedrooms.0–13.3 (5–20) 2.0 (400) such occupancies where disposers are used Country club Employee 10. and cabins. Hotel.6 (10) 8-11 illustrates how this may be done where Visitor center Visitor 4.9–13. the Wastewater Flow. gym. institutional. A major Campground Person 21.2 (30–50) 10. Refer to Table Bed 132. Bed 79. at large camps and Source Unit Range Typical some resorts.0 (2.9 (40–60) 13. Customer 1. This is particularly true in the estimating the amount of sewage to be discharged.7 (120) factor is grease interception. through 8-9 for typical wastewater flows from comFor a certain number of new establishments. A second method is to calcufollowing data should be considered.0 (500–950) 172. In such cases. cottages.6 (4–10) 1.9 (30) rate interceptors and pretreatment should be Dormitory.

toilet. Includes cafeteria. both for the average weekend population. and methods of operation can provide valuable data. Generally. at schools and offices (per shift) 15 (60) a b Unless otherwise noted. and kitchen wastes (per bed 50 (190) space) Motels (per bed space) 40 (150) Picnic parks (toilet wastes only) (per picnicker) 5 (20) Picnic parks with bathhouses. give the wastewater flow to attribute to an institutional laundry. Interpolating from data in the Manual of Septic Tank Practice. you should design the grease interceptor or a separate garbage separation tank especially on the basis of the anticipated quantities of garbage to be produced between normal tank cleanings. therefore.8 liters) per meal per day is estimated when garbage grinders are used. Allowances of 10 gallons (37.4) would.. Figure 8-4 and Table 8-12 may be used for sizing systems where the percolation test is selected. taken from the Manual of Septic Tank Practice. For recreational facilities such as picnic areas and country clubs. soil analysis results. with data from similar facilities elsewhere.152 Table 8-10 Quantities of Sewage Flows ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 day and all available data can be considered in calculating wastewater quantities and characteristics. special provisions should be made for the removal and disposal of garbage and grease at sufficiently frequent intervals based on actual periodic inspection of such receptacles. . campsites. has long been used to estimate the allowable rate of sewage application to a soil-absorption system. and showers 25 (95) Day. where local experience.9 liters) per person for showers and 7 gallons (26. garbage disposal units are not recommended for institutional occupancies that have central kitchens. The amount of additional wastewater flow from garbage grinding can be estimated by determining the nature of the operation.e.5 liters) per person for toilet and kitchen wastes. Where all pertinent factors are suitable for conventional soil absorption systems. exclusive of 35 (130) industrial wastes) Hospitals (per bed space) 250 (945)b Hotels with private baths (2 persons per room) 60 (225) Hotels without private baths 50 (190) Institutions other than hospitals (per bed space) 125 (475) Laundries. without gyms. and calculations should be based on the weekend population. i. Discharges from these appliances to an institutional waste disposal system call for special design considerations. and other data are available. with gyms. Figure 8-4. per shift. per 50 (190) customer) Mobile home parks (per space) 250 (945) Motels with bath. have been found reasonable. the Manual of Septic Tank Practice gives about 40 gallons (151. However. For residential automatic laundries. no showers 25 (95) Construction camps (semipermanent) 50 (190) Day camps (no meals served) 15 (60) Resort camps (night and day) with limited plumbing 50 (190) Luxury camps 100 (380) Cottages and small dwellings with seasonal 50 (190) occupancy Country clubs (per resident member) 100 (380) Country clubs (per nonresident member present) 25 (95) Dwellings Boarding houses 50 (190) additional for nonresident boarders 10 (40) Luxury residences and estates 150 (570) Multifamily dwellings (apartments) 60 (225) Rooming houses 40 (150) Single-family dwellings 75 (285) Factories (gal [L] per person. Then. a review of all proposed buildings. gpd/Person Type of Establishment (L/D/Person)a Airports (per passenger) 5 (20) Apartments—multifamily (per resident) 60 (225) Bathhouses and swimming pools 10 (40) Camps Campground with central comfort stations 35 (130) With flush toilets. such data should be taken into consideration in the final design. and flush 10 (40) toilets Restaurants (toilet and kitchen wastes per patron) 10 (40) Restaurants (kitchen wastes per meal served) 3 (10) Restaurants. where it is decided to use garbage disposal units in central kitchens or food-processing plants. Estimates of sewage quantities from golf clubs should be verified. self-service (gal [L] per wash. Table 8-12 and Figure 8-4 do not allow for waste from garbage grinders and automatic washing machines. showers. cafeteria. Computations and estimates can be made from the number and types of fixtures installed. additional for bars and cocktail lounges 2 (8) Schools Boarding 100 (380) Day. or showers 15 (60) Day.4 liters) per wash. cafeterias. An estimate of the average number of wash loads per day multiplied by 40 (151. but without gyms or showers 20 (80) Service stations (per vehicle served) 10 (40) Swimming pools and bathhouses 10 (40) Theaters Movie (per auditorium seat) 5 (20) Drive-in (per car space) 5 (20) Travel trailer parks without individual water and sewer 50 (190) hookups (per space) Travel trailer parks with individual water and sewer 100 (380) hookups (per space) Workers Construction (at semipermanent camps) 50 (190) Day. However. an average design flow of about 1 gallon (3. with cafeteria. It is usually more efficient and economical to handle garbage through conventional garbage cans and disposal methods.

9 (141. e More than 60 is unsuitable for absorption systems. they should be repaired immediately.1) 5 2. [25.5) 60d. Laundry wastes a 30 (115) 0a 15 (60) 15 (60) 0a Volume.4 mm]) Seepage Pitsb.5 (171. b .8 (39. gpd/person (L/d/person) 40 (150) 50 (190) 75 (285) 100 (380) 7 (26) 10 (40) 10 (40) 15 (60) 15 (60) 20 (80) 25 (95) 30 (115) 18 (70) 20 (80) 25 (95) 35 (135) 0a 0a 15 (60) 20 (80) No waste from these uses.Chapter 8 — Private On-site Wastewater Treatment Systems 153 INSPECTION After a soil absorption system has been completely installed and before it is used. g/ft2/d (L/m2/d)c 1 or less 5.4 mm]) Seepage Pitsb. The soil absorption system should be inspected before it is covered to be sure that the disposal system is installed properly. etc.2 (107.7) 30d 0. If any leaks occur. Figure 8-4 Graph Showing Relation Between Percolation Rate and Allowable Rate at Sewage Application Source: Manual of Septic Tank Practice Table 8-11 Estimated Distribution of Sewage Flows Type of Waste Kitchen wastes Toilet wastes Showers.2) 2 3. Table 8-12 Allowable Rate of Sewage Application to a Soil Absorption System Maximum Rate of Sewage Maximum Rate of Sewage Application for Absorption Percolation Rate Application for Absorption Percolation Rate a (time in min for water to Trenches. Seepage Beds. washbasins. c Not including effluents from septic tanks that receive wastes from garbage grinders and automatic washing machines. and fall 1 in. The septic tank should be filled with water and allowed to stand overnight to check for leaks.0) 15 1.0 (244.5) 3 2. [25.0) 4 2. Absorption area for seepage pits is effective sidewall area. Seepage Beds. d More than 30 is unsuitable for seepage pits.9 (44. even where approval of plans for the subsurface sewage disposal system is required before issuance of a permit.3 (63. Backfill material should be free of large stones and other deleterious material and should be overfilled a few inches (millimeters) to allow for settling.3) a Absorption area is figured as trench bottom area and includes a statistical allowance for vertical sidewall area.2) 45d 0. the entire system should be tested and inspected. Prompt inspection before backfilling usually is required by local regulations.6 (29. and (time in min for water to Trenches. g/ft2/d (L/m2/d)c fall 1 in.5 (122.e 0.3) 10 1.6 (78.

ORNL-MIUS-16. “On-site waste-water facilities for small communities and subdivisions.” Proceedings of the Third National Conference on Individual On-site Wastewater Systems. 1979. J. Environmental Protection Agency. treatment and disposal of liquid 8.G. . U.S. Boegly. EPA publication 625/4-77-011.. MacHatton. 12. U.. McClelland.C. 2nd edition. U. EPA Publication 625/4-77-011. Nina I. U. Alternatives for small wastewater treatment systems: Cost-effectiveness analysis. 1972. REFERENCES 1. 2. and K. Pressure sewer demonstration at the borough of Phoenixville. Manual of Septic Tank Practice. J. Bennett.. Vacuum sewage collection.R. Pennsylvania. EPA Publication 625/4-77-011. Linstedt. Environmental Protection Agency. U. Alternatives for small wastewater treatment systems: On-site disposal/seepage treatment and disposal. National Technical Information Service. 4. Environmental Resources Center.S. Joseph MacHatton Associates. Environmental Protection Agency. Public Health Service.. Report EPA 2-73270. “What future role for pressure sewers?” Civil Engineering 44: 52-3. 1976.. Wastewater engineering: Treatment/disposal/ reuse. 1974. 3. 7. 5.S. Otis.154 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 wastes. 1976.S. MIUS technology evaluation: Collection. Individual home wastewater characterization and treatment. 6. Colorado State University. E. 9. Alternatives for small wastewater treatment systems: Pressure sewers/vacuum sewers. W.. Metcalf and Eddy Inc. 11.S. 10. Proceedings of the third national conference on individual on site wastewater systems. Richard J. Environmental Protection Agency.

The regional governmental agency or health department responsible for water quality and protection is the preferred source of information for the quality of the water supply and approximate location of aquifers. construction. system elements. Modern . aquifer recharge is necessary to preserve the well’s water source. SOURCES OF SUPPLY The source of water for private water well systems is groundwater. In addition to addressing each of these areas. a private water well system is installed. Commercial development and drought reduce the available recharge water for applicable aquifers. Normally. you should seek sources of local information and references. This agency should be contacted as soon as possible to determine the adequacy and quality of the supply and any local regulations governing the construction of private water wells. including drilling logs of previously constructed wells and their respective water quality test results. A shallow well is considered to be 50 to 100 feet (15 to 30 meters) deep. local. Water-filled voids occur in both bedrock and regolith formations. equipment. A deep well generally is considered to be a superior source because the water is less susceptible to contamination and the depth of the aquifer usually fluctuates less than that in a shallow well. and the methods described in this chapter are a means to that goal.” in this volume. The glacial drift (sand and gravel) and sandstone regions are examples of shallow water-bearing zones. required demand. and maintained by the user. and regional regulations provide minimum construction standards. Community water supply systems require more stringent design. initial operation. Aquifers store subsurface water that can be yielded in a usable quality and quantity through the use of water wells. The water quality and volume that can be obtained from aquifers substantially change from region to region and elevation to elevation. Wells often are classified as deep or shallow. a water well that provides potable water to multiple buildings or facilities is considered a community water supply. State. The water-saturated voids or regions are considered aquifers. operated. The Earth’s crust is comprised of multiple layers of various geological formations of different minerals and many different substrates. which by definition is subsurface water stored in a saturated state within certain types of geological formations beneath the Earth’s surface. a greater volume of reserve storage capacity. and maintenance procedures. CODES AND STANDARDS The Safe Drinking Water Act governs the quality of water from wells. for the most part. Groundwater supply is recharged through surface runoff that soaks into the ground and is not absorbed by surface agriculture. and. and it is possible to find multiple aquifers at various elevations at the same location. U. Environmental Protection WELLS A water well is a cased hole (usually vertical) that is drilled through the Earth’s substrate to access water that is stored within the Earth’s aquifers. Engineering considerations in the design of private water wells include the following: the geology of the area.9 Private Water Wells Private water wells are considered a type of private water supply because they are designed to provide potable water for a single building or facility of either residential or commercial construction. Agency manuals include standards establishing maximum contamination levels. potential water quality. A further explanation of subsurface water is given in Chapter 4: “Storm Water Drainage.S. The Association of State Drinking Water Administrators provides potable water information. a full-time licensed water system operator. controlled. Safe drinking water is the ultimate goal. Protecting our environment from pollution is critical to the quality of future groundwater supplies. Conversely. whereas shale and dolomite regions do not contain any saturated water properties. a highly scrutinized permit process. redundant pumping systems. Thus.

today. In the past. and grouting specifications for the annulus of the casing to prevent surface contamination. They are the most common type of well used for individual water supplies. It is difficult to provide a proper sanitary seal on a dug well. The annulus between the casing and bore hole must be sealed with an impervious material to prevent infiltration of surface water into the aquifer. A dug well must be permanently lined with a casing of wood staves. screened horizontal pipes. all operating with cutting blades at the bottom that bore through the Earth’s substrate in a rotary motion. to clean the soil cuttings from the bore hole as the well is drilled. Dug and augered wells can yield relatively large quantities of water from shallow sources. The bore hole is advanced until either adequate water is encountered or bedrock is reached. This casing also prevents the well’s aquifer from being contaminated by surface water or other sources of surface pollution at or near the surface of the ground. Some large municipal wells called collectors are dug wells with lateral. such as water. Augers are available in several shapes and sizes. A properly constructed dug well penetrating a permeable aquifer can yield approximately 200 to 1. If bedrock is encountered before water. where a casing is installed to prevent collapse of the boring. wells generally are drilled using a machine that advances a bore hole to an aquifer. state regulations may specify a minimum depth of the well. and static pumping elevation. whereas power drilling/augering equipment can exceed 1. Their large diameters permit storage of considerable quantities of water if the well extends some distance below the water table. surface features. In porous formations of sand or gravel.785 liters per minute). may range from 6 to 36 inches (15 to 91 centimeters) in diameter or larger and may produce several million gallons of water per day. Water or drilling mud is used in loose formations of sand and gravel to stabilize the bore hole. Deeper wells typically require larger-diameter pumps and impellers. Shallow wells more than 50 feet (15 meters) in depth generally are drilled using mud or air rotary. while diameters are usually 3 to 30 feet (1 to 9 meters). drilling mud. the bore hole must be of a significant depth to isolate the well so it is not contaminated from surface water and pollutants.000foot (305-meter) depths. Residential wells providing water for a single dwelling generally range from 2 to 6 inches (5 to 15 centimeters) in diameter and produce several hundred gallons of water per day. the auger method is becoming more widely utilized.156 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 cally. Typi- Dug and Augered Wells Depths of dug and augured wells can be 65 feet (20 meters) or more. depending on the position of the water table. High-capacity wells. Deep well construction requires casing pipe insulation to contain and prevent contamination but also to protect the well shaft from collapsing. a lining of shoring or sheet piling should be placed in the hole to brace the walls. For safety and to prevent caving. In either case. and the well is advanced into the bedrock until water is encountered. Specific state. structures. Shallow wells of 50 to 100 feet (15 to 30 meters) or less can be installed in loose formations of sand by driving or jetting (a high-pressure jet of water) a 2-inch (5-centimeter) pipe into the ground until an adequate depth is reached to provide the required water.000 cubic feet per day (510 cubic meters per day). whereas augering allows the installation of a welded steel casing to prevent ground source contamination. These techniques use a fluid. concrete. . well permits are required before actual drilling can begin. such as wells for industry or municipal water supplies. minimum amount of casing. and regional regulations provide minimum construction standards for wells regarding potential sources of contamination. the bore hole is advanced into the bedrock a few feet. whereas deeper wells through clay and bedrock formations generally are drilled using air and water to clean the bore hole since these formations are fairly stable. Hand-boring operations rarely exceed 50 feet (15 meters) in depth. casing is installed with a well screen to allow the water to easily enter the well from the aquifer. Large dug wells can be constructed rapidly with portable excavating and augering equipment. although most domestic dug wells yield less than 18. thus requiring larger-diameter casings. The drilling operation may pass through loose gravel or unstable strata before it reaches an aquifer to support the necessary water quality and quantity required for the project under design. or compressed air. and property lines. Construction of dug wells is prohibited or at least discouraged in some areas because of the increased possibility of surface contamination compared to deeper wells constructed by other means. rock. brick. all dug wells were excavated by hand. with follow-up jurisdictional inspections. a casing is installed. equipment size (pump and pipe).000 gallons per minute (gpm) (757 to 3. Additionally. type of casing. The auger pulls loose material to the surface for distribution as fill. local. Bored Wells Bored wells are constructed with hand-operated (shallow depths) or power-driven earth augers similar to those previously described. or metal to support it from cave-in. The size of the well is determined by the building’s water demand.

During the jetting operation. gallons per day per square foot (liters per day per square meter) h2 = Static head measured from the bottom of the aquifer. Gravel should be added around the drill pipe for permanent installation. Construction of jetted wells is prohibited in some areas because of the inability to grout the annular space and the consequent exposure of the well to surface contamination. the potentiometric surface) is lowered in the vicinity of the well. Loge has been converted to Logl0. gravel is inserted between the interior casing and the bore hole. with most falling in the range of 2 to 4 inches (5 to l0 centimeters). The above procedure can be simplified by the use of a self-jetting well point. the water table must be near the ground surface if a continuous water supply is to be obtained. This consists of a tube of brass screen ending in a jetting nozzle. Driven wells are limited to unconsolidated formations containing no large gravel or rocks that might damage the drive point. the water table (or in the case of a confined aquifer. the drill pipe is turned slowly to ensure a straight hole. Jetted wells typically yield small amounts of water and are best suited to unconsolidated formations. conducts the water and cuttings up and out of the well. In this case. the flow is assumed to be radial. feet (meters) This equation then may be solved for Kf. and steadystate conditions must prevail.Chapter 9 — Private Water Wells It is important to specify a proper compound of Portland cement and bentonite to grout and seal the well casing respective to its penetration through the various geological formations. The decrease in the water level at and in the vicinity of the well is known as the drawdown. Kf (flow velocity) is in gallons per day per square foot . the well is considered to fully penetrate the aquifer. As suction-type or jet pumps extract water from driven wells. The practical suction limit (i. To complete a shallow jetted well after the casing extends below the water table. 157 is lowered to the bottom of the hole inside the casing. This prevents surface contamination and prohibits contamination between the various layers between the Earth’s geological formations. feet (meters) r1 = Radius of the well. Once the pumping of the well starts. The important advantages of driven wells are that they can be constructed in a short time. and the well is ready for pumping. for temporary water supplies (such as those required on a remotely located construction project). drop hammer. feet (meters) r2 = Radius of the cone of depression.055QLog10 r2 1 (h22 – h12) () In Equation 9-2. Using Darcy’s law. Driven wells are suitable for single-home. at minimum cost. As soon as the well point is jetted to the required depth. The outer casing then is pulled. The highvelocity stream washes the earth away. the well is completed and ready for pumping. This consists of a screened cylindrical section protected during driving by a steel cone at the bottom. which is lowered into the deepening hole. or air hammer. feet (meters) h1 = Depth of water in the well while pumping. the vertical distance between the suction intake of the pump and the pumping level in the well) for a single pipe installation is about 25 feet (7. while the casing. HYDRAULICS OF WELLS Figure 9-1 shows a well under two conditions: (A) static (non-pumping) and (B) pumping. this becomes: Equation 9-1 K (h 2 – h12) Q= f 2 r 1. although a few exceed 65 feet (20 meters). Small-diameter holes of 2 to 4 inches (5 to l0 centimeters) to depths greater than 50 feet (l5 meters) can be formed in this manner. yielding: Equation 9-2 Kf = r 1. which is screwed to the well pipe. and the resulting water table surface is known as the cone of depression. Driven Wells A driven well consists of a series of connected lengths of pipe driven by repeated impacts into the ground to below the water table. and by just one person.e. Driving can be done with a manual sledge. Water enters the well through a drive (or sand) point at the lower end of the well. However. and for exploration and observation.6 meters). residential water supplies. Diameters of driven wells are small. the original water table is considered to be horizontal.055 Loge r2 1 () Jetted Wells Jetted wells are constructed by the cutting action of a downward-directed stream of water. The basic equilibrium equation for an unconfined aquifer can be derived using the notations indicated in Figure 9-1. two-pipe venturi suction designs or multistaged turbine pumps can remove water from deeper depths. Standard-weight steel and galvanized steel pipe having threaded couplings serve as casing. which has an infinite area. ram driver. the well pipe with a screen attached where Q = Discharge.. Most depths are less than 50 feet (l5 meters). gpm (liters per minute) Kf = Permeability (flow velocity).

feet (meters) The coefficient of permeability may be determined by rearranging Equation 9-3 as follows: Equation 9-4 Kf = r 528QLog10 r2 1 m(h22 – h12) () PROTECTION OF WELLS Whenever groundwater pumped from a well is intended for human consumption. Covers around the well should be made of concrete. following the disinfection. The basic equilibrium equation for a confined aquifer can be obtained in a similar manner. the well should be pumped to waste until all traces of chlorine are removed. For pumps with an open-type base or where the pump is not placed directly over the well. or surface water may be introduced. Subsurface pollution may be introduced by nearby septic systems. In regions where winter frost occurs. an approximate formula for the discharge of the pumped well can be obtained by inserting wall height (hw) for h1 and the height of the aquifer for h2 in Equation 9-l. Pitless adapters are the most common method used to protect the well head from freezing and pollution. or a combination thereof. Whenever a new well is completed or an old well is repaired. Some pumps are available with metal bases that provide the necessary closure. contamination from equipment. bentonite. well materials. () where m = Inside diameter of the well shaft. though this may corrode old steel-cased wells. Mathematically. a seal is required for the annular opening between the discharge pipe and the casing. A contaminated plume can extend a long distance in an underground stream or aquifer. Entry through the top of the well can be prevented by the provision of a water-tight cover to seal the top of the casing. surface runoff. the annular space should be filled with a sealing grout of cement. and slope away from the well.158 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 (A) (B) Figure 9-1 Well Under (A) Static and (B) Pumping Conditions (liters per day per square meter). (See the following discussion of water quality. Thus. To close avenues of access outside the casing. using the notation indicated in Figure 9-1. adjacent industry. Regular bacteriological and chemical testing of the water quality is required to ensure potability. which provides an excellent sanitary seal as well as frost protection for the discharge piping. As a final check on the potability of the water. The addition and agitation of a chlorine compound will disinfect the well. Surface pollution can enter wells through either the annular space outside the casing or the top of the . Submersible pump installations often are equipped with a pitless adapter. The same assumptions apply. elevated above the level of the adjacent land. Q (discharge) is in gpm (liters per minute). or numerous types of current and past land uses.) Pollution sources may exist either above or below the ground surface. Where possible. and r and h are measured in feet (meters). proper sanitary precautions must be taken to protect the water quality. If the drawdown is small compared to the total aquifer thickness. it is important to protect pumps and water lines from freezing. A cross-section of a typical pitless adaptor is illustrated in Figure 9-2. two samples should be collected 24 hours apart and sent to a certified testing laboratory for bacteriological examination. pitless adapters should be used in preference to buried well seals or seals located in a concrete pit. It is desirable to provide a small (sealed) opening in or below the pump base to allow for periodic water level measurements. the flow in cubic feet (cubic meters) per second may be determined as follows: Equation 9-3 Q= 2Kfm (h2 – h1) r Loge r2 1 well itself.

coagulation and flocculation. Filtration Where the water is not of an adequate purity and/ or clarity. Designing water systems for firefighting purposes requires knowledge of a building’s construction. Figure 9-2 Typical Pitless Adaptor Pitless adaptors allow for pump discharge below frost level and at the same time provide a check valve for backflow protection. occupancy. softening. The building’s system dynamic and static requirements are utilized in determining . WATER QUALITY The Safe Drinking Water Act of l974. and heating/cooling loads) to allow the building’s owner to monitor consumption. subsequently amended in 1996. filters are required. Filters may be either gravity or pressure type and should include automatic controls for all functions. As necessary. it should be sealed properly by filling it with cement grout. These treatment processes are described below. taste and odor control. Selection of the appropriate treatment process must be made based on a thorough knowledge of the water and its chemical composition.3 kilopascals) can be as much as 250 gpm (l5. other sealing measures may be needed to ensure that contaminants do not migrate within the aquifer by movement in the annular space between the well casing and the bore hole. should be followed. the water must be treated. It is recommended to install water meters on the non-domestic demands (such as irrigation. To ensure that the well is completely sealed. the cement and/or bentonite should be pumped under pressure through a tremie pipe or other means to discharge at the bottom of the well. However. bentonite.8 liters per second). fire protection. and disinfection. When a well is abandoned. The flow from a 1½-inch (3-centimeter) nominal size nozzle at 45 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (310. the sand does not contain excessive WATER DEMAND The demand for water in a new system is determined by the design engineer. You should consult with the local administrative authority regarding local codes and regulations. Sealing prevents surface contamination from entering the well. forcing its way upward until it reaches the surface. or a combination thereof. and use. The processes employed include filtration. These devices may be sand or multimedia (provided that when aggressive or low-pH water is processed. prophylaxis. when an excess of dissolved minerals or gases is present. requires the administrator of the EPA to promulgate national standards for the purity of drinking water and corresponding regulations to enforce them. acceptable to the local administrative authority under the applicable code. Well water is usually satisfactory for drinking because of the natural filtration created as the water passes through the geological formations. Efforts must be made to conform to these regulations in all systems. and states have adopted these standards or more stringent standards. Nationally recognized standards. Current EPA manuals include standards establishing maximum contamination levels. prevents accidents and the possible movement of inferior water from one aquifer to another.Chapter 9 — Private Water Wells 159 the water demand. and conserves water in flowing wells.

odors. Oxygenation is another way to treat the water. This pump is used for small flow rates. which can be expensive. and high discharge heads. Activated carbon has been found to be effective . with a special fitting. The design of a pumping system should take into consideration maintenance and the possible failure of one pump in the system. These units may include anthracite coal particles or activated carbon. Cleaning the beds requires high-velocity washing. SYSTEM ELEMENTS Pumps The three most common well pump systems are vertical turbine pumps. It is sometimes necessary to have a backup (second) pump. the water might be contaminated. The control of hardness. and submersible pumps. while calcium and sodium hypochlorite are satisfactory for small systems. and all residues (backwash) must be disposed of in locations where the groundwater will not be contaminated. The vertical turbine pump is a centrifugal pump with the motor on the ground surface over the bore hole and the shaft and impeller suspended in the aquifer. both of which are often effective in removing objectionable tastes. Zeolite systems may be automated or manual. Prophylaxis Fluoride sometimes is added to the water with the intent of reducing dental cavities. Some waters have adequate or even excessive fluoride in their natural state. A submerged pump is a centrifugal pump that is entirely self-contained in a housing. forming a precipitate. It is an inexpensive method compared to ultraviolet radiation and ozone treatment. which require proper disposal. and copper sulfate will destroy living organic matter. Treatment may be necessary to eliminate radon from the water. and acidity may be necessary. This may be accomplished by the proper choice of piping materials or by chemical treatment of the water. Chlorination has been shown to prevent epidemics of waterborne disease. It is well suited for large flow rates. and removal of hardness. It uses a jet of water flowing down the bore hole to create a partial vacuum at the bottom that. and most units effectively destroy any harmful organisms. magnesium. which may (in some cases) be more effective than treating it with potassium permanganate. tooth enamel will become mottled. This method produces considerable quantities of sludge. The lime soda method removes calcium. Water from a properly constructed modern well seldom needs to be disinfected once the well and pumping equipment are initially disinfected. This pump is well suited for a wide variety of flow rates and pressures. and carbon dioxide. deep wells. Sodium hexametaphosphate commonly is used for corrosion control. Equipment is needed to mix and feed chemicals and for flocculation and settling. Softening The two methods of reducing any dissolved calcium and magnesium that are suitable for large water supplies are the zeolite process and the lime soda method. jet pumps. Gaseous chlorine is used in large installations.160 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 in removing phenolic compounds as well as certain other undesirable materials. dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide. amounts of limestone or shells). Radon Contamination In areas where radon (a radioactive gas) is present in low quantities in the ground. Filters should be backwashed and disinfected before being placed back in service. it may be held in solution in cool water up to 72 hours by the addition of hexametaphosphate. The pH is raised. This chemical may prevent incrustation in water with a high pH. recarbonating and filtering. Scale and Corrosion Control Elimination of any excessive scale and corrosion of the piping system is important. and water softening often is used to accomplish this. This compound also acts as an algaecide. while fine sand requires a shorter period between washings. the oxides may clog the filter beds. Parallel filtration prevents interruption of the supply water during backwash and/or cleaning. Coarse sand is less effective in the removal of turbidity and bacteria. Specifying a plastic distribution system will not protect the metallic piping and equipment in buildings. manganese. and it also destroys ammonia. It contains an electrical motor close-coupled with an impeller and an attached discharge pipe to the surface. and other impurities. When iron is not removed. Disinfection Disinfection should be the last step in the water treatment process. iron. The jet pump is a centrifugal pump with the motor and the impeller on the ground surface. draws an additional amount of water into the discharge pipe. scale prevention. Sodium thiosulfate or sodium bisulfate has been used to remove chlorine from water. The zeolite process replaces the calcium and magnesium chlorides. Where amounts of fluoride are excessive. The lime soda method involves a large installation and skilled operation. Taste and Odor Control Potassium permanganate oxidizes iron and manganese. The grade of the sand and/or type of media depends on local conditions. When iron is removed by this process. Filters may use layers of various grades of sand and gravel to minimize filter gravel upset and loss of sand.

The total head consists of three components: 1. If the pump is in an unheated building. The selection of a particular size and type of pump depends on several factors: • Required pumping capacity • Well diameter and depth • Depth and variability of pumping level • Straightness of the well • Sand pumping • Total pumping head • Duration of pumping • Type of power available • Costs The total pumping head. relatively straight and plumb shallow wells. extreme care must be taken in setting the anchor bolts and aligning the pump and the shaft to prevent any misalignment. 161 Submersible Well Pumps Well pumps produce flow by transforming mechanical energy to hydraulic energy. it may be more practical to use a submersible pump. Friction losses due to flow through the intake and discharge pipes. the foundation must be below the frost line to avoid any movement. or total dynamic head. The total pumping head increases with the discharge rate. of a pump represents the total vertical lift and pumped distance of the water from the well. Where deep wells or misaligned wells are encountered. Manufacturers produce a wide variety of pumps. These units can be fitted with almost any number of stages (sections) and. or the difference between the static groundwater level and the static discharge elevation 3. A cross-section of a vertical turbine pump is illustrated in Figure 9-3.Chapter 9 — Private Water Wells However. if the system serves fire hydrants or fire protection equipment within a building without the use of a storage tank. can exceed the capacity and efficiency of the surface-mounted vertical turbine pump. depending upon the size of the well. Figure 9-3 Typical Gravel Filter Well with a Vertical Turbine Pump (Note the concrete seal adjacent to the outer well casing) . it is common to have large well drilling companies keep and maintain a large-diameter submersible well pump for large applications within their inventories for your emergency use at a cost. On the other hand. The vertical turbine pump shown in Figure 9-3 is very practical for large-capacity. Pumps for residential or light commercial applications may be readily in stock at local supply companies in areas where many private water wells are prevalent. Drawdown inside the well (including aquifer and well losses) 2. You should give more attention to the pump base (or foundation) than is shown in this figure. and there must be sufficient mass to eliminate any vibration. Static head. Also. it may be essential.

Prefabricated storage tanks are available in sections and constructed of steel with a glass lining.m. the available sizes preclude their use to residential and light commercial applications. Underground tanks require coatings and cathodic protection. There are several different suppliers of this type of material. The first diagram denotes the hourly water demand throughout a typical peak day. For a small residential system or light commercial system (e. which is exceeded during the morning period from 5:00 to l0:00 a. excluding the capacity of the well pump. Taking soil-bearing tests prior to designing the foundation is extremely important. Also shown. vertical turbine pumps (Figure 9-2). the changes in the water level will break up the ice so it is not necessary to heat the unit.162 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 a steel tank is field-erected. Precharged hydropneumatic tanks eliminate the requirement for an air compressor for recharging. Because of the low suction head. If . regardless of the type of tank. finish. Alternate supply rates can be drawn to determine the corresponding storage volume requirement. and it is suggested that the same coating be applied on the outside for weather protection. a remotely located school). the pumps must be large enough to supply instantaneous demand. it is necessary to install an elevated tank on legs or to use a standpipe. Storage tanks should be constructed of materials that are nontoxic and corrosion resistant. the pumping volume (a constant rate) is shown as line A-B. The minimum size of storage. During these periods. This is impractical since instantaneous water demands are unpredictable. you should assume that only one-third of the tank’s capacity will be available as usable water. and usually connected directly to an electric motor. The assembly may be mounted with a horizontal or vertical shaft. As the size of the storage tank increases. water is drawn from the storage tank. Without storage. the use of a hydropneumatic storage tank is recommended because it is relatively inexpensive compared to an elevated storage tank. Unfortunately. Storage tank capacity and the size of the pump system are related. The detailed construction requirements for water storage tanks intended for firefighting purposes are outlined in National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 22: Water Tanks for Fire Protection.g. hydropneumatic tank systems do not provide sufficient storage for fire protection or for extended outages of the well pump. (Available net positive suction head. The installation of ground-level or aboveground storage tanks raises the question of ice forming in the storage tank itself. or NPSH. thus causing short-cycling of pump motors and reducing pump life expectancy. may be determined graphically (see Figure 9-4). submersible pumps.) Storage Tanks Storage tanks are useful as emergency sources and to prevent overtaxing the water supply system in firefighting situations. the pump often is placed a short distance above the water level in a large-diameter well. since the large water surface can gradually absorb the air and reduce the volume of the air cushion..m. or gear pumps may be installed. The tanks must have provisions for cleaning. The second diagram denotes the cumulative water consumption for the day. is the average pumping rate. after its construction it must be coated on the inside with an FDA-approved epoxy-base paint. (The NPSH must meet the design requirements. This also allows continuous operation of the pumps at maximum efficiency. Suction lifts should not exceed approximately 23 feet (7 meters) for efficient and continuous service. Rainwater cisterns also can be used for an emergency supply of drinking water if the water is appropriately filtered and treated prior to use. The horizontal design is efficient. as line A-B. or elimination. Generally. Also.000 cubic feet per day (510 cubic meters per day). The foundation in such installations is just as critical as it is with ground-mounted tanks. and protection. easy to install and maintain. If the water level within the storage tank is allowed to fluctuate over a broad range. Again. Elevated storage tanks provide uniform pressures and reduce energy and pump costs. For shallow wells where only small discharges are needed. In flatland areas where the terrain does not allow for a ground-mounted storage tank. a compressed air supply with air-to-water balance controls to the top of the storage tank should be provided to recharge the unit. In sizing such a unit. It is better to over-design than for a portion of the foundation to settle and allow the storage tank to become warped or possibly leak. The quantity S represents the total storage volume required with the supply rate A-B. of peak loads to reduce costs and equipment size. It is recommended that you consult an expert before specifying the coating. for lift for the selected pump is critical in this determination. the fill rate of a gravity tank can decrease with the reduction. Discharges range up to approximately 18. and again in the afternoon from 2:00 to 3:00 p.) Where a large discharge is required from a shallow well. Ground-mounted storage tanks located on the side of a hill must be installed on a concrete foundation with the footing below the frost line and adequate support under the entire bottom of the storage tank. a centrifugal pump commonly is employed. Storage tank supports usually are designed to resist seismic movement.

If a well pump’s starting and stopping is controlled by the storage tank level. a float-type level control in the storage tank frequently is affected by icing and. In addition. You should consult with the local administrative authority to determine the approved methods. (B) Anti-vortex Alternate . therefore.Chapter 9 — Private Water Wells 163 storage tank to avoid drawing any sediment into the suction pipe. One of the more common ways of eliminating the problem is the use of an altitude valve. in some cases. is not a very reliable device. the reduced-pressure condition of 80 psi (55l. or reservoir for the purpose of preventing overflow. Pressure regulators. Gravity storage tanks must be screened and adequately vented. Pressure Regulators Pressures in excess of 80 psi (55l. Unfortunately.6 kilopascals) can be achieved by one of a number of acceptable means. are subject to wear and may create noisy conditions. this is required by local codes. The altitude valve closes at the predetermined high-water level and opens for refilling when the water level recedes. in the event of regulator failure. pressure-regulating devices must be installed. If this is so. A single-acting altitude valve is employed for filling purposes only. This condition determines the height of the elevated storage tank from the lowest point of use. basin. as most devices.6 kilopascals) in private water well systems should be avoided whenever possible. and relief valves are required to be used in conjunction with them. which is installed in the supply line to an elevated storage tank. Anti-vortex plates also can be utilized at suction connections to storage vessels to prevent the pump from drawing air and cavitating. Minimum submergence is highly desirable to develop a full pump output. the suction pipe should be a few inches (centimeters) above the bottom of the (A) (B) Figure 9-5 Storage Tank Suction Piping Detail: (A) Sump Suction Alternate. in northern latitudes. The fluctuation of the water level from the top of the storage tank to the bottom is not critical. The dis- Figure 9-4 Graph Indicating Minimum Storage Tank Size Storage Tank Suction Piping The minimum distance below the water level that a suction inlet must be to avoid drawing any air into the suction pipe is illustrated in Figure 9-5.

List estimated drilling depths through the various anticipated geographical formations. the well pump or system pump will run continuously.org. For additional information on safe drinking water standards. installed grout or sealing material (per pound or bag). In the event they penetrate through in a lesser depth. CORROSION PROTECTION Metallic piping generally is chosen because of the high pressure requirements. charge from the storage tank is handled by a swing check valve in a bypass around the altitude valve. Well-kept records of the piping and connections will facilitate good operation and maintenance. Every type of drilling causes some disturbance to the aquifer by clogging the pores of the formation where it exists. You can consult with all of the regulatory agencies and review previous well drilling logs within the region to find no place where X marks the spot. Require a one-year warranty and a follow-up one-year inspection of all cathodic protection devices (anodes) and protective coatings by the installing contractor for additional quality control. Inspections during and after construction will guard against cross-connections. utilizing the equations listed within this chapter. particularly of dead ends and low-velocity branches.164 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Proper water treatment and pipe linings can minimize interior attack. small-diameter (2-inch [5-centimeter]) test hole to determine if water is available at the proposed location. a prenegotiated cost already is established. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION For additional information on groundwater protection. All private water wells and potable water piping must be disinfected prior to being placed in service. Regularly scheduled valve exercising will ready the system for shutdown during an emergency. it must be developed. INITIAL OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE After the well has been dug. Following development of a well. a legitimate credit can be received. It is recommended to write your specifications on performance-based conditions. a periodic occurrence when digging or drilling private water wells.org. It also is recommended to establish a unit cost basis for well test pumping (per-hour basis). PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS The design and specification of private water wells is not an exact science. exterior attack may be reduced by coatings. The occurrence of corrosion depends on the soil and water conditions. Plastic pipes. Installation of approved backflow prevention devices will protect the private water supply from nonpotable sources. and protection must be inspected and maintained periodically. This process may be accomplished by introducing a solution of chlorine followed by a thorough flushing of the system with clear water. This is called drawdown and is the quantity of water that can be withdrawn on a continuing basis without depletion of the aquifer. as required for large-diameter wells. and require the installing well contractor to give a plus or minus unit cost basis for penetrating through these anticipated formations. Coatings must remain intact. it may be prudent to drill an inexpensive. when used. . contact the National Ground Water Association at ngwa. cathodic protection. and the gravel packing installed. On large-diameter wells. if it is a greater depth. Bid-form unit pricing will keep all parties on a level playing field when unexpected circumstances arise. Test pumping on a small-diameter well will determine the availability of large volumes of water. On the other hand. you may shift your drill hole 10 feet north and 30 feet west to find a sand and gravel vein that can be test-pumped at 200 gpm (757 liters per minute) for 24 hours and barely impact the elevation of the aquifer. will prevent sedimentation and fouling. Another type of system currently available controls the well pump and the storage tank level by sensing the system’s pressure at the point of pump discharge. the intake attached. Development is the process of removing loose material from the natural formation around the intake and enlarging it. the next procedure is testing for yield by measuring the flow rate of pumping and observing the lowering of the water level. Leakage may be controlled by inspection. This is the last stage of construction and is regarded as an art rather than a science. A double-acting altitude valve is designed for two-way flows and eliminates the need for a bypass. and careful selection of the backfill. installed casing pipe material (perdiameter and per-foot basis). contact the Association of State Drinking Water Administrators at asdwa. After the bore hole has been completed. and hourly rates for well development and clearing using shots similar to nitroglycerine blasts. Periodic flushing. Without additional controls. the casing is inserted. usually are not subject to corrosion.

2.8 kilopascals [kPa]) 2. 0.326 to 94. In SI units. For the purposes of this discussion. For the purposes of the discussion in this chapter.5 x 10-12 kPa) This chapter describes the design criteria. vacuum is any air pressure lower than atmospheric pressure. the size shall be expressed as nominal diameter (DN). Pipe sizes using nominal pipe-diameter dimensions in IP units shall be designated as nominal pipe size (NPS) and based on inches and fractions of an inch (e. to be most effective in performing their respective tasks. each depending on a different reference point. Rough (or coarse) vacuum: 28 to 0. PRESSURE MEASUREMENT While defining vacuum is straightforward. For these uses. the vacuum pressure decreases. Unless otherwise noted. 3. equivalent length of piping. measuring a vacuum level (or force) is not. The vacuum piping network is sized using the following four criteria: total connected load/flow rate. the measurement from that . airflow is only a function of how long it takes the system to achieve its ultimate vacuum pressure. The exception is where vacuum pressure is intended to produce a force to lift objects or simply to evacuate and maintain a vacuum in an enclosed space.5 x 10-9 to 7.5 x 10-9 kPa) 4. often by experience and experimentation.. Vacuum used for lift is outside the scope of this chapter. Ultra-high vacuum: 1 x 10-6 to 1 x 10-9 micrometer of mercury (1 x 10-9 to 1 x 10-12 torr. Several methods of measurement are used. Units of Measurement The two basic reference points for measuring vacuum are standard atmospheric pressure and perfect vacuum. measurements used in this chapter are in inch-pound (IP) units.0010 to 1 x 10-9 torr. and the negative pressure provides the energy for transportation.2 to 25 torr. 7. source equipment. with metric (SI) units given in parenthesis.g.326 to 0. units shall follow the following conventions: 1.g. In most vacuum systems.0010 torr. diversity factor. Pressure designations using absolute zero pressure conditions as the base shall be followed by the suffix “abs” in both IP and SI units.098 inches of mercury to 1 micrometer (µm) of mercury (25 to 0.) 3. 4. When the point of reference is standard atmospheric pressure. Medium (or fine) vacuum: 0. 2 and 1½ inches). 3.098 inches of mercury (711. the air becomes the transporting medium for any gas or suspended solids. Pressure designations using standard atmospheric conditions as the base shall be followed by the suffix “g” for gauge pressure in IP units. and piping distribution networks for vacuum systems used for general and laboratory applications and central vacuum-cleaning systems. 50 and 40 DN). High vacuum: 1 to 1 x 10-6 micrometer of mercury (0..0075 kPa) 3. Vacuum pressures fall into four general categories: 1. references to inch-pound (IP) units and international standard (SI). or metric.10 FUNDAMENTALS Vacuum Systems Systems must be designed to produce the specific vacuum pressure and airflow levels that have been determined. These two essential factors operate in inverse proportion: as the airflow increases.0075 to 7. and allowable friction loss. (No suffix is used with SI units. Vacuum is created when air at atmospheric pressure enters a piping system that has a lower pressure. based on millimeters (e. Flow-rate measurements referring to standard conditions shall be preceded by the prefix “s” for IP units and “n” for SI units. The vacuum level is the difference in pressure between the evacuated system and the atmosphere.

7 psia (101.868 torr = 25. H2O) 1 in. A torr is 1/760 of an atmosphere. standard free air at atmospheric pressure (referred to as standard cubic feet per minute [scfm]) as a common reference. Another phrase used to indicate acfm is inlet cubic feet per minute (icfm). and volumetric flow measured in cubic feet per minute (cfm) (liters per minute).7501 torr = 1. and micrometers. If the pressure level is measured from a perfect vacuum.0 torr = 1 micrometer of mercury (µm Hg) 1 pascal (Pa) 1 millibar (mbar) 1 mm mercury (mm Hg) 1 in.71 torr = 735. Hg) 1 lb/in. a numerical method for solving Equation 10-1 can be used if the temperature is 60°F (15. At that temperature. A direct ratio for converting scfm to acfm (sL/s to aL/s) for various pressures is given in Table 10-3.40 torr = 51. inches of mercury (kPa) T = Actual temperature for the scfm being converted. The flow in a vacuum pipe is expanded cfm and represents the flow under actual vacuum conditions. atmospheric pressure is assigned the value of zero. this pressure supports a column of mercury 29. To compute work forces and changes in volume. or weight.000 torr = 1. The flow rate measurement for vacuum is exactly the opposite of that for compressed air.1 torr = 760. Hg) and the millibar (mbar). which is the prevailing pressure at any specific location. Using ambient.2 (psi) 1 tech. used in chemical process industries. Equation 10-1 acfm = scfm 29. Table 10-1 gives numerical multipliers for converting torr into various other vacuum pressure units. Standard Reference Points and Conversions On the dials of most pressure gauges.5°C). The above designations are not universally used. atmospheric pressure drops by approximately 1 inch of mercury (3. For each 1. and a micrometer is 0.000-foot (304. Local barometric pressure.92 × T + 460 P 520 where P = Actual pressure for the scfm being converted. referred to as actual cubic feet per minute (acfm). which is greater than scfm.7. torr. The units used are inches of mercury (in.92 inches high. Negative gauge pressure is the difference between the system vacuum pressure and atmospheric pressure. or to absolute pressure. should not be confused with standard atmosphere. and 60°F (15. it is necessary to convert to negative gauge pressure. . To calculate atmospheres. divide absolute pressure in psia by 14. Other vacuum units are atmospheres.6 torr = 750. multiply .92/P To find acfm. At sea level. Converting scfm to acfm The following formula is used to convert scfm to acfm. Only volumetric flow is used for calculations in this chapter. 14. exerted by the atmosphere on the open container forces the mercury up into the tube. The basic barometer is an evacuated vertical tube with its top end closed and the open bottom placed in a container of mercury open to the atmosphere. creating a lower vacuum pressure. °F (°C) For practical purposes.5°C). mercury (in. Standard air is dry (0 percent relative humidity). Vacuum measurements must have a value of less than zero. Multiply the scfm (sL/s) by the factor corresponding to the pressure in inches of mercury abs (kPa abs) to find acfm (aL/s). therefore.39 kPa) (see Table 10-4). this becomes 14. These units originate from the use of a barometer. which is mean barometric pressure at sea level. expressed as pounds per square inch absolute (psia) or kPa.166 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Table 10-1 Conversions from Torr to Various Vacuum Pressure Units 0.001 torr.69 psi (0 kPa). atmosphere (at) 1 bar 1 standard atmosphere (atm) to a specified vacuum pressure is called gauge pressure. water at 4°C (in. In pressure units. The pressure. Absolute pressure is the pressure (in psia) above a perfect vacuum and is equal to atmospheric pressure less negative gauge pressure. the ambient free air entering the vacuum pipe will expand to fill the vacuum in the piping system. the scfm by the value found in the table opposite the vacuum pressure (P).4 kPa).0010 torr = 0. it is important to ensure that the correct nomenclature for vacuum pump capacity specifications and flow rate is identified and understood prior to selection and sizing. Flow Rate Measurement The two types of flow rate measurement are mass flow measured by weight. GENERAL VACUUM CRITERIA Adjusting the Vacuum Pump Rating for Altitude The rating of a pump at altitude is a lower percentage of its rating at sea level. expressed as pounds per square inch gauge (psig) or kPa.8-meter) increase in altitude. Table 10-2 gives the numerical values for 29. the second part of the equation becomes unity.0075 torr = 0. Figure 10-1 gives conversion from and to various IP and SI pressure measurements. the term used for the measurement is absolute pressure.

Time for a Pump to Reach the Rated Vacuum The time a given pump will take to reach its rated vacuum pressure depends on the volume of the system in cubic feet (cubic meters) and the capacity of the pump in scfm (sL/s) at the vacuum-rated pressure.90 inches of mercury (84.90 gives a percentage of 83.7 kPa) at sea level. A logarithmic relationship can be approximated by the following formula: Equation 10-2 where T = Time. At altitudes above sea level.524 meters). for the city of Denver (at 5. 83.000 feet (1. Table 10-5 provides altitude multiplication factors to accomplish this.7 kPa) at sea level.3 percent of 25 is 20.524 meters]). If a pump is rated at 25 inches of mercury (84. However.Chapter 10 — Vacuum Systems 167 Figure 10-1 Conversion of Vacuum Pressure Measurements To adjusting scfm for altitude.3 percent. Dividing 30 inches of mercury (standard atmospheric pressure at sea level) into 24.3 kPa). the local atmospheric pressure is 24. The scfm must be increased to compensate for this difference. cubic feet (cubic meters) T= V N Q .000 feet [1. multiply the actual scfm by the factor found opposite the altitude where the project is located. For example.8 inches of mercury (70.4 kPa) at 5. the scfm delivered is reduced because of the difference in local pressure compared to standard pressure. This is the required vacuum pressure that would equal 25 inches of mercury (84. minutes V = Volume of system. simply dividing the system volume by the capacity of the pump does not produce an accurate answer because the vacuum pump does not pump the same quantity of air at different pressures.

9 kPa) and then add the N values to find the total time.1543 1.92 21.2006 1.39 kPa Table 10-3 Direct Ratio for Converting scfm to acfm (sL/s to aL/s) In.5 27.05 1.82 23.7683 1.80 99.45 1.77 84.000 8.53 79.92 17. scfm (sL/s) N = Natural log constant: • For vacuum up to 10 inches of mercury (33.128 2.25 1.92 18.36 85.000 4.5 91.39 99.35 1.10 77.3 26.000 3.000 9.92 19.4 1.1 20.33 36.000 8.000 1.92 28.5 24.500 4.000 7.5814 1.064 1. N = 4 To obtain the most accurate answer.5 1.85 6.7 25.0 26.99 16.520 1.92 9.85 2.216 1.0540 6.95 33.7 27.000 5.3 2.50 102.75 4.60 0.500 6.92 4.432 2.0813 7. Hg = 3.20 26.1 1.520 1.040 –152 0 152 304 456 608 760 912 1.10 29.000 ft Factor for Adjusted scfm 1.92 5.39 81.58 69.000 3.0 28.976 2.2465 15.92 12.9 kPa). N = 3 • For vacuum up to 28 inches of mercury (94.19 70.500 2.4302 1.92 P 1.90 83.432 2.8794 2.60 299.8 kPa).35 1. 97.1494 2.43 81.85 87.1 1.57 30.16 1.280 2.000 11.00 104.92 26.7399 3.92 7.9 23.0 kPa).7334 149.500 3. 47.20 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Table 10-4 Barometric Pressure Corresponding to Altitude m –3.09 43.500 8.2508 1.0 In.92 25.2 kPa).40 0.064 1.9 24.92 8.000 2. the pressure loss for the scfm (sL/s) and pipe size for the system’s vacuum pressure can be found by dividing the pressure drop in the chart by the ratio found from the following formula: Equation 10-3 new 30 – pressurevacuum pressure used to create chart .3 22.5833 32.000 –500 0 500 1.05 60.29 53.62 1. Hg kPa 31.736 2.5020 1. as a Function of Pressure.40 1.3 Sea level = 0 Table 10-5 Factor for Flow Rate Reduction Due to Altitude 0 152 304 456 608 760 912 1.73 3 3.584 2.39 72.37 19.92 kPa Abs.06 1.98 80.75 1.000 10.128 2.500 5.33 3.9 21. Hg 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 kPa Abs.92 0.6326 10.01 77. Hg 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 29.0054 2.3650 1.81 67.92 24.168 Table 10-2 Expanded Air Ratio.43 64.71 40.000 6.040 3.92 1. Hg) P 29.3542 3.500 2.87 97.5 10 15 30 60 ft –10.5101 P 10.92 20.31 92. N = 2 • For vacuum up to 26 inches of mercury (88.61 13.500 3.000 2.5 30.92 15.55 1.80 73.92 0.040 a Altitudea Note: 1 in.8667 59.65 76.8 29.3 28.25 1.92/P.50 0.10 1.5 inches of mercury (76.4 21.2 1. 29.92 6.00 1. N = 1 • For vacuum up to 22.67 57.736 3.51 Q = Flow capacity of pump.92 13.15 2.04 1. Adjusting Pressure Drop for Different Vacuum Pressures When the available sizing chart uses a vacuum level different than that of the system being designed.000 7.368 1.82 93.0742 49.92 22.28 5 6 7.92 P 2.30 0.80 0.48 3.81 90.20 0.216 1.672 1.92 11.8 29.92 29.0 1.8 23.32 88.33 95.3236 5.92 3.0346 1.7777 4.92 23.14 1.08 1.344 1scfm = 0.98 70.3 23.500 9.92 100.30 1.500 7.3054 1.63 74.824 1.1114 1.5217 37.888 3.40 42.70 0.0716 1.92 27.9 94.6696 1.22 74.15 1.10 0 Factor 2.23 9. P (in.3158 2.54 Factor 1.20 1.824 2.92 2. you should obtain pump curves from the manufacturer and substitute the N value for each scfm (sL/s) capacity at increments of 5 inches of mercury (16.000 5.000 6.8 22.15 87.1 25.91 50.92 16.500 4.000 9.5 2.500 10.92 14.84 74. Selec- tion of the value for N depends on the highest level of system vacuum pressure and is constant for several calculations.3 1.0161 3.02 1.7 20.12 1.472 sL/s m Altitude 0 500 1.000 1.000 Barometric Pressure in.

2 sL/s) through a 2-inch (50-DN) pipe with a pressure of 20 inches of mercury (67. in. Pipe Size.57 kPa abs). diaphragm.2 sL/s) to acfm (aL/s) at a pressure of 9.9 kPa) is 1.53 14. which follow.) Alarms are required for maintenance purposes or to annunciate trouble. Solving for velocity. generally inadequate vacuum pressure. Using Table 10-7. Air exhausted from the system must be discharged to the atmosphere by means of an exhaust piping system. Equation 10-4 V=C×Q where V = Velocity. rotary screw.27 5. Capturetype pumps are outside the scope of this chapter.9 481. pounds (Newtons) P = Vacuum pressure. rotary lobe (roots). to create a seal between the rotor and casing to produce a vacuum. C.32 7. Opposite 10 inches of mercury (33. Thus. oil-sealed reciprocating (rotary) piston. rotary vane.438 fps (1.9 270. ordinary lobe or claw.15 71.962 meters per second). reciprocating (rotary) dry piston. for Finding Mean Air Velocity DN 12 15 20 25 32 40 50 40 Sched. feet per second (fps) (meters per second) C = Constant for velocity based on pipe size (refer to Table 10-6) Q = Flow rate based on an absolute vacuum pressure. This is expressed in the following formula: Equation 10-5 F=P×A where F = Force. Liquid-sealed pumps use liquid. The majority of pumps used for most applications are gas-transfer pumps.57 kPa abs) by using Table 10-3.0 96. These types of pumps generally run hotter than liquid-sealed pumps. These pumps also are known as mechanical rotary-type pumps and are the type used most often for industrial and laboratory purposes.7 11. psig (Pa or Newtons per square meter) A = Area.7 kPa). (See the separate discussions under the “Laboratory and Vacuum Systems” and “Vacuum Cleaning Systems” sections. V = 150 acfm x 42. Pipe Size. This table has been developed from the flow characteristics of air in Schedule 40 pipe. and centrifugal (turbo).5.92.0 2.43 42.Chapter 10 — Vacuum Systems 169 Table 10-6 Constant. in the system. Vacuum Pumps The majority of vacuum pumps are divided into two general groups: gas transfer and capture. oil-less. Convert 100 scfm (47.4 mm equipment. They operate by removing gas from the lower pressure of the system and conveying it to the higher pressure of the free-air environment through one or more stages of compression provided by a vacuum pump. This can be done using closely machined tolerances or replaceable wearing sealing elements. Except for some rare industrial applications. Examples of liquid sealed gas-transfer pumps include rotary vane. once-through oil (OTO).92 DN 65 75 90 100 125 150 200 40 Sched. VACUUM PUMPS AND SOURCE EQUIPMENT Vacuum is produced by a single or multiple vacuum pump drawing air from remote vacuum inlets or . in.8 aL/s). vacuum pumps withdraw air from a receiver to produce the vacuum in the system. Vacuum Work Forces The total force of a vacuum system acting on a load is based on the vacuum pressure and the surface area on which the vacuum is acting. Examples of dry pumps are rotary sliding vane. read 9.95 Simplified Method of Calculating Velocity The following formula can be used to find the velocity of a gas stream under a vacuum. 1 in.0 168.92 = 6. and liquid ring. 3 ⁄8 ½ ¾ 1 1¼ 1½ 2 C 740. Gas-transfer pumps are essentially air compressors that use the vacuum system as their inlet and discharge compressed air to the atmosphere.92 inches of mercury abs (33. 2½ 3 3½ 4 5 6 8 C 30. square inches (square meters) Since the above formula is theoretical. typically water or oil. acfm (aL/s) Example 10-1 Calculate the velocity of 100 scfm (47. The pipe size shall be large enough to not restrict operation of the vacuum pump. it is common practice to use a safety factor in the range of three to five times the calculated force to compensate for the quality of the air seal and other factors such as configuration of the load and outside forces such as acceleration. Refer to Table 10-6 to obtain C.5 = 150 acfm (70. 100 scfm x 1.92 inches of mercury abs (33. Dry vacuum pumps use tight tolerances to seal the pump chamber to produce vacuum. Opposite 2-inch (50-millimeter) pipe is 42.12 19. recirculating oil sealed. Find the equivalent absolute pressure of 20 inches of mercury (67. These pumps can be divided into two categories: liquid sealed and dry.7 kPa). = 25.

2086 13.72 29. Some pumps using oil. heat exchangers.9 94.21 26.70 14.9253 1. The receiver balances the vacuum pressure extremes produced by operation of the pump and maintains the desired range of vacuum as the demand rises or falls depend- . Equipment can be tank mounted or skid mounted.7521 11.2434 11.07 60. starters.3457 5.89 6. the receiver and hence the pumps should be placed at the lowest level of the building or piping system with the piping pitched back to the receiver.4 97. disconnects.2926 8.4342 0. The oil eventually becomes contaminated and must be replaced on a regular basis. generally water or oil.9076 2.92 2.3634 4.92 19. Seal Liquids For liquid-ring pumps. sensors. inlet filter. cooling fans. piping.71 2.92 4. If they are installed above the laboratory spaces such as in a mechanical penthouse.92 10. but this requires additional time. and piping system volume.3129 7.328 6.5 gallons per minute (gpm) per horsepower (1. Once on site.92 17.52 47.8216 7.01 77. the pump or pumps.98 33. receiver. and it is selected by the manufacturer based on experience.3988 2. For laboratory systems with a liquid-ring pump and known to handle liquids. a circulating liquid in the pump casing is an integral part of the pump operation.45 64.7347 12.4520 0. Water.92 11. oil-mist filter.1 gpm per horsepower (0.170 Table 10-7 IP and SI Pressure Conversion kPa abs. Skid-mounted equipment can be made in stackablemodular sections to conserve space or allow expansion in the future. unloading. valves. the pumps could be shut off. Larger units may be constantly operated—loading. If the vacuum level cannot be achieved or maintained.63 74.92 3.92 20.22 29. On larger piping systems. the receiver and pumps can be installed anywhere in the building.13 43.92 25.92 18. additional pumps in a multiplex assembly are started.500 to 2. a running time of 1.75 40. It is best to buy a vacuum pump as a complete package assembled by the pump manufacturer.92 6. This liquid.29 53.70 0. Factors that affect receiver sizing are pump capacity.7838 9.92 9.92 28.766 10.5 91.92 in. make sure provisions for draining the piping system at the low points are considered.4 liter per horsepower). Hg 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 29.92 5.92 21.52 29.66 13.3439 0.9 liters per horsepower) is used.8722 4. On small piping systems.92 0.92 1.82 23.7173 13.3930 0. must be continuously replaced.92 15.03 0 in.92 16.92 22.3811 3.92 14.502 3.91 50.92 24.22 70.8369 6. approximately 0.92 27. The receiver should have a sight glass and drain valve to drain all liquid from the receiver. commonly used for sealing purposes. such as the once-through oil rotary vane. field located. Hg abs. with all of the accessories included.68 57. Oil used for sealing purposes is recirculated and may have to be cooled.92 7.8546 5. all that remains is field connection to the utilities and system piping. Specific information about water usage and the additional space required must be obtained from the manufacturer.92 8.2608 10.80 0.77 84.8911 3. In other laboratory and process systems.59 30. is commonly known as seal liquid and is not intended to refer to shaft or any other kinds of sealing. gauges.27 9.05 16. When the desired high level of vacuum is reached. often require more Receivers The piping distribution system is connected to the pumps through a tank called a receiver.4165 1. a timer on the system allows the pumps to run longer than required by system pressure to prevent rapid cycling. the receiver size is more important to avoid short-cycling the pumps. The individual components can be purchased separately. oil separator. and interconnected.92 12. The diaphragm and centrifugal pumps are used more for small benchtop applications and not for central systems. With no conservation. operating range.000 hours is the useful life of seal oil.60 0 psia 14.92 23.8015 8. and controls all can be factory tested prior to delivery on site.5 87. Often.2260 12.39 81. Typically. water reservoir tanks. the size of the receiver has little effect on actual system operation.2947 0 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 ing on the number of inlets that open or close.84 67. 29.92 0. When the system vacuum pressure drops to a predetermined level beyond the capacity of a single pump.92 26. The pump does not require any water to operate.37 2. This way. 101. It may be desirable to install a running time meter on these pumps to aid in maintenance. an audible or visual alarm indicates the shortage.37 36.275 9.12 2.9430 0.43 20.92 13. Manufacturers have developed proprietary waterconservation methods that typically reduce the usage to approximately 0. or bypassing on demand.

and evacuating air from apparatus. and rugged. Most units can be air LABORATORY VACUUM SYSTEMS Laboratory vacuum systems serve general chemical. the tube changes shape. For precise control. it is simple. The disposal of the waste oil should be considered in evaluating the cost of the pump. Consult a manufacturer or vendor to select the materials and equipment to design such a system. if the supply from these alternative water sources is less than required. Other recirculating oil-sealed units will fit within the space required for other types of vacuum systems. after which the water is sent to the drainage system. It also can be used to recover solvents from the discharge airstream. a backup cooling source must be considered. is discouraged. this is generally done with an air-bleed valve on the branch where the lower vacuum pressure is desired.Chapter 10 — Vacuum Systems installation space than other types of pumps. fluid transfer. Additional types of liquids can be used for seal liquid in a vacuum pump. Systems also have been developed that use an aluminum reservoir tank to cool the water through convection and radiation using relatively little makeup water.3 micrometer in size. A coalescing. Inlet filters are used to remove solids or liquids that may be present in the inlet airstream prior to the air entering the pump. and the pump materials selected to suit the application. The usual working . 171 cooled with radiators and cooling fans mounted on the skid. However. Some laboratory and most process pump skids using oil-sealed pumps may use an air or nitrogen gas purge. and a vacuum pump’s performance decreases as the room temperature escalates. Bleeding air into the system must be accounted for in the selection of the pump capacity. Specific information about the additional space required shall be obtained from the manufacturer. Storm water reuse and graywater systems can be utilized as a cooling media where climates and programs allow for a reliable means of cooling. its operation relies on the deformation of an elastic metal under pressure. indicating the pressure on a dial. The heart of the gauge is the Bourdon tube that is closed at one end and open to the vacuum at the other. inexpensive. A pointer attached to the tube moves. A purge usually occurs at the end of a pump run cycle to evacuate any chemical vapors that may condense as the pump cools. The heat rejection into the space must be considered by the HVAC engineer to prevent the space from becoming too hot. Various filter elements are available to remove particulates approximately 0. Cooling with domestic water on a once-through basis. lowering the vacuum pressure can be accomplished by using a throttling valve at the inlet. They also can be remotely mounted on a wall near the equipment. Other units can be furnished with heat exchangers and cooled with domestic water or chilled water. The Bourdon gauge is a mechanical gauge used to measure the difference in relative pressure between the system and local barometric pressure. preferably within line of sight. Cooling of the vacuum pumps must be considered in the layout of the system. shall be UL listed. Some manufacturers have room temperature requirements for proper operation of their equipment. Ancillary Equipment Control panels should be mounted by the manufacturer on the skid to avoid field wiring. A temperature increase of 5 to 20°F is not uncommon. biological. In cases where the system as a whole has a high vacuum pressure. Vacuum Pressure Gauges The two commonly used gauges are the Bourdon and the diaphragm. Principal among such purposes are drying. filter should be used on the exhaust of any pump that uses oil to prevent the discharge of oil into the atmosphere. which can result in a shorter life-cycle of the equipment. It also can be combined with an inlet filter in one housing. A liquid from the process can be used. Means of obtaining year-round chilled water sources must be considered. filtering. allowing a lower vacuum level on the user side of the valve while maintaining the high vacuum level on the system side. and physics purposes. For liquid-ring pumps. A knockout pot is a device that prevents entrained liquid or slugs of liquid from entering the inlet of mechanical pumps used in industrial applications. This way no additional load (bleed air) must be accounted for in the system. The most widely used type of gauge. a needle valve is used. or oil-mist. air is allowed to enter the system. This creates a higher vacuum drop at the throttling valve. it may be necessary to lower the vacuum pressure to a branch. All equipment on the skid. It also can occur at startup to warm up the pump and remove any condensed liquids. The purge cycle may last from five to 15 minutes. including the control panel. As the vacuum pressure varies. For once-through oil-sealed pumps. Similar to the Bourdon gauge. an oil supply and collection system can be engineered to supply oil and collect the waste oil from the pumps. When the valve is opened. The diaphragm gauge measures the pressure difference by sensing the deflection of a thin metal diaphragm or capsular element. For other mechanical pumps.

closed vessels at the use points).. The system should be designed using an extensive program or spreadsheet to size the piping. In addition.e. and vent valves may be required to successfully allow for decontamination of the piping and equipment. By locating the filters in the containment area. The most important requirements are those of the end user and good engineering practice.02-micrometer (HEPA) filters on the exhaust to prevent all pathogenic particulates from being expelled to the outside air.88 inches of mercury (1 torr) is possible. a vacuum level of 29. With the use of a booster (blower). Other types of systems serve light industrial and manufacturing purposes. This requires the filters to be changed by the users and eliminates the potential of contaminating clean areas during filter change. If used for general drying and filtering. check valves should be installed in each branch line to every room or area to prevent cross-discharge.7 kPa). The standard addresses different levels of systems based on the use of the facility.64 inches of mercury (7 torr). usually in chemistry laboratories. the pump can be located and serviced outside the biological containment area. Additional isolation. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). such as those of the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.172 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Laboratories conducting biological work where airborne pathogens could be released are required to follow the appropriate biological level criteria established by Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) developed by the U. conformance to NFPA 99: Standard for Healthcare Facilities is required. Central systems can be designed to accommodate high vacuum uses down to 29. so the code should be investigated for applicability to your system. This eliminates the potential of contaminated air being transferred out of the containment area. call for high vacuum in the range of 24 to 29 inches of mercury (81. Codes and Standards No codes and standards are applicable to the design of laboratory and manufacturing vacuum systems. they will not maintain vacuum levels. These ultra-high vacuum systems should be used only for closed-ended systems (i. When using a central vacuum system on higher-level BSL laboratories.S. Considerations for decontamination of the piping and equipment should be evaluated for maintenance purposes. it is more common to use point-of-use vacuum pumps located in the laboratory. For laboratory work within healthcare facilities. Some cases. it is recommended to locate the filters upstream of the pump in the containment area. Figure 10-2 Schematic Detail of a Typical Laboratory Vacuum Pump Assembly . Some laboratories may fall under one of the categories listed. the vacuum pump exhaust shall be provided with duplex 0. pressure of standard vacuum systems is in the range of 12 to 21 inches of mercury (40. sampling. and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Services. Pipe sizes tend to be large due to the expansion of the air and vapor from atmospheric pressure to deep vacuum. which is usually produced with a separate point-of-use vacuum pump adjacent to the area of application. On higher biosafety laboratory levels (BSL-3 or higher). but this is not recommended for large systems.6 to 67. It is common to have separate pumps for areas with different biological levels.3 to 98. For most biological installations.2 kPa).

process gases or liquids. or high-density polyethylene. where soft tempered should be used. a receiver used to provide a vacuum reservoir and to separate liquids from the vacuum airstream. Although cost has a major influence on the selection of the piping material. Since they do run hot. they need to be evaluated for use on a laboratory or medical system so auto-ignition of the vapors does not happen. they each have strong and weak points. A duplex system. or even plastic such as PVC. Dry pump technology has gained prominence over the past years due to water conservation concerns and waste oil disposal. The two most often used pump types in laboratories are liquid ring and sliding vane. These pumps have moved from strictly chemical duty into the laboratory and medical industry. the interconnecting piping around the pumps and receiver. No single pump type will suit all applications. This allows some level of capacity when one pump fails or needs to be maintained. the most commonly used is copper tube type L. In some smaller installations where the vacuum system is not critical. The pumps selection should be based on the anticipated design conditions consisting of vacuum level.Chapter 10 — Vacuum Systems 173 Figure 10-3 Typical Process Vacuum Pump Duplex Arrangement Vacuum Source The vacuum source usually consists of two or more pumps that are designed to operate as system demand requires. polypropylene. galvanized steel pipe (usually Schedule 40 ASTM A53). first cost. A common configuration for more than one pump is a rack mounting one above the other and both pumps installed over the receiver for a compact footprint. Distribution Network Piping for the distribution system shall be a corrosion-resistant material such as copper tube type K or L. utility cost. ASTM B88. it may be acceptable to have a single vacuum pump or two pumps designed to handle a percentage of the total load. with each pump capable of assuming the entire load. and reliability. up to 4 inches (100 . A schematic detail of a typical process vacuum pump duplex assembly is illustrated in Figure 10-3. A schematic detail of a typical laboratory vacuum pump assembly is illustrated in Figure 10-2. Copper tube shall be hard tempered except when installed underground. typically is selected if the system is critical to the operation of the laboratory. maintenance cost. and alarms. stainless steel.

the number of branch takeoffs. This flow rate is used in conjunction with the direct reading figure for the diversity . Inlets for laboratory stations. if the measured run Table 10-8 Diversity Factor for Laboratory Vacuum Air Systems Number % 1–2 3–5 6–10 11–20 21–100 Use of Inlets Factor 100 80 66 35 25 millimeters) in size. the allowable high-to-low pressure loss is much less. The routing should be as direct as possible and insulated for personnel protection near the pump since it may get hot depending on the pump selected. Equivalent Run of Pipe The equivalent length of piping is found by using the actual measured run of pipe and adding an associated length of pipe for various fittings and valves. General System Layout It is recommended to locate the vacuum equipment at the lowest level of the system. use an allowable pressure loss of 1 inch of mercury (3. and the number of valves. the flow rate shall be obtained from the manufacturer of the equipment being supported. For example. To calculate this loss. For smaller systems. electrical department. clear of any air intakes and windows. The length of pipe run and the length of pipe to account for fittings is the total equivalent length. Flow Rate The basic flow rate from each laboratory inlet shall be 1 scfm (0. Due to variations of pipe routings from the design to the contractor-completed installation. System Pressure Determine the system operating pressure by discussing with the end user the type of research being performed and the function of the vacuum.2 inch of mercury (3 to 5 torr). This is important since vacuum piping acts as a receiver and over the years will collect material along its walls. based on the requirements of all rooms. A generally accepted criterion is to use 10 percent of the highest pressure at the source. including pump removal. with soldered joints.000 feet per minute (1. Pipe 5 inches (125 millimeters) and larger is usually Schedule 40 galvanized steel pipe with malleable iron fittings and threaded joints. and equipment used in the facility.47 sL/m). but heavy liquids and materials will collect at the low points. Pipe Sizing Criteria Number of Inlets Using the project’s plans. etc. based on the requirements of the end user. No codes or other mandated requirements specify the locations of vacuum inlets. Each fitting and valve has associated friction losses.219 meters per minute). The number of inlets is provided by the architect or lab programmer and determined by the end user. Allowable Piping Pressure Loss This is calculated using the allowable pressure loss for the system divided by the equivalent run of pipe in hundreds of feet. and any others who are involved.000 feet per minute (1.9 kPa) for the entire system (after the source assembly) and a maximum velocity between 4.219 to 1. For high vacuum systems. If noise may be a problem. Fittings shall have a long-turn drainage pattern so as to not impede the flow of fluids in the pipe.12 to 0. Allowable System Pressure Loss A generally accepted criterion used to size a piping system is to allow a high-to-low pressure range of 3 to 5 inches of mercury (10. Some factors that need to be considered in assuming a percentage of total run for fittings are how much of the routing is long straight runs versus bends. All of these components can influence the equivalent length of pipe to account for fittings. The percentage of pipe length used to account for fittings can vary depending on the project. If dealing with high vacuum applications. so gravity will carry solids and liquids. locate and count the number of inlets and determine the required flow rate for each. use 4. Piping should be run with a slight slope back toward the receiver. Vacuum pump exhaust should vent outside. fume hoods. Proper clearances should be provided for maintenance and accessibility. shall be appropriate for the intended use. another common method used is to assume a percentage of the total length of piping to allow for fittings.4 kPa) for each 100 feet (31 meters) of pipe.524 meters per minute). Location of the Supply Source Select the location of the supply source in conjunction with the architect. Common percentages to allow for fittings are between 15 and 50 percent of the measured run.2 to 16. The vacuum equipment may be at the top of the system such as in a penthouse. steel pipe with welded joints should be considered to eliminate possible leaks. Provide a low-point drain valve since rainwater and condensed liquids in the exhaust stream may collect in the pipe. For manufacturing facilities. in the range of 0. areas. Provisions for cleanouts should be considered to allow cleaning of the vacuum piping.174 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 factor. you can use published tables that equate the losses seen in various fittings to the losses you would see in an equivalent length of pipe. Risers should have isolation valves.000 and 5.

5) 0.17 (4.6) 35 (991.44 (1.6) 0.4) 0.19 (0.9) 2.30 (7.14 (0.1) 2.7) 0.5) 0.15 (0.5) 0.3) 5 (141.27 (0.5) 0.4) 1.5) 0.0) 150 (4248.4) 50 (1416.8) 0.45 (1.0) ¾ (20) 0.0) 4 (113.8) 0.0) 125 (3540.4) 0.9) 0.31 (1.30 (7.77 (2.3) 2 (56.0) 200 (5664.88 (3.99 (3.6) 3 (85.44 (1.7) 0.34 (4.2) 0.71 (5.7) 2.80 (9.26 (0.6) 0.24 (4.52 (5.81 (2.6) 1.12 (0.79 (6. (DN) 1 (25) 1¼ (32) 1½ (40) 2 (50) 2½ (65) 3 (80) 0.3) 0.3) 1.6) 6 (169.8) 100 (2832.3) 1.0) 0.11 (0.8) 45 (1274.1) 0. Low Pressure Vacuum System Standard Air Flow.10 (0.1) 2.6) 0.6) 0.28 (4.9) 10 (283.41 (1.5) Source: Courtesy of Ohmeda.32 (1.60 (2.0) 30 (849.96 (3.0) 0.3) 0.29 (1.7) 0.8) 2.4) 0. cfm (L/min) 1 (28.4) 80 (2265.6) 0.0) 1.50 (8. Note: Based on copper pipe type L.77 (2.20 (0.44 (1.5) 0.8) 20 (566.19 (0.17 (4.9) 0.00 (6.4) 0.5) 0.15 (0.8) 0.38 (1.5) 0.19 (0. Hg (kPa) Nominal Pipe Size.33 (1.9) 0.Chapter 10 — Vacuum Systems 175 Figure 10-4 Direct Reading Chart Showing Diversity for Laboratory Vacuum Table 10-9 Pressure Loss Data for Sizing Vacuum Pipe.1) 0.2) 1.6) 9 (254.4) 0.2) 1.3) 0.10 (0.18 (0.2) 70 (1982.5) 1.78 (6.10 (0.22 (0.07 (0.0) 60 (1699.19 (0.5) 0.3) 0.8) 0.3) 1.41 (1.1) Pressure Drop per 100 ft (30 m) of Pipe.54 (1.72 (2.77 (2.2) 0.24 (0.99 (3.2) 1.0) 0.6) 0.4) 25 (708.14 (0.4) 0.45 (1.6) 0.09 (3.4) 0. in.18 (0.14 (0.5) 0.14 (0.4) 0.8) 2.0) 175 (4956.4) 0.3) 0. ASTM B88.0) 1.1) 0.2) 15 (424.61 (5.60 (2.31 (1.46 (4.1) 0.5) 4 (100) 0.95 (3.35 (1.09 (0. in.6) 90 (2548.0) 1.67 (2. .50 (1.7) 0.7) 0.40 (8.0) 2.5) 0.74 (2.2) 8 (226.20 (7.3) 0.38 (4.27 (0.39 (1.12 (0.3) 0.22 (0.9) 7 (198.6) 0.12 (0.7) 1.2) 40 (1132.

05 19 13.9 3. Since the above flow rates and diversity factors are arbitrary.967 0.176 Table 10-9(A) Pressure Loss Data for Sizing vacuum Pipe.05 17 12.4 5.6 4.02 Velocity of 4.5 11⁄2 3.819 0.06 12 10.07 23 15. Enter Table 10-9 with the scfm (nL/m) and find the value equal to or less than the previously calculated allowable pressure loss for the system.0 0. Piping Network Sizing The following method should be used to size the pipe at each design point.9 kPa) higher than the highest required vacuum pressure (the pump stopping point) to a low Table 10-10 Vacuum Pump Exhaust Pipe Sizing is 300 feet and the building has a large percentage of fittings and valves versus long straight runs of pipe.209 0.617 0.0 5. and where the number crosses the reference line determine the scfm (sL/s) on the side of the chart. which is based on scfm (sL/s) flow rate and friction loss in psi per 100-foot length of piping. The source pumps for industrial facilities are sized using the total connected load reduced by a diversity factor determined from the duty cycle of the equipment and a diversity factor based on end-user requirements.683 0. if desired.0 11⁄4 4.4 11⁄2 4.0 ⁄4 2.380 0.2) Pipe Size.04 1 16 11. and a range of vacuum pressure. use a diversity factor double that found in Table 10-8.12 5 5.701 0.05 1 10 8. but never less than the largest scfm (sL/s) calculated for the first two rooms.7 11⁄2 3.3 4. use Table 10-9(A). For the design of classrooms.8) (91.9 11⁄4 3.9 11⁄2 4.296 0.7 7.04 9 7.454 0.05 6 5.771 0. The pressure range usually extends from 5 inches of mercury (16.9 6.6 11⁄4 4.4 3. the diversity factor for the whole facility. the diversity factor for one and two classrooms on one branch is 100 percent. For sizing a low vacuum distribution system. which equals 450 feet of equivalent run.1 11⁄2 4.998 0.000 fpm.4 1 ⁄2 4.02 3 3 3. in.2) 2 (50) 2 (50) 3 (75) 3 (75) 4 (100) 4 (100) 5 (125) 5 (125) 100 (30.3 7. All Pumps scfm nL/s 10 4.915 0.0 1.5 ⁄4 3. this calculation must be made in terms compatible with the chart or table for flow rate and pressure loss per length of pipe that you have selected for sizing.72 50 23.6 2 2.639 0.3 6.9 2 3.412 0.1 inches of mercury per 100 feet.2 1 4.705 0. Always consult the user for definitive information regarding the maximum probable simultaneous usage of connected inlets.04 15 11.2 7.9 6. ft (m) 150 200 300 (45. Refer to Figure 10-4 for a direct reading chart to determine the adjusted general laboratory vacuum flow rate based on the number of connected inlets regardless of type or location. add 50 percent of the total run for fittings (150 feet). For more than two classrooms. Source Vacuum Pump Sizing The source pump for laboratories is selected using the flow rate of the gas at all inlets.6) (60. this information shall be obtained from the end user.6 100 47.04 3 2 2.031 0.0 2.0 2.05 11 9.6) 2 (50) 3 (75) 5 (125) 5 (125) 5 (125) 6 (150) 8 (200) 8 (200) 500 (152) 2 (50) 3 (75) 5 (125) 5 (125) 5 (125) 6 (150) 8 (200) 8 (200) .5 ⁄2 2. use the vacuum sizing chart in Table 10-9.8 6. so divide the allowable system pressure loss by the equivalent run times 100 to obtain the number in 100 feet of pipe.06 21 14. For industrial facilities.8 7. Use the previously calculated allowable piping pressure loss and adjusted scfm (sL/s) at each design point.5 5.7 11⁄2 4.5 1 3.160 0.1 3.0 1 ⁄2 4. The result is a piping pressure loss of 1.07 13 10.502 0. pressure drop in in.05 18 12.9 1 4. Proceed from the furthest point to the source.2 150 71 200 55 300 142 400 189 500 236 50 (15.7 2.023 0.0 1.4 6.06 1 22 14.3 1 ⁄4 4. It has been found to be slightly more than that used for compressed air because the vacuum is often left on for longer periods of time.08 8 7.2 11⁄4 4.08 14 11.657 0. they must be used with judgment and modified if necessary for special conditions and client requirements. Table 10-8 has been prepared for a numerical calculation of the diversity factor. Read the size at the top of the column where the selected value is found.088 0. High Vacuum Pressure System Laboratory Vacuum Branch Piping – 26" Hg Total Outlets Pipe Velocity Pressure Outlets Used SCFM Size (FPM) Drop (in Hg) 1 1 1.777 0.07 7 6.2 11⁄2 4. Find Total Vacuum Plant Capacity.02 24 15.06 20 13. Diversity Factor The diversity factor established for general laboratories is based on experience. (DN) 2 (50) 2 (50) 2 (50) 3 (75) 3 (75) 3 (75) 3 (75) 4 (100) 4 (100) 4 (100) 4 (100) 5 (125) 4 (100) 5 (125) 5 (125) 5 (125) 5 (125) 6 (150) 6 (150) 6 (150) 6 (150) 6 (150) 6 (150) 8 (200) 400 (121.06 3 4 4.6 11⁄4 3.4) 2 (50) 2½ (65) 3 (75) 4 (100) 4 (100) 5 (125) 5 (125) 6 (150) Equivalent Pipe Length. The allowable system pressure loss is calculated at 5 inches of mercury. For a high vacuum pressure.0 5. Hg/100 ft ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 the connected number of inlets along the bottom.0 ⁄4 4.Type L copper.556 0. However.984 0.

Chapter 10 — Vacuum Systems 177 Source: Courtesy of Becker Pumps Figure 10-5 Acceptable Leakage in Vacuum Systems .

For dry systems.) V = Total piping system volume. Ideally. wet. section by section.4719. A combination system is capable of both wet and dry pickup. and liquids from floors. If such is the case. with cleaning capabilities ranging from cleaning carpets to removing potentially toxic and explosive product spills from the floors of an industrial facility. It is common practice to test laboratory vacuum piping systems. minutes After calculating the system volume and the leakage from the system. industrial. the intermediate vacuum settings for multiple pumps shall be adjusted accordingly. is: Equation 10-6 0. sound-attenuating enclosures. A wide variety of separators is available to allow disposal and recovery of the collected materials. Silencers. a wet separator constructed to resist the chemical action of the liquid mixtures involved.178 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 sively for free-flowing dry material. The wet system is intended exclusively for liquid handling and pickup. For duplex and triplex pump arrangements. no leakage should occur. tubular-bag and centrifugal-type separators can be used.) System Leakage There is a difference between desirable and acceptable leakage in a vacuum system. using the equivalent length of exhaust piping as the length of piping. what is an acceptable amount of leakage? There is no generally accepted value for allowable leakage in a vacuum system. a wet separator constructed to resist the chemical action of the liquids involved. multiply L by 0. If only dust and other fine materials are expected. and inlets located throughout the facility. This involves the use of either a permanent. piping or tubing of a material resistant to the chemical action of the liquid. The discharge of the unit can be positioned at various points to accommodate the requirements of the exhaust piping system. It is commonly found in healthcare. electric-powered units. the Heat Exchange Institute has developed a standard based on system volume. This formula. or rooms can be provided to attenuate the noise. The design of portable units is outside the scope of this chapter. Vacuum Pump Exhaust Pipe Sizing For sizing the exhaust piping from the vacuum pump source assembly. Types of Systems and Equipment The three types of permanent systems are dry. self-contained. one or more separators that remove collected materials from the airstream. scfm (sL/s)(To convert to metric. transposed to solve for leakage. NFPA 68: Standard on Explosion Protection by Deflagration Venting and NFPA 69: Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems may apply. and inlets located throughout the facility. refer to Table 10-10. If dealing with explosive powders. The housing can be constructed of various materials to handle special chemicals and nonsparking aluminum for potentially explosive dust. tubing to convey the air and materials to the separator. System Components Vacuum Producer Vacuum producers for typical vacuum cleaning systems consist of a single or multistage centrifugal-type unit powered by an electric motor. However. A central system transports the unwanted debris to a central location where it can be disposed of or recovered easily. Yet it is almost impossible to install a large system that does not have small leaks. It functions as an VACUUM CLEANING SYSTEMS Vacuum cleaning systems are used to remove unwanted dirt. and inlets located throughout the facility. and ceilings. Equipment consists of a vacuum producer.5 Codes and Standards No codes and standards directly govern the design and installation of vacuum cleaning systems. a tubular-bag type is adequate. Equipment consists of a vacuum producer. The dry system is intended exclu- . Equipment consists of a vacuum producer. which should be related to the volume of the piping network to be meaningful. Separator Separators are used to remove the solid particulates in the airstream generated by the vacuum producer. pipe or tubing of a material resistant to the chemical action of the combined solid/liquid. It is the most commonly used type of system. centrally located system or portable. use Figure 10-5 to determine if the intersection of the two values falls within the acceptable portion of the chart. figure equal to the lowest acceptable system pressure (the pump starting point). The bag is permanently installed and cannot be removed.15 × V T L= 4. and laboratory facilities where sanitation is important and frequent washings are required. cubic feet (cubic meters) T = Time for vacuum pressure to drop 1 inch of mercury. walls. (See the “Piping Network Sizing” section below for a definition of equivalent length. where L = Leakage. at the rated maximum working pressure for 24 hours with no loss of pressure permitted. and combination. dust. Portable units can be moved throughout all areas of a facility.

and the air containing particulates is forced into a circular motion within the unit. If there is a potential for explosion. when substances removed from the facility are considered harmful to the environment. In special areas where leakage prevention and strength are mandatory. the manufacturer of the unit should be consulted to determine the need for this device for the system selected. dry particles from the airstream. The centrifugal-type separator is designed to remove coarse. Additional support for the 179 silencer is recommended. a silencer shall be installed in the exhaust to reduce the noise to an acceptable level. Tubing shall be supported every 8 to 10 feet (2. integral unit. Centrifugal force accomplishes separation. The wet separator system collects the liquid. Silencer When the exhaust from the vacuum producer is considered too noisy. However. They provide a quick connection for any male hose or equipment. Check valves are typically spring-loaded. Pulsating airflow requires special design considerations.4 to 3. swingtype valves hinged in the center. The motor-operated shaker has adjustable timers to start operation after shut down of the system and to shake the bags. separates the water from the airstream. This dirt eventually falls into a hopper or a dirt can at the bottom of the unit. an air-bleed device can be installed on the inlet to the exhauster that will automatically allow air to enter the piping system.1 meters). Immersion-type separators are used to collect explosive or flammable materials in a water compartment. The bag must be shaken to remove as much of the collected material as possible and emptied into the dirt can. and stainless steel. Control and Check Valves Valves for vacuum cleaning systems are different than standard valves. Air-bleed Control If the exhauster is constantly operated with low or no inlet air. To empty the entire unit. the exhauster motor might become hot enough to require shutdown due to overheating. but an alternate location immediately prior to penetration of the building wall or roof is also acceptable. The covers can be locked as an option. the tubing joints can be welded if required. Many different inlet types are available. however. a HEPA filter must be installed in the discharge line to prevent contamination of the outside air. Pipe and Fittings The pipe material most often used is thin-wall tubing. generally in the range of 12 to 16 gauge. If the facility indicates that this may be a possibility. Filters and silencers can be economically combined into a single. Inlets Inlets are female inlet valves and are equipped with self-closing covers. To avoid this. under normal conditions. such as exists in a grain or flour-handling facility. When used only fully open or closed. Standard steel pipe often is used in areas where the additional strength is required. Filter Vacuum producers typically are exhausted to the outside air and do not require any filtration. A less costly substitute for a blast gate is an air gate valve. This type of separator can be equipped with an automatic overflow shutoff that stops the system if the water level reaches a predetermined high-water level and with automatic emptying features. depending on size.Chapter 10 — Vacuum Systems air filter for fine particles and collects a majority of the dirt. they are called wafer butterfly valves. compressed air can be blown through the bag to remove the dirt without requiring a shutdown. the system must be shut down. with room to close off the opening completely. and discharges the waste to the drain. The plate has a hole that matches the size of the opening in the channel. Fittings are specially designed for a vacuum cleaning system. This tubing is available in plain carbon steel. . The dirt can should be sized to hold at least one full day’s storage. Units are available with multiple bags to increase filter bag area. zinc-coated steel. The air enters the separator tangential to the unit. Shaking can be done either manually or by motor. they generally are referred to as blast gates. When used as regulating valves. The dirt can is removed (or the hopper is emptied into a separate container) to clean out the unit. The recommended location is between the separator and the vacuum producer. Compression fittings and flexible rubber sleeves and clamps also are used. you should verify with the pipe manufacturer that it can be used for the intended vacuum level of your system. They are used to control the flow or stop the reverse flow of air in the system. the separator shall be provided with an integral explosion relief/rupture device that is vented to the outside of the building. which operates using a sliding plate in a channel. in sizes ranging from 1½ to 4 inches (40 to 100 millimeters) and of various materials. It also is recommended when more than six simultaneous operators are anticipated to remove the bulk of the dirt. aluminum. In some cases PVC can be used. Tubing typically is joined using shrink sleeves over the joints. Air gates can be used only in low-pressure systems and are generally available in sizes from 2 to 6 inches (50 to 150 millimeters). The connection to the silencer shall be made with a flexible connection. If continuous operation is required.

000 square feet (1. with a maximum of 50 feet (15 meters) of hose. one operator will be expected to cover 20. The maximum number of simultaneous operators is decided by the facility’s housekeeping or maintenance department and depends on a number of factors: • Is gang cleaning the preferred method? Is it possible to alter this practice to result in a less costly system? • What is the maximum number of operators expected to use the system at the same time? • Is the work done daily? If no information is available for a commercial facility. the figure is about 75 rooms. several alternate locations are possible for any given valve. minimizing piping system losses by a careful layout will be reflected in reduced power requirements for the exhauster. Tool. walls. and 15-meter) lengths. 12 classrooms per day is an average figure for a custodian to clean in addition to other duties normally accomplished.5. This represents a labor savings by halving the number of times an operator has to change outlets. an average figure of 100 rooms. equipment. After this is decided. often in the order of 25 percent.5 and 15 Source: Courtesy of Hoffman Detailed System Design Inlet Location and Spacing The first step in system design is to locate the inlets throughout the facility. Another generally accepted figure for short time periods is 3.000 square feet per hour (280 square meters per hour) for standard floors. Generally. 1 1½ 2 2½ Average Floor Cleaning and Moderate Spills Not used Excellent Good Not used Close Hand Work Yes Yes No No Removing Heavy Spills or Large Quantities of Overhead Vacuum Materials Cleaning Inadequate Not used Fair Preferred Good Poor Excellent Not used Standard Hose Length ft 8 25 and 50 25 and 50 25 and 50 m 2. Some small overlap must be provided to allow for hoses that cannot be stretched to the absolute end of their length.5 and 15 7. 37. Inlet Valve. and 2. However. 12.4 7. try to locate inlets in a constant pattern on every floor.5 and 15 7. and Hose Sizing The recommended sizes for hand tools and hose are given in Table 10-11. and ceilings is the most practical size to use. The spacing of the inlets depends on the length of hose selected for use. Wherever possible. and benches. per eight-hour shift would be expected.5-meter) spacing should be provided in areas where spills are frequent. For long or shag carpets. Determining the Number of Simultaneous Operators This is another major design consideration because an under-designed system will not produce the desired level of vacuum and an oversized system will be costly. This length should not be exceeded. For theaters. . including adjacent corridors.500 square feet per hour (233 square meters per hour) for shag and long carpets.180 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Table 10-11 Recommended Sizes of Hand Tools and Hose Nominal Size DN 25 40 50 65 in. This allows for the location of common vertical risers since the distance between floors is less than the distance between inlets. and the holds of ships. columns. doorways. and 50-foot (7.000 square feet (930 square meters). because of excessive pressure drop. boxcars.000 to establish the number of simultaneous operators.5. Experience has shown that 1½-inch (40-DN) hose and tools for cleaning floors.860 square meters) of area for regular carpeting in an eight-hour shift. the inlet locations shall be planned in such a manner that all areas can be reached by the selected hose length. Larger hose and tools are used for picking up expected large spills and cleaning large tanks. Inlets should be placed near room entrances. For hotels. use the number of seats divided by 1. they must be verified and based on the actual methods anticipated. the following guidelines are based on experi- ence and can be used to estimate simultaneous use based on productivity. In any system. For schools. Standard hoses are available in 25. For general cleaning. This planning must take into account furniture. The inlets should be located between 24 and 36 inches (600 and 900 millimeters) above the floor. For long or shag carpets. except for occasional cleaning. the figure is about 10. These figures consider the greater efficiency of using a central system compared to portable units. For carpets. A 25-foot (7. and all other obstructions. heavy floor deposits may occur. the location of inlet valves should allow for convenient cleaning. or frequent spot cleaning is necessary. Smaller 1-inch (25-DN) tools are used for cleaning production tools.

1½ 2 2½ 3 4 5 6 DN 40 50 65 75 100 125 150 Horizontal Runs of Branches and Mains and Vertical Downflow Risers Recommended Minimum Velocity Max.200 Source: Courtesy of Hoffman Note: 1 ft/min = 0. etc. diam.200 6. Cleaning railroad cars and ship holds 1-in. A convenient means to dispose of the collected debris should be available nearby. scfm Bench use White rooms or areas with very low dust content Usual industrial Fissionable materials or other heavy metallic dusts and minute particles of copper.700 3.000 2.400 4. an adequately sized floor drain is required.3 m/min . diam.80 4. flexible hose 2-in. b Can be exceeded by 10% if necessary. Velocity (ft/min) (ft/min) 2. and.5 nL/s. flexible hose 1½-in.500 5.900 3..000 3.000 4. Heavy spills.90 4.600 3. 50-ft 2-in. 50-ft 1½-in. 50-ft 1½-in. scfm 50 90 100b 120 Pressure. Hg 1.000 7. If a wet separator is used. and the number of simultaneous operators determined.4 kPa a The pressure drop in flexible hose is 2½ times the pressure drop for the same length and size of Schedule 40 pipe. in.50 Maximum Volume and Pressure Dropa Volume. a vacuum pressure of 3 inches of mercury (10 kPa) is required. Hg 1. Refer to Table 10-13 Recommended Velocities for Vacuum Cleaning Systems Nominal Tubing Size in. The following shall be considered when locating the vacuum equipment: Provide enough headroom for the piping above the equipment and for the various pieces to be brought easily into the room or area where they are to be installed.25 2.000 4.400 6.800 5. An ideal location is on the floor below the lowest inlet of the building or facility and centrally located to minimize the differences at remote inlet locations. The flow rate must be sufficient to bring the dirt into the tool nozzle.. if sufficiently protected.800 3.200 4. Velocity (ft/min) (ft/min) 1. diam.800 6. room must be provided for the carts needed to move them. With adequate vacuum.800 3. Dry separators can be located outside the building for direct truck disposal of the dirt. flexible hose 40 60 70 100 Pressure Drop. 1 in. diam.800 4.000 5.8 Source: Courtesy of Hoffman Note: 1 scfm = 0.80 2.200 3.Chapter 10 — Vacuum Systems Table 10-12 Flow Rate and Friction Loss for Vacuum Cleaning Tools and Hoses Use Nominal Size of Tools and Hose Minimum Volume and Pressure Dropa Volume. Locating the Vacuum Producer Assembly The vacuum producer assembly consists of the vacuum producer. 50-ft 1½-in. Enough room around the separators shall be provided to allow for easy inspection. iron.60 150 3..400 3. in. diam. and the separators. commonly called an exhauster. Sizing the Piping Network After the inlets and vacuum equipment have been located.10 4. For hard-to-clean and industrial-type materials. Hg = 3. the layout of the piping system accomplished. Vacuum Pressure Requirements and Hose Capacity To achieve the necessary air velocity. where dirt bins must be emptied.200 2.500 2. Cleaning systems using hose and tools shall have sufficient capacity so that one pass over an area is all that is necessary for cleaning. 8-ft 1-in.100 4. system sizing can begin. flexible hose 1½-in. light to medium dirt deposits shall be removed as fast as the operator moves the floor tool across the surface.000 Vertical Upflow Risers Recommended Minimum Velocity Max. flexible hose 1½-in.900 2..20 181 120 2. The actual cleaning agent is the velocity of the air sweeping across the floor.20 2.200 3. the minimum recommended vacuum pressure for ordinary use is 2 inches of mercury (7 kPa)..

182 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Figure 10-6 Vacuum Cleaning Piping Friction Loss Chart .

3 m a Lengths based on use of cast-iron drainage fittings. 2) 1 ft = 0. except where the material to be cleaned will not pass through hose of this size or where a large volume of material is expected. This chart provides a more accurate method of determining the pipe size. To use it. starting with the inlet most remote from the exhauster and continuing to the source: Initial level of vacuum required: For average conditions. line refers to permanently installed pipe from the inlet to the separator. 140 scfm. and the sizes may have to be adjusted to reduce or increase friction loss and velocity as design progresses. After the initial selection of pipe sizes. are given: • Adjacent inlet valves will not be used simultaneously. • For the purposes of calculating simultaneous use. in inches of mercury (kPa). which should be expected. This table has been calculated to achieve the minimum velocity of air required for adequate cleaning. use the larger pipe size. If any parameter is found to be outside any of the calculated ranges. to size the exhauster. allow for two operators on that branch. but only a few inlet valves will be used at once. hose 2-in. Table 10-12 to determine the minimum and maximum recommended flow rate of air and the friction losses of each hose size for the flow rate selected. 1. Pipe sizing is an iterative procedure. Friction losses are calculated by adding all of the following values. it should be kept within a recommended range. the pipe size should be revised. the use of inlets will be evenly distributed along a main on one floor or on different floors. Read the pipe size at the point where these two values intersect. • Where mains and outlets are located on several floors. hose 1 — 2 1 3 2 5 3 8 4 12 6 20 10 183 Table 10-15 Equivalent Length (ft) of Vacuum Cleaning Pipe Fittings Nominal Pipe Size in.Chapter 10 — Vacuum Systems Table 10-14 Pipe Size Based on Simultaneous Usage Line Diameter in. use 90% of these values. enter the chart with the adjusted scfm and allowable pressure loss.5-in. and velocity of the system. and hose is the hose connecting the tool to the inlet. 1¼ 1½ 2 2½ 3 4 5 6 8 DN 32 40 50 65 75 100 125 150 200 Equivalent Length of Pipe Fittings (ft)a 90° Change 45° Change in Direction in Direction 3 1½ 4 2 5 2½ 6 3 7 4 10 5 12 6 15 7½ 20 10 Source: Courtesy of Spencer Turbine Note: 1 scfm = 0. these inlets are chosen at random by the operators. If this point is between lines. For hard-to-clean material. the next step is to calculate the precise worst-case total system friction losses. Refer to Table 10-13 for recommended velocities based on pipe size and orientation of the pipe.5 sL/s Notes: 1) For smooth-flow fittings. friction loss. 2 2½ 3 4 5 6 8 DN 50 65 75 100 125 150 200 Number of Operators 70 scfm. The air velocity moves the dirt in the system. along with other inlet valves between the two. To aid in the determination of simultaneous usage. For ordinary carpeting and floor-cleaning purposes. the actual velocity and friction loss based on the anticipated flow rates in each section of the piping system should be checked by using Figure 10-6. Since the velocity of the air in the pipe conveys the suspended particles. the following conditions. • For long horizontal runs on one floor. Piping System Friction Losses With the piping network sized. a generally accepted flow rate of 70 scfm (35 sL/s) is recommended. A hose size of 1½ inches (40 DN) is recommended. Selecting the Number of Outlets Used Simultaneously Facilities may have many inlet valves. Oversizing the pipe will lead to low velocity and poor system performance. . Recommended Velocity The recommended velocity in the vacuum cleaning piping system depends on the pipe’s orientation (horizontal or vertical) and size. the most remote inlet on the main and the inlet closest to the separator will be assumed to be in use. Sizing the Piping Refer to Table 10-14 to select the initial pipe size based on the number of simultaneous operators. the generally accepted figure is 2 inches of mercury (6. In this table.8 kPa). Under normal operating conditions.

1 inch of mercury (0. Not appl. this can be ignored. Loss of vacuum pressure due to friction of the air in the pipe: Losses in the straight runs of the piping system are based on the flow rate of the air in the pipe at the point of design. and pipe length along the entire run of pipe to find the total friction loss. Sep. pressure lost through separators.34 kPa) as an average figure for a run of 100 feet (30 meters). dependent Cent. (3. (3. less complex systems. spillage from conveyor belts. Allow 0. Irregular: Fibrous. white rooms. The vacuum pressure required from the exhauster is the total pressure necessary to overcome all piping system losses. and so on. Use HVAC ductwork sizing methods to find the size of the exhaust piping while keeping the air pressure loss to a minimum. use the cfm. and finally the exhaust pressure to be overcome. entering the system is calculated by multiplying the number of simultaneous operators by the scfm (sL/s) selected as appropriate for the intended cleanup requirements. such as those found in classrooms. it shall be a minimum of 8 feet (2. on material Cent. and so on. 2. Lumpy: Lumps ½ in. For smaller. pressure lost through the tool and hose selected. To account for the various fittings comprising the exhaust system. Granular: 8 to ½ in. and silencers. of air required by the system. using an equivalent length of pipe added to the straight run. and long shag-type carpet. For a piped exhaust. mended Ratio Vol. A screen should be used to prevent insects from entering. Selection & Sep. Large: Heavy accumulations. If the end is vertical. The pressure loss through the exhaust pipe shall be added to the exhauster inlet pressure drop. Source: Courtesy of Spencer Turbine Co Notes: 1. These values are added to establish the vacuum rating of the exhauster. Vacuum Producer Sizing Exhauster Inlet Rating Determination It is now possible to size the exhauster. (12. = centrifugal. Refer to Table 10-15 to determine the equivalent length of run for each type and size of fitting.2 kPa). friction loss of air flowing through the piping system. using only the actual selected inlet cfm (L/s) is sufficient. This consists of the total pressure drop from all components in the piping network from . the total of which will be calculated into the pressure that the exhauster must overcome. TB 6:1 Cent. and TB 6:1 Cent. (S) Bag Area Sep. Not appl. such as those found in clean rooms. Exhauster Discharge The discharge from the exhauster is usually steel pipe routed outside the building. filters. Starting from the farthest inlet. the inlet farthest from the exhauster. The flow rate of the air. For short runs of about 20 feet (6 meters).2 mm). The size shall be equal to or one size larger than the size of the pipe into the exhauster. pipe size. It is also possible to route the exhauster discharge into an HVAC exhaust duct that is routed directly outside the building. Cent. Very fine: Less than 100 mesh. Not appl. Cent. fitting allowance. and so on. industrial applications. laboratories.7 mm) and over. assembly areas. in scfm (sL/s). stringy. TB = tubular bag.4 meters) above grade. if required. if the end is elbowed down. mended Ratio Vol. waste from processing machines. an end cap shall be installed to prevent rain from entering the pipe. Exhaust line loss: This usually can be ignored except for long runs.184 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Table 10-16 Classification of Material for Separator Selection Size of material Small Medium Large Very Fine Fine Granular RecomRecomRecommended Ratio Vol. such as those found in foundries. However. Centrifugal separators do not utilize bags. motels. in scfm (sL/s). Not appl.) Fittings are figured separately. and TB 6:1 Cent. and TB 3:1 Cent. Cent. an additional 30 percent should be added to the measured run to calculate the equivalent piping run. 3. and so on. Abbreviations: Cent. Definition of terms: Small: Light accumulations. Not appl.4 kPa) loss through all types of separators. (S) Bag Area Cent. Medium: Average accumulations. Pressure drop through the hose and tool: Refer to Table 10-12 for the friction loss through individual tools and hose based on the intended size and length of hose and the flow rate selected for the project. Loss through the separator: A generally accepted figure is 1 inch of mercury (3. Included are the initial inlet vacuum level required. Not appl.7 mm). Fine: 100 mesh to 8 in. the exact figure must be obtained from the manufacturer. the initial vacuum should be increased to 3 inches of mercury (10. (S) Bag Area Bag Area Cent. The two exhauster ratings that must be known to select the size and horsepower are the worst-case piping system vacuum pressure losses and the flow rate. (S) Bag Area Sep. Not appl. and TB 6:1 Lumpy Irregular RecomSeparator mended Ratio Vol.2 to 12. (Refer to Figure 10-6.

icfm (iL/s) is the actual volume of air at the inlet of Figure 10-7 Schematic of a Typical Wet Vacuum Cleaning Pump Assembly . it is necessary to calculate separately the total system friction loss for each branch line containing inlets nearest and farthest from the exhauster. Hg) The adjusted figure is used instead of the selected flow rate and multiplied by the number of simultaneous operators to size the exhauster. Hg) × selected cfm adjusted cfm = closest inlet friction loss (in. The following formula can be used to calculate the adjusted cfm (liters per second): Equation 10-7 185 farthest inlet friction loss (in. This is necessary because the actual flow rate at the inlets closest to the exhauster will be greater than the cfm at the end of the longest run due to the smaller friction loss. If the location of the project is at an elevation higher than sea level. Following the procedures previously explained will result in minimum and maximum system friction loss figures. This factor shall be multiplied by the figure to calculate the adjusted flow rate to be used in sizing the exhauster. some adjustment in the selected inlet flow rate (in cfm {liters per second]) shall be made. All of the above calculations are based on scfm (sL/s) at sea level. the figure should be adjusted to allow for the difference in barometric pressure. Another adjustment to the scfm (sL/s) figure used to size the exhauster is required if the equipment manufacturer uses icfm (iL/s) instead of scfm (sL/s). To establish the adjusted flow rate. Refer back to Table 10-5 for the factor. The adjustment will establish an average inlet flow rate for all inlets that will be used for sizing instead of the selected inlet flow rate.Chapter 10 — Vacuum Systems Exhauster Rating Adjustments For systems with very long runs or complex systems with both long and short runs of piping.

Separator Selection and Sizing The separator is sized based on the cfm (liters per second) of the vacuum producer and the type of material expected to be collected. All drops should be no larger than 2 inches (50 millimeters) in size. General Design Considerations Abrasion is the wearing away of the interior of the pipe wall by large. 5. there is always a possibility that a spill will occur. 7.186 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Piping geometry in the design of wet system piping could become critical. The effects are greatest at changes of direction. hard particles at the point where these particles strike the pipe. It is good practice to provide a safety factor to ensure that additional capacity is available from the exhauster without affecting the available vacuum. Harris.” Pumps and Systems Magazine. When abrasive particles are expected. 1972. 6. This should not exceed 5 percent of the total cfm (liters per second) and is used only when selecting the exhauster. F.” (unpublished manuscript).” Spencer Turbine Co. M. For cleaning this type of spill. such as at elbows and tees and under the bag plates of separators. a starting point for sizing would provide a 6:1 ratio of filter bag area to bag volume for smaller volumes of coarse material and a 3:1 ratio for fine dust and larger quantities of all material. August 1993. A typical wet vacuum cleaning system is shown in Figure 10-7. Cleaning Systems. Hesser. the exhauster using local temperature and barometric conditions. 2. Facility Piping Systems Handbook. D. 1993. “Vacuum Piping Systems. Albern. “How to Design Spencer Central Vacuum Systems.” Hydraulics and Pneumatics Magazine. Wet and centrifugal separator sizing is proprietary to each manufacturer and depends on the quantity and type of material expected to be removed. The air pressure recommended is generally in the range of 100 to 125 psig (689 to 1. Hoffman Industries. . In facilities using controlled substances... and only one inlet shall be placed on a single drop..034 kPa). Moffat. Every effort shall be made to keep the piping below the inlet valves to prevent any liquid from running out of the inlet after completion of the cleaning routines and to ease the flow of liquid into the pipe. Design of Hoffman Industrial Vacuum Cleaning Systems. W. 8. McGraw-Hill. 1990. Refer to Table 10-16 for a classification of such material. “Vacuum Sources. Frankel.P and R. 3. Previously discussed temperature and barometric conversions shall be used. Some automatic separator cleaning systems use compressed air to aid in the dislodging of dust.. “Putting Industrial Vacuum to Work. Modern Vacuum Practice. This will allow any liquid still clinging to the sides of the pipe to collect at the bottom of the riser and be carried away the next time the system is used. 1987. McGraw-Hill. Wet system pipe should pitch back to the separator at about 8 inches per foot (1 centimeter per meter). Each drop should terminate in a plugged tee facing down. R. it is recommended that either cast iron drainage fittings or Schedule 40 steel pipe fittings using sanitary pattern sweeps and tees be substituted for normally used tubing materials. 4. “Vacuum . The unit selected should have that extra flow available. Nigel S. For dry separators. The exhauster size should be selected and then the safety factor added. Henry H.. Glidden. Plugged cleanouts should be installed at the base of all risers and at 90-degree changes in direction to allow any blockages to be easily cleared.. The piping shall be pitched toward the separator. not for sizing the piping system.” Building Systems Design. McSweeney. a portable vacuum cleaning unit should be selected so that the filter can easily be weighed both before and after cleanup to account for the controlled substances picked up in the cleaning unit. REFERENCES 1. 1996.

When a metal radical and an acid radical combine. Water that has been treated is known as treated water. Since the acid radical moves around as a unit. laboratories. Ions often are referred to as salts in reference to reverse osmosis water production. If heavier. it is convenient to view the acid radicals as an integral anion unit. which is when colloids. high-density semiconductor manufacturing. The U. These liquids are called immiscible liquids. product water.001 to 1. Conditioning. Colloidal material is at the upper end of the size range for ions and molecules. The explanations and definitions given are simplified but suffice for the purposes of this chapter. They break down into extremely small particles and then disperse into the water. The resulting small particles are known as colloids. Pharmacopeia (USP) standards for water purity • Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) standards • Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards • Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International (SEMI) and ASTM electronicsgrade water Water to be treated is known generally as raw water. and adjust pH. and no chemical reaction occurs. the molecules of the compound separate. sugars. Chemicals or substances that dissolve in water can be .and magnesium sulfate⅔Mg2+SO42-. etc. cannot separate into smaller-sized particles and become dispersed. Many codes and standards apply to the various water systems. Electrolytes are chemicals that dissolve in water to form ions. and are held in suspension. chelate hardness.11 CODES AND STANDARDS BASIC WATER CHEMISTRY Water Treatment. such as oil and grease. For the purposes of discussion in this chapter. and many organics. depending on the purity of the water desired. and solute. • College of American Pathologists (CAP) and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) reagent grade water • U. suspend colloids. and Purification electrolytes or non-electrolytes. Potable water treatment shall comply with the 1986 Safe Drinking Water Act and amendments.S. in the general range of 0. Water conditioning is the addition of chemicals to water to inhibit corrosion. Some types of liquids cannot be dissolved.S. they float on top. chelate trace metals. Nonelectrolytes are chemicals that dissolve in water but do not break down. When an electrolyte compound dissolves in water. Pure water treatment shall comply with one or more of the following. even though they are not soluble. feed water. water treatment means the chemical or mechanical removal and/or replacement of ionic or nonionic substances in feed water to produce water for a predefined use. those same compounds become suspended solids.0 micrometer (µm). such as sodium chloride⅔Na+Cl. such as ethanol (C2H5OH). and very high-pressure boilers. All acid compounds referred to in water chemistry consist of hydrogen combined with an acid radical. or source water. The ions in solution act almost independently. The positively charged atoms are called cations because they migrate to the cathode electrode. Pure water systems are systems designed to produce water pure enough for use in pharmaceutical plants. but simply remain in suspension. In most cases. are suspended in solution and do not settle under the influence of just gravity. When the limit of solubility is reached. If they are lighter than water. particles. Dissolved materials cannot be removed by filtration. and the negatively charged atoms are called anions because they migrate to the anode electrode. other liquids. they form a class of chemicals called salts. magnesium sulfate dissociates to form positive magnesium ions and negative sulfate ions. they sink below the surface. For example. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) also has identified treatment technologies with given contaminant removal efficiencies for potable water. disperse among the water molecules.

The most common means of measuring bacterial contamination is the viable-count method. Turbidity Turbidity (also called suspended solids) is a general term used to describe any form of insoluble matter suspended in water. Although microorganisms are a suspended solid. resulting in the formula H2SO4. or an element with a valence of -2 can react with two hydrogen atoms. Pyrogens cause fever. The chief exception is the case where carbonates and bicarbonates are destroyed by heating or aeration. Color may be an indication of water containing decaying vegetation. which live by consuming sulfate and converting it to hydrogen sulfide gas. the valence of the two basic elements must equal one another to form the compound. The acid’s conjugate base. An element with a value of +2 can replace two hydrogen atoms in a compound. and nitrifying bacteria. These are called colony forming units (cfu). Endotoxins. Since the valence of an element is proportional to its combining power. An acid is any compound capable of giving up a hydrogen ion (H+) or proton. is the compound remaining after the loss of the H+: HClgconjugate base = ClA base is any compound capable of accepting a hydrogen ion or giving up a hydroxide (OH-) ion: NaOHgconjugate acid = Na+ The valence of any element is a measure of its chemical-combining power compared to that of a hydrogen atom. Endotoxins are measured in endotoxin units per milliliter (eu/mL). give. The valence is the number of electrons in an atom that are free to share. and in addition. wells. Water dissolves ionic compounds as it comes in contact with the ground surface or mineral formations when it percolates through the earth. The presence of these nutrients in untreated water is an indicator of the presence of microorganisms. and biochemical techniques. This is illustrated in Table 11-1. and sulfate has a valence of 2. which secrete slime. This detection technique uses optical density (turbidity level) measured over a period of time. This is done by passing the water being measured through a sterile nutrient medium and counting the number of colonies appearing on the medium after a period of time is allowed for growth. if the temperature is favorable for their growth. Water is classified as surface water when obtained from sources such as lakes and rivers and groundwater when obtained from streams. and the residue caused by decaying vegetation. It also contains dissolved gases and dust picked up when falling through the air as rain. Microorganisms Microorganisms are bacteria and viruses. fungi (plants lacking the chlorophyll required for photosynthesis). Bacteria are further subdivided into slime bacteria. a cation atom must combine with an anion atom. Most of the basic chemical reactions in water treatment consist of rearranging cation and anion atoms using their valence. hydrogen has a valence of 1. Several methods of measurement are used.008 grams of hydrogen or 8 grams of oxygen. sulfate-reducing bacteria. scanning electron microscopy. When combined to form sulfuric acid. which use ammonia and whose by-product results in the formation of nitric acid. wherein a blood extract of the horseshoe crab becomes turbid in the presence of bacterial endotoxins. Other organic growths include algae (a primitive form of plant life). giving off carbon dioxide. the term “turbidity” is most often used when referring to mineral particulates because they are usually the most plentiful. which exhibit both plant and animal characteristics. which thrive on iron. the treatment required for their removal or neutralization puts them in a separate category. WATER IMPURITIES Natural. Coarse particles that settle rapidly when water is standing are referred to as sediment. or other aquifers originating underground. and pathogenic organisms (such as Legionella) cause diseases of all kinds. Color is a chemical phenomenon often associated with turbidity. which are fragments derived from the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria. such as clams. water is never chemically pure H2O. and bacteria. two hydrogen atoms are required to form the combination. in grams. snow. As can be seen in Table 11-1. Their unusual physiology allows them to grow and multiply in water containing only trace levels of nutrients. of any element that could combine with or displace 1. iron bacteria. or source. When atoms combine to form compounds. direct-count epifluorescent microscopy. the equivalent weight is based on its valence. If a metal cation and a hydroxide anion combine. or anion. or hail or when surface water is in contact with the air above the water level. such as oil. Equivalent weight is the weight. They are living forms of particulate matter. An often-used form of measurement for endotoxins is the limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test. Other commonly occurring impurities are liquids. a base results. mussels. Other Organisms This term for biological life is applied to larger living things.188 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 However. their larvae. and . are considered the most important and widely occurring group of pyrogen. or take from other atoms. including viable-count essays. which has the assigned value of 1. and fine particles that mostly remain in suspension are called silt.

7 gpg) as CaCO3 • Hard: 151–300 mg/L (8.0 27.5–8.0 95. Soluble iron is called ferrous (Fe2+).0 162 100 136 44. They tend to clog water inlets from bodies of salt and fresh water and also may find their way into the piping system of a facility.0 31. and Purification Table 11-1 Important Elements.0 48. Alkalinity is regarded as an important characteristic of water in determining its scale-forming tendency. while insoluble iron is called ferric (Fe3+).5 gpg) as CaCO3 Acid Carbonic acid Hydrochloric acid Phosphoric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfurous acid Miscellaneous Compounds Aluminum hydroxide Calcium bicarbonate Calcium carbonate Calcium sulfate Carbon dioxide Ferric hydroxide Magnesium carbonate Magnesium hydroxide Magnesium sulfate Sodium sulfate Molecular Weight 62.00 — 23. Alkalinity Alkalinity is a measurement of the quantity of dissolved earth minerals in water and the water’s ability to neutralize acids. Iron The most common form of iron is ferrous bicarbonate. Often. or P alkalinity.06 Formula H2CO3 HCI H3PO4 H2SO4 H2SO3 Formula Al(OH)3 Ca(HCo3)2 CaCO3 CaSO4 CO2 Fe(OH)3 MgCO3 Mg(OH)2 MgSO4 Na2SO4 Valence 3 2 2 Variable Variable 1 2 3 1 2 Variable 1 2 Variable 1 Variable 4 Valence 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 Equivalent Weight 9. measures the strong alkali in the solution.0 30.02 23.0 — 7.1 71.0 50.0 68. it may be treated the same way as hardness. Hardness Hardness is a measure of the total calcium. some of which are harmful to the environment.0 35.06 Molecular Weight 61.3 14. Man-made chemical compounds.0 36.3 120 142 other forms of life. with borate.4 gpg) as CaCO3 • Moderate: 76–150 mg/L (4. measures all of the alkalinity present in the solution. it is said to be subject to oxidation.15 — 39.0 36.0 17.0 81. as follows: • Soft: 0–75 mg/L (0–4.1 12. include herbicides.0 28.0 68. Iron creates problems in ion-exchange processes where polymeric resins are predominant.1 29.0 35.0 12. It is mainly the sum of carbonate.0 107 84. The methyl orange alkalinity. bicarbonate. and other bio-decomposition products.6 1. and Acids in Water Chemistry Element Aluminum Barium Calcium Carbon Chlorine Fluorine Iron (ferrous) Iron (ferric) Hydrogen Magnesium Nitrogen Potassium Oxygen Phosphorus Sodium Sulfur Silicon Acid Radicals Bicarbonate Carbonate Chloride Nitrate Hydroxide Phosphate Sulfite Sulfate Symbol Al Ba Ca C Cl F Fe2+ Fe3+ H Mg N K O P Na S Si Formula HCO3 CO3 Cl NO3 OH PO4 SO3 SO4 Atomic Weight 27.0 22.0 17.3 58.70 20. sulfate.46 98.46 32.4 40.0 55. surfactants.05 41. and hydroxide ions in water.66 40. and silicate ions partially contributing to the total.8 55.0 96. Generally accepted practice limits the term “hardness” to include only calcium and magnesium.67 49. magnesium. and detergents. All natural water contains some measure of alkalinity. The phenolphthalein alkalinity.0 39. Carbonate.1 Molecular Weight 78. water is characterized in general terms by the amount of hardness. Alkalinity is not a measure of pH but is a contributor to the pH of the solution.8 1.6 42.03 Equivalent Weight 31.0 98.0 35.5 gpg) as CaCO3 • Very hard: More than 300 mg/L (17. Iron also creates problems on the surface of separation membranes.0 80. Hardness usually is expressed in terms of milligrams per liter (mg/L) (grains per gallon [gpg]) as CaCO3. iron.0 189 are typically not harmful in trace amounts.05 Equivalent Weight 26.Chapter 11 — Water Treatment. Iron in the ferrous form is subject to receiving an electron.0 35. and chloride salts of these elements are responsible for most of the scaling deposited on pipe and boiler walls.05 — 35.1 82.1 16. Acid Radicals. It is reported as parts per million (ppm) equivalent of calcium carbonate.9 18.1 60.46 19. The M alkalinity is often called the total alkalinity because it also includes the P alkalinity.8–17. phosphate. humic and fulvic acid. or M alkalinity.46 19. and other metallic elements that contribute to the “hard” feel of water. tannins. Conditioning.0 31.0 32.46 62.1 8.0 24. include lignins. Alkalinity is measured using two end-point pH indicators in a titration with acid. Because this form of iron is soluble. The presence of oxidation agents Dissolved Minerals and Organics Dissolved organic substances typically found in water include both man-made and natural substances. pesticides. which .46 62. trihalomethanes.0 137.01 Equivalent Weight 61. Naturally occurring chemical compounds.0 60.

These impurities tend to deposit scale on surfaces with which they come in contact. and calcium silicates. mercury. In these long chains are sites where the ferric iron connects to the polymer. an activated carbon filter is recommended. However. Many municipalities sell the sludge created by their process to local farms as fertilizer or cattle feed. cadmium. When a supply-water treatment system is selected. sodium or potassium carbonate. and colloidal silica sometimes is called non-reactive or polymeric. If it were possible for iron to stay in the ferrous form throughout the ion-exchange process. calcium phosphate. and particulate. Oxygen is the basic factor in the corrosion process. silver. and magnesium. Dissolved Gases The most common dissolved gases in natural raw water are oxygen. Volatile Organic Compounds Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are those compounds that evaporate readily at ambient temperatures and pressures. When more than 1 part per million of chlorine is present. its removal or reduction reduces the corrosiveness of the water. Common combinations are calcium carbonate. and hydrogen sulfide. sulfur oxides. zinc. carbon dioxide. knowing the concentration of the supply and the local discharge limits is critical to the selection of the appropriate treatment equipment and system design. The EPA lists 21 regulated VOC compounds and 34 more unregulated VOC compounds. chromium. Sodium and Potassium Sodium and potassium form similar salts. Thus. it must be present for the corrosion of metals. Silica The three common kinds of silica are soluble. and federal discharge limits. limits are placed on the discharge nitrate concentration if neutralized ion-exchange regeneration waste or membrane-separation concentrate . calcium chloride. VOCs may originate from the following typical treatment components: • Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) pipe • Polypropylene and polyethylene pipe Chlorides and Sulfates The most common forms of chlorides and sulfates are dissolved salts of sodium. Most of the VOCs that concern the user of chemically pure water originate from the treatment process itself. Though elements may be identified as trace by analysis of the supply water. During the oxidation process. it would not present a problem. Though water with a high nitrate level is treatable. Of increasing concern is the presence of radon gas in many water supplies obtained from wells. the waste products must be considered.190 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 is discharged directly into the environment or into a municipal treatment system. The ferric connection point acts as a catalyst for further crystallization or chemical reactions with the iron or related substances. it is impossible to prevent some of the ferrous substance from oxidizing to the ferric substance. Potable water supplies usually also have chlorine and fluorides added for public health purposes. state. Examples are lead. No pretreatment is typically necessary for feed water with less than 1 part per million of chlorine. nitrogen. Typically a long hydrocarbon chain results when resin or separation membranes are made. calcium. in water with ferrous iron is the root of the problems. bivalent. arsenic. Common oxidants are oxygen and chlorine. thereby creating a snowball effect for further chemical reactions. Magnesium The most common forms of magnesium are magnesium carbonate. with the most common being sodium or potassium chloride. copper. including regeneration of softening resin and the shutdown of membrane systems. Thus. Nitrates The EPA has set drinking water limits for nitrates at 10 milligrams per liter. These impurities tend to deposit a scale on surfaces with which they come in contact. and hydrogen sulfide also contribute to corrosion by making water acidic. and sodium or potassium bicarbonate. calcium hydroxide. nitrogen oxides. potassium. barium. for all practical purposes. The most common form in solution is silicon oxide. and selenium. and magnesium chloride. and in suspension it is found as a fine colloid. colloidal. Soluble silica often is referred to as reactive silica. most of the compounds that are a concern regarding the production of chemically pure water are man-made. in concentration they may exceed local. so they place considerable restrictions on treatment discharges. However. metallic element of the alkaline-earth group occurring only in combination. other ionic substances are involved. magnesium bicarbonate. Carbon dioxide. Calcium Calcium is a silver-white. Swamp gas is an example of a naturally occurring VOC. lithium. Trace Elements Trace elements are present in very small quantities and are considered problematic only if the amount is above an accepted level for the intended use of the water. These impurities tend to deposit a scale on surfaces they come in contact with and form a gelatinous mass on reverse osmosis membranes.

Conditioning. the hydrogen ions decrease. Milligrams per liter differs from parts per million in that it expresses a proportion in weight per volume. 191 WATER ANALYSIS AND IMPURITY MEASUREMENT Water samples are analyzed to determine the quantities of various impurities. milligrams per liter and parts per million are equal. Consultation can save considerable effort. and polyethylene-treated water-storage tanks • Filter and ion-exchange vessel linings • Pipe solvents. weight to weight) or by the volume of the impurity to the volume of water (abbreviated v/v). Although chemists can measure the amount of each ion present in a sample. and dopes • Cross-flow filter media • Other plastic wetted materials used in the construction of the system Many of the items listed above can be substituted or treated to remove serious VOCs. the solvent used to make the polymer • Anion ion-exchange resin. A common method used to report the concentration of ions in solution is the weight of an element or compound per liter of water. Sterile containers must be used. and the desired output quality must be established prior to the selection of any treatment system. contact the supplier of the treatment products considered. compounds break down into ions when dissolved. values higher than 7 being alkaline. The pH is not a measure of alkalinity. To determine the best approach for avoiding serious contamination. which is calcium carbonate. meaning that with use they will dissipate dramatically. glues. The quantities must be presented in a logical and understandable manner to allow for easy and practical interpretation.Chapter 11 — Water Treatment.1 parts per million. Field tests of water samples. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. Furthermore. and 7 being neutral. and several samples must be taken over a period of time to ensure that peak readings and average values are obtained. a measure of the water’s acidity. In practice. the solvent and the organic amines • Reverse osmosis membrane. As previously explained. where 1 grain per gallon equals 17. Using the ionic measurement when reporting impurities makes it easier and more convenient to interpret the results. The most accurate analyses of water samples are done by laboratories specializing in this type of work. which can be expressed either by the weight of an impurity compared to the weight of water (abbreviated w/w. Flushing solutions used to rinse highpurity installations before they are commissioned are available. The initial analysis of incoming water must be accurate and contain a worst-case scenario. while not as accurate as laboratory tests. equivalents useful in calculating reacting chemicals. resulting in a lower pH. these organic compounds are volatile. time. Another method is parts per million. When an alkaline is added to water. with values lower than 7 being acid. and Purification • Cation ion-exchange resin. The results of the analysis are expressed in many ways. therefore. the actual method of analysis measures only ions. it is desirable to reduce all ions present in solution to a common denominator. the concentration of hydrogen ions increases. expressed as milligrams per liter of water. such as grains per gallon and equivalents per million (epm). polypropylene. This is accomplished by comparing the equivalent weight of all ions present and expressing them as the partper-million anion and cation equivalent of calcium carbonate. Grains per gallon often is used in discussion of ion-exchange equipment capabilities. the solvent used to create the barrier polymer • Ultrafiltration and nanofiltration membranes. resulting in a higher pH. The change of a pH unit represents a tenfold increase (or decrease) in strength. and money. This finds specific use in the analysis of saline waters. These solutions kill bacteria and rinse VOCs without severely damaging the system. may provide accuracy levels acceptable to the user. it is not practical to find the total amount of each compound that actually went into solution. always consult with the vendor before proceeding. consult the user to determine the impact of VOCs given off by the treatment. pH Potential hydrogen (pH) is a measurement of the hydrogen ion concentration in water and. Figure 11-1 illustrates a typical water analysis report indicating impurities in parts per million. and a comparison of positive and negative ions. the solvent used to create the polymer • Fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP). To further simplify reporting. When an acid is added to water. pH is calculated from the logarithmic reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration in water. To determine the best approach for the materials selected. Table 11-2 presents the conversion factors used for major impurities. Other units also are used. This method of expression is a widely accepted standard for reporting a water analysis. but it is not universal. . However. For common supplies where the specific gravity of the liquid is approximately 1.

79 2.41 0.81 0. It measures the ability of 1 cubic centimeter of the sample solution at a given temperature to resist the flow of an electrical current.3 megohm-centimeters at 77°F (25°C).67 1.67 Figure 11-1 Typical Water Analysis Report . This maximum resistance value is based on Table 11-2 Converting ppm of Impurities to ppm of Calcium Carbonate Cations Hydrogen Ammonium Sodium Potassium Magnesium Calcium Ferrous iron Ferric iron Cupric Zinc Aluminum Chromic Ionic ppm Multiplier 50.00 2.53 5.82 0.192 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Specific Resistance Specific resistance (measured in megohm-centimeters) is a measure of the amount of electrolytes in water.10 2.52 1.69 1.50 1.04 2.57 1. It is based on the activity of the compounds dissolved in water and is the most practical method of measuring ionic impurities from a given sample.78 2.28 4. The resistance is based on the amount of ionized salts only and varies with the temperature of the water.27 1. Pure water has an electrical resistance of approximately 18.55 2.18 1.94 1. Resistance is given in ohms (Ω).89 Anions Hydroxide Chloride Bicarbonate Nitrate Bisulfate Carbonate Sulfate Other Carbon dioxide Silica Ionic ppm Multiplier 2.

these meters typically report electrical resistance normalized to 77°F (25°C).6 none none none 0.048 0.055 18. Turbidity in water is classified by the size of the particulates in microns (1/1.27 3.001 0. An often-used standard for potable water is the method for the examination of water and wastewater developed by the American Public Health Service.9 0.001 0. in ohms.074 1. Total Dissolved Solids Often referred to as dissolved inorganics and mineral salts.48 42. with higher units indicating increased turbidity.3 megohm-centimeters.15 0.00070 0.015 0. and carbonates.025 0.0099 0.248 4.496 8. the Jackson turbidity unit. This test compares the water sample by color to a standard color scale. initial and operating costs.45 127.0 20 42.00099 0.8 0.49 2. Other factors include the materials of construction.992 17. Specific conductance in actual practice typically is measured by probes suspended in the stream of water.057 17. It is the reciprocal of the resistance.5 50 105 0.0095 0. the nature of the raw water.10 0.098 10. The equipment chosen to accomplish this task depends for the most part on the sizes and types of the solids to be retained. Theoretical maximum.5 150 315 0. the electrical resistance of water at 50°F (10°C) is 8.1 0.03 millimeter] diameter) and tested by a light interference method known as a nephelometric.13 0.38 2. and Purification the electrical resistance from the very small concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions from the slight dissociation of water.25 5.066 15.20 0.5 3.0024 7.13 0. Grains per gal = 17.28 0.012 0. For example.055 micromho per centimeter at 77°F (25°C). including chlorides.70 0.70 2. Resistivity conversions are given in Table 11-3.17 0.008 0.5 part per million dissolved salt has a conductance of 1 micromho.16 6.15 0.0076 0.047 0. Conductivity conversions are given in Table 11-3.65 0. Resistivity meters typically are used as a measure of the total amount of electrolytes in purified water when the concentrations are very low. Resistivity. .88 0. called the formazin turbidity unit.1 0. as CaCO3 CaCO3 NaCI µmho/cm MΩ/cm 99.002 0.023 0.00034 49. Temperature is a significant factor in the measurement of the electrical resistance of water.00047 0.085 0.742 12. Since it is the opposite of resistance.0 4.004 0.7 15 32.087 11.93 170 200 415 0.00050 24.00006 0.0 100 210 0. total dissolved solids (TDS) is generally the sum of all dissolved minerals.010 0.8 425 500 1020 0.45 0. Because of the significant impact of temperature. Total Suspended Solids Total suspended solids is the sum of all the suspended material found in the water sample and commonly is measured in either parts per million or milligrams per liter. The most common reporting method is the nephelometric turbidity unit.50 1.42 0.005 0.042 0. As an example. which uses formazin to produce a known volume of turbidity.05 0. The actual conductance is so small that it is measured in micromhos (µmho).0048 2. and the original test.000 inch [0.3b a b Specific Conductance Specific conductance (measured in micromhos per centimeter) measures the ability of 1 cubic centimeter of the sample solution at a given temperature to conduct an electrical current.00099 9.017 0. Dissolved solids contribute to scale deposit and corrosion of piping and equipment.3 1700 2000 3860 0. Other methods less frequently used are the comparator tube determination using formazin.21 0. referred to as water resistivity meters.4 0. sulfates. which is ohm spelled backwards.1 ppm (CaCO3). the particle removal target. The standard color scale to which it is compared is derived from the platinum cobalt unit.0025 0.2 0. at 70°F (19°C) demineralized water with 0. named for the man who developed a method that compares the color of candlelight through a sample to a color standard.00 2.5 10 21.00026 74. 193 Table 11-3 Resistivity and Conductivity Conversion Grains/gala ppm as ppm Conductivity. with warmer temperatures producing higher values. This measurement is obtained by comparing the sample being tested with a known color reference. which is one millionth of a mho. Conditioning. and maintenance requirements.96 85.30 0.099 1. and the total suspended solids are indicated based on this comparison. it is given the name mho.0 10.7 0.27 1.6 850 1000 1990 0.Chapter 11 — Water Treatment.002 0.093 0.059 16. This dissociation yields concentrations of 1 x 10-7 moles per liter for each hydrogen and hydroxide. flow rate requirements.23 0.031 0.00012 0. The most effective method of removing turbidity is by the use of filters and strainers. The most accurate method of measuring solids is gravimeterically. are available to accurately measure the electrical resistance of water.02 0. Instruments.05 0.0032 4.00023 0.076 13. Pure water has a specific conductance of 0.35 0.85 1.5 0.8 megohm-centimeters and at 104°F (40°C) is 43.0050 0.2 0. wherein a known quantity of water is evaporated and the resulting solids weighed.5 1275 1500 2930 0.

The silt density index is found by passing the feed water through a 0. which is measured by infrared absorption. there is no direct method to measure their concentration in feed water. but may be less for high silt density index) To obtain an accurate test. mineral salts form positively charged ions.45micrometer filter. sodium would be reported as Na+. Typically. in seconds t2 = Time to filter and collect a second 500milliliter sample after exposing the same filter as above to the flow of feed water for 15 minutes. DEPOSITS AND CORROSION The contaminants previously discussed will cause piping system fouling by depositing material on the walls of the pipe. The equivalent weight then is converted to CaCO3 by dividing the ion’s equivalent by itself and multiplying the product by the equivalent weight of CaCO3. to simplify the task. which will cause failure of the piping system.) Many manufacturers of reverse osmosis (RO) cartridges recommend allowable silt density index figures for feed water. In practice. ionic definition is used by ion-exchange system designers. The test is requested to determine the contamination of water by trace organic compounds that could produce a residue or interfere in laboratory apparatus tests or provide trace contamination in a pharmaceutical product. 47 millimeters in diameter. design errors will occur. If this figure is exceeded. and negatively charged ions. and for spiral-wound modules the allowable silt density index figure is 4. mostly chlorides and sulfates. an additional 1-micrometer filter is recommended downstream. and calcium would be reported as Ca2+. Since colloids and other solids can be any size in the sub-micrometer range. The measurement is generally complicated and depends on the expected level. when water has a silt density index greater than 4. When designing a treatment system consisting of both membrane separation and ion exchange. Since ionexchange by definition is an ionic chemical process. in seconds T = Total test time. total dissolved solids is the difference in the weight between the tare weight of a crucible and the residue remaining after filtered water is evaporated. The quantitative chemical definition is used by membrane-separation system designers. Neither approach is incorrect. regardless of the potential silt density index. a prefilter with a 4-micrometer depth is recommended. The use of a 4-micrometer filter on the feed water stream is always recommended as a precaution against fouling. Silt Density Index The silt density index (SDI) is a measure of the fouling potential of a feed water source. or the atomic weight divided by the ion’s existing exchange valance. For continuous deionization. as well as most laboratory water analysis reports. photolytic oxidation is used. Gas stripping is required to remove other forms of carbon ions from dissolved mineral compounds. Following is a brief discussion of these cat- . in minutes (typically 15 minutes. In addition to the 4-micrometer filter. (Note: A Millipore filter is the only membrane currently approved by ASTM International for determining silt density index. are shown as parts per million as CaCO3. when designing an ion-exchange system the “as ion” is converted to CaCO3. care must be taken when moving from the separation unit’s product water analysis to that of the ionexchange system. the system designer must consider a balanced ionic solution when determining capacity and equipment size.194 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 When dissolved in water. mostly sodium and calcium. at the end of the elapsed time the filter should not become more than approximately 74 percent plugged. The conversion is done by considering the equivalent weight of the ion.45micrometer filter at 30 pounds per square inch (psi) (207 kilopascals [kPa]). The silt density is found from the following formula: Equation 11-1 SDI = t 1 – t1 × 100 2 T Total Organic Carbon Total organic carbon (TOC) is a measurement of the organic carbon compounds found dissolved in water. an silt density index of 4 or less is recommended. However. or 50. Separation system analysis reports. the maximum silt density index for hollow-fiber modules is 3. but if the approach is not defined. For higher levels. For parts per billion (ppb) levels. thereby reducing the efficiency of the system. and the resulting carbon dioxide then is measured. and usually indicate the presence of endotoxins in water for pharmaceutical use. where t1 = Initial time needed to collect a 500-milliliter sample of water through a fresh 0. the organic compound first is converted to carbon dioxide. Quantitatively. Engineers designing ion-exchange systems consider total dissolved solids differently than those designing membrane-separation systems. and reduce the thickness of the pipe wall by corrosion. The analytic. For example. the test should be repeated using a shorter overall elapsed time. These compounds contribute to corrosion. cause problems in manufacturing.

This can be prevented by controlling the pH. which then are removed by blowdown. and other organisms. dirt. and the bonds between the grains are destroyed. or silica minerals. fungi. Sludge is prevented by filtering the incoming feed water and adding chemical dispersants to keep the solids in suspension. and Purification egories of problems and treatment methods as they generally apply to most systems. It is separated into two basic types: general and localized. The method selected depends on the intended use of the treated water and the proposed materials of the system components. tensile stress on the pipe. There are different methods of controlling biofouling. • Intergranular corrosion occurs in a pipe wall when material in the grain boundary of some alloys is less resistant to the corroding agent than the grains themselves. filtering. heat. When this occurs. One source is an excess of iron in the liquid.Chapter 11 — Water Treatment. the presence of oxygen. generally iron oxide (rust) and iron carbonate (a corrosion product). favorable pH. and clay that tend to collect and adhere in areas of low circulation. which also include dust and other suspended matter. It takes the following forms: • Stress-corrosion cracking is a physical deterioration and cracking of a pipe wall caused by a combination of high operating temperature. disinfection. Microbial control is achieved by sterilization. usually as a result of excessive fluid velocity or constant wearing by solids in the water striking the walls of the pipe. Sanitation generally is considered a killing of the vegetative organisms. the more active (noble) metal tends to dissolve in the electrolyte and go into solution. prevent corrosion. and chemicals in the fluid stream. is called slime. Particular types of general corrosion include the following: • Galvanic corrosion occurs in a liquid medium (called an electrolyte) when a more active metal (anode) and a less active metal (cathode) come in contact with one another and form an electrode potential. Boiler scale consists of calcium. Localized Corrosion Localized corrosion takes place on small areas of the surface. It can be substantially minimized by pretreating water prior to its entering the boiler to remove much of the scale-forming ingredients and adding effective chemicals to the feed water to adjust pH. 195 Scale Scale is a solid deposit on the walls of a pipe resulting from the precipitation of dissolved mineral solids in the fluid stream. mold. and sanitation. and silica minerals. diluting the circulating water to prevent concentration. General Corrosion General corrosion is a breakdown of the pipe material at a uniform rate over its entire surface by direct chemical attack. Condenser scale deposits consist of calcium carbonate. magnesium. Sludge Sludge is a sticky. and clay are rarely encountered except when the feed water is from surface sources. They form when the minerals’ concentration in water reaches a level where their solubility or the pH of saturation is exceeded and the minerals come out of solution. • Erosion corrosion is caused by a wearing of a pipe wall. and numerically it is a 12 log reduction in bacteria. It minimizes the presence of bacteria and endotoxins. iron. It is caused by the loss of the protective passive film that forms on the surface of a pipe coupled with a chemical reaction occurring between the pipe material and the chemicals in the fluid. It eliminates biofilm and spores. Sterilization is the lethal disruption of all bacteria. . and adding chemicals to inhibit and prevent scale formation. • Pitting is characterized by deep penetration of the metal at small areas of the surface. Localized corrosion affects only a small area of the pipe surface. and yeast. Conditioning. This scale reduces heat transfer and interferes with the flow of water by increasing the friction of the fluid with the walls of the pipe. Mud. Disinfection is a 6 log reduction of microbials. ultraviolet radiation. and food. and ozone are the ones most commonly used. concentrating in small cells without affecting the entire surface. calcium sulfate. Their growth is aided by a favorable water temperature. Chemicals. and prevent deposits from occurring. and numerically it is a 3 log reduction in bacteria. The buildup of microbes and their waste products. Corrosion Corrosion is the loss and eventual failure of metals and alloys from the electrochemical reaction between water and the pipe material. dirt. Other sources are mud. General corrosion describes the potential dissolution of pipe over its entire exposed surface. Biological Fouling Microbiological fouling is caused by the growth of bacteria. adherent deposit in the feed water resulting from the settling out of suspended matter from several sources. Conventional corrosion treatment of feed water for boilers and cooling water systems consists of pH control and the use of chemical corrosion inhibitors. usually at high rates. algae.

The LSI is calculated as follows: Equation 11-2 LSI = pH – pHs where LSI = Langelier Saturation Index number pH = pH value obtained from testing the water in question pHs = Calculated pH of saturation for the calcium carbonate present in the water in question The most accurate method is to use the following formula: Equation 11-3 pHs = (9. Although scale deposits may contain a complex mixture of mineral salts. applying the same definitions used for the LSI. The measure of pH is made on a logarithmic scale. One end of the scale is the hydrogen proton. is an empirical method used to predict the scale-forming tendencies of water. C. This is particularly true of calcium carbonate. B.2 indicates a bicarbonate/carbonate relationship of the water. Alkalinity and pH are other factors that contribute to mineral scale formation. When the pH is 7. the Aggressiveness Index (AI) is used as a guideline parameter to find the corrosive tendency of potable water.0 0. The level of this concentration. The pH value reflects the concentration of hydrogen protons (H+) or hydroxyl ions (OH-) in aqueous solutions. Calcium and magnesium salts. values between 10 and 12 indicate a moderately ag- .5 0. Serious corrosion. on the other hand. For an interpretation of the RI. the Langelier Index. Langelier Saturation Index In the 1930s. as indicated by pH. A pH above 7 indicates a basic solution or a predominance of hydroxyl ions. The interpretation of the LSI is based on the numerical values given in Table 11-4. and D for substitution into Equation 11-3 are found in Table 11-5. the increase in carbonates increases the tendency for calcium and magnesium carbonates to precipitate out of solution. As the temperature rises.3 and 8. As the pH proceeds upward from acidic to basic. Most salts are more soluble in hot water than in cold water. A more empirical method to find pHs is to use Figure 11-2. When it falls below 6. scale formation is possible. there is an exact balance of hydrogen protons to hydroxyl ions in the water. but pitting corrosion possible.196 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 • Crevice attack corrosion occurs at junctions between surfaces (often called crud traps) where a crack exists that allows an accumulation of a corroding agent. W.forming.0 Tendency of Water Scale-forming and for practical purposes noncorrosive. defines the ratio of bicarbonate to carbonate alkalinity.5 –2.0 –0. F.3 + A + B) – (C + D) The numerical values of A. This index is calculated as follows: Equation 11-5 AI = pH + Log 10 (Alkalinity×Hardness) Values lower than 10 indicate an aggressive water. refer to Table 11-6. A pH between 5. Aggressiveness Index Table 11-4 Prediction of Water Tendencies by the Langelier Index Langelier Saturation Index 2. best known as the Langelier Saturation Index (LSI). A pH above 8. The index is actually a calcium carbonate saturation index. dissolve more readily in cold water than in hot water. often referred to as the stability index. Lower numbers of the index indicate more probable scale formation. The RI is calculated from the following formula. Slightly corrosive and scale . A pH below 5 indicates 100 percent carbonic and other mineral acids. This index is based on numerical values given to the factors that affect deposits. Balanced. As a result of this work. and the other end is the hydroxyl ion. A pH below 7 indicates an acid or a predominance of hydrogen protons.2 indicates carbonate and hydroxyl alkalinity. Langelier studied the primary factors that affect the tendency of water to form deposits of mineral scale on heat-transfer equipment. Equation 11-4 RI = 2 pHs – pH The RI is always positive. Slightly corrosive and nonscale-forming. the tendency of dissolved solids to precipitate out of solution increases because of their property of inverse solubility. As a result. PREDICTING SCALE FORMATION AND CORROSION TENDENCIES A common and costly water-caused problem is the formation and deposit of mineral scale. It is based on the assumption that water with a scaling tendency will deposit a corrosioninhibiting film of calcium carbonate and thus be less corrosive. Developed by the EPA. Water with a non-scaling tendency will dissolve protective films and thus be more corrosive. Ryzner Stability Index The Ryzner Stability Index (RI). the primary constituent is calcium carbonate. they tend to deposit on surfaces when a rise in temperature occurs. was created.

3 1.5 2. °F (°C) 32–34 (0–1.5 1.6 1.6 2.9 2.2 1.1 2. It is used most often to remove undesirable gases such as carbon dioxide. • Reduction of carbon dioxide by 90 percent is obtained by near saturation with oxygen.1 2.9 1.2 1.0 1.2 2.8 2.5 2.000 Temp.6 1. hydrogen sulfide.2 B 2.000 C 0. Carbon dioxide dissolved in ground water Figure 11-2 pH of Saturation for Water .4 2. The following are criteria for its use.8 0.5 1.1 1.7 0.9 3.1 2.6 0.0 TREATMENT METHODOLOGIES Aeration Aeration is a gas-transfer process in which water is brought into contact with air for the purpose of transferring volatile substances to or from the raw water.2–36.000 D 1.2 2.0 2.3 2. also is used to remove iron and manganese and to lower the amount of VOCs in ground water.2–5.7–63.6 2. Alkalinity (ppm) 10–11 12–13 14–17 18–22 23–27 28–35 36–44 45–55 56–69 70–88 89–110 111–139 140–176 177–220 230–270 280–340 350–440 450–550 560–690 700–880 890–1.8–21.9) 50–56 (10–13.Chapter 11 — Water Treatment.2 1.3) 112–122 (44.9 1.4 2.8–43.4 1.3 1.1) 162–178 (72. and Purification gressive water.6) 134–146 (56.8 1.7–8. and a value higher than 12 indicates a nonaggressive water.0 1.2–81.3) 58–62 (14. Conditioning.3 2.7) 64–70 (17.7) 100–110 (37.4 2.8 1.1 1. 197 Table 11-5 Numerical Values for Substitution in Equation 11-3 to Find the pHs of Saturation for Water Total Solids (ppm) 50–330 400–1.1 0.5 2.3) 148–160 (64.1 1.0 2.4 1.8–31.6) 44–48 (6.2 2.1) 178–194 (81.7 2. Aeration.1–55. by introducing oxygen.9 2.8 1.7 1.1) 72–80 (22.4–71.6 M..1) 36–42 (2.3 2.1) 90–98 (32.6 1.0 1.4 1.7 1.7) 82–88 (27.4–50) 124–132 (51. and methane.0 Ca as CaCO3 (ppm) 10–11 12–13 14–17 18–22 23–27 28–34 35–43 44–55 56–69 70–87 88–110 111–138 139–174 175–220 230–270 280–340 350–430 440–550 560–690 700–870 880–1.7 1.1–90) 194–210 (90–98.4–16.9) A 0.3 1.2–26.5 1.

5–9. First. the mixture is gently mixed to allow these larger particles to settle rapidly to the bottom of the tank. The simplest aerator is the diffusion type. A measure of the charge surrounding the colloid is known as the zeta potential. This unit consists of a series of trays.1 to 0. or ceramic balls. multiple-tray type.5 7. and various methods are used to evenly distribute and disperse the water throughout the unit. and sediment in the raw water supply. In a process called flocculation. bacteria.003 to 0. They stay apart because negatively charged ionized matter is absorbed on their surfaces. and mechanical. such as coke. The water could be treated with chemicals or filtered. If treated with chemicals. The chemical treatment process is usually reserved for large volumes of water. with perforated.0–5. Advantages of this type of aerator are the freedom from cold-weather operating problems. Too heavy to remain suspended. These negative charges are reduced by the use of positively charged chemicals called coagulants.006 cubic meters per minute per liter) of water aerated. The trays are filled with 2 to 6 inches (40 to 140 millimeters) of a medium. these particles now settle out of the water to the bottom. Efficiency can be improved by the use of enclosures and forced air blowers to provide counter-flow ventilation.198 Table 11-6 Prediction of Water Tendencies by the Ryzner Index Ryzner Index 4. and the possibility of using this process for chemical mixing. diffusion (or bubble). slot. Raw water enters the unit from the top and falls by gravity to the bottom. • Aeration alone could be used for the removal of hydrogen sulfide in concentrations of 2 milligrams per liter or less. so longer retention times are necessary. The particles and chemicals that settle out are called sludge. • Aeration will partially remove VOCs from raw water by oxidation. colloidal particles. which. through a chemical reaction. making them insoluble. Mechanical aerators consist of an open impeller operating on the water surface of a tank. Often. The type of waterfall aerator most commonly used is the naturally ventilated. Water loading on the trays is usually in the range of 10 to 20 gallons per minute per square foot (379 to 757 liters per minute per square meter).0–7. which bubbles compressed air up through the water tank. and organic matter are mechanically brought together into larger and heavier particles. and they repel each other.0 6. it could be used in conjunction with chlorination. jelly-like mass called floc. which oxidizes hydrogen sulfide. reduce the zeta potential and allow the colloids to cluster to form a larger. which ranges from 10 to 30 minutes. After coagulation is accomplished. depending on the number of trays required. very low head loss. is necessary. The Clarification Clarification reduces or removes turbidity. and multiple tray. Waterfall is used most commonly in utility water treatment. The large volume of air required limits this to low flows of water.0 9. They then are coagulated and removed from the water. Waterfall aerators are made in several types: cascade.0–6. depending on the amount of impurities present and the volume of water to be treated.0 and higher Tendency of Water Heavy scale Light scale Little scale or corrosion Significant corrosion Heavy corrosion Intolerable corrosion ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 vertical opening between trays ranges between 12 and 30 inches (305 and 762 millimeters). which precipitate out at the proper pH levels. Large volumes of water are clarified in a basin.0 5. • Iron and manganese can be removed by aeration if this will not be done by other methods. some of the sludge produced by flocculation is mixed with the coagulant. They are not as efficient as the waterfall or diffusion type. which . The types of aerators commonly used are waterfall. the coagulant must be introduced with a strong action to completely disperse and mix the chemicals with the incoming water. or mesh bottoms. These metals are oxidized to form insoluble hydroxides. will consume lime in the lime-soda softening process without any accompanying softening. A detention time. time is required for the solids to settle out of suspension. one above the other.0 7. stone.2 standard cubic feet per minute (scfm) per gallon (0.1 to 10 micrometers in size. Generally accepted practice indicates that aeration is not economical for carbon-dioxide concentrations in water of less than 10 milligrams per liter. to improve water distribution and gas transfer as well as provide catalytic oxidation in the medium. silt. Above this level. They then can be removed by settlement or filtered out of the water stream. Air requirements vary from 0. Each part per million of dissolved oxygen will oxidize about 7 parts per million of iron or manganese. Suspended and colloidal particles are normally in the range of 0. The amount of lime saved should be compared to the cost of purchasing and operating the aerator before deciding on its use. This process is called sedimentation. spray nozzle.0–7.

one alternative flocculation method is to produce a finer floc. temperature. Without the use of acid.Chapter 11 — Water Treatment. and collecting the condensate. The weak acid process operates at a very high utilization factor. Iron coagulants include ferric sulfate. called alum or filter alum. or countercurrent. Since this can cause hardness leakage from the dealkalizer. sulfate. This can be done either with or without the use of acid regenerant. the water temperature is raised to the saturation point for the existing pressure. condensing the steam produced from the feed water. in many cases it is easier and less expensive to remove them by deaeration. The majority of the steam condenses in the first section of the unit. and low-sodium water is available. can produce corrosion and pitting. The process transfers the alkaline salts of calcium and magnesium to the weak acid resin and should include degasification if required by the product water. near the theoretically required amount. and nitrate anions for chloride anions. Hydrochloric acid. and the inlet water is introduced to the top of the unit and passed down through this packing. ferris sulfate. and combination units. With this method. These changing conditions must be considered by the manufacturer in the design of the process. . rather than sulfuric acid. The entire regeneration cycle is similar to water softening (described later in this chapter). When heated water is needed. the steam type is preferred. Deaerated water is stored at the bottom of the vessel. The vessel has a packing material inside. Typical deaerators have a heating and deaeration section and a storage section for hot. The two types of deaerators are steam and vacuum. high-quality water can be produced more quickly with smaller equipment. A weak acid resin also can be used. which yields product water theoretically free from nonvolatile impurities. alkaline. a separate tank is provided to hold an additional 10-minute supply of deaerated water. Deaeration Dissolved gases in the water supply. hydrogen sulfide. and amount of mixing. and Purification must be removed from the tank and disposed of. Organic polyelectrolytes. This is because the amount depends on the size and quantity of the suspended solids in the raw water. such as oxygen. deareated water. and it most often is used in demineralizer systems to reduce the chemical operating cost and the demineralizer size and to protect anion-exchange resins from possible oxidation damage. Decarbonation usually is accomplished in small systems by the use of filtered air flowing through the water stream and stripping out the carbon dioxide. which are polymers of high molecular weight. Design use is spread evenly among spray. Vacuum deaerators use a steam jet or mechanical vacuum pump to develop the vacuum required to draw off the unwanted gases. Dealkalizing Dealkalizing is a process that reduces the alkalinity of feed water. When cold water is required. these processes are done in the same operating unit. The vacuum unit is far less efficient than the steam unit. also are employed in low dosages to increase the effectiveness of treatment. The salt-splitting process exchanges all bicarbonate. 199 top of the unit discharges the unwanted gases. When the demand for water is low. which can be removed by an appropriate filter system. In this process. tray. Although carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide can be removed by aeration. water temperature. and ammonia. such as for boilers. the regenerant used is salt. The entire regeneration cycle is similar to that of a cation ionexchange column. The steam or vapor vacuum located at the Decarbonation Decarbonation is rarely used. The most frequently used chemical coagulant is aluminum sulfate. the vacuum type is used. This process is very sensitive to the flow rate. They must be removed prior to using the water for most purposes. In most clarifier designs. and the process often is called salt splitting. It is not uncommon to use the same salt and regenerant piping to accommodate both the softener and the dealkalizer. downflow. retention time prior to flocculation. Where hard. and ferric chloride. it is recommended that deionized water be used as feed water. The direction of steam may be crossflow. Conditioning. Steam deaerators break up water into a spray or thin film and then sweep steam across and through it to force out the dissolved gases. Other frequently used coagulants are sodium aluminate and potash alum. the use of a weak acid resin should be considered. Some caustic soda may be added (one part caustic soda to nine parts salt) to reduce the leakage of alkalinity and carbon dioxide. but it should be considered if the bicarbonate level in the feed water is in the range of 14 to 20 milligrams per liter or higher. By eliminating a large settling basin. The remaining mixture of noncondensable gases is discharged to atmosphere through a vent condenser. distillation is the process of boiling feed water. It is usually a matter of trial and error to find the correct amount of alum. For best results. is preferred for regeneration. oxygen can be reduced to near the limit of detection. Often. carbon dioxide. and contaminant level of the feed water. Distillation In its basic form. a filter downstream of the processed water is necessary.

the steam gives up most of its energy (latent heat) to the water inside the tubes. More vapor is generated and the process is repeated. At this point. The vapor generated then passes through a mist eliminator that removes any water droplets.200 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 of the three distillation methods. Multi-effect Distillation Multi-effect distillation units use staged evaporation and condensation to generate distilled water. Each effect operates at a lower pressure than the previous effect to provide the temperature difference that allows the transfer of heat. This preheated feed water flows through the feed control valve and into the tube side of the first effect. The distilled water exits the condenser and enters the distillate pump. and its pressure is boosted by the feed pump. The pure steam generated in the first effect is introduced into the shell side of the second effect. The initial driving force for the evaporation is power steam applied to the shell side of the first effect vessel. The feed water enters the vessel. vapor compression is a method of evaporation in which a liquid is boiled inside a bank of tubes. Refer to Figure 11-3 for a typical flow diagram of a vapor compression unit. The higher-energy compressed steam is discharged into an evaporator. Temperature sensors sense the temperature on the tube side of the first effect and signal the steam control valve to maintain the required temperature. Vapor compression generally is considered more economical for large quantities of water and does not require high-quality feed water for proper operation. and it requires the highest quality feed water. and multi-effect distillation. giving up its latent heat of vaporization to the feed water inside the tubes. Both the distillate and the blowdown are cooled.and low-level alarms. After passing through the mist eliminator. Distilled water is produced in each effect when the steam generated by the evaporation of high-purity feed water in the previous stage is condensed. This type of still produces water of approximately 1 megohm-centimeter. Three methods currently are used to produce distilled water: single-stage distillation. Additional makeup heat. Power steam is introduced into the unit and flows through the steam control valve and into the shell side of the first effect. The first effect level controller senses the feed water level and signals the feed control valve to maintain the desired level. Feed water enters the still and is evaporated and condensed in a single stage. which allows it to pick up heat from the condensing steam. and tolerates feed water with a high level of impurity. The multi-effect method has the highest initial cost and the lowest operating cost . causing the feed water to boil and generate vapor. It has moderate first and operating costs. Vapor Compression Sometimes called thermocompression distillation. The pure steam generated in the tube side of the first effect by the condensing power steam passes through the mist eliminator to remove any entrained water droplets. pure steam enters the condenser and condenses on the outside of the condenser coils. The unit is protected by pressure-relief valves along with high. The condensate (distilled water) passes through an orifice and enters the shell side of the third effect. The feed water flows through a coil in the condenser. The pure vapor is withdrawn by a compressor in which the energy imparted results in a compressed steam with increased pressure and temperature. The excess feed water that did not evaporate also is pumped through an exchanger. is required for continuous operation. This steam condenses on the outside of the tubes of the first effect. and the feed water is preheated prior to its entering the evaporator. causing it to boil and generate vapor. Each stage is called an effect. These exchangers minimize the energy consumption of the system and eliminate the need for additional cooling water. Single-stage Distillation The still used for single-stage distillation is the simplest type of still. This method has a small footprint. producing distilled water while giving up its latent heat to the high-purity feed water inside the second effect tubes. This distilled water from the last effect and the distilled water from the previous effects is cooled by the cooling water of the condenser. The distillate is pumped through the distillate control valve and through the storage/dump valve. Feed water from the first effect passes through an orifice and into the tube side of the second effect. The system operates continuously once it is started. The condensate (distilled water) is withdrawn by the distillate pump and is discharged through a two-stream heat exchanger. Feed water in the second effect passes through an orifice and into the tube side of the third effect. with higher purity possible with optional equipment that removes dissolved gaseous impurities. usually supplied by steam. the last effect. The condenser level controller senses the distillate level and signals the control valve to maintain the desired level. Cooling water is required to condense the steam produced. Noncondensable gases in the condenser are vented to the atmosphere. The condenser temperature is maintained at a predetermined level by the cooling water flow. vapor compression. The pure steam condenses. is less labor intensive than the other methods. The first effect pure steam enters the shell side of the second effect and is condensed on the outside of the tubes.

5 specific gravity. Ion Exchange and Removal Ion exchange is the basic process in which specific ions in a feed water stream are transferred into an exchange medium called resin and exchanged for different ions of equal charge. and nonvolatile total organic carbon compounds.1-millimeter-diameter grain size and a 1. Conditioning. Following are several typical media and membrane-filtration systems: • Bag filter gross filtration. Multimedia filters operate at about 6 gpm per square foot (228 liters per minute per square meter) of cross-sectional bed area. to ionic levels of calcium sulfate • Reverse-osmosis waste-treatment applications These filtration systems typically are used in conjunction with ion-exchange and reverse-osmosis. it generally is known as water softening. and membrane systems have greatly expanded the field of mechanical filtration. Keep in mind that these values are general in nature. a cross between a standard tangential cartridge application and a cross-flow filter • Horizontal and vertical pressure media filters.2 specific gravity. with the effluent discharged to the sanitary drainage system. The nonionic organics tend to coat ion-exchange resins and all types of membranes. Some system designers are reluctant to use the activated carbon filter in the generation of pure water because of the possible development of significant levels of bacteria in the unit itself. Backwashing is required to clean the filter. Particulate removal in the range of 98 percent should be expected. These filtration systems are used in waste-treatment applications. it often is referred to as deionization (DI) or demineralization. and Purification Refer to Figure 11-4 for a typical flow diagram of a multi-effect distillation unit. Water softening only exchanges some types of ions .Chapter 11 — Water Treatment. chloramine disinfectants. The multimedia filter achieves a more uniform distribution of filter media throughout the bed than the sand-only filter and is considered a more effective type of filter. The deionization/demineralization process uses different types of resin to exchange first anions and then cations. They are a pressure-type filter using either multi-graded sand or multimedia as the filter medium. A typical multimedia filter for laboratory use consists of a top layer of anthracite having a 1. This can be controlled by periodically sanitizing the unit with pure steam or hot water with a temperature greater than 176°F (80°C). with or without a precoat • Submicron cartridge filtration. dissolved organics such as trihalomethanes. resulting in the removal of all ions from feed water when the process is carried to completion. The ion-exchange process also is used to remove dissolved inorganics. stainless-steel housings should be avoided because of possible chloride stress corrosion and chloride pitting resulting from the chlorine in the feed water. 201 Filtration Deep-bed Sand Filtration Deep-bed filters are designed to remove coarse suspended particulates larger than 10 micrometers. including the concentrated waste of reverse-osmosis systems and ion-exchange waste. Activated Carbon Filtration Activated carbon is used to remove residual chlorine. a number of membrane filters have appeared on the market. a middle layer of sand having a 0. When all of the ionic components involved in water are removed by ion exchange. and a major portion of naturally occurring dissolved organic material from municipal water supplies. the interior of the filter housing should be lined or coated. When the ionexchange process is used to treat water for the removal of ions to produce pure water. activated-carbon unit is illustrated in Figure 11-5. Because of this need for sterilization. The need for sanitizing can be determined only by testing the water. the water is said to be deionized or demineralized. and it is important to operate these units at the velocities recommended by the individual manufacturer. Cross-flow and Tangential-flow Filtration In the past 10 years.000 molecular weight compounds • Nano-filtration with a very low molecular weight filtration. and a bottom layer of garnet having a 0.5-millimeterdiameter grain size and a specific gravity of 26. When the ion-exchange process is used to treat water only for the removal of hardness. A backwash flow rate of 10 to 15 gpm per square foot (380 to 570 liters per minute per square meter) generally is required for effective cleaning. When using pure water as feed water. including point-of-use ultrafiltration cartridges • Cross-flow membrane systems designed for particulate removal in the concentrate • Ultra-filtration to less than 10. A typical detail of a packed-bed.). high-purity systems to remove bacteria.2-millimeter-diameter grain size and a 4. including limited membrane applications • Standard cartridge depth filtration • Hurricane (a trademark of the Harmsco Corp. The normal operational flow rate ranges from 6 to 15 gpm per square foot (228 to 570 liters per minute per square meter) of bed area. pyrogens. Sand-only filters for laboratory water systems generally operate at a velocity of about 4 gpm per square foot (192 liters per minute per square meter) of cross-sectional bed area.

202 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Figure 11-3 Detail of Vapor Compression Still .

Chapter 11 — Water Treatment. Conditioning. and Purification 203 .

204 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Figure 11-4 Detail of Multi-effect Still .

The resin beads in the vessel also create Figure 11-5 Schematic Detail of Large-scale. 205 Table 11-7 Typical Cations and Anions Found in Water Cations Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Iron Manganese Anions Carbonates Bicarbonates Sulfates Chlorides Nitrates Silica synthetic. Because the process must exchange ions of the same charge. typically about 0.ions combine to form water.Chapter 11 — Water Treatment. or perforated plates. organic resins. and Purification for others that are less detrimental for the intended end use of the water. A large number of ionexchange resins is available. Conditioning. screenwrapped pipe. Granular-activated Carbon Filter . Resin is manufactured in the form of a large number of spherical beads. Each resin is formulated to obtain optimum performance for different impurities. and synthetic. which is also referred to as demineralized. Resins are graded by purity and consistency in size. bentonite clay. The number of charges (valence) available on a particular ionic medium is a major factor in the selection of specific resins to remove the desired impurities and is based on an analysis of raw water. Table 11-7 lists the common anions and cations typically found in water.4 millimeter in diameter. Regenerable Ion Exchange Regenerable ion exchange is a batch process in which ions in raw water are transferred onto a resin medium in exchange for other ions bonded to that medium as the raw water percolates through it. ion-exchange resins are composed of either anion or cation exchange resins. colloids. The two general types of deionizers are working and polishing. The resins are contained in a vessel. The affinity for different ions in solution is termed selectivity coefficients. The actual resin bed could be supported by a mat of graded gravel. Weakly bonded ions on these beads’ surfaces are used for the exchange process. The working type is used for the initial removal of the bulk of ions from feed water or as only an ion-exchange process (such as hardness removal) if the purification is a single process. these two exchange processes together remove minum silicates (sometimes called zeolites or green cations and anions from water. bacteria. The polishing type is used to purify feed water after an initial run through a working ion-exchange system. which also act to evenly distribute feed water over the entire resin bed. Ion exchange does not remove significant amounts of organics. Manufacturers are constantly making new resins for different ion-removal purposes. or turbidity. This action continues until the medium has reached its exchange capacity and it no longer is capable of exchanging ions. Most processes use the synthetic resins. When all of the ionized impurities are removed. often referred to as a column. gelatinous and H+ and OH. Traditional deionization exchanges cations with hydrogen (H+) ions (an acid) and anions with hydroxyl Resins (OH-) ions (a base). The ions in the raw water are adsorbed onto a bed of exchange resins and replaced with an equivalent amount of another ion of the same charge. particles. and the remaining sands). the water is said to be deionized. Although not 100 percent effecResin-exchange media include natural inorganic alutive.

Regeneration can be performed either co-currently (in the same direction as the flow of feed water) or counter-currently (in the opposite direction of the flow of feed water). the bed is said to have reached its exchange capacity. The end result is the same. 11-7. When the resins have reached the limit of exchange. Anion resin type 1 regular generally is used for maximum silica reduction. All of the water used for regeneration must be routed to a drain of adequate size. and a second vessel contains the cation-exchange resins. Resin type 2 is used most often. Anion resin type 1 premium has a very small tolerance of bead size. It is not uncommon to install a dual-bed exchanger. before a mixed bed to remove the bulk of the impurities. and then the mixed bed. the higher cost of the type 1 resin is considered acceptable to obtain a more efficient and longer-lasting resin. Regeneration generally consists of three steps: backwashing. and 11-8 illustrate a typical single-bed ion-exchange unit. which is where the heaviest duty from the beads is required. but it has a greater removal capacity. regardless of the anion with which they are associated. It is then necessary to take the column out of service to be regenerated. Strong cation resins remove all cations. is the term used for the displacement of the ions removed from the feed water. the number of ions on the resin beads available for exchange Figure 11-6 Typical Single-bed Ion Exchanger . Anion resins could be either a strong or a weak base. (Note: Sufficient safety precautions must be taken when handling regeneration chemicals. weak-base units are superior when the feed water is high in sulfates and chlorides. one vessel contains the anion-exchange resins. A typical mixed bed contains 40 percent cation resins and 60 percent anion resins. Regeneration. These resins have a moderate exchange capacity and require a strong acid regenerant. application of regenerating solution. further purifies the water to the desired high purity. often called a polishing exchanger. the acid and caustic must be neutralized prior to discharge into a public sewer system. and the efficiency of weak-base regeneration for acid-salt removal is far superior to that of strong-base material for the same job. which is the reverse of deionization. Additional acid or caustic may have to be added to the final effluent to produce a pH acceptable to the local authorities. The deionization process can be arranged as either a two-step (dual-bed) or single-step (mixed-bed) process. packed condition by the reverse flow of wa- an effective depth filter. a gelatinous bead. and rinsing. This filtering action leads to fouling and unpredictable operating runs because of an accumulation of particulates. Weakbase exchangers are not effective in the removal of carbon dioxide or silica. In the mixed-bed unit. It is common practice to combine the acid and caustic waste streams to neutralize the effluent to the greatest extent possible. In general. and a typical mixed-bed ion-exchange unit respectively. In the dual-bed process. such as hydrochloric or sulfuric acid. Regeneration Cycle The ion-exchange process is reversible. The piping and valve arrangements of manufacturers may differ from those shown.) Backwashing is a counter-current operation accomplishing two purposes. The dual-bed arrangement produces water less pure than that produced by a mixed bed. The two most often used cation-exchange resins are strong acid or weak acid. a typical dual-bed ion-exchange unit. They remove strong acids more by adsorption than by ion exchange. The two resins have different costs and capacities. a single vessel contains a mixture of both resins. In addition. Dual beds are easier to regenerate. As the water continues to pass through the ionexchange resin beds over time. The first is to remove any particulates that have accumulated in the resin bed and on the beads. Figures 11-6. This process starts at the entry of the water to the vessel and progresses down the bed. This is done by the resin bed expanding from its normal. An often-used anion resin is divinyl benzene. The second is to regrade the resin beads so new beads are on top of the bed. generally unless type 1 is requested specifically. often referred to as a working exchanger. Thus.206 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 declines and gradually is exhausted.

which makes its lower cost practical. Technical-grade acids. A greater-than-recommended flow only wastes water and provides no additional benefits. are acceptable for the regeneration of cation resins. Hydrochloric acid is used most often because it has the greatest efficiency. Hydrochloric acid obtained by the salt-aid or hydrogen-chlorine process has been found satisfactory. and silica to avoid fouling the strong-base anion exchangers. All caustic shall have a maximum of 2 parts per million chlorates. The chemical used most often for regenerating anion resins is a 40 percent mixture of sodium hydroxide.Chapter 11 — Water Treatment. They should be 66 Baume. and only one-quarter of the amount of sulfuric acid is used. As they flow through the columns. which replaces the retained anion ions with hydroxyl ions. and Purification 207 Figure 11-7 Typical Dual-bed Ion Exchanger ter. free of suspended matter. The manufacturer establishes the required flow rate of backwash that should be maintained. chlorides. If purchased in a 40 percent solution. the same grade previously indicated should be used. . A high flow rate will blow resin out of the tank and into the drain. increasing the cleaning action. which shall be low in iron. Acid-containing inhibitors should not be used. Hydrochloric acid should be technical grade and a minimum of 30 percent hydrochloric acid by weight (18 Baume) and shall not contain excessive amounts of iron and organic materials. Conditioning. they replace the retained cations with hydrogen ions from the acid. The flow rate should be enough to scrub the beads together. Although chemically pure ingredients are not required. Anion-exchange resins are regenerated with 76 percent sodium hydroxide. the resins must be separated prior to regeneration. flake sodium hydroxide. Strong-base exchangers are best regenerated using nylon or rayon-grade sodium hydroxide. particularly if used to treat potable water. They should mix freely with water and not form any precipitate. The quality of the chemicals used for regeneration has an important effect on the maintenance of exchange capacity. some contaminants found in these chemicals collect on the resins and eventually cause difficulty in operation. and light in color. also called muriatic acid. Sulfuric acid is much lower in cost and is used when a large quantity of resin is to be regenerated. Weak-base anion exchangers are regenerated most economically with technical-grade. HCl obtained by the hydrolysis of chlorinated organic chemicals should be avoided. For mixed-bed units. also 76 percent. The two chemicals used to regenerate cation resin beds are either a 93 percent solution of sulfuric acid or a 30 to 32 percent solution of hydrochloric acid (HCl). Sulfuric acid is usually the most economical choice for large-scale use. which are free of oils and other organic materials.

Dividing the flow rate. Service Deionization Service deionization is not another form of deionization. it’s a different type of equipment arrangement. it saves water that does not have to be used for backwash. and saves operating or maintenance personnel the time required to regenerate the units. and mixed beds. With the regenerable type. they are replaced with recharged units on site by the supplier. It is a cocurrent process whose purposes are to flush away any remaining residue of the regeneration liquids to drain and repack the bed in preparation for the new run. find the average level of total dissolved solids and convert this figure into grains per gallon (liter). into the grain capacity of the resin bed gives the time it takes to saturate the resin bed before regeneration is required. first determine the exchange capacity. If the process requires continuous operation. eliminates the need to store chemicals. in gallons (liters). In addition. the designer must consider the ionic or molecular composition of the regeneration waste. in grains. As mentioned above. When the individual cartridges are exhausted. The service deionization system uses individual cartridges or tanks for the anion. from the analysis of the raw water. cation. of the selected resin bed from literature provided by the manufacturer. This arrangement considerably reduces the initial cost of the equipment. a duplex set of equipment is installed so one is in use while the other is being regenerated. The operating costs to a facility for service DI equipment are higher than they are for the per- . and the regeneration is done on site by operating or maintenance personnel who must handle and store the chemicals used for regeneration.208 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Figure 11-8 Typical Mixed-bed Ion Exchanger The flush cycle is the shortest step. the deionization equipment is permanent. and the exhausted cartridges are removed to be regenerated at the supplier’s premises. To estimate the frequency of regeneration. The entire regeneration cycle typically takes about one hour. Next.

temperature. Feed water enters into the top of all the compartments. This arrangement is schematically illustrated in Figure 11-9. through the cation-permeable membrane. At the bottom of the diluting cell under the proper combination of flow. through the ion-exchange resin. ion-exchange resin. when regeneration discharge and variable production costs are considered. and voltage. the cost of point-of-operation demineralization becomes attractive. and into the adjacent concentrate stream. the resins regenerate automatically without the use of added chemicals. and Purification manent bed type. The various flow streams are hydraulically independent. also known as electrodeionization. Continuous Deionization Continuous deionization. The continual ion removal and electroregeneration result in some significant advantages over conventional ion exchange. water conductivity. Deionized water exits from the bottom of the dilute stream. toward the electrode with the opposite charge. is a continuous water-purification process using direct current. including no handling and disposal of Figure 11-9 Schematic Operation of a Continuous Deionization Unit . Some manufacturers also use ion-exchange resin in the concentrating compartments. The ion-exchange resin bed serves as a highly conductive medium through which ions flow because of the electric field. Cations move 209 toward the cathode. through the anion-permeable membrane. A single set of these components is called a cell pair. and a small flow of feed water continuously rinses the concentrated ions to drain. However. Under the influence of a direct current electrical field. an alternating arrangement of cation and anion-permeable membranes. This is commonly referred to as electroregeneration of the ion-exchange resins. ions move from the water in the dilute stream. Conditioning. The cation and anion membranes form parallel. The alternating cation. More cell pairs allow higher flow. allowing a high volume of high-purity water (product) and a low volume of concentrate (waste). Anions move toward the anode. and into the adjacent concentrate stream. The resin-filled diluting compartment (cell) creates a low-level resistance path for ions.Chapter 11 — Water Treatment.and anion-permeable membranes trap and concentrate ions in the concentrate channels. The diluting compartments contain a thin layer of ion-exchange resin. thin flow compartments. alternating between concentrating and diluting compartments. Many sets of these cell pairs can be placed between sets of electrodes in a plate-and-frame device to achieve the desired flow output. This process is continuous and results in a steady supply of high-purity water from the diluting compartments. and mixed-bed.

generally accepted leakage amounts range between 0. The quality of the salt in all systems should be determined periodically to ensure that no added substances are present. because of its high mineral content. the reverse osmosis process effectively provides efficient removal of bacteria. Furthermore. A mixed-bed ion-exchange system. and very few natural potable feed water supplies can meet the required feed water specifications without softening and additional pretreatment. In general.210 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 sion of the resin bed during backwash. This is done by one of two methods: adding lime-soda ash to the raw water for very large volumes or passing the raw water through an ion-exchange process. Normally. mixed-bed units have negligible leakage. When added to water. An alternative is to use a dry storage system. The water softener is regenerated with a brine solution. which does not destroy bacteria. for high-purity applications a single pass cannot give adequate purification of the water stream. However. therefore. It is accomplished by passing the water through a bed of granular sodium cation-exchange resin. The storage and regeneration equipment for the liquid brine solution also allows microbial growth in storage tanks exposed to the atmosphere. This controls microbial growth better than wet systems. The removal of these impurities prevents the buildup of insoluble scale precipitates on piping and the reverse-osmosis membrane. Rock salt. if the water demand for a facility is less than 40 gpm (151 liters per minute). One of the major decisions that must be made when selecting an ion-exchange system is allowable leakage. and low operating costs. Another disadvantage of continuous deionization is that the membranes and resins are incompatible with most sanitizing agents. Water Softening Water softening is a process that reduces or removes dissolved impurities that cause hardness in water. There is sodium leakage from cation exchangers and silica leakage from anion exchangers. in general has a 74 percent lower initial cost than a two-bed system. with the reverse osmosis removing the bulk of contaminants and the continuous deionization polishing the water to high purity levels. which are the primary causes of hardness. most water softeners operate at one-half to twothirds of the ultimate capacity of the softener. The regeneration cycle is similar to that previously discussed. A single-pass reverse osmosis system is approximately equal to a two-bed ion-exchange system. which is not required. the greatest benefit will be derived from the simpler. when continuous deionization is used in combination with reserve osmosis.4 to 3 gpm per cubic foot (50 to 380 liters per minute per cubic meter) of resin is used to determine the volume of resin and the cycle time of the unit. The resin bed typically occupies about two-thirds of the tank. Ion-exchange System Design Considerations Leakage is the presence of undesired ions in the final treated water. For this quantity. most processes are now using continuous deionization for polishing purposes after reverse osmosis. Industrial water softeners use rock salt for economy. but constant maintenance is required to monitor the brine tank. The difference is that salt is used to regenerate the resin bed. continuous deionization can provide water consistently low in bacteria.1 and 1 part per million. The use of reverse osmosis and continuous deionization results in a complimentary combination of purification technologies. which do not contribute to hardness. The ion-exchange method of water softening is a cation-exchange process used to remove insoluble and scale-forming iron and other multivalent cations. less costly equipment with higher operating costs. these chemicals react with the dissolved calcium and magnesium carbonate to form insoluble compounds. no interruptions due to exhaustion of the resins’ ion-exchange capacity. The water softener is similar to the schematic single-bed ion exchanger illustrated in Figure 11-6. These compounds precipitate out of solution. and to replace them with sodium ions. and the sanitization of the reverse osmosis can reduce the risk of downstream bacteria growth. when used as a polisher. This process usually is carried out during the clarification process rather than separately and is reserved for large volumes of water. requires a special tank called a desolver to dissolve the rock salt in water prior to use. The other one-third is needed for expan- . Since total regeneration of the resin bed is inefficient and very costly. The amount of leakage is a function of the completeness of regeneration of the resin. Because of this limitation. a polisher is necessary. For systems with a requirement of 200 gpm (757 liters per minute) or hazardous regeneration chemicals. which generates a salt solution from water mixed with salt pellets only when necessary for regeneration. it is common to have a mixed-bed unit without a degasifier. Manufacturer specifications and guidelines should be checked and followed. and then are discharged to drain. and the continuous deionization process can have a germicidal effect due to local pH shifts associated with electroregeneration. Usually. This process commonly is called sodium cycle ion exchange. For water softening. are passed through a filter to be removed. Microbial growth inside the unit is a concern in softening systems used for pharmaceutical and some laboratory purposes. The lime-soda ash method uses either hydrated lime or quicklime along with soda ash. Continuous deionization is sensitive to feed water impurities. A generally accepted range of 0.

a membrane is capable of removing impurities of a much smaller size than other types of filters. leaving behind the bulk of the contaminants. In this design. but it is impervious to the solute. Manufacturers must be contacted for specific system and resin selection and required equipment. and a number of tubes are installed inside a pressure vessel. The ratio of purified water flow to the feed water flow is called recovery. The membrane is installed on the inside of the tube. If enough pressure is applied to the more concentrated solution. This membrane is called semipermeable because it allows the solvent to diffuse. In each design. Iron buildup in the unit could pass through to downstream purification equipment unless operating personnel constantly monitor the water quality. the use of weakly acidic and weakly basic resins minimizes chemical costs and reduces losses to waste because of the high regenerative capacity. Some problems. carbon. The purified water is called permeate and the contaminant containing water reject or the reject stream. and it is based on the degree of concentration of contaminants. carbon. typically achieves a large surface area per unit volume. This concentration of contaminants is flushed to drain continuously and thereby removed from the system. Where applicable. Feed water could be introduced into either the center or the outside. spiral wound. consists of a perforated tube manufactured from ceramic. Osmosis is the spontaneous passage of a solvent (such as water) through a semipermeable membrane until there is an equal concentration of solute molecules (impurities such as sodium chloride) on both sides of the membrane. Sanitation usually is accomplished during regeneration. Feed water enters the tube and permeates the membrane to be collected on the outside. When membrane filtration and separation is used to produce pure water. Four types of membrane module configuration are used for reverse osmosis applications: hollow fiber. Spiral wound is the most commonly used configuration. This occurs until a rough equilibrium is achieved. . which then results in a higher pressure on the concentrated solution side equal to the osmotic pressure. the reject stream is referred to as salt. The flow rate is measured in membrane flux. and Purification more. a flat membrane is formed around a fabric spacer closed on three sides. or porous plastic with larger inside diameters than the hollow-fiber configuration. The driving force is a difference of pressure. pure water is diffused through the membrane. Rejection characteristics are expressed as a percent of the specific impurities removed and depend on ionic charge and size. When used as a filter. are associated with water softeners. or pass through. consists of a perforated tube manufactured from ceramic. Most applications require a minimum 40 percent recovery rate to be considered practical. called the osmotic pressure or concentration gradient. In the natural osmosis process. The flow (or flux) will continue until the osmotic pressure is equalized. Fouling resistance is low. such as microbial growth. The tubular configuration. or porous plastic with inside diameters ranging from 1 to 6 inches (8 to 25 millimeter). illustrated in Figure 1112. 211 Membrane Filtration and Separation Membrane filtration and separation is a general term for any water-purification process that removes contaminants from feed water by means of a thin. porous barrier called a membrane. illustrated in Figure 11-10. which in this discussion is water. which is a measurement of the flow rate of permeate that will pass through a given area of the membrane at a specific temperature and pressure. the feed water flows parallel to the membrane (often called tangential flow). Filters of this nature often are called ultrafilters and nanofilters. Reverse osmosis is the flow of a solvent in the direction opposite the direction of flow of natural osmosis. The spiral-wound configuration. Reverse Osmosis Reverse osmosis is a broad-based water-purifying process involving osmosis and ionic repulsion. The two general categories of membrane filtration are reverse osmosis using a semipermeable membrane and filtration using ultrafiltration and nanofiltration membranes. The unit is placed in a pressure vessel. The performance characteristics of the selected membrane determine how large a system is required. and not all of the feed water is recovered. The feed water channels are much more open than those of the spiralwound configuration and less subject to fouling. It requires rigid support when mounted inside the pressure vessel. In some cases. depending on the manufacturer of the module. Feed water permeates through the membrane and flows radially inside the enclosure toward the product tube. The hollow-fiber configuration. when two solutions of different concentrations are separated by a semipermeable membrane.Chapter 11 — Water Treatment. with the open side terminating in a perforated product water tube. and plate and frame. tubular. Conditioning. illustrated in Figure 11-11. maximum turbulence is necessary to avoid concentration polarization. This pressure is what drives the flow of the solvent. the majority of the systems installed will have multiple-bed units and a degasifier. water molecules from the less concentrated solution will spontaneously pass through the membrane to dilute the more concentrated solution. that exists across the membrane.

The retentate continues to flow and could be recirculated or directed to drain. The packing density is low and the resistance to fouling is very high. consists of a membrane fixed to a grooved plastic or metal plate with several plates stacked together in a frame that includes feed water and drain ports. System performance is determined by considering the following factors. This configuration is used mostly for filtration and rarely for reverse osmosis systems. which influence the capacity of the individual membranes selected: • Operating pH Figure 11-10 Hollow-fiber Reverse Osmosis Configuration Figure 11-12 Tubular Reverse Osmosis Configuration Figure 11-11 Spiral-wound Reverse Osmosis Configuration Figure 11-13 Plate-and-Frame Reverse Osmosis Configuration . usually measured as silt density index • Types of impurity and prior feed water treatment • Membrane flux • Number of operating hours • Resistance to biodegradation and ability to be sanitized • Rejection characteristics Typical reverse osmosis systems remove the following contaminants to the following levels: • Inorganic ions: 93 to 99 percent • Dissolved organics: More than 99 percent (more than 300 molecular weight) • Particulates: More than 99 percent • Microorganisms: 99 percent The plate and frame configuration. It is used for small to medium volumes. the purified water penetrates the membrane and gathers along the frame for collection. generally less than 20 gpm (76 liters per minute). illustrated in Figure 11-13. As the feed water flows across the membrane surfaces.212 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 • Chlorine tolerance • Temperature of the feed water • Feed water quality.

The UV spectrum is illustrated in Figure 11-14. and in time 25 percent of the output will be lost compared to a new bulb. This wavelength is preferred for pure water systems because it significantly reduces the multiplication of organisms. pyrogens. The recommended location for the UV device is prior to the deionization equipment. or biostats. and acid compounds. It slowly breaks the bonds in organic molecules by direct radiation and also oxidizes organisms by the formation of hydroxyl radicals. which prevent the further growth of microbes. mold. and UV light is generated using mercury vapor lamps. Tests have shown that only 50 percent of the energy used by the bulb is actually transmitted to the water. The 10. bacteria. the chemical must have a minimum contact time in the water. These filters usually are used as a pretreatment for the removal of colloids. and other microorganisms. Problems with UV systems include the generation of ions that lower the resistivity of water and the possible leaching of silica from the quartz sleeve of the UV device. The membranes are manufactured by bonding the membrane onto a porous. Chemicals add impurities to the water and generally are not suitable for a pure water environment. they must be removed.000 molecular weight. Cross-flow Filtration Ultrafiltration and nanofiltration membranes are categorized by their pore size. A flow rate of approximately 2 feet per second (0. Spiral wound and hollow fiber are the two most often-used configurations. plastic. Glass.02 micrometer. Conditioning. sterilizing by destroying bacteria. Ultraviolet Radiation Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an in-line process. or daltons. Two different wavelengths are available that produce the intensity and energy output necessary for the intended germicidal treatment requirements. Commonly used chemicals are chlorine and chlorine compounds. supporting substrate and then configuring it into elements. The 254-nanometer wavelength operates in the germicidal region. Nanofiltration membranes have pore sizes allowing the passage of solids to 10. hydrogen peroxide.000-dalton cutoff is recommended for the complete removal of pyrogens. and Purification Table 11-8 Comparison of Reverse Osmosis Polymers pH stability Chlorine tolerance Biological resistance Temperature limit for stability.6 meter per second) is a general industry standard for the effective sanitation of purified water. with the remainder flushed to drain. Chemicals could be either biocides. Microbial Control Chemicals The most often used disinfection method is the addition of oxidizing or nonoxidizing chemicals. Chlorine may produce trihalomethanes. Ultrafiltration membrane pore sizes range from 0. and high molecular-weight organics. viruses. The energy available can break down organic molecules and compounds to carbon dioxide and water by the photo-oxidation process. particulates. etch.Chapter 11 — Water Treatment. °F (°C) Typical rejection ionic species (%) Flux Thin Film Composite 2–12 Fair–poor Good 122 (45) >90 High Polyamide 4–11 Poor Good 95 (35) >90 Low Cellulose Acetate 2–8 Good Poor 95 (35) 90 Low–medium Cellulose Triacetate 4–7.001 to 0. a residual . They mostly are used to disinfect potable and process water and equipment and are injected directly into the fluid stream by means of a metering pump. In addition. discolor. Typical recovery rates for ultrafilters range between 95 and 98 percent. When present in the feed water used for purification. amount of the chemical must be present to maintain its effectiveness against organisms. rubber. The 185-nanometer wavelength operates in a highenergy spectrum of electromagnetic quantum-packet photon radiation (light) bands. and flake. which are substances that kill microbes. The flow rate through the UV device should be reduced compared to the circulation loop to extend the necessary contact time.5 Fair–good Fair–good 86 (30) 90 Low–medium 213 Polysulfone 3–11 Good Good 95 (35) 90 High The selection of a system configuration shall be based on the following considerations: • Maximum recovery • Fouling properties and resistance • Production rate per unit volume Only the following polymers have the necessary characteristics to function as a semipermeable membrane: • Thin-film composite of various polymer materials • Polyamide • Cellulose acetate • Cellulose tricetate • Polysulfone Typical characteristics and a comparison of these membranes are given in Table 11-8. and similar materials exposed to UV radiation over time will crack. To be effective.

214 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Filtering A filter removes organisms from the fluid stream. the process is slow and in some cases will form stable and refractory compounds.1 part per million. injectors. or other types of heat exchangers. aerosols. The ozone created in that chamber then is induced into the aqueous stream as a method of stream sanitation. generally between 15 and 26 kilowatt-hours per kilogram of ozone. Generally accepted practice is to use a 0. Depending on the generator. A typical schematic drawing of a coronadischarge generator is illustrated in Figure 11-15.2-micrometer absolute filter for the removal of bacteria. Ozone generators use large amounts of electrical power. This purification usually is supplied as part of a package. and activated carbon. recommended current practice is to use a membrane with an absolute rating (cutoff) of 10. Because high concentrations are harmful to humans and metals. rivers. The gas is injected directly into the water stream. The air is passed between two electrodes. Otto plate unit. the bulbs are enclosed in quartz sleeves. It is common practice to circulate purified water at this temperature and use heat exchangers to lower the water temperature at each point of use if necessary. an ozone generator. Utility Water Treatment Water from wells. lakes.000 parts per million. Although the effectiveness of this practice is questioned by some authorities. moisture.1 micrometers must be removed. and hydrocarbons shall be removed as required by the manufacturer. a water/ozone contact mechanism.3 micrometers.000 daltons. Problems with ozone treatment include the ozone system’s inability to oxidize all organic compounds. and 95 percent of those larger than 0. Heat Heating to 175°F (80°C) effectively sanitizes water under pressure. The mechanism for ozone oxidation is through generation of hydroxyl radicals. Figure 11-14 UV Wavelength Spectrum They differ only in the manner in which they are cooled. Clarifying and treating such water to . The three basic types of ozone generator are the Lowther plate unit. In addition. and streams commonly is used for cooling and washing purposes. The ozone system consists of a feed-gas treatment unit. the ozone should not be allowed to escape to the atmosphere without being treated to a level below 0. Thermal units operate at a temperature of 572°F (300°C) and generally require 3 to 5 minutes of contact time to be effective. The most often used method of producing ozone is by a corona-discharge generator. ozone concentrations can vary from 100 to 3. or columns that optimize the dissolution of the gas. and tube unit. electric. the bulbs are in a chamber where they are exposed to oxygen-rich air. and an electrostatic discharge across the gap converts oxygen to ozone. WATER TREATMENT The following methods and equipment are used to condition water for various purposes. Though it is true that the 185-nanometer bulbs are used to generate ozone. Ozone and water are mixed in direct contact with one another by the use of static or mechanical mixers. Ozone Ozone (O3) is an oxidizing gas generated from gaseous oxygen or catalytically from water. Destruction can be accomplished by catalytic. When 185-nanometer systems are employed as a treatment process. thermal. and a destruction unit to eliminate any residual ozone. The feed gas reaching the generator must not have any particles larger than 0. It is a common misconception that the ozone created by the bulbs in mercury vapor lamps is imparted to the water. Cartridge filtration is the most commonly used method of filtration. which converts the oxygen in air to ozone. among others. Also. Heating can be accomplished by using steam.

If the water quantity is small. If the water is going to be recirculated. The effects of dissolved gases are magnified. When subject to elevated temperature and pressure.Chapter 11 — Water Treatment. Initial Filtering If the supply is from surface water. Water Softening Water softening should be considered to reduce the hardness in the utility water system when the system is used for recirculated cooling purposes. The selection of the clarifier is based on the volume of water to be treated and the final quality desired. inactivated to keep them from reproducing. Fine screens could have openings of approximately 3/8inch (0. The degree of removal is determined by the difference in the two analyses. A wide range of treatment methods is available. and increased damage from corrosion. basket strainers can be used. A boiler water treatment program shall accomplish the following: 1. Conditioning. Figure 11-15 Principle of Corona Discharge Ozone Generator meet the purity requirements of the proposed end use require good monitoring and quick reaction to raw and treated water fluctuations. and special adsorbents. a coarse or fine screen usually is placed at the intake to keep out fish and other large debris. with the water velocity through the screen limited to about 2 feet per second (0. the composition of the raw boiler water supply undergoes radical changes. and Purification 215 stream. Chlorination is the least costly and most often-used method. depending primarily on the impurities found in the raw water. Coarse screens are usually ½-inch (1.6 meters per second). clarification is required to obtain water that meets the standards for the proposed use. inhibit corrosion. ultraviolet radiation. The result is a reduction in the heat-transfer rate.62 centimeters). filtration. filters may be used.95-centimeter) square. local codes must be followed regarding the allowable chemical amounts present in the wastewater to avoid the need for waste treatment. In climates where freezing may occur.5 to 1 part per million generally is accepted for typical waters. and the makeup rate of water. Biological Control To control microorganism fouling. a reduction in the flow rate. Reduce or remove hardness to control scale by either mechanical (external) or chemical (internal) treatment . microorganisms must be destroyed if possible. ozone generation. If the volume of water is small and the raw water is not very turbid.54 to 7. or neutralize impurities detrimental to the proposed end use of the water and the use of dispersants to keep particulates in suspension). Clarification After initial filtering. the operating pressure of the boiler. The dissolved minerals may deposit a scale on the transfer surface that affects the heat-transfer process.27-centimeter) diameter bars with a clear opening of 1 to 3 inches (2. These methods could be mechanical or chemical (the addition of chemicals to prevent deposits. the treatment methods are more stringent than if it is not going to be recirculated. the inlet should be placed far enough below the low water level to prevent freezing. If the water will be discharged into the environment. The treatment starts with an accurate feed water analysis. A range of 0. The action of chlorine requires a specified contact time and the establishment of a residual chlorine amount. and removed from the water Boiler Feed Water Conditioning In a boiler. This usually is accomplished by chlorination. energy in the form of heat is transferred across a heat-transfer surface from a fuel source to the water used for making steam. Recommended standards for boiler feed water and steam quality are given in Table 11-9. which is compared to the final treatment objectives established by the user and the boiler manufacturer.

351–2.205) 901–1. (max.933–19. The second is to precipitate salts out of solution to allow the particulates to be disposed of during blowdown.1–0. and these accumulate over time. lower values are for low solids in the feed water. The cycle of concentration is reduced by bleed off (blowdown) from the system. and isoascorbic acid. Table 11-9 Recommended Boiler Feed Water Limits and Steam Purity Drum Pressure.212–6.171) 751–900 (5. Maintain the proper levels of alkalinity to ensure that proper chemical reactions can occur 3. This requires close monitoring. a portion of the water is discharged to drain (blowdown).5 150–700 30–150 2 0.000 120–600 10 0. Maintain the proper levels of conditioners so the suspended solids remain in suspension and can be eliminated easily through blowdown 5. This usually is expressed as the cycle of concentration of the water. lower values are for low solids in the boiler water.000 40–200 3 0.001–1. 2. When the level of impurities becomes too high.0 500–2.203) 2. In addition to mechanical deaeration.144–5. a cycle of concentration of 3 has been reached. psig (kPa) 0–300 (0–2068) 301–450 (2. There are many effective materials.103) 451–600 (3. Cooling Water Conditioning The basic reason for the treatment of cooling water used in evaporative cooling towers and condenser systems is to keep any dissolved solids from depositing onto piping or equipment by preventing the dissolved solids from reaching the saturation point.801–2.178–6. magnesium. Range Total Suspended Solids Range TDSc Alkalinityb Boiler Boiler Water. Many scavengers are in use.411) 1. where the insoluble calcium and magnesium ions are replaced with highly soluble sodium ions.902–12.05 n/a n/a 0.1–0.0 600–3. and iron.895 kilopascals]) and compounds of hydrazine.995) 1.1 25 n/a 0. As an example.05 Once-through Boilers 0.075–3. Those most often used are polymers and phosphates and carbonates that are designed to optimize the precipitation of calcium. The adjustment of pH is accomplished by the injection of dilute sulfuric or hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate. Its use introduces artificial resins that are more efficient for most uses.500 140–700 15 0.0 200–1. but the most frequently used scavengers are sulfites (up to 1.418–16. if the feed water has a total dissolved solids of 100 parts per million and the circulating water has a total dissolved solids of 300 parts per million.110–4. Modern treatment has made hardness deposits much less common.1 50 n/a 0. Boiler blowdown is the bleeding off of some water from the boiler.600 (16.000 pounds per square inch gauge [6.05 Source: American Boiler Manufacturers Association Note: n/a = not available a Actual values within the range reflect the total dissolved solids (TDS) in the feed water.500 100–500 8 0. Steam.000 (6. Higher values are for high solids. b Actual values within the range are directly proportional to the actual value of TDS of boiler water. A commonly used resin is a strong acid resin in sodium form often referred to as zeolite.5 125–625 25–125 1 0. a chemical oxygen scavenger can be added to the water to quickly eliminate any remaining traces of oxygen.216 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Chemicals can be added to the boiler feed water for two purposes.2–1. c These values are exclusive of silica.1–0.900 (17. .350 (12. ppm Water ppm max. but iron deposits have become more common because of the return of condensate to the boiler. ppm max. Achieve optimum boiler blowdown The mechanical removal of hardness is most often accomplished by water softening using an ionexchange process.926) 2.2–1. Real zeolite is a naturally occurring mineral no longer widely used because of its high cost.895) 1. When steam is generated. Higher values are for the high solids.137) 601–750 (4.2–1.05 15 n/a 0.210–17. Control dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide through deaerating and the addition of an oxygen scavenger 4. carbohydrazide. expected value) Drum-type Boilersa 700–3. One is to keep the salts in solution so they will not cause scaling. Feed water oxygen and carbon dioxide typically are removed with deaerators before the feed water enters the boiler. Blowdown could be intermittent or continuous.5 100 1 0. generally blends of component chemicals.601–2.800 (6. Hydrazine is being replaced by diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA). hydroquinone. impurities are left behind from the feed water converted to steam. which compares the dissolved solids in the feed water with the dissolved solids content of the circulating water.400 and above Range TDSa Boiler Water.

purification. a balance must be reached. which change the surface characteristics of the pipe to prevent deposits and aid in removal if deposits occur.Chapter 11 — Water Treatment. Radiological: This category is concerned primarily with radon in areas where the water may have come in contact with radioactive substances. interrelated phases: pretreatment. 2. 3. turbidity. sodium bisulfate. A corrosion inhibitor often adds compounds that increase the tendency of scale to occur. Biological Fouling Microbial control is achieved with the addition of biocides. Substances that affect the quality of potable water are classified in four major headings. therefore. because of the presence of several different strains of microbes. They are similar to those used for boiler water treatment. The levels must be closely monitored with alarms established by performance indicators based on operating experience. including a discussion of general advantages and disadvantages. This is a generally accepted lower limit below which the biocide is not considered effective. Potable Water Treatment Water used for human consumption or intended to be part of food products must be treated to comply with the Safe Drinking Water Act. and Ryznar indexes. either oxidizing or nonoxidizing depending on their chemistry and killing action. and organics. often are related to the appearance of the water. taste. Corrosion Broadly defined as an electrochemical process. Physical: Physical characteristics. Often. Ozone also is commonly used. Chemical: The chemical characteristics of water are related to dissolved minerals (mostly hardness). Stiff and Davis. Biological treatment requires the use of biocides and biostats to eliminate and reduce the number of microorganisms present in the water and to create a residual amount of the chemical to maintain the required level of action required by code. Biocide treatment initially shocks microbes with a heavy dose. but with the addition of surfactants. such as color.5 to decrease its scale-forming tendency. Retention and aeration lower the radon count to acceptable limits in approximately eight hours. Physical quality is corrected through the use of various types of filters. 1. Corrosion treatments consist of: • pH control • Chemical inhibitors • Oxygen scavengers such as hydrazine. the Surface Water Treatment Rule (which is part of the Safe Drinking Water Act). and morphine • Ensuring proper flow rates by correctly sizing metal pipe • Sacrificial anodes • Polishing and passivation of interior surfaces • Biocide treatment These shall be recommended by the manufacturer of both the chemicals and the equipment to ensure compatibility. gases. and local regulations. The factors impacting corrosion in aquatic systems include: • Dissolved oxygen • Total dissolved solids • Alkalinity and pH • Total hardness • Temperature • Flow velocity • Types of metal used in the process • Condition of the interior surface of the plumbing system • Extraneous electrical current • Bacteria Simple tools used to predict the propensity of an aqueous solution to be corrosive are the Langelier. These chemicals are added by means of a chemical feed pump discharging directly into the piping system. corrosion takes place when an electrical potential is possible between two surfaces common to an electrolyte. and odor. and distribution (including post-treat- . ion exchange. is given in Table 11-10. and Purification Scale The basic treatment for scale in cooling water systems is to add inhibitors that keep the scale from depositing on the walls of the pipe. 4. The pH of the circulating water usually is controlled to a point near 7. WATER PURIFICATION A total water treatment system for pure water used for laboratory and pharmaceutical purposes consists of three general. A contact time approved by the chemical manufacturer is required. The chemical quality of water is adjusted by the use of water softeners. reverse osmosis units. A synopsis of general treatment methods for small potable water systems. Biological: These characteristics are concerned with microorganisms that affect the health of the consumer. The addition of a dilute acid is the most often-used method of control. and then the concentration of the com- 217 pounds is allowed to fall to a level of 25 percent of the initial dose. more than one biocide may be required. and activated charcoal units to remove organic impurities. Conditioning.

potential difficulty in maintaining complete and uniform thickness of diatomaceous earth on filter septum. requires coagulant and filter aids for effective virus removal. simplicity of operation. Advanced oxidation Very effective. usually must be preceded by high levels of pretreatment. Expensive waste removal. Packing. deionization. and other approved processes. no known harmful residuals. easily clogged with colloids and algae. appropriate as both primary and secondary disinfectant. Expensive waste removal. Spent carbon disposal. Inappropriate for surface water.218 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Table 11-10 Water Treatment Technology for Small Potable Water Systems Disadvantages Filtration Slow sand Operational simplicity and reliability. Rapid sand/direct Compact. has a proven history of Potential for harmful halogenated byproducts under certain conditions. turbidity (<10 ntu). Ultraviolet radiation Very effective for viruses and bacteria. Drug. time-consuming. Processing. ability to achieve greater than 99. Byproducts. disposal. Reverse osmosis Extremely compact. variety of possible application points. For information on suggested guidelines for water purity in the electronics industry. simple operation and maintenance for high-quality waters. requires a secondary disinfectant. Purification methods include distillation. variable removal efficiencies. more complex operation because it must be generated on-site. continuous deionization. Organic Contaminant Removal Granular-activated carbon Effective for a broad spectrum of organics. Inorganic Contaminant Removal Reverse osmosis Highly effective. Relatively high cost. radionuclides. complex repairs of automated controls.) Codes and Standards The required quality of purified water depends on the application. Variable removal efficiencies. Expensive waste removal. widely used. inexpensive. Expensive waste removal. requires a secondary disinfectant. membrane filtration. other byproducts. Little information available to establish design criteria or operating membranes parameters. Disinfection Chlorine Very effective. Water for injection can be produced only by distillation or membrane filtration. Ion exchange Highly effective. air emissions. Reverse osmosis Broad spectrum removal. Most suitable for raw water with low bacterial counts and low (septum filter) excellent cyst and turbidity removal. short filter runs. protection against waterborne disease. treat a wide range of water Chemical pretreatment complex. cost. all applications do not require the same quality of water. low Not suitable for water with high turbidity. (Ultra-pure water systems used in the production of food products and electronic industries are considered process systems and are outside the scope of this chapter. which is then further purified to meet the specific requirements at the point of use. Ozone Very effective. Diatomaceous earth Compact size. General • 21 CFR 211. concerns about membrane failure. Diffused aeration Effective for volatile compounds and Clogging. GAC Highly effective. wastewater. Among them are: • 21 CFR 210: Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing. Packed-tower aeration Effective for volatile compounds. automated. high percent of water lost in backflushing. or Holding of Drugs. filtration package plants quality parameters and variable levels.9% Giardia cyst removal. The American Society for . Activated alumina Highly effective. Current Good Manufacturing Practice for Finished Pharmaceuticals • United States Pharmacopeia–National Formulary • Federal Food. most suitable for raw water with turbidity <1 ntu. requires large land areas. cost. contact Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International at semi. no THMs formed. Potential for air emissions issues. Technology Advantages ment) of the purified water. Ultra-pure water for specific applications often is made using pure water as feed water. and Cosmetic Act Laboratory Systems For laboratory work.org. readily available. Various codes have defined water quality for use in specific industries.

1 — 5. Type I. College of American Pathologists. The name is derived from the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) specifications for purified water.0 — Maximum heterotropic bacteria count Endotoxin.0 100 10 — 60 100 — neg 0. The four basic applications where high-purity water is needed in the biological laboratory are: 1. membrane filtration and separation. Water used to make buffer solutions are used in enzymatic reactions 4. and continuous deionization or electrodeionization. The degree of treatment depends on end-user requirements. The source strongly influences the pretreatment options and may dictate the treatment methods. The ASTM electronics-grade water standard is given in Table 11-14 for reference only. and 11-13. Unless these factors are well established. Some of these systems are often combined.0–8. reagent grade types should be further classified as follows: — — — — — — 5. called reagent grade water. Pharmaceutical Systems The type of water used for pharmaceutical purposes is called USP purified water. is suitable for all but the most critical procedures. resistance (MΩ · cm) Silicate (µg/L) Heavy metals (µg/L) Total organic carbon (µg/L) Potassium permanganate reduction (min. It has no formal specification and is required to have an organic purity greater than that required for Type I. This water is free from organic and inorganic impurities. conductance (µmhos/cm) Spec. Water for media used in growing tissue cultures 2. The two categories of water referred to are purified water and water for injection. Water used in media formulations for growing bacteria and other prokaryotes 3. 11-12. called general laboratory-grade water.1 104 — 3 III 10 0.0 0.Chapter 11 — Water Treatment. Conditioning. The most common combination is called reverse osmosis/ deionization.1 10 — 3 CAP Type II 0. is the first parameter to be identified in the design of a pure water system. The four basic technologies used to produce pure water are ion exchange.5 2. and Purification Testing and Materials. endotoxin unit (EU) Type A 10/1. the selection of any treatment method is impossible. distillation. Feed Water Feed water quality. A wide variation in types and concentra- Table 11-11 CAP and ASTM Reagent-grade Water Specifications Spec.25 1. A typical pharmaceutical water purification flow diagram is shown in Figure 11-16.0–8.2 — — — — 50 50 — — a a Microbiological contamination: When bacterial levels need to be controlled. is used for the analysis of trace matter and other critical applications.056 18 3 — 100 — 1 1 — — a ASTM Type II III 1.0 4 3 500 — — 50 200 — — 5 10 5 10 — — — — a a IV 5. These standards are summarized in Tables 11-11.000 mL <0. is suitable for most qualitative analysis and equipment rinsing and as a supply for generating Type I water. which is source dependent. the amount and nature of the various contaminants present in the feed water stream.1 10 50 10 — 60 100 — neg 0. The standard for each is given in Table 11-15.000 10 — 60 100 — neg 0.1 1.0 3 I 0. Type II.) Sodium (µg/L) Chlorides (µg/L) Hardness Ammonia Bacterial growth (cfu/mL) pH CO2 (µg/L) I 0. and microorganisms. Three pure water categories are included in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute specifications: 1.03 Type B 10/1. with revisions to the specification made from time to time based on current technology.000 mL 0. It is the purest water covered by any written standard. and Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation have developed standards for water used in laboratories depending on the intended use. 2.0 0.25 Type C 100/10 mL Not applicable . suspended solids. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Knowledge of the highest levels of contaminants and the highestpurity water required cannot be overemphasized. 3. called analytical grade water. and the amount and nature of the various contaminants to be removed. Water used to make solvent standards and reagents for various types of analysis Another grade of water called organic free water often is required for trace analysis of various impu- 219 rities. Type III.

(µg/L) bial level. 3. Preparation of bacteria-free water for direct fluorescent detection of bacteria as in Legionella direct fluorescent antibody testing or direct fluorescent stains of mycobacteria. such as: 1.000 Potassium.1 N/A N/A 5. barium. max. max (µg/L) 0. depending on whether The feed water also cannot contain added subthe feed water is obtained from a public utility or stances. presently in use appear.0a > 16. This is an issue that appears to be interpreted a private source. Adopted by American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Preparation of water with minimal organic content for HPLC.22-µm filter Activated carbon N/A 1. fluorides.5 different times and seasons to prop> 17. (µg/L) 1 1 5 500 virtually free of coliform. Source: Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMl). MΩ/cm) Silicate (mg/L max.09 0. max.0–8. max. and the use of ozone to control microbial growth hardness and alkalinity (bicarbonates). Preparation of water with minimal pyrogen levels for cell culture. max.001 0. Food and Drug Admin1 1 2 500 Copper. phosphates. max.5 1 5 1. 0. acid addition to adjust and relatively high levels of calcium and magnesium pH.000 flexibility to obtain the required puParticle count (per mL) 1 3 10 100 rity under worst-case conditions. (µg/L) 0. The Endotoxins 0. All of the concerns are from agricultural areas often has high levels of niresolved during the application phase for U. (µg/L) for USP purified water and water Nickel. Food trates. The water should be Phosphate.2 0. maximum) pH Resistivity (25°C.0 0. lead.5 1 5 500 Zinc.5 or greater 90% of the time. Note: “meq/L” = mole equivalent/liter tions of impurities is possible.0 0.S. 2. and organics tion of raw water supplies.) Particulate matter Organicsb a Type I 10 a Type II 1000 Type III N/A N/A 10 0. chloramines as well as iron oxides and other pipe-related impurities. not less than 17 maximum value specified in United 17.0a 17.0002 200 (cfu/mL) Table 11-12 NCCLS Reagent-grade Water Specifications Characteristics Bacterial content (colonyforming units per mL.1 1 2 500 for injection systems to meet EPA Sodium.1 each 0.000 pathogenic marker organism.0 10 Particle size limit (µm) Viable bacteria. max. zinc Arsenic. max. and organics.014 0.0b (MΩ · cm at 25°C) erly design a system with enough SiO2 (total).5 0. 1990.S. (µg/L) istration requires the feed water 0.3 meq/L) 70 (3 meq/L) 8 (0. a b c d . colloids. b These specifications are process specifications and are not measured by the end user.5b 12 0. 1/1000 mL 10/1000 mL 10/1 mL 100/1 mL The U.25 EUc N/Ad N/Ad feed water also must meet the 400 colony-forming units per milliliter Source: ASTM Standard D5127-90 Above 18ΩD · cm 95% of the time. (µg/L) 1 1 10 1. (µg/L) 25 50 300 1. It Table 11-14 ASTM Electronics-grade Water Standarda is important to establish or obtain Grade Assay E-I E-II E-III E-IV historical water analysis data from Resistivity. Of Chloride. max. silver Chromium Cadmium Selenium Aluminum Mercury Bacteria Suggested Maximum Level. Items such as the chlorinahave low levels of particulates. Hemodialysis Systems Standard. Additional purification may be reguired for selected clinical laboratory procedures.05 0.1 2 100 0.03 EUc 0. and tion of the system. minimum >18. max. max. (µg/L) 2 2 5 500 guidelines for potable water. Underground waters tend to to violate this position. in the design of purified water systems.5 1.005 each 0. not less than 16 EU = Endotoxin unit States Pharmacopeia–National N/A = not applicable Formulary.1 meq/L) 4 (0. and organic pesticides. from an overall perspective. colloids. Water from and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and validapublic utilities has residual chlorine. which is a Sulfate.000 particular concern is the micro1 1 5 500 Nitrate.2 meq/L) 0. type I water should be bacteria free.1 0. (µg/L) 5 10 50 1.220 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Table 11-13 AAMI/ANSI Water Quality Standards Contaminant Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Fluoride Chlorine Chloramines Nitrate (N) Sulfate Copper. 1992. max. such as a well or other surface or differently by individuals and organizations involved groundwater source.01 0.1 N/A N/A Source: Frankel 1996 a Preferably. mg/L 2 (0.10 0. Some systems Surface waters are usually high in particulates. Source water are subject to interpretation. (µg/L) 1 1 5 500 Total organic carbon.

1 as Cu 0.78 to 15. Source:Numerical values are interpretations of procedures listed in the Standards in United States Pharmacopoeia. pH Adjustment The selected membrane should have an optimum pH operating range. Purification System Design Specific methods of purification are capable of removing various types of impurities better than others. a duplex arrangement should be installed so the filters can be backwashed or replaced with no interruption in service. pesticides. In some locations. Cartridge Filters These are used to remove lesser amounts of particulates prior to the central purification equipment. multimedia filter and a cartridge filter (with the sand filter first). In some cases. Filtration Filters are used to remove suspended solids originating from any source. ed.0 1. Experience has shown that cartridge replacement is uneconomical compared to backwashing.0 0. this problem is rarely encountered. Problems with carbon filters are their tendency to harbor microbial growth due to the removal of chlorine. a 5. a granulated carbon filter is provided to remove residual disinfectants (e. The water could be heated . The flux increases with increased feed water temperature. it is practical to use a sand. an additional 1-millimeter cartridge filter is recommended downstream of the main filter. or on some feed waters. surfactants). If the concentration is lower. Higher qualities of water require slower flow rates. This filter is recommended if the silt density index is less than 4 and generally required if the level is more than 4. In most instances. It is generally accepted practice to provide an in-line 5-millimeter cartridge depth filter to eliminate any particulates that would clog or interfere with the operation of the central purification equipment. depending on the quantity of organics and chloramines in the entering water.0 5. Sand and Multimedia Filters A common initial method for gross particulate removal from source water is a pressure multimedia sand filter.2 part per million.25 221 with a separate water heater or with a blending valve using domestic hot water mixed with feed water to provide the necessary temperature. To achieve it. used if the concentration of suspended solids is greater than 0.14 liters per minute per square meter) of filter area. To increase membrane filtration quality The need for pretreatment is determined by an analysis of the raw water supply.0–7.5 0.0–7. Pretreatment Pretreatment is considered for two reasons: 1. The decision generally is governed by the cost efficiency of the pretreatment method and whether the cost of purchasing and installing the pretreatment equipment will reduce the initial cost of the main treatment equipment and lower the operating cost of the system as a whole enough to justify its installation.0 100 cfu/mL 10 cfu/100 mL — 0. If continuous production is required.. chlorine and chloramine). sodium hydroxide.1 0. Heating the feed water lowers the viscosity.0 1.Chapter 11 — Water Treatment. feed water has a high level of some classes of contaminant.0 0. To decrease potential damage to the membrane selected 2. usually with potassium permanganate. When using drinking water standards. Water Temperature Membrane productivity (flux) usually is rated with feed water at 77°F (25°C) and is inversely proportional to the feed water viscosity. 24th. It is much more economical to pretreat that water to remove the bulk and/or the more concentrated of those impurities than use the purification equipment to polish the water to the desired purity level. It is accepted practice to use a combination of technologies. Conditioning. None can be depended on to remove all the impurities necessary to achieve the purity level required for USP-purified water.0 10. If the level is more than 4. Carbon Filtration Following the removal of gross particulates.g. Frequent sanitizing is necessary.0 100 50.0 5. and suspended organics (humic and fulvic acids). The methods used to produce this water depend on the feed water supplying the facility. the removal of individual impurities is necessary to allow the use of specific types of purification equipment. additional membrane area is required.5 1. When the water temperature is lower. dissolved organics (oils. each of which is designed to remove a specific type of impurity.to 10-millimeter cartridge filter often is used. Flow rates through this filter are usually in the range of 1 to 4 gpm per square foot (3.0 0.0 5. and Purification Table 11-15 USP XXII Purified Water and WFI Water Purity Standards Component pH Chloride (mg/L) Sulfate (mg/L) Ammonia (mg/L) Calcium (mg/L) Carbon dioxide (mg/L) Heavy metals (mg/L) Oxidizable Substances Total solids (mg/L) Bacteria (cfu/mL) —FDA action limit Pyrogen (EU/mL by LAL) Purified Water Water for Injection 5.1 1.1 as Cu Pass USP Permanganate Test 10. a dilute acid is injected into the feed water if necessary.

The softener is another device harboring microbial growth. Materials used in the system must be compatible with these units. the tank should be constructed of 316L stainless steel. If steam is selected. This water contains a residual amount of chlorine. which is necessary to comply with code for drinking water quality.4 part per million.222 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Figure 11-16 Typical Pharmaceutical Water Flow Diagram or steam. activated-charcoal . There is a reluctance to use any chemical to remove microorganisms due to FDA restrictions regarding adding chemicals to the feed water. a granulated. Biological and Total Organic Carbon Reduction Ultraviolet units and ozone generators generally are used to remove microorganisms and total organic carbon from the feed water prior to its reaching the reverse osmosis units. Water Softening If the hardness is high. Biocide Removal The most common source of feed water for most facilities is potable water. Water softening is recommended if the iron content exceeds 0. Sanitizing with potassium permanganate generally is used. chlorine commonly is added to disinfect the feed water because it is cost effective and can easily be removed by granular activated carbon filters. To remove this residual chlorine. it is necessary to provide a water softener to reduce the calcium and magnesium to a level required by the membrane selected. However.

4085 ½ s ID = V ( ) [ ( ) ] where V = Velocity. polypropylene (high-density or cross-linked with a minimum specific gravity of 1. polyethylene. Another possibility is the installation of a filter that will remove any organic particulates. A special regulator is used in conjunction with a special tank vent to allow a very low flow rate of nitrogen to enter the tank as the tank is drawn down during a demand scenario. and electropolished. At the same time. polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). Velocity in the distribution piping system should be sufficient to maintain turbulent flow. An organic trap also may be required if organics are very high. For water for injection systems. This minimizes microbial growth by continuously washing the upper areas of the tank. It should be noted that the design of a nitrogen blanket system is critical and should be specific to each individual situation. Storage tanks could be constructed from fiberglass-reinforced plastic with an internal vial suitable for the purpose. and stainless steel pipe should be orbital welded. ion exchange. Conditioning. Bacteria grow and secrete waste products. and Purification filter is provided. The water return should be at the top of the tank and be equipped with a spray ball or spray ring. 3. 180 grit. This keeps the tank from imploding as nitrogen is supplied to fill the empty portion of the tank caused by the stored water being removed. or stainless steel. feet per second (meters per second) ID = Actual inside diameter. It is common practice to have a nitrogen gas blanket in the vapor space above the water in the storage tank to reduce the possibility of airborne contamination and reduce the formation of carbonic acid from the reaction of carbon dioxide and water in the tank. the storage tanks selected for this service should be pressure rated for the intended application in lieu of the atmospheric duty-rated tanks commonly selected for systems not requiring nitrogen blanket protection. It is an established fact that high-purity water degrades in storage because: 1.5 meters per second). The discharge should be from the center bottom of the tank to allow complete circulation of the stored water. 0. as the demand for process water decreases and the tank fills. Another often-used method is to heat purified water to a temperature of 177°F (80°C) to prevent microorganism growth and then circulate it to maintain the sterile condition. The method used will depend on the purity desired and limitations on initial or operating cost. approximately 3 to 5 feet per second (0. Sterilization It is common practice to provide an in-line ultraviolet sterilization device to reduce microorganisms that may be present in the water. Piping system design and pump selection is critical to ensure the correct velocity throughout the entire loop. 180 grit. Controlling the nitrogen blanket in this way helps conserve the amount of nitrogen needed to maintain the required blanket. Water extracts contamination from any container. Organics from solvents and the shedding of clothing can diffuse through the air and dissolve in the water. while keeping the tank from bursting due to over-pressurization. pressure rated to a minimum of 35-psig (241-kilopascal) pressure and 3 inches (760 millimeters) of mercury vacuum. Following is a rule of thumb formula used to select the correct pipe diameter: gpm L × 0.5). Piping Distribution Network The piping material for USP water should be fabricated from either virgin polypropylene. The tank shall have a jacket to maintain a temperature of 177ºF (80°C) and be insulated and provided with a rupture disk.Chapter 11 — Water Treatment. The tank for USP water should be airtight and equipped with a non-shedding. 2. Insulation shall be non-chloride bearing and designed for a temperature of 176°F (80°C). continuous deionization or electrodeionization. or stainless steel (finish specified by user or process). In addition. and reverse osmosis. The bottom of the tank shall be dished or conical to aid in complete drainage. and electro-polished. 223 Central Purification Equipment The basic methods used to produce high-purity water are distillation. Fittings shall have extended ends for orbital welding.2-millimeter hydrophobic filter for venting. which can be very costly depending on the size of the system.4085 s V= ID2 or gpm L × 0. All couplings shall be sanitary tri-clamp. inches (millimeters) . Piping material for water for injection should be stainless steel.91 to 1. Plastic pipe should be butt-joint heat-fused. 4. the tank should be type 304L or 316L stainless steel. Storage The storage of water reduces the size of the purification equipment. Laboratory personnel secrete urea in perspiration and respiration that can cause the formation of ammonia in stored laboratory water. the regulator will close when the pressure in the tank reaches a predetermined level sufficient to provide the nitrogen blanket.

Cartwright.” Pharmaceutical Engineering Magazine. 4. In contrast. March 1994. thus minimizing entire system shutdown or drainage in the event a piping repair or lab reconfiguration were to occur. When comparing polypropylene. W. and ongoing testing will consistently provide water of the desired purity. 7. Peter S. and stainless steel from a cost standpoint.C. 6... R. 8. . In the purified loop. Frankel. Dow Chemical Corp. since the microbial and chemical quality can vary depending on the proposed use of the water. purified water systems can utilize different types of purification equipment. Pumps for purified water should be of sanitary design using a double mechanical seal with product water as the lubricant for the seals. PVDF can be selected in lieu of polypropylene in a condition where the piping may be required to meet ASTM E84: Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials and UL 723: Test for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials. full-bore ball valves are recommended. and the continuing quality of system operation. the standards for flame spread and smoke generation. Water Treatment for HVAC and Potable Water Systems. M. Practice.. Provide sample valves (usually needle type) at strategic points in the system to allow samples to be taken. and D. continuous support of piping is recommended. “Membrane technologies in the power industry.” presented at The Ninth Annual Membrane Technology/Planning Conference and Second High-Tech Separations Symposium. N. all aspects of the purification system and distribution network are subject to inspection and validation by the FDA.” Ultrapure Water Magazine. The FDA has specific guidelines for the selection of stills and reverse osmosis equipment used for pro- REFERENCES 1. (Note: Check for the actual inside diameter of various pipes based on schedules.. Jayawardena. Facility Piping System Handbook. “Take the Guesswork Out of Demineralizer Design.. Dead legs of more than six pipe diameters should be avoided at all costs. A booster pump may be required to keep the flow at the correct velocity. 3. 2. This investigation also includes verification that the purification equipment selected is capable of producing water of the required purity. P Amin. Gorry. November/December 1992. trapure Water Magazine. July/August 1986. . Valves shall be consistent with the piping materials. which is responsible for determining if water quality used is adequate. Denoncourt and Egozy. January/ February 1994. Prior to the reverse osmosis or deionization units. use stainless steel diaphragm valves with an ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) or Teflon diaphragm and a backing ring. 180 grit. and stainless steel is the most expensive. followed by PVDF. M. 2002. “Ultraviolet Disinfection in Biotechnology: Myth vs. Janoschek. complete with fittings and a valve arrangement that would facilitate sanitizing of specific areas of the system.. “Trace Level Analysis of High Purity Water.. Dunleavy. Know the impact of surface finish inside the pipe being considered. Because of this.” Plumbing Engineer. November 1991.” Chemical Engineering Magazine. “Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration System Design. and G. 5. J. the quality of installation for the distribution network produces a piping network capable of delivering water of the required quality to all outlets. are capable of consistently producing water of the required quality.. and Y. Richard T. Water for injection pumps should be type 316L stainless steel.. McGraw-Hill.W. McGraw-Hill. polypropylene is usually the least expensive. 9. March 1994. “Water Systems for Pharmaceutical Facilities. such as in a return air plenum area. A casing drain should be provided. Piping shall be sloped at a 1/8-inch (3.V “Pharmaceutical Water. Distribution loop piping also should be designed to incorporate sanitizing inlets. Water Conditioning Manual. Zelmanovich.2-millimeter) pitch per foot (meter) to allow complete drainage of the network. du Moulin. 10. Collentro. PVDF. System Design Considerations USP water and water for injection are used in the pharmaceutical manufacturing process and often become part of the product. The purpose of any guidelines or standards is to verify that all pertinent purity requirements of the equipment and distribution system conform to current good manufacturing practice. Verify the impact of various linings. while polypropylene and PVDF both have similar operating characteristics from a purity standpoint. In addition. and are capable of delivering water to the use point that meets the acceptance criteria for water coming in contact with the product. and electro-polished. July/ August 1991. Brown. Richardson Sr. maintenance.224 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 duction of water for injection. Blake.” Ul. To prevent future plastic pipe sagging and interference with drainage. M.) Pump selection can be made after pressure losses are calculated through the entire system.” BioPharm Magazine.

and Purification 225 11.” American Laboratory Magazine. 17. “Disinfection of Escherichia Coli by Using Water Dissociation Effect on Ion Exchange Membranes... April 1993. Piping. 19. Second Edition. Nussbaum. May 1993. Nalco Chemical Co..” Ultrapure Water Magazine. “Remove Organics by Activated Carbon Adsorption. Lin. O. The Nalco Water Handbook.” Chemical Engineering Progress Magazine. February 1992.J. August 1998. “Practical Design of a Highpurity Water System. Air Conditioning Magazine.” Chemical Engineering Magazine. D. B. 1999. Paul.” Chemical Engineering Magazine. September/October 1989. Otten. Parekh. 13.. 14. Conditioning.Chapter 11 — Water Treatment. “Boiler Water Treatment. 18. Mark H. Gerald.” Pharmaceutical Engineering Magazine. Tanaka.. July 1992. “Looking to Treat Wastewater? Try Ozone.. . Yeh.H. K. 15. “Get Your Process Water to Come Clean.. “Treating Cooling Water.S. Stenzel. Sendelbach.L. 12.” Heating. June 1984. 20. and S. C. 16. “Measuring Water Purity by Specific Resistance. T. M. “Pharmaceutical Waters.” In Proceedings of the European-Japan Congress on Membrane and Membrane Processes.” Chemical Engineering Magazine.G. Meyrick. January 1991...E.

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The second jurisdictional body. radioactive waste. Unless specifically noted otherwise. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). with the treated effluent discharging directly into the public sanitary drainage sewer system. Any special drainage system effluent routed for treatment inside a facility or on site typically does . the public. a more sophisticated system that demonstrates contaminant removal to the levels desired by the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) must be chosen. all of the waste streams are assumed to have the approximate flow characteristics of water. such as acid waste. CODES AND STANDARDS Two general jurisdictional bodies regulate different aspects of special waste systems.12 Special waste includes liquid effluent other than discharge from sanitary and storm water sources. direct discharge into the public sanitary sewer is acceptable. Although such authorities are concerned with regulating the size and design of plumbing systems within a building. chemical waste. are constantly being revised due to technological and design changes. To prevent such discharge. If the levels of contaminant removal are beyond the capability of such local treatment. and require the use of double-wall piping and leak detection to prevent and mitigate any leakage from piping. and the environment from the discharge of toxic substances. they also restrict the introduction of any type of waste into the sanitary sewer that may degrade the public sewer piping system or is incapable of being easily treated in the public waste treatment facility. untreated waste is stored on site and collected by approved waste-removal contractors for disposal. including the local authorities charged with the review and approval of plumbing system designs and discharges into the public sewer system. If the local treatment system provides the appropriate level of contaminant removal. public sewers. Very often. the regulations of the federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Pipe sizing criteria are based on this assumption. includes the various agencies concerned with protecting workers. Except for the neutralization of acid effluent. pH adjustment of chemical waste. such as current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) from the U. The services of an experienced environmental consultant who is familiar with the latest applicable rules and regulations and their interpretations should be consulted for system compliance with the maze of regulations. it is common practice for these agencies to inspect facilities. Included in this group are federal. which creates and enforces plumbing and health codes. and local authorities responsible for preventing toxic discharge SYSTEM APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS Authorities make a distinction between drainage effluent that can be treated locally within a building (such as by biological waste sterilization. Other regulations. This chapter describes the collection and criteria necessary for the design of various special waste drainage systems. These systems generally route the waste from fixtures and equipment into a facility waste treatment system. Each special waste system has unique properties that must be separately addressed. treatment methods for special waste are outside the scope of this chapter.S. Such discharges can occur either as a result of spills and accidents or by deliberate. state. biological and infectious waste. Special Waste Drainage Systems of any substances considered harmful into the general environment. illegal discharge. Acceptance of such local treatment can be obtained only after conferences with the authorities responsible for issuing contamination limits for such discharge. The first is the local or regional authority. mandate on-site facility treatment systems. and fire suppression water drainage. or oil separation) and other effluent that requires a larger and more complex waste treatment system outside a building. and facility validation protocols. and public treatment systems. which has far more stringent regulations.

228 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 The various plumbing codes generally use only satisfactory performance as a sizing guide for special waste system pipe sizing. and the concentration of each chemical that will enter the pipe. gaskets. the discharge must conform to local regulations for the maximum concentration of any contaminant or pH level. which uses system slope. Equipment drainage. using the anticipated maximum flow rate and pitch of the pipe at each point of design and a maximum velocity of 10 fps (3. If any effluent is routed to the public sewer system for eventual treatment. Even if a client’s standard operating procedure (SOP) states that no chemicals or lab waste can be discharged down the drain. future changes. although they may fall under the jurisdiction of agencies such as the EPA or similar local environmental regulation bodies. A common exception is for laboratory fixtures. temperature and composition of the effluent. However. the flow rate and pitch of the piping must be known to size the pipe. most authorities require the installation of an acid drainage system. slope. the total installed cost and possible ease of assembly are the deciding factors. the special drainage piping system is sized on the basis of good engineering practice. and expected flow rates rather than fixture units. you should verify approval requirements with the governing code authority. • Gravity drainage pipe size is based on flow rate. temperature range. For conditions not listed on these charts. If the only required method of treatment is pH adjustment prior to discharging into the building’s sanitary drainage system or the public sewer system. you should contact the manufacturer of the material and ask for technical assistance. All the elements of system design are left to the judgment of the design engineer. and a pH value of 10 is typically the highest acceptable level. Selection is accomplished by first establishing the flow rate. Pipe size should be determined based on the following criteria: • Effluent has the characteristics of water. Refer to Table 12-1 to find the velocity and size of pipe based on flow rate and slope. piping should be sized to flow between one-half to three-fourths full to allow for unexpected large discharges. joining methods. When the compatibility of various pipe systems is the same.05 meters per second) if the waste contains any solids. they still may require or benefit from a special waste piping system to protect the integrity of the drainage system in the event of an accidental spill or discharge. PIPE SIzING CONSIDERATIONS System design is concerned only with the adequacy of the pipe to carry away the design flow. and often accidents.) • The drainage system is sized on the basis of gravity drainage and maintenance of a minimum velocity of 2 feet per second (fps) (0. PIPE MATERIAL AND JOINT SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS Important factors in the selection of the appropriate pipe material. production. and velocity. composition of the effluent. Depending on the system. and accidents. in which case the drainage and vent systems may be required to be sized on a fixture unit basis. In addition. which limits the pressure inside the system. They occur mostly at random intervals dictated by cleaning. not require examination or approval by the local plumbing official. From each point in the system. A pH value of 5 generally is viewed as the lowest acceptable level for direct discharge into a public sewer system. as do standard plumbing fixtures in sanitary drainage systems. Because of these factors. and discharge from fixtures within the facilities are not always planned. maintenance schedules. discharge from production facilities. and concentration and composition of all effluent and chemicals that are expected. pH DEFINITION Any dissolved impurity in water separates to form negatively and positively charged atoms called ions. The reason for the lack of code requirements is that special drainage systems do not have a predictable or documented usage history. special drainage systems completely within the property of the facility do not fall under the plumbing code requirements for piping size or design. the smoothness of the pipe interior or the lack of a crud trap is also an important factor. the type of chemicals. spills. For some systems. and other piping components for any special waste drainage system are cost. All pipe manufacturers publish chemical compatibility charts that provide the effects of various chemicals on a particular pipe and include recommendations for acceptance using these chemicals. the pitch should be adjusted accordingly. compared to the specific drainage requirements mandated for sizing sanitary drainage systems. System configuration usually requires traps to be provided on fixtures and floor drains and the venting system to conform to good plumbing design practice. (If the effluent contains large concentrations of solids. Negative ions are called cations because they migrate . This also applies to any associated vent system.61 meters per second).

and tanks for acid waste are the concentration and temperature of the acid. valves. multiple pieces of drench equipment should be provided. Also. Extreme care should be exercised in the handling and cleanup of all acids. Since the balance of hydroxyl (cation) and hydrogen (anion) ions must be constant. 229 primarily of dilute and concentrated mixtures of water and liquid chemical substances of mineral and organic origin. pH is a measurement of the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution. Inhaling the mist or vapors can cause lung irritation or burns. For the purposes of this chapter. at some point in the future one system may require separate treatment because of a new substance that may be discharged. Contact with the skin causes irritation and burns. Ingestion destroys the tissues of the mouth. and positive ions are called anions because they migrate to the anode. pH is not a measure of alkalinity. tanks. usually mounted on a sink or freestanding if sink mounting is not practical. fume hoods. Health and Safety Concerns All grades and concentrations of acids can severely damage the eyes and tissues of the body. One of the more constant aspects of special waste drainage systems is future change. provided it falls within the maximum allowable travel distance. and technology will be improved so the effluent will be different than it was at the time a system was originally designed. and other similar fixtures and equipment. especially where future expansion is probable. equipment will be more efficient. Some jurisdictions consider exiting the lab through a door an obstruction and will require an emergency shower inside the lab module. and stomach. Laboratory waste is discharged from sinks. and piping necessary to convey the effluent to treatment facilities is normally part of the plumbing engineer’s responsibility. Emergency drench equipment must be provided immediately adjacent to all hazards and locations where spills and other accidents could occur. drains. The pH value is calculated from the logarithmic reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration in water. and glass washers and condensed water from various sources also are included. changes in one ion concentration produce corresponding changes in the other. Thus. facilities will become larger. acid waste is divided into two general categories: laboratory waste and industrial waste. and all areas of a facility for discharge into an appropriate treatment facility or the sanitary drainage system after local treatment. emergency showers shall be provided immediately inside or outside every room depending on travel distance. A change of one unit represents a tenfold increase (or decrease) in strength. Discharge from floor drains. If several people are normally present at a hazardous location. with 0 being acid and 14 being alkaline. Contact with the eyes can cause blindness. a single shower is acceptable to serve multiple lab modules. In time. consideration should be given to selecting a pipe size slightly larger than required for the immediate flow rate or a material capable of resisting a greater selection of chemicals than necessary at the time of design. In a mixture of acid and water. emergency breathing apparatus must be provided. autoclaves. the drainage piping must carry any of the acids used as part of the process. Many types of acid are usually present. Floor drains are not required in most jurisdictions. For the laboratory environment. but the drain will help prevent the floor area surrounding the shower from becoming wet and slippery. hydrogen ions result. ACID WASTE DRAINAGE AND VENT SYSTEMS An acid waste drainage system collects and transports liquid wastes with a pH lower than 7 from laboratory fixtures. to ensure that the extra cost incurred by these options is acceptable. It is common practice to size the drain one size larger than the design figures indicate or not to size the drainline to the exact point on the sizing chart indicated by the figures. the drainage piping. of course. Thus. the design must allow for such change. cup sinks. All acid compounds consist of hydrogen combined with an acid radical. GENERAL SYSTEM DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS It is good practice to separate each of the different systems inside the facility to a point outside the building so the individual services can be isolated and tested or sampled as may be required in the future by any local or national authority. equipment. throat. Where rooms are adjacent as in an open lab condition. pumps.Chapter 12 — Special Waste Drainage Systems to the cathode. Laboratory waste consists . 7 is neutral. The vent system equalizes flow in the drainage system in the same manner as in a sanitary drainage system. This must be verified with the client. Very often. Every room shall have an emergency eyewash. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. Where fumes may be given off. Acid waste from industrial facilities consists of waste from accidental spills originating from tanks and piping and anticipated waste discharged from equipment into drains. Acid wastewater from chemical and other facilities must be neutralized to a pH of 5 or higher prior to discharge into the sanitary system. processes will change. The most important considerations in the selection of piping. Where spills are directed into holding tanks.

4 6.8 4.00 494 1.6 6.8 3.3 1.60 314 0.9 4.10 516 1.5 4. oleums are sulfuric acids containing sulfur trioxide dissolved in the acid.60 875 1.032 2.3 1.0 2.0 7.0 1.1 5.4 0. among the most commonly used acids.9 3.14 90 0.73 355 0.06 40 0.04 26 0.0 5.9 5.0 6.0 4.5 2.2 4.7 4.55 270 0. Sulfuric Acid Sulfuric acid.92 449 1.5 6.7 887 2.2 6.30 1. carbon steel Schedule 80 often is used.58 780 1.95 449 1.2 5.39 245 0.74 816 1.277 2. Vent lines should be of the same material used for the drain line. At 90 percent and higher concentrations.25 174 0.2 3.0 2.30 157 0.0 1. Common Types of Acid Acids are widely used chemicals in the chemical processing industry.35 175 0.4 7.5 4.90 1 Velocity ft/s 1.0 2.68 348 0. is commercially available in many concentrations and as various percentages of oleum.4 3./ft 1 ⁄8 1 ⁄4 1 ⁄2 1 1 ⁄8 1 ⁄4 1 ⁄2 1 1 ⁄8 1 ⁄4 1 ⁄2 1 1 3 4 ⁄8 ⁄4 1 6 3 ⁄8 ⁄2 ⁄8 3 ⁄4 7 ⁄8 1 5 1 ⁄8 ⁄4 8 1 3 ⁄8 1 1 ⁄2 ⁄2 10 1 ⁄8 ⁄4 ⁄8 1 3 % 1.50 710 1.47 248 0.3 1.0 4.4 4.9 7.18 114 0.481 3.7 5. For low pressures and temperatures suitable for specific .20 1.90 893 2.0 5.80 438 0.1 3.2 0.4 6.28 174 0.50 1.7 2.82 334 0.2 3.029 2.5 ⁄2 Full Discharge gpm) cfs 7 0.1 3. and high-density polyethylene (HDPE).5 3.70 350 0.0 1.7 5.30 422 0.7 6. Valve types include ball. polypropylene (PP).3 1.68 327 0.8 4.8 4.90 1.5 0.4 2.4 5.24 153 0.13 39 0.6 1.348 3.2 6.94 606 1.2 3.4 1.39 213 0.1 6.62 305 0.4 1. in.44 124 0.0 2.6 1.28 79 0.3 1.706 3.25 135 0.78 386 0.09 57 0. and diaphragm.5 5.8 2.122 2.35 718 1.20 583 1.1 4.5 3.4 2.1 2.03 20 0.5 3.5 3.2 4. polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF).75 853 1.83 391 0.03 22 0.6 6.60 1.3 5.5 1.8 4.9 5.7 5.2 8.3 7.2 8.0 Velocity ft/s 1.8 1.1 2.8 2.3 2.7 2.49 269 0.03 18 0.03 170 0.3 5.55 785 1.6 2.3 1.80 Velocity ft/s 1.5 745 1.2 7.48 305 0.0 5.9 4.08 51 0.05 561 1.3 5.6 1.98 472 1. Generally recommended piping materials for these acids at low temperatures (140°F [60°C] and lower) and up to 90 percent concentration are polyvinyl chloride (PVC).1 3.4 3.9 6.10 1.0 1.05 18 0.7 6.0 1.170 2.09 36 0.1 4.95 461 1.68 359 0.9 3. ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). duriron.22 621 1.5 3.87 479 1.65 808 1.31 194 0.55 277 0.1 568 1.6 1.4 5. with gate valves being the most commonly used. alloy 20. glass.0 2.6 0.00 987 2.09 64 0.20 61 0.20 123 0.3 1.230 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Table 12-1 Drainage Pipe Sizing Pipe size.54 302 0.5 4.02 14 0.5 6.10 539 1.85 471 1.616 3.5 2.0 1.2 2.88 427 0.9 2.8 2.20 138 0.8 2.1 3.1 4. The most commonly used acids follow.06 41 0.43 207 0.8 1.8 2.39 193 0.38 241 0.7 2.7 5. fog nozzles using water to suppress the vapor and foam systems to prevent vapor from rising should be considered.7 3.74 479 1.8 2 ⁄3 Full Discharge gpm cfs 10 0.9 3.1 3.3 2.35 220 0. 2 Grade in.4 0.6 Full Discharge gpm cfs 13 0.05 494 1. except for oleums with less than 10.302 2.5 6.38 674 1.2 8.9 3.5 5.6 6. gate.15 211 0.9 2.5 3.8 Where vapor is possible.4 2. Stainless steel is generally unsuitable.6 2.43 236 0.7 2.3 5.1 6.9 5.34 191 0.25 651 1.3 0.6 4.0 2.8 4.95 943 2.9 2.3 0.6 4.5 4.30 215 0.17 110 0.6 4.8 6.0 2.0 2.4 2.60 292 0.1 2.8 7.02 9 0.4 4. chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC).2 0.9 4.86 413 0.10 606 1.18 1 10 0.5 4.65 108 0.25 77 0.04 28 0.0 3.46 225 0.80 853 1.5 1.00 494 1.06 40 0.0 4. and fiberglassreinforced plastic (FRP) piping with special resins.45 741 1.1 5.55 303 0.02 14 0.0 5.2 3.6 1.5 6.13 87 0.55 157 0.7 3.6 0.13 87 0.09 55 0.87 426 0.8 6.67 372 0.11 80 0.8 4.07 550 1.5 2.07 29 0.5 4. Also called fuming sulfuric acid.05 32 0.35 696 1.3 692 1.1 2.79 391 0.50 247 0.47 303 0.3 5.8 1.5 3.3 6.53 247 0.2 3.5 2.68 382 0.78 392 0.3 percent concentration.2 6.

97 56.52 2.85 3.37 1.22 59.37 24.90 28.85 1.71 8.2 6.73 10.81 6.16 15. fulminates.05 12.Chapter 12 — Special Waste Drainage Systems Table 12-1(M) Pipe size.22 0.2 8.19 2.49 0.41 6.73 0.91 9.3 1.08 150 3.22 49.55 3.98 11.90 49.71 1.88 0.44 13.61 0.80 70.12 65.10 2.80 0.10 6.26 0.07 Velocity m/s 0. Also available are metallic pumps lined with plastic or glass.98 2. picrates.82 13.94 7.61 0.22 0.16 8.91 9.52 0.18 14.04 2.19 7.47 70.40 0.40 41.2 8.81 56.52 1.14 26.76 15.61 0.2 0.2 4.68 2.73 0.14 73.81 19.50 9.88 26.78 29.65 1.42 1.92 2.04 12. For higher temperatures and pressures.48 44.68 5. Tanks used to contain this spillage should be of a suitable plastic.92 43.0 2.0 1.10 24.30 65.78 12.05 5.94 1.2 6.92 0.33 28.79 36.70 2.5 0.23 43.01 0.49 1.95 2.95 107.94 26.83 73.23 45. Sulfuric acid is nonflammable. suitable emergency breathing apparatus should be provided.82 43.98 1.28 51.4 0.80 44.88 16.52 1. caution should be exercised.71 34.70 2.5 4.74 31.93 65.98 1. and breathing the fumes causes throat and lung injury.8 1.98 50.98 53.07 29.62 0.59 19.94 7.08 4.26 24.06 46.82 53.5 ⁄2 Full Discharge L/s m3/s 0. In all cases.31 1. Centrifugal pumps constructed of stainless steel alloy 320 with Teflon packing are in common use.55 2.99 18.86 4.3 7.54 21.04 13. Temperature limits should be carefully checked for material suitability. Other manufacturers use FRP and plastic pumps.25 19.52 8.98 11.60 62.49 5.85 1.1 3.98 1.3 0. and powdered metals.13 1.31 19.43 1.2 5.89 15.67 24.33 28.62 1.10 7.55 0.29 19.67 0.16 250 1.62 0.52 1.76 0.02 1.61 0.74 24.37 1.95 2.03 14.59 15.55 3.40 35.5 2.12 5.64 64.82 53.44 0.58 17.10 1.89 2.31 55.93 4.22 3.0 1.17 31.15 32.6 0.2 0.59 15.37 1.12 4.77 1.22 30. but it is highly reactive.82 0.27 3.18 12.55 0.16 1.76 7.31 13.5 3.49 0.64 56.61 0.88 13.16 0.27 2.3 % 1.08 42.01 48.71 1.16 82.17 10.07 1.24 38.49 5.12 19.83 1. such as oily rags .01 15.64 1.70 2. Where this situation is possible.62 1.34 1.97 101.05 28.76 0.63 80.58 79.57 0.0 2.16 8.97 16.26 20.12 19.16 1.14 55.04 200 2.66 3.65 15.64 26.80 82.85 1.52 0.04 2.46 7.15 38.88 0.59 2.30 34.49 1.3 1. An emergency shower should be provided in the immediate vicinity of acid storage and pipe routing.82 0.1 4.37 0.65 107.73 0.71 1.53 42.06 18.15 34.16 8.48 47.88 1.08 3.75 49.6 0.85 1.82 7.37 1.22 31.91 13.0 1.43 1.19 39.74 1.09 24.5 3.57 0.97 23. chlorates.92 26.84 36.56 19.42 2.89 2.36 24.26 0.83 1.20 14.08 10.07 2.68 5.73 1. In higher concentrations it will ignite combustible materials.65 9.62 38.01 0. plastic often is used.66 7.5 2.04 3.12 4.73 0.67 42.37 1. pipe vendors should be consulted as to the suitability of materials for specific acid piping service.13 1.63 0. because of differences in manufacturing.49 51.58 0.06 13.08 3. It is particularly hazardous when in contact with carbides.32 1.81 6.85 1.64 27.1 2.46 2.08 20.56 32.58 19.55 0.5 1.21 15.43 18.13 93.88 0.01 0.04 2.88 1.04 11.35 56.08 41.88 0.16 1.0 2.26 22.46 15.1 2. mm 50 Grade cm/m 1.94 1.47 3.19 1.82 0.67 24.62 1.5 4.96 5.22 1.13 1.37 1.67 22.46 101.77 1.13 1.32 1. Spills of concentrated acids from tanks onto floors and equipment should be washed and flooded with water.50 59.58 9.06 26.96 22.73 50.1 4.55 0.08 4.60 3.52 0.31 45.55 0.24 12. Since water reacts rapidly with acid and splatters. Heat and fumes also are given off.63 12.64 30.10 1.57 0.04 2.86 2.82 1.06 84.34 1.99 19.57 0.88 1.74 1.09 22.58 17.30 85.73 1.53 49.52 2. nitrates.82 22.22 1.04 2. which then must be routed to the acid drainage system for neutralization.62 Velocity m/s 0.3 0.40 0.93 10.3 7.75 29.65 1.22 1.07 1.45 93.86 2.1 3.5 3.52 2.96 30.01 33.55 4.49 1.08 8.90 29.26 21.94 1.25 19.01 0.25 1.09 24.51 24.96 80 100 1.98 1.91 11. Below a concentration of 75 percent it reacts with carbon steel and other metals to form hydrogen.37 1.5 2.85 1.47 23.92 0.31 1.8 1.17 31.58 0.1 4.16 5.57 13.68 5.1 3.14 1.04 16.68 1.09 29.63 26.1 2.26 1.24 38.31 15.32 1.17 31.81 1 231 Drainage Pipe Sizing 2 ⁄3 Full Discharge L/s m3/s 0.57 13.65 22.15 35.14 1.48 17.12 Velocity m/s 0.98 1.52 1.2 8.32 Full Discharge L/s m3/s 0.52 0.98 1.07 plastic pipes.98 5.07 1.80 9.21 55.77 1.36 26.40 22.4 0. alloy 20 is preferred.98 36.39 1.04 15.67 0.46 0.10 1.66 8.72 29.95 2.56 53.74 35.76 46.32 31.18 13.16 1.80 1.66 27.55 39.63 20.61 0.88 1.08 4.08 4.32 31.

except temperature and humidity affect the reaction of nitric acid on such metals as copper. Precautions and procedures for spills and safety and health concerns are similar to those for phosphoric acid. Because of the danger of fumes. such as rubber gloves and human skin. perchloric acid can cause objects not normally considered combustible. The Occupational Safety and Hazard Administration (OSHA) limits human exposure to this acid. Pumps are similar to those used for sulfuric acid. brass. Perchloric Acid Perchloric acid is available in a concentration of 69–72 percent and is the strongest of all the inorganic acids. glass pipe could be used for drainage. glass. aluminum piping is recommended. Other acceptable materials are glass with compression joints and highsilicon cast iron with caulked or compression gasket joints. and zinc. Nitric Acid Nitric acid is available in three grades designated by the percent of concentration by weight: 56–70 percent. Pumps manufactured from PTFE are the most commonly used. The drainage and vent piping. CPVC. Dry chemicals or carbon dioxide are the fire-suppression methods of choice. commonly called nitrous fumes. Valves are often ball and plug type with a PVC. and the liquid should be diverted from the area of a spill to a containment area. and pumps are PVC. You should obtain information regarding the extent and concentration of all chemicals expected to be used in the laboratory from the end user. The resulting liquid should be absorbed with diatomaceous earth. or PTFE lining. In addition to the pressure piping. Phosphoric Acid Phosphoric acid is available in concentrations between 75 and 87 percent. If toxic.95 percent. above-the-floor piping from laboratory fixtures is generally fire-retardant polypropylene. expanded clay. Precautions and procedures for spills and safety and health concerns are similar to those for sulfuric acid. Valves are often ball-and-plug type manufactured from PTFE and duriron.232 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 oxides. high-silicon cast iron (HIS). and sawdust. valves. it also has a limited range of chemical compatibility and a low temperature rating. Rubber-lined pinch valves are commonly used. . and 97. This acid reacts with metals and produces explosive hydrogen gas. Recommended pressure piping materials are glass and rubber-lined steel pipe. This material should be carted away for suitable disposal. Precautions for spills and safety and health concerns are similar to those for sulfuric acid. but the vapors are much more hazardous. aluminum type 3003. polyethylene (PE). with the addition of Hastelloy B material. Recommended pressure piping materials are glass. Above this concentration. oleum spills should be contained by curbs. Although PVC has the lowest initial cost. and pumps are similar to those used for sulfuric acid. with either heat-fused socket or screwed mechanical joints or CPVC drain waste and vent with special solvent cement. PTFE. except that caustic soda should not be used because hydrochloric acid reacts with this chemical. except when heated to 150°F (69°C). The recommended pressure piping material for concentrations up to 95 percent is 304L stainless steel. The recommended materials for gate. where it can be neutralized. It has a wide range of chemical compatibility and is a plenum-rated . plug. and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). also known as muriatic acid. Hydrochloric Acid Hydrochloric acid. PVDF with fused or mechanical joints is also an acceptable material. or fiberglass-reinforced plastic. or other nonreactive material. titanium. Nitric acid reacts violently with organic substances. Pumps for concentrations up to 95 percent should be constructed of 304L stainless steel. valves.8°C). Precautions and procedures for spills and safety and health concerns are similar to those for sulfuric acid. designated as degrees Baume (an equivalent notation of specific gravity). PE. Hydrobromic Acid Hydrobromic acid is commercially available in two concentrations: 70 and 99. The most cost-effective. occasionally causing explosions. Drain lines should be glass. and globe valves are 347 stainless steel or 304L stainless steel. chemicals used for experiments usually are confined to fume hoods. Piping materials for drainage and vent piping. to burst into flames.5–100 percent. or silicon iron are commonly used. Drainlines can be glass or CPVC. Precautions and procedures for spills and safety and health concerns are similar to those for phosphoric acid. CPVC is acceptable up to 70 percent concentrations at 73°F (22. PVC. A self-contained breathing apparatus is required for approaching spills because of the emission of nitrogen Selection of Laboratory Waste Piping and Joint Material The majority of the effluent from a typical laboratory consists primarily of water and acid. and CPVC Schedule 80. 70–84 percent. is available in four strengths. ball. PP PVDF. Above this concentration. which are extremely hazardous. Recommended pressure piping is stainless steel type 316 extra-low carbon (ELC) and CPVC Schedule 80.

Chapter 12 — Special Waste Drainage Systems 233 Figure 12-1 Typical Acid-resistant Manhole .

subject to local codes. Glass piping should be encased in a sleeve of polyethylene for protection. Each fixture shall be individually trapped and vented. Vent pipe shall be the same material as the drain pipe. Piping underground. The vent shall be carried above the roof level.234 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Figure 12-2 Typical Large Acid-neutralizing Basin material. CPVC is suitable to 210°F (98. can spill into the laboratory drainage system when convenient and allowed per code. but simultaneous use should be factored into the sizing process. of chemicals and has the highest temperature rating and highest cost.9°C) and is resistant to a wide variety of chemicals. Vent piping penetrating the roof shall not be glass. including placement of cleanouts. also could be polypropylene with heat-fused socket joints or high-silicon cast iron with compression gasket joints. When the effluent . Because of possible stoppages that could flood all piping. System Design Considerations General system design considerations for the laboratory drainage system shall be the same as those for the sanitary drainage system. it is rarely used due to its higher cost versus PP PTFE is resistant to the widest variety . Clean water. such as that discharged from air compressors and other condensate drains. the use of fixture-unit schedules for pipe sizing is acceptable. the entire laboratory waste system shall be of the same acid-resistant piping material. Where the only waste discharge is from laboratory fixtures. An adapter should be used and any other acceptable acidresistant pipe material should be provided through the penetration. however.

The laboratory drainage and vent system shall be separate from all other systems until the effluent is adequately treated. a chemical reaction occurs between the acid and the limestone chips. For general laboratory waste. This works if the facility has a large volume of water used for handwashing or other operations that do not introduce chemicals into the waste stream.Chapter 12 — Special Waste Drainage Systems is expressed in gallons per minute (gpm) (liters per second) from a known discharge. allow one sink for each 200 square feet (18. Approximately 100 pounds (45 kilograms) of limestone chips treat 97 pounds (44 kilograms) of sulfuric acid and 75 pounds (34 kilograms) of hydrochloric acid. For a small number of sinks in a cluster. Each sink will discharge 1 gpm (3. Then it may be combined on the site with other waste lines. Acid Waste Treatment All acid waste requires neutralization to a pH between 7. this method will not work sufficiently. chemical feed pumps. an acid-neutralizing trap should be considered. A probe is connected to an automatic caustic feed pump that introduces the proper amount of neutralizing liquid (commonly caustic soda) into the basin or mixing tank. documentation regarding the protection of the public and workers in the event of an accident is considerably more complex. In an acid-neutralizing basin. It is good engineering practice to route the discharge from the neutralizer separately into the sanitary house drain outside of the building for dilution prior to discharge into the public sewer. A typical acid-resistant manhole is illustrated in Figure 12-1. It should be confined to treating the discharge of acids from a small number of fixtures in remote locations or from individual sinks where the timely maintenance needed to fill the basin may not be possible. Each basin shall be designed by the manufacturer to allow sufficient contact time for the chemical reaction to accomplish complete neutralization based on the maximum flow rate anticipated. A sophisticated arrangement of probes. Larger basins. with the exception of providing radiation shielding if . If the discharge of oil or grease is expected in the laboratory waste stream. Continuous treatment also may require additional downstream sensing probes and chemical additive locations to ensure that the discharge is within acceptable limits. a continuous waste-treatment system consisting of a single or multiple basins and/or a mixing tank should be installed. are available to treat the effluent from a large number of laboratory sinks. An agitator or mixer may be installed in the basin to mix the acid with the caustic. For a maximum flow rate. The requirements for handling radioisotopes in laboratories are essentially no different than the requirements for handling toxic chemicals or pathogens. Cup sinks will discharge 0. If a manhole is required in the acid waste line. the installation of an interceptor basin before the acid sump is RADIOACTIVE WASTE DRAINAGE AND VENT SYSTEMS Many commercial facilities have low quantities and levels of radioactive waste. several methods of treatment using limestone chips are available. For preliminary determination of the number of sinks required for average laboratories. If the system is located at a low level. and alarms is required. For single isolated sinks. much more stringent set of regulatory requirements. small-diameter basin could be used. large storage and treatment systems and severe safety requirements are not necessary. such as the one illustrated in Figure 12-2. A dilution basin dilutes chemicals to a neutral pH. Facilities with higher quantities of radioactive material and radiation levels fall under a different. Figure 12-3 illustrates a typical continuous waste-treatment system. Because of the small amount of radioactive material present at these facilities. The pipe shall be sized using the pitch and a threefourths-full pipe. it should be acid resistant. assume that 50 percent of the sinks could discharge simultaneously. This type of system automatically adds proper amounts of caustic to the incoming acid waste. level indicators. This also may be necessary for local authorities to monitor the waste stream without entering the building. The most often-used primary procedures are dilution. base the size on this value and the equivalent value from the fixtures. a pump is required to bring the discharge up to the level of the sewer. and continuous or batch treatment in an automated neutralization system utilizing chemical feed neutralizing. If the volume of clean waste is low compared to the volume of acid waste. Commonly accepted practice permits local authorities to allow primarytreated effluent to discharge directly into the public sanitary sewer system after only pH treatment. For such facilities. Some objectionable contaminants can coat individual chips and prevent the chemical action needed to neutralize the acid. thereby neutralizing the acid. direct continuous contact with limestone chips in an acid-neutralizing basin.5 and 5 before it is permitted to be discharged into any public sewer for disposal. Effluent consisting primarily of sulfuric acid should be treated with dolomite limestone chips. and the addition of a recorder may be desired.6 square meters) of laboratory area.8 liters per minute). a shelf-mounted. This method of treatment requires periodic replacement and disposal of the spent limestone chips.5 gpm (1. For a larger number of fixtures or equipment and where treatment by limestone chips alone is not practical.9 liters per minute). 235 recommended.

For example. including the formation of other. beta rays.236 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Figure 12-3 Typical Continuous Acid Waste Treatment System necessary. These by-products. and the general public. Since this is not realistic. and other atomic particles. are many intermediate steps in the stabilization cycle. There . Radiation is a general term meaning any or all of the following: alpha rays. The Nature of Radiation Radioactivity is the spontaneous emission of harmful particles from the unstable nucleus of an atom. gamma rays. x-rays. the design shall implement criteria that eliminate or reduce to allowable levels the radiation exposure of workers and maintenance personnel and prevent exposure of the general public to unacceptable amounts of radiation by waterborne radioactive waste (radwaste). The end result is a highly stable element. the end product of uranium is lead. One of the intermediate byproducts of uranium is radon. neutrons. less complex radioactive by-products called isotopes. in turn. staff. The ideal goal is to totally eliminate the exposure of workers. The three general classifications of radiation are alpha. beta. decay to form other unstable isotopes as the cycle continues.

the dose is modified by reference to a unit of time. such as fly ash from burning organic fuels (particularly coal). High-energy beta radiation is commonly contained by only 1 inch (25 millimeter) of solid. It carries the most energy and therefore is the most dangerous to humans. and it will burn bare skin and. The so-called Geiger-Mueller counter is the most common device for measuring radiation. light material. Gamma radiation is a particle similar to a photon. it generally does not penetrate into the body to cause any internal damage. Alpha and beta radiation generally can be stopped by the skin or clothing. One rem of high-flux neutrons is roughly equivalent to 14 million neutrons per square centimeter incident to the body. or rem. In addition. dense plastic. This differs from radioactivity because all radiation is not absorbed by the body. However. Its measurement is in disintegrations per second (dps). in particular. Beta is denser and carries more energy greater distances than alpha. This measurement is possible for gamma radiation because in most radioactive materials. A rem is the measure of ionizing radiation passing through or absorbed by the body in terms of the biological effect relative to a dose of 1 roentgen of x-rays. it also produces a known amount of gamma radiation. One rad is defined as the dose corresponding to the absorption of 100 ergs per gram of tissue. Beta radiation is an electron with a high velocity. emit radiation. The photographic badge is the most common and is used where sensitivity is required. When generated. When released from a source. Because the instruments needed to measure radiation in this way are very expensive. Allowable Radiation Levels Many scientists believe that no exact radiation level is certain to cause permanent harm to an individual. An unrestricted area is any area within a facility that is not specifically controlled for the purpose of protecting an individual from radiation or radioactive materials.001 curie. A Roentgen measures ions carrying a total of 2. granite. A pen-shaped device called a dosimeter is commonly used where there is less need for accuracy. The more modern instruments have a digital readout. It is used where instant determination of dose is necessary. Alpha loses energy very quickly in air and is no practical concern for distances greater than 12 inches (305 millimeters). where the particles react with a gas to create a measurable electrical charge. used by scientists to date many materials. A term called background level of radiation exists all over the world. Alpha radiation is actually a helium atom with a high velocity. One rem is the equivalent of 1 roentgen due to x-ray or gamma radiation. A rad is a measure of the dose to body tissue in terms of energy absorbed per unit mass. It measures the penetration of the particles entering a tube. and also 1 rad due to xray or gamma or beta radiation. the best manner of measuring gamma radiation is to measure the energy it produces per kilogram (pound) of air. Units of Radiation Particulate radiation is measured by the number of disintegrations per unit of time.7 x 1010 disintegrations per unit. However. Since the term radiation is a general one. Gamma radiation is electromagnetic in nature.Chapter 12 — Special Waste Drainage Systems and gamma. The term environs also may be used to describe areas adjacent to a restricted or high-radiation area.7 x 107 disintegrations per unit. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is a governmental body that establishes criteria for the field of radioactivity. The most important measurement is the radiation equivalent to man. and it is called cosmic radiation. which is any accessible area within a facility capable of al- Radiation Measurement Radioactivity is a general term used for the total release of radiation of all types from a source. The measurement is called a dose and is . Gamma radiation is the type of radiation most commonly measured this way. damage the eye. it is similar to x-rays and behaves in a manner similar to light waves. The relation of the rem to other dose units depends on the actual biological effect to the particular part of the body being studied and the actual conditions and amount of time of the irradiation.58 x 104 coulombs (C) of electrical energy. Its wavelength is shorter than light waves. A curie (c) is equal to 3. The most common source of this is the sun. or 3. If an amplification device is used. a more specific method must be used to measure its effect on humans. Much of the time. 237 defined as the total quantity of radiation absorbed by the body or any portion of the body. it is not widely used outside of the laboratory. paper. Other scientists believe no level is harmless. gamma rays have a mass and velocity that are a measurable energy potential. particularly when the eye is directly exposed close to the source. A restricted area is access controlled. or another similar. These criteria appear in the federal government’s Code of Federal Regulations. One of the most common of these trace elements is carbon 14. it can be heard in the form of static. which is light. All personnel working at any site where the possibility of exposure to radiation exists are required to wear some type of exposure-detection device that gives an accurate determination of their actual exposure. The greatest danger with beta radiation is to the eyes. and many other natural substances contain trace isotopes of elements. One millicurie (mc) is 0. many substances.

if a tank or a length of pipe must be shielded.238 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 Since given amounts of radioactive material remain active for different periods. a concept called ALARA. Other materials that have proven effective are lead-lined concrete blocks. lead-lined lath for plaster. Those states that have elected to adopt NRC regulations and provide their own staff for the purpose of issuing and approving licenses are called agreement states. and secondary barriers. The materials most commonly used for shielding purposes are concrete and sheet lead. these states make additional regulations of their own. In describing the shielding thickness between concrete and lead. Imaging sciences 2. In such states. whose responsibilities are discussed later. A great number of isotopes are in use today. which are used to eliminate leakage radiation and scattered radiation where it may possibly exist. Another commonly used material is concrete. to determine the type of shielding and its placement to lower radiation in specific areas. Isotopes are identified by their atomic weight. so lead has been universally used for this purpose. and controlling any release of radionuclides to the sewer system. lowing the body to receive 100 millirem (mrem) of radiation in one hour. the atom is unstable. which are the first line of defense. which is the number of neutrons and protons in the nucleus. The radiological safety officer is also responsible for the following: • Teaching facility staff about potential dangers • Keeping the necessary records for the facility • Keeping an inventory of material and records disposal • Maintaining the concentration of materials at the facility • Designating areas within the facility to be restricted General Design Criteria The prime consideration in the design of any facility is controlling the exposure of personnel to radiation. it is not possible to predict when any material will become completely stable. Application for this license is made to either the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or a particular state. Industrial uses 5. the radiological safety officer works with the engineers in the design phase of the facility to ensure that the piping runs and all other mechanical work will result in a low exposure to people within the facility. The most effective material has the greatest density. For the most part. Shielding The purpose of shielding is to reduce or eliminate radiation emanating from any source within the facility. This requires every reasonable design method to limit the possible exposure of personnel inside the facility and to keep the presence of radioactivity in any unrestricted area to a figure as low Radioactive Materials Radioactive materials are used for the following five general categories of work: 1. the application is made to the appropriate party. Treatment purposes 4. and lead-lined panels and gypsum boards. therefore. Those states relying on the NRC to review and issue licenses are non-agreement states. The method used to determine when a specific material loses half of its radioactivity is called its half life. the proper manner is to form a labyrinth. Some of the more common are: • Iodine 131 (eight-day half-life) • Phosphorus 32 • Technetium 99 (six-hour half-life) • Calcium 45 • Carbon 14 • Strontium 90 • Radium 226 . so the shine from the tank can’t escape in a straight line. In addition. this work is aimed at ensuring that facility personnel do not exceed the maximum permissible radiation dose allowed under the applicable codes for any particular type of radioactive material present and that nonstaff members are not subject to unacceptable levels of radiation. Because of this. The duties of the radiological safety officer include administration. 1/6 inch (4 millimeters) of lead is the equivalent of 12 inches (305 millimeters) of concrete. Radiation travels in a straight line. monitoring personnel exposure limits. System Design Criteria Approval Process and Application Requirements The use of any radioactive material requires the licensing of the site for a specific purpose. or as low as reasonably achievable. In some cases. and amount of radioactive material. The use of concrete as a structural element of a building serves a supplementary purpose as a very good shielding material. Diagnostic purposes 3. quantity. It is up to the radiological safety officer. The barriers set up to reduce radiation levels are primary barriers. Research Almost all of the materials used are isotopes. An isotope is a form of an element with a different (or excess) number of neutrons in its nucleus.

tack welding and clamping. This is similar to a coupling. A socket weld is when one pipe is placed inside the other and only one end of the exposed pipe is actually welded around the exterior of the pipe. The orbital welding process often is used since it produces the cleanest interior weld surface. As a result. such as cracks or voids in a joint. metal deposit rates. the economics of further improvements in relation to the benefits to the public’s health and safety. the contractor establishes minimum criteria that will qualify any individual for welding on this particular project. The testing methods are of the non-destructive type. with only the joint on the outside of the pipe welded. It is common practice to use an outside. magnetic testing. One of the overriding concepts is the worst-case possibility. an ideal radwaste drainage pipe should have the following properties: • It must be nonporous. filler metal composition. high-pressure pipe is covered by ASME codes that specify the selection of successive welding type passes. The proper weld end preparation is 239 critical to proper welding and must be diagrammed or described in the specifications. sizing. Teflon is never used where anything more than a very low level of radiation is present. or the pipe itself can be weakened. depend on the amount and type of radioactive material at the facility. is exempt from all Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. ultrasonic testing. As an example. A welded joint is the only type of joint that does not allow a crud trap to form. However. where the worst possible combination of circumstances is used to determine the possible level of radiation and the period of exposure. Type 316L is the type most commonly used. In general. a serious spill and a fire would not be considered as likely to occur simultaneously. dye penetration. For this reason. the entire welding process for both shop welding and field welding are necessary. All of the commonly used materials (cast iron. including visual inspection of the weld. ductile iron. and a general rule is to consider only one accident at a time. In very high radiation areas. However. requiring only compliance with local codes as far as disposal. stainless steel with welded joints has emerged as the material of choice for all industrial-type waste products. • The joints should not form a crud trap. but the qualifications of welding personnel are difficult to assess. Other materials should be investigated regarding their suitability for use for the levels anticipated. copper. Plastic piping is not acceptable for radiation waste systems because the plastic may be affected by the radiation.Chapter 12 — Special Waste Drainage Systems as reasonably achievable. . This concept should not be overused. When this is done. Pipe this small is called small bore pipe. Pipe Material Selection The pipe selected for the radioactive drainage system depends on the type of radiation and the level of radioactivity expected. joint preparation. and all other criteria applicable to standard drainage systems. even that contaminated with radioactivity. High-temperature. and x-ray Design Considerations Human or animal waste. these materials and joints fail. Any defects in welded piping. a pipe may be affected by the radiation present. The designer of the facility also must make a reasonable effort to eliminate residual radiation. none of these code requirements apply to welded non-pressure drainage pipe. All of them arise from the fact that the weld does not actually create a monolithic piece of pipe. Many isotopes also are exempt from regulations regarding disposal into the public sewer. • Joint materials must not be affected by radiation exposure. • It must be easy to clean and decontaminate. When the waste materials have a high radiation level. Welding personnel must be qualified to ensure that they have sufficient training and knowledge to produce a weld of the required quality. and other socioeconomic considerations relating to the utilization of radioactive material in the general public interest. causing weakening of elastomeric seals or gaskets. steel. must be found and corrected. Butt welding is when two pipes are placed end to end and joined with no overlapping. welding currents. only pipe 2 inches (50 millimeters) and less is socket welded. The two types of joint used for drainage pipe are butt welding and socket welding. • It should be non-oxidizing. and approval of. If the engineer does not have the knowledge to specify the minimum requirements for welders and the welding process. In general. knowledgeable third party for this review process. • It should be acid resistant. which. and weld inspection. Among the things that must be taken into account are the current state of technology. they are suitable for lowlevel waste and radioactive source materials found in facilities with low radiation levels. movement and handling of the pipe. it could be left up to the contractor to determine the correct specifications for the project and recommend them to the engineer for approval. and glass) and joints fall far short of the ideal. in turn. The oxides of the pipe can become radioactive. It is then up to the contractor to test a welder’s ability to make sound welds under the actual working conditions and using the same equipment expected to be used on the job and certify that person as being qualified. Specifications for. These criteria should be reviewed by the engineer for acceptability.

The facility equipment and design shall conform to acceptable and appropriate containment practices based on the hazard potential. sickness. If this is not possible. outside of the building and where easy transfer of the liquid is possible. or hot boxes. For testing purposes and to close off a drain when it is not being used. each drain should be supplied with a closure plug. as well as those for glass pipe if that is used in a laboratory for chemical resistance. it is necessary to indicate the top of the drain elevation at each drain. Drains also require special treatment. A containment category is used to describe an assembly of both primary and secondary preventive measures that provide personnel. These features are described and classified in Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) developed by the U. protected fume hoods. If a floor drain is installed. The removal must be done by licensed wastedisposal contractors who transfer the waste from the holding tank into a special truck. They may be needed to flush out the line to reduce spots of high radiation rather than rodding out the entire line. If the storage of larger quantities of low-level radwaste is required. which transports the liquid waste to a designated site suitable for disposal. both handwashing and process • Containment area floor drains • Janitor closet drains • Necropsy table drains • Autoclave drains • Contaminated condensate drains Containment is the method used to isolate and confine biohazardous material. Liquid radwaste to be discharged shall be diluted with the ordinary waste effluent from the rest of the facility before being discharged to the public sewer system. over. should be provided for the radiological safety officer to sample the radwaste stream if desired. Thus. when the radiological safety officer may determine by survey where additional shielding is necessary. Since fittings are a natural crud trap. and elevation. The pitch of the piping should be kept as steep as possible to empty the pipe quickly and to allow a scouring action to keep the radioactive solids in suspension. A common holding time is ten half-lives of the effluent. A method. Primary barriers are specific pieces of equipment such as the biological safety cabinet (which is the biologist’s equivalent of the chemist’s fume hood) and glove boxes. radwaste is stored for disposal on the site. Cleanouts should be provided generously. A box next to each drain can be used to provide information regarding type. have the potential to cause infection. number. Usually.S. if not contained. including: • Fermentation tanks and equipment • Process centrifuges • Sinks. Secondary containment refers to features of the facility design surrounding and supporting the primary containment. the waste is piped to a holding tank. such as a valved outlet from both the radwaste line and the combined discharge. the floor must be pitched to the floor drain. Since the slab depth is greater the longer the run to the drain. but then combined before leaving the building for discharge into a public sewer. and very serious diseases. A generally accepted value for the pitch of the floor is 1 inch per 20 feet (2.10 meters). Department of . and experimental protection. The thickness of the slab must be closely coordinated because the slab is thinnest at the drain and made thicker at the ends of the area served to make up the pitch. either at the time of construction or after the start of actual use. because if the topping is chipped. environmental. Solid wastes such as gloves and wipes are stored in special containers. and the solid containing the spill is put in a special radwaste holding container within the lab. Since different types of drains may be installed at different elevations INFECTIOUS AND BIOLOGICAL WASTE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS Biological waste has the same basic characteristics as other types of laboratory and production facility waste. If a spill is possible. it should be constructed of stainless steel.54 centimeters per 6. If radioactive material spills. the radwaste piping first must be kept separate from the rest of the facility’s effluent. it is a good idea to number all of the individual drains on the design drawings. Floor drains are normally not desired in laboratories using radioactive isotopes. They should be manufactured of stainless steel. a radioactive spill may get under the top coating. It is not practical to cast the slab evenly and add a topping. The small amount of liquid waste produced from this equipment should be stored in shielded containers below the equipment and removed periodically. Any of the popular joints for no-hub or grooved pipe are acceptable. it is wiped up by hand using absorbent material. the line should be placed where additional shielding can be added. which are removed to the disposal area with the liquid radwaste. Much of the time. running piping in. This also makes it easier for the shop fabricator to make up accurate pipe spools. the ability to take the joint apart and flush out any crud is an advantage. This waste may be discharged by gravity and under pressure from many sources. which is material suspended in the waste stream with live organisms that. or adjacent to unrestricted areas in a facility should be avoided. under. It is common practice to confine high levels of radiation to glove boxes. but with the addition of biohazardous material.240 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 and the piping may be made in spools (preassembled sections of piping).

BSL-1 through BSL-4. and production areas. Viable microorganisms not known to cause disease in healthy adults are used at this level. and safety cabinets are often present. All of the BSL-3 requirements apply. impervious bench surfaces and handwash sinks. There are also corresponding BSL classifications for vivarium facilities depending on the agent and animal species used for research. The same standards apply to both small and large-scale facilities. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Vents from plumbing fixtures must be filtered. Sinks shall be scrubbed daily with a chlorine-containing abrasive and flushed with a suitable disinfectant. showers shall be provided for personnel at the airlock where clothes are changed upon entry or exit. A handwashing sink routed to sterilization shall be located adjacent to the facility exit. The kill tank system shall be qualified to the same biosafety level as the facility from which it receives discharge. and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). These seals must be capable of being cleaned. Work is done on an open bench. effluent is drained or pumped into a kill tank where the actual sterilization occurs. animal rooms. Facilities to wash hands are required in each laboratory. In addition. Standard features consist of easily cleaned. At these levels. Nearly all laboratories operate under BSL-1 or BSL-2. Contaminated liquid and solid waste shall be treated to remove biological hazards before disposal. 241 risk. The organisms present have life-threatening potential and may initiate a serious epidemic disease. Liquid waste is kept within the laboratory or facility and steam sterilized prior to discharge or disposal. the facility may become large scale (LS). personnel must be appropriately protected with full suits and respirators. Biosafety Level 1 BSL-1 is the typical biological research facility classification for work with low-hazard agents. Equipment and work surfaces shall be wiped down with a suitable disinfectant. Laboratory animals require special housing. The kill tank system must be a batch process since time is needed to complete the sterilization and decontamination. equipment. and all penetrations to the exterior the facility must be sealed to prevent leakage. From the collection tank. Biosafety Level 3 BSL-3 activity involves organisms posing a significant risk or representing a potentially serious threat to health and safety. and the work area is separated from general offices. All liquid waste shall be immediately decontaminated by mixing it with a suitable disinfectant. If the laboratory or production facility produces or uses greater than 2. This is noted as BSL2 LS. Effluent containing potentially hazardous bio-matter is collected in a dedicated drainage system. diagnostic. or if conventional housing is used. A biowaste treatment system shall be provided within the facility to sterilize liquid waste. Facility type of work is outlined later in this chapter in a very abbreviated and simplified form.6 gallons (10 liters) involving viable organisms. The classifications for biological containment in laboratories consist of four biosafety levels. A kill tank is a vessel into which steam or chemical disinfectant is injected to kill any organism. The BMBL describes the work practices.Chapter 12 — Special Waste Drainage Systems Health and Human Services Public Health Services. and BSL selection criteria based on the activity of a particular laboratory. the facility is engaged in research. . Vacuum inlets must be protected by appropriate filters and/or disinfectant traps. based on the agent and sterilization process used. Wastes containing DNA material or potentially infectious microorganisms shall be decontaminated before disposal. or production activities thought to pose little or minimal risk to workers. generally discharging by gravity into a collection tank below the floor level within the facility. except the microorganisms may pose some Effluent Decontamination System A liquid-waste decontamination system collects and sterilizes (decontaminates) liquid waste. Biosafety Level 2 Facility construction for BSL-2 is similar to that for BSL-1. and any hazard present can be controlled by using standard laboratory practice. Biosafety Level 4 BSL-4 is a rarely used classification because activities in this type of facility require a very high level of containment. Manufacturing standards shall conform to good large-scale production (GLSP) standards. Codes and Standards Mandated guidelines and regulations include the following: • OSHA blood-borne pathogen regulations • National Institutes of Health guidelines for the use of recombinant microorganisms • FDA current good manufacturing practice regulations • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health guidelines for biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories Biological Safety Levels The laboratory containment levels described in the BMBL are summarized as follows. Biosafety cabinets are required.

If waste from pressurized equipment is discharged into a gravity system. The tank shall be capable of being chemically or steam sterilized. This effluent must be treated prior to discharge into a public sewer system for disposal. The drainage piping material is based on the expected chemical composition of the effluent and the sterilization method. the system must System Design Considerations The treated discharge from any containment treatment shall be separately routed to the sanitary system outside the building to allow for monitoring and sampling. Local authorities also are empowered to create regulations that are stricter than federal regulations. Valves shall be diaphragm type and capable of being sterilized using the same method as for the pipe. System Components The collection tank into which the effluent drains shall have a gasketed. sealed sump pits. Since the HVAC system maintains a negative pressure. It is common for . Vents from pipe. the kill tank effluent shall be discharged to drain. or lined FRP pipe can be used where effluent temperatures are low and also where chemicals will provide the method of sterilization. If so. OSHA has rules to aid personnel responding to emergencies involving any hazardous material. If the local authority considers the biowaste to be hazardous. The drainage system must be closed. it should be sized so it stays on for a minimum of one minute to avoid short-cycling and to protect the equipment. The purpose of the industrial waste drainage system is to collect and transport these wastes from inside a facility to a point on site where disposal or treatment can be accomplished. The major regulatory factor is whether or not any particular waste stream is hazardous. the traps on all floor drains must have a seal 2½ inches (65 millimeters) deeper than the negative difference in air pressure.242 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 be adequately sized to carry away the waste at the proposed flow rate with pipe flowing one-half full. protective measures. such as chemicals. PVC. but common practice is for each tank to be capable of containing one day’s effluent plus the chemicals used for decontamination. fixtures. may be required. which requires sealed floor drains and valved connections to equipment when not in use. The size of the tanks varies based on the individual facility. it is impossible to make any general characterization of industrial wastewater. Where production and manufacturing facilities discharge waste. a double-contained piping system with leak detection may be required. and flammable liquids. Alarms and status shall be displayed in an appropriate panel located in a facility control room or other area.2-micrometer filter. which are administered by the federal EPA as well as state and other local agencies. The kill tank assembly commonly consists of a duplex tank arrangement. In the event of an accident. CHEMICAL WASTE SYSTEMS Industrial waste drainage systems can contain a wide variety of waterborne wastes. it is a general practice to engage the services of professionals experienced in wastewater treatment and environmental issues to ensure compliance with all of the latest applicable regulations. allowing one batch to be decontaminated while the other tank is filling. Floor drain traps shall be filled with a disinfectant solution when not used to eliminate the possibility of spreading organisms between different areas served by the same connected sections of the piping system. After appropriate decontamination. A fully automatic control system must be provided to ensure the timely addition of the required chemicals in the correct amounts and for the required duration for deactivation of the bio-matter. Codes and Standards A great body of regulations affects the design of any industrial drainage system. as well as wastewater. The collection tank must be able to receive the projected waste being generated when the kill tank is in the decontamination cycle. An agitator mixes the effluent with the deactivation chemicals. and adequate vents must be provided to equalize the internal pressure and ensure that the pipe is always at atmospheric pressure. tanks containing disinfectant chemicals to be injected are required. If a pump is required to transfer biowaste from the collection tank to the kill tanks. waterproof manway for inspection and maintenance. Pipe Material and Joint Selection Because of the vast diversity of manufacturing processes. The sizing of the collection tank is done in conjunction with the sizing of the kill tank cycles and the estimated amount of biowaste being generated by the facility. Among them are the federal Clean Water Act (CWA) and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). such as double-contained piping systems and leak detection. polypropylene. CPVC. The tanks must be large enough to hold a catastrophic spill and any potential sprinkler discharge that may result in the area. many of which are considered hazardous. Stainless steel or PTFE pipe usually is chosen where high-temperature effluent may be discharged or steam sterilization may be required. and kill tanks must be filter-sterilized prior to leaving the system using a HEPA or a 0. In addition to the kill tanks. solvents. suspended solids.

• • • System Design Considerations The design of the drainage system depends on the location. composition. If the room is pressurized to avoid contamination. the discharge from equipment may be under pressure because of the head of water in the piece of equipment. as shown in Figure 12-1. both present and future. System Description The drainage system consists of the drains. • The use of long trench drains in areas where a number of pieces of equipment are placed creates easy access to the various drains from the equipment. An often-used material is vitrified clay sewer pipe because of its resistance to most chemicals. The size of the discharge pipe must be large enough to accept the maximum quantity flowing full by gravity without overflowing. The drain should be large enough in physical size to accept the largest expected flow. and quantity of discharged effluent from all sources. and other equipment such as compressors and boilers. The largest quantity of effluent in an industrial facility originates from drains. such as sprinkler and firehose discharge. Local regulations may require the use of double-contained piping to prevent potential leakage from discharging into the environment. Vents shall be a minimum size of 2 inches (50 millimeters). Selection of the most appropriate piping material can be accomplished only if the nature of the effluent. the water used to suppress a fire could become contaminated with the products and raw materials with which it comes in contact. This air gap shall be twice the diameter of the drainage line. floor wash down. process and production machines. The top of the funnel should be as close to the floor as reasonable so an air gap can be provided between the top of the floor drain and the end • FIRE SUPPRESSION WATER DRAINAGE For industrial facilities. such as occurs when a tank is emptied. Drains receive discharge from production equipment. A leak-detection system that annunciates leakage should be provided. The vents shall be connected to the top of the drainline to either allow air at the top of the pipe to be vented out (when there is a slug of liquid) or admit air required by the flow of water or due to a partial vacuum created by the liquid flowing full. Selection of the type and location of floor drains is a major aspect of drainage system design. The layout and engineering of a piping network requires ingenuity and attention to detail. that could be contaminated in this manner to be routed to holding basins for analysis and possible treatment before being discharged into the environment. Overflow floor drains large enough to take the design flow rate shall be installed at points that will intercept the water before it flows . Following are general guidelines for locating and selecting the drains: • Wet floors are to be avoided. • To accept the largest number of multiple. a large drain should be selected. An air gap shall be provided to prevent pressurizing the gravity drainage system. the cleanouts should be extended to the floor above to avoid the need for maintenance personnel to climb ladders to clean stoppages. a funnel type of drain should be provided. The minimum size drainline under the slab or underground should be 2 inches (50 millimeters). small-size drainage lines from equipment. If large flow rates are expected. and the necessary treatment system that will neutralize the water prior to its discharge into the environment. the trap depth should be 2 inches (50 millimeters) longer than the amount of pressurization. is known. 243 of the equipment drain. a holding basin on site to contain and treat the total volume of water. This arrangement is usually less costly than multiple drains. Adequate venting of the drainage line must be provided to allow smooth flow. It is required for any water. The floor drain and the discharge pipe from the drain must be capable of resisting chemicals discharged from the production equipment. Floor drains should be a minimum size of 4 inches (100 millimeters). In lines that are at the ceiling of high floors. drainage piping. Manholes are lined. • In many cases. If no material is capable of causing contamination. Drains should be located next to equipment and be large enough to allow multiple discharges to spill easily over them without requiring a run of pipe over the floor or the spill to run to the drain. located in such a manner to intercept the flow of fire water. no special consideration is necessary except to protect other areas of the facility from possible flooding.Chapter 12 — Special Waste Drainage Systems various areas within a plant or industrial complex to be discharging different types of effluent with greatly varying characteristics. Adequate cleanouts must be provided in drainlines. The amount of water discharged from the fire suppression system is far greater than the amount of wastewater discharged from the facility under normal operating conditions.

which means it will not be dissolved in water.244 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 out of doorways or drive bays and route it to holding basins. state. These standards vary. which are oils that adhere to the surfaces of solids such as particulates or sediment Source: Courtesy of Rockford Co. The drainage piping is sized based on flow rate and pitch from the facility to the detention basin. into storm water and sanitary sewers. Since it cannot be dissolved. The flow rate of water required to be disposed of is determined by first calculating the sprinkler water density over the area used for hydraulic calculations and then adding to this the flow rate from the number of fire standpipe hose streams possible. particularly oil. The vent could be connected to the sanitary vent system or carried through the roof independently. FLAMMABLE AND VOLATILE LIQUIDS Federal. which is fine droplets that are stable due to electrical charges and other forces but not due to the presence of surface active agents • Chemically stabilized emulsions. Each individual drain need not be vented. A high velocity will not affect the life of the piping system because of the short amount of time the system will be in operation. which is suspended in such a small size (typically 5 micrometers or smaller) that ordinary filtration is not possible • Oil/wet solids. with possible contamination of the wastewater from whatever is stored in the area where the fire was present. Refer to Table 12-1. Their removal from water. is similar to the removal of oil outlined below. The pipe material selected shall be compatible with the possible chemicals it may carry. The common characteristic of all volatile liquids is they are lighter than water. but each branch should have a loop vent of at least 2 inches (50 millimeters) in size. and the responsible enforcement and code authorities must be consulted to determine the level of treatment required. Venting of the system is required to allow the free flow of effluent. The placement of these overflow drains shall be selected to intercept all of the water discharged and prevent it from damaging other parts of the facility or escaping from the property or into the ground. A shallow pitch results in a low velocity. oil in water exists in several forms: • Free oil • Mechanically dispersed oil. Figure 12-4 Typical Oil Interceptor . therefore. Velocity in the drainage pipe is not a major consideration because the system will be rarely used. potentially causing the deposit of some material that could be flushed out after the event of a fire. Pipe size is selected based on the actual pitch of the pipe and the capacity flowing full. which are fine droplets that are stable due to surface active agents • Dissolved and dispersed oil. OIL IN WATER Oil is considered immiscible. The most common flammable liquid is oil. The effluent is essentially clear water with a few solids. and local regulations have established standards for the discharge of volatile liquids.

Chapter 12 — Special Waste Drainage Systems

245

(A)

(B) Figure 12-5 Typical Gravity Drawoff Installation: (A) Plan and (B) Isometric
Source: Frankel 1996

Methods of Separation and Treatment
Oil spills and leaks are best treated in their most concentrated state, which is at their source or as close to their source as reasonable. The primary methods used to separate and remove free oil and oil/wet solids are flotation and centrifugation. Secondary treatment, such as chemical treatment/coalescence and filtration, then is used to break up oil/water emulsions and remove dispersed oil. Finally, tertiary treatment, such as ultrafiltration, biological treatment, and carbon adsorption, removes the oil to required levels prior to discharge. This chapter discusses only the general principles of the primary and secondary separation methods and devices. The American Petroleum Institute (API) has established criteria for the large-scale removal of globules larger than 150 micrometers. In abbreviated form, they are as follows.

• The horizontal velocity through the separator may be up to 15 times the rise velocity of the slowest-rising globule, up to a maximum of 3 fps (0.91 meters per second). • The depth of flow in the separator shall be within 3 to 8 feet (0.9 to 2.4 meters). • The width of the separator shall be between 6 and 20 feet (1.8 to 6.1 meters). • The depth-to-width ratio shall be between 0.3 and 0.5. • An oil-retention baffle should be located no less than 12 inches (305 millimeters) downstream from a skimming device. Gravity Separators Gravity separation is the primary and most oftenused separation method. It is based on the specific gravity difference between immiscible oil globules and water. Since all volatile liquids are lighter than

246

ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 2 the effluent flows, is trapped and separated by gravity, and then is diverted to an accumulator chamber to be drawn off manually or automatically. Another type of unit uses an overflow arrangement that sends the trapped oil to a remote oil-storage tank. Because the vapor given off by the flammable liquid could ignite, it is important to provide a separator vent that terminates in the open air at an approved location above the highest part of the structure. Some codes require a flame arrestor to be installed on the vent. Most commonly used for an oil interceptor is a coated steel vessel. Gratings, if used, must have the strength to withstand the type of vehicle expected to pass over the interceptor. A collection basket may be specified where debris, such as metal chips, can be intercepted before entering the interceptor. Refer to Figure 12-4 for an illustration of a typical small oil interceptor. Figure 12-5 illustrates the installation of a typical oil interceptor with gravity oil drawoff for multiple-floor drain inlets.

an equal volume of water, gravity separators operate on the principle of flotation. As the water and oil flow through the unit, the oil floats to the top and is trapped inside by a series of internal baffles. Since the oil remains liquid, it is easily drawn off. Flotation Devices For larger-scale service, the flotation of oil and oilwet solids to the top of the flotation chamber can be increased by the attachment of small bubbles of air to the surface of the slow-rising oil globules. This is done by adding compressed air to the bottom of the flotation chamber in a special manner creating small bubbles that mix with and attach to the oil globules. Centrifugal Separators For larger-scale service, the centrifugal separator is used. This device induces the combined oil and water mixture to flow around a circular separation chamber. The lighter oil globules collect around the central vortex, which contains the oil-removal mechanism, and the clear water collects at the outer radial portion of the separation chamber. Methods have evolved that produce effluent water with only 50 to 70 parts per million of oil, and proprietary devices exist that lower oil content to 10 parts per million. Filtration Chemical methods used to break oil/water emulsions followed by depth-type filters to remove the destabilized mixture have proven effective in the removal of oil globules between 1 and 50 micrometers. The velocity and flow rate of the mixture must be carefully controlled to allow optimum effectiveness of the system. Oil Interceptors Oil separators for small flows usually take the form of a single unit consisting of a drain grating into which

REFERENCES
1. Frankel, M., Facility Piping Systems Handbook, McGraw-Hill, 1996. 2. Geogehegan, R.F., and H.W. Meslar, “Containment Control in Biotechnology Environments,” Pharmaceutical Engineering, 1993. 3. Grossel, S.F “Safe Handling of Acids,” Chemi., cal Engineering Magazine July 1998. 4. Kaminsky, G., “Failsafe Neutralization of Wastewater Effluent,” Plant Services Magazine, May 1998. 5. Mermel, H., “pH Control of Chemical Waste,” Heating/Piping/Air-Conditioning Magazine, 1988.

Index

µ (micro) prefix, 2009 V1: 34 S (ohms), 2009 V1: 34 S cm (ohm-centimeter units), 2007 V3: 47, 2008 V4: 195 S m (ohm-meters), 2009 V1: 34 1-compartment sinks, 2008 V4: 10 1-family dwellings, numbers of fixtures for, 2008 V4: 19, 20 1-occupant toilet rooms, 2008 V4: 17–18 1-piece water closets, 2008 V4: 3 1-stage distillation, 2010 V2: 200 1-time costs, defined, 2009 V1: 217 1-wall tanks, 2007 V3: 135 2-bed deionizing units, 2007 V3: 48 2-compartment sinks, 2008 V4: 10, 11–12 2-family dwellings, numbers of fixtures for, 2008 V4: 19 2-pipe venturi suction pumps, 2010 V2: 157 2-point vapor recovery, 2007 V3: 142 2-step deionization (dual-bed), 2010 V2: 206, 207 2-valve parallel pressure-regulated valves, 2010 V2: 69–70 2-way braces, 2008 V4: 142 2-word expressions of functions, 2009 V1: 218, 225 2,4-D levels in drinking water, 2008 V4: 186 treating in water, 2008 V4: 187 3-bolt pipe clamps, 2008 V4: 142 3-compartment sinks, 2008 V4: 10, 11–12 3E Plus, 2009 V1: 118 4-way braces, 2008 V4: 136 10-year storms, 2010 V2: 42 18-8 SS, 2009 V1: 132 18-8-3 SS, 2009 V1: 132 28 CFR Part 36, 2009 V1: 98 70:30 Cu Ni, 2009 V1: 132 80/20 rule, 2009 V1: 218, 249 90:10 Cu Ni, 2009 V1: 132 100% area (full port), 2008 V4: 74, 84 100-year storms, 2010 V2: 42 1964 Alaska Earthquake, 2009 V1: 152 1971 San Francisco Earthquake, 2009 V1: 152 3408 HDPE. See HDPE (high density polyethylene)

A

A, X#, X#A (compressed air). See compressed air A/m (amperes per meter), 2009 V1: 33 A (amperes). See amperes A (area). See area (A) a (atto) prefix, 2009 V1: 34

A-53 standard, 2008 V4: 48 A-106 standard, 2008 V4: 48 A-135 standard, 2008 V4: 48 AAMI (Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation), 2010 V2: 187, 219, 220 AAV (automatic air vents), 2009 V1: 10 abandoned septic tanks, 2010 V2: 148 abandoned wells, 2010 V2: 159 abbreviations existing building survey reports, 2009 V1: 269–270 International System of Units, 2009 V1: 33 plumbing and piping symbols, 2009 V1: 7–15 text, drawings, and computer programs, 2009 V1: 14–15 The ABC’s of Lawn Sprinkler Systems, 2007 V3: 96 above-finished floor (AFF), 2009 V1: 14 above-slab grease interceptors, 2008 V4: 162 aboveground piping inspection checklist, 2009 V1: 95 materials for, 2010 V2: 12–13 thermal expansion and contraction, 2008 V4: 227–229 aboveground sanitary piping codes, 2009 V1: 42 aboveground tank systems codes and standards, 2007 V3: 134 connections and access, 2007 V3: 145 construction, 2007 V3: 144–145 corrosion protection, 2007 V3: 145 electronic tank gauging, 2007 V3: 139 filling and spills, 2007 V3: 145 industrial wastes, 2007 V3: 83–84 leak prevention and monitoring, 2007 V3: 145–146 liquid fuel systems, 2007 V3: 144–147 materials for, 2007 V3: 144 overfill prevention, 2007 V3: 145 product-dispensing systems, 2007 V3: 146 tank protection, 2007 V3: 146 testing, 2007 V3: 149 vapor recovery, 2007 V3: 146 venting, 2007 V3: 145 abrasion, 2008 V4: 105 corrosion and, 2009 V1: 136 defined, 2009 V1: 16 drain pipes, 2010 V2: 16 specifications to prevent, 2009 V1: 256–258 vacuum piping, 2010 V2: 186 ABS. See acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)

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ACF (altitude correction factor), 2010 V2: 117 acfh (actual cfh), 2010 V2: 126 acfm (actual cubic feet per minute) defined, 2007 V3: 76, 169 medical air compressors, 2007 V3: 62, 63 medical vacuum systems, 2007 V3: 64–65 vacuum systems, 2010 V2: 166 ACI (American Concrete Institute), 2008 V4: 252 acid absorbers in ion exchange, 2008 V4: 197 acid-containing inhibitors, 2010 V2: 207 acid dilution tanks, 2008 V4: 197 acid feed pumps, 2007 V3: 125–126 acid fumes, 2007 V3: 46 acid manholes, 2007 V3: 223 acid neutralization, 2007 V3: 43–45, 84 acid-neutralization tanks, 2007 V3: 44–45 acid pickling, 2008 V4: 59 acid radicals, 2010 V2: 189 acid regenerants, 2010 V2: 199, 206, 207 acid resins, 2010 V2: 199 acid-resistant fixtures, 2008 V4: 1–2 acid-resistant floor drains, 2010 V2: 15 acid-resistant glass foam insulation, 2008 V4: 107 acid-resistant piping, 2010 V2: 13, 239 acid-resistant sinks, 2007 V3: 41 acid vents (AV), 2009 V1: 8, 16 acid-waste systems acid-waste treatment, 2010 V2: 235 continuous systems, 2010 V2: 236 health and safety concerns, 2010 V2: 229–230 health care facilities, 2007 V3: 42–46 introduction, 2010 V2: 229 large facilities, 2010 V2: 235 metering, 2007 V3: 45 piping and joint material, 2010 V2: 232–234, 2008 V4: 54 solids interceptors, 2007 V3: 44–45 system design considerations, 2010 V2: 234–235 types of acid, 2010 V2: 230–232 acid wastes (AW), 2009 V1: 8, 16, 2007 V3: 42–46 acidity in corrosion rates, 2009 V1: 134 pH control, 2007 V3: 84–85 in water, 2010 V2: 160, 189, 192 acids defined, 2009 V1: 16, 2010 V2: 188 feed water treatment, 2010 V2: 220 acoustics in plumbing systems cork insulation, 2008 V4: 149–150 costs of mitigation, 2009 V1: 188 critical problems with noise, 2008 V4: 145 design and construction issues, 2009 V1: 201–202 drainage system mitigation, 2009 V1: 189–190 hangers and supports, 2008 V4: 120 insulation and, 2008 V4: 105, 115 introduction, 2009 V1: 187–188 mitigating fixture noise, 2009 V1: 193–194 neoprene vibration control, 2008 V4: 149–150 noise-related lawsuits, 2009 V1: 263 pumps, 2009 V1: 194–201 silencers on vacuum systems, 2010 V2: 179 sources of noise, 2009 V1: 188–189

abs, ABS (absolute), 2009 V1: 14 absolute (abs, ABS), 2009 V1: 14 absolute pressure Boyle’s law, 2008 V4: 233–234 defined, 2009 V1: 16, 2007 V3: 166, 169, 2008 V4: 177 formulas, 2008 V4: 169–170 in vacuums, 2010 V2: 166 absolute temperature, 2009 V1: 16, 2007 V3: 166 absolute zero, 2009 V1: 16 absorber (plate), defined, 2007 V3: 183 absorber area, defined, 2007 V3: 183 absorphan (carbon filtration). See activated carbon filtration (absorphan) absorptance, defined, 2007 V3: 183 absorption air drying, 2007 V3: 172 defined, 2009 V1: 16, 2008 V4: 220 rates for soils, 2007 V3: 91 trenches. See soil-absorption sewage systems absorptive silencers, 2007 V3: 171 AC (air chambers). See air chambers (AC) ac, AC (alternating current), 2009 V1: 14 AC-DC rectifiers, 2009 V1: 139, 140 acc (accumulate or accumulators), 2009 V1: 16 acceleration earthquakes, 2009 V1: 149, 150 linear, 2009 V1: 34, 35 measurements, 2009 V1: 34 acceleration limiters, 2008 V4: 134 accelerators (dry-pipe systems), 2007 V3: 8, 9 accellerograms, 2009 V1: 150 access. See also people with disabilities aboveground tank systems, 2007 V3: 145 bioremediation pretreatment systems, 2008 V4: 252 clean agent gas fire containers, 2007 V3: 27 storm drainage and, 2010 V2: 48–49 to equipment, piping and, 2008 V4: 23 underground liquid fuel tanks, 2007 V3: 136–137 access channels for pipes, 2008 V4: 134 access doors, 2009 V1: 16 access openings for pipes, 2008 V4: 134 access to (defined), 2009 V1: 16 accessibility, 2009 V1: 16. See also people with disabilities Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities, 2009 V1: 97 Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities, 2009 V1: 97, 115, 2008 V4: 2 accessories as source of plumbing noise, 2009 V1: 189 in plumbing cost estimation, 2009 V1: 85, 88 section in specifications, 2009 V1: 71 accreditation of health care facilities, 2007 V3: 51 accumulation, defined, 2009 V1: 16 accumulators (acc, ACCUM), 2009 V1: 16, 2008 V4: 134 accuracy defined, 2009 V1: 16 in measurements, 2009 V1: 33 of pressure-regulating valves, 2010 V2: 94 ACEC (American Consulting Engineers Council), 2009 V1: 56 acetone, 2009 V1: 141 acetylene, 2010 V2: 114

Index
STC (Sound Transmission Class), 2009 V1: 187 transmission in pipes, 2010 V2: 13–14 vacuum systems, 2010 V2: 174 valves, pumps and equipment, 2009 V1: 194–201 water distribution system noise mitigation, 2009 V1: 190–193 water hammer, 2010 V2: 70–73 acoustics in swimming pools, 2007 V3: 107 acquisition costs acquisition prices defined, 2009 V1: 210 base acquisition costs, 2009 V1: 217 ACR/MED pipes, 2008 V4: 31 ACR piping, 2008 V4: 31 acres, converting to SI units, 2009 V1: 38 acrylic fixtures, 2008 V4: 2 acrylic insulation jackets, 2008 V4: 108 acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (ABR), 2007 V3: 147 acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) corrosion, 2009 V1: 141 defined, 2009 V1: 32 fixtures, 2008 V4: 2 insulation jackets, 2008 V4: 108 pipe characteristics, 2008 V4: 49–50, 54 piping, 2010 V2: 13, 14, 2007 V3: 49 stress and strain figures, 2008 V4: 228–229 thermal expansion or contraction, 2008 V4: 227 activated alumina air dryers, 2007 V3: 172 activated alumina water treatment, 2010 V2: 218, 2008 V4: 187 activated carbon filtration (absorphan) in gray-water systems, 2010 V2: 25 illustrated, 2010 V2: 205 overview, 2010 V2: 201–204 pure-water systems, 2010 V2: 221 RO treatments, 2008 V4: 219 small water systems, 2010 V2: 218 water problems, 2008 V4: 187 well water, 2010 V2: 160 Activated Carbon Process for Treatment of Wastewater Containing Hexavalent Chromium (EPA 600/2-79130), 2007 V3: 88 activated sludge, 2009 V1: 16 activated sludge systems, 2007 V3: 88 active, defined, 2009 V1: 141 active controls, cross-connections, 2008 V4: 173–175 active potential, defined, 2009 V1: 141 Active Solar Energy System Design Practice Manual, 2007 V3: 194 active solar systems, 2007 V3: 185 active solar water heaters, 2009 V1: 122 active verbs in function analysis, 2009 V1: 218 activities in FAST approach, 2009 V1: 223 actual capacity, 2009 V1: 16 actual cfh (acfh), 2010 V2: 126 actual cubic feet per minute. See acfm (actual cubic feet per minute) actual flow rates, 2007 V3: 4, 202 actual liters per minute (aL/min), 2007 V3: 64–65, 169 actual pressure. See static pressure (SP) actuators, 2009 V1: 16 ad (area drains). See area drains ADA. See Americans with Disabilities Act

249
ADAAG (Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines), 2009 V1: 97, 98 ADAAG Review Federal Advisory Committee, 2009 V1: 115 adapter fittings, 2009 V1: 16 addenda in contract documents, 2009 V1: 56–57 additions to buildings, 2009 V1: 265–266 adhesives, 2009 V1: 16 adiabatic compression, 2009 V1: 16 adiabatic processes, 2007 V3: 165 adjustable, defined, 2008 V4: 134 adjustable diverter plate, fountains, 2007 V3: 103 adjustable high-pressure propane regulators, 2010 V2: 133 adjustment devices, 2008 V4: 134 adjustment section in specifications, 2009 V1: 64, 72 administrative and operation costs in value engineering. See overhead administrative authorities, 2009 V1: 16 admiralty brass, 2009 V1: 132 adsorption, 2009 V1: 16, 2007 V3: 172, 2008 V4: 220 adult-sized wheelchairs, dimensions, 2009 V1: 100. See also wheelchairs Advanced Chem, 2008 V4: 224 advanced oxidation water treatment, 2010 V2: 218 Advanced Plumbing Technology, 2010 V2: 46, 47, 55 aerated lagoons, 2007 V3: 88 aeration, 2009 V1: 16, 2008 V4: 196–197 aeration cells, 2009 V1: 141 aerators aeration treatment, 2010 V2: 197–198, 218 lavatories and sinks, 2007 V3: 35 Provent aerators, 2010 V2: 17–18 Sovent aerators, 2010 V2: 17–18 aerobic, defined, 2009 V1: 16 aerobic bioremediation, 2008 V4: 249 aerobic digestion, biosolids, 2008 V4: 263 aerobic wastewater treatment plants, 2010 V2: 150 aerosols, 2009 V1: 16 AFF (above-finished floor), 2009 V1: 14 AFFF foam concentrates, 2007 V3: 25 after cold pull elevation, 2008 V4: 134 after-coolers, 2009 V1: 16 air compressors, 2007 V3: 171 air dryers and, 2007 V3: 175 medical air compressors, 2007 V3: 63 after-cooling, defined, 2007 V3: 166 after-filters, 2007 V3: 171 AGA (American Gas Association) defined, 2009 V1: 32 relief valve standards, 2010 V2: 106 water heating standards, 2010 V2: 112 age of water mains, 2007 V3: 6 age-related disabilities, 2009 V1: 99 agglomeration, 2008 V4: 157 aggressiveness index, 2010 V2: 196 aging, 2009 V1: 16 aging disabilities, 2009 V1: 99 aging water mains, 2007 V3: 6 agitators in kill tanks, 2010 V2: 242 agreement documents, 2009 V1: 56 agreement states, 2010 V2: 238 AHJ. See authorities having jurisdiction

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air ducts, 2007 V3: 27 air filters hydrophilic and hydrophobic, 2008 V4: 213–214 stills, 2008 V4: 213–214 air gaps. See also effective openings applications, 2008 V4: 185 booster pumps and, 2010 V2: 64 defined, 2009 V1: 16, 2008 V4: 177, 180 shortfalls, 2008 V4: 176 standards, 2008 V4: 172 air-gate valves, 2010 V2: 179 air intakes, 2007 V3: 178, 2008 V4: 163 air lines ABS pipe, 2008 V4: 54 direct connection hazards, 2008 V4: 184 air locks, 2009 V1: 16 air pressure, 2010 V2: 166, 2007 V3: 9 air purges in vacuum pumps, 2010 V2: 171 air receivers, 2007 V3: 173–174 air solar systems, 2007 V3: 185 air springs in noise mitigation, 2009 V1: 197 air temperatures, swimming pools and, 2007 V3: 107 air tests in cold-water systems, 2010 V2: 90 defined, 2009 V1: 16 air velocity in vacuum cleaning systems, 2010 V2: 183 air vents in centralized drinking-water systems, 2008 V4: 246 airborne contamination, 2008 V4: 213 airborne noise, 2009 V1: 187, 190 aircraft cable bracing method, 2009 V1: 160 aircraft fuel, 2010 V2: 12 airgaps. See air gaps airport runways, piping underneath, 2008 V4: 120 AISC. See American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) aL/min (actual liters per minute), 2007 V3: 64–65, 169 alachlor levels in drinking water, 2008 V4: 186 ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable), 2010 V2: 238 alarm check valves, 2009 V1: 13, 16, 2007 V3: 6–7 alarm lines on sprinklers, 2007 V3: 6–7 alarm relays, 2007 V3: 27–28 alarms aboveground tank leakage, 2007 V3: 146 defined, 2009 V1: 16, 2007 V3: 76 on bulk oxygen supply, 2007 V3: 59 on corrosive-waste systems, 2007 V3: 43 on hazardous waste systems, 2007 V3: 84 on kill tanks, 2010 V2: 242 on medical gas systems area alarms, 2007 V3: 67–68 master alarms, 2007 V3: 67 testing, 2007 V3: 75 on vacuum systems, 2010 V2: 169, 173 overfill prevention, 2007 V3: 137, 145 pressurized fuel delivery systems, 2007 V3: 141 Alaska Earthquake, 2009 V1: 152 Albern, W.F., 2010 V2: 186 alcohol-resistant AFFF foam concentrates, 2007 V3: 25 algae, 2010 V2: 188, 195, 2008 V4: 199, 220–221 alignment, storm drainage piping, 2010 V2: 47 alkali, 2009 V1: 16 alkali neutralization, 2008 V4: 196

AHRI (Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute), 2009 V1: 46 AI (aggressiveness index), 2010 V2: 196 AIA (American Institute of Architects). See American Institute of Architects air compressed, 2009 V1: 16 depleted in air chambers, 2010 V2: 72 expansion and contraction, 2008 V4: 233–234 free, 2009 V1: 16, 2007 V3: 165, 167, 169–170 oil-free, 2007 V3: 76 in pipes, 2010 V2: 2 properties, 2007 V3: 165 standard, 2009 V1: 16 water vapor in, 2007 V3: 169–170 air, compressed. See compressed air air, free, 2009 V1: 16, 2007 V3: 165, 167, 169–170 air, oil-free, 2007 V3: 76 air, standard, 2009 V1: 16 air-admittance valves, 2009 V1: 16, 43, 2010 V2: 39 air-bleed vacuum controls, 2010 V2: 179 air-bleed valves, 2010 V2: 171 air breaks. See air gaps air chambers (AC) defined, 2009 V1: 16 symbols for, 2009 V1: 11 water hammer arresters, 2010 V2: 72 air circuits in instrumentation, 2007 V3: 165 air compressors accessories, 2007 V3: 171–172 compressed air systems, 2007 V3: 170–171 dry-pipe systems, 2007 V3: 9 medical systems, 2007 V3: 62 pulsation, 2007 V3: 173 selection factors, 2007 V3: 178–179 sizing, 2007 V3: 177–179 types of, 2007 V3: 170–171 vacuum pumps, 2010 V2: 169–170 AIR COND (air conditioning). See air-conditioning systems Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI), 2008 V4: 243 air-conditioning cooling towers. See cooling-tower water air-conditioning engineers, 2007 V3: 29 Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI), 2009 V1: 46 air-conditioning systems (AIR COND) direct water connections, 2008 V4: 184 fixture-unit values, 2010 V2: 8 pipes, 2008 V4: 31 waste heat usage, 2009 V1: 123 water chillers, 2008 V4: 237 air-consuming devices, 2007 V3: 174 air-cooled after-coolers, 2007 V3: