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Published by: Muhammad Faisal Rashid on Mar 09, 2011
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Fast Food Industry History 

prepared food from small stalls and limited-seating restaurants limiteddates back to ancient times Castle, established in 1921, is considered to be the first fast food chain 



introduction of the "Speedee Service System" in 1948 established modern principles of the fast food restaurant founded in 1972, is credited with pioneering the use of the "drive"drive- 



will reach $142 billion in sales in 2006 (5% increase over 2005)   .Industry Sales U.S. consumers spent about $110 billion on fast food in 2000 (up from $6 billion in 1970) The National Restaurant Association forecasts that fast food restaurants in the U.S.

2 billion $5.8 billion $2.7 billion $6.3 billion $7.7 billion $5.5 billion .3 billion $5.7 billion $2.0 billion $2.Major Fast Food Competitors (in order of annual sales):           McDonald·s: Wendy·s: Burger King: Subway: Taco Bell: Pizza Hut: KFC: Arby·s: Sonic: Jack in the Box: $24.7 billion $7.

and radio media  95% of US fast food restaurant advertising budgets are allocated to television is the top fast food advertising spender (18th largest ad spender of all U. followed by Burger King and Wendy·s (67th and 78th respectively)  McDonald·s . brands). outdoor billboard.Advertising Expenditures:  Approximately annually $4 billion spent by fast food restaurant industry  Ad venues consist of TV. print.S.

fast food advertising attempts to appeal to latent but powerful human desires and needs .Fast Food Advertising Amid criticism and controversy over the nutritional value of their products.

Fast Food Advertising Target Audiences General demographic focus of ads:    Children Adolescents / Teens Adults 20s-30s 20sVarious techniques and appeals are employed based on the target audience of the particular advertisement .

Taking Aim at the Child Target Fast food ads utilize varied methods to attract the attention and manipulate the desires of children   Ronald McDonald is recognized by nearly 96% of American children A child's first request for a product typically occurs at about 24 months of age Ad agencies acknowledge that toddlers and preschool children have considerable purchase influence through ´nag factorµ. brand preference and brand loyalty with toddlers   . and are openly targeting these age groups in fast food ads Advertisers deliberately begin building lifetime brand recognition.

Advertising Tactics Targeting the Child Market:  Ads aimed at children often employ powerful tie-ins to popular tiechildren·s movies and television programs CharacterCharacter-based packaging and free toy offers encourage children to pursue the product Vivid colors. theme music. and brand characters are used in formats that often mimic children·s programming Addressing the base need for aesthetic sensations is often the focus of ads targeting children. associating the brand image with exciting audioaudio-visual stimulation    .

Example: Pizza Hut ´Cheesy Bites Pizzaµ .

Indicating that this commercial best fit for younger audiences. Style: Humor ‡ Miss Piggy is the main character in this commercial. ‡ The 3 boys at the restaurant table deflects the pizza that was tossed over by Miss Piggy. . She is imitating Jessica Simpson·s previous ad for Pizza Hut. Conclusion: This is a youthful commercial with a blend of upbeat music and a celebrity most children can recognize.Target Audience: Toddlers ² Young teens ‡ The commercial features 3 young teen boys sitting at a pizza parlor. ‡ Miss Piggy is part of the very popular Muppet show and is recognizable by people of all ages. In a previous commercial with Jessica Simpson. she tossed the pizza bites right into their mouths.

Children will compare the two commercials and also see the sex appeal of Jessica Simpson in the other ad. but it prealso pararells the Jessica Simpson commercial. and Miss Piggy·s bright red dress is the main focus of the ad. The sound of little pizza bites being shot from across the room is impossible in real life. She is imitating Jessica Simpson·s previous ad for Pizza Hut. but in this commercial it greatly appeals to children·s imaginations. Hence. Need for Aesthetic sensation: The kids are in a dimly lit pizza parlor. the pre-teens are getting a taste of what advertisers have in store for prethem in the future. Style: Use of Celebrity ‡ Miss Piggy is part of the very popular Muppet show and is recognizable by people of all ages. she tossed the pizza bites right into their mouths. Style: Humor ‡ Miss Piggy is the main character in this commercial.Basic Appeals Need for sex: This is a pre-teen commercial which features Miss Piggy. ‡ The 3 boys at the restaurant table deflects the pizza that was tossed over by Miss Piggy. . In a previous commercial with Jessica Simpson.

The Adolescent / Teen Target TeenTeen-focused fast food advertising emphasizes characteristics that youth aspire to:      Being popular Being attractive/sexy Being cool Standing out in a crowd Attracting attention The ads target these and other qualities important to adolescents .

fashion. styles and trends Many ads are based on popular trends in music. and other group activities on the popularity of current fads. and language. sporting teams.Advertising Tactics Targeting the Adolescent / Teen Market:  Addressing the need for affiliation TeenTeen-focused ads frequently portray groups of friends. and are appearing more frequently the need for sex The use of sexual themes in fast food ads aimed at the adolescent market is on the increase  Capitalizing  Appealing to . celebrities are often used.

Example: Carl·s Jr ´Spicy Parisµ .

the commercial ends with the tag line ´That·s Hotµ.   Ad description: The ad features heiress Paris Hilton in a chic black bathing suit sudsing up a Bentley. . The O. If you like Paris. powerful & affluent. Spicy BBQ is hot. burger. Targeting the young. Ad subtext: Paris is hot. you·ll like our sandwich. She breaks from her hard work to take a bite of a perfect Carl·s Jr.C. Playing on a catch phrase coined by the heiress. Target audience: Shown during Desperate Housewives. and The Apprentice.

Fowles ´Basic Appealsµ Basic appeals employed:  Need for attention: Utilizes the celebrity endorsement phenomenon. Need for Sex: Employs sex appeal in dress and body movements. affiliate with her wealth. Associates product with celebrity infamous for attracting attention.   . Need for affiliation: Invites desire to affiliate with her intimately. and thus affiliate with her hunger.

ads must actively counter negative press related to the brand and industry Advertisers must break through a greater resistance or insensitivity to advertising in general Ads must take into account the sense of responsibility inherent to parenting and family life   .Ads that Target Adults Fast food advertisers face a tougher target in the adult market. but adjust their appeals accordingly  Assuming a more informed consumer.

implying that their brand and products will contribute to a healthy.Advertising Tactics Targeting the Adult Market:  Addressing the need to feel safe In response to criticism. happy relationship between children and their parents   . fast food ads increasingly attempt to portray their products as a healthy choice Appealing to the need to escape By portraying subjects in their 30s displaying youthful qualities. fast food ads target the desire to feel young Targeting the need to nurture AdultAdult-focused fast food ads frequently employ the use of the ´happy familyµ scenario.

Example: McDonalds ´Crowd Surfing Teacherµ .

he·s wearing the same orange shoes as the crowd surfer. The youths encounter their teacher in the restaurant and ask him what he·s up to. The camera focuses on his feet. Ad description: The commercial begins with high school youths eating at McDonald·s while recounting the excitement of an earlier music concert. and he raises his fist in a popular ´rock-and´rock-and-rollµ hand sign as he exits. You will still be ´coolµ if you eat at McDonald·s like teenagers do. Flashback clips focus on the orange shoes of a crowd surfing fan. he replies ´grading papersµ and walks past.  Target  Ad . Fast food is often associated with teenagers. audience: Pre-middle-aged adults (airs frequently during VH1 ´I Love Pre-middlethe ²insert decade-µ nostalgia shows) decadesubtext: Stay youthful.

who choose McDonald·s as a favored brand young-at-   .Basic Appeals  Need for affiliation: The ad implies that by eating at McDonald·s (and crowd surfing at the concert). the teacher has gained respect and credibility from his teenage students Need for attention: From the crowd surfing. this ad implies that those who seek attention are rewarded with admiration Need to escape: The ad invites the target viewer to escape the trappings of responsible adult life and regain a youthful freedom enjoyed by the young and young-at-heart. to the orange shoes. to the ´rock´rockandand-rollµ hand sign.

Changing Tactics: Reactionary Ads and Products In recent years a variety of popular influences have led to negative publicity for fast food companies and their products .

2004) Documents the physical and psychological effects of eating only McDonald's fast food.Recent Influences on Consumer Attitudes toward Fast Food:  Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal (Book by Eric AllSchlosser. every day.  Supersize  Bad publicity regarding fast food·s contribution to child and adult obesity epidemic Public reports have declared child and adult obesity a ´national epidemicµ and have stressed fast food·s role in the problem . Me: (Film. three times a day. Dir. for thirty days. 2001) Presents a scathing indictment of the fast food industry in the United States. Morgan Spurlock.

and other ´healthierµ menu choices These items are deceptive: McDonald·s popular ´Crispy Chicken Bacon Ranch Saladµ w/dressing contains 510 calories (55% from 31g fat). of focus from product to brand Ads increasingly avoid showing subjects actually eating the products. and in many cases.The fast food industry has responded with:  Health and fitness focused ads Ads are increasingly depicting fast food as part of an active. healthy lifestyle. 1670mg of sodium. and has meat and toppings fried in dangerous hydrogenated oils.  Salads  Shift . do not even show the products themselves. but instead focus on reinforcing brand image and awareness.

Tenaciously pursuing cradle-to-grave brand loyalty. and unwanted attention from public health concerns. but they have also drawn fire from critics of their tactics. fast food companies cradle-tohave not only succeeded in making a big industry truly massive. advertising is the life·s blood of the fast food industry. Commanding massive promotional budgets. fast food advertising will continue to be a force to be reckoned with.In Conclusion: In a fiercely competitive arena where brand recognition and loyalty rules. and always adapting to public sentiments and moods. .

S.adage.mind-advertising.org/media/press/rollingstone1.businessweek.com/the_thread/brandnewday/archives/2005/03/mcdonalds_ new_c. and Automobiles http://care. Sodas.org/cgi/content/full/26/2/546 Food Advertising and Marketing Directed at Children and Adolescents in the US http://www.ijbnpa.mindhttp://www.html      .Resources and Links  Spending in the U.com/century/icon02. on Advertising for Fast Foods.html McDonalds New Campaign Is The Appearance of a Good Start http://www.com/us/ Rolling Stone magazine: Fast-Food Nation: The True Cost Of America's Diet Fasthttp://www.html Adbrands.diabetesjournals.net: The leading US advertisers in 2004 http://www.org/content/1/1/3 Ad Age Advertising Century: Icons: Ronald McDonald http://www.mcspotlight.

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