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  • The stages of cognitive development
  • Constructivist theory
  • Research Design
  • Sampling Technique
  • Instrumentation and Try-out Phase
  • Construction of the Instrument


A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the College of Arts and Sciences Our Lady of Fatima University Under the class of Prof. Irene P. Villareal

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Course Bachelor of Science in Nursing

BY: Mariejo Jornal - leader James Brian Dimagiba – assistant leader Members: Viktor Henry Daria Robert Kenneth Vitug Rafael Carlo Tuazon Karen Bayos Allan Vigilia

March 2009

February 2, 2009 Dr. Nelia Capulong, RN MAN Dean College of Nursing Our Lady of Fatima University #1 Esperanza St. Hilltop Mansion Heights, Lagro Quezon, City Dear Madam: We, the students of 3HI, seek your approval to conduct a research titled “The Common Perception of Nursing Students to Faculty Members Handling NCM Subjects.” Objectives of the study are as follows: 1. To determine the most common perceptions of nursing students to faculty members handling NCM subjects. 2. To determine the least common perceptions of nursing students to faculty members handling NCM subjects. 3. To come up with compromises that will work both for the students and the faculty. We hope for your favorable action. Thank you. Respectfully yours, MARIEJO JORNAL Group Leader Noted: IRENE P. VILLAREAL Research Adviser CLEDANTE NAVALTA Statistician PATRICIO J. GALO, JR. Librarian MERIGEN CAFINO Editor Approved: NELIA CAPULONG, RN MAN Dean-College of Nursing


INTRODUCTION The education process is a cooperative enterprise of the administrators, the faculty and the students. Their mutual and coordinated efforts are necessary to achieve the desired educational goal. The common adherence to the fundamental objectives that promote academic, moral and personal developments is imperative for the proper function and service of Aklan Polytechnic College. Many college and university faculty members begin their teaching careers with the tacit beliefs that all their students have career goals, enthusiasm for the discipline and study or learning habits similar to the teacher’s own. Overcoming that predilection has always been an important step on the path to becoming a good teacher for undergraduates who are not destined for graduate school or majoring in the teacher’s field. With the increasing numbers and variety of backgrounds of undergraduate students, this step becomes even more important. And so does a faculty member’s acceptance of

responsibility for guiding student’s efforts to learn in a course. The teaching strategies are most successful when they are implemented in a system that encourages collaboration among staff and students, and in which each is a part of a well-planned whole system. In some of the most successful sites, teachers themselves have become in-house experts in specific practices that they share with their colleagues. It is important to recognize that while these strategies are useful, little will be accomplished in implementing them unless there is ongoing documentation of their results. There must also be efficient methods of feeding that information back into the system so that there will be continuing progress in teaching and learning. It is also certain that these strategies are most effective when they are applied in positive, supportive environments where there is recognition of the emotional, social and physical needs of students and where individual strengths are recognized, nurtured, and developed

Providing an opportunity for students to apply what they learn in

the classroom to real-life experiences has proven to be an effective

The case method is an instructional strategy that engages students in active discussion about issues and problems inherent in practical application. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM . The case study approach works well in cooperative learning or role-playing environments to stimulate critical thinking and awareness of multiple perspectives. It can highlight fundamental dilemmas or critical issues and provide a format for role-playing ambiguous or controversial scenarios.way of both disseminating and integrating knowledge. Course content cases can come from a variety of sources. Many faculties have transformed current events or problems reported through print or broadcast media into critical learning experiences that illuminate the complexity of finding solutions to critical social problems.

What are the least common perceptions of nursing students to faculty members handling NCM subjects? 4. Is there any significance of the common perceptions of nursing students to faculty members handling NCM subjects? 5.1 Gender 1.4 Educational Attainment 1. What are the most common perceptions of nursing students to faculty members handling NCM subjects? 3. How may the findings of this research be utilized to improve the .2 Age 1.5 Religion 1.3 Civil Status 1.7 Occupation 2. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of the following? 1.This study aims to determine the common perceptions of nursing students to faculty members handling NCM subjects.6 Socio-economic Status 1. It seeks to answer the following questions: 1.

3. To come up with compromises that will work both for the students and the faculty. To determine the least common perceptions of nursing students to faculty members handling NCM subjects. The Faculty Members handling NCM subjects . To determine the most common perceptions of nursing students to faculty members handling NCM subjects. The result can be utilized as a basis for further study on the different perceptions of nursing students regarding on the lecture made by the faculty members. The following get the benefits of this study: The Nursing Students The output of the study may help the nursing students to understand the different teaching strategies of the faculty members handling NCM subjects. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study will give contribution to nursing education. 2.teaching strategies of the faculty members handling NCM subjects? OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1.

The Future Researchers The result can be utilized as a basis for further study on the different perceptions of nursing students regarding on the lecture made by the faculty members. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS The scope of the study is all about the common perceptions of nursing students to faculty members handling NCM subjects.The positive result of the study may help them to understand the perception of the nursing students to faculty members handling NCM subjects. they will learn on the responses of the respondents so that they could teach in a different approach to further enhance the learning of their students. NULL HYPOTHESIS There is no significance of the common perceptions of nursing students to faculty members handling NCM subjects. The researcher chooses Our School Aklan Polytechnic College nursing students and the faculty members handling NCM subjects as their . On the other hand.

The researchers will get only 50 respondents so that the result will be easy to measure. CHAPTER 2 . The researchers believed that this number of respondents is enough to assess the validity and reliability of the study. Their primary reason is to learn and identify the common perceptions of nursing students to faculty members handling NCM subjects.representative respondents.

along with University of Texas strategic-learning advocate Claire Ellen Weinstein. educational psychology studies increasingly show. some ask. Besides. Some faculties believe they can help students develop these strategies through their teaching. they believe that if faculty weaves selfregulation strategies into their teaching. say it's never too late to teach students how to learn. BY BRIDGET MURRAY Monitor staff It's no secret that students learn best when they self-regulate--set their own academic goals. High-achieving students know what needs to be learned and how to learn it. Others. students more quickly absorb . cofounder of a "learning how to learn" course at the University of Michigan. and Barry Zimmerman. however. Though well aware of the time constraints on professors. PhD. an educational psychology professor at the Graduate School and University Center at the City University of New York (CUNY). But while making those kinds of self-assessments may sound simple--and something most college students could do--many psychology professors find their students aren't self-aware enough to conduct them. develop strategies to meet them and reflect on their academic performance. don't think it's their place to do so. and others. PhD. pointing to the load of content they already must teach in one semester.REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES FOREIGN LITERATURE Teaching students how to learn College students often struggle to find effective learning strategies. isn't college too late to teach students how to learn? Not according to self-regulation researchers Paul Pintrich. But professors can help. PhD. They.

And Pintrich believes college students need instruction in using these strategies because university life lacks the structure high school offers." Among the ways professors can help students structure their time and learning better is setting clear learning objectives for courses. * Self-reflection. ultimately saving faculty time. * Performance. He says it's helpful to think of self-regulation in three phases: * Forethought. mnemonic aids and other such learning devices. such as scheduling study time. that when students set goals and . Studies show that such monitoring yields considerable payoffs. Zimmerman has developed one of the best-known models and uses it to coach remedial students at CUNY. challenging but attainable academic goals. for example. Zimmer-man finds. "Schedules are more open and classes much larger. finds that the more students use learning strategies. Taking charge At the core of self-regulation are strategies to manage cognition. Students evaluate how effectively their strategies help them meet their academic goals and adjust strategies accordingly. "You need the 'will' as well as the 'skill. "In college. but motivation to use those strategies is also a key. Researchers propose a variety of models for activating skill and will. Students set short-term. They also estimate their ability--also called selfefficacy--to reach those goals. you see problems arise where students don't have as much day-to-day interaction with instructors as in high school. making regular assignments and emphasizing outlines." says Pintrich.course material. Weinstein. says Pintrich. Students adopt "powerful" learning strategies. founder of a learning-to-learn course at Texas. using mnemonics and outlining course content.'" he says. the higher their grade-point averages (GPAs) and graduation rates. In fact.

found that while some students always use self-monitoring strategies. ." she says. PhD. of the State University of West Georgia. Build in plenty of examples to explain each concept and relate new ideas to previously covered ones. you can train for it. others use them inconsistently across different subjects and situations. suggests Zimmerman. "Because students exert more self-regulation in certain situations. Spurring students along Faculty can incite students' motivation to self-regulate by organizing their courses to emphasize reflective learning and goal setting. either out of interest or for their major. Spell out what students should learn across the course and for each test. in a study of 320 college students. of the University of Nevada. They suggest that faculty: * Identify course objectives up front. Las Vegas. Other research findings suggest that high-achieving students tend to self-regulate more automatically than low-achieving students. psychologist Carol VanZile-Tamsen. Ask students to monitor their efficacy in meeting test objectives.monitor their self-efficacy they can boost their achievement potential by 30 percent. In other research. found that those with the lowest GPAs reported using less self-regulation than their peers." says VanZile-Tamsen. based on predictions from previous grades and scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Test. * Emphasize concept relevance. But she also found that lower achievers tended to self-regulate more if they were motivated to learn course material. For example. say VanZile-Tamsen and Zimmerman. PhD. "Students will be more motivated to self-regulate if they see the relevance. educational psychologist Eunsook Hong. This helps them determine what to study.

" says Pintrich. Also.apa.org/howtolearn. Students come a long way when they realize that. says Zimmerman. Faculty can also encourage students to use specific learning strategies." reference:www. encourage students to use outlines and other graphic organizers for writing. Give them regular assignments and tests so they can tell how well they're learning material. * Impart learning devices. Some ways of doing this are to: * Help students define tasks before them. "When looking at a study. This "postmortem" analysis helps students see what they should restudy. needed to complete them.html . * Model and encourage self-reflection. such as time. "Think out loud" when analyzing a theory or problem. Delineate what's called for in homework assignments and the resources. "After all. and study logs or diaries to manage their time. you might point out that you don't know much about the statistical technique used. If they realize what they're missing today. study materials and research databases." he says. they might not score poorly on the final later. Frame comments on tests and homework assignments in terms of how well students' answers match course objectives and their self-efficacy judgments. that you need to ask a colleague. says Zimmerman. "One of the hallmarks of an expert is knowing what you don't know. so students will follow suit. such as knowledge trees that categorize information in branches.* Quiz students frequently. says Pintrich. * Tie feedback to key concepts. Pintrich says this helps students see that it's best to identify one's weaknesses to compensate for them. Tell students about mnemonic aids. research-ers say.

in many ways. Weaknesses of the Lecture Approach 3.Lectures can communicate the intrinsic interest of the subject matter.Lectures can organize material in a special way. stimulated people tend to learn more. The Conclusion of the Lecture The survival of the basic lecture-a method of teaching by discourse rather than conversation or seminar-in this age of technology and electronic media is. Enthusiasm stimulates interest. especially if not combined with some alternative style of teaching. As well as working to improve skills at lecturing. Lecturing is very appropriate for some goals and very inappropriate for others. The professor's way of approaching knowledge can be demonstrated for students to emulate. 3. despite the fact that some research has shown that lecturing is ineffective.Lectures can convey material otherwise unavailable. Lecture: the Introduction 5. including original research or recent developments that have not yet made it to publication. The speaker can convey personal enthusiasm in a way that no book or other media can. the instructor might also determine if the lecture approach is the best method of teaching for the achievement of the instructional goals of the class. How to Plan an Effective Lecture 4. The Body of the Lecture 6. Strengths and Weaknesses of the Lecture Approach I. remarkable. They may provide . Strengths of the Lecture Approach 1.Lectures in university settings can provide students with role models of scholars in action. 2. 4. Lecturing is probably the oldest teaching method and remains the most common form of instruction to be found in United States colleges and universities. Strengths of the Lecture Approach 2. and interested.EFFECTIVE TEACHING STRATEGIES Excerpts from the Chapter 4 of the online Graduate Handbook at Michigan State University LECTURING 1.

The instructor chooses what material to cover. which they may prefer. whether to answer questions. 5. "Face-to face confrontations with other talking. analysis. lecturing beats textbooks or video in that it offers. They are not well suited to higher levels of learning such as application.Lectures can speak to many listeners at the same time.Lectures assume that all students are learning at the same pace and at the same level of understanding. and synthesis. 8. Lecturers must be verbally fluent.The lecture puts students in a passive rather than an active role. a skill that is not stressed nor learned in many PhD programs and is.Lectures require an effective speaker who can vary tone.Lectures emphasize learning by listening. 3. thinking." II.Lectures tend to be forgotten quickly. Weaknesses of the Lecture Approach 1.Lectures place the burden of organizing and synthesizing content solely on the lecturer. feeling humans. and pace of delivery. 4. or abstract material. gesturing. They are not required to do anything.Lectures permit maximum teacher control. distributed unevenly among people. an advantage for students who learn well this way.Lectures lack feedback to both the instructor and the student about the students' learning. 6. which wanes very quickly in l to 25 minutes. Lectures are particularly useful for students who read poorly or who are unable to organize print material. 7.Lectures do not sustain student attention.a faster. simpler method of presenting information to an audience with its own special needs. 8. and other courses of action. which is hardly ever true. They encourage one-way communication.Lectures are not well suited to complex. . pitch. 7. 10.As Eble (1976) noted. 6. detailed.Lectures can convey large amounts of factual material. 2. in general.Lectures present minimum threat to students. Passivity can hinder learning. 9. 5.

coordinator of Ohio State's public speaking team. 2. A class early in the morning.Analyze the class. Once the topic is chosen. Students at the beginning of the semester may be more enthusiastic than during the last week of classes. Dee Fink (1989) has pointed out that the most intellectually alive and exciting lecturers tend to be those who view knowledge as a dynamic process rather than a static product.Select a topic. has suggested that a good way to approach the preparation of a lecture is to follow this progression of steps. L. in order to wake the students up. Long class periods may be especially suited to an interactive lecture. Just as performers need to know their audience. answering a variety of questions along the way: 1. Possible questions might be: Is my aim to make students understand this difficult concept? What are the key facts I want my students to remember? Do I want to advocate a particular idea or behavior? Is one of my purposes to entertain? Is preparation for an examination the main point of the lecture? 3. 4. This will probably be drawn from whatever is on the syllabus for that day's class. for example. and the organization of the lecture must take into account the students' existing knowledge and expectations as well as the structure of the subject matter. might require the lecturer to be more extroverted. In addition to studying the composition of the class.III. It is useful to determine: What is the level of students in this class? How mature are they as learners? What is their prior relationship (if any) with this subject matter? By exploring the population of the class. it is also helpful to analyze the occasion before preparing each lecture.Decide on the purpose. These issues can be predicted in advance. it may also be possible to predict what learning styles this group of students will prefer. so lecturers need to analyze their class. Phil Martin. the next stage is to decide why it is being taught (this is not as obvious as it may first appear). The lecturer's first decision should be on the overall subject matter of the lecture.Analyze the occasion. and such awareness will usually improve the . How to Plan an Effective Lecture Instructors might remember that the learners' minds are not blank slates.

Here are some further suggestions for the contents of an effective lecture. After the materials are together. the real world.Gather materials.Prepare the lecture.Practice the lecture. Good introductions also may help students to discriminate between more and less important features of lectures. Some discussion of what form of lecture notes is most appropriate follows. This will help phrasing and delivery and will perhaps provide some advance feedback. 7. effective lectures "hook" their listeners' attention from the start. It is a good idea to bring everything together before sitting down to write. whether to a living audience or an inanimate object (e. the next step is to gather the materials to be used in the preparation of the lecture. As with a good drama. a topic in . in short. Lecture: the Introduction It is advisable to plan an introduction that might point to a gap in the students' knowledge or challenge or raise a question about something in the students' minds in order to arouse curiosity. it is a good idea to practice the lecture.. is to capture the interest of the listener. Finally. Suggestion: Raising a question to be answered by the end of the hour. audiotape). but it is certainly desirable for lecturers to have done sufficiently detailed preparation to be entirely comfortable with the content of the lecture. especially if the lecturer is inexperienced. the next step is to actually write the lecture itself. so that the instructor has all the necessary sources immediately at hand. may help them create realistic expectations about what they are supposed to learn from the lecture.g. The aim. cassette tape. etc. 5. IV. Example: By the end of the hour you should be able to answer the question "Are lectures better than discussions" Suggestion: Explaining the relationship of the lecture content to professional career interests. After all this analysis. 6. Example: Today's lecture is about the cost of living indices. and enable them to allocate their information-processing capability much more effectively.effectiveness of the lecture.

and giving the lecture an intriguing title. be well organized. you'll be asked to apply the model as you discuss the Brown vs. providing an overview of the lecture. Today. Example: Today. Example: For the past week we've been occupied with the history of the live theater. When you meet in your discussion groups later this week. Instructors should not feel pressed to cover everything. the most appropriate will depend on the subject itself as well as the lecturer's personal approach. and so forth. instructors can allow for some flexibility in the amount of content to be presented in order to respond to students' questions and comments. V. The Body of the Lecture In the body. The body of the lecture must. the Board of Education decision.macroeconomics that should help you understand the recent discussions in Congress related to inflation. It is imperative for the lecturer to determine the key points to be developed during the class session. Here are some examples: Cause and effect: Events are cited and explained by reference to their origins. Suggestion: Relating lecture content to previous class material. talk about the initial step to be taken. Example: If lecturing about the steps in a clinical suspension model. Example: One can demonstrate how the continual revolutionary movements of the late 1700s affected British politics at the turn of the century. as an effective lecture uses varied pacing to help students to make some critical discrimination between important concepts and trivia. . and we'll spend the rest of the week comparing the two forms. Suggestion: Telling students how they are expected to use the lecture material. the second step. Time sequential: Lecture ideas are arranged chronologically. and not to present nuances and minute detail to the extent that students lose sight of the main idea. Some other ways to start a lecture include: telling a personal anecdote or telling a relevant funny story or joke. Organizing the lecture can be done in a number of different ways. we'll be looking at film history. of course. I'll offer a specific model of evaluation and illustrate its application in several different kinds of settings. Many researchers suggest that the individual lecture should cover only four or five main points that are made explicit to the students.

questions. There are many other organizational possibilities. Example: Today we'll view all these methods from a perspective of validity. or offer a twosided "compare and contrast" presentation. and restates points after illustrations. novelty. After stating major points verbally. Restating what students are expected to have gained from the lectures. it is a good idea to put them on a handout or write them on a board or an overhead projector. Almost all writers agree that illustrations help people to understand things. ingenuity. Lecturers might try to provide a break in the information output every 10 minutes or so to maintain attention. He also notes that encouraging students to formulate questions by asking questions one can facilitate memory and understanding. familiarity. 6. They can ask . and the like. asking for the main points. uses a variety of illustrations. One can state a problem and then offer alternative solutions. Other possibilities include: Restating the main points by using a new example. Asking a student to summarize the lecture's key ideas. and scholarship. or complexity. The body of the lecture can help the students understand the way in which the points are organized. relevance (fit the context well). These are good times for anecdotes. Instructors can stimulate discussion and increase interaction after presenting a lecture or large amount of content by pairing up students and giving them two to three minutes to react. The prospect of unanswered questions to be treated in future lectures creates anticipation of the future. Examples should be included in the lecture. Complex points are easier to explain if the instructor: uses an appropriate vocabulary level. visuals. The Conclusion of the Lecture McKeachie (1986) says that in the conclusion of the lecture one has the opportunity to make up for any lapses in the body of the lecture. respond and raise questions or issues about the material just presented. Illustrations or examples will work best if they include some of the following qualities: precision (fit the idea well). and showing where the class is now.Using an organizational idea to structure the lecture. includes essential content before "nice to know" content. humor. arrange lecture topics according to their importance. humor. interest.

students of color. the gathering of papers. Such a cue might be the return to the podium. women students. which will cause students to lose attention.for volunteers to report out what were the issues or questions raised in their dyads. etc.g. so just wait to grab your back packs. LOCAL LITERATURE Instruction in teacher education programs . which can be accomplished in a variety of ways such as posing a question. Another option for broadening the circle of discussions is to call on pairs that include individual members of social groups (e." A final point: Lecturers should not let students pressure them (by packing bags. talking. One should make sure that there is no consistent verbal or nonverbal cue signaling the end of class. or moving around) into cutting the lecture short! Herr (1984) suggests that instructors make "a remark designed to refocus student attention: (With a smile) "You have four more minutes for which you have paid.) who may not be getting much "airtime. and I shall end promptly. etc." Another trick for the end of class is the creation of suspense.

and it poses challenges and possibilities those teachers and educators can explore. It should be remembered that different approaches have different applications. It is characterized by hands on/active learning and since it is outcome and assessment-oriented. There are four basic elements of curriculum design: Goals and objectives. There are many other curriculum designs. those who believe learning activities are most important use the experience-centered design. Ph.Evelina M. project-centered design. or activity curriculum. and this means that students enrolled in the Bachelor of Elementary Education (BEEd) and the Bachelor of Secondary Education (BSEd) at all year levels will be taking courses under the new curriculum. It is a curriculum in progress. The competency-based curriculum approach is the preferred design by curriculum developers who believe that objectives and evaluation are the most important elements of the curriculum. After all. content or subject matter. G. Miriam College Teacher Institute THE new Undergraduate Teacher Education Curriculum. especially in the delivery of instruction. it uses multiple assessment tools . problem-centered design. what curriculum is without imperfection? What to deliver. these are just some of the most common approaches in designing curriculum.R. which was first offered in 2005 to incoming freshmen. will be fully implemented in school year 20082009. which is why objectives and evaluation are the foci. The new teacher education curriculum uses the competency-based approach. those who think content is the most important use the subject-centered curriculum design.U. There are still some issues in the new curriculum that CHED is currently addressing. Whichever element the curriculum developers consider the most important influences the design of the curriculum. learning experiences or methodology.O. It is a performance-based design anchored on the learner’s ability to demonstrate attainment or mastery of skills performed under certain conditions to specific standards (the skills then become competencies).D Executive Director. Competency-based curriculum approach (CBCA). Vicencio. and evaluation.

and practices. lesson planning. That is. models. for example. action research. materials development. The Teaching Process Skills are curriculum development. the curriculum emphasizes the interweaving of . herein simplified by the author: ANALYZE roles of a model or outstanding teacher. Time is devoted to learners individually and in small groups. and support materials. It should be remembered that the development of critical and creative thinking is explicitly stated in the Philippine Constitution. 30 on The Revised Policies and Standards for Undergraduate Teacher Education Curriculum identifies competency standards for teachers as well as the varied skills that they should master: life skills. The competency-based curriculum approach likewise has limitations. All courses in the teacher education curriculum should have a research requirement. creative thinking. scope and sequence. which may take the form of a term paper. DEVELOP assessment tools.CBCA is advantageous to the learners because they achieve competencies and develop confidence. learning experiences. Curriculum development following CBCA follows these steps. and the competencies needed for each responsibility in terms of knowledge. Unless CBCA materials and strategies are designed. teaching process skills. or other forms of research/scholarship as may be appropriate. attitude. problem solving and decision-making. books and handouts. the course will not truly be CBCA. It is only as effective as the process used to identify the competencies. Integrated curriculum. CMO#30 states: "The teacher-education curriculum is also designed so that the curricular components are integrated. and teaching approaches. educational assessment. and to evaluating the learners’ ability to perform work-related skills. CBCA focuses on the mastery of competencies or skills. critical thinking. the functions and responsibilities for each role. and skills (these are stated as objectives). Research skills should result in the development of new theories. case study. programs. and research skills. The Life Skills refer to effective communication skills. CHED CMO No.

Feb. The two types of delivery identify the main characters in the teaching-learning process: the teacher and the learner or pedagogy and andragogy. whereas andragogy is the art and science of teaching adults. integration of concepts or content. indigenization and localization. HIV and AIDS.foundational. Arts. methodological. and environmental education)." Integration is a curricular design that pertains to how curricular components are organized. Through the years. a famous adult educator. 11. Through the years. Literally. and integration of strategies (Manila Bulletin.g. and experiential knowledge in the various learning experiences in the curriculum. The different modes and forms of integration have been classified by this author as follows: integration of subjects or learning areas. The word andragogy was coined by a German high school teacher who used different strategies in teaching adults. peace education. hence the modern educational meaning of andragogy as learner-centered strategies and pedagogy as teacher-centered strategies. Both approaches are used in teaching college students. 2007). theoretical. integration of skills and processes. there have been changes in the concept of integration. whereas competency-based curricular design pertains to the emphasis given to curricular components. but with preference for learner-centered strategies. The manner of delivering instruction focuses on the teaching-learning process. integration that happens within the learner. Learner-centered approaches include instruction in which learners. Andragogy became popular in Europe and was introduced in the United States by Alfred Knowles. pedagogy is the art and science of teaching children. The traditional concept looks at integration as a combination of subjects (like Science and Health and Music. are made responsible for constructing their own understanding. HOW to Deliver. Physical Education. with the teacher’s guidance. The modern concept sees integration of skills and learning strategies (like critical thinking skills in all learning areas) including addition of topics and subjects not recognized as unique disciplines (e. and Health or MAPEH. the concepts have evolved and have taken on new meanings. .

not a method. More commonly. Plato in the gardens of the Academy. Jose Rizal. especially through the use of Information Communication Technology or ICT. the conviction that all methods are one-sided and that the best method is the one which would answer best to all the possible difficulties incurred by a student. teacher-centered instruction can be very effective. Teacher-training institutions can try the distance learning mode of delivering instruction. The revision of policies and standards of the teacher education programs by CHED was inevitable. . These explanations give the teacher the knowledge of the greatest possible number of methods. Our national hero. In conclusion. curriculum change is both inevitable and desirable.Critics of teacher-centered instruction argue that it is based on a behavioral view of learning. It is wise to heed what Leo Tolstoy said. focuses on low-level objectives. In like manner. The effectiveness of any approach depends on the ability of the teacher to adapt it to the learning needs of students. however. that is. above all. The teacher is — as someone very memorably put it — a guide at the side. but rather. and. that the best teacher will be he who has at his tongue’s end the explanation of what it is that is bothering the student. once said that the person who wishes to teach. teacher-centered instruction isn’t properly implemented. not blind adherence to one method. the delivery of the teacher-education curriculum does not confine itself to the classroom but extends the learning environment off-campus and encourages institutions to explore alternative learning systems. in the open air. the ability of inventing new methods. WHERE to Deliver. not a sage on the stage. even Christ among the mountains and lakes. teaches everywhere. WHO To Deliver. When conducted by expert teachers. The teacher is a facilitator of learning. and emphasizes performance instead of understanding. but an art and talent. Socrates taught in the public street. It is still an emerging curriculum that can benefit from the experiences and balanced views of teacher training institution specialists. It is now everybody’s concern to make it desirable. As far as strategies are concerned. there is no one best strategy in teaching.

reference: www.com.mb.ph THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK .

" Cognitivists do not require an outward exhibition of learning but focus more on the internal processes and connections that take place during learning.Cognitive Theories of Learning Assumption: you can't force someone to learn Cognitive theory defines learning as "a semi-permanent change in mental processes or associations. One underlying theme that often appears throughout the restructuring effort is the idea of constructivism. several changes in educational thinking have greatly affected the manner in which science curriculum is presented in today's schools. well known for his work studying children. and David Ausubel. whether violent. The current view of constructivism has a strong basis in the cognitive approach to learning and draws heavily upon the research of learning experts like Jean Piaget. This approach to learning emphasizes the personal construction of human knowledge as opposed to the transmission of knowledge from one person to the next. The contributions of these three researchers. Recently. have laid the foundation for many of the recent changes that have occurred in science instruction. Explanations for how cognitive processes work are known as information processing theories or models. along with the ideas of others. Lev Vygotsky. or gradual Jean Piaget's major contribution to the cognitive learning approach was his theory of cognitive development." The very great importance he attached to the education of children made him declare in 1934 in his role as Director of the International Bureau of Education that ‘only education is capable of saving our societies from possible collapse. These changes are most appropriately described as efforts to restructure science teaching with the overall goal of improving student learning. his theory of cognitive development and for his epistemological view called "genetic epistemology. This theory describes four levels of intellectual growth that humans progress through including . Jean Piaget (9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980) was a Swiss philosopher and scientist. The main assumption of cognitive psychology is that there are cognitive processes that take place and influence the way things are learned.

Children experience the world through movement and senses (use five senses to . It also emphasizes interactions with objects and events as students attempt to construct their own understandings of scientific concepts. (2) preschool. and each but the last is an inadequate approximation of reality. Development from one stage to the next is thus caused by the accumulation of errors in the child's understanding of the environment. preoperational. and (4) adolescence. Sensorimotor stage: from birth to age 2. concrete operational. Students at the concrete operational stage have the ability to think logically and concretely about objects and events. (3) childhood. One important idea is that any given group of students can display a wide variety of cognitive abilities. To accommodate these ideas into science instruction. There are several implications of Piaget's research that have helped to bring about change in science instruction. and formal operational. Another aspect of Piaget's research that has been especially important to constructivism is his theory of cognitive structures and logical mathematical operations. The stages of cognitive development Piaget's 'Four levels of development' are (1) infancy. Teachers must therefore be aware of the cognitive abilities of their students and plan instruction accordingly.sensory motor. this accumulation eventually causes such a degree of cognitive disequilibrium that thought structures require reorganizing. The final two stages are of particular importance to middle and secondary science educators because most middle and secondary students operate at one of these two stages. educators have promoted more concrete experiences in the classroom and have encouraged students to search for meaning and relationships when confronted with apparently contradictory or difficult information. The four development stages are described in Piaget's theory as: 1. Each stage is characterized by a general cognitive structure that affects all of the child's thinking (a structuralist view influenced by philosopher Immanuel Kant) Each stage represents the child's understanding of reality during that period. Students at the formal operational stage have the ability to think more abstractly and hypothetically about complex concepts and ideas. This theory stresses the importance of students developing their own internal structures as they learn.

3. During this stage they can do things intentionally. That is. meaning they cannot perceive the world from others viewpoints and explore using senses. First habits and primary circular reactions is from 1 month to 4 months old. (4) coordination of secondary circular reactions. The third stage. During this stage they shift to symbolic thinking. and curiosity. They also understand object permanence during this stage. A primary circular reaction is when the infant tries to reproduce an event that happened by accident (ex: sucking thumb). Concrete operational stage: from ages 5 to 11 (children begin to think logically but are very concrete in their thinking) Children can now conserve and think logically but only with practical aids. At this time they might accidentally shake a rattle and continue to do it for sake of satisfaction. Preoperational stage: from ages 2 to 5 (magical thinking predominates. Acquisition of motor skills) Egocentricism begins strongly and then weakens. they try different things to get different results. At this time they become aware of things beyond their own body. 2. During this time infants learn to coordinate sensation and two types of scheme (habit and circular reactions). occurs when the infant is 4 to 8 months old. The sensorimotor stage is divided into six substages: "(1) simple reflexes. They are no longer egocentric. During the sensorimotor stage children are extremely egocentric. novelty. (3) secondary circular reactions. During the last stage they are 18 to 24 months old. (5) tertiary circular reactions.explore the world). During this stage infants explore new possibilities of objects. secondary circular reactions. they are more objects oriented." [4] Simple reflexes is from birth to 1 month old. The fifth stage occurs from 12 months old to 18 months old. (2) first habits and primary circular reactions. Coordination of secondary circular reactions is from 8 months to 12 months old. At this time infants use reflexes such as rooting and sucking. Children cannot conserve or use logical thinking. They can now combine and recombine schemes and try to reach a goal (ex: use a stick to reach something). they understand that objects continue to exist even when they can't see them. and (6) internalization of schemes. .

Like Piaget's theories. Also. Vygotsky's research also closely relates to the modern ideas of constructivism. the realization that social interaction is a vital part of learning has put less emphasis on students' personal discovery of scientific concepts and more emphasis on collaboration and interaction among learners of science. Formal operational stage: after age 11 (development of abstract reasoning). Private speech involves a learner's internal thought processes used to regulate problem-solving skills. According to Vygotsky.4. Children develop abstract thought and can easily conserve and think logically in their mind Lev Vygotsky's major contribution to the cognitive approach to learning was his description of the influence of social interaction on cognitive development. Two important features of Vygotsky's research are private speech and the zone of proximal development. Vygotsky's emphasis was on the learner's environment and the learner's interactions with other people through the use of language. The zone of proximal development underscores the important roles of peers and adults in promoting the construction of knowledge in the minds of students. Whereas Piaget and Vygotsky placed emphasis on . The zone of proximal development describes the level between the teacher's knowledge and the learner's capabilities where instruction is most beneficial. in order for cognitive development to occur. learners must receive information and guidance from others. David Ausubel's contribution to the cognitive approach to learning focused on the conceptual rather than the operative forms of knowledge. These two concepts work together when a teacher assists a student to solve a problem by providing him or her with structure and encouragement and then gradually backing off to allow the student to rely on his or her own private speech to complete the task. The idea that learners rely on human interaction to construct their own knowledge has resulted in greater emphasis on cooperative learning activities that allow students to benefit from the insight of others in order to acquire new concepts.

for example. when individuals' experiences contradict their internal representations. who articulated mechanisms by which knowledge is internalized by learners. Ausubel's emphasis on reception learning has affected the way in which science teachers approach certain scientific concepts. individuals construct new knowledge from their experiences. He suggested that through processes of accommodation and assimilation. Ausubel believed that reception learning was an important means of acquiring certain discipline-based concepts as long as that learning made meaningful connections between the new information and the learner's preexisting cognitive structures. but may also occur as a failure to change a faulty understanding. Ausubel's idea of reception learning holds a vital part in the learning of science. Constructivist theory Formalization of the theory of constructivism is generally attributed to Jean Piaget.learners' personal construction of knowledge. they incorporate the new experience into an already existing framework without changing that framework. Since students are not expected to discover all-important scientific ideas on their own. According to the . they may change their perceptions of the experiences to fit their internal representations. In contrast. Many educators recognize the significance of allowing students to learn from information that has been organized by others as long as it has meaning to the students' own internal cognitive structures. This may occur when individuals' experiences are aligned with their internal representations of the world. When individuals assimilate. may misunderstand input from others. or may decide that an event is a fluke and is therefore unimportant as information about the world. they may not notice events. Ausubel emphasized the importance of reception learning that is based on the idea that most of what is learned is acquired through the transmission of ideas and not through discovery. This recognition of reception learning as an effective teaching method has placed less emphasis on rote discovery learning as the only way for students to construct personal meaning.

we learn from the experience of failure. or others' failure. the theory of constructivism suggests that learners construct knowledge out of their experiences. It is important to note that constructivism is not a particular pedagogy. RESEARCH PARADIGM . In both cases.theory. Their contributions have helped to define the roles of cognitive learning theory and constructivist thought in science education. The constructivism idea has provided educators with particularly interesting insights on the effective teaching and learning of science. Constructivism is often associated with pedagogic approaches that promote active learning. the restructuring of science teaching appears to be focused on the idea of constructivism. and Ausubel. regardless of whether learners are using their experiences to understand a lecture or following the instructions for building a model airplane. Though there are several different theoretical bases for educational reform in today's society. constructivism is a theory describing how learning happens. but by accommodating this new experience and reframing our model of the way the world works. Accommodation can be understood as the mechanism by which failure leads to learning: when we act on the expectation that the world operates in one way and it violates our expectations. we often fail. However. accommodation is the process of reframing one's mental representation of the external world to fit new experiences. The current view of the importance of constructivism in teaching science is based on the research of cognitive psychologists and learning theorists such as Piaget. In fact. Vygotsky. or learning by doing.

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE LECTURE DEPENDENT VARIABLE STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION 1. . Knowledge on the subject matter Faculty members teach the assigned subject and not irrelevant matter Faculty members are effective in their way of delivering their lectures. Strategy Faculty members use teaching strategies effectively 5. CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the type of method used in the research. Figure 1. The Research paradigm showing the variables under study. Delivery 3. Interactive skill 4. Time allotment Faculty members start and end the class in a punctual way. Faculty members interact efficiently with their students 2.

analysis. or measurement. This is the most appropriate method on inquiry about the present status and condition of a particular phenomenon. and classifications are discussed and illustrated in considerable detail. classification. (1:46) elaborated that the profile of the descriptive technique is to tell “what exist” or “what is” about a certain educational phenomenon. Research Design The descriptive method was used in this study. enumeration. It also show the type of statistical treatment that applied in order to analyze and interpret the data gathered information. analysis.the respondents and sampling method and the research instruments that have been used. Manuel and Medel. . This method tends to both the qualitative and quantitative analysis of inquiry such as the present investigation. It may likewise include a study on factors or current conditions about the nature of a group of individuals or a class of events which may involve induction. Concepts and procedures of general description.

It tries to describe the situations from which the status of any kind of phenomena being studied may be learned and whenever possible to formulate valid conclusions from the data gathered. they said: …the descriptive method or research is a useful tool for scientific investigation which aims to describe the existing status of events or phenomena. Sevilla et al. (4:187) pointed out that the descriptive method is effective in obtaining accurate facts and figures about prevailing conditions. . Further. (2:150) described the method as a powerful technique when one aims to describe the current or prevailing status of events. things or phenomena.Hillway. The results of studies employing the descriptive method of research can be used to advantage of the researchers in all areas of human endeavor. the researcher’s interpretations and description on prevailing comments that is to show that there is significance in the common perceptions of common perceptions of nursing students to faculty members handling NCM subjects.

DESCRIPTION OF THE RESPONDENTS The representative respondents come from the 3rd year nursing students of Our Lady of Fatima University who are currently taking up NCM 101 and 102 as of school year 2008-2009 2nd semesters.DATA GATHERING In order for the researcher’s to gather important data needed for the completion of the research. They had specifically chosen the respondents who are using memory . Sampling Technique The researchers employed purposive sampling. LOCALE AND POPULATION OF THE STUDY The locale of the study is in Our Lady of Fatima University. previous study. and books in the library related to the study. thesis. Quezon City which is suited for our respondents. The researchers read articles. letters to the respondents noted by the adviser and the dean. the researchers used instruments like survey forms.

Interviews . The researchers are confident that these respondents could honestly and categorically assess the common perceptions of the students on the faculty members handling NCM subjects. researchers used the following instruments: 1. ensuring that this information is in a form that can be objectively analyzed in order to elicit the needed data that pertained to the topic under study.enhancers. This consisted on different parts and specific purposes. Questionnaire For data gathering. Part II deals with the common perceptions of the 3rd year nursing students on faculty members handling NCM subjects. Part I Collecting data on the respondents profile. researchers distribute carefully designed questionnaires to the respondents. 2. Instrumentation and Try-out Phase To gather the data needed for the research.

Interview was used by the researchers to the respondents to supplement primary source of data. it gave flexibility to give follow up questions or discuss issues concerning the topic of study that was not clearly expounded by the questionnaire. it also gave opportunity for the respondents to clarify questions concerning the survey. the researchers started to formulate their draft questionnaire to be used for their study. 3. Observations The observation was also been an excellent source of data. Based on these ideas. Observational findings are considered strong in validity because the researcher is able to collect a depth of information about a particular behavior. Construction of the Instrument After some readings of related studies and literature. Further. They continuously reviewed their draft making reference to their statement of the . the researchers planned and framed the topic problems for this research together with the conceptual framework and the statement of the problem.

For in depth analysis and interpretation of data. After some revisions. 1. they were able to present to their adviser a copy of the questionnaire.problem and conceptual framework. STATISTICAL TREATMENT USED To establish solutions to the problem. Frequency and Percentage Distribution Percentage was used to find the ratio of frequency of response to the total number of respondents by applying this formula: f P = _______ x 100 N Where: P f = percentage = frequency . The questionnaire was finally revised after some corrections and suggestions by their adviser. the following techniques were used. numerical presentation and analysis of the data gathered for this study.

A person being tested would be asked to respond to each statement in the list by checking on of the following categories. of respondents LIKERT SCALE Likert scale is used to indicate the extent to which the respondents agree or disagree with each statement by checking members from 1 to 5 where 5 is the highest corresponds to strongly agree and 1 is the lowest corresponds to strongly disagree.N = no. 5 (strongly agree) 4 (agree) 3 (neutral) 2 (disagree) 1 (strongly disagree) .

For many years. the . Although the usefulness of other teaching strategies is being widely examined today. Faculty are already feeling the pressure to lecture less. For more information about the use of these and other pedagogical approaches. the lecture still remains an important way to communicate information. the lecture method was the most widely used instructional strategy in college classrooms. 1990). social and technological pressures to be more responsive to students' needs and more concerned about how well students are prepared to assume future societal roles. contact the Program in Support of Teaching and Learning.BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Institutions of higher learning across the nation are responding to political. to integrate technology into the learning experience. Nearly 80% of all college classrooms in the late 1970s reported using some form of the lecture method to teach students (Cashin. Used in conjunction with active learning teaching strategies. Some of the more prominent strategies are outlined below. and to use collaborative learning strategies when appropriate. to make learning environments more interactive. economic.

assumes an unrealistic level of student understanding and comprehension. Students must recognize the limitations of their current knowledge and perspectives. This means that instructor cannot simply unload your knowledge on students. What is required is a true transformation of students' existing knowledge. for example. For this reason.traditional lecture can be an effective way to achieve instructional goals. they enter the classroom with a long history of academic training and life experience. The disadvantages are that lecturing minimizes feedback from students. Students making the shift from classical to modern physics. Even though students may have no experience in class or field. The advantages of the lecture approach are that it provides a way to communicate a large amount of information to many listeners maximizes instructor control and is non-threatening to students. and often disengages students from the learning process causing information to be quickly forgotten. cannot simply . In the sciences and mathematics. presenting new information is not enough to guarantee optimal learning. it is common for students to have learned an oversimplified definition or approach in high school. Instructors from all fields face this challenge.

and been rewarded for. practiced. students' previous knowledge must be completely revised. for the first time. instructor-approved. In the humanities. "correct" interpretation. students may.layer new information onto old understanding. not merely augmented. be asked to develop original interpretations of texts or to consider conflicting interpretations of texts instead of seeking the one. In the social sciences. In all these cases. . This new approach must replace the approach that students have learned. instructors often have the difficult job of helping students unlearn common sense beliefs that may be common but unjustified.

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