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PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

Introduction:

The key purpose of Community Development work is to build cohesive, active and
sustainable communities based on social justice and mutual respect.

Meaning:
India is basically a country of the villagers. Rural people of this country are poor and
conservative. They suffer from unemployment and under employment and are not able to
have normal standard of living. If India has to make real progress, this rural society has to
progress. It means that the rural people have to be educated, make conscious of the new
development of the society and also encourage to take up various types of new methods of
farming. Community development is intended at rural reconstruction and development of the
rural life. The Community Development aimed at bringing about over all development of the
village and the society. This is how it has been conceived: -
"The most commonly understood meaning of the Community Development is to
strive for the development of the Community at all levels, economic, cultural and social."

Definitions:
1. Defined by United Nations Organizations - "Community Development refers to the process
by ethic the efforts of the people themselves are united with those Governmental authorities
to improve the economic, social and cultural conditions of the nation and to enable them to
contribute fully to national progress."

2. Defined by Planning Commission - "Community Development is the method of rural


extension, is the agency through which the five year plan seeks to initiate the process of
transforming the social and economic life of the villagers."

3. Explained by the Government of India - " It is a programme of aided self-help to be


planned and implemented by the villagers themselves, the Government offering only
technical guidance and financial assistance. Its objectives are to develop self-reliance in
the individual and initiative in the village community. Community thinking and collective
action are encouraged through people's institution like the Panchayats, Cooperative Society
and Vikas Mandals.

The Principles:

Social justice
1Respecting and valuing diversity and difference
2Challenging oppressive and discriminatory actions and attitudes
3Addressing power imbalances between individuals within groups and society
4A commitment to pursuing civil and human rights for all
5Seeking and promoting policy and practices which are just and enhance equality whilst
challenging those which do not

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Participation
1Promoting the participation of individuals and communities - particularly those who are
traditionally marginalised and excluded
2Recognising and challenging barriers to full and effective participation
3Supporting communities to gain skills to engage in participation
4Developing structures enabling communities to participate effectively
5Sharing good practice in order to learn from each other

Sustainable communities
1Promoting the empowerment of individuals and communities Supporting communities
to develop skills to take action
2Promoting the development of autonomous and accountable structures
3Learning from experiences as a basis for change
4Promoting effective collective and collaborative working
5Using resources with respect for the environment

Self-determination
1Valuing the concerns or issues communities identify as starting points
2Raising people's awareness of the range of choices open to them providing opportunities
for discussion of implications and options
3Promoting the view that communities do not have the right to oppress other
communities
4Working with conflict within communities

Reflective practice
1Promoting and supporting individual and collective learning through reflection on
practice
2Changing practice in response to outcomes of reflection
3Recognising the constraints and contexts within which community development takes
place
4Recognising the importance of keeping others informed and updated about the wider
context
Working and learning together
1Demonstrating collective working is effective
2Supporting and developing individuals to contribute effectively to communities
3Developing a culture of informed and accountable decision making
4Ensuring all perspectives within the community are considered
5Sharing good practice in order to learn from each other
General Principles:
Community development is based on certain principles:
1It enables people to work together to influence change and exert control over the social,
political and economic issues that affect their lives.

2It is about a collective focus rather than a response to individual crisis.

3It challenges inequitable power relationships within society and promotes the
redistribution of wealth and resources in a more just and equitable fashion.

4It is based on participative processes and structures which include and empower
marginalised and excluded groups within society.

5It is based on solidarity with the interests of those experiencing social exclusion.

6It presents alternative ways of working, seeks to be dynamic, innovative and creative in
approach.

7It challenges the nature of the relationship between the users and providers of services.

8It is open and responsive to innovation from other countries and seeks to build alliances
with organisations challenging marginalisation in their own countries and globally.

9It involves strategies which confront prejudice and discrimination on the basis of gender,
ethnicity, class, religion, socio-economic status, age, sexuality, skin colour or
disability

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PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNITY ORGANISATION
Introduction:
Community organization is concerned with adjustment of social welfare needs and resources
in cities states, nations as well as in village.
There is common philosophical base between community organization and development.
Both enable people to live a happy life, fully developed life. Both have basic faith in common
man and are right of common self-determination in the faith. Both give equal emphasis to
self-help and help the people to solve the problem themselves.

Definition:
Community has been defined as the “process of bringing about and maintaining a
progressively more effective adjustment between Social welfare has needs within a
geographic area of functional field. Its goal are consistent with all social work goals and that
its primary focus is upon needs of people and provision of means of meeting these needs in a
manner consistent with the precepts of demonstrate people.
The term Community Development designates the utilization under one single programme
approaches and techniques which relay upon local communities as until of action and which
attempt in combine outside assistance with organized local self determination and efforts and
which corresponding seek to stimulates local initiatives and leadership as the primary
instrument of change.
In agriculture countries in the economically underdeveloped areas major emphasis is planned
upon these activities which aimed at promoting the improvements of the basic living
conditions of the community including the satisfaction of some of its non-material needs.
Concept of Community:
In the field of social work, there is no single definition of the term “Community” that will
serve all occasions. A great variety of definitions depend upon some kind of geographical
limitation. All the people within some particular make up the community.
Principles:
A “principle” as we are using in terms refers to a “rule of light action”. Of a value judgment
as to what is “sound of good” community organization. In this sense “principle” is closely
related to standard “obviously the principle of community organization” formulated by
citizens of a democracy will be likely to be in accordance with the general democratic
ideology of value system.
From the experience of many agencies have emerge certain accepted principles which seen
universally applicable.
1.Community Organization for Social welfare is concern with people and their Needs: -
Its objective is to enrich human life by bringing about and maintaining a progressively
more affective adjustment between Social welfare resources and Social welfare
Needs.

2.The Community is the primary client community organization for Social welfare: - The
community may be a neighbourhood city, country, state of nation. Rapidly too there
has emerge the international community. The factor of independence of people and
groups living and working together becomes the sources of problems which
community organization concerns itself and the force from which it derives the
motivation and power necessary to bring about solutions to the problem.

3.It is an axiom community organization that the community is to be understood and


accepted as it is and where it understands the climate in which community
organization process is taking place is essential if seeds of that process are to be bear
fruit.

4.All of the people of the community concerned in its health and welfare services
representation of all interests and elements in the population and their full and
meaningful participation are essential objective in community organization.

5.The fact of ever changing human needs and the reality of relationships between and
among people and groups are the dynamics in the community organization process.

6.Interdependence of threads in the social welfare fabric of organization is a fundamental


truth no single agency can usefully “live unto itself alone but is constantly performing
its functions in relation others.

7.Community organization for social welfare as a process is a part of genuine social work
knowledge of its method of skill in their application will enhance the potentialities for
growth and development of any community effort to meet human Needs.

8.The association should seek to support and strengthen the group which it brings
together in co-operative work. The group should be group pool together and should
strengthen. So, problem has to be solved.
Gathering of all sub-group association.

9.The association should be flexible in its organizational procedures without disrupting its
regular decision making routines.
Bringing the people (sub-groups) together. Association should be form with
routine.
Strong reasons for flexibility minimum number in the association.

10.The association should develop a pace for its work relative to existing conditions in
the community.
There should be gap between two programmes.

11. The association should seek to develop effective leaders.

General Principles

1.Community organization is a means and not an End. As in case work of group work,
community organization seeks to enrich the life of individual. The individual is to
reason deter for community organization. Organizations personal, programme,
knowledge and skill are only means to an End. The welfare and growth of people in
the End.

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2.Communities like individual and groups are different, each has its own peculiarities, its
own problems and needs. To deal with communities effectively, they must be
individualized.

3. Communities like individuals have a right to self determination. In community


organization the worker enables the community to develop its own policies, plans, and
programmes they are not super imposed.

4.Social Needs is the basis for organization determining factor is initiating is continuing,
modifying, of terminating organization is Social Need. An organization should come
into existence to meet a fell Need and should be continued only if it adjusts to
changing Needs.

5.Community welfare rather than agency, self interest should be the first consideration in
determining programme. The programme of an organization should be defined in
relation to the content of the programmes of other agencies and in relation to the
Needs of the community.

6.Co-ordination process of growth: -Co-ordination through authoritarian pressure and


expression is not compatible with democratic principle co-ordination should be the
result of intelligent recognition of economic interest and objectives.

7.Community organization: - Structure should be kept as simple as possible. Too much


machinery may well down and get in the way of process which relates groups to each
other so as to meet the welfare Needs of the community more effectively.
8.Service should be distributed equitably: - The social service of a community should be
made available equally and without discrimination to all who need them.

9.Diversity in programme approach should be respected: - The determining factor in


programme approach should be community needs. A community plan which utilized
diverse contributions rather than forcing agency regimentation should be the rule.

10.There should be broad representation in the interagency bodies: - Every group whose
interests are represented by the interagency body should given the opportunity for all
explicit voicing for its interest in the council where the common problems of the
several groups under consideration.

11.There must be balance between centralization and decentralization: - Agency through


united in a community ........ for financial interest or in a council for common interest,
may maintain at the..... Sometime their own special interest and their own individual
programme. This permits common organization for common interest and special
organization for Special interest.

12.Barriers to communication must be broken down: - Community organization should be


result in free contact among various social groups within a community attitude and
concern for the welfare of the total community must be developed through the
exposure of individual and groups to new and even widening interest and to new
association and through opportunities to work together on common projects.
13.Communities need professional help: - The role of the professional worker is that of
helping the community to discover, identify and to plan to meet its social welfare
needs. The success of community organization depends in large part upon the ability
of the worker to bring about voluntary participation in achieving common goal.

PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNITY WORK

Go to the people:
The community must be the planning subject, the implementing agent and the authentic
result of the whole development process. People come first and last in all efforts towards
genuine and lasting development. The worker who wants to help them has to go first to
the people where they are, whether in the villages, the fields or the slums. By going to
them, he gets to know them better in their own setting, and thus can help them to find out
where to start the development process. By going to them, he will also gain the
confidence and trust, rather then by expecting them to come to him in an office like a
bureaucrat.

Live among them:


When dealing with people, you can come to know best when you live with them. This
does not mean just staying with them, or even sharing their life-style with regard to
accommodation, food and dress. It means really establishing a deep relationship with
them, not just knowing their language of words, but the deeper meaning that each word
can convey, and sincerely trying to love and empathies with them. In this way we will
become sensitive to their needs and problems, we will respect their potentials, and accept
their weaknesses and short comings. By living with them, we shall also become known to
them for what we are, and they will grow in respect and love for us. This will provide the
best atmosphere for working together for their - and our -development.

Learn from them:


The villagers may not be literate, but they have a long experience of being able to survive
in the most trying physical, economic and social situations. This experience has taught
them a great amount. It has helped them to acquire insights and skills that most people
who have a sophisticated education may be quite ignorant of.. Their knowledge comes
from personal and community experience, and not from books. When we talk to them
through our bookish knowledge that we have acquired from our degrees, like the
M.S.W.s, we do not make sense to them and are often quite irrelevant to their real issues.
Hence, we must learn from them. This comes to being open to them and building up a
close relationship with the people whom we live in the villages.

Plan with the people:


If we are ready to learn from the people, we will realise that they are capable of thinking,
of planning and of having great foresight. This point, by the way, was not generally
accepted at the beginning, but was put across very forcefully through several examples by
one of the participants who was herself from a rural background. When we help the
people with their planning, they see us as real partners, for the time and energy spent in
discussing together the various elements of the programmes and the common realization
of their many latent potentialities, will fill us with a deep respect for them, which, in turn,
will be reciprocated.

Work with them:

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People are the primary agents of their development. Nobody can develop another, though
someone else can prepare the ground for a person to develop himself. Ultimately the
decision and the effort of development must be undertaken by an individual or by a
community on their own. As outsiders we can help, but it is the people who must effect
the task. Our place as animators is not to work FOR the people but to help them, to work
WITH them.

Start with what the people know, build on what they have:
When we start with our new orientation for people's development, we should come to
know clearly what the people know, what they feel and what they do in their day-to-day
existence. Only then we will be able to help them to initiate a programme that will be
directed to their real actual needs and one that will be adapted to their way of life, their
mentality and their culture. There is no point in drawing up a programme that is a total
novelty to the people, something that they have not been used to before. The participants
themselves experienced this when a few months ago, in their preparatory work they
wanted to build toilets for the people. They were totally surprised that the agency should
want to put up these structures for they were not used to toilets. Besides it was not their
need. People will naturally learn and appreciate something if it is associated with
something that they are already familiar with. The villager is naturally suspicious of new
things. If he is to change a way of acting, or to adopt a new instrument or amenity, he has
first to have faith and confidence in it.

Teach by showing: learn by doing:


We have to forget about teaching through lectures and talks. Even the emphasis we have
been placing on slides and films will have to be reduced. People will learn best, and the
effect of their learning will be permanent in the proportion in which they see someone
doing something. It is useless to teach them about the evils of the caste system or about
the equality of the rich and poor of our actions or words even hint of any discrimination
in our dealings with them. The group now realised that it must be very hollow when,
often at a meeting, we talk of equality while we are sitting on a charpai facing them as
they sit on the ground in a circle in front of us!
Learning by doing means that whatever knowledge they have gained must be applied
by them in their daily life.