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Defamation Flow Chart

Defamatory Meaning

Of & Concerning P

Publication

Slander
Libel or Slander?
Libel
Yes Slander per se?

Special Damages? No
Yes
No
Status None-No Claim

Public Official/Figure (All Private Figure/Public Private Figure/Private


Purpose of LPPF)/Public
Issue Issue
Issue

P must prove falsity P must prove falsity P prove falsity?

P must prove actual P must prove at P must prove


malice by CCE least negligence negligence?

Privileges? Privileges? Privileges?

Actual, Actual Damages Actual Damages


Presumed, &
Punitive Damages

Presumed & Presumed


Punitive Damages Damages without
if prove actual actual malice
malice

Punitive damages
under common
law standard,
don’t need actual
malice