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WELCOME TO THE MYSTERIOUS WORLD OF JUPITER

WELCOME TO THE MYSTERIOUS WORLD OF JUPITER

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Published by: Shem Padilla on Mar 09, 2011
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06/06/2011

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Sections

  • Naming Jupiter
  • Symbol of Jupiter
  • Meaning f the sy l f
  • J iter
  • History of jupiter
  • Structure of Jupiter
  • Composition
  • Mass
  • Interior
  • Mantle
  • Core
  • Atmosp ere
  • Planetary Rings
  • Magnetosp ere
  • Orbit and Rotation
  • Life
  • Exploration In Jupiter
  • Pioneer Program (1973-1974)
  • Voyager Program(1979)
  • Ulysses(1992)
  • Cassini(2000)
  • New Horizons
  • Galileo Orbital Mission
  • Moons
  • Galileo Moons
  • Discovery
  • Member
  • Europa
  • Ganymede
  • Callisto
  • Sizes
  • Interacti n ith the S lar
  • System
  • Impacts
  • Comet Shoemaker Levy-9
  • Facts about Jupiter

WELCOME TO THE MYSTERIOUS WORLD OF JUPITER

Naming Jupiter
‡ Named after roman father of the gods who was the god of fun, it also represented tin, green, triangle, 8, and Thursday (French=jeudi). English name after thor god of thunder, Greek name Zeus was Greek god of thunder. Chinese called it the year star - as their calendar cycle (which originated in India) was based on a Jupiter year of approximately 12 years , also represented the element wood, the direction of east.

Symbol of Jupiter

‡ ‡

The Jupiter symbol is comprised of several elements. The crescent with a horizontal line (looks like an Arabic "2") also known as the Greek letter zeta. This component suggests evolutionary development(maturity, and knowledge gained through a time of growth). The second component is the cross, which is symbolising the a meeting of ideas - a cross roads coming together to unite and combine two paths of philosophy. This plays nicely in Jupiter's symbolism of being a feature of balance.

Meaning f the sy J iter

l f

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

The Jupiter symbol meanings include attributes such as: Expansion Good luck Protection Wealth Abundance Higher Education Optimism Experience/Authority Generosity Supremacy Justice Balance

While viewing Jupiter. Galileo Galilei was the first astronomer to view Jupiter through a telescope. Jupiter's satellites are mostly named for his mythological lovers. Previously. he observed four satellites orbiting the planet. many people held to the belief. Ptolemy. . which lent credence to the Copernican theory that the Earth and other planets revolve around the Sun. Galileo's discovery was a major step forward for astronomy. that everything revolved around the Earth.History of jupiter The Italian scientist. developed by 2nd century astronomer.

However.984 km at its equator. . It is the largest of four gas giants as well as the largest planet in the solar system with a diameter of 142.Structure of Jupiter ‡ Jupiter is composed primarily of gaseous and liquid matter. The density of Jupiter. the density is lower than any of the four terrestrial planets.326 g/cm³. 1. is the second highest of the gas giant planets.

Uranus and Neptune also have a similar chemical makeup. but Uranus and Neptune have less hydrogen and helium. Thus. .Composition ‡ ‡ Since Jupiter is a gas planet. water and ammonia. This means that if one stepped onto the planet. Saturn. this chemical composition matches closely to the solar nebula that formed our solar system in the early stages of development. what we see when we observe the surface of Jupiter is the atmosphere that extends deep into the planet. he would sink into it and eventually get crushed by the massive increase in pressure (the gaseous compounds get denser with depth) or be vaporized by the hot temperatures near the centre. Jupiter is comprised of 90% hydrogen and 10% helium (a 75/25% mass ratio) and contains small amounts of methane. there is no solid surface. According to scientists.

‡ On the surface of Jupiter. It was surprising to many to find that the planet contains very little water since scientists had expected that Jupiter would be abundant in oxygen that would react to form massive quantities of water. Galileo also recorded data on Jupiter's chemical composition. The initial data from the probe did not show strong evidence of the three layers. the layer of gas consists mainly of gaseous hydrogen and helium. Consisting mainly of ammonia ice. the tremendous pressure causes the gasses to compress into liquid. In addition to the observation of clouds. In addition. As we go deeper into the planet. ‡ . Galileo's unusual observation viewpoint may account for the unexpected results since it may have observed Jupiter in an area where there are fewest clouds. scientists believe that there are three distinct layers of clouds in Jupiter. Another finding was Jupiter's high temperature and higher than expected density in the outermost areas of the atmosphere. even after the Galileo spacecraft flew past the planet. but rather. only very faint signs of clouds. This was unconfirmed. ammonium hydrosulphide and combination of water and ice ‡ . However.

this so massive that its barycentre with the Sun lies above the Sun's surface at 1.068 solar radii from the Sun's centre. Jupiter s density is only 1. as Jupiter currently has.5 times more massive than all the other planets in the Solar System combined. You could get 4 times as much mass. and still be roughly the same size. the additional material would pull inward with more gravity. .Mass ‡ Jupiter has a total mass of 1. the lightest element in the Universe.9 x 1027 kg. While Earth has a density of 5. and actually make the planet contract. it has a low density because it s primarily made of hydrogen. that s incredibly large number. Even though Jupiter is very massive. Jupiter is 2.52 grams per cubic centimetre. If got any more massive. In fact. Astronomers think that Jupiter is about as large as it can be with its current mass. You could have almost 318 earths to equal the mass of Jupiter. so let s give you some context. I know.33 g/cm3.

This is due to the fact that atmospheric space probes can only go a depth of 150 km below the surface. extending beyond the scope of Jupiter and into other planets. resulting in elements consisting only of protons. . This core is surrounded by a large quantity of hydrogen.Interior ‡ To understand the interior of Jupiter is currently very hard to determine and is very indirect. not gas. Thus Jupiter has one of the largest magnetospheres in the solar system. This process converts hydrogen into a metallic state and is then able to conduct electricity and produce magnetic fields. However. hydrogen atoms ionize. this hydrogen is liquid. This is because at great depths in the planet where pressure exceeds 4 million bars. Jupiter probably has a rocky core deep in the planet amounting to around 10 to 15 Earth -masses. unlike on the surface.

this is what allows the electrical and heat conductivity. in a metal-like fashion (they do not do this under Earth-like condition). The layers of extraordinarily-compressed hydrogen are in a state so extreme that it has never been produced on Earth. The pressure is so great that the hydrogen molecules inside Jupiter conduct heat and electricity very well. The outer mantle is liquid hydrogen. the inner mantle is liquid metallic hydrogen. .Mantle ‡ Pressurized hydrogen in the mantle may generate electric currents which generate Jupiter's powerful magnetic field. electrons from hydrogen molecules move freely from molecule to molecule (like the electrons of a metal). Inside Jupiter.

about three times hotter than the Earth's core. . It is 20.000 °C.Core ‡ At the centre of the planet is a molten rock core which is many times bigger and more massive than the entire Earth.

and are correspondingly lower in temperature. and dark regions called belts. The zones are higher in altitude than the belts. As Jupiter has no surface. The atmosphere appears as alternating bands of light regions. shows not the surface of the planet. the base of its atmosphere is usually considered to be the point at which atmospheric pressure is equal to 10 bars. or from spacecraft images. called zones. . but the atmosphere. It is believed that the belts represent descending areas of low pressure. or ten times surface pressure on Earth. When we look at Jupiter. Jupiter radiates heat energy out to space by way of convection.Atmosp ere ‡ Jupiter has the largest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System. The zones carry energy to the surface and then cool. and sink again. whether it be through a telescope. spanning over 5000 km in altitude. that run parallel to the equator.

.

Wind speeds of 100 m/s (360 km/h) are common in zonal jets. . colour and intensity from year to year. but they have remained sufficiently stable for astronomers to give them identifying designations. These are sub-divided into lighter-huedzones and darker belts.The zones have been observed to vary in width. The interactions of these conflicting circulation patterns cause storms and turbulence. The clouds are located in the tropopause and are arranged into bands of different latitudes.‡ Jupiter is perpetually covered with clouds composed of ammonia crystals and possibly ammonium hydrosulphide. known as tropical regions.

.

Material that would normally fall back to the moon is pulled into Jupiter because of its strong gravitational influence. The orbit of the material veers towards Jupiter and new material is added by additional impacts.Planetary Rings ‡ Jupiter has a faint planetary ring system composed of three main segments: an inner torus of particles known as the halo. and an outer gossamer ring. The main ring is probably made of material ejected from the satellites Adrastea and Metis. rather than ice as with Saturn's rings.[These rings appear to be made of dust.n a similar way. . a relatively bright main ring.There is also evidence of a rocky ring strung along Am althea's orbit which may consist of collisional debris from that moon. the moons Thebe and Amaltheaprobably produce the two distinct components of the dusty gossamer ring.

.Magnetosp ere ‡ The magnetosphere of Jupiter is the cavity created in the solar wind by the planet's magnetic field. Extending up to seven million kilometers in the Sun's direction and almost to the orbit of Saturn in the opposite direction. The existence of Jupiter's magnetic field was first inferred from observations of radio emissions at the end of the 1950s and was directly observed by the Pioneer 10 spacecraft in 1973. and by volume the largest known continuous structure in the Solar System after the heliosphere. while its magnetic moment is roughly 18. Wider and flatter than the Earth's magnetosphere. Jupiter's magnetosphere is the largest and most powerful of any planetary magnetosphere in the Solar System. Jupiter's is stronger by an order of magnitude.000 times larger.

The perihelion is the nearest point and the aphelion is the farthest point of the planet when on the orbital path.000. so a basic day on Jupiter is less than 10 Earth days. This forms a 5:2 orbital resonance with Saturn because it is 2/5 the orbital period of the planet.86 Earth years. Its rotation is five minutes longer than its equatorial atmosphere.Orbit and Rotation ‡ ‡ ‡ The only planet whose center of mass in relation to the Sun lies outside the volume of the Sun is Jupiter.31 degrees The elliptical orbit of Jupiter is inclined 1.000 km between its perihelion and aphelion. This is the reason why Jupiter has little seasonal changes when compared to that of Mars and Earth. The mean distance from the Sun to Jupiter is 778. Jupiter s eccentricity is 0.000. so a typical year on Jupiter is 11. It is only 3.048.000 kilometers.13 degrees. This is the reason for the equatorial bulge that can be seen from the earth through telescope. . It rotates on its axis at less than ten hours.86 years to orbit around the Sun. Because of this the distance between Jupiter and the Sun differs by around 75. Jupiter s axial tilt is small compared to its size. Jupiter is not a completely solid body and because of this the upper atmosphere does its own differential rotation. Jupiter has the fastest rotation in all of the planets of the Solar System.31° compared to Earth. It takes Jupiter 11. Jupiter s elliptical orbit is inclined 1. The rotation of Jupiter requires centripetal acceleration.

these lifeforms would be airborne although this theory is thought to be highly speculative.Life Amazing as it may seem scientists have speculated that life on Jupiter is possible. . This would occur beneath the cloud cover where room temperature conditions exist.

especially due to the probes' large fuel requirements and the effects of the planet's harsh radiation environment.Exploration In Jupiter ‡ The exploration of Jupiter has to date been conducted via close observations by automated spacecraft. as of 2008. Sending a craft to Jupiter entails many technical difficulties. and all save one have been flybys that take detailed observations without the probe landing or entering orbit. and. none of which are scheduled to arrive at the planet before 2016. All of these missions were undertaken by NASA. Plans for more missions to the Jovian system are under development. These probes make Jupiter the most visited of the Solar System's outer planets. has continued with seven further spacecraft missions. . It began with t he arrival of Pioneer 10into the Jovian system in 1973.

It obtained dramatic images of the Great Red Spot. which flew past the planet in December 1973. and determined the mass of Jupiter's moon Callisto. Pioneer 11 made its closest approach. . 1974. within some 34.Pioneer Program (1973-1974) ‡ ‡ Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to visit Jupiter. followed by Pioneer 11 thirteen months later. made the first observation of Jupiter's immense polar regions. on December 4. The first spacecraft to explore Jupiter was Pioneer 10. the spacecraft studied the planet's atmosphere.000 km of Jupiter's cloud tops. observed its radiation belts and determined that Jupiter is mainly fluid. The information gathered by these two spacecraft helped astronomers and engineers improve the design of future probes to cope more effectively with the environment around the giant planet. Pioneer 10 obtained the first-ever close-up images of Jupiter and its Galilean moons. detected its magnetic field.

rings. .000 km from Jupiter's center.This close approach allowed for greater image resolution. at a distance of 349. even though Voyager 1 continued photographing the planet until April.Voyager Program(1979) ‡ Voyager 1 began photographing Jupiter in January 1979 and made its closest approach on March 5. and radiation environment were made in the 48-hour period bracketing the approach. 1979. though the flyby's short duration meant that most observations of Jupiter's moons . magnetic field.

This swing-by maneuver was required for Ulysses to attain a very highinclination orbit around the Sun.000 km. 1992. the Ulysses solar probe flew past Jupiter's north pole at a distance of 451.Ulysses(1992) ‡ On February 8. placing it into a final orbit around the Sun's north and south poles. . increasing its inclination to the ecliptic to 80.The giant planet's gravity bent the spacecraft's flightpath downward and away from the ecliptic plane.2 degrees.

in which the smallest visible features are approximately 60 km (40 miles) across. It produced the most detailed global color portrait of Jupiter yet. and made many scientific measurements.Cassini(2000) ‡ In 2000. . It made its closest approach on December 30.000 images of Jupiter were taken during the months-long flyby. the Cassini probe. 2000. About 26. flew by Jupiter and provided some of the highest-resolution images ever taken of the planet. en route to Saturn.

flew by Jupiter for a gravity assist and was the first probe launched directly towards Jupiter since the Ulysses in 1990. Its Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) took its first photographs of Jupiter on September 4. en route to Pluto. and made its closest approach on February 28.The spacecraft began further study of the Jovian system in December 2006. .New Horizons ‡ The New Horizons probe. 2006. 2007.

. 1995.During this period it gathered a large amount of information about the Jovian system.Galileo Orbital Mission ‡ So far. which went into orbit around Jupiter on December 7. although the amount of information was not as great as intended because the deployment of its high-gain radio transmitting antenna failed. It orbited the planet for over seven years. the only spacecraft to orbit Jupiter is the Galileo orbiter. 2003. making 35 orbits before it was destroyed during a controlled impact with Jupiter on September 21.

and Io.Moons ‡ These are the four Galilean satellites. Europa. . From top-left in a clock-wise direction. they are Ganymede. They are also the largest of Jupiter's moons. They are named so because they were the only four moons that Galileo was able to see. Callisto.

They are the largest of the many moons of Jupiter and derive their names from the lovers of Zeus: Io . . with a radius larger than any of the dwarf planets. They are among the most massive objects in the Solar System outside the Sun and the eight planets. Ganymede.Galileo Moons ‡ The Galilean moons are the four moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo Galilei in January 1610. Ganymede and Callisto. Europa and Io participate in a 1:2:4 orbita resonance.Europa.

Nevertheless. This allowed Galilei to discover sometime between December 1609 and January 1610 what came to be known as the Galilean moons. . nearly 2 millennia earlier than Galileo. Xi Zezong. with a magnifying capability of 20×. he was able to see celestial bodies more distinctly than was ever possible before.Discovery ‡ As a result of improvements Galileo Galileimade to the telescope. a Chinese historian of astronomy. claimed that the Chinese astronomer Gan De observed one of Jupiter's moons in 362 BC.

By the time the present generation formed. with new moons forming from the remaining debris.Member Simulations suggest there may have been several generations of Galilean satellites in Jupiter's early history. Each generation of moons to have formed would have spiraled into Jupiter and been destroyed. Europa is thought to contain 8% ice and water by mass with the remainder rock. in increasing order of distance from Jupiter: . Io is anhydrous and likely has an interior of rock and metal. due to drag from Jupiter's proto-lunar disk.These moons are. the debris had thinned out to the point that it no longer greatly interfered with the moons' orbits.

. until mid-20th century. With over 400 active volcanoes. Unlike most satellites in the outer Solar System (which have a thick coating of ice). Its surface is dotted with more than 100 mountains.Io ‡ ‡ Io is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and. or The first satellite of Jupiter. with a diameter of 3. Nevertheless. a priestess of Hera who became one of the lovers of Zeus. It was named after Io. some of which are taller than Earth's Mount Everest. Io is the most geologically active object in the Solar System. Io is primarily composed of silicate rock surrounding a molten iron or iron sulphide core. the fourth-largest moon in the Solar System.642 kilometres. it was simply referred to as Jupiter I.

. thought to be 100 kilometers thick.6 kilometers in diameter.Europa ‡ ‡ Europa.[ with a layer of water surrounding the mantle of the planet. Europa. which is slightly smaller than Earth's Moon. The name. but did not become widely used until the mid-20th century. is the second closest to Jupiter and the smallest at 3121. the second of the four Galilean moons. who was courted by Zeus and became the queen of Crete. Europa was after a mythical Phoenician noblewoman. It is one of the smoothest objects in the solar system.

Ganymede ‡ Ganymede.4 kilometres in diameter. likely created through convection within the liquid iron core. Ganymede is the largest natural satellite in the Solar System at 5262. which makes it larger than the planet Mercury. . cupbearer of the Greek gods and Zeus's beloved.although only at about half of its mass since Ganymede is an icy world. It is the only satellite in the Solar System known to possess magnetosphere. the third Galilean moon is named after the mythological Ganymede.

and one major feature is a basin around 3000 km wide called Valhalla. it is the third largest moon in the Solar System. and at 4820. It does not form part of the orbital resonance that affects three inner Galilean satellites and thus does not experience appreciable tidal heating. which makes it the least dense of the Galilean moons.Callisto ‡ Callisto is the fourth and last Galilean moon. It is one of the most heavily cratered satellites in the solar system. Callisto was a daughter of the Arkadian King Lykaon and a hunting companion of the goddess Artemis. and is the second largest of the four. .6 kilometres in diameter.Callisto is composed of approximately equal amounts of rock and ices.

Sizes .

the gravitational influence of Jupiter has helped shape the Solar System. and the planet may have been responsible for the Late Heavy Bombardment of the inner Solar System's history. The orbits of most of the system's planets lie closer to Jupiter's orbital plane than the Sun's equatorial plane (Mercury is the only planet that is closer to the Sun's equator in orbital tilt). the Kirkwood gaps in the asteroid belt are mostly caused by Jupiter.Interacti n ith the S lar System ‡ Along with the Sun. .

It was thought that the planet served to partially shield the inner system from cometary bombardment.This topic remains controversial among astronomers. It receives the most frequent comet impacts of the Solar System's planets.Impacts ‡ Jupiter has been called the Solar System's vacuum cleaner. as its gravity perturbs their orbits inward in roughly the same numbers that it accretes or ejects them. recent computer simulations suggest that Jupiter does not cause a net decrease in the number of comets that pass through the inner Solar System. because of its immense gravity well and location near the inner Solar System. as some believe it draws comets towards Earth from the Kuiper belt while others believe that Jupiter protects Earth from the alleged Oort cloud . However.

. This generated a large amount of coverage in the popular media. providing the first direct observation of an extraterrestrial collision of solar system objects.Comet Shoemaker Levy-9 ‡ Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (formally designatedD/1993 F2. nicknamed String of Pearls for its appearance) was a comet that broke apart and collided with Jupiter in July 1994. and the comet was closely observed by astronomers worldwide. The collision provided new information about Jupiter and highlighted its role in reducing space debris in the inner solar system.

and start pulling it in on itself.5 times the mass of all the other planets in the Solar System combined.Facts about Jupiter ‡ ‡ 1. The mass of Jupiter is 318 times the mass of the Earth. you might have a chance to make a new star. But here s the funny thing If Jupiter got any more massive. ‡ ‡ . Stars generate their energy through the fusion of mass together. Jupiter is massive No. Jupiter can t ever become a star Astronomers call Jupiter a failed star. If you could crash dozens of Jupiters together. and still remain about the same size. it s really massive. Astronomers estimate that Jupiter could end up with 4 times its current mass. In fact. it would actually get smaller. Additional mass would actually make the planet more dense. Jupiter would need more than 70 times its current mass to ignite nuclear fusion. but that s not really appropriate. It s like saying your house is a failed skyscraper. Jupiter has 2. 2. Their enormous gravity creates heat and pressure inside the star so that atoms of hydrogen are fused together to create helium releasing heat in the process.

and contribute to the dangerous radiation surrounding it. But astronomers have no idea if and when it ll ever disappear entirely. the Great Red Spot measured 40. The darker material is thought to be compounds brought up from deeper inside Jupiter. it s just hydrogen and helium. ‡ ‡ ‡ . all those beautiful whirling clouds and storms you see on Jupiter are only about 50 km thick. and then change color in sunlight.600 km further from the center than the poles. Jupiter sure moves quickly. points on Jupiter s equator are more than 4. In fact. Jupiter is the fastest spinning planet in the Solar System For all its size and mass. who mentioned it back in 1665. 4. They re made of ammonia crystals broken up into two different cloud decks. But below those clouds. The Great Red Spot has been around for a long time The Great Red Spot on Jupiter is one of its most familiar features. The Clouds on Jupiter are only 50 km thick That s right. It was first identified by Giovanni Cassini. This rapid rotation also helps generate Jupiter s powerful magnetic fields. all the way down.‡ ‡ 3. And it looks like the spot has been around for almost 350 years. In fact. the planet has flattened out a little and is bulging at its equator. but it s shrinking it s currently half that size. 5. it. And because it s spinning so rapidly. the planet only takes about 10 hours to complete a full rotation on its axis.000 km across. A century ago.

Jupiter was first visited by NASAs Pioneer 10 spacecraft in December 1973. after Saturn (of course) and Uranus. across. Jupiter has rings The rings around Jupiter were the third set of rings discovered in the Solar System. Jupiter has a total of 63 named satellites. This magnetic field traps ionized particles from the solar wind and accelerates them to nearly the speed of light. This was followed by a long break until Ulysses arrived in February 1992. I m sure these won t be the last. 7. NASAs New Horizons spacecraft made its flyby in 2007. And finally. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ . 8. Jupiter s magnetic field is 14 times as strong as Earth Compasses would really work on Jupiter. One of its moons. but they probably come from material ejected by its moons when they re struck by meteorite impacts. Ganymede. Then Voyager 1 and 2 in 1979. These particles create a dangerous belt of radiation around Jupiter that can cause damage to spacecraft. That s because it has the strongest magnetic field in the Solar System. Almost all of them are less than 10 kilometers in diameter. and were only discovered after 1975. Then Cassini made a flyby in 2000.‡ ‡ 6. Jupiter has been visited 7 times by spacecraft from Earth Start counting. measuring 5262 km across. on its way to Saturn. when the first spacecraft arrived at Jupiter. 9. is the largest satellite in the Solar System. impacts. and then Pioneer 11 in December 1974. Astronomers think the magnetic field is generated by the movements of metallic hydrogen deep inside Jupiter. Jupiter s rings are fainter than Saturn s. Jupiter has 63 moons At the time that I m writing this.

that s even better. and we ll announce when the best times for seeing Jupiter are. You can see Jupiter with your own eyes Jupiter is the third brightest object in the Solar System. you saw Jupiter in the sky. high in the sky. and if you know someone with a telescope. Chances are. Read Universe Today. Get your hands on a pair of binoculars. and had no idea that s what you were seeing. But if you see a really bright star. after Venus and the Moon.‡ ‡ 10. . chances are you re seeing Jupiter.

Draw the symbol of Jupiter(5 Points) ‡ What is the comet that collided with Jupiter? . What is the anti. What is the naming of Jupiter? 3. What is the cavity created in the solar wind by the planet's magnetic field? II.cyclonic zone in the Jupiter? anti4.What is the gas that has the highest percentage in the Atmosphere of Jupiter? ‡ 5. Art. Who first discover the planet Jupiter? ‡ 2.‡ 1.

Enumeration. ‡ What are the space crafts orbited and visited Jupiter? Name the Galileo or the four largest Moons of Jupiter? .‡ III.

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