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Improve Your American English Accent

Improve Your American English Accent

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Improve Your American English Accent
Charlsie Childs

Typed and edited by trung1906

Introduction
Improve Your American English Accent is an audio course designed to help non-natives
understand and produce the accents of North American English speakers. The course consists of six sessions on three compact disks and this accompanying booklet, which parallels the information on the disks. Your are strongly encouraged to listen to each session a minimum of five times before going on to the next session. Also try to listen to each session at least three times before you look at the corresponding text in this booklet. (Many times new language learners hear what they expect to hear; you may be surprised by what you learn when you don’t have expectations.) Although the recordings can be studied on their own, this written guide to the material covered in the audio sessions will help reinforce your understanding. It also serves as a quick reference to the tracks on the three CDs. In this guide, you will find summaries of the key instruction in each lesson, along with all the model words, phrases, and sentences to be repeated (marked by ). This booklet also provides the questions and answers to the main audio exercises on the recording, so do not look at these sections until you have completed the relevant exercise on the recording (at least three times).

A quick review of grammar terms
(If you wish, there’s room for translations of these terms into your first language.) Parts of Speech: ________________________________ Noun: ____________________ A naming word; e.g., man, woman, John, sun, country, life, action. Pronoun: __________________ A word that substitutes for a noun; e.g., it, that, I, you, us, ours. Infinitive:__________________ A word, usually preceded by to, that is used as a noun: e.g., to be, to go, to have, to work. Gerund: ___________________A word that finishes with –ing that is used as a noun: e.g., being, living, swimming, working.

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Singular: ________________ (one) Plural: ___________________ (more than one)

Verb: _______________ Auxiliary Verb: ___________________ A word that works with the main verb in a phrase; e.g., am, is, are, was, were, been, do, does, did, have, has, had. Modal Auxiliary Verb: _____________________ A helping verb that gives us added information; e.g., can, could, might, should. Verb Forms: _______________________ E.g., forms of a regular verb: work, works, working, worked; forms of an irregular verb: take, takes, taking, took, taken.

Adjective: ________________________ A word that describes a noun; it tells how many, which one, what kind; e.g., three, strange, little, old, blue. Present Participle: ___________________ A word that has a verb or gerund form but functions as an adjective; e.g., the man speaking, bleeding heart, sleeping giant. Past Participle: __________________ A word with a verb form (e.g., -ed, -en) that can function as an adjective; e.g., written contract; spoken word; baked potato.

Adverb: _______________________ A word that describes a verb or adjective or another adverb; e.g., carefully, quickly, well, fast, very, quite, pretty.

Preposition: ___________________________ E.g., of, in, on, at, with, to, from, between.

Conjunction: ___________________________ E.g., and, but, however.

Noun (or pronoun, gerund, or infinitive) Functions in a Sentence Subject of the Verb: ______________ E.g., Good health is important; it is important; exercising is important; to exercise is important; it is important to exercise.

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Object of the Verb: _________________ E.g., I want good health; I want it; I want to have good health; I enjoy having good health; I enjoy it. Object of the Preposition: _________________ E.g., Long life is the result of good health; long life is the result of it; exercise is an aid to good health; exercising is an aid to it.

Points of speech articulation

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Major North American English vowels 1 beat seem teal HIGH VOWELS 12 burn search turn 10 boot soon tool 2 bit sin till 3 bait same tail 4 bet send tell 5 bat sand tan 6 baht psalm Tom 11 but some tuck 7 bought song tall 8 boat soap told 9 book soot took MID VOWELS LOW VOWELS FRONT OF THE MOUTH CENTER OF THE MOUTH BACK OF THE MOUTH Typed and edited by trung1906 x .

Session One 1. not vowel letters. back.1.) Vowel sound 1 : It’s called a high. remember. rounded vowel because the tongue in the back of the mouth.2. What’s in Session One vowels (four easy ones) syllables in words and phrases word and syllable stress two kind of consonants: stops and continuants an important extra sound that we use with final stops the effect of voicing on stops 1. central. Vowel sound 10 : It’s called a high. 6. and 10 In most dialects of North American English. and the lips make a circle. and the muscles are more or less relaxed. tense vowel because the tongue is high in the front of the mouth. The vowels 1. we make them by changing the shape of the mouth. and because the muscles of the throat and lips are very tight. But. there are about fifteen basic vowel sounds and combinations. lax vowel because the tongue is low and in the center of the mouth.3. Vowel sound 6 : It’s called a low. front. Introduction to Improve Your American English Accent 1. we’re talking about vowel sounds. Typed and edited by trung1906 1 . (Many students and teachers of English as a second language use this or some other number system to identify the most common North American English vowels—but native speakers generally don’t know the numbers and don’t use them.

true … 10. rude … 10. creep …1. feel … 1. we use voice when we say any vowel.. trod … 6. truth .Identify the vowels in theses words: team … 1 . central. not front. June … 10. Some words that contrast these four vowel sounds: 1 sheet beer read keep 10 shoot boot rude coop 6 shot baht rod cop 11 shut butt Rudd cup AUDIO EXERCISE: Listen to these words and identify vowels. English syllables can end with either vowel or consonant sounds. fool . one-syllable words: right … cost … try … play … strike two-syllable words: flashlight … ashtray … exist … weekend … again Typed and edited by trung1906 2 . All English vowels are vocal. pond … 6.5. pun … 11. truck … 11. 10.4. 10.and very relaxed. trod … 6. drum … 11. team … 1. June … 10. dream …1. drool … 10. job … 6. hot … 6 Note that in English. son … 11. meet … 1. it’s neutral --. Some people say it sounds like a punch in the stomach! It’s not beautiful. street … 1. Bob … 6. not back --. 1. come … 11. steed …1.. east …1.not high. but it’s very important in North American English. do … 10 1. mock …6. feel … 1. Vowel sound 11 Vowel 11 is called a mid. fool … 10. Syllables A syllable in English is one vowel or group of vowels that native speakers consider one vowel sound. and the consonants that are grouped with that vowel. not low. jeans … 1. seen … 1. stop … 6.. lax vowel. treat … 1.

language (2 syllables). (This difference in stress between nouns and verbs in common in English. ordinary … 4. airline … 2 1. eventual … 4. AUDIO EXERCISE: Listen to the words on this track and decide the number of syllables each has—and where the greatest stress is. carrier … 3. career … 2. reach … 1. association (5 syllables). flight …1 . The first syllable is not as stressed. and the vowel in the second syllable is pronounced more clearly.) Record (the noun) has the greater stress on the first syllable. accident … 3. and the vowel in the first syllable is pronounced more clearly.three-syllable words: important … visible … occasion … holiday … origin four-syllable words: necessary … occasional … temporary five-syllable words: individual … unnecessary … imaginative … periodical … electricity AUDIO EXERCISE: Listen to these words and decide the number of syllables each has. Syllable stress Record (the noun) and record (the verb) both have two syllables. accidental … 4. The second syllable is not as stressed. and the vowel in the second syllable is not pronounced as clearly. ordinarily (5 syllables) Typed and edited by trung1906 3 .6. record … 2. business (2 syllables). department (3 syllables). record … 2. clock … 1. fly … 1. apartment … 3. industrial … 4. and the vowel in the first syllable is not pronounced as clearly. necessity (4 syllables). but they sound very different because they are stressed in different places. extravagant … 4. industry … 3. Record (the verb) has the greater stress on the second syllable.

We call the m sound a continuant because we must permit the air to continue to pass. pig) t. batch. Consonants: Stop and continuants We make both p and m by pressing the lips together.) combination stops and continuants: x. We call the p sound a stop because we must make the air stop completely for a moment. a happy fellow (5 syllables) 1. take a break (3 syllables). but the sounds are very different. v h w. g (pick. healing) f. zh (All vowels are continuants. post office (3 syllables).AUDIO EXERCISE: Listen to the phrases on this track and decide the number of syllables each has—and where the greatest stress is.7. l (hearing. and the speakers of those languages sometimes don’t hear or say the final stops in English. cub) k.) m (come) ng (ping) n (pan) r. b (cup. Consonant stops and continuants in English Stops (the passage of air is stopped momentarily. d (pat. wh th (thin). every weekday (4 syllables). sh. j (box. Typed and edited by trung1906 4 . badge) This information is important because many languages don’t have words that end in stops. under the table (5 syllables). z. It is very important to make the air stop completely when we make the p (also the b) sound. pad) special flap sound between vowel (heating/heeding) Continuants (the air continues to pass. ch. open the window (5 syllables).) p. It is very important in English that stops and continuants sound different from each other. th (this) sibilant sounds: s.

kitten … Clinton … continent … forgotten … sentence (In this book we’ll use the symbol ! to signify when you should make a glottal stop) Typed and edited by trung1906 5 . and side by side when the glottis is tensed. but in English we often use it with d. g.) We close the vocal cords very sharply and make the air stop for just a moment. We don’t let the air escape. This glottal stop is the last sound of these words: words: light … flight … put … take … make … trip … report multisyllable words: stoplight … apartment … backseat … assortment … workload … upbeat phrases: right now … talk back … cook the books … hate mail … fax machine … back-breaking You also hear it in words and syllables that end in t + a vowel + n. We often make this stop—it’s the sound we make when we say. We don’t say the vowel at all.1.) It is made of two folds of skin.” In some languages. the air from our lungs passes freely between them. b or p when one of those sounds happens at the end of a word or syllable.. and we have voice. The glottal stop: An important extra stop sound The glottis is the organ that makes voice. so we say the t + n: button … cotton . When the folds are relaxed and apart. t. which are separated when the glottis is relaxed. (See illustration on page ix. the air that passes between them makes the folds of skin vibrate. k. Sometimes we make the two folds of skin strike against each other very quickly. When the folds are tensed side by side.8. this is a separate consonant sound. (See illustration on page ix. “uh-oh.

your finger will feel the vibration. Consonants: Voiced and voiceless Sounds without voice p k t f wh th (thin) s.8. zh (beige). It was a flight. (In this book we’ll use the symbol : to signify that you should make the vowel sound for a longer time there.9. l (All English vowels are voiced.1. With voiced sound He’s a bad boy.) Without voiced sound He’s a batboy. One reason is that voicing affects the vowel that comes before a voiced consonant. I want to write. Typed and edited by trung1906 6 . She gets the ace. that the glottis is the organ that makes voice. m g. n v w th (this) z. Tuck it in. If you lightly touch the glottis (the “voice box” or “Adam’s apple”) when you are voicing. It was a fly. the air that passes between them makes the folds vibrate.) When the folds of skin of the glottis are tensed side by side. Voicing and vowel duration You know from section 1.) Knowing about voicing is important for several reasons. j r. sh. ch. and we have voice. (See illustration on page ix. Tug it in. x h Sounds with voice b. I want to ride. She gets the A’s. ng d. We say the vowel for a longer time when it comes just before a voiced sound.

Typed and edited by trung1906 7 . we always put the most stress on the last letter. try to listen without using this book.10.1.P. Let’s try to apply this information We’ve gone in the YMCA. They’re talking about the IPO.12.? Take the report to a V. I don’t like the plays.11. We will use those terms later. Stress in abbreviations and initials When we say abbreviations made up of letters. I don’t like the place. Assignment Please listen to and practice Session One at least five times before going on the Session Two. OK … IRS … VIP … UN … PB&J … UK … UAE … USA 1. The first three times. What can you tall our D.A. 1. Please be sure you know all the grammar terms on pages vii-ix.

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4. but the sound. 6. 4 and 5 aspiration of stops. The vowels: Review of vowels 6 and 11 Dodd shot Bob mod dock pot dud shut bub mud duck putt You see that many vowel 6 words are spelled with o + one or two consonants following. What’s in Session Two three more vowels: 3.13.” 1. -sion. and the tongue muscles are relatively relaxed. The letter is pronounced o. lax vowel because the sound is made in the front of the mouth.Session Two 1. depending on their placement in a word or phrase linking words together as native speakers do factors that affect the pronunciation of nouns and verbs stress with the suffixes –ion. the tongue makes a middle. and 5 Vowel sound 3: It’s really two front vowel sounds.14. The vowels: Introducing vowels 3. made … pate … shake Vowel sound 4: It’s called a middle. sounds more like “ah. but it isn’t very high or low in the mouth.15. front. tenser front vowel. -tion stress in adjective + noun phrases 1. med … pet … shell Typed and edited by trung1906 9 . relaxed front vowel and then glides to a higher.

It’s a very animal-like sound. and a lot of new speakers feel shy about making it. jug … 11. flock … 6. fan … 5. up … 11. and the tongue is low and relaxed. pet … 4. Different ways to pronounce stops The way we pronounce a stop depends on the sounds that come before and after it. 5. not very beautiful. or 11. lax vowel because the sound is made in the front of the mouth. ten … 4. pack … 5.16. 4. front. fast … 5.Vowel sound 5: It’s called a low. ton … 11 1. knell … 4. mum … 11. taste … 3. mom … 6. fun … 11. nod … 6. one … 11. A quick review of stops and voicing Voiceless stops p t k Voiced stops b d g When the stop is at the beginning of a syllable and a vowel follows. puck … 11. sap … 5. 5 6 11 dad Dodd dud shad shop shut mad mod mud track trod trudge AUDIO EXERCISE: Listen to the words and identify vowels 3. but it’s very important in North American English. job … 6. track … 5. the voiceless stops are usually “exploded”—with force and lots of air: thoo … thill … thalk … thake … thime chome … chall … chook … khill … khid phass … phick … phocket … phour … pheak 10 Typed and edited by trung1906 . mad … pat … shack Vowel discrimination practice Here are some 3 4 Dade dead shape Shep made med trait tread words that contrast these five vowel sounds. 6.

1. AUDIO EXERCISE: Listen to the pronunciation of these words. (You’ll hear sounds you didn’t expect!) take_off … come_over … feel_OK … pull_out … have_another … cold_as_ice … kill_an_hour … cream_an sugar … take_a vacation … have_a wife … has_a husband … walk_in_on … watch_a movie In the pronunciation transliterations that follow. Linking words together (as the native speakers do) When a word ends in a consonant but the next word begins with a vowel. your pronunciation is wrong.7) He always comes in on time.11) Typed and edited by trung1906 11 .) My watch says 7:02. AUDIO EXERCISE: Practice these phrases and sentences without looking at this page.When the stop is at the end of a syllable and a consonant follows. (He yawlw*ys com zi n*n ta:im.) : lengthened vowel (see 1. these symbols are used: ! glottal stop (see 1. track 8) is substituted.8) # between-vowel flap (see 2. Otherwise.9) * schwa (see 2. a glottal stop (see Session One.) She works at 157 Post Oak. (She werk! s*t! one-fifty-sev*n pos touk. out … put … get … meet … report … make … truck … pick … quake … mistake … trip … up … cop … shrimp … sleep You must make the air stop completely for a moment. (My wahtch says sev*-no-too.17. and native speakers will have trouble understanding you. and we say the consonant stops with force. we connect the ending consonant to the beginning vowel.

(Tei k*min*t! t*loo kouv*r th* r* port!.Call 281-555-6789 (Call too-weight! wu:n.) 1. (They’re wer ki ng*n* pra j*ct.18.) Take a minute to look over the report. Three variations of –s/-es noun and verb endings If a word ends in a voiceless sound. track 9). too. the (plural or present tense or possessive) –s ending will be voiceless. too—and the vowel before the voiced consonant will be longer (see CD 1. Pat’s … cats … hates Pop’s … caps … flips Mick’s … cakes … makes Ralph’s … cliffs … coughs Ruth’s … myths If a word ends in a voiced sound. sik_sev*-neit!-na:in. the (plural or present tense or possessive) –s ending will be voiced. Rudd’s … foods … fades (ru:dz … foo:dz … fe:idz) Bob’s … cabs … rubs (bah:bz … ca:bz … ru:bz) Meg’s … dogs … digs (me:gz … daw:gz … di:gz) Phil’s … dolls … feels (fi:lz … dah:lz … fee:lz) Tom’s … bombs … comes (tah:mz … bah:mz … cu:mz) Typed and edited by trung1906 12 .) They’re working on a project. (Sen dit! t* th* pos toff*ce. faiv-faiv-fai:iv.) Send it to the post office.

j. z. Sam’s mom rides trains. x. ch. Rose’s kid chooses her noses. we add an extra syllable.19. fusion … faction … fiction … nation … addition … edition … invasion … satisfaction … distribution … elimination … privatization Be very careful of your stress and non-stress.) Rick’s ducks take walks. 1. Typed and edited by trung1906 13 . sh. (Si:dz spu:dz ma:id su:dz. -sion. Sid’s spuds made suds. (Sa:mz mah:m ra:idz tre:inz. That vowel is pronounced the most clearly. Syllable stress with suffixes –ion. etc. sentences with lengthened vowels are followed by the pronunciation. Ross’s … sentences … misses Rose’s … noses … muses Trish’s … brushes … rushes Mitch’s … watches … catches Hodge’s … pages … rages Fox’s … boxes … fixes In these examples.If the word ends in a sibilant (hissing sound such as s.). (Sah:lz dah:lz te:l tei:lz.) Sol’s dolls tell tales. -tion The syllable with the most stress is the one just before the –ion/-sion/-tion suffix. Pat’s son hates cats.) Ross’s dresses have prices. The vowels in the less stressed syllables are pronounced less clearly or sometimes not at all.

(Thi s* z* nais pleis. (Tei k*t! t* th* pos toff*ce.) Give them three gold coins.) Tell him what you want. (Gi v*m three gold co:inz. (Kee pit! clee:n. The old man … a happy day … three blind mice … a nine-man team … a two-car garage … pretty little children … a ferocious dog 1.) This is a nice place.) Put that on the grass. Let’s try to apply all this information Keep it clean. (Aiv gaht! four bi:g ba:gz.) She walks on the beach every morning. ask a native speaker to read some of these phrases and sentences to you. If possible.1. the nouns usually have more stress than the adjectives. (She wawk! s*n th* bee ch*vry morn*ng.20. (Put! tha #*n th* gra:ss. Word stress in adjective + noun phrases In phrases with adjectives and nouns. (Te l*m wha ch* wahnt!.) 1.) Take it to the post office. Typed and edited by trung1906 14 .22.21.) I’ve got four big bags. Assignment Please listen to and practice Session Two at least five times before going on to Session Three. try to listen without using this book. The first three times.

bin … 2. or –ual suffixes 2. and 12 the three different ways of pronouncing –ed endings how and when not to stress words and syllables two more indispensable North American English speech sounds: the intervocalic d or t flap and the unstressed vowel schwa linking.Session Three 2. hit … 2. 2. fill … 2. chip … 2. heat … 1. chip … 2. cheap … 1. cheap … 1.2. feel … 1. feel … 1. bin … 2. cheap … 1. bean … 1. hit … 2. using these two new sounds stress in noun + noun words and phrases stress in words with –al. cheap … 1. 4. chip … 2. What’s in Session Three vowels 1. 3. fill … 2. it’s a front vowel but not quite so high and not quite so tense as vowel sound 1: Vowel 1 Pete feel bead sheep Vowel 2 pit fill bid ship AUDIO EXERCISE: Listen to the words and identify vowels 1 or 2. bin … 2. -ial. fill … 2. heat … 1. bin … 2.1. The vowels: 1 and 2 Vowel sound 2: It’s a lot like vowel sound 1. bean … 1. cheap … 1 Typed and edited by trung1906 15 .

bit … 2. The vowels: Front vowels 1. sheep … 1. bean … 1. and 4 Here are 1 Pete feel head sheep some words that contrast four vowel sounds: 1. fill … 2. ben … 4. bed … 4. 2. fill … 2. The vowels: Vowel 12 Vowel sound 12: It’s called a retroflex because many people curl the front of the tongue back a little bit when they make this sound.4. cheap … 1. 2 3 4 pit pate pet fill fail fell bid made bed ship shape Shep AUDIO EXERCISE: Listen to the words and identify vowels 1. The three –ed verb endings (the regular endings for simple past and past participle forms) 1. bane … 3. it will sound like t. bid … 2. With the exception of the t sound. jumped … liked … laughed … missed … watched Typed and edited by trung1906 16 . fell … 4. bead … 1. beat … 1 2. ship … 2. heat … 1. chip … 2. fail … 3. bead … 1. ship … 2.5. bin … 2. or 4. words … first … sir … third … world … earth … purple … certain … curtain This isn’t an easy sound to learn. pit … 2. 3. fill … 2. it needs a lot of practice. pill … 2. 2. then look at the many spellings English permits for this sound.2. Pete … 1.3. cheap … 1. AUDIO EXERCISE: Listen to vowel sound 12. 3. 3. bid … 2. 2. and 4. the –ed ending will also be voiceless. 2. head … 4. shape … 3. if the simple verb form ends with a voiceless sound (see page 6). bed … 4. hit … 2.

) We walked on the beach. it will sound like d—and the vowel before the voiced consonant will sound l-o-n-g-e-r. (She por #* gla s*v wai:n. When the simple form of the verb ends with a d or t.) We loaded our camera. With the exception of the d sound. if the simple verb form ends with a voiced sound. (We wawk! t*n th* beetch. robbed … phoned … called … seemed … judged … snoozed … played … nagged 3. But the vowel in that syllable will not be pronounced clearly. (Th*y dan st*n th* moonlight!.) Typed and edited by trung1906 17 .2. (Y* trik! tuss.) You tricked us.) He used all the towels. (Y* nee #* #* ha:nd. (We peis t* #* #ahn th* fri:dj. Some of the pronunciations might surprise you! They danced in the moonlight.) I called a friend of mine. (He yooz daw:l th* tow:lz. the –ed ending will be an extra syllable. Practice using the –ed endings AUDIO EXERCISE: Listen to and practice these sentences – particularly the –ed endings and the linking.) She poured a glass of wine. the –ed ending will also be voiced.) You needed a hand. (I cawl d* fren d*v mai:n. (We lo #* #*r camr*.6. added … needed … tested … ended … trusted 2.) We pasted it on the fridge.

) This is a very quick and light stop.) 2.) Typed and edited by trung1906 18 .) He stood on the stair. Practice using the d or t flap What are you doing? (Hw* #r y* doo*ng?) Did I tell you what happened? (Di #ai tell y* wh*t! happn:d?) Could I open a window? (Cou #ai yo p* n* windo:w?) They can finish a photo in one hour. but not r of North American English.) AUDIO EXERCISE: Listen to and practice these sentences: t or d flap and the linking. (He stoo #*n th* ste:r. for example). but most North American English speakers have never heard of it.8. It sounds a lot like the r of many languages (Spanish. (Th*y kn fi n* sh* fo #o w* n* nau:er.7. and it happens only when the d or t is between two vowels. we make it by touching the tip of the tongue lightly against the tooth ridge (see page ix). (We nee #* #* breik!.) We needed a break.2. knotted … nodded patted … padded heated … heeded (They sound almost the same in most North American English dialects. The between-vowel (intervocalic) d or t flap (It’s indispensable. (In this book we’ll use the symbol # to signify that you should use a flap instead of d or t sound.

Stress in noun + noun phrases In compound nouns (nouns made up of two or more nouns) or noun + noun phrases.) It is very important not to stress or pronounce too clearly the vowels in unstressed words or syllables.9. -ial. not front. It’s a neutral sound—an unclear sound. and for a l-o-n-g-e-r time. general … genial … usual … visual … material … exceptional … medial … radical … economical … cultural … international 2. prepositions. pronouns. truck driver … police officer … baby sitter … efficiency report … water glass … button hole … hospitality room … birthday party … wristwatch … business letter … CD player 2.11. or –ual suffixes In words of more than two syllables. not back. main verbs. and often with a change of pitch. We do it by pronouncing the vowels of the most stressed syllables with more force and clarity. To stress or not to stress: the schwa We normally stress the most important words—the content words in a phrase or sentence: nouns. We do that by pronouncing the vowels of those less stressed syllables with less force and less clarity. not low. otherwise you’ll confuse native speakers! Typed and edited by trung1906 19 .2. and adverbs. because it’s not high. adjectives.10. The unstressed vowel sound: schwa This is often some kind of variation of vowel sound 11. the greatest stress is usually two syllables before –al. we almost always put the stress on the first noun. and helping verbs. Stress in adjectives with –al. We normally don’t stress the less important words: the function words in a phrase or sentence: articles. (In this book we’ll use the symbol * to signify that the vowel is not clear there.

(th*’re taw k* ng* baut! th* yai-pee-yoh:.A. We’ve gone in the YMCA.) I like the place.) What can you tell our D.) What are you doing? (Hwa #r y* doo*ng?) Did I tell you what happened? (D* #ai tel y* hw*t! happnd?) Typed and edited by trung1906 20 .) I don’t like the plays. (Teik! th* r* port! to w* vee-pee:.? (Hwat! kn y* te l*r dee-ye:i?) Take the report to a V. (We’ve gah n*n th* wai-yem-see-ye:i. Let’s try to apply all this information AUDIO PRACTICE: Listen to and practice these sentences—being very careful about stress and non-stress. one of the people … mouse on the roof … take a bite … explain his position … one of the last remaining examples … over to his mother’s house … under every desk 2.AUDIO EXERCISE: Listen to and practice these phrases—being very careful about stress and non-stress.13. (I don’t! laik! th* plei:z. (I laik! th* pleis.P. Stress and non-stress in some useful words AUDIO EXERCISE: Listen to and practice these words—being very careful about stress and non-stress extravagant … record … record … ordinary … industry … industrial … apartment … accident … accidental … eventual … fly … flight … carrier … career … assortment … development … necessary … elementary … management 2.) They’re talking about the IPO.12.

) 2.) We needed a hand. The first three times. For example: What are you doing? What can you tell us? Could I open a window? (or Could I ask a favor?) Typed and edited by trung1906 21 .er. (He stoo #*n th* ste:r. (W* nee#* #* ha:nd. Choose at least three sentences from this session to use in a conversation with native speakers. Assignment Please listen to and practice Session Three at least five times before going on to Session Four.) He stood on the stair.Could I open a window? (Cou #ai yo p* n* window?) They can finish a photo in an hour. Start putting these exercises into practice so you can begin to change your accent. (Th*y kn fin* sh* fo #o w* n* nau. try to listen without using this book. if you can.14.

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Session Four 2. but then it gets higher and tenser. no … go … show … coat … boat … more … soap … fold … bowling … coke 2. 9. Vowel sound 9: It’s called a high. as in 8 and 10. the lips are rounded. 10 pool fool food shooed Typed and edited by trung1906 23 .15. but it’s not quite as high or tense or rounded as 10.16. What’s in Session Four vowels 8. Here are some words 8 9 pole pull foal full float foot showed should that contrast these four vowel sounds. back vowel. Vowels: Vowel sound 8 Vowel sound 8: It’s called a back vowel. will. and 10 Vowel sound 10: You remember it’s called a high. and it changes to a u sound: o-u. and you probably have it in your first language. would stress in suffix –ity 2. but it’s really a glide because the sound starts a lot like the o in other languages. and it’s a little hard to distinguish because it sounds a lot like vowel sound 10. could.17. too. back vowel. 9 and 10 some very useful contractions reducing the b sound in common function words helping verbs can/can’t. Vowels: Back vowels 8.

9 or 10. croak … 8. Contractions: Are We’re … you’re … they’re … how’re … when’re … what’re You’re late. (Yr lait!. the –s sound is voiced. group … 10. Luke … 10. you … 10.) What’re you doing? (Hw* #r y* doo*ng?) … When’re we leaving? (Hwe nr w* lee:v*ng?) Why’re you sitting? (Hwai: yr y* si#*ng?) Typed and edited by trung1906 24 . (Thi s* z* mistry. (It’s sti lold. crude … 10.18. (She z* n* trip!. depending on whether the sound just before it is voiced or unvoiced.) This is a mystery. truth … 10. goad … 8. Contractions: Is Native English speakers of all dialects often connect their words and make them shorter. crook … 9.) … She’s on a trip.) … That’s funny. (That! sfunny.) … We’re sorry. the –s sound is unvoiced. yo … 8. if the preceding sound is unvoiced.) … What’s he doing? (Hwat! see doo*ng?) … Where’s it going? (Hwer z*t! go*ng?) When’s she arriving? (Hwen she y* ra:i v*ng?) 2.19. (W*r sawry. look … 9. The –s sounds different. If the preceding sound is voiced. flow … 8.) … It’s still old. goo … 10 2. he’s … she’s … it’s … that’s … this’s … what’s … when’s … where’s … how’s He’s a hero. true … 10. good … 9.AUDIO EXERCISE: Listen to the words and identify vowel sounds 8. (Th*r-rong.) … They’re wrong. (He z* hero. flew … 10.

) Typed and edited by trung1906 25 .. listen for flaps.) What does … Where does … When does … Why does … How does What does it mean? (Hwa #* z*t! mea:n?) … Where does it go? (Hwer #* z*t! go:u?) When does he leave? (Hwen d* zee lee:v?) … Why does she do that? (Hwai #* shee doo that!?) How does it happen? (Hau #* z*t! hapn?) 2. Contractions: Did What did … Where did … When did … Why did … How did What did it mean? (Hwa #*i #*t! mea:n?) … Where did it go? (Hwer #* #*t! go:u?) When did he leave? (Hwen d* #ee lee:v?) … Why did she do that? (Hwai #* chee dou that!?) How did it happen? (Hau #* #*t! hapn?) 2. she’ll … it’ll … we’ll … they’ll … this’ll … that’ll … what’ll … when’ll … where’ll … how’ll … who’ll What’ll we do? (Hwa #l we doo?) … When’ll you come? (Hwe nl y* cu:m?) Where’ll they go? (Hwe r*ll th*y go:u?) … I’ll let you know. Contractions: Does (This is most common in questions.) (See CD 2. (H*l ne vr me:i k*t!.22 Contractions: Will I’ll … you’ll … he’ll . track 7.2. (W*l see y* lei#r.21.) … He’ll never make it.20. (Ail let! ch* no:u.) We’ll see you later.

Can I go? How can he tell? Where can I get change? Typed and edited by trung1906 that contrast can and can’t.) … We’d see you later.) … He can count.) … He can’t count.) … Can I go? (K* nai go:u?) Where can they go? (Hwer kn they go:u?) … How can you tell? (Hau k* ny* te:l?) Can you give me change? (Kn y* giv me chei:nj?) … Where can I get a drink? (Hwer k* nai ge #* drink?) When we say can’t in the middle of a sentence.) She’d let you know. Can’t I go? Why can’t he tell? Why can’t I get change? 26 . we say the vowel very clearly. He can count. (Sheed let! ch* no:u. You have to know your grammar to know the correct word. (Ai kn te:l. (He kant! caunt!.23. (Ai kant! te:l.) … He’d often call his family.) … Can’t I go? (Kan #ai go:u?) … Why can’t they go? (Hwai kant! they go:u?) Here are some short sentences I can tell.) I’d … you’d … he’d … she’d … it’d … we’d … they’d … this’d … that’d … when’d … where’d … how’d I’d like to see a menu.) … He’d never make it.” I can tell. (he kn caunt!.24. and we often pronounce the last ‘t as a flap or a glottal stop.) 2. we say the vowel almost not at all. Contractions: Would (In contractions. the word can sounds like “kn. (Weed see y* lei#r. I can’t tell.2. I can’t tell He can’t count. would and did often sound the same. (Heed nevr mai kit!. (Ai dlaik! t* see y* meh nyoo. (Hee #offn caw l*z famly. Contractions: Can and can’t When we say can in the middle of a sentence.

(That! ser brothr. The first three times. Stress with the common suffix –ity In words ending with –ity.) helping verbs: have … has … had Where have his kids gone? (Hwer viz kids gaw:n.) … Tell her the story.27.) That’s her brother.25. necessary … necessity 2. for example—we often don’t say the h sound in: pronouns: he … his … her … hers … him Yes he will. electric … electricity. (No wee won’t!. human … humanity.) Don’t tell him the secret. Practice using some of these sentences—especially the questions—when you’re with native speakers.) … No he won’t. Typed and edited by trung1906 27 . try to listen without using the book. moral … morality.) … That’s his car. (Te lr th* story. Reducing the h in words that are not important In the middle of a stream of speech—a sentence. (Ye see will. (That! s*z ca:r.26.) What have you put in my pocket? (Hw* #* vy* pu #*n mai pahk*t?) Where has he lived in Asia? (Hwe r* zee liv d* nEi: zh*?) 2. the greatest stress will be on the syllable just before this suffix: real … reality.2. Assignment Please listen to and practice Session Four at least five times before going on to Session Five. objective … objectivity. Choose some for practice every day. (Don’t! te l*m th* secr*t.

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many dialects of North American English use only 6. and 11 Vowel sound 7: It’s called a low back vowel. and it’s very similar to vowel sound 6. 11. 7. Two sounds that are next to each other can result in a different sound. would/wouldn’t.1. sound like a schwa. when one happens between two vowels (except for the vowel duration) can sound just alike. even for native speakers? Many vowels. especially with the schwa and the flap reducing the h sound in less important words: pronouns and helping verbs linking two vowels together non-stress in less important words Are you beginning to understand now why English spelling is a problem. and should/shouldn’t more practice with linking. Typed and edited by trung1906 29 . and the schwa more practice with contractions usual pitch changes in (declarative) sentences forming new sounds when linking words together pronunciation differences in can/can’t.Session Five 3. 7. it’s hard to know how to spell an unstressed vowel sound. when they are not stressed. could/couldn’t. What’s in Session Five vowels 6. they can both sound like a flap.2. The vowels: lower vowels 6. 8. 8. In fact. not exactly one or the other. The d and the t. 3. and don’t use 7 at all.

took him = too kim. break it = brei kit) 7. goal … 8. 2. got … 6. (Examples: feivrit! moovee star. gut …11. on … 7. Make stops stop! And remember glottal stops when unvoiced stops are followed by consonants.3. pitch. but it’s = b* #its) 8. 6. Drop the b sound in pronouns and helping verbs when they are in the middle of the sentence. chock … 6. duck … 11. sawed … 7. choke … 8. but say the vowels of less important words and unstressed syllables less clearly. Join final consonants to vowels that follow. Make the pitch of the voice go up on the first important word. Make the pitch go down on the last syllable in the sentence. Make a flap of t or d when it is between vowels.… 11. joke … 8. gull … 11. linking. jock … 6 3. Say the vowels of important words and syllables clearly. Make the pitch go even higher on the last important word. 8 11 code cud boat but coat cut mode mud AUDIO EXERCISE: Listen to the words and identify vowels 6. Practicing stress. flood … 11.Here are some words 6 7 cod cawed baht bought cot caught mod Maude that contrast these four vowel sounds. get! back! to werk!) Typed and edited by trung1906 30 . and reductions in declarative sentences Remember to: 1. got … 6. 7. break it up = brei ki #up. chuck … 11. sod … 6. sewed … 8. go to = gah#*. but--3. gall … 7. explei nit!. un. (Examples: told him = tol dim. flawed … 7. 8. 5. 4. dock … 6. flowed … 8. or 11. goat … 8. chalk … 7. (Examples: put it away = pu #* #* wei. suds … 11.

(He’s my feiv r*t! moovee star.) They want you to put it away.) Typed and edited by trung1906 31 . Practicing non-stress AUDIO EXERCISE: Listen to these same sentences and draw a line through the least stressed words. bu #it!s never boring. (I tol d* mai cd mei kit!.) He’s my favorite move star. (I too k*m t* the-y* mer jn cy room.) They’ve had to break it up and get back to work. I told him I could make it.) 3.Let’s try to apply all this information AUDIO EXERCISE: Listen to the same sentences and draw a line through the most stressed words.) That’s the third time he’s done that same thing. (You’ve gah#* wek! splei n*t! t* my bawss. (He’s my feiv r*t! moovee star. (They wahn ch* t* pu#i #* wei.) She wishes she could try all over again. (Houston may be pr*#y hot!. (They wahn ch* t* pu#i #* wei.) Houston may be pretty hot. (She wishez she cd trai ya lovr r*gen.) I took him to the emergency room.) She wishes she could try all over again. (I too k*m t* the-y* mer jn cy room.) They want you to put it away. (Tha!’s th* third tai meez dun th*t! seim thing. but it’s never boring.) You’ve got to explain it to my boss. (They’v had t* brei k* #up ‘n’ ge!t back! t* werk!. I told him I could make it.4. (I tol d* mai cd mei kit!. (She wishes she cd trai ya lovr r*gen.) He’s my favorite movie star.) I took him to the emergency room.

Typed and edited by trung1906 32 . we put a little y between them. When joining a front vowel (numbers 1.You’ve got to explain it to my boss. He yonly wants a book. or au) to another vowel.) That’s the third time he’s done that same thing. 2. 8.5. 3. (You’ve gah#* wek! splei n*t! t* my bawss. bu #it!s never boring. (Houston may be pr*#y hot!.) They’ve had to break it up and get back to work. Summary of some important speech aspects Linking last and first vowels together 3. 9. but it’s never boring. (Tha!’s th* third tai meez dun th*t! seim thing.7. 4. (They’v had t* brei k* #up ‘n’ ge!t back! t* werk!. The yoldest member isn’t here. we put a little w between them. They yoften come in late. (Example: We yalways) He yonly … she yever … I yunderstand … they yoften … the yoldest Example sentences: We yalways read our mail. Does she yever do anything else? I yunderstand the situation.) 3. 3.) Houston may be pretty hot. When joining a back vowel (numbers 7.6. 5. 10. or oi or ai) to another vowel. (Example: You woften) Go wout … you walways … show wit … go waway … do wour best … true wor false Example sentences: Why don’t you go wout? You walways leave early.

8. but we hold it for a longer time. we say the sound only once. Forming new sounds by joining sounds together. and makes a j sound. Linking words with the same (or closely related) sounds When the last sound of the first word is the same (or almost the same) as the first sound of the second word.Don’t you want to show wit off? When are they going to go waway? We yalways try to do wour best. Did you see him? (Di j* see y*m?) … What did you say? (Hwa #* j* se:i?) … Where did you go? (Hwer #* j* go:u?) Could you and Would you: also make a j sound. Don’t you. Can’t you understand? (Can’t! choo wundrsta:nd?) Why can’t you decide? (Hwai can’t! ch* #*sa:id?) 3.9. and Won’t you: The –t of can’t combines with the y of you and makes a ch sound. Take us_swimming … I can’t_tell … Mike_comes … laugh_fully … sad_detail … one_never knows … pop_pills … wash_shirts … that_tall man Typed and edited by trung1906 33 . Could you do it? (Cou j* doo w*t?) … Could you tell him? (Cou j* te l*m?) … What could you do? (Hwat! cou j* doo:?) Would you do it? (Wou j* doo w*t!?) … Would you tell her? (Wou j* te l*r?) Why would you do that? (Hwa:i you j* doo that!?) Can’t you. 3. I don’t know if it’s true wor false. Did you: The –d of did combines with the y.of you. We often change sounds when we connect them.

Practice with some common helping verbs When we say these helping verbs in the affirmative (yes). (Tha #*d be good newz. (Th*t! wudn’t! be good newz. we usually don’t say the vowel clearly. (They woudn doffn ha v*dvenchrz.) They wouldn’t often have adventures. When we say these helping verbs in the negative (no).) That would be good news. (Wee c*d-doo s*mthng diffrnt!.) Can you get it done by tomorrow? (Kn y* ge #*t!-done by t*maw r*?) Can’t you get it done by tomorrow? (Kan! ch* ge #*t!-done by t*maw r*?) Would/Wouldn’t (Don’t say the l. (Wee c*d-nt! doo wenythng diffrnt!.10.) Would you like some coffee? (Wou j* laik! s*m coffee?) Wouldn’t you like some coffee? (Wouldn’t! ch* laik! s*m coffee?) They would often have adventures.) That wouldn’t be good news.) We could do something different. Can/Can’t I can give you an answer.) Typed and edited by trung1906 34 .3. (I can’t! gi vy* w* nansr.) Could/Couldn’t (Don’t say the l.) I can’t give you an answer. (They #offn ha v*dvenchrz. we usually do say the vowel clearly. (I kn give y* w* nansr. and we often end with a glottal stop.) We couldn’t do anything different.

) She couldn’t help herself.) You should get a new car. Assignment Listen to and practice Session Five at least five times before going on to Session Six. try to listen without using this book. Choose some sentences to use in your real conversations with native speakers. The first three times.Could you turn down the sound? (Coud-j* turn down th* sa:und?) Couldn’t you turn down the sound? (Coudn’t!-ch* turn down th* sa:und?) She could help herself.11. (She couldn’t! hel p*rself. Listen carefully to the speech of native speakers. Typed and edited by trung1906 35 . (Y* shd ge #* new car.) I shouldn’t ask him.) Should I forget it? (Sh #ai frge #*t!?) Shouldn’t I forget it? (Shoudn dai frge #*t!?) I should ask him.) 3.) You shouldn’t get a new car.) Should/Shouldn’t (Don’t say the l. (I shoudn’-das k*m. (Y* shoudn’t! g* #* new car. (I sh #as k*m. and choose some of their sentences to use in your real conversations. (She c*d hel p*rself.

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forture---for-ch*n When the last syllable is the last stressed syllable of the last important word. information questions. a linked sounds: left (h)im a---lef t* m*. adverbs): father. him. or statement— 1. and the last syllable is also the stressed syllable. left. but the last syllable isn’t the stressed syllable. yes/no questions. articles): his. pitch goes up on the first important word 2. adjectives. What’s in Session Six pitch patterns in declarative sentences. pitch goes down on the last syllable Example (The last word is the last important word. verbs.12.) Typed and edited by trung1906 37 . (H*s fa-thr lef-t*-m* for-ch*n. pitch (usually) goes up on the last important word 3. helping verbs. fortune unstressed words (pronouns.) stressed words (nouns. (Th* ti-poff w*-z*-#e-i-t!.): The tip-off was at eight.): His father left him a fortune.Session Six 3. either/or (choice) questions. and tag (attached) questions using unusual stress patterns practicing linking and reduction of sounds Usual pitch patterns in English statements In the most common kind of sentence—the declarative sentence. prepositions. the voice has to go up and then down—all in the same syllable. Example (The last word is the last important word.

eight unstressed words (pronouns. afford. helping verbs. adverbs): couldn’t. articles): we. We couldn’t afford the expenditure. adverbs): tip-off. check-out time---che-kout! taim We could afford the expenditure. check-out time unstressed words (pronouns. helping verbs.) stressed words (nouns. helping verbs.stressed words (nouns. could. articles): is linked sounds: what time is---hwat-tai-m*z. adjectives. helping verbs. (We cou #*-fo:rd thee-y*kspen-d*-chr. (We cou-dn t*-fo:rd thee-y*k-spe-nts. verbs. adverbs): time. adjectives. expense unstressed words (pronouns. verbs. verbs. verbs.) stressed words (nouns. the linked sounds: couldn’t afford---cou-dnt*fo:rd. the linked sounds: could afford---cou-#*-fo:rd. was. adjectives. expenditure unstressed words (pronouns. the expense---thee-y*k-spents We could afford the expenditure. at linked sounds: tip-off---ti-poff. was at eight---w* z* #eit AUDIO PRACTICE: listen to and practice these sentences without looking at this page. prepositions. adverbs): afford. prepositions. articles): the. Typed and edited by trung1906 38 . the expenditure---thee-y*k-spen-d*-chr We couldn’t afford the expense. articles): we. What time is check-out time? (What! taim*z che-kout! ta:im?) stressed words (nouns. prepositions. prepositions. adjectives.

What. Usual pitch patterns in English information questions In questions beginning with Who.We could afford the expense. How. The speaker and listener know this isn’t new information. We drop the pitch when we mention the word again. we change the rule a little. pitch goes down on the last syllable What’s his phone number? (Hwat! s*z fone-numbr?) What’s his address? (Hwat! s*-z*-dre-ess?) What’s his name? (Hwat! s*z na-im?) Where did she tell you? (Hwer #*-chee tel y*?) Typed and edited by trung1906 39 .14.: 1. His father left him a fortune. 3. I asked the woman about her marriages. 3. Where. What’s he going to do with the fortune? I met a woman who’s been married seven times. We asked them to come in and discuss the report. pitch goes up on the first important word (usually the question word) 2. In April they submitted a report. Why. We couldn’t afford the expense. pitch (usually) goes up on the last important word 3. What’s an atomic microscope? I don’t know what an atomic microscope is.13. Pitch pattern change after a subject has been introduced After a subject has been introduced. etc. When.

Does. etc. Did. Will. Can. Were. Have. pitch goes up on the first important word (usually the question word) 2. Had.15. Shouldn’t.: 1.Where did she say? (Hwer #*-chee se:-i?) What’s the check-out time? (Hwat!s th* che-kout! ta:im?) What’s the time? (Hwat!s th* ta:-im?) Where did he get his haircut? (Hwer #*-#ee ge-#*z heir-cut?) Where did he get his hair? (Hwer #*-#ee ge-#*z he:-ir?) How long have you lived in an apartment? (How la-ng* -vy* liv-d*n n* part!-mnt!?) How long have you lived here? (How la-ng*-vy* livd! hir?) 3. pitch goes up higher on the last important word What’s her name? (Hwat! s*r ne:-im?) Is her name Betty? (I-zr nai:m Be-#ee?) Who did he telephone? (Hoo #*-#ee te-l*-fou:n?) Did he call his wife? (D*-#ee ca-l*z wa:-if?) Typed and edited by trung1906 40 . Usual pitch patterns in North American English yes/no questions In questions beginning with Is. Are. Would. Do.

Wenz-dei-y*r Frai-#ei be #*r f*r you?) Typed and edited by trung1906 41 . Are you a coffee drinker or a tea drinker? (*re yuw *ka-fee drinkr *-r*tee drinkr?) Do you have boys or girls? (D* y* hav bo:-i z*r ger:-lz?) Did you want to talk to them or us or the boss? (D*-j* wu-n* tak t* theh-m*-russ er th* baw:-ss?) Can we meet on Monday. or Friday? (Kn we mee-#*n Mun-dee.What do you think of it? (Hwa #* y* thing-k*v*t!?) Do you like it? (D*-y* lai-k*t!?) Where did he want her to go? (Hwer #* #ee wa-nr #* go-ou?) Did he want her to go home? (D*-#ee wa-nr #* g* ho:-oum?) 3. or Friday better for you? (*s Mun-dei. Usual pitch patterns in North American English either/or (choice) questions Pitch goes up on the first choice(s). Wenz-dee-y*r Frai-der?) Does coffee or tea wake you up? (Which one?) (D*z ka-fee y*r teawei-kyu-wup?) Did the boys or the girls win the race? (Which ones?) (D*d th* bo:-i-z*r th* gerl-zwin th* reis?) Did you or they or the boss want to talk to us? (D*-joo-w*r they-y*r th* bawss wa-n* tak! too-wus?) Is Monday. and it goes down on the last choice. Wednesday.16. Wednesday.

) People shouldn’t smoke. are y*?) People shouldn’t smoke. the voice goes down.) We haven’t paid our taxes. (They-vwerkt! ha:-a:rd.) You aren’t from Argentina. havn’t they?) We haven’t paid our taxes. haven’t they? (They-vwerkt! ha:-ard. You told them the truth. (You-warnt! fr*-mArgen-ti-na. (Pee-pl shud-nt! smo-oke!. the voice goes up. Typed and edited by trung1906 42 . hav we?) If the speaker is fairly sure about what he is saying.) They’ve worked hard. didn-ch*?) You aren’t from Argentina.3. should they? (Pee-pl shud-nt! smo-oke!. (We havn’t! pei. If the speaker isn’t sure about what he is saying. shoud they?) They’ve worked hard.) The voice goes up or down in tag (attached) questions. have we? (We havn’t! pei-#*r tak-s*z. Usual pitch patterns in North American English attached questions You told them the truth. The up pitch at the end of the sentence tells the listener that the speaker thinks the information is correct but isn’t sure. The down pitch at the end of the sentence tells the listener that the speaker is pretty sure the information is correct.17. depending on the speaker’s meaning. (Y* tol-d*m th* tru:uth. didn’t you? (Y* tol-d*m th* tru:-uth.#*r tak-s*z. are you? (You-warnt! fr*-mArg*n-ti-na.

But English permits us to change the stress rules when we want to point to something special. by saying the vowel in the most stressed syllable clearly. (Ja nask!-tus t* cah:-l*-za. we make the voice go up and then down. 1. We say the pitch of the last syllable very low. the pronouns. havn’t they?) We haven’t paid our taxes. John asked us to call his office. didn’t you? (Y* tol-d*m th* tru:-uth. are y*?) People shouldn’t smoke.18.) John asked us to call his office. we don’t stress the little function (structure) words—a/an/the.You told them the truth. We stress the last important word by using force. And normally we do stress the important (content) words: the nouns. shoud they?) They’ve worked hard.) Normally. the verbs. and by raising the pitch even higher. ha vwe?) 3. all in the same syllable. and the adverbs. are you? (You-warnt! fr*-mArg*n-ti-n*. the prepositions. didn-ch*?) You aren’t from Argentina.f*ss. should they? (Pee-pl shud-nt! smo-oke!. (Mary didn’t ask us to do it. haven’t they? (They-vwerkt! ha:-ard. 2. and by raising (or lowering) the pitch. If the last syllable of the sentence is also the stressed syllable. 3. the affirmative (positive) helping verbs.) Typed and edited by trung1906 43 . We stress the first important word by using force. by saying the vowel in the most stressed syllable clearly. the adjectives. Breaking the rules of stress in special situations (Native speakers often break the rules. have we? (We havn’t! pei-#*r tak-s*z.

) This is a nice place. (Put! tha-#on th* gra:-ass. (Kee-pit! clee:-een.) Tell him what you want. (Te-l*m hw*-ch* wa:-ant. Let’s try to apply all this information Keep it clean. (She wawk!-s*n th* beet-ch*v-ry mor-n*ng.) Typed and edited by trung1906 44 . (Aiv gat! four big ba:-agz.19.) John asked us to call his office. (Tei-k*t! t* th* pos-toff*ss. 3. (Thi-s*-z* naiss plei:-is. (He didn’t ask you to do it.) John asked us to call his office. (He didn’t ask us to call his home.) Give them thress gold coins.) Talk it to the post office.) In Texas. we use this famous phrase as a welcome: My house is your house.) Put that on the grass. (He didn’t order us to do it.) She walks on the beach every morning.John asked us to call his office. (He didn’t ask us to call your office.) John asked us to call his office.) John asked us to call his office.) I’ve got four big bags. (Gi-v*m three gold co:-inz. (he didn’t ask us to visit it.

practice them. Spend some time every day listening to the way native speakers say things. little by little. Typed and edited by trung1906 45 . sentences. and use them in your own conversations. Assignment Now the hard part begins. put some of these phrases and sentences into your own speech. and pronunciations down. Write a few phrases. Write down what you hear.3.20. every day. if possible. every day. Increase your listening time. Little by little. Choose a few phrases every day to use in conversations—with native speakers.

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