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HINDUSTAN ZINC LIMITED
MADE BY: KALYAN GORAI 4TH YR.,MECHANICAL
HINDUSTAN ZINC LIMITED CHANDERIYA LEAD ZINC SMELTER (CAPTIVE POWER PLANT)
• A power plant is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power. The power produced in Hindustan Zinc Limited is for its own production purposes, and is known as a Captive Power Plant (CPP). • • While supplying uninterrupted and reliable power to Chanderiya Lead Zinc Smelter, the CPP has been additionally wheeling power to its Agucha, Debari and Dariba units of Hindustan Zinc Limited. • • Recently sale of power has also been initiated with both RSEB and power exchange. • Captive Power Plant in Chanderiya consists of 3 units (2X77 MW + 1X80 MW)=Total of 234 MW.
NEED OF CPP
• Disturbances in taking power from grid.
• Grid power distribution is unreliable both in quality and quantity. • Taking power from grid is much more expensive as compared in generating its own power i.e. SELF GENERATION – CPP. • Cost of grid power Rs./kWh 4.50 to 5.50 • Cost of Captive Generation Rs./kWh 2.00 to 2.50
BOILER CLASSIFICATION & CPP SPECIFICATIOS : MAKE & YEAR: Acc to application Acc to operating pressure Acc to fuel Acc to draft Acc to circulation Acc to pass Acc to firing Acc to pressure Acc to position Acc to support : BHEL,2004 : Utility boiler : Sub-Critical (Re-circulation type) : Solid fuel (pulverised fuel firing) : Balanced draft : Natural circulation : Two pass (outdoor type) : Tangential firing : High pressure : Vertical : Top supported with buck stay
• • • • • • • Type of Turbine Rotation Speed Rated Power Main steam inlet pressure Rated steam flow inlet Stage of heaters Heat Rate : High press, high Temp Impulse-Reaction : 3000rpm : 77MW : 90 kg/cm² : 286.4 T/hr : 2LP, 1 De-aerator & 2HP : 2640 kcal/ kwhr
Thermal Power Station
Thermal power stations produce electricity by burning fuel in a boiler to heat water to produce steam. This steam at high pressure rotates the blades of a turbine which spins a generator to produce electricity. The steam is further cooled in a condenser to form water and sent again to boiler.
COAL TO ELECTRICITY
C H I M N E Y
ESP AIR PRE - EATER H
FEEDER HOT PA FAN ASH PUMP PULVERISER BOILER BOTTOM ASH HOPPER
DISPOSAL - ACC
DEAERATOR LP HEATER
1) BOILER AND AUXILIARIES. 2) TURBINE,GENERATOR AND AUXILIARIES. 3) ESP (ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR) 4) COOLING TOWER 5) DE-MINERALISING PLANT
1) Boiler Terminology
wall tubes lPressure Parts lDrum lSuper heaters lReheaters lEconomizers lAir pre heaters lSoot Blowers lCoal Bunkers and feeders lPulverizes lCoal Piping lBurners lIgniters & warm-up Burners lDuct work lInsulation and Legging
Furnace & Water Wall Tubes
• Furnace is the primary part of boiler where the chemical energy of fuel is converted to thermal energy. • Furnace is incorporated with water wall tubes where water is evaporated to steam. • • TYPES OF WATER WALL TUBES : 1. Tangent tube wall : Tubes are closely attached from the panels. 2. Membrane wall : Tubes are welded together by means of metal strips.
• Superheaters are provided in the boiler to raise the steam temperature above the saturation temperature by absorbing heat from flue gas. ADVANTAGE: 1. By increasing the temperature of steam useful energy can be recovered thereby increasing efficiency of cycle. 2. It eliminates condensation of steam in pipelines, thus avoiding erosion of blades. TYPES OF SUPERHEATERS : • Radiant Superheaters :The superheaters placed above the furnace which can view the flame. • Convective Superheaters : The other surfaces are called convective type.
REHEATERS & DE-SUPERHEATERS
• REHEATER is used to raise the temperature of steam from which part of the energy has been extracted in high pressure turbine. • By reheating efficiency can be increased which increases with number of stages. • Single reheating is usually applied for capacity above 100MW & 2 reheat above 500MW. DESUPERHEATER : • This is located between two superheater header and the steam flows through it. Water of high quality is introduced into the superheated steam through a spray nozzle at the throat of a venturi section which mixes and cools the superheated steam. By regulating the water spray steam temperature can be easily controlled. • The spray water will normally obtained from feed water line after the HP heaters and before feed regulation station. •
• An Economiser absorbs heat from the flue gases and add this as sensible heat to the feed water before water enters the evaporative circuit of boiler. Feed water is supplied to economiser inlet header via feed stop and check valves. Flow of feed water is upward through the economiserthat is counter flow to flue gases & from outlet header feed water is led to steam drum. By recovering heat from flue gases and supplying it to feed water it increases efficiency in steam generation or in other words saves fuel.
AIR PRE HEATER ( APH )
• APH is a heat exchanger in which air temperature is raised by transferring heat from other fluid such as flue gases. • Stability of combustion is improved by use of hot air. • Less unburnt flue particles in flue gas. • In case of pulverised coal combustion ,hot air can be used for drying the coal as well as for transporting the pulverised coal to burners. TYPES : 1. Recuperative Type : Heating medium is on one side & air is on the other side of tube /plate & heat transfer is by conduction through the material which separates the media. 2. Regenerative Type : Heating medium flows through a closely packed rotating matrix to raise its temperature and then air is passed through the matrix to take up the heat.
REGENERATIVE TYPE ( APH )
• PA (Primary air fan) : These are the high pressure fans which supply the air needed to dry & transport coal either directly from the coal mills to the furnace or to the intermediate bunker. These fans are usually of the radial aerofoil type. • FD (Forced draft fan) : These fans supply the air necessary for fuel combustion and must be seized to handle the stoichiometric air plus the excess air excess air needed for proper burning of the fuel. These fans are usually of the radial aerofoil or variable pitch axial type. • ID (Induced draft fan) : These fans evacuate combustion products from the boiler furnace in atmosphere through stack by creating sufficient negative pressure .
• • • • • • • Rated Power Rated Voltage Rated Current Rated Speed Power Factor Rated Frequency Efficiency : 77 MW : 11.5 kV : 4800 A : 3000 rpm : 0.8 lag : 50 Hz : 98.5%
2 ) TURBINE
rinciple Of Turbine
• Turbine is a Prime Mover Which Converts “Thermal Energy Of Fuel Into Mechanical Energy”. • Steam is allow to expand through narrow orifice, it assumes kinetic energy at the expenses of enthalpy, this kinetic energy is converted into mechanical energy through the impluse or rection of steam against the blade. • Steam moves continuously through blades as a result Centrifugal pressure exerted on the blade. • TOTAL MOTIVE FORCE = CENTRIFUGAL FORCE + CHANGE OF MOMENTUM (ROTATIONAL ENERGY)
urbine are Multistage
• CONDENSE R • • • • MAIN AIR EJECTOR • • • CW PUMPS
Ø Condense the steam & maintain the vacuum at the exhaust of LP Turbine. Ø Ø Main the vacuum by extracting the non condensable gases from the condensate. Ø Ø To circulate cooling water through condenser tubes for cooling the system.
NAME • CEP • • • • LPH • • • • DEAERATOR
FUNCTION Ø Extract condensate from condenser hot well & passes it to deaerator. Ø Ø To raise the temperature of condensate by transferring heat taken from turbine extraction. Ø Ø To remove dissolved gases from feed water by increasing there temperature with pegging steam taken from APRDS.
NAME • BFP • • • • HPH • • • • OIL PUMPS 1.MAIN OIL PUMP(MO P)
FUNCTION Ø To pump the feed water from deaerator to Boiler (Economiser) at a very high pressure. Ø Ø Before going to boiler it is again heated by turbine extractions. Ø Ø Ø Ø To supply lube oil & control oil during “Normal operation of Turbine”.
2. AUXILIARY OIL PUMP (AOP) 3. EMERGENCY OIL PUMP (EOP)_ 4. JACKING OIL PUMP (JOP)
Ø To supply lube & control oil during “ Start up & Shut down of Turbine ”.
Ø To supply lube oil to bearings during “ AC failure ”. Ø Ø For lifting turbine shaft during startup & shut down.
A Generator is an electromechanical device that converts mechanical energy to alternating current electrical energy by using a rotating magnetic field. Any AC generator can be called as an Alternator.
POWER OUTPUT OF TURBO GENERATOR :
P D2 . L . B . A . n
P D L B A n : Power in MVA : Bore Diameter of Core in meters : Length of Active Rotor Body in meters : Air Gap Flux Density in Tesla : Stator Ampere-Turn Loading in Amp./meter : Speed in rpm
MAIN PARTS OF TURBO GENERATOR
Stator Core Cooler
Oil Catcher Rotor
Stator End Winding Assembly
Rotor Fan Blades
• •Magnetizes the rotor poles and creates the required magnetic intensity for stator conductors thereby developing the stator voltage . • •Regulates terminal voltage of the machine. • •Meet excitation power requirements under all normal operating conditions. • •Enables maximum utilization of machine capability. • •Guard the machine against inadvertent tripping during transients. • •Improve dynamic & transient stability thereby increasing availability.
An electrostatic precipitator is a Device which removes dust or other finely divided particles from flue gases by charging the particles inductively with an electric field, then attracting them to highly charged collected plates.
FUNDAMENTAL PARTS OF ESP: Casing Hopper Gas Distributor Screen Collecting System Emitting System Rapping Mechanism of collecting system Rapping Mechanism of Emitting System Insulator Housing
Application of ESP
• Removal of dirt from flue gases in steam plants. • Cleaning of air to remove fungi and bacteria in establishments producing antibiotics and other drugs. • Cleaning of air in ventilation and air conditioning systems. • Removal of oil mists in machine shops and acid mists in chemical process plants. • Cleaning of blast furnace gases. • Recovery of valuable materials such as oxides of copper, lead, and tin. • separation of rutile from zirconium sand.
4 ) COOLING TOWER
• Cooling tower is an application where the plant heat exchangers are cooled with water. • The pump keeps the water re-circulation through the heat exchangers where it picks up heat and distributes on to the cooling tower. The heat is released from the water through evaporation. • The cold water enters the heat exchangers for cooling. The resulting hot water from heat exchangers is sent to cooling tower. • The cold water exits the cooling tower and is sent back to the exchangers for cooling. • Make up water source is used to replenish around 2 % of water lost due to
Classification Of Cooling Tower
ATMOSPHERIC NATURAL DRAFT
AIR COOLED CONDENSER
AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGER
Types of cooling tower
Natural draft cooling towers : Distinct shape much like a tall cylinder,it operates on a chimney principle that allows air movement on density differential. Such towers have the advantage of not requiring any fans, motors,gear boxes etc. Due to the tremendous size, these type of towers are used only for very high flow rates. These are more widely used. These towers utilize large fans to force air through circulating water. The water falls downward over fill surfaces which help increase the contact time between the water and the air.This helps maximize heat transfer between the two.
Mechanical Draft cooling towers.
6 ) DE - MINERALISING PLANT
De-Mineralization (DM) is the process of Removing mineral salts from water by using the Ion Exchange process which produces water with high quality & purity that used in “Boiler as a Feed Water”.
De- Mineralization System consisting of:PSF (PRESSURIZED SAND FILTER) ACF (ACTIVATED CARBON FILTER) SAC (STRONG ACID CATION EXCHANGER) DEGASSER WBA (WEAK BASE ANION EXCHANGER . SBA (STRONG BASE ANION EXCHANGER). MB (MIX BED). UF FILTER
• • • • • • • •
a Goshunda Dam w w a t e r Alum p Dosing For o coagulation n d Remove Anions e.g. Cl-,SO4-.
Chlorine Dosing For Killing Bacteria & Algae Clarifier CWST Remove Dead Suspended Particles
Poly Dosing For Flocculation
Remove Odour & Organic Matters
REMOVAL OF CO2Remove
Remove Carbonates & Bi-carbonates
Cations e.g. Ca+,Mg+,Na+. DEG A S S E R
Remove Remaining Silica: PH: 6.8-7.0 Cond.:<1.00ųS/c m Silica:0.02ppb
Membrane Filter to Remove Colloidal Silica
Hot well make up pumps
7 ) COAL HANDLING PLAN
COAL Transportation by RAIL Through wagon Tippler
Overview Of CHP
Apron feeder non vibrating type Reduced size from 600mm to 100mm Through belt conveyor Through belt conveyor
Vibratin g type PULVERISE R
COAL BUNKER Through Tippler Through Tippler Allow only 20mm sized coal
Reduced size from 100mm to 20mm
Separate magnetic Primary crusher particles i.e. iron
SECONDARY CRUSHER HOUSE
Bottom Discharge Wagon
• Through Wagon Tippler the Raw coal is fed to primary crusher house via belt conveyor where the size of coal is reduced from 600mm to 100mm. Magnetic separator, separates the iron particles & then to secondary crusher house for further reduction of coal (20mm sized). • Vibrating screen allows only 20mm sized coal to drier & through tippler or trolley ,it passes over to coal bunker & then pulverizers for further crushing through volumetric feeder . • The Pulverized Coal is then mixed with primary air which carries the coal air mixture each four corners of the furnace burners.
) ASH HANDLING PLANT
ASH HANDLING PLANT
FLY ASH SILO
ASH HANDLING PLANT
Fly ash is captured and removed from the flue gas by electrostatic precipitators located at the outlet of the furnace and before the induced draft fan. The fly ash is periodically removed from the collection hoppers below the precipitators. Generally, the fly ash is pneumatically transported to storage silos for subsequent transport by trucks. BOTTOM ASH SYSTEM At the bottom of every boiler, a hopper has been provided for collection of the bottom ash from the bottom of the furnace. This hopper is always filled with water to quench the ash and clinkers falling down from the furnace. Some arrangement is included to crush the clinkers and
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