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Buddhist Architecture

Buddhist Architecture

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Published by: Abhijeet Shinde Patil on Mar 09, 2011
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11/30/2012

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Buddhist Architecture

Prof.Abhijeet B. Shinde PRCA,Loni

7. 3.C. 5. Edicts inscribed on rock Monolithic Pillars Stupas Monolithic accessories to shrines Castle & Places Rock Cut Chambers Buddhist Monasteries 2. 4. . 6.Introduction # 6 Century B. Types of Buildings 1.

not part of architectural composition .Monolithic Pillars q Boldly Designed. Finely Proportioned & conceptually well balance q Purpose Solely monumental as they were free standing pillars.

Monolithic Pillars q Boldly Designed. Finely Proportioned & conceptually well balance q Purpose Solely monumental as they were free standing pillars. not part of architectural composition Broadly Divided in Two parts – 1. Shaft .

. o.Monolithic Pillars Capital further Divided in Three parts – 1. 3. Inverted lotus or bell Base pedestal Animal with dhamma chakra Capital Design Symmetrical from all 4 directions 2.

Stupas Sanchi in Raisen district of Madhya Pradesh is famous for its magnificent Buddhist monuments and edifices. to the twelfth consisted century A. is flat which relics of and crowned by a triple umbrella or Chattra on a monks were pedestal surrounded by a square railing or placed.D. The Great stupa has a large hemispherical dome which underat the top. Situated on a hill. these beautiful and well-preserved stupas depict the various stages of development of Buddhist art and arch1teeture over a period of thirteen hundred oStupa years from the third century B. raised Karmika. Buddha's relics were placed in a casket . Inscriptions show that these monuments were maintained dome cladded by the rich with stones merchants of that region.C.

carried high on solid pillars Railing or compound wall also called as vedica consisted of stone members depicting timber o .Stupas o Ornamental Gateways also called as Torana consist of series of three separate carved horizontal bands.

These stupas contain the relics of Buddha and are therefore important places of Buddhist pilgrimage. The original Dhamekh Stupa built with mud or brick is a cylindrical .Stupas The Dhamekh Stupa and the Dharmarajika stupa at Sarnath are believed to have been built by Ashoka and later rebuilt in the Gupta period. Buddha gave his First Sermon in Sarnath and also founded the Sangha or Order of Monks here.

.Rock Cut Caves Chaitya hall.

Rock Cut Caves o Chaitya hall Constructed for residential purpose and meditation Interior walls have smooth surface Architecture and construction o o .

Rock Cut Caves Chaitya hall .

The largest brick  chaitya hall was excavated at Guntapalli. of Krishna at Vijayawada. of Visahkapatnam at Kotturu. Ruins of a large number of structural Buddhist chaity grihas are found in the eastern districts of Andhra Pradesh. in valleys. . The ruins located in the districts of Srikakulam at Salihundam. near rivers and lakes. of West Godavari at Guntapalli. of Guntur at Nagajunakonda and Amaravati belong to the 3rd century BC and later. CHAITYAS  Chaitya grihas or halls of worship were built all over the country ither of brick or excavated from rocks.

It has an upper gallery over which . a banker to be the founder of the chaitya hall but later scholars identify him with Devabhuti. An inscription in Karle mentions Bhutapala. The chaitya has a double-storeyed facade and has three doorways in the lower part. the last of the Sunga rulers. Chaitya Hall Karle   Hinayana rock architecture reaches the peak of  excellence in the splendid chaitya at Karle.

friezes on either side. The corbel brackets are richly sculptured. The facade of the cave is exqui­sitely carved. The chaitya-window has figures of yakshas and richly carved. The walls of the hall and the ceiling of the aisles is richly painted with figures of Buddha. pillared portico in front leading into a courtyard with the walls on either side heavily sculptured with figures. Ajanta single doorway and elaborate ornamentation. floral motifs. Two figures of standing Buddha flank the entrance. ribbed vaulted ceiling Cave 19.• • • • • • • • Facade. The interior pillars are well decorated with cushion shaped capitals. animals and birds. .

diminishing in size and supported by figures on four sides. Projecting from the drum is an arched nasika or niche with the figure of a standing Buddha carved in it.Facade. Ajanta Cave of the The central stupa is elongated and carved. The rounded dome of the stupa ~ is surmounted by a harmika and three tiers of chhatras. On top of the chhatras and touching the ceiling is another small stupa with a miniature harmika. .drum 19.

Rock Cut Caves .

Usually built to a set plan. . they have a hall meant for congregational prayer with a running verandah on three sides or an open courtyard surrounded by a row of cells and a pillared verandah in front. These cells served as dwelling places for the monks.Viharas Viharas or monasteries constructed with brick or excavated from rocks are found in different parts of India.the chief object of worship. These monastic buildings built of bricks were selfcontained units and had a Chaitya hall or Chaitya mandir attached to a stupa .

The walls and the ceilings of the cave contain the most exquisite paintings. Below the capital is a square abacus with finely carved makara motifs. Cave 1. Nasik Twenty-five of the rock-cut caves of Ajanta are viharas and are the finest of monasteries. a hall. groups of cells and a sanctuary. The finest of them. Some of the most beautiful viharas belong to this period. of the Mahayana type consists of a verandah. Later. The portico is supported by exquisitely carved pillars. It has a decorated facade. . Four of the viharas belong to the 2nd century BC.Rock-cut Vihara. other caves were excavated during the reign of the Vakataka rulers who were the contemporaries of the Gupta Rulers. The columns have a square base with figures of dwarfs and elaborately carved brackets and capitals.

two. They contain sculptured figures and belong to both Hinayana and Mahayana Buddhism . Ellora The viharas of Ellora dated 400 AD to 7th century AD are of one.Three Storeyed Vihara. and three storeys and are the largest of the type.

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