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Samirranjan Adhikari* Sabyasachi Chatterjee † Abstract
Objectives: There are certainly some psychosocial factors contributing to the development of attitude towards physical education of the school-going adolescents. Here, some factors like Sense of Deprivation (Home & School), Perceived Parenting (Mothering & Fathering) and Sports Perfectionism (Personal Standards, PS; Concern Over Mistakes, COM; Perceived Parental Pressure, PPP & Perceived Coach Pressure, PCP) were considered to have effect on the development of attitude towards physical education. Method: The study was carried out through descriptive survey method within ex-post-facto research design. A sample of 273 adolescents (98 female & 175 male) was chosen from government aided secondary / higher secondary schools of West Bengal by stratified random sampling technique. To collect data “Attitudes toward Physical Education Scale”, “Self Expression Inventory” (A measure of sense of deprivation), “Parenting Scale” and “Sport Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale” were administered on the sample. Results: A multiple regression equation to predict the attitude towards physical education was formulated and the equation is: Attitude = 84.394 + 0.721 × PS − 0.136 × PPP − 0.253 × Home Deprivation + 0.126 × School Deprivation Conclusions: Personal Standards (PS), Home Deprivation, School Deprivation and Perceived Parental Pressure (PPP) were observed to have much contribution to the development of attitude towards physical education. But perceived parenting and other dimensions of sports perfectionism has little contribution in developing attitude towards physical education. Key Words: Attitude, Sense of Deprivation, Perceived Parenting, Sports Perfectionism, Multiple Regression Equation
Madhab Chandra Ghosh‡
Concept of physical education Man is endowed by nature with certain faculties and powers. It is the aim of
education to bring out those faculties and powers, to develop them and to improve them. These faculties and powers, broadly speaking, are two folds in character, namely physical and mental. To develop them, therefore, education should also be two fold, that is, physical and mental. Physical education is aiming at the maintenance of our physical health by
Assistant Professor in Psychology, Shimurali Sachinandan College of Education, Shimurali, Nadia, West Bengal, India Tel.:09231612366, E-mail:Samirranjanadhikari@gmail.com † Research Scholar, Department of Physical Education, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal, India. ‡ Reader, Department of Physical Education, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, Nadia, W.B., India
Paper presented to the “National Seminar on Modern Trends in Physical Education and sports Science” orgamized by Department of Physical Education, University of Kalyani, West Bengal, India November 25-26, 2010.
Though the subjects. to develop physical efficiency. Prehistoric man who kept no written records of his progress. The very environment demanded that the general physical condition of man not be neglected. emotional. to provide recreation. physical education is an important educational process. It is a vital element in a comprehensive well balanced curriculum and can be a major contributing factor in the development of an individual in all aspects of life: physical. Primitive society lacked any formerly organized schools. The major aims of physical education in primitive society were first. the historians observe that early man passed through many levels of development. of which these two systems of education treat are distinct. to strengthen group membership and participation and third. but he unwillingly left fragmentary clues from which a partial panorama of his society can be projected. Yet education was inescapable for the prehistoric child. body and mind.developing our physical powers and general education is aiming at the preservation of our mental health by developing our mental powers. To realize this outcome. The relevance of his daily life that accumulated on the earth‟s stratigraphical beds is the clues to primitive man‟s life. 1. Therefore. In the historical quest for enlightenment concerning the character of primitive culture. second. it was necessary to possess a strong and able body.1 History in Development of Physical education Darkness envelops the cradle of civilization. Perhaps a brief glimpse of these eras and their social and cultural characteristics will help us to understand the history of physical education as the influences which have been responsible for modern physical education are like threads running through the fabric of all history dating back into preliterate times. In the primitive world physical activity has been a part of the lives of all people. To maintain and to protect himself and his family from all enemies. For certainly “school” had begun for the boy who was 2 . mental and social. In studying the evidence produced. its aim is bring froth the improvement in human performance and enhancement of human development through the medium of physical activities. human comes face to face with the unknown. To a large extent general education was physical education there. Archaeologists and anthropologists have collected this information and arranged it in chronological order. yet they are inseparable. or by causing all round development.
) was being practiced. On the other hand institution like Akharas and Vyayamashalas took keen interest in promoting indigenous activities like Dands.C. with their quest for physical and intellectual perfection. there after the history of physical education shows a pattern of military. India has its significant place in the history of physical education for its rich sports heritage. swimming. During Indus Valley Civilization Period (3250B. However the advent of British in 1600A.C. Although it is believed that since 2698 B. Athenian Greeks came to the forefront in the era 700 to 600 B.) it appears that dancing. and gradual spread of their empire sow the decline in political patronage to physical activities and games. horse riding. wresting. stretching. wrestling. Baithaks.-2500B.C.-1000A. Whatever knowledge of motor skills or physical fitness a young star needed was taught as the occasion demanded. Responsibility for the child‟s physical education instruction related primarily with the parents. In numerous 3 . In 10th century at first calisthenics and military drills were introduced but later on all ball games were also introduced. boxing and dice games were quite popular. Simple exercise like bending.C. -600B. were also prevalent.) witnessed keen interest of rulers in promoting these sports activities. physical activities received due attention. In one high point of ancient history.struggling and straining his throw his spear in imitation of his Father‟s throw. throwing. dancing. Thy introduced German gymnastics in schools and even games like cricket. bow and arrow shooting were also popular. After independence various schemes and policies for promoting games and sports were adopted. squatting were also practiced Dancing.D. “Kong Fu” medicinal type of gymnastics was prevalent in China. In Medieval Period (1000A. Early and later Hindu Period (600B. Military drill. Actually. During Vedic Period (2500B.D. wrestling etc also found place in their exercise programme.C.D. hockey and football. discuss and spear. Yogic exercise.) „Gurukuls‟ or educational institutions generally imparted physical training.C.D.C. social and political influence Ancient Chinese had a well developed system of exercise and physical training.C.C.) gave impetus to different physical activities. chariot race etc. Even during Mugal Period. During Chou Dynasty (1122B. malkhan and popularizes indigenous games like kho-kho and kabaddi. bow and arrow shooting. Numerous sports Associations and organizations have been setup to give impetus to physical activities.-1757A.-256B.
Christians saw spots and physical play as immoral and in 394 A. arching. In Finland. In the same century gymnastic spread to the United States. The other major Renaissance fraction was realism. but like their Chinese predecessors. the pendulum swung once again as artists shared the human body as an object of administration. art. Since then physical training. If a war was being fought. and ball games. games and sports have come to occupy an important place in the social lives of British people. Athenians honoured the gods of Olympus.D. Sweden and Germany developed systems of gymnastics that were adopted internationally with Germany building the first indoor gymnasium. The middle age saw the fall of Roman Empire and the rise of Christianity and the Christian influence brought about a denial of physical activity for anything other than manual labour. Many historians regarded Athenian culture as the height of early physical education. which favoured physical education as a part of sound mind in a sound body. which also built a gymnasium. The humanist fraction cantered in Italy. There a combined form of Swedish and German Gymnastics was practiced in the middle of 17th century. Out door games and sports have always been popular in England. productivity and nationalism and sports were viewed as a way of achieving international fame. the Athenians felt the competing influence of intellectualism. swimming. Reformation saw physical activity only as away for carrying out work. The moralist fraction has been influenced by Protestant. it was halted during the Olympic Games.festivals Athenians celebrated beauty of human form in dance. Physical fitness helped to ensure military strength. Physical education fulfilled a political role in early 20th century. running. exercise was for the first time seen as a way to achieve physical rehabilitation scholars began to study anatomy and physiology in relation to exercise. Denmark was among the first countries to require physical education in schools. hockey. This trend was not reversed until the medieval societies grew and sought power through military expansion. In 19th century Europe. especially Zeus. valued education in sports such as fencing. During the Renaissance. religious rites and athletics. Archery. Interest in the 4 . halted the Olympic Games. swimming rowing. with the first Olympic Games. During this period much of Europe was still Catholic and Catholics favoured recreational physical activities with the view that care should be taken of the body as the vessel that held the soul. football were the activities in which people loved to participate. The Olympic Games offered a civilizing influence with social class disregarded and all citizens judged on athletic competition. Cricket and Tennis were also introduced.
1987. while attempting to identify specific annoyances that lead students to have negative feelings toward physical education. Housner. On the other hand. (c) performing well. 1. however. 1991. Figley. Bullock & Alden. Brumbach. 1994). 1932.new system led to a movement to have compulsory physical training in American Public Schools and to establish physical education in colleges and universities. In one of the earliest studies in this topic. however. & Rosenberg. Brumbach & Cross. 1945. 1965. 1. (f) participating and (g) having fun are the factors which are associated with positive physical education experiences of many middle and high school students. (d) being included. (e) teamwork. With each passing grade. Luke & Sinclair. England. the purpose of such inquiry has been to identify factors that contribute to positive and negative feelings toward physical education. boys who were categorized as having a poor attitude were most annoyed with the requirement of having to take physical education. The few studies conducted on junior high and middle school students indicate that positive attitudes toward physical education appear to be strongest at the sixth grade level for both boys and girls. As per report of the more recent study of Tannehill and Zakrajsek (1993). 1998). (b) Conversely. (b) success. (a) winning. negative experiences are related to (a) fitness exercises and (b) injuries. Earl & Stennett. 1994). Romar. OÕSullivan. Traditionally. It is believed that having such information would improve the quality of physical education by allowing teachers to consider student insights when making curricular or programme decisions. Although this attitudinal decline transpires in both genders. 5 . 1968. 1933. Nemson (1949) discovered that boys with (a) positive attitudes towards physical education were most irritated by the personal hygiene of the physical education teacher (e. smell of tobacco on the breath of the teacher). Campbell. Keogh.2 Attitudes toward Physical Education Student attitudes toward physical education have been under investigation since the 1930‟s. 1968.1 Possible Factors The identification of possible factors contributing to students overall attitude formation towards physical education have varied. Rice. has focused on college (Alden. 1988. Graber. & Wiegand. it is more severe in girls (Treanor. 1962) and high school students (Carr.g.2. attitudes toward physical education become less favorable (King. The preponderance of attention. Tannehill. 1985.
and perceptions of fitness).3 Objective of the Study The study is designed to discern the psychological and social causes contributing to the development of the attitude towards physical education. 1. feeling and knowing about various aspects of their physical education programs. idolization of elite sports figures). tools. Portman (1995) also found that physical education was an unpleasant experience which led to feelings of isolation. and (c) school (teacher influence). “I enjoy gym class”. Reasons for such discontentment included: (a) irrelevant subject matter. (b) society (family. and humiliation.Carlson (1994) found that students‟ attitudes toward physical education were influenced by (a) culture (gender. strongly disagreed with the statement. 2. (d) uneasiness with competition and (e) feelings of isolation. The details regarding sample. peers. While studying unskilled sixth-graders. (b) perceived lack of ability. The researcher has found that 21% of junior high school students sampled. 6 . as students progress through each grade overall attitudes towards physical education decrease. skill level. while for others this content area is enjoyable and worthwhile. sporting experience. Method The present study was carried out through descriptive survey method within ex-postfacto research design. Graham (1995) set out to describe and analyze the factors contributing to the students‟ thinking. Based on this literature it is transparent that for some junior high or middle school students physical education is a miserable experience. (c) public display of athletic inadequacy. embarrassment. procedure of data collection and statistical technique are reported as under: 2.1 Participants A sample of 273 adolescents (98 female & 175 male) was chosen from government and government aided secondary / higher secondary schools of West Bengal by stratified random sampling technique. In either case. mass media. previous physical education experiences.
This is a paper and pencil self-report instrument with a 5-point Likerttype scale with responses ranging from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) summed across 24 items. The responses made only against the alternatives that indicate sense of deprivation are scored. 7394 a positive attitude. total 60 responses in all are related to sense of deprivation.e. For a response made under the most true category to an alternative that indicate sense of deprivation a score of 2 is assigned whereas for a response made under the slightly true category to an alternative that indicate sense of deprivation a score of 1 is assigned. & Altay.2 Research Tool The following research tools will be used in the present study for data collection. i.2. “yes” response to which shows the respondent‟s sense of deprivation and b) Other two of the alternatives are neutral statements i. These 60 responses are equally divided into two areas. The test is based on forced choice technique.2 Self Expression Inventory(SEI) [A measure of sense of deprivation] – Verma & Upadhyay. validity and suitability. A score of 24 indicates the most negative attitude. 7 .e. 2. 2001: Demirhan and Altay (2001) develop the “Attitude toward Physical Education Scale” for Turkish students. Brief descriptions of the tools are given hereunder. 49-72 a neutral attitude. and 95-120 the most positive attitude. 30 responses are related to sense of derivation with respect to the home environment and the remaining 30 responses are related to sense of deprivation with respect to school environment. 2. The tools are selected by applying yardsticks of relevance. The second part deals with four alternative responses – a) Two of the alternatives are related to sense of deprivation. The first part deals with the stem question. appropriateness. whereas responses made against the other two alternatives are ignored and a score of zero is assigned to those. Slightly untrue and untrue category responses are assigned zero scores. Thus.2. 1984: This inventory measures the sense of deprivation in home and school environment of the students. “yes” response to which does not imply any sense of deprivation.1 Attitudes toward Physical Education Scale – Demirhan. The test contains 30 items and each item has two parts. resulting in a range from 24 to 120.2. reliability. i.e. a score of 25-48 indicates a negative attitude.
3 Parenting Scale ( P Scale ) – Bharadwaj. Athletes rate the extent to which they agree with each of the 30 items using a 5-point Likert-type scale (1 = strongly disagree. 2. Linear Regression estimates the coefficients of the linear equation. The instrument is designed to measure how athletes view certain aspects of their competitive experiences in sport. perceived parenting (mothering and fathering) and different dimensions of Sport Perfectionism.).2.4 Statistical Analysis To predict attitude towards physical education a multiple regression equation has been framed.4 Sport Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (Sport MPS) – Dunn. 8 . R. & Garg.2.4.. 1998: The scale is intended to measure perceptions of the individual (Perceived Parenting) on one‟s own feeling as to how one is brought up by one‟s parents.. mean and standard deviation are the statistics. Item scores are averaged within each subscale. related to eight different modes of parenting. involving one or more independent variables that best predict the value of the dependent variable. perceived deprivation (home and school). Concern Over Mistakes (COM: 8 items. It measures the role of mothering and fathering. There are 40 items. 5 =strongly agree). These items are placed in a block at number 36 to 40.3 Procedure The relevant data on different constructs were collected by administering the abovementioned tools on the subjects under study in accordance with the directions provided in the respective manuals of the tools. Perceived Parental Pressure (PPP: 9 items). Causgrove Dunn & Syrotuik.1 The statistics Following statistics have been calculated – (a) For each variable: number of valid cases. 2. 2.L. Here. and Perceived Coach Pressure (PCP: 6 items. 2. with a provision of five alternative responses to each item.2. A. 2002: The Sport-MPS contains 30 items and 4 subscales. H. and parenting as a whole. with higher scores reflecting higher levels of perfectionism on each dimension. we have tried to predict the attitude towards physical education (the dependent variable) from independent variables viz. The subscales are labelled Personal Standards (PS: 7 items). Sharma.
126 respectively.721 0. multiple R. DfFit.220 0.280 −113. Here the constant was 84. (c) Plots: scatter. and normal probability plots are drawn. adjusted R2.136) respectively.494 547. and leverage values).708 −0. Here we have only calculated the regression coefficients and others as shown in table–1. so those were excluded when predictive equation was formulated.001 −0.000 The multiple regression equation is – Attitude = 84. analysis-of-variance table. and case wise diagnostics are done. Other variables such as parenting (i.001 −0. the coefficients of home deprivation and school deprivation were (−0.136 0. coefficient of personal standard and perceived parental pressure (two of the dimensions of sports perfectionism) were as 0. 95% confidence intervals for each regression coefficient. Durbin-Watson test. change in R2.253 0. distance measures (Mahalanobis.126 × School Deprivation 9 . Results Table – 1 shows the regression coefficients of multiple regression equation predicting attitude towards physical education.394 + 0.942 −337. 0. DfBeta. fathering and mothering) and other dimensions of sports perfectionism had no significant relation in formation of attitude. variance inflation factor. histograms. partial plots. prediction intervals.000 0. 3.e.253 × Home Deprivation + 0.001 Standardized Coefficients 0. correlation matrix.394. Cook.plots.046 0.499 Sig. part and partial correlations. variance-covariance matrix.721 and (−0. predicted values. tolerance.(b) For each model: regression coefficients. From the table – 1 it is transparent that these values are statistically significant.000 0. Also.984 −0.126 0.356 177.136 × PPP − 0.000 0. and residuals are calculated.394 0. Table – 1: Showing regression coefficients of multiple regression equation predicting the attitude towards physical education Coefficients (Constant) PS Home Deprivation PPP School Deprivation Unstandardized Coefficients 84. R2. standard error of the estimate.378 t 1822.000 0.253) and 0.001 0.721 × PS − 0.
4. normally. With this logic our present findings may be justified. Personal standard (PS) and school deprivation had positive impact whereas perceived parental pressure (PPP) and home deprivation had negative impact on development of attitude towards physical education. Games and sports may cause physical injuries and would invite more medical expanses. highly motivated towards games and sports. (d) As home deprivation increases attitudes towards physical education decreases. which actually supplies them with some interest other than mere cognitive and intellectual functioning. we can model the relationship of these variables. We may conclude that – (a) If one sets his/her personal standard in sports perfectionism high then obviously his/her attitude towards physical education would also be high. After the fulfilment of the basic needs an individual may look for physical education. 1993). They may find their resort in physical education. A student. Discussion and Conclusion: With linear regression. cognitive and intellectual exercises are practiced. This is a good model and it can be used to predict the attitude towards physical education. this may also the cause of such disliking (Tannehill and Zakrajsek. This may be wrongly interpreted by the adolescents. So this may happen that as parental pressure increases attitude decreases. As the personal standard and school deprivation increase the attitude score also increase. Here parental pressure may be disliked. (b) Here it is interesting to observe that higher the school deprivation implies higher the attitude. The students who lack in interest of these general educational exposures feel deprived in school. This factor is an intrinsic motivator and that fact is reflected through the result. So our finding may be acceptable. but as perceived parental pressure and home deprivation increase the attitude score decreases. 10 . Coming form a poor family a student may feel that his/her primary needs are not properly catered and consequently feels home deprivation. (c) Perceived parental pressure towards sports perfectionism acts as an extrinsic motivator. They may feel that their parents are driving them against their will. In adolescence an individual usually imitates his/her role model and also likes to be guided by the peers. In schools. feels a strong willing to go with the physical education. Games and sports are still considered in our society as extravagance.
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