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O. O. Awopetu, O. A. Dahunsi* and A. A. Aderoba
Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
This study analysed the cutting forces during the turning of α-titanium BT5 as a means of determining the most appropriate cutting tool for the cutting operation. Titanium generally has special applications in military, aerospace, automobile, biomedical implants and materials, surgical devices and materials, and food industries, but BT5 is highly valuable for the purpose of re-alloying in order to produce other alloys. Titanium poses considerable problems in its manufacturing, due to its poor machinability, this gives rise to high tool wear. This study has however identified tungsten carbide cemented carbide tool BK6OM – whose closest ISO equivalent in terms of properties and composition exist between KO5 and K10 or MO5 - as the appropriate turning tool for the semi-finishing operations. Keywords: Titanium, application, manufacturing, machinability, semi-finishing
Titanium with its numerous unveiling promises in terms of its varying areas of uses and applications can only still be put in the class of the materials of the future. 70% of titanium produced today is used in the aerospace construction and industry. Titanium is highly resistant to corrosion and it is biocompatible being non-allergic and non-toxic, thereby being invaluable to the medical and food industries as implants, surgical devices, tablewares and food processing components. Titanium is particularly attractive for engineering applications such as: military, aerospace, automotive, energy and marine constructions, because of it which includes: non-magnetism, superior strength-to-weight ratio (even when compared to steel), density ranging between 4.43gm/cm3 and 4.85gm/cm3, yield strength ranging between 172MPa (in commercially pure, grade 1) to around 1,380MPa for heat treated β-alloys, endurance limits of more than 50% and good fatigue resistance in unnotched conditions. 196
Titanium is also the ninth most abundant among the elements in the earth crust (Aziz 1998). The atomic structure of titanium undergoes a transformation from a closelypacked hexagon arrangement (also called αtitanium), to a body centered cubic arrangement (also called β-titanium) at 882oC. Moreover, alloying metals can be added to modify the transformation and produce more useful alloys of titanium at room temperature. These alloys have all alpha, beta or both (that is alpha and beta, α+β) structures. The yield strength of α-alloys of titanium range from 172.4MPa to 482.6MPa, α+β-alloys have yield strength ranging from 861.8MPa to over 1206.5MPa, and β-alloys have yield strength ranging from 792.9MPa to far more than 1378.9MPa (Aziz 1998). Titanium alloy BT5 is a major representive of the now widely used α-titanium alloy. It is the most widely used alloy in the production of all the other α-titanium alloy. Meanwhile, there is no particular agreement, or common recommended type of cemented carbide tool in the various available handbooks or scientific publications for the specific lathe
It is usually generated by those tooling selections and operating conditions that create resistance to the rotation of the work-piece. In association with the cutting speed this is the main power consuming force (Shotbolt 1980). especially αtitanium alloy (Awopetu et al. 1. the rough turning process of titanium alloys. However. To this end. . it acts as if to force the tool out of the work. Titanium and its alloys are expected to push stainless steel to the second position in the rating of the most used or useful metals soon because of its extremely favourable properties. or in other words to determine the working conditions which give the minimum manufacturing cost per component. the power consumed by or due to Px is normally much smaller when compared to Pz (Shotbolt 1980). The orientations of the component forces acting at the tip of a single point cutting tool. the ultimate object of investigational work on metal cutting is to find the conditions for maximum economy in production. Orientations of the component forces acting on cutting tool The component force Pz acts along the vertical plane to the cutting tool edge.1 These forces are all perpendicular to each other and combines vectorially to give the overall resultant force acting on the tool. it had been largely erroneously conceived over the years that the behavior of titanium and its alloys could be extrapolated or deduced from the studies done on stainless steel. The component force Px is known as the longitudinal. is well studied unlike the semifinished turning of the alloys. feed or axial force. as in the case of this work is shown schematically in Fig. Cutting of titanium alloys is characterized by low cutting speeds and high tool wear. because of the similarities that exist in their properties (Awopetu et al. Up to the present moment. 1959). especially in the process of chip formation. 1995). The growing popularity of titanium is today rousing a lot of interest in the research circles. 1995). Turning of BT5 Titanium Titanium poses considerable problems in its manufacturing due to its poor machinability. full information must be available on the manner in which the cutting forces vary with the cutting conditions (Chisolm et al. In association with the feed motion this also consumes power. It runs parallel to the longitudinal axis of the work piece and is created by those tooling selections and operating conditions that create resistance to 197 the longitudinal feed of the tool. Meanwhile. but as the feed rate is usually very slow compared with the cutting speed.turning of titanium in the roughing. where the determining factor of the tool life is the mechanical characteristics of the tool. Fig. It is commonly known as the tangential force. It does not consume power. it is generated by those tooling elements that can create forces which act on the work piece perpendicularly to its centerline. The component force Py acts along a radius of the work and is called the radial force. 1995). semifinishing and finishing operations (Awopetu et al.
the absence of experimental data at real cutting speeds of the components Px. but speeds may still be limited to 30m/min (Alexander et al. Furthermore. Straight tungsten carbide (WC-Co) cemented carbide cutting tool have longer life with titanium alloys than the steel cutting tungsten-titanium carbide (WC-TiC-Co) or tungsten-tantalum carbide (WC-TaC-Co) grades. Trent E. For the purpose of the analysis in this work only the component forces acting on the cutting plane (that is. some other references recommends a wide range of cutting speed of 20-50m/min for semi-finished operation of titanium and its alloys. 2 shows the two principal planes during a lathe turning operation. the introduction of TiC. Titanium and its alloys present many problems. this does .Fig.M submitted that. has an adverse effect in relation to diffusion wear when machining titanium and its alloys. This may be associated with the relatively small tool contact area developed and the consequent high stresses (Alexander et al. absence of a common view about the dominating mechanism of tool wear during semi-finished operations as well as the incorrect attitude of generalizing the results of other titanium alloy based on an experiment carried out on one particular alloy (Awopetu et al. with cemented carbide tools. 1995). longer life is achieved with the use of the titanium carbide (WC-Co) alloys than the steel cutting grades containing titanium carbide (TiC) and tantalum carbide (TaC). Px and Pz) are considered. 2. The American Society of Metals (ASM) recommends the use of the general purpose carbide tool with classification C2 under the 198 commonly used industry code classification of carbide tool materials for the cutting of titanium and its alloys (Metals Handbook 1989). Furthermore. Also. the component forces Pz and Px acts on the cutting plane. meanwhile. though the cutting forces are lower than that for iron and nickel alloys of comparable hardness. Fig. which is a plane that is tangent to cutting surface and tangent to the cutting edge of the cutting tool. Py and Pz of the cutting force on the tool at different phases of the cyclical chip formation makes it impossible to analyse the process of plastic deformation taking place in the real cutting zone of the titanium work piece adequately. Component forces Py and Px can be projected unto the basic plane. 1987). 1987). which coincide with the base of the tool. the resistance to diffusion wear and resistance to deformation at temperatures make the straight carbide (WCCo) grades of carbide cutting tools more useful for cutting titanium alloys (Trent 1984). The principal planes and surfaces in turning operations Developing an effective and highly productive technology of turning titanium alloys is difficult because of the complexity of the experimental methods of studying the contact processes and cyclic chip formation. Therefore. Moreover. which is so strikingly successful in combating diffusion wear when cutting steel.
K20. this group has a designation which starts with “BK”.not support the small range of recommended feed of 1. M30 M30 M30 199 . The cutting tools in the category have their designation starting with “TK”. this is with regards to specific alloy of titanium. 1995). It is coded or designated BT5 by the micro-structural classification of industrial titanium and its alloys (this is a classification with Russian origin) (Poduraev 1974). P30. the tools listed above have equivalents in the ranges that consist of P10. T15K6.20 1.0 Cr2C3 0. Properties and Turning Parameters of the Work Material The work piece material used throughout the experiment was a rolled and annealed titanium alloy in the alpha phase. BK6OM. M20.0 2. and was turned on an industrial lathe machine model 1M63 with a 7. Under the International Standard Organization’s classifications.9 94 92 87. P20. These tools and their compositions and properties are presented in Tables 1 and 2 (which are shown below) in the following categories: i.2 TaC 2.5mm 5 seconds Dry Table 1. K10. proportional limits and ISO equivalents for tungsten carbide and tungsten-tantalum cemented carbide tools used (Poduraev 1974. Tungsten carbide cemented carbide tools category. Tungsten-titanium carbide cemented carbide tools category. Chemical composition. which are bolted or fixed mechanically to the tool holder.0 6. M30.5-2. and ii.50 1.2KVA electric motor using the following turning parameters: Cutting speed Feed Depth of cut Cutting duration Cutting condition 60m/min 0.0 10.70 1.8 Co 6.0mm/rev and depth of cut of 12mm. ISO 2004). Composition and Properties of Cutting Tools The following are the cemented carbide tools used for the experiment: T5K10.5 1 to 2 1 to 2 Up to 0. M10.0 10. It possesses a hardness.3mm/rev 1.0 Up to 0. K01.40 1. BK6.50 ISO equivalent K05-K10. in percentages WC BK6OM BK6 BK8 BK10OM BK10XOM 91. BK8. K30 and K40 (ISO 2004). this comprise of cutting tools with mostly plane (or straight) tungsten carbide (WC) by composition. this comprise of tools with tungsten-titanium carbide (WC-TiC) major composition. The α-titanium BT5 contains 95% titanium and 5% aluminum by chemical composition.0 8. BK10OM. but there is no agreed recommended type of cemented carbide tool (Awopetu et al. M05.5 Up to 0. grain sizes. BK10XOM and BK10XTM. K05. Classification. M05 K20 K30-K40. Designated code Chemical compositions (per weight). Investigation Methodology Composition.5 Grain size microns (µ) Proportional limits (compressive) GPA 1.8 89. The cemented carbide cutting tools come under the Russian Standard (GOST) 2209-69 as insert forms 0277A. which is equivalent to about BHN 300 (Chechilin and Hesin 1987).
grain sizes.0 Co 6.50. 3. α1 Plan approach angle. was mounted on the carriage in place of the tool post on the 1M63 industrial lathe machine. in order to monitor the thermal conductivity of each tool throughout the cutting period. The plotter was set to pull the photo-paper at 5000mm/sec with time indication marks at every 0.2mm Fig. The tool holder had been constructed in such a way that it could be connected to a voltmeter. The dynamometer was capable of measuring and monitoring the behavior of the component forces over the span of the cutting period. this is to ensure that all the cemented carbide tools used were in the same thermal conductivity range.0 2-5 2-3 Grain size microns(µ) Proportional limits (compressive) GPA 1. to an amplifier and then to the oscillograph. The plotter plots the values of the component forces measured on ultra-violet. The dynamometer is connected to a four independent channel signal amplifier that was connected to a 12-channel oscillograph. ϕ 45o End cutting angle. ε = 180 . H700. photo-paper. proportional limits and ISO equivalents for tungsten carbide and tungsten-titanium carbide cemented carbide tools used (Poduraev 1974. H700. The work piece was turned normally on the lathe machine using the machining parameters previously stated. Single-point cutting tool angles shown in auxiliary views Experimental Procedure A dynamometer. The thermal conductivity of the tools was also monitored.Table 2. equipped with a plotter.15 1. in percentages WC T15K6 T5K10 79.002 seconds interval being one half of the maximum pulling speed. The various signatures of the cutting tools are presented in the list below and Fig.0 5.100. ISO 2004). The components of the resultant cutting force were plotted and .0 10. Designated code Chemical compositions (per weight). α 15o 15o End relief angle. 3. YDM-600.0 TiC 15. The ultra-violet papers were used because of the need to instantly develop and print-out the fixed plotted signals as soon as the paper gets exposed to sunlight rays. ϕ1 15o Nose angle.50 ISO equivalent P10-P20 P30 The cutting tools were all able to be resharpen (regrind types) and were re-sharpen using an abrasive disc AYK-ACP 100/80. Rake angle 0o Side relief angle.1-0.0 85.( ϕ + ϕ1) = 120o Nose radius 0. Chemical composition. thereby reducing 200 the time required for analysis.
it can generally be said that the tungsten carbide-titanium carbide (WC-TiCCo) grade of tools did not perform as well as the plain tungsten carbide (WC-Co) grade of tools.655N and Px = 637.875N and 191. presents the graph of the maximum cutting force component. which are approximately half and one quarter respectively for the tool with the maximum values (that is. and 800 700 feed force component Px measured for each of the seven cutting tools considered. 4. moreover. Component Forces (N) 600 500 Cutting Force 400 300 200 100 0 BK10XOM BK10OM BK8 BK6OM BK6 T5K10 T15K6 Feed Force Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools Fig.295N respectively. although BK6 and BK8 (with tungsten carbide composition) have higher values of for the cutting force component than T5K10 (as shown in Fig. M. Although. this may be due to reasons already 201 advanced by Trent E.. Each tool was used to turn the work piece for the same cutting duration of five seconds. Graph of the component forces on selected carbide tools Tables 1 and 2 shows that BK6OM. αtitanium alloy BT5 was turned at 60m/min in a semi-finished operation wherein BK6OM . BK10OM and BK10XOM has the least grain sizes which is less than or equal to 0. The graph showed BK6OM as resisting the least cutting force and feed force with values 367. This was evident in the wear noticed in the tools in during the course of the experiments. T15K6 with Pz = 740. which had been previously stated. It can also be seen that in terms of chemical composition. the study of the cutting forces is usually of great importance because it enables or enhances an effective design to overcome and resist the forces with minimum rigidity permissible. it has often been suggested that titanium and its alloys be machined at low speeds because of its machining difficulties. It is also a well-known fact that the tungsten carbide – titanium carbide (WC-TiCCo) grade of tools are more brittle than the straight tungsten carbide (WC-Co) grade of tools. Conclusion In the process of metal cutting. Discussion Fig.65N). BK6OM has much finer grains than BK6. 4. but the grain sizes did not seem to influence the performance of BK10OM and BK10XOM in terms of the magnitude of forces resisted as in the case of BK6OM. the improvement in BK6OM over BK6 lies in the 2% content of tantalum carbide (TaC) in BK6OM. 4). when the trend for the feed force component is considered in addition. Pz. Similarly.analysed as the cutting tools were changed one after the other.5µ.
Machinery Publ.F. M. Russia. Russian Academy of Science. London pp. Lickley J. P. West Sussex. Ohio. Metals Park. U. 27. Moscow pp 125. B. . and Rowe. 1998. Institute of Scientific and Technical Information. England. G.130 Shotbolt. London. when cutting titanium and its alloys. Titanium: Properties. than the tungsten carbide-titanium carbide grades. J. Moscow pp 75 – 80. H.11-27. 1980. Classification and Application of Hard Cutting Materials for Metal Removal with Defined Cutting Edges –Designation of the Main Groups and Groups of Application. 215-218.. 1989. 94-99 Trent. and being a straight tungsten carbide tool had better wear resistance. 202 .. USA pp. J. Moscow 232(8): 25-27. M05) has cutting force expected to be resisted was generated during its cutting. Cyclical and Corrosion Strength of Titanium Alloys. 1984.aucegypt. Aziz. for providing the facilities for this research work. Talantov.O. Awopetu. O.Desk Edition. 1974. and Utkin. Vol. 1987. . E. Cutting Forces During Turning of α -Titanium Alloy BT5. Retrieved 2 March 2004.. Ellis Horwood. Geneva: ISO. and Hesin. American Society of Metals (ASM).... Chisolm A.R. The Action of Cutting Tools. Cassel.I. E.13 Poduraev. (ISO 513:2004).B.htm Chechilin. Chichester.. C. N.W.D. 2004 Metals Handbook .118-157. . A. R. Machinery’s Yellow Back Series No 31.V.(1959).C. Metallurgia.edu/students/quark/res earch/titanium. International Standard Organization (ISO). Metal Cutting. Butterworths. Kurchenko.(whose ISO equivalents K05-K10. pp.N. & Brown J. References Alexander. . from http://www. Cutting of Materials with Low Machinability Properties. Acknowledgement The authors wish to acknowledge the authorities of Volgograd State University. Preparation and Its Applications.M. Vishaya Shkola Publishers. V.M. 1987. Volgograd.A. Technician Manufacturing Technology 2. Manufacturing Technology.. Second ed. 1: Engineering Materials. Brewer. 1995.
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