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VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS:

5

STATICS

Forces in Beams and Cables

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Contents

Introduction Internal Forces in Members Sample Problem 5.1 Various Types of Beam Loading and Support Shear and Bending Moment in a Beam Sample Problem 5.2 Sample Problem 5.3 Relations Among Load, Shear, and Bending Moment Sample Problem 5.4 Sample Problem 5.5 Cables With Concentrated Loads Cables With Distributed Loads Parabolic Cable

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Introduction

Preceding chapters dealt with: a) determining external forces acting on a structure and b) determining forces which hold together the various members of a structure. The current chapter is concerned with determining the internal forces (i.e., tension/compression, shear, and bending) which hold together the various parts of a given member. Focus is on two important types of engineering structures: a) Beams - usually long, straight, prismatic members designed to support loads applied at various points along the member. b) Cables - flexible members capable of withstanding only tension, designed to support concentrated or distributed loads.

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Internal Forces in Members

Straight two-force member AB is in equilibrium under application of F and -F. Internal forces equivalent to F and -F are required for equilibrium of free-bodies AC and CB. Multiforce member ABCD is in equilibrium under application of cable and member contact forces. Internal forces equivalent to a forcecouple system are necessary for equilibrium of free-bodies JD and ABCJ. An internal force-couple system is required for equilibrium of two-force members which are not straight.

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Sample Problem 5.1

SOLUTION: Compute reactions and forces at connections for each member. Cut member ACF at J. The internal forces at J are represented by equivalent force-couple system which is determined by considering equilibrium of either part. Cut member BCD at K. Determine force-couple system equivalent to internal forces at K by applying equilibrium conditions to either part.

Determine the internal forces (a) in member ACF at point J and (b) in member BCD at K.

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Sample Problem 5.1

SOLUTION: Compute reactions and connection forces. Consider entire frame as a free-body:

§ME ! 0: 2400
3.6 m
F 4.8 m
! 0 § Fy ! 0 :

2400 N 1800 N E y ! 0 Fx ! 0 :

F ! 1800 N

E y ! 600 N

Ex ! 0

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Sample Problem 5.1

Consider member BCD as free-body:

**§MB ! 0: 2400 N
3.6 m
C y 2.4 m
! 0 § MC ! 0 : 2400 N
1.2 m
B y 2.4 m
! 0 § Fx ! 0 : §MA ! 0: § Fx ! 0 : § Fy ! 0 : § Fx ! 0 :
**

Bx C x ! 0

C y ! 3600 N

B y ! 1200 N

**Consider member ABE as free-body:
**

Bx 2.7 m
! 0 B x Ax ! 0 Bx ! 0 Ax ! 0

Ay B y 600 N ! 0 A y ! 1800 N

**From member BCD,
**

Bx C x ! 0 Cx ! 0

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Sample Problem 5.1

Cut member ACF at J. The internal forces at J are represented by equivalent force-couple system. Consider free-body AJ:

**§MJ ! 0: 1800 N
1.2 m
M ! 0 § Fx ! 0 : F 1800 N
cos 41.7r ! 0 § Fy ! 0 :
**

V 1800 N
sin 41.7r ! 0

M ! 2160 N m

F ! 1344 N

V ! 1197 N

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Sample Problem 5.1

Cut member BCD at K. Determine a force-couple system equivalent to internal forces at K . Consider free-body BK:

§MK ! 0: 1200 N
1.5 m
M ! 0 § Fx ! 0 : § Fy ! 0 :

1200 N V ! 0

M ! 1800 N m

F !0

V ! 1200 N

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Various Types of Beam Loading and Support

Beam - structural member designed to support loads applied at various points along its length. Beam can be subjected to concentrated loads or distributed loads or combination of both. Beam design is two-step process: 1) determine shearing forces and bending moments produced by applied loads 2) select cross-section best suited to resist shearing forces and bending moments

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Various Types of Beam Loading and Support

Beams are classified according to way in which they are supported. Reactions at beam supports are determinate if they involve only three unknowns. Otherwise, they are statically indeterminate.

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Shear and Bending Moment in a Beam

Wish to determine bending moment and shearing force at any point in a beam subjected to concentrated and distributed loads. Determine reactions at supports by treating whole beam as free-body. Cut beam at C and draw free-body diagrams for AC and CB. By definition, positive sense for internal force-couple systems are as shown. From equilibrium considerations, determine M and V or M¶ and V¶.

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams

Variation of shear and bending moment along beam may be plotted. Determine reactions at supports. Cut beam at C and consider member AC, V ! P 2 M ! Px 2 Cut beam at E and consider member EB, V ! P 2 M ! PL x
2 For a beam subjected to concentrated loads, shear is constant between loading points and moment varies linearly.

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Sample Problem 5.2

SOLUTION: Taking entire beam as a free-body, calculate reactions at B and D. Find equivalent internal force-couple systems for free-bodies formed by cutting beam on either side of load application points. Plot results.

Draw the shear and bending moment diagrams for the beam and loading shown.

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Sample Problem 5.2

SOLUTION: Taking entire beam as a free-body, calculate reactions at B and D. Find equivalent internal force-couple systems at sections on either side of load application points. § Fy ! 0 : 20 kN V1 ! 0 V1 ! 20 kN

§ M 2 ! 0 : 20 kN
0 m
M 1 ! 0

Similarly, V2 ! 20 kN V3 ! 26 kN V4 ! 26 kN V5 ! 14 kN V6 ! 14 kN M 2 ! 50kN .m

M1 ! 0

M 3 ! 50 kN m M 4 ! 28 kN m M 5 ! 28 kN m M 6 ! 0 kN m

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Sample Problem 5.2

Plot results. Note that shear is of constant value between concentrated loads and bending moment varies linearly.

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Sample Problem 5.3

SOLUTION: Taking entire beam as free-body, calculate reactions at A and B. Determine equivalent internal forcecouple systems at sections cut within segments AC, CD, and DB. Draw the shear and bending moment diagrams for the beam AB. The distributed load of 40 lb/in. extends over 12 in. of the beam, from A to C, and the 400 lb load is applied at E. Plot results.

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Sample Problem 5.3

SOLUTION: Taking entire beam as a free-body, calculate reactions at A and B. §MA ! 0:

B y 32 in.
480 lb
6 in.
400 lb
22 in.
! 0 B y ! 365 lb

**§MB ! 0: 480 lb
26 in.
400 lb
10 in.
A32 in.
! 0
**

A ! 515 lb

§ Fx ! 0 :

Bx ! 0

** Note: The 400 lb load at E may be replaced by a 400 lb force and 1600 lb-in. couple at D.
**

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Sample Problem 5.3

Evaluate equivalent internal force-couple systems at sections cut within segments AC, CD, and DB. From A to C: § Fy ! 0 : 515 40 x V ! 0 V ! 515 40 x

§ M1 ! 0 :

From C to D:

515 x 40 x 1 x M ! 0 2

M ! 515 x 20 x 2

§ Fy ! 0 :

515 480 V ! 0 V ! 35 lb

**§ M 2 ! 0 : 515 x 480x 6
M ! 0 M ! 2880 35 x
lb in.
**

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Sample Problem 5.3

Evaluate equivalent internal force-couple systems at sections cut within segments AC, CD, and DB. From D to B:

§ Fy ! 0 : §M2 ! 0:

**515 480 400 V ! 0
**

V ! 365 lb

515 x 480x 6 1600 400x 18 M ! 0

M ! 11,680 365 x lb in.

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Sample Problem 5.3

Plot results. From A to C: V ! 515 40 x

M ! 515 x 20 x 2

From C to D: V ! 35 lb

M ! 2880 35 x
lb in.

From D to B: V ! 365 lb

M ! 11,680 365 x
lb in.

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Relations Among Load, Shear, and Bending Moment

Relations between load and shear:

V V (V
w(x ! 0 dV (V ! w ! lim dx (x p 0 (x

xD

**V D VC ! ´ w dx ! area under load curve
**

xC

Relations between shear and bending moment:

M (M
M V(x w(x (x ! 0

2 dM (M ! lim V 1 w(x ! V ! lim 2 dx (x p0 (x (x p0

xD

**M D M C ! ´ V dx ! area under shear curve
**

xC

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Relations Among Load, Shear, and Bending Moment

Reactions at supports, Shear curve,

x

R A ! RB !

w 2

V V A ! ´ w dx ! wx

0

V ! V A wx !

wL ¨L ¸ wx ! w© x ¹ 2 ª2 º

Moment curve,

x

M M A ! ´ Vdx

0

w ¨L ¸ M ! ´ w© x ¹ dx ! L x x 2 2 º 0 ª2

x

M max

wL2 ! 8

dM ¨ ¸ ! V ! 0¹ M at © dx ª º

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Sample Problem 5.4

SOLUTION: Taking entire beam as a free-body, determine reactions at supports. Between concentrated load application points, dV dx ! w ! 0 and shear is constant. With uniform loading between D and E, the shear variation is linear. Between concentrated load application points, dM dx ! V ! constant . The change in moment between load application points is equal to area under shear curve between points. With a linear shear variation between D and E, the bending moment diagram is a parabola.

7- 24

Draw the shear and bendingmoment diagrams for the beam and loading shown.

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Sample Problem 5.4

SOLUTION: Taking entire beam as a free-body, determine reactions at supports. §MA ! 0:

D24 ft
20 kips
6 ft
12 kips
14 ft

kips
28 ft
! 0 12

D ! 26 kips

§ F y !0 :

A y 20 kips 12 kips 26 kips 12 kips ! 0 A y ! 18 kips

Between concentrated load application points, dV dx ! w ! 0 and shear is constant. With uniform loading between D and E, the shear variation is linear.

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Sample Problem 5.4

Between concentrated load application points, dM dx ! V ! constant . The change in moment between load application points is equal to area under the shear curve between points.

M B M A ! 108 M C M B ! 16 M B ! 108 kip ft M C ! 92 kip ft

M D M C ! 140 M D ! 48 kip ft M E M D ! 48 M E ! 0

With a linear shear variation between D and E, the bending moment diagram is a parabola.

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Cables With Concentrated Loads

Cables are applied as structural elements in suspension bridges, transmission lines, aerial tramways, guy wires for high towers, etc. For analysis, assume: a) concentrated vertical loads on given vertical lines, b) weight of cable is negligible, c) cable is flexible, i.e., resistance to bending is small, d) portions of cable between successive loads may be treated as two force members Wish to determine shape of cable, i.e., vertical distance from support A to each load point.

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Cables With Concentrated Loads

Consider entire cable as free-body. Slopes of cable at A and B are not known - two reaction components required at each support. Four unknowns are involved and three equations of equilibrium are not sufficient to determine the reactions. Additional equation is obtained by considering equilibrium of portion of cable AD and assuming that coordinates of point D on the cable are known. The additional equation is § M D ! 0. For other points on cable, § M C2 ! 0 yields y 2

§ Fx ! 0, § Fy ! 0 yield Tx , T y

Tx ! T cos U ! Ax ! constant

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Cables With Distributed Loads

For cable carrying a distributed load: a) cable hangs in shape of a curve b) internal force is a tension force directed along tangent to curve. Consider free-body for portion of cable extending from lowest point C to given point D. Forces are horizontal force T0 at C and tangential force T at D. From force triangle:

T cos U ! T0 T ! T02 W 2 T sin U ! W tan U !

W T0 Horizontal component of T is uniform over cable. Vertical component of T is equal to magnitude of W measured from lowest point. Tension is minimum at lowest point and maximum at A and B.

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Parabolic Cable

Consider a cable supporting a uniform, horizontally distributed load, e.g., support cables for a suspension bridge. With loading on cable from lowest point C to a point D given by W ! wx , internal tension force magnitude and direction are wx 2 2 2 T ! T0 w x tan U ! T0 Summing moments about D, x wx T0 y ! 0 §MD ! 0: 2 or wx 2 y! 2T0 The cable forms a parabolic curve.

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Sample Problem 5.5

SOLUTION: Determine reaction force components at A from solution of two equations formed from taking entire cable as free-body and summing moments about E, and from taking cable portion ABC as a freebody and summing moments about C. The cable AE supports three vertical loads from the points indicated. If point C is 5 ft below the left support, determine (a) the elevation of points B and D, and (b) the maximum slope and maximum tension in the cable. Calculate elevation of B by considering AB as a free-body and summing moments B. Similarly, calculate elevation of D using ABCD as a freebody. Evaluate maximum slope and maximum tension which occur in DE.

7- 31

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Sample Problem 5.5

SOLUTION: Determine two reaction force components at A from solution of two equations formed from taking entire cable as a free-body and summing moments about E, §ME ! 0:

20 Ax 60 Ay 406
3012
154
! 0 20 Ax 60 Ay 660 ! 0

**and from taking cable portion ABC as a free-body and summing moments about C. § MC ! 0 :
**

5 Ax 30 A y 106
! 0

**Solving simultaneously, Ax ! 18 kips Ay ! 5 kips
**

7- 32

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Sample Problem 5.5

Calculate elevation of B by considering AB as a free-body and summing moments B.

§MB ! 0:

y B 18 520 ! 0 y B ! 5.56 ft

**Similarly, calculate elevation of D using ABCD as a free-body. §M ! 0:
**

y D
455
256
15
! 0 18 12

y D ! 5.83 ft

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
**

Sample Problem 5.5

Evaluate maximum slope and maximum tension which occur in DE.

tan U ! 14.7 15

U ! 43.4r

Tmax !

18 kips cos U

Tmax ! 24.8 kips

7- 34

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

THANK YOU

7- 35

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