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CHAPTER

Friction

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: $tatics

8 - 2

Contents

Introduction

Laws oI Dry Friction. CoeIIicients

oI Friction.

Angles oI Friction

Problems Involving Dry Friction

Sample Problem 6.1

Sample Problem 6.2

Wedges

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: $tatics

8 - 3

ntroduction

W In preceding chapters, it was assumed that surIaces in contact were

either frictionless (surIaces could move Ireely with respect to each

other) or rough (tangential Iorces prevent relative motion between

surIaces).

W Actually, no perIectly Irictionless surIace exists. For two surIaces

in contact, tangential Iorces, called friction forces, will develop iI

one attempts to move one relative to the other.

W owever, the Iriction Iorces are limited in magnitude and will not

prevent motion iI suIIiciently large Iorces are applied.

W %he distinction between Irictionless and rough is, thereIore, a matter

oI degree.

W %here are two types oI Iriction: drv or Coulomb friction and fluid

friction. Fluid Iriction applies to lubricated mechanisms. %he

present discussion is limited to dry Iriction between nonlubricated

surIaces.

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: $tatics

8 - 4

The Laws of Dry Friction. Coefficients of Friction

W lock oI weight W placed on horizontal

surIace. Forces acting on block are its weight

and reaction oI surIace N.

W Small horizontal Iorce P applied to block. For

block to remain stationary, in equilibrium, a

horizontal component F oI the surIace reaction

is required. F is a static-friction force.

W As P increases, the static-Iriction Iorce F

increases as well until it reaches a maximum

value F

m

.

N F

s m

3

W Further increase in P causes the block to begin

to move as F drops to a smaller kinetic-friction

force F

k

.

N F

k k

3

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8 - 5

The Laws of Dry Friction. Coefficients of Friction

W aximum static-Iriction Iorce:

N F

s m

3

W inetic-Iriction Iorce:

s k

k k

N F

3 3

3

. 0

**W aximum static-Iriction Iorce and kinetic-
**

Iriction Iorce are:

- proportional to normal Iorce

- dependent on type and condition oI

contact surIaces

- independent oI contact area

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: $tatics

8 - 6

The Laws of Dry Friction. Coefficients of Friction

W Four situations can occur when a rigid body is in contact with

a horizontal surIace:

W o Iriction,

(P

x

÷ 0)

W o motion,

(P

x

· F

m

)

W otion impending,

(P

x

÷ F

m

)

W otion,

(P

x

~ F

m

)

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: $tatics

8 - 7

Angles of Friction

W It is sometimes convenient to replace normal Iorce

N and Iriction Iorce F by their resultant #:

W o Iriction W otion impending W o motion

s s

s m

s

N

N

N

F

3

3

tan

tan

W otion

k k

k k

k

N

N

N

F

3

3

tan

tan

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: $tatics

8 - 8

Angles of Friction

W Consider block oI weight Wresting on board with

variable inclination angle 7

W o Iriction W o motion W otion

impending

W otion

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: $tatics

8 - 9

Problems nvolving Dry Friction

W All applied Iorces known

W CoeIIicient oI static Iriction

is known

W Determine whether body

will remain at rest or slide

W All applied Iorces known

W otion is impending

W Determine value oI coeIIicient

oI static Iriction.

W CoeIIicient oI static

Iriction is known

W otion is impending

W Determine magnitude or

direction oI one oI the

applied Iorces

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: $tatics

8 - 10

$ample Problem 8.1

A 100 lb Iorce acts as shown on a 300 lb

block placed on an inclined plane. %he

coeIIicients oI Iriction between the block

and plane are 3

s

÷ 0.2 and 3

k

÷ 0.20.

Determine whether the block is in

equilibrium and Iind the value oI the

Iriction Iorce.

SOLU%IO:

W Determine values oI Iriction Iorce

and normal reaction Iorce Irom plane

required to maintain equilibrium.

W Calculate maximum Iriction Iorce

and compare with Iriction Iorce

required Ior equilibrium. II it is

greater, block will not slide.

W II maximum Iriction Iorce is less

than Iriction Iorce required Ior

equilibrium, block will slide.

Calculate kinetic-Iriction Iorce.

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: $tatics

8 - 11

$ample Problem 8.1

SOLU%IO:

W Determine values oI Iriction Iorce and normal

reaction Iorce Irom plane required to maintain

equilibrium.

: 0

x

F 0 lb 300 - lb 100

3

F

lb 80 F

: 0

v

F

0 lb 300 -

N

lb 20 N

W Calculate maximum Iriction Iorce and compare

with Iriction Iorce required Ior equilibrium. II it is

greater, block will not slide.

lb 60 lb 20 2 . 0

m s m

F N F 3

The block will slide down the plane.

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: $tatics

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$ample Problem 8.1

W II maximum Iriction Iorce is less than Iriction

Iorce required Ior equilibrium, block will slide.

Calculate kinetic-Iriction Iorce.

lb 20 20 . 0

N F F

k k actual

3

lb 8

actual

F

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: $tatics

8 - 13

$ample Problem 8.3

%he moveable bracket shown may be

placed at any height on the 3-in.

diameter pipe. II the coeIIicient oI

Iriction between the pipe and bracket is

0.2, determine the minimum distance

x at which the load can be supported.

eglect the weight oI the bracket.

SOLU%IO:

W When Wis placed at minimum x, the

bracket is about to slip and Iriction

Iorces in upper and lower collars are at

maximum value.

W Apply conditions Ior static equilibrium

to Iind minimum x.

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: $tatics

8 - 14

$ample Problem 8.3

SOLU%IO:

W When Wis placed at minimum x, the bracket is about to

slip and Iriction Iorces in upper and lower collars are at

maximum value.

B B s B

A A s A

N N F

N N F

2 . 0

2 . 0

3

3

W Apply conditions Ior static equilibrium to Iind minimum x.

: 0

x

F 0

A B

N N

A B

N N

: 0

v

F

W N

W N N

W F F

A

B A

B A

. 0

0 2 . 0 2 . 0

0

W N N

B A

2

: 0

B

M

0 . 1 2 . 0 2 6

0 . 1 2 . 0 3 6

0 in. . 1 in. 3 in. 6

x W W W

x W N N

x W F N

A A

A A

in. 12 x

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: $tatics

8 - 15

edges

W Wedges - simple

machines used to raise

heavy loads.

W Force required to liIt

block is signiIicantly

less than block weight.

W Friction prevents wedge

Irom sliding out.

W Want to Iind minimum

Iorce P to raise block.

W lock as Iree-body

0

: 0

0

: 0

2 1

2 1

N N W

F

N N

F

s

v

s

x

3

3

or

0

2 1

W R R

: 6 6

0 6 sin 6 cos

: 0

0

6 sin 6 cos

: 0

3 2

3 2

H H

H H

s

v

s s

x

N N

F

P

N N

F

3

3 3

W Wedge as Iree-body

or

0

3 2

R R P

6 6 6

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