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Supplemental to the Junior Police Academy Program Kit 5th Edition

COPYRIGHT AGREEMENT FOR JUNIOR POLICE ACADEMY WORKBOOK IMPORTANT-READ CAREFULLY Junior Police Academy Workbook, including the educational materials accompanying the Workbook, is protected by copyright laws and international copyright treaties, as well as other intellectual property laws and treaties. The Workbook, publications and videos may not be duplicated or copied without the express written consent of the Junior Police Academy national office. You must treat the Workbook and accompanying educational materials like any other copyrighted material, except that you may make one copy of the Workbook solely for backup or archival purposes Junior Police Academy grants to you the limited right to use one (1) copy of the enclosed Program Kit at a single school. Additional Program Kits must be purchased for each school in which the program is implemented. Additional Program Kits are available at a 30% discount. Reproduction, in any manner of JPA trademarks, such as JPA logos, symbols, art work and images is prohibited without written permission. Junior Police Academy accepts no liability for damages arising from the use of this product. This Agreement shall be construed in accordance with and governed by the laws of the State of Texas. Copyright and other proprietary matters will be governed by United States laws and international treaties. Should you have any questions, or if you desire to contact Junior Police Academy, please write or call: Junior Police Academy 1114 West 7th, Suite 2 Austin, Texas 78703 512-476-0336 www.JuniorPoliceAcademy.org




Lesson 28

Common Mistakes in Police Report Writing Evidence Crime Scene Photography Traffic Accident Investigation Interviewing Witnesses Law Enforcement Technology The Computer Age Forensic Science Firearms Forensics

B-23 B-27 B-31 B-35 B-39 B-43 B-47 B-51 B-55

__________________ Introduction Table of Contents How Workbook is Organized How Lessons Are Organized “Why?” - The Essence of Each Lesson Acknowledgements DIVISION A 3 4 6 8 10 12 Page

Lesson 29 Lesson 30 Lesson 31 Lesson 32 Lesson 33 Lesson 34 Lesson 35 Lesson 36

Law Enforcers: Who They are and What They Do A-1 Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Lesson 9 Lesson 10 Introduction to the Junior Police Academy History of Policing A Quick Guide to Being a Police Officer Patrolling the Streets Hazards on Patrol Traffic Enforcement 101 Skills Unique to Crime Fighting Conflict Resolution The Secret Language of Police A-3 A-7 A-11 A-15 A-19 A-23 A-27 A-31 A-35

DIVISION C And Justice for All Lesson 37 Lesson 38 Lesson 39 Lesson 40 Lesson 41 Lesson 42 Lesson 43 Lesson 44 The Bill of Rights & the Police You’re Under Arrest Booking Procedures Police Interrogation: A Search for the Truth Order in the Court Juvenile/Drug Court Your Day In Court Inside the Courtroom: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions And Nothing But the Truth Doing Time The History of Crime and Punishment The Penal Code’s Prescription for Punishment A Quick Peek at Parole & Probation C-1 C-3 C-7 C-11 C-15 C-19 C-23 C-27

Identifying Your Skills & Your Place In Law Enforcement A-39 School Resource Officer Bomb Squad A-43 A-47 A-51 A-55 A-59 A-63 A-67 A-71 A-75 A-79 A-83 A-87

C-31 C-35 C-39 C-43 C-47 C-51

Lesson 11 Lesson 12

Lesson 45 Lesson 46 Lesson 47 Lesson 48 Lesson 49

Lesson 13 Police Sketch Artist Lesson 14 Lesson 15 Lesson 16 Lesson 17 Lesson 18 Lesson 19 Lesson 20 Lesson 21 Lesson 22 K-9 Unit Swat Law Enforcement’s Many Hats Sheriff’s Department State Police Federal Bureau of Investigation Drug Enforcement Agency U. S. Marshals Service Secret Service

DIVISION D Safe Harbor: Securing Our Homes and Homeland Lesson 50 Lesson 51 Lesson 52 Lesson 53 Lesson 54 Introduction to Crime Prevention Crime Prevention in the Home Crimes Against Young People Preventing School Violence Gangs Root Causes of Juvenile Crimes Teens and Drug Use What is Terrorism? Counter Terrorism: America Fights Back What Can You Do in the War on Terrorism Do I Have What it Takes? D-1 D-3 D-7 D-11 D-15 D-19 D-23 D-27 D-31 D-35 D-39 D-43

DIVISION B The Crime: How We Catch the Bad Guy Lesson 23 Lesson 24 Lesson 25 Lesson 26 Lesson 27 Little Crimes and Big Crimes Can That Be Legal Scene of the Crime Search and Seizure Police Report Writing B-1 B-3 B-7 B-11 B-15 B-19

Lesson 55 Lesson 56 Lesson 57 Lesson 58 Lesson 59 Lesson 60



The lessons emphasize the due process of law and rights of the individual weighed against the interests of society.providing a solid foundation for the remainder of the course.DIVISIONS & LESSONS The JPA Instructor Workbook is comprised of four divisions Each division is comprised of lessons and activities. Division D: Safe Harbor: Securing Our Homes and Homeland Gives cadets a better understanding of crime prevention and how to be proactive in preventing crime in their own community. 7 . prosecution and incarceration of criminals. Focuses on different techniques of discovering a crime and the criminal responsible. discusses terrorism and how it effects the world we live in. Division A: Law Enforcers: Who They Are and What They Do Introduces the cadets to criminal justice in America and to the various professions found in law enforcement -. Also.the arrest. Division C: And Justice for All Examines the end result of crime fighting -. Division B: The Crime: How We Catch the Bad Guy Introduces the cadets to how law enforcements professionals do their jobs.

HOW THE LESSONS ARE ORGANIZED Each lesson is four pages — • • • Page One: Introduction Page Two & Three: Lesson Content and Instructor Notes. refer to the following Lesson Key. Cadet Handbook Pages are the same Page Four: Cadet Activity For a detailed overview of each page. 8 .

9 . It’s chance to introduce the subject matter to your cadets. (Complete pre-printed sets of the Handouts are available by purchasing our Cadet Kit. PAGES TWO & THREE Cadet Handout with Instructor Notes A reproduction of the Cadet Handouts. be sure to included information relevant to the subject from your own experience.) PAGE FOUR Cadet Activity Each lesson ends with an activity for the cadets to demonstrate the skills taught in the lesson. The text is just a guideline — to really engage your cadets. Objective The instructor’s educational objective in providing the material. Overview Brief description of the lesson. In some lessons there will appear text in blue ink. The Quizzes can be combined to form quarterly Tests. this is your opening statement. these are notes for the instructor and are not printed in the Cadet’s copy — which are provided in a separate binder for easy reproduction. Quick Quiz Test your cadets knowledge.PAGE ONE Opening Statement Just like the first day of a trial.


but lifelong defenders of a noble profession. But when we take the mystery out of law enforcement procedures and policies – young people's attitudes toward police and their role in society is transformed" 11 . JPA Advisory Council member Officer Mitchell Garcia of the Houston Police Department said it best: "Young people do not understand what police officers do and why they do it. applied justly and fairly to all. Consider for a moment our definition of a graduating cadet: A graduating Cadet is not ready to patrol the street… but they do appreciate the commitment and dedication a law enforcer needs to face the streets each day. Focusing on the “WHY”. but a lawman’s protocol for staying alive. The Junior Police Academy Cadet – not licensed law enforcement officers.NOT HOW . Proficiency with firearms is not part of a Cadet’s training… but they do understand the absolute necessity of a police officer wearing a weapon. rather than the “HOW” can move young people to a rich understanding of a law enforcer’s role in society. Cadets have not known stress and uncertainty of stopping a speeding motorist on a lonely highway at two o’clock in the morning… but they do understand why no-nonsense. to broaden their definition of a law enforcer to include peacemaker and lifeline to those in peril. But just what does a Junior Police Academy education mean? What is the value of these materials? What distinguishes a JPA Cadet from other students? Every instructor should answer these questions for themselves before conducting a class. These distinctions are at the core of this educational program -. They don't understand the role of law enforcement in a community. Junior Police Academy Cadets are presented with a “Certificate of Achievement”.not to simply teach young people law enforcement law and procedure -but to reveal the reasoning behind each law and procedure. BUT WHY Upon completing the program. by-the-book traffic stops are not mere theatrics. The answers are essential to successfully presenting the material in this Workbook. Cadets cannot cite case law with the skill of a lawyer… but they do recognize the value of a precise penal code.


isd.com Deputy Cory Hughston Crime Prevention Specialist Victoria County Sheriff's Office Victoria. Ohio Taylor_j@hccanet. Sumners Foundation Institutes on the Founding Documents..Related Education. College Station. TX coryhughston@vctx. Officer Suzanne D’Ambrose County of Monmouth. State Bar of Texas Ms. New York serpico12@juno. Hatton W. Project Director Public Service. State Bar of Texas The Junior Police Academy enjoys the participation and guidance of a talented National Advisory Council . TX mgrunner@houston.edu Chief Thomas Clemons Seward Police Department Seward. Pauleen Hatch Austin Independent School District Police Department. Jr.net Officer James Taylor Goshen Township Police Department Goshen. CA dare@sayno. TX. Texas. Cain. Colonel United States National Guard.com Officer James Adams Hanford Police Department Hanford. New Jersey Freehold.each with years of law enforcement experience and a commitment to education for young people. Austin. New Jersey bikecop698@hotmail.com Officer Mitchell Garcia Houston Police Department Houston.This Junior Police Academy is made possible through the dedicated efforts of the following individuals. Jr. Lt. Ms. Associate Professor. Texas Officer Gary Richards.com Chief Patrick Fuller AISD Police Department Austin.tenet. Miller. Temple. Texas A&M University. California srocop@hotmail.rr. Coordinator. Law. Texas Police Department Charles A.. whitesettlementpd@charter. Austin. Austin.org Officer Mark Dillon Hanford Police Department Hanford. Criminal Justice Teacher. Miller. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS SPECIAL THANKS Sgt. Texas WPFuller@austin. Texas Sheila Anderson Austin Independent School District Police Department.net Officer John Clapp White Settlement Police Department White Settlement.org 13 . Rhonda Haynes. Westwood High School. Alaska spdchief@cityofseward.com JPA ADVISORY COUNCIL STAFF Phil LeConte Executive Officer David Dierks Financial Officer Kelly LeConte Director June Mellon Administrative Officer Paul Kutac Accounting Oscar Davila Project Coordinator Trevor Davila Project Coordinator Rachel Hector Editor Captain Tom Long Herkimer Police Department Herkimer. Jan L. Texas The Austin ISD Police Department JPA Instructors Edward J.


DIVISION A Introduces the cadets to criminal justice in America and to the various professions found in law enforcement -.providing a solid foundation for the remainder of the course. A-1 .

A-2 .

and the more you know about the why and how of these procedures. Now.” OBJECTIVE: C ADE T S WI LL D E VE LO P AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE JUNIOR POLICE ACADEMY’S MISSION. You might notice that she appears to just sit in her squad car for a few minutes. If you’re in a car that’s been pulled over. just to make you nervous. you can be the one staying cool and calm while everyone else gets nervous. Even less understand the vital role that law enforcement plays in a community. CADETS WILL RECOGNIZE THE IMPORTANCE OF UNDERSTANDING POLICE PROCEDURES. Why does she do these things? Is it just to freak you out? Does anyone have any theories? Sometimes. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND PROVIDE AN OVERVIEW OF THE JUNIOR POLICE ACADEMY . you might notice that the officer pulls her squad car behind yours at an angle. we hope to change young people's attitudes toward police and their role in society. A-3 . OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE NEED FOR UNDERSTANDING POLICE PROCEDURE. You might notice that she turns on a floodlight pointing directly at your car. the less intimidating police officers will seem. But there are specific reasons for every police procedure. the next time you’re in a car that gets pulled over. CONCLUDE BY VIEWING THE VIDEO “JUSTICE ON PATROL. it can almost seem like the officer is making you wait. After learning about why police officers do what they do. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. Few citizens truly understand what police officers do and why they do it.INTRODUCTION TO THE JUNIOR POLICE ACADEMY L1 Why do police officers do what they do? If you’ve ever been in a car that’s been pulled over at night. You might notice that she leaves her flashing lights on. police officers can seem intimidating. THE HOW AND WHY OF POLICE WORK In the Junior Police Academy you will learn the procedures used by law enforcement officers and the reasons behind those procedures. By taking the mystery out of law enforcement procedures and policies.

be sure to refer to the students as cadets. Yes. there is satisfaction in solving a mystery or catching a criminal. not adversaries. An extension of community policing. At the same time. JPA transforms the traditional role of the police officer into one of mentor and friend. in every way possible.L1 INTRODUCTION TO THE JUNIOR POLICE ACADEMY [TEXT IN BLUE APPEARS ONLY IN INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE TO HANDOUT. FOR INSTANCE: This is a unique profession. Cadets will A-4 . But a police career doesn't have to be that way. Ask the cadets why it is important that citizens understand the role of law enforcers. WHAT IS JPA? Junior Police Academy motivates young people to be outstanding citizens through law enforcement education. On the first day of class.] First. you'll soon become bored. You can't change the world. tell the cadets what it is like to be a police officer. but there’s also a lot of drudgery and monotony. SO WHAT IS JPA? Discuss with the cadets the mission of the program." observes Officer Mitchell Garcia of the Houston Police Department. But the basic reason for being a cop is that you can make your community a better place in which to live. You also reserve the option of collecting the Handbooks on a regular basis for one of the course grades. "But when we take the mystery out of law enforcement procedures and policies -.young people's attitudes toward police and their role in society are transformed" The Junior Police Academy provides a forum where America’s law enforcement veterans can act as mentors to our young people! * Cadet Handbooks Next you’re going to explain how the Handbooks will serve as a resource for the cadets to review before a quiz or test. It won't be if you approach your job with a proper perspective and for the right reasons. Yes. They don't understand the role of law enforcement in a community. CADET HANDBOOKS Precision and attention to detail is essential to be a good police officer. it encourages our young citizens to be partners. in building safer schools and communities. If all you're looking for is glamour and excitement. Make the class seem like an academy. but you can make a difference in your little part of it. "Young people do not understand what police officers do and why they do it. there is a lot of action and drama.

applied justly and fairly to all.but they do respect and honor the sacrifice law enforcement demands of every officer. Junior Police Academy Cadets are presented with a “Certificate of Achievement. • • • While the program does not produce a single licensed law enforcement officer…. There you will find a wealth of information regarding law enforcement. Cadets cannot cite case law with the skill of a lawyer…but they do recognize the value of a precise penal code.” But just what does a Junior Police Academy education mean? What distinguishes a JPA Cadet from other students? • • • A graduating Cadet is not ready to patrol the streets…but they do appreciate the commitment and dedication a law enforcer needs to walk the streets each day. JPA Cadets have not experienced the agony of losing a fellow officer in the line-of-duty…. WHAT IT MEANS TO BE A GRADUATE OF THE JUNIOR POLICE ACADEMY: Upon completing the program. And while you will not graduate as police officers. as Junior Police Cadets -. with full honors. supplying each with a rich understanding of a law enforcer’s role in society.the Junior Police Academy does graduate tomorrow’s citizens. Our “Cadet Central” section is written specifically for young people enrolled in the program. MISSION OF THE JPA During the following weeks you will actually experience what it is like to go through a police academy.JUNIORPOLICEACADEMY.practice these attributes by keeping their own Handbook. but a lawman’s protocol for staying alive. A-5 . Though cadets have not consoled a child at the site of a horrific traffic accident…they have refined their definition of a law enforcer to include peacemaker and lifeline to those in peril. This will be a general use notebook where cadets will: • Take notes on lessons • Takes notes on videos and visiting speakers • File articles from the Current Events Beat • Record the vocabulary words and definitions L1 WWW. Cadets have not known the stress and uncertainty of stopping a speeding motorist on a lonely highway at two o’clock in the morning…but they do understand why no-nonsense. you will learn many of the same skills a police officer must learn. you will graduate. Although this academy is not nearly as comprehensive or demanding as a real academy. Proficiency with firearms is not part of a Cadet’s training…but they do understand why it is necessary for police officers to wear weapons.instilled with an appreciation and respect for law enforcers and their role in society.ORG Cadets are encouraged to log on to the Junior Police Academy’s website for the latest news on the program’s activities and an extensive inventory of educational materials. by-the-book traffic stops are not mere theatrics.

2. Discuss whether the job of law enforcement is easy or hard. Texas JPA Cadets. any new words or phrases inspired by the video (write the additions in a different color chalk. and how the cadets formed their opinions.L1 INTRODUCTION TO THE JUNIOR POLICE ACADEMY DISCUSSION & VIDEO Conclude the first day by asking the cadets to list words or phrases that they think characterize law enforcement officers.) Let the class discuss what they think the educational skills and requirements of a police officer should be. Officer John Clapp and his White Settlement.Be a part of the solution. 4. if possible. 5. JPA Advisory Council member. Stop the video after the screen darkens following the final photomontage and statement “In the spirit of those who have served. Discuss what qualities each cadet would have to develop before wearing a badge. Show your cadets the video: Junior Police Academy Unit A (Introduction). Ask them to add to their list of police descriptions. A-6 . What is JPA? What is the JPA website? What distinguishes a JPA cadet from other students? What is the mission of the JPA? List two attributes essential to be a good police officer. 3. Write the cadets’ suggestions on the board..” • • Ask cadets whether they have changed their ideas about law enforcement officials.. • • 1.

" meaning "to grab or catch. The first recorded police organization operated in Egypt during the reign of Pharoah Hur Moheb. England. Law enforcement has a long history and goes all the way back to the earliest human civilizations. By the way." The word "police" comes from the Greek "polis" meaning city. Can anyone guess when history recorded the first appearance of police officers? OVERVIEW: EXPLAIN THE ORIGINS OF POLICING. It's still used today." The term actually stems from the slang word "cop. That’s over 3000 years ago! They patrolled the Nile River with boats. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. Sir Robert Peel restructured the various magistrate forces. the force came to be called Scotland Yard. DISTRIBUTE CADET HANDOUTS AND DISCUSS THE EVOLUTION OF POLICING -FROM SCOTLAND YARD TO PRESENT DAY LAW ENFORCEMENT IN AMERICA— CONCLUDE WITH AN HISTORICAL EXAMINATION OF "THE CALLBOX.” A group of cave men likely stationed a guard at the cave entrance.” OBJECTIVE: C AD E T S WI LL D E VE LO P AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE ORIGINS OF THE UNI TED ST ATES’ SYSTEM OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND FORMULATE AN APPRECIATION FOR OUR NATION’S PROFESSIONAL APPROACH TO LAW ENFORCEMENT. Now.HISTORY OF POLICING L2 There have always been "police. Their headquarters were established at 4 Whitehall Place." It first appeared around 1700. It’s a long way from boats on the Nile to squad cars on the freeway — how did we get to where we are now? The first organized and proactive police force came into being on September 29. including horse and day and night patrols into a unified Metropolitan Police in London. COP is not an acronym for "constable on Patrol. There was a rear door the officers commonly used and it opened onto Scotland Yard. hence. as in "cop a plea" or "cop out. around 1340 BC. 1829. A-7 .

18TH CENTURY DEVELOPMENTS Two major developments in the 18th century changed the way the police were organized. The English government encouraged the manufacture of gin as a way to deal with grain surpluses. COLONIAL POLICING IN AMERICA Law enforcement in colonial America was similar to that in England. The county Sheriff was the primary law enforcement agent. was more formal than the pledge system. He investigated citizen complaints. With the invention of gin. Constables dealt with serious breaches of law. as well as the first to have special uniforms. 2) Invention of Gin: Before the 17th century most people in England drank only beer and wine because the only hard liquor available to them. A group of ten families was called a tithing. Queen. Consumption of alcohol doubled in England between 1727 and 1743 and with this increase came widespread public drunkenness and violence.L2 HISTORY OF POLICING HISTORY OF POLICE Origins of American policing are traced to early English society. similar to modern counties.a fixed amount for every arrest made. cheap hard liquor was available to the English masses. Each group of ten tithings was supervised by a Constable. was much too expensive. brandy. it was the first force to be under a military command structure. WATCH SYSTEM The watch system. or “Bobbies”. The Shire Reeve was appointed by the King. Before the Norman Conquest of England. He was paid by the fee system -. The constable can be considered the first real police officer. The watch system was in place for about 500 years in England. 1) Cities Grew: The Industrial revolution lured the masses to the cities for employment. Composed of over 1. ran the jail and collected taxes. A pledge system was used wherein each person in a village pledged to protect the village against thieves and marauders. CONSTABLES & SHIRE REEVES Families banded together for self-protection. The local constables supervised these watchmen. the Metropolitan Police of London was organized by Sir Robert Peel. England's Home Secretary. protection of life and property was a selfperformed function.000 officers. A-8 . The town Marshall policed urban areas. It employed watchmen to protect property against fire and robbery. The Shire Reeve (later translated into Sheriff) supervised shires. or local land-owner to supervise and maintain order in the territory. created in the 13th century. METROPOLITAN POLICE OF LONDON 1829 Recognized as the world's first organized police force. Individuals were expected to warn others of trouble and to pursue suspected criminals.

100 Sheriffs departments 12. Police uniforms were first introduced in 1853 .700 special police forces (parks. LAW ENFORCEMENT TODAY Today there are about 17. transit. corruption and brutality were common.finally police administrators could have some supervision over officers.500 municipal police agencies 1.000 law enforcement agencies. 3. the first police car was introduced in Akron. • • • 1838 first police force created in Boston 1844 New York Police Department created 1856 Philadelphia Police Department created Local politics and politicians often controlled these early urban police departments by determining who was hired and who was promoted. university) 49 state police forces (all but Hawaii) 50 federal law enforcement agencies More than 800. Police officers’ salaries were also increased a great deal in this time period.000 people are employed in policing.L2 EARLY AMERICA POLICING Modern American police departments were first created in the 19th century. 5. 1. Getting hired and getting promoted was more a question of who you knew rather than what you knew.000 civilians A-9 . airport. Most officers patrolled on foot. 1. In 1910. Early American police work was primitive in nature.finally police could be identified as police. 2. Because there was little formal training or supervision.000 sworn officers and about 250. drawing better applicants to the job and diminishing the attraction of bribes. 3. The first telegraph police boxes were installed in 1867 -. 3. 2. 4. 20TH CENTURY POLICE REFORMS Policing became more technologically sophisticated around the turn of the century. More than 600. Ohio -finally police were mobile and could respond quickly.

area in the 1860s. walkie-talkies and car two-way radios caused the downfall of the police and fire boxes. Why was a police organization created? 3. when civil unrest destroyed many of those in the affected areas. This type of box required the sender to break the glass. when the 911 system of emergency contact was established in the city. Red glass with etched white lettering was illuminated from behind with a constantly burning gas light. then pull down a hook inside to transmit the alarm to a central alarm office where the box number tapped out on a bell. Police call boxes. flashed on a red signal light.L2 HISTORY OF POLICING HISTORY OF FIRE AND POLICE CALL BOXES Elaborate fire call boxes were first installed in the Washington D. How was order kept before a police system was created? 2. were sealed boxes that a patrol officer would use a key to enter and flip a switch to notify a central command center that his patrol was proceeding as normal and that no assistance was necessary. It also featured a telephone that officers could use to communicate problems to the central command. What has replaced call boxes in modern cities? (Discuss how 911 has been adopted to handle emergency calls. and others were continually used for false alarms. and punched out its number on a paper tape register much like a stock ticker. What could be considered the first real police officer and what were his duties? 4. or chief's driver could use to order a greater alarm or fire all-out signal to the central alarm office. and the last three gaslights were turned off on June 23. Starting in the late 1880's the color scheme changed when Police boxes were introduced.) ___________________________________ ___________________________________ How has technology changed the way we report and respond to an emergency: ___________________________________ ___________________________________ 1.C. turn the key and open the door. which the chief. What two major developments changed the way police were organized? 5. There was also a telegraph key and sounder inside each box. Most of the Fire call boxes were abandoned after the 1968 riots. How does politics affect the way policing is executed? A-10 . In most cities. Each fire alarm box had a spring wound movement like an alarm clock which when the hook was pulled sent in four rounds of its location code number to the alarm office. 1934. The call boxes in Washington were maintained by the Department of Public Works with many remaining in use until 1976. on the other hand. In 1923 the decision to convert the gaslights to electric was gradually enforced over the following decade. Police boxes were painted blue. and the Fire call boxes painted red.

A-11 . shoot-outs and other visually interesting responsibilities.A QUICK GUIDE TO BEING A POLICE OFFICER L3 The way police officers are often portrayed in movies and television can make it look like a pretty exciting job. Regardless. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. Sometimes. investigations. it’s just filing report paperwork or cleaning and inspecting weapons. a day in the life of a police officer revolves around one thing: the public’s safety. By focusing on car chases. but a police officer has many duties — not all of which are glamorous. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE RANGE OF RESPONSIBILITIES A POLICE OFFICER FACES. In reality. town. and ensuring the day to day safety of the city. Now. Other times it can be diagramming crime scenes or seizing contraband materials. Sure. OBJECTIVE: C AD E TS WI LL G AI N A D E E PE R APPRECIATION FOR THE DUTIES A POLICE OFFICER PERFORMS AND BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE QUALITIES REQUIRED FOR A SUCCESSFUL PROFESSIONAL CAREER. there’s the potential for arrests and investigation. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND REVIEW THE ASPECTS OF A POLICE OFFICER'S JOB. the duties of a police officer are focused on patrolling. or highway for which they are responsible. filmmakers give us exciting action movies but not necessarily a very realistic idea of what officers do on a day to day basis.

accident and about 4 percent work in courts. or handwriting and fingerprint • Make judgments about probable cause for identification. AND LISTENING and criminal activity During their shift. About 1 in 10 local and special law • Interrogate suspects enforcement officers perform jail-related duties. or emergency • Locate witnesses to crime response teams. Identify and apprehend offenders Handcuff suspects or prisoners Conduct frisk and pat down Advise persons of constitutional rights Seize contraband Use deadly force when necessary Execute arrest warrants Fire weapons on duty Pursue suspect on foot Execute search warrants Pursue suspect in vehicle Obtain and serve protection orders and committals ESSENTIAL JOB TASKS PERFORMED BY POLICE OFFICERS ARREST AND APPREHENSION • Use appropriate level of force • Make judgments about arresting or releasing suspects or offenders PATROL • Enforce criminal laws • Respond to calls • Drive motor vehicle under non-emergency conditions • Search persons. fingerprints. Regardless of scene. They work alone or with experienced officers in such varied areas as congested business districts or outlying residential neighborhoods. Officers enforce traffic regulations and also watch for stolen vehicles. property • Investigate suspicious RUNNING. such as open windows or lights in vacant buildings. vehicles. pursue. riding in a police vehicle or walking on foot patrol. radios. Suspicious circumstances and hazards to disaster area public safety are investigated or noted.L3 A QUICK GUIDE TO BEING A POLICE OFFICER NEW RECRUITS: WHAT YOU CAN EXPECT Most new police recruits begin on patrol duty. crime. warrant-less searches • Search crime scene for physical evidence Others work with special units such as horseback. While on patrol. motorcycle or harbor patrol. officers report to police headquarters from call boxes. ARRESTING. • Investigate complaints of drug law violations bicycle. but in large agencies they often patrol with a partner. job duties or location. INVESTIGATION officers attempt to become thoroughly familiar with • Secure and maintain their patrol area and remain alert for anything accident. special weapons and tactics (SWAT). resolve problems within • Investigate suspicious the community. training and firearms instruction. and places • Drive motor vehicle under emergency conditions A-12 . while on patrol. remain alert for anything unusual. or unusual. police officers and detectives • Search premises or property at all levels must write reports and maintain • Transport property or evidence meticulous records that will be needed if they • Diagram crime/accident scenes testify in court. • • • • • • • • • • • • Officers may work alone. as well as hazards to public safety. Officers attempt to become thoroughly familiar with conditions throughout their area and. they may identify. They note suspicious circumstances. and officers • Investigate crimes are dispatched to individual calls for assistance against persons and within their district. such as burned-out streetlights or fallen trees. Some persons or vehicles police officers specialize in such diverse fields as • Collect and preserve evidence chemical and microscopic analysis. etc. canine corps. and • Interview witnesses arrest suspected criminals. At regular intervals. • Process crime scene. and enforce traffic laws. or telephones.

other police vehicles. firearms usage. and work with citizens PAPERWORK • Write reports • Write citations and summonses • Write memos • Review and sign reports to ensure completeness and accuracy PHYSICAL TASKS • Subdue and arrest a resisting/attacking individual • Encounter an armed suspect • Encounter resistance during an arrest or in an emergency situation • Sit or stand for long periods of time • Recover weapon from suspect who gives it up voluntarily • Perform an evasive maneuver (dodge.. state laws and local ordinances. • • • Why become a police officer? Who do police officers serve? What are the dangers as well as the benefits to fighting crime and ensuring public safety? • • • • You must be a citizen of the U.) in order to disarm a suspect • Subdue and physically restrain an intoxicated individual • • • 12 to 14 weeks of training in a police academy including classroom instruction (constitutional law and civil rights.S. shove. playgrounds. and emergency response) Completion of a 2-year associate’s program or 4-year bachelor’s program in a criminal justice-related area is encouraged Knowledge of a foreign language and physical fitness are both plusses What career opportunities and advancements will I have as a police officer? • Potential for promotion to a specialty area or higher rank • Potential to retire with a pension after only 20-25 years of service. and commanding officers by radio • Exchange necessary information with other police officers at a scene • Provide accurate oral descriptions • Interact. duck. STILL INTERESTED? ASK YOURSELF: TO BECOME A POLICE OFFICER. traffic control.A You must be 20 or older You must have a GED or high school diploma You must pass several written and physical exams A-13 . etc. communicate. Request info from specific police departments to get started on your new career. block. and accident investigation) and hands-on experience (patrol. first aid. parks. self-defense. Potential to earn a salary from the mid-$30s and upwards HOW DO I GET STARTED? • • Find schools with programs that interest you. push. pull..• • • • Patrol assigned area in a vehicle Issue citations for non-traffic offenses Make checks of various types of premises Check schools. and recreational centers • You must NOT be a convicted felon You need a college degree to work in state and federal law enforcement agencies L3 WHAT TRAINING WILL YOU NEED? TRAFFIC ENFORCEMENT • Enforce traffic and parking laws and ordinances • Investigate traffic accidents • Check vehicles for proper registration • Request emergency assistance for accidents • Administer roadside sobriety tests COMMUNICATION • Communicate with dispatcher.

a police officer must deal with interpersonal conflict when a citizen discovers strangers have moved into her home. Show the clip and discuss the following questions. I recognize the badge of my office as a symbol of public faith. dedicating myself before God to my chosen profession . Ask the class to pay close attention to how the officer handles a frantic citizen. Review each part of the Police Officer’s Ethical Oath. I will cooperate with all legally authorized agencies and their representatives in the pursuit of justice. POLICE OFFICER’S ETHICS OATH As a law enforcement officer. to safeguard lives and property. the weak against oppression or intimidation. 1. just as police are in their professional duties. Have the cadets write an explanation of why it is important for officers to remain calm in situations like this. and justice. I will never engage in acts of corruption or bribery. JPA cadets are held to high ethical standards throughout the program. I know that I alone am responsible for my own standard of professional performance and will take every reasonable opportunity to enhance and improve my level of knowledge and competence. Name 2 requirements to become an officer? . to protect the innocent against deception. 3. I will constantly strive to achieve these objectives and ideals. equality. and the peaceful against violence or disorder.L3 A QUICK GUIDE TO BEING A POLICE OFFICER VIDEO: SWEEPING THE STREETS In the clip “Sweeping the Streets” (Unit 3 from the JPA Video) from COURT TV’s “The System”. Why do you think this ethical virtue is important to a police officer? • • What is a contract? How is the woman in this scene going to make money off of this situation? The police officer in this situation remained very calm and helped work out a compromise. Before showing the clip. 4. my fundamental duty is to serve mankind. 5. explain to the class that one of the most important duties of a police officer is conflict resolution. A-14 Where do most new recruits begin working? Are there essential tasks performed by an officer? Name three things an officer looks for while on patrol? Discuss the difference between police officers on television and those on the streets. Decide which part you think would be the most difficult to uphold over the course of a career in law enforcement. nor will I condone such acts by other police officers. and I accept it as a public trust to be held so long as I am true to the ethics of the police service. and to respect the constitutional rights of all men to liberty. 2.Law Enforcement.

patrol is one of the more interesting aspects of police work. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. It may sound like it’s not very fun. the traffic signal that isn't working. the pothole left by last night's rain. the basic function of police is to patrol. Night Patrol and Horse Patrol before Sir Robert Peel devised the first proactive police force called the Metropolitan Police. patrol work has been the basic function of police in protecting life and property and serving the public. such as a street sign twisted so it mis-identifies the cross street. Now. Why? Because it puts you where the people are. The earliest police forces were called "patrols. Patrol is the first line of defense against crime. Your job will be to poke your nose into places the public would pass by with little notice. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE REASON FOR PATROLLING AND WHY IT IS A VITAL PART OF LAW ENFORCEMENT OBJECTIVE: CADETS SHOULD HAVE A BE T TE R U NDE RST AND I NG OF PATROLLING AND THE DIFFERENT METHODS AND TECHINIQUES." That's what you’ll do -. Historically. the word patrol is derived from the French "patrouiller" meaning "to go through puddles. or a gas leak that could explode when someone lights a cigarette. This dayto-day patrol work makes a police department effective. Patrol officers may even stumble over a crime or hazardous situation that requires immediate attention. the broken tree limb that brought down a live electric line. riding a bicycle or driving a car. In fact. Patrols allow for officers to be near by when a cry for help comes in to the dispatcher. climbing rickety back stairs. It promotes contact with citizens so they get to know their police officer.walk through littered alleys. The first assignment you will get as a new officer will probably be patrol.PATROLING THE STREETS L4 Whether it's walking a beat. A-15 . but when approached with the right attitude. As important as it is. slosh through slush in winter and confront mud puddles in summer. patrol isn't necessarily pleasant work." London had its Day Patrol.

a criminal will quickly learn your routine and plan his actions accordingly. A-16 . then see if the others can guess who they are describing. he's going to hit the high crime area early in your shift or the residential area later. When your purpose is apprehension. On foot. These details may be so minor they're meaningless until they are viewed in context of the total picture. you'll discover the seemingly insignificant action or thing that didn't fit. talk it over together. you are unobtrusive and avoid influencing a situation you are observing. drive a marked car with a light bar on top. The other approach is more effective when your purpose is apprehension. actions. Avoid obvious routines You've analyzed your patrol area and determined a patrol routine that covers it effectively and efficiently. "What tipped me off that something was wrong? What attracted my attention?" By analyzing each situation. unless approached by a beggar or purse-snatcher which comes as a complete surprise due to their lack of awareness. If he learns that you always start your evening patrol in the less populated areas then work your way toward the high crime areas later in the evening. You are in uniform but in an unmarked car with concealed emergency lights. you wear a distinctive uniform. On foot. you walk at the curb side of the sidewalk and generally make yourself as conspicuous as possible. The Sixth Sense… Some officers seem to have a sixth sense that tells them "that person is wrong. park your car and continue on foot. Have one cadet describe another cadet without looking at them. "cruise lights". This routine is working. From your description could a fellow officer pick out the individual from a crowd? You'll find that with practice you'll see more than you ever thought possible **Try this with the cadets. If you have a partner. This lets your citizens know you are on the job and it forestalls contemplated actions by criminals. you walk up close to the buildings. and observe without being seen. This is the technique for prevention.L4 PATROLING THE STREETS DID YOU SEE THAT??!!! Most citizens walk down the sidewalk oblivious to their surroundings. If you are in an area you can't reach while sitting in a squad car. so why change it? Whether on foot or in a car. use the approach that is most appropriate. mannerisms. that increase your visibility at night. When on patrol. ask yourself. it is important for you to always be aware of the things that are going on around you and to try to remember all of the details of your surroundings. Every time you make a good arrest. As an officer." They have simply learned to observe details of dress. then describing them. The light bar has small bulbs. to note their differences and distinguishing features. You'll find that the vague feeling you get when something is wrong has a sound basis in your observation. duck into doorways. In one. and appearance. Two approaches to patrol There are two distinct philosophies of patrol. Learn to observe people. Practice glancing at people quickly.

activity inside then might not be suspicious. closing time. and When walking a beat at night. You need to know more than just every street name and While you are getting to know the peohow buildings are numbered. and Learn who owns which cars. know what they know. you don't learn their personal habits. duck into a doorway and wait for a while. cab drivers. It's worth cultivating their friendship. L4 Get to know the neighborhood business owners and employees by sight. When you enter a dark alley from a lighted street. your patrol area. and can be a second set of eyes for you. All of this knowledge should influence the way that you patrol. someone moving around inside at at random. Even the people who sit in the park most of the day become skilled observers. Observe without being observed. Even an inexperienced crook 8:00 a. But if it is someone Know your neighborhood you don't recognize. Work your way through the alley by hugging the sides and ducking behind the dumpster. and learn where their entrances and exits are as well as the locations of important things such as their electrical control units or their security alarm. if not by name. it could be a burglar There is a lot for you to learn about trying to look like an employee. Identify those areas that have had the most calls for service. Knowing where a high-crowned cars are usually parked in the neighborcross street creates a dip could be criti.“Be systematically unsystematic” You want people to know you're on the job. hotel clerks. The lawabiding citizens of your community will likely never meet you. turn around and walk it back the other way. Learn the ple. If you are in a car you can drive around the block and cover it again. Backtracking is one technique to break a patrol routine. Become familiar with the buildings on your patrols. It know the clerks restock the shelves after may seem obvious but it happens. After you've walked a particularly vulnerable area. wait for a few minutes to let your eyes adjust. A-17 . This gives you a chance to watch for movement of someone who saw you enter the alley. then double back. If you can keep track of your movements.hood during your patrol. but you never want them to know where you'll be next. and have their confidence and respect. gas station attendants and security guards could be sources of good information. or you them. knowledge. and it works on foot or on wheels.m. unless they become a victim of a crime. peculiarities of every street. Know your neighbors You can't do a good job patrolling unless you know the people in the area that you patrol. Every patrol area has locations where trouble is likely to develop. and which alley. With this cal in a high-speed chase. You might pass the alley entrance. On your walk back. You’ll want to know what types of businesses operate from each building. If you know a want to stroll down the street. Patrolling at night Use light and shadow to your advantage. There are many people whose jobs put them in good positions to help you..m. trying store manager never opens before 9:00 every door and flashing your light around a. and where each business stores its valuables. road. Use your light only if it's necessary. would be suspicious. Delivery persons. get to know their cars as well. this time cutting up the alley. Stand where you are shielded from the street so you aren't silhouetted against the street lights. you will have a better chance of recognizing any suspicious activity. It is up to you to reach out to the community and meet the people that live there. bellhops.

Police departments. How does politics affect the way policing is executed? A-18 . During World War II. Today the police car is as familiar as the police officer. The modern day police car is a high performance. but it also encases you in a metal box that separates you from the community. What two major developments changed the way police were organized? 5. at first unable or unwilling to incur the expense of outfitting their force with patrol cars. What types of options and equipment do you think will be necessary.. they were kept at the stationhouse so officers could respond faster when a call came in. • • • Extended Activities Design a police car for the future. law enforcement tool. How was order kept before a police system was created? 2. What could be considered the first real police officer and what were his duties? 4. Are there any alternatives to police cars? How can the police officers in your community develop a better relationship with community members? JPA cadets learn about patrol units from the inside — out. high speed. At first. crime has been reduced and the citizens have a better relationship with their police departments. but they didn't come into prominence until the 1920s. As technology improved the performance of cars. criminals made use of their higher speeds to elude capture. Why did police departments implement the use of modern police cars in law enforcement? Automobiles came into police work shortly after Henry Ford made the first Model T.L4 PATROLING THE STREETS The Police Car Improvements in the quality and performance of police vehicles. as well as their rising necessity in the twentieth century. But police officers have a long tradition of “walking the beat. This became possible and more useful with the development of suitable portable two-way radios. Have a debate or discussion in your class about the pros and cons of police officers using police cars. Where closer community contact has been established. Many departments started "walk and talk" programs where you had to spend part of each hour with the car parked as you got out and talked with people in your patrol area.” or as mounted officers. 1. Why was a police organization created? 3. a manpower shortage and the advent of two-way radio required an increased emphasis on the patrol car. were the result of technological advances. had no choice but to keep up with the criminals. The car lets you cover a larger territory and travel faster from point to point.

whether on or off duty. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE RANGE OF RESPONSIBILITIES A POLICE OFFICER FACES-DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND REVIEW THE ASPECTS OF A POLICE OFFICER'S JOB. remember that your first responsibility is to reach your destination safely. Every emergency call is an emergency until you determine the facts.HAZARDS ON PATROL L5 Police work can be very dangerous and stressful. Now. Many law enforcement officers witness death and suffering resulting from accidents and criminal behavior. In addition to the obvious dangers of confrontations with criminals. You can't assume anything. "Routine" is a threat to the police officer. CONCLUDE BY VIEWING THE VIDEO "SWEEPING THE STREETS. Police officers and detectives are required to work at any time their services are needed and may work long hours during investigations. officers need to be constantly alert and ready to deal appropriately with a number of other threatening situations. A career in law enforcement may take a toll on officers' private lives. In most jurisdictions. Treat every emergency call like an emergency." OBJECTIVE: C AD E T S WI LL G AI N A D E E P E R APPRECIATION FOR THE DUTIES A POLICE OFFICER PERFORMS AND BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE QUALITIES REQUI RED FOR A SUCCESSFUL PROFESSIONAL CAREER. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. The seventh response to a particular alarm that's always false just might be real. officers are expected to be armed and to exercise their arrest authority whenever necessary. But when you are dispatched on an emergency call. A-19 . It's little consolation to the accident victim who's bleeding to death that you would have arrived sixty seconds sooner if that drunken driver hadn't pulled out in front of you and caused a crash.

with one level shielding the next higher group. If it's a holdup. Perhaps a plainclothes officer will want to stake it out. A poor plan is better than no plan at all. Note the registration numbers of vehicles or persons departing as you near the scene. the thief may be using it to hold up the store. get medical attention for the subject. cut your siren several blocks away and extinguish your lights before you' are spotted from the destination. or even create a hostage situation. avoid approaching where you'll be seen from some distance away. use a parallel street and cut over at the last possible intersection. since you don't recover stolen cars every day. A blow to the head could have this effect. If you come across a drug transaction and can discreetly check by radio. Better to drive on by and position yourself where you can watch it unobtrusively. You radio the dispatcher for a motor vehicle registration check and it comes back "stolen. What if. Once you're reasonably sure the car has been abandoned. or prowler call. He may have stopped to pick up someone. get the expert's advice. identify the best approach route. Narcotics cases can be touchy. There are conditions that can make a person appear to be intoxicated when they've had nothing to drink at all. A-20 . don't recognize him. They're trained to find evidence not obvious to you. do it. you find the perpetrator still in the store with salesclerks and customers? Rushing in could be dangerous to someone inside. Treat him the same as everyone else. If you rush in and bust the pusher. Carbon dioxide poisoning could. If you have a narcotics squad. they may work a case for months without making an arrest. When you arrive. Better to wait a discreet distance away for the robbers to come outside before you confront them. Particularly if it was stolen very recently. too. Have a plan. let the investigators do the rummaging. stop a little way down the street. Advise the dispatcher what you've got. USE CAUTION Let's say you spot a car that doesn't fit the area where it's parked." Do you rush right over and start rummaging through it for evidence? Of course not. Is someone waiting in a car with the engine running? Is someone running off in the opposite direction? If nothing attracts your attention.L5 HAZARDS ON PATROL I BE CLEVER If you can. If you find any evidence or injury or a Medic Alert tag. In the city. responding to an armed robbery call. burglary. If you arrest a group and recognize an officer working undercover. size up what you can see. Staying in shape is critical to law enforcement officer. If you're working with a partner. Talk about it. You can sort it out later. it's critical that each of you knows what the other is going to do. you could blow the case of an officer who was using the pusher to identify his distributor. A diabetic could be suffering from insulin shock or even go into a diabetic coma. Wait a second. Many people are involved in this business.

The exception is one who is likely to endanger others if he continues. you want to catch him. your marked car is easily identified and citizens are looking at you. Their experience will tell you what you might expect from other drivers' reacting to you. Of course. If the operator's identity has been established. the right at three or two o'clock. You need to consider the kind of road. Where does the racing driver put his hands? The left at nine or ten o'clock. But let's say that all things (and the policies of your department) considered. and what's up ahead before deciding to chase an offender in hot pursuit. Courts have held. After all. When you go into the defensive driving course during training. A-21 . Operating your patrol car calls for exemplary skills whenever you are behind the wheel. If you noted the plate number. They will also try to teach you judgment. it's not firearms or use of force. But if continuing hot pursuit puts others at risk. Your car is a very powerful tool. While draping one arm out the window and resting the right hand at the bottom of the wheel may seem comfortable. That hand position provides optimum control. it affords little steering control. First.What is the largest single source of liability suits? No. And that is the essence of defensive driving -. proper braking. fast but safe lane changes. Give them a chance to get out of your way. you need to practice control. amount of traffic. and you use it constantly. discontinue pursuit and apprehend later. A driver may run for any number of real or imagined reasons. They've given a lot of thought to how to avoid them and they've developed techniques to teach you. If the only reason to chase is that the driver was speeding. where pursuits resulted in injuries or death. consider how you're going to startle other motorists when you switch on the lights and siren. L5 TO CHASE OR NOT TO CHASE Many departments require logging and reporting each pursuit. It's automobiles. If it's a suspected felon who's running. you decide to chase. you can always catch him another day. steering. weather and wind conditions. you have no choice but to break off. your radio can alert other units that may be ahead of him. Then remember that high-speed operation of a motor vehicle is quite different from a Sunday drive in the country. controlling skids. it is the Officer’s fault for causing the fleeing driver to do things under stress he would not ordinarily do Just because a motorist runs doesn't mean he's a felon who can't afford to be caught. U-turns. Motor vehicle chases are a major source of lawsuits against police departments. Good judgment is the critical factor. it's not worth breaking your neck.anticipating the other drivers' actions. Your driving instructors know what has caused officer-involved accidents in the past.

officers must travel farther to get a signal.Currently. Packed with new features and buttons. The solution is to build a bigger network. CLOSE CALLS--On September 18. How was order kept before a police system was created? 2. What could be considered the first real police officer and what were his duties? 4. you just can’t get through. MO. two detectives ran after a drug dealer in Kansas City. officers often have trouble using them. they got dead air and their situation got dangerous. 1996.As metro populations swell. What two major developments changed the way police were organized? 5.L5 HAZARDS ON PATROL CELL PHONES: It has happened to anyone who has used a cell phone. fire and emergency medical services upgrade to pricey new radio systems. Why was a police organization created? 3. The Federal Communications Commission is in charge of regulating our nation’s airwaves but they are under tremendous pressure to bring as many billions of dollars as possible from auctioning airwaves to the commercial carriers that provide our cellular services. you call later and get through. Discuss: Identify an alternative solution to this airwave issue. he shot them both. There’s a lot more that can and will go wrong. These shooting victims were also victims of progress. for many public safety providers. maybe you only hear static. Even as police. 1. As they cornered the suspect. police. fire and medical agencies lack enough channels to handle the growth in their own ranks. the new radio systems are also more glitch-prone. such as wireless phones and instant messaging that have made mobile communications available to millions of Americans. Discuss the long term effects of overpopulating the airwaves. Consider the number of cellular or wireless devices in your home and how often your family uses them. How does politics affect the way policing is executed? A-22 . But what if you couldn’t wait a few minutes? What if those minutes meant life or death? These days. carry cell phones and bring backup when entering static-prone areas.dependable police radio is literally being drowned out by a torrent of information-age services. The once. So. dozens of agencies face increasing interference from more powerful commercial wireless services. POTENTIAL PROBLEMS & SOLUTIONS-. When they called for backup on their new handheld radios. Though time and training should ease many of these concerns. What other common emergency situations could be hindered by a lack of immediate radio contact? ROLE OF REGULATORS-. You’re making a call and nothing happens. they do.

we will be reviewing the many issues surrounding traffic enforcement — from the rights of motorists to the safety of our officers in uniform. by giving tickets. an uninsured driver not wearing a seat belt speeds down the road. there are much more important reasons why traffic enforcement is vital. the taxpayer. Now. which is generously funded by you. but if a ticket deters drivers from things that put the community’s safety at risk. encouraging the use of child safety seats.TRAFFIC ENFORCEMENT 101 L6 Why do officers conduct traffic stops? No one likes to get a ticket. loses control and hits a guardrail. Who pays for rescue and emergency services? Who pays for his hospital stay and physical therapy? Who pays for the guardrail repair? It is not the careless driver. but your local government. In addition to reducing injuries and deaths on our roadways. Of course. For example. are all valid important safety concerns. OBJECTIVES: CADETS WILL UNDERSTAND THE SAFETY MEASURES THAT ARE NECESSARY WHEN WORKING AT VARIOUS ACCIDENT SITES. and providing a deterrent to driving under the influence. OVERVIEW: INSTRUCTOR WILL REVIEW THE VARIOUS TYPES OF TRAFFIC COLLISION AND WILL CONDUCT AN EXERCISE IN WHICH THE CADETS COMPLETE A COLLISION REPORT. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. THEY WILL LEARN THE IMPORTANCE OF AC C U R AT E L Y C O M P L E T I N G A COLLISION REPORT. A-23 . officers save us money. we all benefit. Like making motorists wear their seat belts. In this lesson.

suspended licenses. WHY DID YOU STOP ME ? The most common reasons are: • Moving violations. your trunk may be open. Officers find uninsured drivers. upon seeing or hearing a police vehicle. This is because even the most routine stop for a traffic violation has the potential for danger. etc. failure to yield the right-of-way. Once stopped. Drivers should remain in the car unless asked to exit. etc. • • • • • Drivers should pull over to the far right side. about half of all officer. something may be hanging from under your vehicle. WHAT CAN CITIZENS DO TO MAKE TRAFFIC STOPS A LITTLE EASIER? Whether you are stopped by a state highway patrol trooper. and turning on their interior light if it is nighttime. or you may have left items on your roof. related incidences. robbery. you are expected to cooperate. such as hiding things or making sudden moves. It's your responsibility to maintain a safe vehicle and know the laws governing driving privileges. line of duty deaths were related to traffic incidences. For example. For instance. Your vehicle may match the description of a suspect's vehicle. if the driver does not agree with the officer it is better that he or she remain silent than respond harshly. in 1998. A cooperative driver allows the officer to speak first and responds without sarcasm or defense. vandalism. weaving. A-24 . Discoveries like these are all in a day’s work for many officers. or a local police officer. This is why officers are trained to place a great deal of emphasis on their safety and take a defensive posture during the stop until the risk of confrontation or injury is diminished. Along with the officer.L6 TRAFFIC ENFORCEMENT 1 01 TRAFFIC STOPS ARE DANGEROUS Many officers are killed each year and thousands more are injured in traffic. drivers and other occupants can do their part in helping to create a more professional atmosphere during the stop. drivers should not engage in suspicious activity. illegal firearms drugs and fugitives. • Criminal Investigations often involve searching for a "getaway" car involved in a crash. It is not uncommon for a driver to be in violation of a law and not know it. • Safety concerns are another reason an officer may stop your vehicle. keeping their hands to themselves until asked for something. impaired drivers. assault. a county sheriff’s deputy. • Registration or Equipment Violations are other reasons a vehicle may be stopped. safely and quickly. such as speeding. reckless operation. running a red light or stop sign. lane straddling. Drivers should show courtesy to the officer by rolling down their window all the way. Routine traffic stops often turn out to be not so routine. these behaviors will give the officer reason to search the driver and/or the vehicle. any sudden moves or eagerness to exit the car may result in a search of the driver.

if they have reason to suspect criminal activity or fear for their safety then they may search the car. to get out of the vehicle during a traffic stop. is valid in other states given the driver is just visiting. wrote Chief Justice William Rehnquist. registration and proof of insurance. "Danger to an officer from a traffic stop is likely to be greater when there are passengers in addition to the driver in the stopped car. even when they have no reason to suspect danger or wrong doing. traffic stops may be dangerous encounters for police”. L6 A-25 . exposing themselves to traffic? Why don't they approach the vehicle from the passenger side? It's necessary for the cop to bend down to look at the driver and scope out the vehicle to see if there's something suspicious in sight. If they think that the suspect poses a danger to their safety. A state may temporarily suspend a driver’s privileges for a number of reasons. you must do this within 30 days after moving to the new state. The justices said the need to protect an officer's safety outweighs the privacy rights of innocent passengers. he or she would have to lean farther into the vehicle. not just the driver. "Regrettably. which exposes the cop to action by the driver or a passenger. in that state. out of a vehicle during a traffic Stop? The Supreme Court has ruled that police can order all the passengers. He noted that 11 police officers were killed and more than 5. Is a driver’s license from one state valid in all the other states? A valid license from one state. But if a driver makes a permanent move to another state." Rehnquist said. If he or she did this from the passenger side. Can police order passengers. as long as the police use a neutral policy when stopping cars (such as stopping all cars or stopping every third car) and minimize any inconvenience to the drivers involved. The decision in a Maryland case said ordering passengers not suspected of wrongdoing out of a car is only a "minimal" intrusion on their rights. Usually.such as bags or a briefcase and the glove compartment).700 were assaulted during traffic stops in 1994. he or she will have to apply for a new license. such as a weapon. The officer also has to receive the driver's license. they are allowed to search the suspect and the immediate area around them (this may include the passenger compartment of the car and its contents -.FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT TRAFFIC STOPS Are the police allowed to search a car that they have pulled over? Yes. not just the driver. Is it legal for the police to pull over cars and question their drivers at a roadblock? Yes. including: • driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs • refusing to take a blood-alcohol test • driving without liability insurance • speeding • reckless driving Why do troopers approach a car on the driver’s side. and possibly retake some driving exams. When can the police suspend or revoke a driver's license? Driving a car is considered a privilege and a state won't hesitate to take it away if a driver behaves irresponsibly on the road.

The statement must be clear enough for the individual to understand. The peace officer must ID himself and the agency he is with. 2. If possible. get into patrol car. etc. you should position a squad car behind a civilian vehicle. Why does a officer approach the driver’s side at a vehicle during a stop? How do traffic stops save money? Name 3 things that the driver can do to make the officer’s job easier? Can passengers be searched as well? Why or why not? Have you ever been in a stopped car? Why? What happened? A-26 . Statement of Action to be Taken The Officer must firmly state what action will be taken and what will happen. Statement of Violation Committed The officer must tell the person why they are stopped and emphasize the seriousness of the violation. F. Test the cadet’s ability to follow safety guidelines by supervising a mock traffic stop. C. in the parking lot. JPA Cadets practice traffic stop procedures. In a business like tone they tell the violator goodbye (“Good Afternoon”) the immediately return to the patrol car. 4. E. important facts should be noted on the officer's copy of the summons. Have the cadets write and issue a summons for speeding. position two vehicles. Since driver's can plead "not guilty" and the police officer could go to court. (Give locations of courts) G.L6 TRAFFIC ENFORCEMENT 101 TRAFFIC STOP PROCEDURE A. Take That Action The Officer must write a citation. B. Optional: As well as following the proper procedure. Greeting and Identification The peace officer must either introduce himself or make a courtesy greeting to the individual stopped. (Before class. Make copies of the driver’s license. 1. take the person into custody or give a warning whatever the peace officer decides. and vehicle registration to pass around. the peace officer must write down a brief description of the person. If there is no driver’s license available. The officer must ask the reason for the violation and give the person an opportunity to justify himself. ID of Driver and Check of Conditions of Violator and Vehicle Every violator stopped must present theirdriver’s license. 5.) TIPS: Brief each driver regarding the scenario. but the “police officer” should not know what to expect. In the exercise discuss the importance of the "officer's comments" section that is on the officer's copy of the traffic summons. D. Explain What the Violator Must Do The Officer must explain to the individual what actions they must take: Appear in court. insurance card. 3. you may want the cadets to fill out a Traffic Ticket (Traffic Summons). TRAFFIC STOP EXERCISE Review traffic stop procedures. one behind the other. Leave The Officer must never be sorry for giving a ticket.

Police officers must possess distinctive qualities. OVERVIEW: INSTRUCTOR WILL REVIEW AND DISCUSS THE POLICE OFFICER’S ROLE IN SOCIETY AND THE PROFESSIONAL CHALLENGES EVERY OFFICER MUST FACE. Both physically and mentally demanding. both physical and mental. you're on the go for at least eight hours a day. As a police officer. In this lesson. You may need to calm the mother of an injured child one minute and chase down a violent offender the next. OBJECTIVES: C AD E T S WI LL G AI N A D E E P E R APPRECIATION FOR THE DUTIES A POLICE OFFICER PERFORMS AND BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE QUALITIES REQUI RED FOR A SUCCESSFUL PROFESSIONAL CAREER. Now. A-27 . There are other skills to acquire that you may have never considered. age 20 or older with at least a high school education and the ability to pass an intense written examination.SKILLS UNIQUE TO CRIME FIGHTING L7 To become an officer you must be a citizen. to successfully perform their duties. we will more about the demands of protecting the public and the skills needed from all officers who wear a badge. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. But that’s only part of the picture. You will have to switch from a state of peace and calm to an adrenaline-filled struggle for survival the next. a police officer must possess skills that few other professions demand.

When you deal with the public. and right NOW! Speed of thought and speed of action can resolve a situation before it has a chance to escalate into something more serious. wearing the proper uniform. Can your body handle the rapid changes and survive? The first target is your cardiovascular and respiratory systems. fat inside your body can literally get in the way of movement of your body parts. Consider the demands of the job. It's developed by punching properly. then jump out to run a foot race with a fleeing felon. People really do care about "their" police. If you lose control of your temper. state and nation. not you personally. you can do it decisively. and maintain order among individuals and groups are necessary. Then you have to safeguard his well being while you take him back to the police station. People may see the mayor on television. All that is said about diet and exercise is critical to a successful police career but because of the unique demands on police. They are saluting what you represent. Being mentally prepared means that once you've decided to take an action. A-28 . A lithe and well-trained police officer could probably walk all over a Sumo wrestler. calm. They don't know you and you probably don't know them. as aggressively as necessary. Keeping physically fit is very important. Muscle strength and stamina can give you an edge over the weightlifter. It gives you the element of surprise. You ARE the image of government in your jurisdiction. and collected. and be cool. When you catch him. not the blubber that hangs over your belt. A properly designed exercise program can improve the circulation of your blood and increase your lung capacity. While other people may have a "bad day. and you have thus lost control of the situation. If your joints are stiff. Commensurate mental and physical skills necessary to walk/stand for long periods of time. you must be neat. He may be the high school weightlifting champion but your job is to subdue him and take him into custody. You may ride in a car all day. verbal communication skills are necessary. you need to pay attention to four specific targets. Body fat." you can't. Your physical attitude has quickly shifted from inertia to exertion. In training. it's not their fault that you feel "out of sorts. Review them and see if you’re up to the job! As the representative of "government" in the eyes of your citizens. but the one they deal with every day is YOU.” The following is list of the skills that are unique to being a police officer. Punching power is NOT developed by doing biceps curls with a dumbbell. respond to emergencies. and you get him under control. you lose control of yourself. your physical appearance and mental attitude reflect on police officers everywhere. Obviously. cleaned and pressed." You are still the personification of authority. But you have to be able to do those techniques. you have the upper hand. you will learn a variety of defensive techniques that enable you to control a person stronger than you. People often wave as you walk by in uniform or drive by in a police car. he turns to fight. If you react before the aggressor expects it.L7 SKILLS UNIQUE TO CRIME FIGHTING A recent jobs posting for a position as a police office read as follows: “Strong. and your mental attitude has quickly shifted from overcoming an adversary to protecting your prisoner. and more involved for an officer than a regular citizen. Remain cool and calm during all this. your town. your performance will suffer.

It's important when you are talking with a subject. When you enter a crowded elevator and face the people already there. And that serves your safety better. if you just want to talk with a citizen you don't approach into HIS inner zone where you make him feel uncomfortable and possible cause him to react. Yes. Everyone is circled by three zones. Next is the defense zone where you are on the defensive. A civilian might name these zones social. Knowing this helps you to avoid letting someone get so close you have no time to react to an unexpected threat. A-29 . shoulders back. When you enter an elevator with another person. but more likely you want to appear interested and cooperative until a subject gives you cause to appear otherwise. chin forward. he could attack you and you wouldn't have time to react in defense. Besides. By the same token. hands on hips? He was expressing dominance. about one arm's length plus one hand. ever notice how the two of you will share the confined space equally? Make it three people in the elevator and they divide the space into thirds. head up. if you were that close. That's because one's "personal space" extends farther to the front than it does to the sides or rear. The innermost. The outermost for a police officer is the alert zone. It is in this zone where an intrusion is likely to cause a reaction. L7 Physical fitness is essential to a crime fighter — just as it’s an important part of every JPA training. notice how they feel uncomfortable. you don't let him get into the inner zone where he could easily attack you. and to avoid your precipitating a aggressive reaction by another when you approach him. there may be times you want to express dominance.DEALING WITH PEOPLE Remember the TV ad showing the Marine Drill Instructor right up in the recruit's face. personal and intimate. is the attack zone.

Point to the driver you want to react to your signal. then wiggle their fingers at a car to tell him to come through the intersection. And you don't want to be standing in front of their headlights. The automobile has killed more Americans than all of the wars in which the United States has participated. a parade. you have to direct traffic around the accident scene. People interpret a flashlight moving side to side as a stop signal. Then sweep your entire arm to indicate what you want him to do. In daylight. Effective traffic enforcement can potentially save more lives than anything else you do. Who could even see his fingers? Drivers can't obey your signals if they can't see or don't understand them. fatalities don't always make the evening news. A traffic signal works 24hours a day and never needs to go to the bathroom. Traffic is usually the first problem your citizens complain about. 3. 2. the only force operating in this motor mayhem is the police. At dusk. the high school football game dumping 500 cars in one bunch onto city streets. When you want them to go. then sweep your hand and arm across in front of you. Even if you're assigned to patrol and you respond to an automobile accident. Roads and highways are better than they used to be. You want him to turn behind you? Sweep your arm but bring your hand past your head on the side you want him to turn. Your whole body becomes a signpost. wear florescent orange gloves. Always face the traffic that's stopped with your side toward the traffic that's moving. road construction. I've seen many on television news shows. 1. but it is fundamental to being a police officer. but there are special events. You might park your car with the headlights shining on you. You want him to lake a left turn around you? Sweep your arm around. but you still need a source of light for drivers to see them. Directing traffic is not an efficient use of police personnel. You can use your flashlight to extend your signals. I'll bet most departments have a traffic officer who can make a ballet of directing traffic. wear white gloves. A reflective vest and gloves are a must after dark. Accidents are so common. You want him to cross the intersection in front of you? Point.L7 SKILLS UNIQUE TO CRIME FIGHTING THE FINE ART OF DIRECTING TRAFFIC Directing traffic sounds mundane. point the light at them and move it just as if you were giving a daytime signal. Why is the appearance of an officer important? Why is it important for police officers to stay in good physical condition? How can one’s posture express dominance? Interest? What are the three zones around a officer? What are the three zones around you? A-30 . but there are some four million miles of public roads in America. you may need to put out flares or lighted barriers give advanced warning and to protect yourself. When there are long approaches to where you're directing traffic. When traffic exceeds the design capability of the area. Directing traffic is an opportunity to have a lot of fun. 4. 5. Despite many improvements. I've seen police officers directing traffic at dusk wearing black gloves. an accident. I don't know why that's effective. the signal being replaced. but it is. it's the police officer to helps it to flow smoothly. Giving good signals should be emphasized more than it is.

We have all had moments when we thought differently than someone. Now.CONFLICT RESOLUTION L8 Conflict occurs whenever people don’t agree on a subject. Sometimes these disagreements are with strangers. resulting in an argument. Sometimes the officer’s presence is the cause of the conflict. When conflict happens between people that care for each other it is called a domestic conflict. It is the officer’s duty to help the people involved resolve their differences. The disagreement can explode. a physical altercation. because almost every call that an officer responds to includes some element of conflict. At times. shouting match. but often we disagree with the people that are closest to us. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. This is known as Conflict Resolution. we will examine domestic conflicts and learn skills that can help us resolve these situations. our family and our friends. Usually. law enforcement officers are usually called to defuse the situation. and to take control of a high conflict situation ensuring the safety of everyone involved. OBJECTIVE: TO HELP CADETS BETTER UNDERSTAND HOW DEALING WITH CONFLICTS IS A VERY IMPORTANT PART OF AN OFFICERS JOB. though. people are able to settle these minor conflicts on their own. When a conflict reaches this level. In this lesson. THEY WILL ALSO HAVE A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF HOW TO DEAL WITH CONFLICT IN THEIR OWN LIVES. It is one of the most important skills that an officer can develop. or at its worst. This can happen anywhere. these situations can get out of control. A-31 . anytime. Having good conflict resolution skills enables the officer to stay calm. OVERVIEW: THIS LESSON WILL DISCUSS THE DIFFERENT WAYS THAT OFFICERS DEAL WITH CONFLICTS AND METHODS TO RESOLVE THEM. and to anyone.

The officer should do everything that he can to make sure that the situation will not repeat itself. and how to fix the problem. In a situation where emotions are really high. Handling a domestic situation is a special challenge Domestic conflict situations are very complex. This can be between a husband and wife. His first priority is to restore order to the scene. It is harder for an intoxicated person to understand why there is a disagreement. parents and their child. This often makes it difficult because there is a chance that the officer will be seen as an intruder. Reasons that domestic conflicts get out of control One of the most common elements in these situations is alcohol use. the officer can become a target. and ensure the safety of everyone there. It is important to know how many people are involved. He must then help the people that are having the disagreement to resolve the conflict. If possible. Knowing this. rather than a person who is there to help. because the dispute happens between people who care for each other. Sometimes disagreements happen because of the strong emotions that come with a close relationship. Have the cadets discuss each step completely. and his attempts to defuse the situation will be more difficult. Being intoxicated affects a person’s judgment and impairs his or her ability to reason. In a domestic setting. What causes domestic conflict? There are countless causes for conflict situations to arise. The officer’s role in domestic conflict situations When handling a domestic conflict. these factors can cause the conflict to reach a state of crisis. the officer has many responsibilities. the people involved do care for each other. Other times. or close friends that live with one another. try to get a good idea of what is happening.L8 CONFLICT RESOLUTION This section deals with the causes of domestic conflict and the officer’s role in resolving the situation. if there is a potential threat and if this situation has happened before. and how you can prepare for any threats to your safety. that person might make decisions that he or she wouldn’t normally make. A-32 . If this happens. having many things that are shared and spending a lot time together can create more reasons for people to disagree. What is a domestic conflict? A domestic conflict is a disagreement that occurs between people that care for one another. try to contact the officer that handled the situation before. She or he may have additional information that can help you. these reasons seem to multiply. Because his or her judgment has been affected. *Outlined below is a recommended procedure for conflict resolution. RESPONDING TO A DOMESTIC CONFLICT CALL Approaching the Situation Before arriving at the scene. you can think about how your will approach the scene. It is important to remember that whatever the cause of conflict.

you should be confident that the problem has been solved. they should be asked to wait somewhere where they will not witness what is going on. let each of them tell you their side of the story. your first step should be to figure out what the problem is. they should discuss what caused the problem. Listen. Show them that you care about what they are telling you by listening to everything they have to say. Calm Everyone Down The first step in reaching a resolution is to calm everyone down. bring them back together to reach a resolution. Make sure to listen to each side of the story impartially. and that you will not have to return. pay special attention to everything that is lying around to make sure that there are no weapons. and will not attack you. Let each of them tell his or her story in front of the other. You will not be able to reach any decisions or resolve the conflict until you have a full picture of what initially caused the conflict. Always call for backup. Make sure that you let the dispatcher and any nearby units know exactly what is happening at all times. If you have arrested anyone. Listen. traps or other threats to your safety. Reaching a Resolution After everyone has calmed down. and make sure another argument doesn’t break out. You will probably have to separate the people that were involved. and how the situation got out of hand. If there is anyone else at the scene. Find out who is involved in the conflict. Never enter a conflict situation alone. When entering a scene. and what they can do to keep it from happening again. and wait until they arrive. make sure that the remaining people have been calmed down completely.Safety Take steps to ensure your safety. Domestic situations present this special safety challenge because people often do not like to see their loved ones arrested. Listen… It is very important to pay full attention to everything you are told. Leaving the Scene Before you leave the scene. Assessing the Scene When you arrive at the scene. With your help. Once you have separated the people involved. L8 A-33 . and what caused the problem.

people will try to reach a resolution using the other strategies first. 1. to avoid arrest. Often. Compromise In a compromise. The ability to resolve conflicts to one of the first skills cadets will learn. 4. but each person wants there to be resolution even if they have to give a few things up.L8 CONFLICT RESOLUTION RESOLUTION STRATEGIES There are a number of different ways to reach resolution in a conflict situation: Competition By identifying and separating the emotional arguments from the intellectual ones. Separation Sometimes the only way to resolve a conflict situation in by separating everyone involved. How can an officer ensure his or her safety during a conflict situation? The best way to resole a conflict is by arresting someone. Name one type of conflict situation. Besides law enforcement. everyone may not get everything that they want. Arrest Arresting one or more of the people involved in a conflict is usually the last resort. Collaboration Collaboration occurs when everyone involved works together to find the best solution. and everyone gets his or her individual needs met. VOCABULARY judgment reason impair domestic conflict RESOLVING A CONFLICT Have cadets role-play a conflict situation and it’s resolution. 5. what other areas involve conflict resolution skills? A-34 . unless it is required by law. 2. Identify strategies from this lesson as they are used in the exercise. True or False? Name 2 strategies that can be used to resolve a conflict. an officer can help resolve miscommunications. 3.

when you’re done chatting. Why do they use codes in these situations? Discuss the need to keep police communication confidential. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND REVIEW THE "SECRET LANGUAGE OF POLICE. • • • In this unit. “laughing out loud” verses “LOL. Some of the codes are familiar.” But many of the codes are secret. you know how useful shorthand can be when you want to communicate information quickly. Police have their own language of codes to communicate situations with each other and their dispatch center.” It’s so much quicker to type just the few letters. OBJECTIVE: C ADE T S WI LL D E VE LO P AN APPRECIATION FOR A POLICE OFFICER’S NEED TO COMMUNICATE CONCISELY.THE SECRET LANGUAGE OF POLICE L9 If any of you have used shorthand acronyms when talking to friends on Internet instant messenger programs." CONCLUDE BY TESTING THE CADETS' COMMAND OF THE POLICE CODE. typing “10-84.” or. OVERVIEW: DICUSS THE NEED FOR A CODE OF C O MMU NI C ATI O N FO R L AW ENFORCERS. Ask the cadets reasons why there is a need for a uniform code when communicating with police headquarters and other police officers. Imagine typing. Ask them what might happen if there was confusion when delivering a message in an emergency situation. CLEARLY AND WITH STEALTH. A-35 . you’ll get an introduction to some of the codes.” Now. such “10-4. You never know — you may find yourself asking your friends online to go on a “10-12. Why do you think it would be important for police to keep some of the codes confidential? Discuss: • Ask the cadets if they ever use codes when communicating with their friends. These codes are used because they’re efficient and confidential.

the police were looking at technology to help keep pace. THE BEGINNING During the 1920’s. so the radio was their source of entertainment) Notorious for being unreliable and difficult to keep on the correct frequency. The telephone is duplex. and they can't hear if someone else tries to transmit at the same time. Ask the cadets: What communication system was developed? (The police radio) Ask the cadets: On what frequency was the first police radio transmission? (AM) THE DEPRESSION YEARS It should be remembered that the early 1930’s were the deepest of the depression years. That's true with cellular phones. While radios had become very popular. Radio is simplex. when the police received a call of sufficient importance. It's important that you speak distinctly and enunciate words precisely. that is. police departments across the country began experimenting with radio as a crime-fighting tool. A-36 . Several years of testing followed. many people listened to the radio? Why? (People didn’t go out much because of lack of money. USING AM RADIO STATIONS The earliest police radio “systems” were simple arrangements with local AM radio broadcasters. for example. used WGN’s (720-AM0 facilities for about a year starting in 1929.L9 THE SECRET LANGUAGE OF POLICE POLICE COMMUNICATIONS: NO EASY TASK Talking on a police radio isn't the same as talking on the phone. After about a year they decided this new invention was workable. If you don't understand what he said. But few radios are set up for duplex operation. It isn't enough to just hear what the other person said. Investigation into the use of the radio to more quickly dispatch officers to where they were needed was done. the police calls could be heard as they were being transmitted) Discussion: During the Depression years. Chicago Police. and people didn’t go out much. even as far as the east coast and Hawaii. When a police officer speaks into their radio only they are heard by others listening. so they applied to the Federal Radio Commission and got licenses for three transmitters around Chicago. the signal of the LAPD could be heard all across the country. that's NOT communication. they would phone it to the radio station where the announcer or engineer would interrupt the regular program to announce the call…the police cruisers kept their AM car radios turned to this radio station. both persons can talk at the same time. Communication does not happen unless one person transmits something and another person receives it -. too. good radio programs had not yet been developed. Ask the cadets: Why was the AM frequency generally not a good idea? (Because if the public was listening to the radio.AND UNDERSTANDS IT. Also consider that a police car can be a noisy environment. As criminals were making greater use of automobiles. At night. these early wireless radios were state of the art in the 50’s. Since police broadcasts were just above the AM broadcast band – most home radios could tune them in.

county and state law enforcement and emergency services have the ability to communicate with one another on the same frequency in a given area. city. Routine calls were sent by a conveyor belt to the radio room which had dispatcher positions and a “link” operator. 2003 At the present time. Those requiring police service were routed by a conveyor belt on top of the switchboard to a dispatcher (a policeman) in the remote-control room. Another development has been communications between aircraft. This served both to alert detectives to a possible call for them. L9 A-37 . who would broadcast it to the proper car. fire and emergency units. When an emergency call such as a robbery or homicide was received at the complaint board. Officers could receive calls. using the LAPD as an example. RADIO FREQUENCIES The next development was the police radio band which operated on its own frequency. Before long. Police Officers worked a “complaint board” receiving incoming calls directly from a new telephone number instead of having them relayed by the city hall switchboard. as well as to reduce the chance of human error by the board officer. A new system that was instituted increased speed in answering and dispatching calls. calls were all received by the main City Hall switchboard operators.THE LA POLICE DEPARTMENT In the beginning. ground units and water craft. it was recognized that the value of police radio could be better realized by a more streamlined method of call-taking. The problem here was that communities developed around metropolitan areas and it wasn’t possible to direct communication between police. the officer could press a button and his telephone conversation would be carried over loudspeakers installed in the Business Office Division and in Robbery and Homicide Bureaus. but could not “talk back” to the dispatcher.

L9 L8


Have the cadets divide up into groups. Conduct one of the following exercises to test the cadets’ command of the police code: Radio Dispatch Distribute hand held radios (if available), although for this lesson other objects may stand in for the real thing. Next, dispatch a group to the parking lost and ask them to find a particular car. They should then call in the license number using the phonetic plate numbers on the chalkboard and ask one group representative at a time to spell out the plate. Charades Have one cadet from each group come to the front of the room. The instructor should write one of the codes on a piece of paper. Show what you have written to the group. Without speaking, have your group of cadets act out the meaning of the code for their group. The first group to successfully guess the code wins!


Robert Sam Tom Union Victor Xray Young Zebra

10-1 10-2 10-4 10-9 10-10 10-12 10-18 10-20 10-23 10-27 10-28 10-29 10-30 10-33 10-34 10-39 10-50 10-60 10-61 10-70 10-71 10-78 10-81 10-84 10-85 Transmission Weak Transmission Strong Affirmative/OK Repeat Negative Standby Urgent Location Arrived At Scene Driver License Info Vehicle Registration Wanted/Warrant Check Use Caution Emergency Time Abandoned Vehicle Accident Suspicious Person/Vehicle Vehicle Stop Improperly Parked Car Improper Use of Radio Officer Needs Assistance Return To Station/Dept. Permission To Leave Assist Motorist

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q Adam Boy Charles David Edward Frank George Henry Ida John King Lincoln Mary Nora Ocean Paul Queen

Discuss with the class the need for using a consistent set of codes. Discuss why emergency situations should be communicated in code over the radio.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Why was it necessary to develop a system of communications between the police and incoming calls to the department as a crime fighting tool? What communication system was developed? On what frequency was the first police radio transmission? Why was the AM frequency generally not a good idea? During the Depression years, many people listened to the radio. Why?




From computer wiz to youth counselor to communications technician — crime fighters come in many sizes and skills. There are a variety of law enforcement jobs available to those who pass the police exam and make it through police academy training.

If you have a specialized skill, chances are there is a special unit of the law enforcement community that is right for you. Some police officers specialize in such diverse fields as chemical and microscopic analysis, training and firearms instruction, or handwriting and fingerprint identification.


About 10 percent of local and special law enforcement officers perform jail-related duties, and around 4 percent work in courts. Others work with special units such as horseback, bicycle, motorcycle or harbor patrol, canine corps, or special weapons and tactics (SWAT) or emergency response teams. Some law enforcement jobs are more difficult to obtain and more dangerous than others, but all are rewarding in their own way.

Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit.




DIVISIONS, UNITS & SQUADS: A TEAMWORK APPROACH TO POLICING A Police organization is branched according to operational tasks. The following is a list of divisions within a police department. Each police department is divided differently. Some will have far fewer divisions, while others may have many more than are listed here. Patrol At the center of police law enforcement is patrol. This involves movement of uniformed police personnel, on foot or in vehicles, through designated areas. In most departments, at least half of all police personnel are assigned to patrol. Officers on patrol have a variety of duties that include interviewing and interrogating suspects, arresting lawbreakers; controlling crowds at public gatherings; enforcing laws regulating public conduct; intervening in personal, family, and public disputes; issuing warnings and citations; and providing miscellaneous services to members of the public. Staff Functions Staff functions are activities performed by police officers to help administrators organize and manage the police agency. Personnel recruitment, selection, and training; planning; finance; employee services; public relations; and use of civilian personnel are examples of staff work. Crime Laboratory Because solutions to many crimes are found through the application of physical and biological sciences, the crime laboratory is of great value to law enforcement officers. Transportation Police mobility is crucial to crime prevention. Police officers must have the capability of moving safely and swiftly to meet their responsibilities. Communications Communications in a police agency are the lifeline of the organization. Most police department communication systems have three parts: the telephone system, command and control operations, and radio communications. Intelligence Information is gathered to keep police officials attuned to happenings in their areas of jurisdiction by providing insight into community conditions, potential problem areas, and criminal activities. Internal Affairs Another auxiliary staff service is internal discipline. Discipline and accountability are vital to any police agency in maintaining its integrity. Internal discipline, also known as internal affairs, involves investigation of complaints related to police department services and personnel.


Coroner's Liaison Unit Unit works with the Coroner’s Office and assists in identification of deceased victims. Financial Crime Unit Investigates all crime dealing with: ATM fraud credit card fraud forgery scams counterfeit welfare fraud cell phone fraud internet fraud computer forensics computer crime pyramid schemes Gaming Unit The Unit responsible for the monitoring, tracking and enforcement of all illegal gambling activities. Homicide Squad Investigates murder cases. Youth Services Unit Youth Services Unit is responsible for: The prevention and investigation of youth violence in and around schools. The investigation of property crime involving youth. Dealing with street entrenched youth Assisting School Liaison Officers

Can you determine the function of the Division or Squad just by its name? Give it a try with the list below. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Internal Investigations K-9 Units Dog Squad Media Liaison Mounted Squad Polygraph Unit Reserve Police Force (Auxiliary Police) Robbery Squad School Liaison Team Vice and Drugs Section Victim Services Unit

JPA Cadets stay active. Running a real obstacle course, visiting a Police Academy and just hanging out with other cadets.



Be Fair A true commander is fair to all; to his superiors, his peers and the people under his command. He is fair to all, regardless of their race, color, ethnicity, sex, age or disability. It’s not the laws that ensure this, it’s the attitude of the commander. Be Willing to Help True police commanders are always willing to help their personnel and their constituents. Whether it’s clearing red tape for their subordinates, or solving problems for their constituents, they are always willing to help in any way they can. Leadership Summary A leader must be a person of impeccable character. Honesty begets honesty. To the contrary, a person who will manipulate or lie to a subordinate invites disloyalty and reciprocal lies. Courage, both moral and physical, is a character trait, and it is infectious. Humility before one's subordinates invites both loyalty and respect. And finally, a true leader must possess a sense of vision, and an ability to communicate to his people what they are doing, why and how it fits into the large scheme of things. Review Questions: Why is loyalty so important to success as a police commander? How is loyalty developed by a commander? List three traits that subordinates want in their commander. Define “common sense” as it relates to a police leader.

QUALITIES OF A LEADER As police officers move up in the chain of command, they must lead others and develop strong leadership skills. Review the following attributes of a strong leader. Write each quality on the board and discuss it with your cadets. EXPLAIN TO CADETS: As a police commander or a leader in any organization — from the school yearbook staff to captain of the football team, — you need the loyalty of the people around you. To help you, here are a few tips on developing loyalty. Be Pleasant and Approachable Loyalty starts out by having a mutually good feeling about the other person. A smile and a warm “good morning” are a good starting place. Over time, your pleasant attitude and approachability will help foster an atmosphere of mutual understanding and commitment. Help Your People to Do Their Jobs As their commander, you are in a position to eliminate stumbling blocks to the successful completion of your subordinates’ tasks. You may have to cut some “red tape” for them, make sure they have the right equipment, or assign more resources to help them. But most importantly, be sure that you give them the encouragement they need to perform their most difficult tasks. Be Honest Far and away this is the single most important attribute that police commanders must possess. Keep your promises or don’t make them. Deal with every person you come in contact with as an honest and forthright person. Your reputation will both follow and precede you.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A-42

Name 3 other police related careers? Name 3 staff functions? What would be a good law enforcement job for a student who likes science? What about a student who enjoys art? How would your talents fit into a law enforcement career?

DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND EXPLAIN THE EVOLUTION AND DUTIES OF THE SRO. and orderly environment. One of the changes is that more and more schools have an in-school resource officer. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL RECOGNIZE THE NEED FOR A PROFESSIONAL LAW ENFORCEMENT PRESENCE ON SCHOOL GROUNDS AND GAIN A DEEPER APPRECIATION FOR THE MANY CHALLENGES AN SRO MUST FACE. secure. A-43 . These officers work in schools to provide a more safe. A lot of changes were made in school security after Columbine — can you think of any examples? OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE DEFINITION OF A SCHOOL RESOURCE OFFICER. law-related counselor. and advisor/educator. Now. What kinds of schools would you imagine would need more law enforcement? What kinds of schools might need more law-related education? Chief Patrick Fuller and Austin JPA Cadets. These in-school resource officers have three services: law enforcement. How much time is spent on each of the three services depends on the school and the students.SCHOOL RESOURCE OFFICER L11 The Columbine High School massacre that happened a few years ago made people across the United States very aware that schools aren’t always the safe place they were once assumed to be. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit.

The ultimate goal of an SRO program is to maintain and improve the safety of the learning environment in our schools through the reduction and prevention of school violence and drug abuse. constitutional rights. Many SRO’s find themselves at the front of the class. search and seizure. law enforcement officer law-related counselor law-related education teacher TEACHER AND MENTOR The SRO serves as teacher. The SRO is specifically trained to perform three roles: 1. such as: disorderly conduct by trespassers. 3. providing instruction on topics such as the history of law enforcement. counselor and role model. works closely with the principal and vice-principal to determine the best course of action. DUTIES OF AN SRO • To foster educational programs and activities that will increase student's knowledge of and respect for the law and the function of law enforcement agencies. Rather. To act swiftly and cooperatively when responding to major disruptions and flagrant criminal offenses at school. personalized policing to a school setting. While his primary focus is prevention and deterrence. To report serious crimes that occur on campus and to cooperate with the law enforcement officials in their investigation of crimes that occur at school. The officer participates in PTO and faculty meetings. To provide traffic control and crossing guards at schools when deemed necessary for the safety and protection of students and the general public when the regular traffic control officer or crossing guard is absent. the illegal sale and/or distribution of controlled substances. and riots. student social functions and sporting events. The SRO is not the school disciplinarian. The School Resource Officer's duties extend far beyond the classroom and normal work day. coordinating his activities with the building administrator. the possession and use of weapons on campus. the SRO conducts all criminal investigations on campus. • • • • Officer John Clapp and JPA Cadets from White Settlement.L11 SCHOOL RESOURCE OFFICER An SRO is a certified law enforcement officer who is permanently assigned to a school or a set of schools. To cooperate with law enforcement officials in their investigations of criminal offenses which occur off campus. A-44 . Although under the direct supervision of the Police Department. and drug abuse. criminal law. With a full-time presence in the schools. he is considered a member of the school faculty and as such. club projects. 2. they bring full service. the SRO is an easily recognized and approachable resource for students. Texas.

the number of officers identified as SROs who are working in schools has increased. Since the mid 1990s. Most of the individuals who are described with the title "School Resource Officer" are certified or sworn law enforcement officers who technically work for either police or sheriffs’ departments. • • JPA Advisory Council member." have experience with young people in environments outside the schools.L11 THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE SCHOOL RESOURCE OFFICERS SROs emerged from a combination of police officer involvement in schools and a community-oriented policing philosophy that emphasizes a proactive and prevention-oriented approach to policing. The 1980s and early 1990s were not marked by continuous growth in the number of SRO programs. COMMUNITY POLICING This resurgence of the SRO approach was stimulated by a linkage in many communities of the community-oriented policing philosophy with concerns about the safety. also trace their establishment to the 1970s. and almost all carry a gun while working in their schools. JUST THE FACTS • • More SROs are assigned to high schools than to middle schools or elementary schools. Other programs throughout the country. Most SROs wear their law enforcement uniforms at least sometimes while performing their roles as SROs. Law enforcement agencies and school districts in Florida are believed to be some of the first to launch SRO programs in the 1960s and 1970s. Texas • A-45 . but as the 1990s progressed. and order of schools. security. who coined the term sometime in the early to mid 1960s. Officer John Clapp. and are volunteers for their SRO assignments. The vast majority of officers assigned to schools are not "rookie" police officers but those who have put in "street time. although not many. White Settlement. The term "School Resource Officer" was first used by a police chief in Miami. Florida. A slight majority of SROs are assigned to provide coverage to only one school that is considered by the officer to be his or her "beat". the SRO approach regained momentum as community policing began to be pursued by communities throughout the country.

gradual and eventually complete withdrawal from social contacts can be an important indicator of a troubled child. It is important to consider whether there is a drastic change in performance and/or becomes a chronic condition that limits the child's capacity to learn. and in the course of adolescent development. 2. However. neighborhood. or support student organizations that combat violence. Employ your new skills in other settings. and evaluating your school's violence prevention and response plan. 5) Ask for permission to invite a law enforcement officer to your school to conduct a safety audit and share safety tips. However. many young people experience emotionally painful rejection. such as "Students Against Destructive Decisions" and "Young Heroes Program. 2) Excessive feelings of rejection: In the process of growing up.including physical or sexual abuse. certain early warning signs may be predictors of aggressive rage or violent behavior toward one’s self or others. are sometimes at risk themselves of becoming violent toward themselves or others." 3) Get involved in planning.L11 SCHOOL RESOURCE OFFICER AN SRO’S GUIDE TO CRISIS PREVENTION EARLY WARNING SIGNS It’s not always possible to predict behavior that will lead to violence. 5. QUESTIONS: Which of these steps have you personally performed? Did it prevent a problem? 1. 3) Being a victim of violence: Children who are victims of violence . join. 3. These unmet needs may be manifested in acting out and aggressive behaviors. Share your ideas with the officer. A-46 Why did SRO’s develop? What does an SRO do? What kinds of issues does an SRO deal with? Why would a patrol officer enjoy being an SRO? Besides JPA. anger that is expressed frequently and intensely in response to minor irritants may signal potentially violent behavior toward one’s self or others. 4. Early warning signs include: 1) Social withdrawal: In some situations. and community. such as the home. implementing. 4) Participate in violence prevention programs such as peer mediation and conflict resolution. anger is a natural emotion. such as traveling in groups and avoiding areas known to be unsafe. 6) Help to develop and participate in activities that promote student understanding of differences and that respect the rights of all. ACTION STEPS FOR STUDENTS There is much students can do to help create safe schools. where else do you see your SRO? What is he or she doing and why? . 4) Low school interest and poor academic performance: Poor school achievement can be the result of many factors. Here are some ideas that students in other schools have tried: 1) Listen to your friends if they seem troubled or confused. 6) History of discipline problems: Chronic behavior and disciplinary problems in school and at home may suggest that underlying emotional needs are not being met. 2) Create. 5) Uncontrolled anger: Everyone gets angry.

In this lesson. if it blows up. and conducting security checks at airports. doing suspicious package checks. Most Bomb Squad technicians have received training from the FBI. sometimes that can mean that even your shoes are suspect. and sometimes that can mean extra tight security at airports. we will learn more about the men and woman whose job it is move in. CADETS WILL LEARN TO EVALUATE AND SKILLFULLY HANDLE CRISIS SCENARIOS INVOLVING THE THREAT OF EXPLOSIVE DEVICES. and knows how to dismantle it. after everyone else has run away! Now. Basically. the Bomb Squad is watching out for it. Tobacco and Firearms. It’s the Bomb Squad’s job to make sure that American citizens are safe from explosives. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND REVIEW LAPD BOMB SQUAD ADVICE FOR HANDLING “EXPLOSIVE SITUATIONS” CONCLUDE WITH A HISTORY OF THE LAPD BOMB SQUAD. US Army Explosive Ordinance Disposal personnel and the Bureau of Alcohol. A-47 .BOMB SQUAD L12 The Bomb Squad is called out in all situations involving the possible presence of an explosive device. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. conducting explosive sweeps. OBJECTIVE: C AD E T S WI LL D E VE LO P AN APPRECIATION FOR THE SKILLS AND COURAGE REQUIRED TO SERVE ON THE POLICE BOMB SQUAD. The Squad is responsible for protecting visiting dignitaries. OVERVIEW: D I S C U S S T H E T R AI N I N G AN D RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE BOMB SQUAD. as some of you who’ve traveled by airplane since the terrorist attacks on 9/11. And.

While the latest incidents have involved political terrorism. Bombs can be constructed to look like almost any item and can be delivered in any number of ways. • Excessive postage • Hand written or poorly typed addresses • Titles but no names • Misspellings of common words • Oily stains or discoloration • No return address • Excessive weight Bomb Squad members do not dress for comfort. and components. personal. Letter and package bombs are not new. Patrol officers will respond and give advice regarding bomb threat procedures and options for immediate response. WHAT SHOULD YOU DO IF YOU FINDS A SUSPICIOUS ITEM THAT MIGHT BE A "BOMB"? Do not handle or disturb the suspected item. shape. non-electric or other sophisticated firing systems. airmail and special delivery • Restrictive markings such as confidential. They have electric. Most bombs are homemade and are limited in their design only by the imagination of their maker. WHEN DOES THE BOMB SQUAD RESPOND TO A CALL? The Bomb Squad is notified and responds whenever a suspected explosive device is found. WHAT SHOULD YOU DO IF YOU RECEIVE A SUSPICIOUS PACKAGE IN THE MAIL? Explosive devices can be contained in almost anything. etc.L12 BOMB SQUAD Here is some sound advice from the LAPD Bomb Squad for handling potentially explosive situations. A-48 . Only conventional telephones should be used as cellular telephone transmissions have the potential to detonate a bomb. Immediately call 911 and report it to the police. Immediately evacuate the location and notify the police from a neighbor’s house or a business. such bombs are made for a wide variety of motives. There are different signs that you can look for which might indicate a possible explosive device: • Foreign mail. The particular form of these bombs varies in size. WHAT SHOULD YOU DO AFTER RECEIVING A BOMB THREAT? The resident should call 911 and request the police.

Shrapnel can travel at 3000 feet per second in all directions from the explosion.. A pipe bomb can easily kill someone who is 300 feet away from the explosion because it will throw many pieces of shrapnel in all directions. Home-made Fireworks Home-made fireworks and explosives are very unstable. Pipe Bombs Pipe bombs are one of the most dangerous explosive devices that you may encounter. Crystallized dynamite can detonate with a sudden temperature change of 3 degrees or more. A-49 . According to the FBI’s Bomb Data Center. Some of them have complicated fuses that are designed to detonate the explosive by a slight movement or impact. Commercial Explosives Even commercial explosives can be unpredictable. Military devices Military devices are designed to kill. The explosive filler may get into the threads of the pipe and a small amount of movement may be enough friction to cause the pipe bomb to explode. If you have a bag full of illegal fireworks and one of them goes off accidentally. Some of them contain poisonous gas. impact. you can assume that all of the fireworks in the bag will go off at the same time. The explosive filler can be set off by friction.. Some of the fireworks that are made in Mexico are so unstable and dangerous that they are shipped wet to prevent them from exploding prematurely. sparks or flame.BOMB SQUADS ALSO HANDLE. smokeless powder and fireworks powders. YEARLY DEATH TOLL There are over 50 people killed each year by explosives (not including major events like Oklahoma City) and approximately 500 people injured each year by explosives. A small amount of fireworks going off at the same time in a vehicle can kill everyone who is in that vehicle and scatter parts of the car in all directions. The most common explosives used are black powder. Static electricity may jump from your hand to the pipe causing the pipe bomb to explode. most of these "incidents" occur in residential areas. The metal pieces are razor sharp and will cut through the human body causing fatal wounds. Military devices are often altered by civilians and become even more dangerous. It is usually not the actual explosion of a military device that kills people. L12 The task of a bomb disposal expert is one that takes place from a safe distance. There is no set formula for the explosive that is used in illegal fireworks. heat. It is usually the shrapnel (small pieces of metal) from the explosion that kills people. The most common explosive device encountered in the USA is the pipe bomb.

TODAY A formal Bomb Squad has been serving the residents of Los Angeles since 1950. He responded to calls from officers in the field when a possible explosive device was found. 3. 2. attempt to keep the caller on the line as long as possible. BOMB SQUADS: A BRIEF HISTORY 1. 5. background music or other noise that may give a clue as to the location of the caller. you should ask him for this information. As you are gathering information about the caller write down as much information as possible. listen for any particular background noises such as motors running. It is a good idea to inform the caller that the building is occupied and the detonation of a bomb could result in death or serious injury to innocent people. The school has been in operation for over 25 years and is considered one of the best in the world. But it wasn’t always this way. Ask him to repeat the message and be sure to record every word spoken. The section responds to over 900 calls for service yearly and is responsible for the handling. transportation and rendering safe of all explosive items located within the City. If the caller does not indicate the location of the bomb or the time of possible detonation. SCHOOL FOR BOMBS In 1973.L12 BOMB SQUAD WHAT IF? What should I say to a caller when he warns of a bomb at my location? If you receive a bomb threat over the phone. LAPD BOMB SQUAD To learn more about this vital part of every major police department. Keep the Caller on the Line As you attempt to keep the caller on the line. be prepared to give an accurate description of the caller's voice including any regional accents or speech impediments. 4. Alabama. Fireworks are dangerous and illegal within the city limits of most cities. we will focus on one of the best and busiest units in America -.the Los Angeles Police HISTORY: A ONE MAN SHOW In 1950. Every year numerous children and adults are injured or burned as a result of playing with fireworks. assigned to Scientific Investigation Division (SID) was probably the first officer on the Department recognized as an explosives expert. Graduates of HDS can be found in nearly every Bomb Squad in the country and many foreign countries. Are fireworks considered explosive devices? Fireworks are considered explosive devices. and they are extremely dangerous. When the police arrive at your location. Police Officer DeWayne Wolfer. The Bomb Squad unit is comprised of 14 highly trained officers and two explosive detection canines. The school trains over 400 students per year in both the basic and refresher Hazardous Devices courses. officers began receiving formal explosives training at the newly established FBI Hazardous Devices School at Redstone Army Arsenal in Huntsville. List three responsibilities of the Bomb Squad? What should you do if you receive a bomb threat? Name one of the most dangerous types of bombs? What are the signs that a person can look for when trying to identify an explosive device? What traits might you look for in a person wanting to be on the bomb squad? A-50 .

CONCLUDE BY TESTING THE CADETS' MEMORY OF DETAILS. and to create drawings of their descriptions. The primary role of Forensic Artists (often known as Composite Sketch Artists) is to listen very carefully to victims or witnesses of crimes. CADETS WILL DEVELOP THEIR OWN SKILLS OF OBSERVATION THROUGH MEMORY EXERCISES. And imagine what a tough job it would be to take that description.POLICE SKETCH ARTIST L13 How would you describe your face to someone? How would you describe your nose. and turn it into a drawing. Now. spending up to five hours working on a sketch. It can be hard to know how to describe your own face. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND DISCUSS THE SKILLS REQUIRED BY A SKETCH ARTIST. OBJECTIVE: C AD E T S WI L L R E C O G N I Z E T H E CONTRIBUTIONS OF A POLICE SKETCH ARTIST AND THE EXPERT SKILLS WITH WHICH THEY PURSUE JUSTICE. or your chin or your eyes? What defining features would you tell them about — freckles? Scars? Piercings? How would you explain the shape of your jaw to someone? How would you explain the distance between your eyes? OVERVIEW: DISCUSS HOW A FORENSIC ARTIST TURNS A WITNESS’S DESCRIPTION INTO A DRAWING. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. let alone a face you had only seen once. A-51 . The sketch artist relies heavily on the memory of victims and witnesses.

and facial reconstruction sketches from skulls. a Forensic Artist will often show the victim or witness a binder full of pictures of people of different races. the FBI might never have caught Ted Kaczynski. and of sound moral character. in some cases. were they sunglasses? What was the male passenger wearing? Was the female talking on a phone or fixing her hair? Was there a car behind the cab? If so. Their talents are called upon for courtroom sketches.) 1. 13. which the Forensic Artist shows to the witness along the way and changes to fit their memories. Forensic artists have played an important role in the identification of bodies. age progression. was it a male or female? What was in the street behind the cab? What was the nationality of the female? What was the nationality of the passenger? What was the nationality of the cab driver? Was the male passenger clean shaven or did he had a mustache or beard? Was there something sitting directly behind the cab? What was it. 15. It is. Was the male passenger getting in/out of the front seat or back seat? Did the cab driver have on a uniform? What was the cab driver wearing? Did the female have on jewelry? If so. drafting crime scenes. 19. a candidate obviously must be able to draw accurate renditions of suspects from verbal descriptions. 2. In order to become a forensic artist. Did the cab driver have a mustache? Could you tell if the male passenger was reaching for something? A-52 . Sketch of the Unabomber PEOPLE SKILLS The Forensic Artist must not only be an accomplished artist. 14. after all. the victim of a crime who will most likely be constructing the image from memory. odontology (study of teeth). quickly turn the image face down on the desk. 17. ages and characteristics. 12. forensic artists are also trained in the fields of human anatomy.L13 POLICE SKETCH ARTIST Forensic art (as it is usually called) plays an important role in the criminal justice system. 3D imagery. Explain that crimes happen very quickly and most witnesses only get a glance at the suspects. Now instruct the cadets to answer the following questions. 3. To assist. Without that infamous and widely distributed sketch of the Unabomber. and. who killed Polly Klaas. 10. trustworthy. After one minute. but they must be very compassionate and work well with victims. 5. 11. 4. such as serial killer Ted Bundy and Richard Allen Davis. 6. Did the cab appear to be in a crosswalk? Was there anyone walking across the street? If so. what was she wearing What was the name of the cab company? Was the cab driver wearing glasses? If so. and also helped police capture elusive criminals. 8. medical drawings for autopsies. (They may work in groups. In the United States. 18." TAKING SHAPE The sketches start out as a hazy gray circle roughly in the outline of the face. psychology. In the words of one prominent Forensic Artist: "Many times they can't remember all the pieces of the face. so I ask them to flip through until something makes them feel warm. 7. "wanted" posters. It generally takes between two and five hours to complete a sketch. 9. what color was it. but they must also be board-certified. EXERCISE ONE: IT ALL HAPPENED SO QUICKLY! Hold up Image # on the facing page so that all the cadets clearly see the details of the photograph. 16.

rape and robbery would have gone unsolved without Lois' drawings. more than 135 criminals have been positively identified and brought to justice in Texas. "Her skill as a sketch artist has proven to be a valuable tool to the HPD. "but to set a world record through my work that has helped bring to justice so many suspects makes it incredibly rewarding." "Lois has been an exemplary employee with the Houston Police Department.L13 Image #1 HOUSTON POLICE SKETCH ARTIST LOIS GIBSON HAS SET A NEW WORLD RECORD.O. Her sketches have helped raise an awareness in the community about suspects which has led to several successful arrests and convictions. on February 6. Bradford." "To get a world record is terrific." A-53 . Ltd. 2003 for her composite sketches that have led to the arrests of dozens of suspects." said Houston Police Chief C. Police officials claim these criminal cases dealing with murder." said Gibson. The certificate states: "Since 1982. due to the detailed composites drawn by forensic artist Lois Gibson. Gibson received a certificate from the Guinness World Records.

QUESTION SHEET Circle the correct answer questions 1 through 4 on the basis of your memory. What is another name for a Sketch Artist? 5. which one of the following choices is correct? (Circle the correct statements. What is the primary role of the Sketch Artist? 2. • • The person is blind in his left eye. what else must a sketch artist be? A-54 . discuss the difficulty of remembering facial features. 2. THREATENS VICTIMS WITH AN UZI MACHINE GUN. Usually wears thick glasses. which one of the following choices is correct? (Circle the correct statements. WANTED FOR MULTIPLE ROBBERIES. PARTICULARLY LATE MODEL MERCEDES-BENZ CONVERTIBLES. • The person goes by the nickname of "Snow. Other than being an accomplished artist. OFTEN ACCOMPANIED BY A YOUNG HISPANIC WHO GOES BY THE NICKNAME "MONEY".) • The person poses as a doctor.L13 POLICE SKETCH ARTIST THE FACE OF CRIME Permit the cadets a full 10 minutes to memorize everything they can about the fugitives below. WANTED FOR RUNNING A "CHOP SHOP" AND MULTIPLE THEFTS OF LUXURY AUTOS. Hair: Brown Eyes: Brown Complexion: Medium Scars/Marks: Beauty mark (mole) on left cheek. Hair: Brown Eyes: Brown Complexion: Medium Scars/Marks: Missing ring finger on left hand. With regard to the person wanted for auto theft. 1. Instruct the cadets to answer the Question Sheet. Why is having a good sketch artist so critical to a police department? 3. Handouts should be turned over. • The person drives a white BMW. WANTED FOR DRUG SALES Name: Beverly Rhodes Age: 35-40 Race: Black Height: 5'4" Weight: 120 lbs." • The person walks with a limp. WANTED FOR AUTO THEFT Juana Lopez Age: 21 Race: Hispanic Height: 5'11" Weight: 190 lbs.) • The person is missing a ring finger on their left hand. Again. The person drives a Mercedes-Benz convertible. With regard to the person who is wanted for drug sales. YOU MAY NOT LOOK BACK AT THE FACT SHEET! 1. At the end of ten minutes. What are the tools of a Sketch Artist? 4. • The person wears glasses.

K-9 UNIT L14 We’ve spent a lot of time talking about all the people who make up the different arms of law enforcement in the United States. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. “after spending about 8 hours going through an avalanche area. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS WHY CANINES CAN BE USEFUL IN LAW ENFORCEMENT. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL GAIN AN APPRECIATION FOR K-9’S AND THEIR POLICE HANDLERS. They can find drugs hidden in a suitcase at the airport. They can find survivors in the rubble of an earthquake. Once we had accounted for everybody. but what about the four-legged law enforcement? Dogs play a crucial role in many law enforcement activities. CONCLUDE BY DISCUSSING THE TRAITS OF AN EFFECTIVE K-9 PARTNER. ADVANTAGES AND DRAWBACKS OF A K-9 UNIT. The dog that found me was ecstatic that it had finally found somebody to save. most of which revolve around their most valuable tool: their noses. bodies in forests. Don’t think that just because a dog's sense of smell is up to a million times more sensitive than yours that it’s not hard work. and guns in closets. a couple trainers asked some of us to partly bury ourselves so that the dogs could end their day finding a live body. but a couple of the dogs were still trying to find anybody they could. Dogs can track all sorts of things in all sorts of places. Working with police dogs can be very sad. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND EXPLAIN THE HISTORY.” Now. One man who worked with rescue dogs after an avalanche explained that. All police dogs go through rigorous training. They can find bombs in cars. A-55 . we were all exhausted.

but the choice to create one is based upon the departments workload. Rottweilers. around 1900 and was soon being used elsewhere. ALL IN THE NOSE Tracking is a prime function of the police work dog. THE CANINE HISTORY The training of dogs for police work was originally developed in Ghent. Belgium. Airedale Terriers. This heightened sense can assist officers in dealing with narcotics. Doberman Pinschers. and robberies. The most widely trained dogs for patrol work are the German Shepherd. such as detecting caches of illegal drugs or for tracking fugitives and missing persons. Boxers. stolen cars. Tracking suspects from burglaries. A-56 . and Bloodhounds. The psychological advantage of having a K-9 team patrolling an area is deemed to be tremendous. A dog is capable of smelling the odor of a human being from hundreds of yards away when the odor is carried by the slightest amount of wind or breeze. tracking lost children or adults is a function that under the majority of conditions. tracking and search and rescue. the Yarmouth Massachusetts Police Department started their unit with three K-9 teams.L14 K-9 UNIT K-9 Units are a valuable part of many police departments. WHY K-9 UNITS ARE NECESSARY? K-9 Units can be very effective in any community. At the end of the first year of having a highly visible K-9 unit. Schnauzers. crime statistics and size. Dogs perform law enforcement duties that are beyond the physical capabilities of human beings. the human cannot duplicate. the unit worked hard in reducing the number of break-ins in their business sectors. At least 97% of the work that the K-9 does is with its nose. DETERRENCE Patrolling in a well-marked K-9 vehicle is extremely effective tool for deterring crime. the rate of break-ins decreased 80% while surrounding communities experienced a sudden rise in this crime. it comes down to the fact that the K-9's sense of smell is many times greater than the human. explosive and weapons detection. A number of years ago. Again. Dogs are primarily used for their extraordinary sense of smell. Breeds with especially keen senses are used for special purposes. During the first year.

capable of completing a wide variety of tasks. in addition to the extra work and risk of being a K9 handler. handlers educate the public on the fact that canines are not vicious. dog house. community groups. Members of the unit have discovered that quite often the public is misinformed as to the uses of the canine and how they are employed. These demonstrations are usually provided to schools.DRAW BACKS A small department does not want an officer seeing his/ her position as a K-9 handler as an excuse to ignore ordinary duties. but actually well trained animals. it requires a tremendous commitment of personal time and effort to properly maintain a patrol canine. The canine demonstrations primarily focus on children programs. college career days. cement pad. consider the cost of the kennel fencing. church groups. under complete control. but we have found that the adults are just as intrigued as to the training and abilities of a Sheriff’s canine. As a part of the demonstration there is direct interaction with the canine and the public which demonstrates the social side of the canines. Training is paramount and quality does not always come cheap. Who will pay for the dog’s training? Who will pay for food and vet bills? K-9 UNITS IMPROVE COMMUNITY RELATIONS One of the goals of the canine unit is to increase community relations through demonstrations at schools. however. Assignment to the canine unit is voluntary. A-57 . and the real compensation for that effort will be a well trained canine that may save a life one Some of the greatest heroes of 9-11 were on four feet. L14 THINGS TO CONSIDER BEFORE FORMING A K-9 UNIT • Can the dog be donated or will it have to be pur• • • chased? Will the dog live indoors or outside? If outside. etc. public events etc. All to often this has been found to be one of the main reasons for disbanding a K-9 Unit. and other public functions. The handler should be ready to accept all duties of the regular patrol force. Through demonstrations.

3. or allow me to carry him over obstacles and up stairs? Is there someone else that can handle my partner if need be? JPA Cadets are given a K-9 Unit demonstration. 2. Questions: Consider your own dog or a friends -. 14. Can I fire my weapon next to him? Can my back up fire his weapon near the K-9 team? Can I recall my dog during a stressful event? Can he defend himself alone for more than (5) minutes of fight? Will he search anywhere in a building. List the special purposes for which working dogs are used? 4. 11. 13. SO YOU WANT TO START A K-9 UNIT? Starting a K-9 Unit is no simple task. and will this affect my ability to shoot during a hot situation? What happens when the suspects goes passive after a fight. 10. K-9 Handlers have often learned the answers to these questions unexpectedly with embarrassing or even tragic results. 7. What do you need to consider before starting a K-9 unit? A-58 . Where was the training of dogs for police departments first developed? 3. while doing tactical maneuvers. The cadets will love to hear first hand accounts of how the team worked together to solve a case or catch a criminal. 2. 1.L14 K-9 UNIT K-9 UNIT DEMONSTRATION: If possible. 16. 9. Define “working dog”. There are specific things a police department should consider before your K-9 partner goes on patrol. 5. stairs.how would they react in the situations listed above? What temperament would be required for a dog to work well in law enforcement? 1. 8. and basements? How will he react to gunfire in a building? Will he exit the cruiser to come aid me during a fight? What happens if I go to the ground first during a fight? Will he alert or apprehend a passive subject? Can I trust my dog at demonstrations? Do I have to hold him. 4. 6. have your K-9 Unit or Team give a demonstration in class Have the K-9 officer talk about what it is like to work with a dog. will my dog stay with the suspect or leave? Can I move with a bunch of officers tactically and safely? What if my dog finds food along the track or in a building? Will he stay down and quiet for more than twenty minutes? Will he jump a chain link fence after a suspect. dark rooms. crawl spaces. 12. What is “tracking” and what are its uses? 5. 17. 15.

or search and arrest warrants with a potential for violence. Why do you think a protest might be a good reason to bring in the SWAT team? How do you think the officers on the SWAT team treat a protest situation differently than a hostage situation? OBJECTIVES: Cadets will gain a better understanding of the SWAT Unit’s special mission in fighting crime.are all situations where a SWAT team might be employed. but they also appear at large political protests. hostage situations. hostage situations or assistance with the service of search and arrest warrants where there is a potential for violence . Now. uniformed in shorts or simple slacks. and flash grenades.such as armed or barricaded subjects. They have semi-automatic Beretta pistols. SWAT teams are often called in for dealing with armed or barricaded subjects. OVERVIEW: Instructor will introduce cadets to the functions of a SWAT Unit and the tactical strategies these highly trained officers use when fighting crime. The team’s mission is to assist patrol operations with high-risk potential. A-59 .SWAT L15 Where as some officers appear on bikes or horses. and helmets. facemasks. These are the officers that come in when there’s a critical situation to be handled. But these are not military commandos -.they are the members of a Special Weapons and Tactics SWAT Unit. Any critical incident . submachine guns. camouflage outfits. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. you know a SWAT team officer when you see one. They wear body armor. more commonly known as SWAT.

YOU CALL SWAT WHEN SPECIAL SITUATIONS ARISE: 1. 2. flashbang diversionary devices. How about an armed suicidal suspect in a crowded fast food joint? 6. where riots were increasingly common. Gates originally wanted to call the unit. as the name states. What if you’re dispatched to a call of a sniper perched on a tall building? A SWAT sniper is needed here. How about a situation where you have armed suspects at large in a wooded area that has been cordoned off by the local police? Is this a job for a traffic cop? Or do you call in a specially trained unit whose members have trained for months to handle such situations? It’s a no-brainer. they train in special tactics. are yet another reason to have SWAT on call. These tactical methods are designed to bring a critical incident to a close with the least amount of risk to the officers and citizens. long range precision rifles. As the name implies (Special Weapons and Tactics) the team members are issued special weapons including: semi-automatic and fully automatic firearms. There are pros and cons to this and 33 years of experience with SWAT has some police administrators standing on different sides of the SWAT fence. ‘Special Weapons Attack Team’. Daryl Gates. vests and helmets. SWAT is needed here. Social changes. then the future LAPD chief. How about a Columbine High School situation? All these scenarios call for the expertise of a SWAT team. tear gas grenades.000 have SWAT units. you are not thinking straight if you think he/she will surrender to an officer with just a simple knock on their door.000 have SWAT teams. and if you’re dealing with a heavily armed. ballistic shields. barricaded suspect who is holding hostages. 3. How about a plane hijacking at your local airport? 4. WHY THE NEED FOR A SWAT TEAM? Public Safety — nothing comes before this. The bank robbery in Los Angeles a few years back in which the robbers wore complete body armor and walked around while shooting fully automatic weapons was a perfect SWAT callout. including heavily armed drug traffickers and the increased violence associated with them. but changed the name for public relation’s purposes. Thirty-three years later. Gates saw a distinct need for a police unit like this in Los Angeles in the late 60s. is generally credited with creating the first SWAT team. Seventy percent of cities with a population under 50.L15 SWAT IT’S ALL IN THE NAME What we now take for granted did not exist until around 1968. Also. How about a suspect or domestic terrorist holed up in an apartment complex with enough explosive material to level the apartments? 5. A-60 . 90 percent of police agencies surveyed in cities with a population over 50.

The Sniper The Sniper Team consists of members who are highly skilled in the arts of camouflage and long distance shooting with state of the art weaponry. undisciplined. • The team members train together. forced entry and frontal assault. and inexperienced. smoke bombs. The Command Post The Command Team consists of the Team leader and his lieutenants. Performance The true success of a SWAT team. however. as a team. at least once a month. While their main task is to provide cover and fire support. This information could be crucial in making decisions regarding assault plans and life threatening situations. They are in constant communication with the other Team members by way of state of the art headpieces and must make on the spot decisions about the nature of the engagement depending on how the situation plays out. Requirements Because much depends on recruiting the right personnel.COMPONENTS OF A SWAT TEAM The following components are usually. they are also instrumental in providing up-to-the-minute intelligence to the Command Post. flash bombs and tear gas. and sit ups. but not necessarily. is not measured in equipment. Quarterly. the physical and firearms standards are met by all members of the SWAT team. L15 A-61 . pull ups. They are heavily armed with projectile weapons. seven days a week. The Negotiator The Negotiation Team consists of members who have been trained in psychology and are able to make a field assessment of any hostage scenario. • They must qualify with department firearms to a higher standard than the non-SWAT patrol officer. They are essential in diffusing a potentially violent and dangerous situation. These standards usually include: • Officers must pass a standard physical test that includes a two mile run. They are also known as the perimeter or containment team. A team that is untrained. • SWAT officers train on the average of 16 hours per month and must be on call 24 hours a day. but in their performance as a team. found in a Department’s SWAT TEAM. This team is comprised of members who are skilled in the art of explosives. police departments typically set rigid standards for service in the unit. no matter how well armed and equipped they may be. The Entry Team This name says it all. push ups. is a liability to its community.

Talk about why there is a need for SWAT Teams? Discuss the components of a SWAT Team and how they work together? 1. 4. 2. What does SWAT mean? Describe a situation where you would use a SWAT team. 5.L15 SWAT Some of the SWAT Team disciplines include. 3. Who is credited for creating the first SWAT team unit? List the components of a SWAT Team? What standards need to be met to be a member of the SWAT team? A-62 . but are not limited to: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Critical Decision Making Communication Skills Indoor Search Techniques and Philosophy Outdoor Search Techniques and Philosophy Entry Techniques and Philosophy Active Counter Measures Weapon Retention Aviation (Helicopter Deployment) Rappelling Special Weapons Ordinance Hostage Rescue Officer Rescue Vehicle/Bus Assault Mental and Physical Disciplines SWAT Team member demonstrates how to wear protective clothing.

and the US Customs Service. Once you're qualified to serve in the police force. Why do you think this is so? Principle law enforcement agencies of this country are the Department of Justice. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. A-63 . the Secret Service. The Department of Justice branches further into specialized agencies. law enforcement jobs vary under each division. if you are walking through downtown on any given day it is possible to see a Sheriff’s Department squad car. explosives and other harmful materials. The United States Postal Service is responsible for preventing dangerous. As you can see. They are constantly sifting through suspect pieces of mail believed to contain drugs. the Park Police Van and perhaps even a mobile unit from the State Police. most notably the FBI. then a County Sheriff car. Are they looking for the same criminals? For instance. the Bureau of Border Security. STATE AND FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT DEPARTMENTS. The Department of Homeland Security consists of the US Coast Guard. the Department of Homeland Security. Is there a connection between all of these various departments and if so. harmful and fraudulent mail from circulating in the country. poison. you will be able to match your abilities and interests with specialized law enforcement jobs. who the heck is in charge? Those are the questions we will address today. Do all these officers work together. the DEA (Drug Enforcement Administration) and the US Marshals Service. Now. C O N C L U D E B Y D I ST I NG U I S HI N G BETWEEN LOCAL. OBJECTIVE: C AD E T S WI LL D E VE LO P AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE COMPLEX PATCHWORK OF POLICE AGENCIES AND JURISDICTIONS THAT COMPRISE THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM IN AMERICA.LAW ENFORCEMENT’S MANY HATS L16 Ever noticed how some police officers drive cars while others drive SUVs? You might see a city police car. the local police department’s bike patrol or patrol unit. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE COMPLEX ORGANIZATION OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES. or for different departments? The United States has the most complex organization of police departments and agencies in the world. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND REVIEW THE VARI OUS TYPES OF AGENCIES. and the United States Postal Service.

Another example of a state police agency with restricted jurisdiction is the South Dakota Department of Game and Fish. townships.000 counties in the United Sates. Although the jurisdiction of the Bureau in criminal matters is limited. provide general policing services to all areas of a state that are not served by municipal police. They include: university police departments. such as the Alaska State Troopers. Most counties have a constitutional office or sheriff who is the chief law enforcement official for that area.S. and espionage laws as well as internal security matters. extortion. the FBI has responsibility for enforcing numerous federal laws including terrorism. There are. FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT The federal government provides a wide variety of police services. FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is responsible for investigating violations of all federal laws except those specifically within the jurisdiction of other federal agencies. other county police forces whose jurisdictions either duplicate or displace those of the Sheriff's Department.S. school district police departments and public transit police forces. Some state police departments. are restricted to enforcing laws on the roads and highways of a state. Other state police departments. The FBI deals with violations of sabotage. and assaulting or killing of a U. bank robbery. Two of the biggest include the Los Angeles Police Department and the New York (City) Police Department. A-64 . civil rights violations. such as the Utah Highway Patrol. Within the US Department of Justice one finds the Drug Enforcement Administration and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. kidnapping. SHERIFFS DEPARTMENT Sheriffs and deputy sheriffs patrol more than 3. This department is involved solely in the enforcement of South Dakota's game and fish laws. Large Municipal Departments There are few really large municipal police departments in the United States. SPECIALIZED FORCES There are many specialized police forces around the country. treason. however. villages. boroughs and incorporated towns fall into this category. Tribal police departments. Highway patrol units are concerned almost entirely with traffic control and enforcement and have limited general police authority. A county is the largest territorial division for local government within a state. STATE LAW ENFORCEMENT Each of the 50 U. states has established its own police forces and criminal investigation agencies. Two of the best-known state-level enforcement units are the state police and the highway patrol. There is a definite distinction between these agencies in terms of responsibility and authority. President. Small Municipal Departments Smaller municipal police departments provide policing services to the majority of American citizens. State police engage in a full range of law enforcement activities including criminal investigation. such as the Oneida Indian Nation Police are examples of small municipal departments. offenses involving interstate transportation.L16 LAW ENFORCEMENT’S MANY HATS MUNICIPAL POLICE The police force of cities.

U. reservations.S. POSTAL SERVICE and deportation of aliens and the naturaliza. has the leading role in the fight against dent of the United States to be redrug abuse in our country.S. bonds. and research federal court proceedings and carry activities. The Immigration and Naturalization Service and generally assisting the court in (INS) administers our country’s immigration carrying out decisions.S.S.the United States State Department. U. each of the 94 U.S. education. U. IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION SERaccompanying and guarding prisonVICE ers. TOBACCO. It was originally formed as a buU.was given the responsibility of eliminating merous laws designed to protect farmers. the counterfeiting of currency as well as the the public.drugs.S. and cus. training.S. bombs and child pornography. Marshals Service operates under the general authority of the U. U. historic sites. firearms. is trafficking illegal narcotics. and gathering intelligence. These statutes are concerned with the admission. providing and controlling security for classified projects. Secret Service. SECRET SERVICE toms revenue fraud. The objective of BATF is to encourage voluntary compliance with these laws and to minimize willful violations. and operating counterintelligence. cargo thefts. exclusion.S.tive staff. an agency of the U.S. one of our nation’s oldest law enforcement agencies. They are stationed in places such as fish and wildlife preserves. Even portant enforcement agency within the De. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE The Department of Defense engages in law enforcement of various kinds. a U. the tion of legal aliens. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR As custodian of the natural resources of our country. Attorney General in the courts of the various federal DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENCY districts throughout the United States.S. and the national forests. out such responsibilities as maintaining order. and island possessions of the United States. judicial districts. CUSTOMS SERVICE Customs Agents prevent smuggling. tobacco. Postal Service also engages in law enforcement activities.S. U.L16 BUREAU OF ALCOHOL. Bureau of Diplomatic Security. and Firearms (BATF) to enforce laws relating to alcohol.S. forging and cashing of government checks. In The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Postal Inspection Service searches mail for The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is an im. created in 1865.U. Marshals are present at ment. and securities. AND FIREARMS The Department of Treasury established the Bureau of Alcohol. some law enforcement personnel. has law enforcement capabilities. and explosives. with its partment of the Treasury. including: investigating crimes within their own jurisdictions. the Department of the Interior uses A-65 .When it is not delivering mail. The DEA’s missponsible for directing the activities sion is to control narcotic and dangerous of Deputy U. territories. U. removing unruly persons. servicing orders of the court.S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE reau of the Department of the Treasury and The Department of Agriculture enforces nu. and The U. Department of JusMarshal is appointed by the Presitice.S. and naturalization laws.S. Marshals and suppordrug abuse effectively through law enforce. Tobacco. MARSHALS SERVICE The U.

The DHS also issues “Threat Advisories” using different colors to tell you how alert to be. 2001. The Coast Guard has a lot of other jobs as well. Question the Cadets The following federal government agencies are working hard to protect you. Department of Homeland Security The DHS was formed after the events of September 11th.S. ice patrol. counties.000 employees—and that’s not including all the dogs that sniff containers for anything illegal! To discover more. state or federal? United States Coast Guard The U. State. The DHS is a collection of 22 government agencies that analyze intelligence and plan responses to future emergencies. FEDERAL: Limited strictly to enforcing Federal laws. to guard the coast. airports. 5. and “Green” is the least serious. ports and roadside checkpoints are carefully inspected. The United States system of Law Enforcement is divided into three parts: Local. 2. the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection guards our borders and over 300 entryways into the U.000 local agencies and departments. 74% of all police officers are employed in 19. parks. 1. stopping polluters and maintaining lighthouses. animals and goods passing through our airports.L16 LAW ENFORCEMENT’S MANY HATS The Match Game! Outline the following information and exercise on the board. All people. Federal.gov. towns. that’s just the tip of the iceberg. visit http:// cbp. The Bureau has over 35. “Red” is the most serious.customs. More than 50% of all Federal officers work for either the FBI or the Bureau of Customs. and has been around since 1790—even before the Navy! The Coast Guard’s main duty is. sheriff’s departments. to protect America from foreign attacks. A-66 Name several types of law enforcement agencies in this country? What are the two best know state law enforcements units? What is the FBI responsible for? What does the US Secret Service do? The Department of Homeland Security was developed because of what event? . you guessed it. State Police are also responsible for motor vehicle registration and driver’s license examinations. LOCAL: Consists of cities. Bureau of Customs and Border Protection Like the Coast Guard protects our shores. including search and rescue. Coast Guard is one of America’s five armed forces. but why are their services more appropriately handled by the federal government and not by the cities or states. STATE: 57% of an officer’s time is spent patrolling highways. 3.S. But. where do they belong: Local. 4.

Although the duties of the sheriff vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. OBJECTIVE: C ADETS WI LL GAI N A GREATER UNDERSTANDING OF THE ROLE A SHERIFF’S DEPARTMENT PLAYS IN MAINTAINING LAW AND ORDER AND WI LL BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A SHERIFF’S D E P AR T M E N T AN D A P O L I C E DEPARTMENT. Now. from the early Middle Ages to our own "high-tech" era. Most people would be surprised to know that the office of sheriff has a proud history that spans well over a thousand years. including areas with their own police departments. With few exceptions. the sheriff's office is generally active in all three branches of the criminal justice system: law enforcement. A-67 . Such is the power of old movies and television series. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN POLICE AND SHERIFF’S DEPARTMENTS. the courts and corrections. CONCLUDE WITH AN HISTORICAL EXAMINATION OF THE SHERIFF IN THE AMERICAN WILD WEST.SHERIFF’S DEPARTMENT L17 Mention the word "sheriff" and many people's minds will fill immediately with images of shootouts and gunfights in the Wild West. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. This means that a sheriff’s deputy has jurisdiction everywhere in that county. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND EXPLAIN THE ORIGINS AND NATURE OF THE SHERIFF'S DEPARTMENT. today's sheriffs are elected officials who serve as a chief law-enforcement officer for a county.

his jurisdiction was severely restricted as a result of the growing jurisdiction of the curia regis ("king's court"). judged both criminal and civil cases. As Thomas Jefferson wrote in his “THE VALUE OF CONSTITUTIONS”. Sheriffs are usually elected to their posts and perform duties similar to those of a local or county police chief. performing traffic duties in designated geographic areas and maintaining order during public demonstrations and parades. most having fewer than 25 sworn A-68 . and to detain those accused of major crimes for the itinerant justices. "the Office of Sheriff is the most important of all the executive offices of the county. They may also assume some of the functions of the local police department and are empowered to call out the posse comitatus ("the force of the county. executed all writs (court orders). The Sheriff’s Department is also responsible for issuing traffic citations on county roads.L17 SHERIFF’S DEPARTMENT HISTORY OF THE OFFICE OF SHERIFF The office of sheriff was a development that began over 1000 years ago in England. The sheriff supreme was the law in the county and he was president of its court. of local constable (first mentioned in 1242). His duty thereafter was to investigate allegations of crime from within his shire. Deputy Sheriffs are county law enforcement officers who patrol assigned districts within their jurisdiction to enforce federal. however. The new offices of coroner (first mentioned in 1194). the chief executive officer. The deputy is appointed by the sheriff and is delegated duties. which in varying degrees has responsibility for county policing. From the time of Henry II (reigned 1154-89). The term “posse: derives from this and is still used in many parts of the country. for the first century after the Conquest. and. to try lesser offenses. the sheriff is ordinarily an elected public officer in his county." • • • How does the office of Sheriff differ from that of Chief of Police? What is the traditional model for Sheriff’s as defined from western movies? How do you suppose a Sheriff’s role in the community has changed since the days of the old west? THE MODERN SHERIFF’S DEPARTMENT Sheriffs and deputy sheriffs enforce the law on the county level. jails. The sheriff and deputy are peace officers and thus have the power of police officers in the enforcement of criminal law. The majority of counties throughout the US have the office of Sheriff. and an officer of the court." a summoning of private citizens to assist in maintaining peace). and of justices of the peace (first known in the 12th century as custodies pacis. state and local laws. They also are responsible for enforcing laws in county and state parks and game reserves. He led military forces of the shire (a shire is similar to a county in this country). with a term usually of from two to four years. "keepers of the peace") all took work and duties from the sheriffs. to conduct a preliminary examination of the accused. and court activities. Sheriffs' departments tend to be relatively small. THE AMERICAN SHERIFF: A TRADITION CONTINUES In the United States.

All these items along with other documents are routed to the Records Division for further handling. child molestation. child abuse. which involves taking prisoners from the Jail Divisions to the courts. JAIL DIVISION One of the largest divisions within the Sheriff’s department. with the balance in administration. enforce state laws and county resolutions. 30 percent are assigned to jail-related duties. • • The Courts Division also may include the Friend of the Court Enforcement Unit. The Courts Division is responsible for maintaining order in the court rooms. work with juveniles. property crimes.officers. here are some common divisions within a Sheriff’s Department. investigate farm. A deputy sheriff in a large agency will have law enforcement duties similar to those of officers in urban police departments. as well as safe transfer and handling of prisoners. about 40 percent of full-time sworn deputies are uniformed officers assigned to patrol and respond to calls. and nothing but the truth. This division has court transfer responsibilities. Investigators are extensively trained in all types of investigations to include homicide. make arrests. Police and sheriffs' deputies who provide security in city and county courts are sometimes called bailiffs. That’s the person who holds the bible on which for a witness to swear to tell the whole truth. 12 percent are investigators. and all facets from crime scene processing to interviewing. the inmates and of the officers. As a part of routine patrol. industrial and traffic accidents. conduct criminal investigations. When a person is released from jail certain computer work and paperwork must also be completed. This Unit seeks out individuals who have become delinquent in their child support payments. jailers are primarily responsible for the safety and security of the jail facility. the deputies check suspicious incidents and persons. CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS DIVISION The Criminal Investigations Division (CID) is responsible for any investigations conducted by the Sheriff's Office that are of a criminal nature. A-69 . the Sheriff’s Department provides security for local courts. Nationwide. dissemination and filing. L17 PATROL DIVISION The patrol division is responsible for preventing crime and maintaining peace throughout the county. The deputies must be knowledgeable of the citizens’ needs and be prepared to assist at any time. check businesses and residences for security. FELONY WARRANTS The Felony warrants section tracks down fugitives and serves arrest warrants. a jailer enters pertinent information in the computer and takes several sets of fingerprints and a photograph (mug shot). COURTS DIVISION In many counties. and handle many other situations as they occur. Although it varies from county to county. rapes. check clubs and taverns. When a person is lodged in jail. This unit serves Friend of the Court warrants for non-support payments. and 11 percent perform court-related duties.

As citizens of the community. The expansive and sparsely populated countryside was a perfect fit for the county-wide jurisdiction of the Sheriff’s Office. The office of sheriff. 1. In 1880. The bullet drove through the skull of the seated card player and came to rest in the arm of the man he was opposing. After several documented and notorious killings he was appointed a deputy U. As the man slumped to his death he was still holding his cards. with its established background and history. After tracking The Kid. disorder. Wild Bill was appointed sheriff of Ellis County. he pinned on a star for the first time as a deputy sheriff of Lincoln County. Garrett and his posse first caught up with the Kid and returned him for trial. and violence. The "Wild" addition to the name was surely deserved.S. was a natural balance for this environment. vice. 1876. It ended the spectacular career of a gunman and a lawman. POSSES AND THE WILD WEST The American Wild West earned its reputation as a land of adventure and lawlessness. community residents selected a sheriff by popular vote. The Sheriff dealt with the isolated nature of the frontier by having the ability to raise a posse as time and circumstance dictated. 4. PATRICK GARRETT Pat Garrett was born in Alabama on June 5. 3. the blast of a Colt Peacemaker rang out above the sounds of the saloon patrons in Deadwood. Pat decided to become a lawman. NM Soon he ran for the top slot of sheriff. He was found guilty. which would have been the winning hand. Garrett sneaked into Billy’s hotel room and upon his return.L17 SHERIFF’S DEPARTMENT SHERIFF’S. WILD BILL HICKOK On August 2. The posse was a group of citizens who volunteered to assist the Sheriff in tracking down a criminal suspect. A vast area with serious issues of crime. 1850. and while awaiting his hanging. He easily won the election. 2. it was in their own best interest to see that justice was served. A-70 What does a modern sheriff do? What other duties were given to earlier sheriff’s? Where did the office of the sheriff begin? Where did the term “posse” come from? Name the divisions within a sheriff’s department? . who would breathe his last breath at age thirty-nine. The killing brought Garrett instant fame and notoriety. Garrett killed him." The dead man was none other than the notorious Wild Bill Hickok. 5. In 1869. The following two profiles illustrate the wild side of law enforcement in the old west. the most notorious desperado and killer in the Wild West. Billy managed to kill both of his jailers during his escape from the county lock-up. Kansas to fill a temporary vacancy. South Dakota's Number Ten Saloon. the pioneers of the old West were in desperate need of some form of law enforcement. This variation of cards would from that time on be known as the "dead man's hand. marshal. His first and greatest assignment was to stop Billy The Kid. Generally. He had aces and eights. depending on who was doing the counting. He was credited with killing some thirty to eighty-five men.



Each state in the United States has a state police department. Often, these departments focus on enforcing the law in places where municipal police departments don’t exist, such as isolated rural areas and highways.

State police officers (sometimes called state troopers or highway patrol officers) arrest criminals Statewide and patrol highways to enforce motor vehicle laws and regulations.


Uniformed officers are best known for issuing traffic citations to motorists who violate the law. At the scene of accidents, they may direct traffic, give first aid, and call for emergency equipment. They also write reports used to determine the cause of the accident. State police officers are frequently called upon to render assistance to other law enforcement agencies, especially those in rural areas or small towns. Each state is different, though. In heavily rural states like Alaska, the State Troopers do a lot of regional policing, investigating crimes such as assault and burglary. In South Dakota, a state known for its recreational areas, that state police department’s jurisdiction is primarily game and fishing law. Since each state is different, it means that you could get a speeding ticket from a state trooper in Utah; arrested by an Alaska state trooper for robbing someone, and written up for fishing off-season in South Dakota. It all depends on the state’s particular needs and jurisdictions.

Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit.





well as during special occurrences such as parades and sporting events. They sometimes check the weight of commercial Vehicles, large and small, consume a large percentage of a law enforcer’s time vehicles, conduct driver examinations, and give information on highway safety on duty. State troopers are required to: to the public. • Enforce traffic and parking laws and CRIMINAL LAW ordinances State Police also must en• Investigate traffic accidents force criminal laws. In • Check vehicles for proper registracommunities and counties tion that do not have a local • Request emergency assistance for police force or a large sheraccidents iff's department, the State • Identify owners of vehicles involved police are the primary law enforcement in accidents agency, investigating crimes such as bur• Control, regulate, and direct traffic, glary or assault. They also may help city or county police catch lawbreakers and vehicular and pedestrian control civil disturbances. • Locate witnesses to accidents • Direct traffic using barriers, flares, TRAFFIC LAWS AT A GLANCE and hand signals A state trooper most often enforces traf• Administer roadside sobriety tests fic laws. The following are among the • Follow suspicious vehicles most commonly broken traffic laws. • Operate breathalyzer test apparatus (Laws may vary slightly from state to • Remove hazards from roadway state.) Review and discuss. • Arrange for obtaining blood or urine Consumption or Possession of samples for sobriety tests • Collect physical evidence from acci- Alcoholic Beverage in Motor Vehicle No person may operate a motor vehicle in dent scenes a public place while consuming an alco• Aid the injured holic beverage. • Assist stranded motorists Penalties - Class C Misdemeanor: $500 • Measure skid marks fine. • Issue parking citations Driving Without Insurance HERE ARE SOME ADDITIONAL A person is guilty of Driving without InsurDUTIES OF THE STATE POLICE OR ance who operates a motor vehicle without a motor vehicle liability insurance THE HIGHWAY PATROL: policy in effect. Penalties - Misdemeanor: Up to $500 in PROVIDE ASSISTANCE fines State police officers provide services to Up to 6 months in jail motorists on the highways. For example, they may radio for road service for driv- Failure to Observe Traffic Signals ers with mechanical trouble, direct tour- No driver may fail to comply with a trafists to their destination, or give informa- fic signal or fail to stop at a stop sign at tion about lodging, restaurants, and tour- the stop line, crosswalk or place where ist attractions. that person has a view of approaching traffic. WORKING ON THE HIGHWAY Penalties - Misdemeanor: $1 to $200 in fines State police officers also provide traffic assistance and control during road reDrunk Driving pairs, fires, and other emergencies, as


A person is guilty of drunk driving who operates a motor vehicle in a public place while intoxicated and (1) who does not have normal use of mental or physical facilities due to alcohol or drugs or (2) who has an alcohol concentration of .10 or more. First Violation - Class B Misdemeanor: Up to $2,000 in fines and 72 hours to 180 days in jail Second Violation - Class A Misdemeanor: Up to $4,000 in fines and 30 days to 1 year in jail Third Violation - Felony 3rd degree: Up to $10,000 in fines and 2 years to 10 years in jail

when Fighting a Traffic Violation


The driver claims they were honestly mistaken about the law. For example, if a driver tells the judge that they honestly thought it was okay to just slow down instead of stopping at a blinking red light, his reply is almost sure to be, "Sorry, ignorance of a law really is no excuse."

The driver argues that their violation didn't harm anybody. Again, sorry, everyone is legally required to stop at a red light even if it's 3:00 a.m. and no other vehicle is moving within two miles.

Yield to Emergency Vehicles This is one of the most violated laws. When an emergency vehicle with its lights flashing and siren sounding approaches, you must pull over to the side of the road and stop. This gives the emergency vehicle a clear path. Do Not Cross the Median or Private Property It is illegal to drive across ANY median. Jumping the median to get on the frontage road when traffic is congested on the freeway is not only illegal and dangerous, it's arrogant. You're no more important than anyone else stuck on the highway. Along the same lines, it is also illegal to cross private property without stopping or for the purpose of turning left or right from one road to another. In other words, it's illegal to cut-through the gas station at the corner so you don't have to stop at the stop sign or red light or to avoid the line of cars waiting at the sign or light.

"The officer was picking on me." This is called "selective enforcement" and is often raised by a motorist who claims the ticketing officer ignored others who were also violating the law. It is almost impossible to win this one unless the driver can prove that the officer had a motive to single them out.

The driver tells a sympathetic story. The fact that their child, their mother or their parakeet was ill will not get them off. At best, the judge may reduce their fine a little.

The driver questions the officer in hopes that he will slip up.

Common, but Unacceptable, Excuses




In the clip, “In the Heat of the Night” (Unit 2 from the JPA Video) from the series “Real Stories of the Highway Patrol”, the highway patrol utilizes technology to apprehend a car thief. Before showing the clip, discuss a citizen’s duty not to endanger the safety of others -- such as driving through the streets at high speeds. Show the clip: The following questions should be discussed in class or turned in as an assignment. 1. Why is a helicopter so valuable in the high-speed pursuit? 2. W hy are high-speed pursuits so dangerous? 3. At what point do police put the public safety first? Discuss the responsibility of putting the safety of others first. How did the car thief violate that civic duty?

Cadets visit with a Texas Trooper.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is another name for the state police? Why would all sate police departments be different from an other? Name 2 traffic violations and their consequences? Name a traffic law that gets no respect? Name a common excuse for fighting a violation and why it does not work?




The FBI gets a lot of attention from movies and television. Who can think of a few shows or movies that featured FBI agents?
Everybody loves a good mystery, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation is focused on solving those mysteries. The F.B.I. investigates violations of all federal laws, except for those specifically covered by other federal agencies like the DEA. The names of the crimes that the FBI deals with certainly sound like the stuff of movies: sabotage, treason, espionage. But a lot of what the Bureau does day to day includes finger printing, laboratory examinations, police training, publishing the annual Uniform Crime Reports, and administration of the National Crime Information Center. A team of people working together to publish a book of crime reports doesn’t look especially exciting on screen, so we don’t see much about that in movies. Regardless of how exciting it looks, the FBI performs a crucially important role in American law enforcement.


Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit.


They are charged with the enforcement of over 200 federal laws. the FBI had approximately 11. television shows. Concerning arrests on foreign soil. Should you verify your suspicions about criminal activity before reporting it to the FBI? Citizens should never place themselves in harm’s way or conduct their own investigations. or motion picture producers offer reasonably accurate presentations of the responsibilities. Government. 2002.000 Special Agents and 16. However. there is no requirement that they do so. What authority do FBI Special Agents have to make arrests in the United States. FBI Special Agents generally do not have authority outside the US except in certain cases where. If a child is missing and possibly kidnapped. and motion pictures? Any author. any suspicious activity about matters under FBI jurisdiction should be reported to the FBI promptly. and procedures in their story lines. FBI Special Agents may make arrests for any federal offense committed in their presence. investigations. What does the FBI do? The FBI is the most important law enforcement agency of the U. or history. or producer may consult with the FBI about closed cases on their operations.000 Professional Support Personnel.L19 FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION Review the following questions and answers describing the role of the FBI in national law enforcement efforts.S. Some authors. Other duties include. will the FBI begin an investigation? Yes. or when they have reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed. Congress has granted the FBI extra territorial power. but no interstate transportation is suspected. How accurately is the FBI portrayed in books. a felony violation (criminal act) of U. However. the FBI will initiate a kidnapping investigation involving a missing child (generally twelve years or younger) even though there is no known interstate A-76 . and the FBI does not edit or approve their work. since September 11th. or is committing. with the consent of the host country. Instead. laws. but are not limited to: Bank robberies Theft of Government property Organized crime Espionage (spying) Sabotage (deliberately damaging or destruction of property) Kidnapping Terrorism How many people are employed by the FBI? As of January 31.S. television programs. television script writer. services. its territories or on foreign soil? In the United States and its territories. or places for dramatic effect. persons. while others present their own interpretations or introduce fictional events. the FBI’s first priority has been to protect the United States from terrorist attacks.

This gives the FBI a full range of options to pursue investigations. they have both domestic intelligence and law enforcement capabilities. The motto. protecting civil liberties. Working hand-in-hand with partners in law enforcement. the FBI’s job is to neutralize terrorist cells and operatives here in the U. the FBI is part of a vast national and international campaign dedicated to defeating terrorism. The FBI is uniquely situated to fight terrorism. enabling them not only to detect terrorist threats through surveillance. “Fidelity. distinction and fame." succinctly describes the motivating force behind the men and women of the FBI. symbolized academic honors. The FBI will monitor other kidnapping situations when there is no evidence of interstate travel and can offer assistance from the FBI Laboratory and the Child Abduction and Serial Killer Unit. As in the American Flag. while white conveys cleanliness. and international partners. the red bars exceed the white by one. valor. For example. At the same time. and diplomatic circles. local. The gold color in the seal conveys its over-all value.thanks to a worldwide network of dedicated Special Agents and their long-standing relationships with federal. since there were 46 states in the Union when the FBI was founded in 1908. since early civilization. There are 46 Laurel leaves in the two branches. Red traditionally stands for courage. and to help dismantle terrorist networks worldwide. The circle of 13 stars denotes unity of purpose as exemplified by the original colonies which became the first states. source development. Bravery. L19 FBI . and careful analysis. What is the FBI's role in counter terrorism? Today. A-77 .HERALDRY OF THE FBI SEAL Each symbol and color in the FBI seal has special significance. intelligence. the dominant blue field of the seal and the scales on the shield represent "justice". but to act against those threats through arrest and incarceration. the FBI can mobilize quickly and comprehensively to prevent attacks -.S. truth. The peaked beveled edge which circumscribes the seal symbolizes the severe challenges confronting the FBI and the ruggedness of the organization. The FBI has nearly a century of experience of working within the boundaries of the Constitution. The Laurel leaf has. state. strength. Integrity.flight. light. the military. and peace. The significance of the red and white parallel stripes lies in their colors.



This list is designed to publicize particularly dangerous fugitives who might not otherwise merit nationwide attention. The FBI values and recognizes the need for public assistance in tracking fugitives. Review the following questions with the cadets. Supplement the answers provided with current events and any personal knowledge of the information provided. HOW MANY FUGITIVES HAVE BEEN CAPTURED DUE TO PUBLIC ASSISSTANCE? One hundred and forty of the "Ten Most Wanted Fugitives" apprehensions have resulted from citizens recognition of fugitives through this publicity program. WHO ACTUALLY DECIDES WHICH FUGITIVES GO ON THE LIST? The Criminal Investigative Division (CID) at FBI Headquarters calls upon all 56 Field Offices to submit candidates for the FBI's "Ten Most Wanted Fugitives" list. The nominees received are reviewed by Special Agents in the CID and the Office of Public and Congressional Affairs. The selection of the "proposed" candidate(s) is forwarded to the Assistant Director of the CID for his/her approval and then to the FBI's Deputy Director for final approval. WHEN ARE FUGITIVES REMOVED FROM THE LIST? "Ten Most Wanted Fugitives" are only removed from the list when they meet one of the following conditions. • He/She is captured. • The charges are dropped --this is not an FBI

decision. He/She no longer fits "Ten Most Wanted Fugitives" criteria.

In the five cases where fugitives were removed for the third reason, it was determined that each fugitive was no longer considered to be a "particularly dangerous menace to society." When a fugitive is removed from the list, another is added to take his or her place.

FBI Special Agent Guest Speaker FBI Special Agents always make for exciting guest speakers. We encourage you to arrange for an agent to address your cadets. Prior to the Guest Speaker's presentation (preferably during the previous class period), review with the cadets the special agent’s professional duties. Ask each cadet to write five questions for the speaker in their journal. Suggested questions for the speaker: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Why can't local police handle the kinds of crimes the FBI investigates? What kind of person makes for a successful agent? How does the uncertainty that the agency will relocate you affect raising a family? What is the greatest criminal challenge to the agency as we enter the next century? How have TV shows like the X-Files helped or hurt your relations with the public? What is the greatest misconception about working for the FBI?

1. What is the mission of the FBI? 2. What types of crime does the FBI investigate? 3. What entity serves as checks and balances for the FBI? Explain. 4. Does the FBI have the right to arrest you ,if you have committed a crime in the U.S and then moved to another country? 5. What resources can the FBI provide local law enforcement when a kidnapping occurs? A-78



Since the 19th century when Americans first discovered new “wonder” drugs like morphine, heroin, and cocaine, our society has confronted the problem of drug abuse and addiction.


When the 20th century began, the United States--grappling with its first drug epidemic-gradually instituted effective restrictions: at home through domestic law enforcement and overseas by spearheading a world movement to limit opium and coca crops. By World War II, American drug use had become so rare, it was seen as a marginal social problem. The first epidemic was forgotten. However, during the 1960s, drugs like marijuana, amphetamines, and psychedelics came on the scene, and a new generation embraced drugs. With the drug culture exploding, our government developed new laws and agencies to address the problem. In 1973, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration was created to enforce federal drug laws. There are now 4500 DEA Special Agents, and they work not only in every state across the US, but also in countries around the world. In fact, the DEA’s biggest challenge is the dramatic change in international organized crime. While American criminals once controlled drug trafficking on U.S. soil, today sophisticated and powerful criminal groups headquartered in foreign countries control the drug trade in the United States. The goal of the DEA is to target the most notorious drug traffickers and dismantle their global networks.

Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit.




In 2002, around 14 million Americans were using illegal drugs on a regular basis, a number that has not risen since 1999. Americans spent roughly $64 billion on illegal drugs in 2000. That's over three times as much as the government spends fighting drugs. The National Office of Drug Control Policy spends around $19 billion a year trying to stop the drug trade. Drug use in the U.S. costs billions more, through crime, hospital stays, and indirectly lost work days. The "war on drugs" is being waged on many fronts; both to slow the supply of drugs flowing into the U.S. and to reduce the demand for drugs. This includes tougher punishments for drug users and dealers, increased enforcement of anti-drug laws, and international efforts to help other nations with their own anti-drug programs. But what exactly is the war on drugs and how do we fight it?

The fight against drug use in the U.S. dates back to the late 1800s. Before then, the dangers of some drugs were not fully known and the government did little to regulate them. The original Coca-Cola beverage, first created in 1886, got its name from one of its main ingredients: cocaine. It was marketed as "a nerve and brain tonic" and a cure for headaches. But it wasn't long before people realized that cocaine was dangerously addictive, and the creators of what would one day become the world's most popular soft drink eliminated the drug from the recipe around 1900. Since then a lot has changed.

New drugs have been discovered and invented, and public opinion has swung back and forth. In 1971, President Richard Nixon called drug use "public enemy number one," and enacted laws to fight the importation of narcotics. Ten years later, President Ronald Reagan declared a more militant "war on drugs." But it was his wife, First Lady Nancy Reagan, who coined: "Just Say No."

Many think the best way to limit drug use is to help people understand how harmful it is. Drugs can destroy health, careers, marriages, families and whole neighborhoods. Almost every American teenager gets some drug education in school as early as elementary school. But some people, including a minority of police officers, advocate a more radical solution to the drug problem: legalize it. They point to Prohibition, the 1930's-era law that outlawed alcohol. The law was implemented to try to curb the widespread problem of alcoholism, but it turned out to be a dismal failure. When alcohol was made illegal, underground breweries and distiller-


ies flourished, the price of alcohol skyrocketed, and mobs of gangsters killed each other in an effort to control this huge illegal market. In general, the use of alcohol did not go down. Eventually, in 1933, Congress repealed the Prohibition law. Some people say the lessons of Prohibition should be applied to drugs. If drugs were legal, they argue, the government could control it and earn tax revenue from it. More importantly, prices would go down, and so would the huge profit margins for dealers. Drug gangs would have less incentive and drug-related violence would decrease. Most of all, say proponents of legalization, drug use would be treated as a medical problem, not a legal problem. Non-violent drug users should be put in treatment, they say, not in prison. The American public has not bought into the idea of legalization on a large scale. Most people still think that the government has an obligation to try to keep drugs off the street and to punish people who manufacture, sell and use them.


Illegal drugs are produced on farms, in laboratories, and in backyards all across the world. Although millions of dollars worth of drugs are produced within our borders, millions more also come from other countries on boats, planes and in drug smugglers' suitcases.

Drug use in the U.S. peaked in the late 1970's. Since then, drug use has declined or leveled-off among most age groups, but many anti-drug experts are worried the trend could start to rise again unless young people are taught how dangerous drugs can be.

Many believe the only way to win the war against drugs is to go beyond teaching that drug use is wrong, and make drugs more difficult to get and more expensive to buy. Many people are trapped in urban environments where selling drugs is the best or sometimes the only way to make money. Others turn to drugs as an easy way to "feel good" fast and escape from worries or problems that they don't know how to handle. It is a growing belief that the booming drug trade and high addiction rates are rooted in these deeper social problems and it is going to take a lot more than police crackdowns to solve them.

What is the best way to stop the drug trade and end addiction? Should some drugs be legalized? Are teens becoming numb to anti-drug messages?


L20 L15


The government uses television, radio, movie trailers, the Internet, and celebrity spokespeople to deliver antidrug messages.

Are they effective? Is the type of appeal used going to impact a student?

Ask the cadets how they would make an anti-drug ad? There are several elements that go into making an ad: • First figure out what you want the commercial to say-- the message you want to send. • What is the best way to say it? • Do you need a super star to make your point? • Do you want to tell a story? • Would a positive story or a scary story be more effective?

The White House started to take on the teenage drug problem in the 1980's with First Lady Nancy Reagan and her "Just Say No" campaign. Commercials such as "This Is Your Brain On Drugs" have been produced since 1987.

Critics say the ads have the same problems that the anti-cigarette campaigns have. They say the ads create a "forbidden fruit phenomenon" tempting youths into using illicit drugs. These critics argue that the money would be better spent building healthy alternatives like school programs and community centers. What do your cadets think?

Collect some of the anti-drug posters in your school. Show them to the class and discuss each:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A-82

What is the goal of the DEA? What does DEA stand for? What jurisdiction does the DEA oversee? List three duties of a DEA agent. List two qualifications you might need to become a DEA agent.

000 dangerous felons in year 2002 Now. A-83 . local and international levels. OBJECTIVE: C AD E T S WI L L G AI N A B E T T E R UNDERSTANDING OF THE ROLE OF THE MARSHALS WITHIN OUR CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM -. C O NC LUD E BY EX P LORI NG T HE AP P R E H E NSI ON OF AN AC T U AL ESCAPED PRISONER. Marshal. MARSHAL SERVICE.S. Question: What law enforcement agency will probably be sent to apprehend them? The local police from Texas? The local authorities from Colorado or California? The U. being quite the clever criminal. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. the Marshals Service apprehended more federal fugitives (66 percent) than all other law enforcement agencies combined. In 2002. where he or she is caught stealing another car. that’s who! As you may remember from “The Fugitive. the U.WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON THE EXTREME DANGERS T H AT M AR S H AL S F AC E WH E N APPREHENDING FUGITIVES. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND REVIEW THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE U. they escape from jail and are spotted in New Orleans. Texas to serve time in a jail. However. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE NATURE OF THE U.S.U. convicted and sent to Huntsville. the Marshals Service arrested over 61. Marshals have primary jurisdiction for catching fugitives and escaped federal prisoners. Then decides to move to Texas. state. Working with authorities at federal.S. MARSHAL'S SERVICE.” with Harrison Ford.S. The person is caught. MARSHALS SERVICE L21 Let’s say a criminal steals a car in California.S.

WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF THE US MARSHALS SERVICE? The U.000 detainees who are housed in federal. the Marshals Service has in its custody over 27. handling hundreds of reInvestigations carried out by the quests every day to move prisoners men and women of the Marshals between judicial districts. felons. parole. If convicted. Approximately 4. The high-profile list nal aliens. Since 1789. prisoners may be released or remanded into the custody of the Marshals Service to stand trial.000 fugitive tries. MARSHALS SERVICE tries. The Marshals Service occupies a uniquely central position in the federal justice system.S.S. U. The U. FUGITIVE INVESTIGATIONS The U.000 Deputy Marshals and career employees perform the following nationwide. correcService result in the annual appretional institutions and foreign counhension of about 30. transporters of prisoners in the world.S. witnesses.L21 U.000 fugitives in both the United States and foreign coun- “15 MOST WANTED FUGITIVES” A-84 . After the hearing. Marshals Service personnel apprehended more than 130. bond default violators and warrants generated by Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) investigations and certain other related felony cases. Marshals Service assumes custody of individuals arrested by all federal agencies and is responsible for the housing and transportation of prisoners from the time they are brought into federal custody until they are either acquitted or incarcerated. jurors away from the court facilities. This means ensuring security and maintaining decorum within the courtroom itself. Marshals Service has primary jurisdiction nationwide in conducting and investigating matters involving escaped federal prisoners. JPATS is one of the largest career criminals. witnesses. Over the last five years.S. day-to-day missions: PROTECTING THE COURTS US Marshals provide personal protection to federal judges. probation. it is the Marshals Service's responsibility to deliver the prisoner to an institution to serve the imposed sentence. Individuals who are arrested or detained for violation of a federal statute must be brought before a magistrate or judge for an initial hearing.S. and when warranted. and jurors. Marshals have served the nation through a variety of vital law enforcement activities. It is involved in virtually every federal law enforcement initiative. court officials. PRISONER TRANSPORTATION In 1995. The merger created a The Marshals Service has maintained more efficient and effective system its own "15 Most Wanted" fugitives for transporting prisoners and crimilist since 1983. as well as personal protection for judicial officers. state and local jails throughout the nation. Marshals Service is the nation's oldest and most versatile federal law enforcement agency. • • • • • • Fugitive Investigations Protecting the Courts Prisoner Custody and Transportation Witness Security Asset Seizure Special Operations and Programs PRISONER CUSTODY Each day. Operated by the Marshals includes America's most dangerous Service. the Justice Prisoner and Alien Transportation System (JPATS) was created.

nel does now in the aftermath of Sept. movements of the 1960s and the formation. A-85 . of the Special Operations Group The First Baggage Inspectors! (SOG). They performed hostage situations and other volatile. Air Force during the movement of nuclear warheads between military facilities. 11. the big screen’s most famous Marshal from “The Fugitive”. several smaller jets and commercial jets in the 1960s. they Games in Atlanta. Inspector John Brophy became chief of a unit major criminals." said David Turk. Most of these prisoners are transported aboard Service-owned aircraft and vehicles.000 prisoner and alien movements a year are completed by the Marshals Service via coordinated air and ground systems. health.the same security tasks that airport persongency incidents. But the program had its roots before then. the Sky Marshals Program (posted law enforcers on commercial aircraft) has gotten a lot of attention. Marshals Service historian. some turboprop airplanes. And while deputy marshals are often mentioned as being involved. If not in the planes themselves." The laws were enacted bequired a fleet of aircraft that includes three cause of a rash of air piracy incidents on Boeing 727s. 2001. terrorists and other anti-air piracy program in October 1969. and their immediate The Marshals Service – specifically its Miami dependents. MARSHALS SERVICE THE AIR SECURITY PIONEERED In the wake of Sept. The agency ended its management of the Sky Marshal Program in 1973. the Marshals Service has acaboard aircraft. a DC-9. knowing that they left behind a legacy of safe. The very mention of sky marshals aboard commercial flights brings comfort to many air travelers. emer. but it is the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) that currently maintains the program. An unblemished record The individuals with firsthand involvement of the Sky Marshals Program are proud of their accomplishments. of five specialists bent on combating terror in the skies. leaving no airline entirely The United States Marshals Service provides safe. laws were passed governing "interference with flight crew members or flight attendants" and "carrying weapons Since 1984.S. Tommy Lee Jones.On average. drug traffickers. in 1971. "The Middle East had erupted into chaos on WITNESS SECURITY several occasions. when all airport security duties were transferred to the FAA. L21 In the 60’s. From 1969-73. The Missile Escort Program is another responsibility of the Marshals Service. commercial air travel. it's been nearly 30 years since the Marshals Service had anything to do with it. the Marshals Service did indeed manage the Sky Marshal Program. 11. PROGRAMS Most of the sky marshals were meant to be Additional missions have included the procovert in their work. Deputy Marshals are specially trained to provide security and law enforcement assistance to the Department of Defense and the U. and safety of government witnesses. for the security. a force of highly trained and disciThe sky marshals also checked passengers' plined tacticians who handle terrorist and luggage for suspicious items. the integration of schools were stationed around check-in counters and and other institutions during the Civil Rights gates in 33 key airports around the country. so they wore no special tection of athletes at the 1996 Olympic attire. more than 200. whose lives are in danger as a office in Southern Florida – developed an result of their testimony against organized crime. Marshals would sit in the back of SPECIAL OPERATIONS AND the plane and watch what was going on.

His escape was effected with the assistance of armed associates. DO NOT ATTEMPT TO APPREHEND THIS PERSON YOURSELF. Ask the cadets to track him down and apprehend him given the information provided.S Marshals Service primary focus? 2. VALLEE escaped from Canadian authorities while awaiting extradition to the U.L21 L16 U. For whom does the U. 1996 WARRANT NUMBER: 520254318 1. Marshall Service. What is JPATS? 4. WARRANT ISSUED: Northern District of New York DATE OF WARRANT: August 28.S. Not all fugitives are wrongly accused characters like Harrison Ford in “The Fugitive”. He is a demolitions expert with a violent criminal history. Where might he have found refuge? What groups would you question to learn his whereabouts? What types of criminal activity might he currently be linked to? Prepare of list of possible strategies for cornering Vallee. In what type of investigations is the U.S.S. What is the U. Marshals Service involved? A-86 . Quebec chapter. 4. Marshals Service provide protection? 3. RICHARD VALLEE Murder of Government Witness ALIAS: SEX: RACE: White DATE OF BIRTH: PLACE OF BIRTH: HEIGHT: WEIGHT: EYES: HAIR: SKINTONE: SCARS/TATTOOS: SSN: 11/10/57 Quebec 5'10" 200 LBS Blue Brown Medium Unknown Unknown Male Richard VALLEY ASSIGNMENT: 1. Most are dangerous criminals. REPORT ANY INFORMATION TO THE NEAREST USMS DISTRICT OFFICE. VALLEE is a member of a large scale international cocaine smuggling organization. MARSHALS SERVICE WANTED BY U. CONSIDERED ARMED AND DANGEROUS. Why were Marshal’s installed abroad aircraft? 5.S.S.S. 3. New York. Richard Vallee (below) is an actual fugitive wanted by the U.) Car bomb murdered government informant in Plattsburg. MARSHALS Fugitive Facts: Hell's Angel (member of the Three Rivers. 2.

Vice President. HISTORY AND DUTIES OF THE SECRET SERVICE. They are Secret Service agents. A-87 . And yes.. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL LEARN TO APPRECIATE THE ROLE OF THE SECRET SERVICE. the department was originally established to deal with monetary issues. travel anywhere outside of Washington. many of them with small ear pieces and sunglasses. or their families. too! Now. the Secret Service works with the host city and state law enforcement to jointly establish the security measures needed for total protection. So. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE SECRET SERVICE. Whenever the President. While Presidential safety is one of the responsibilities of the Secret Service. and their job is to protect the President and his family. The Secrel Service facilitates keeping the President secure. and seem to be looking everywhere all at once. YOU’RE getting Secret Service protection. credit card fraud. if you have a cell phone. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. D. Secret Service agents are like the wedding planners of secure Presidential travel. forgery. They always look serious.SECRET SERVICE L22 Whenever you see news coverage of the President or his family. CONCLUDE BY PREPARING FOR A MOCK PRESIDENTIAL VISIT TO YOUR SCHOOL. agents do swear to “take a bullet” to protect the President. you’ll may notice the agents in suits in the background. Secret Service offices deal with counterfeit money.C. as well as cell phone fraud. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND REVIEW THE ORGANIZATION.

S. Government obligations.S. Treasury checks. the Secret Service calls upon other federal. the Secret Service's mission is two fold. telecommunications fraud.S. the Secret Service Uniformed Division. Secret Service. A-88 . It was estimated that one-third to one-half of the currency in circulation at that time was counterfeit. HOW DOES PRESIDENT? THE SECRET SERVICE "PROTECT" THE The Secret Service strives to maintain a safe environment for the President and other protectees. Treasury Department. Vice President-elect. computer fraud.S. PROTECTION OF THE PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT AND OTHERS. was founded in 1865 as a branch of the U. and the U. the Metropolitan Police Department. Vice President. New York. credit card fraud. one of the nation's oldest federal investigative law enforcement agencies. counterfeiting of U. minor children of a former President until the age of 16.S. The original mission was to investigate counterfeiting of U. When the President travels. and others if authorized by the President. currency or other U. Park Police patrol the streets and parks nearby. when the President is at the White House. former Presidents and their spouses. In 1901. an advance team of Secret Service agents works with the host city and state law enforcement and public safety officials to jointly establish the security measures needed to protect him. the Secret Service was assigned the responsibility of protecting the President. the Secret Service is authorized to protect the President.S. President-elect. visiting foreign heads of government or heads of state. state and local agencies to assist on a daily basis.L22 SECRET SERVICE WHAT IS THE ORIGIN OF THE U. SECRET SERVICE? The U. forgery or theft of U.S. and within 120 days of the general election. following the assassination of President William McKinley in Buffalo. major Presidential and Vice Presidential candidates. By law. their spouses. Today. WHAT TYPES OF CRIMES DOES THE SECRET SERVICE INVESTIGATE? The Secret Service has primary jurisdiction to investigate threats against Secret Service protectees. and their immediate family members. identify fraud. bonds or other securities. For example. and certain other crimes affecting federally insured financial institutions. To accomplish this task.S. currency.

Congress passed legislation for protection of Mrs. provides a general foundation for the agencyspecific training to follow.As a result of Robert F. BRIEF HISTORY OF THE SECRET SERVICE 1865 . new agent trainees attend the 11-week Special Agent Training Course at the Secret Service Training Academy.L22 WHAT KIND OF TRAINING DO SECRET SERVICE AGENTS RECEIVE? Secret Service agents receive the finest law enforcement training in the world. Kennedy's assassination. 1968 . 1865 in Washington.. 1901 . New agent trainees are initially sent to the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center.C. Maryland. Glynco. where they are enrolled in the Criminal Investigator Training Program (CITP). 1963 . Chief William P. Upon successful completion of CITP. John F. (Public Law 83-195). Beltsville. Georgia.Congress informally requested Secret Service Presidential protection following the assassination of President William McKinley. Wood was sworn in by Secretary of the Treasury Hugh McCulloch. to suppress counterfeit currency. This course focuses on specific Secret Service policies and procedures associated with the dual responsibilities of investigations and protection. Congress authorized protection of major Presidential and Vice Presidential candidates and nominees. designed to train new federal investigators in such areas as criminal law and investigative techniques. A-89 . This 9-week course.Congress authorized protection of former Presidents for a reasonable period of time. D.The Secret Service Division began on July 5. Kennedy and her minor children for 2 years. 1917 .Congress authorized permanent protection of the President's immediate family and made "threats" directed toward the President a federal violation. 1961.

The President will be speaking to the entire school in the auditorium. What is the Secret Service? 2. List three of the investigative duties of the Secret Service? 4. List below all the preparations you will need to make your school environment safe for the President: PRIOR TO VISIT: List of security preparations in the week prior to the President’s visit: ——————————————————————————————————— ——————————————————————————————————— ——————————————————————————————————— ——————————————————————————————————— JPA Cadets learn first hand the efforts required to protecting our nation’s leader during a visit from President Bill Clinton.L22 SECRET SERVICE PROTECTING THE PRESIDENT The President of the United States is coming to visit your school in one week. Who assists the Secret Service in protecting the President? 5. What was the original mission of the Secret Service? 3. Why is the Secret Service so important to our monetary system? A-90 . Bush meets with JPA Cadets What kinds of security changes do you think Bush had to adopt after becoming President? 1. Gov. as a Secret Service Special Agent. to instruct your cadets to make ready your school for the visit. George W. The Junior Police Academy cadets have been asked by the Governor to prepare your school for a visit. DURING: List of security measures taken during the President’s visit: ——————————————————————————————————— ——————————————————————————————————— ——————————————————————————————————— ——————————————————————————————————— ——————————————————————————————————— ——————————————————————————————————— ——————————————————————————————————— Prior to taking office as President. It will be necessary for you.

Division B Introduces the cadets to how law enforcement professionals do their jobs. B-1 . Focuses on different techniques of discovering a crime and the criminal responsible.

B-2 .

An officer may not remember everything. for example. or a felony. Winona Ryder learned. What do you think would make the difference? OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE COLONIAL AMERICAN IDEALS OF JUSTICE. B-3 . But as the amount of merchandise stolen increases. a healthy dose of common sense. the stakes get higher. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. and a solid appreciation of the structure of government. As the actress. the law is important in a police officer's life. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUTS AND EXPLAIN HOW THE PENAL CODE CLASSIFIES CRIMES. but he or she is expected to know a big crime from a little one. Take shoplifting. While certain laws may seem to defy logic. CONCLUDE WITH AN ASSIGNMENT DEALING WITH THE DEGREES OF HOMICIDE AND MANSLAUGHTER. just remember a good cop or a cadet can usually get by with three basic skills: an understanding of right and wrong. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL RECOGNIZE THE VALUE OF CLASSIFYING CRIME AND GAIN AN APPRECIATION FOR THE COMPLEXITY OF THE CODE AND THE DETAIL IT REQUIRES.LITTLE CRIMES & BIG CRIMES L23 Did you know that the same kind of crime can go from being a very minor offense to a very serious one? The same kind of crime can be a misdemeanor. most are remarkably sensible. a seemingly minor crime like shoplifting can become very serious business when you steal many hundreds of dollars worth of merchandise! In this lesson we will learn the difference between big crimes and little crimes — and just how the law decides which is which! This is important. it can be a small violation. While police officers are not expected to be lawyers. Now. At its lower levels. While we learn about the various degrees of seriousness for various crimes.

in recent years.S. the criminal may go to prison for a year or more.S. Supreme Court has struck down certain federal crimes. an act is considered criminal when Congress or a state or local legislative body has defined it as such. the question of which crimes may be created by Congress. then it is considered a misdemeanor. because under some conditions the punishment may be imprisonment for less than a year. the crime is usually considered a felony. On the other hand." may be considered either a misdemeanor or a felony. In the United States. Whether a crime falls into one category or the other depends on the potential punishment. But a legislature may on occasion punish behavior only by fine and still provide that it is a misdemeanor. Many crimes have their origin in moral precepts that originally were enforced by churches and were eventually taken over by the secular state. arbitrary and a reflection of who has the power to decide. and which crimes must be left to the states. here are a few straightforward reasons why crimes are crimes: Many acts that we consider crimes today were considered crimes under English law when the United States became a country. But with some notable exceptions -. the U. drug laws -most common crimes have been considered crimes for centuries and most people agree that they should be. finding that Congress had no authority under the Constitution to create them. Acts that may have been acceptable at one time (such as physical punishment of a child.L23 LITTLE CRIMES & BIG CRIMES JUST WHAT IS A CRIME? A crime is any behavior that is punishable by imprisonment or fine (or both). Under these decisions. Behaviors punishable only by fine are usually not considered crimes at all. what is and is not a crime is. and in other situations. But why are some acts defined as crimes while others aren't? While whole books have been written on this subject. WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A FELONY AND A MISDEMEANOR? Most states break their crimes into two major groups: felonies and misdemeanors. Ultimately. If the potential punishment is for a year or less. called "wobblers. Acts carried out with an antisocial or "evil" intent are usually considered worthy of punishment. In some states. adopted English law as its own. but infractions such as traffic tickets. certain crimes.for example. remains an open one. drinking while driving or sexual harassment) are redefined as crimes when society convinces lawmakers to criminalize them. to an extent. such as possession of less than an ounce of marijuana for personal use in California. B-4 . Examples of federal crimes that have been disallowed are statutes forbidding the sale of firearms within a certain distance of schools and allowing rape prosecutions in federal court. In large part. If a law provides for imprisonment for longer than a year. the U.

Be specific. under limited circumstances. Defense of property. Killing in the course of a dangerous felony. to commit a battery (such as a missed punch). Arresting a felon. Killing in the course of committing a dangerous misdemeanor. Does not include "seller's talk. Pick pocketing is not robbery. Often uses fact as leverage. Intent to cause serious bodily injury resulting in death. Prevention of felonies. Offer brief descriptions of different crimes.MURDER (MALICE REQUIRED) First Degree Intentional and premeditated killing. structure during the day or night with or without a break-in. EMBEZZLEMENT Persons who lawfully received possession of the property of another and then wrongfully convert that property to their own use are guilty of embezzlement. ARSON An intentional or reckless burning or explosion of a building owned by another person or. Assault An unlawful attempt. of a building owned by the arsonist. quiz the cadets. but not premeditated. Open the discussion up to questions about what acts are illegal and which are not. ROBBERY (LARCENY WHILE THE JUSTIFIABLE HOMICIDES (WHEN IT’S OK TO KILL) Self defense. After completely reviewing the list. B-5 . monetarily or otherwise. with knowledge of their ownership. Second Degree Intentional. Accidental Death. but Unlawful entry into any building or similar should be. coupled with present ability. Does not require significant blow that inflicts bodily injury. OWNER IS HOME!) A larceny with the stolen property taken from the victim in the presence of the victim and with the taking accomplished by means of force or threat of force. ASSAULT AND BATTERY: Battery Intentional or reckless touching of another without excuse or justification. Call upon your own knowledge of the Penal Code to explain the specific wording that qualifies each crime. currently a part of the Penal Code. LARCENY Taking the property of another. Crime against person and property. Benefits perpetrator. which must be to a material past or present fact that the seller knew to be false." MANSLAUGHTER (NO MALICE REQUIRED) Voluntary Killing with intent to kill or inflict grievous bodily injury but under the influence of passion caused by sufficient provocation. Involuntary Negligent or reckless homicide. to deprive them permanently or infringe upon their rights in a substantial way. Aggravated Assault and Battery When battery inflicts a serious bodily injury or assault and battery involves the use of a deadly weapon. L23 FALSE PRETENSES Applies to persons who induce others to transfer property to them by means of misrepresentation. BURGLARY (BREAKING AND ENTERING) Breaking and entering into a dwelling during the night with intent to commit Ask the cadets to suggest acts that are not a felony. Example: Fred set fire to his neighbor’s garage. EXTORTION Threat of future force or harm. See if the cadets can identify which crime was committed. Killing in the course of other felonies. Defense of others.

PUNISHMENTS Prosecution for murder is by indictment. Murder in the second degree involves the intent to cause death. In states in which the death penalty has been abolished.. and the maximum punishment in some states is death.L23 L5 LITTLE CRIMES & BIG CRIMES MURDER: JUST THE FACTS MURDER Murder. Ask the cadets if they have ever known of someone who was murdered. Examples: O. Ask the cadets to give further examples of each type of murder. criminal codes distinguish between two degrees of murder: • • Murder in the first degree involves a deliberate. classifying each according to the law. premeditated design to cause the death of the person. Have the cadets provide a true life or fictional example of manslaughter.J. which means unintentional killing. TWO DEGREES In most of the U. What are two factors that determine if a crime is a misdemeanor or a felony? 2. What is a crime? 4. is defined as intentionally causing the death (homicide) of any person. Do they think it deters citizens from committing murder? Have cadets list famous murder cases in the past few years. 1. What is the difference between robbery and larceny? 5. What is involuntary manslaughter? B-6 . Simpson Trial Mendez Brothers Mother who killed her own children in Houston.S. the maximum penalty is life imprisonment in a state penitentiary. Ask the cadets to discuss the merits of the death penalty. even though the element of premeditated intent is absent. but without premeditation and deliberation. Most states classify a homicide that occurs during the commission of a felony as first-degree murder. What is a “wobbler”? 3. in criminal law. Oklahoma City Bombing MANSLAUGHTER Murder is distinguished from manslaughter.

The penal code insures some of the key things that make us a free country: laws are public knowledge. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. These are all aspects of the Penal Code. What is and isn’t considered a crime has shifted through America’s history. civil liberties are protected. and judges are impartial. It’s a way to make sure that all violators are treated equally and fairly. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL RECOGNIZE THE VALUE OF PRECISION WHEN WRITING LAWS AND THE IMPORTANCE OF A CLEAR AND UNDERSTANDABLE PENAL CODE. B-7 . The Penal Code changes over the years. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND EXPLAIN HOW THE PENAL CODE ARRANGES LAWS. did you know that in Texas. government institutions try to be fair and effective. every society has laws. it is illegal to milk another person's cow? And that in Louisiana. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS HOW THE PENAL CODE IS A GUIDE FOR THE ENFORCEMENT OF LAWS.CAN THAT BE LEGAL? L24 The Penal Code is basically a list of rules dealing with crimes and punishment. it’s illegal to gargle in public places? Can you think of things that used to be against the law that are now perfectly legal? What about illegal things that used to be perfectly acceptable? Now. Sometimes laws that used to make perfect sense seem silly now. it’s a blueprint that’s used to enforce the law. laws are applied equally to everyone. It’s about more than just laws. CONCLUDE BY EXPLORING THE CHANGING NATURE OF THE PENAL CODE. For example. To put it simply. and what’s considered criminal has changed as the years have gone by.

to steal) or any other felony. usually described as the actor's "intent. but pardons citizens as well. Recognize the detailed list of various expressions of each crime. but this section of the course has the potential to really engage the cadets depending on how the information is presented. For each.L24 CAN THAT BE LEGAL? Note to instructor Teaching the Penal Code may seem like a difficult task. To convict a person of this offense. especially when examples are drawn from their own lives.) B-8 . he intended to commit petty or grand theft or any felony. Consider acts that would fall under the Penal Code as written. note the following: Recognize the attention to detail and the need to being specific. (The Penal Code also acts to restrain overzealous law enforcement agencies by insisting that the law not be applied too broadly or whimsically. the prosecutor would have to prove three elements: • • • The defendant entered the structure. Ask for examples of each law from the local news or from personal experiences. Today we are only going to discuss a small part of it. Review the crimes listed. Consider acts that would not qualify under the Penal Code as written. It has been our experience that cadets get fired up discussing what is illegal and what is not. The structure belonged to another person. Discuss how the precision of the Penal Code not only serves to convict citizens. For example. with the intent to commit petty or grand theft (that is." These requirements are known as the "elements" of the offense. commercial burglary is commonly defined as entering a structure (such as a store) belonging to another person. At the time the defendant entered the structure. However this lesson should give you an idea of the manner in which the Penal Code is written. HOW CAN I TELL FROM READING A CRIMINAL STATUTE WHETHER I'M GUILTY OF THE CRIME IT DEFINES? All criminal statutes define crimes in terms of required acts and a required state of mind. A prosecutor must convince a judge or jury that the person charged with the crime (the defendant) did the acts and had the intent described in the statute. Every state’s Penal Code is extremely lengthy.

torment. (4) makes unreasonable noise in a public place other than a sport shooting range. belonging to another without legal authority or the owner's effective consent. Local Government Code. a false report. as defined by Section 250. or administers poison to an animal. or embarrass another. or (8) trips a horse. B-9 . (3) abandons unreasonably an animal in his custody. (5) kills. indecent.OFFENSES AGAINST PUBLIC ORDER AND DECENCY DISORDERLY CONDUCT: A PERSON COMMITS AN OFFENSE IF HE INTENTIONALLY OR KNOWINGLY: (1) uses abusive. or proposal that is obscene. injures. horses. (3) conveys. request. (5) fights with another in a public place. or goats. other than cattle. suggestion. (2) makes an offensive gesture or display in a public place. in a manner reasonably likely to alarm the person receiving the threat. swine. in a manner reasonably likely to alarm the person receiving the report. (6) while on the premises of a hotel or comparable establishment. (7) uses a live animal as a lure in dog race training or in dog coursing on a racetrack. (9) discharges a firearm on or across a public road.001. (8) displays a firearm or other deadly weapon in a public place in a manner calculated to alarm. sheep. a member of his family. annoy. and the gesture or display tends to incite an immediate breach of the peace. profane. that another person has suffered death or serious bodily injury. he: (1) initiates communication by telephone or in writing and in the course of the communication makes a comment. L24 SILENT OR ABUSIVE CALLS TO 9–1–1 SERVICE A person commits an offense if the person makes a telephone call to 9–1–1 when there is not an emergency and knowingly or intentionally: (1) remains silent. alarm. by chemical means. CRUELTY TO ANIMALS A person commits an offense if he intentionally or knowingly: (1) tortures or seriously overworks an animal. care. for a lewd or unlawful purpose looks into a guest room not his own through a window or other opening in the room. to inflict bodily injury on the person or to commit a felony against the person. or vulgar language in a public place. or shelter for an animal in his custody. by telephone or in writing. or his property. (2) threatens. or in or near a private residence that he has no right to occupy. (2) fails unreasonably to provide necessary food. a noxious and unreasonable odor in a public place. Local Government Code. (4) transports or confines an animal in a cruel manner. which is known by the conveyor to be false. or (2) makes abusive or harassing statements to a public safety employee. as defined by Section 250.001. abuse. with intent to harass. and the language by its very utterance tends to incite an immediate breach of the peace. (6) causes one animal to fight with another. (7) discharges a firearm in a public place other than a public road or a sport shooting range. (3) creates. HARASSMENT A person commits an offense if.

How does the Penal Code prevent law enforcers from acting unfairly? B-10 . What are the “elements” of an offense? Why must the Penal Code be so specific? Why are there more laws than ever? What are 2 forms of disorderly conduct and how would a prosecutor prove them in court? 5. 4.L24 CAN THAT BE LEGAL? DISCUSSION GETTING BIGGER After reviewing list. Can anyone think of crimes that have been added to the Penal Code in recent years? The emergence of the Internet has prompted the creation of laws governing commerce on the Internet and computer piracy laws. Let the class discuss the various reasons why a written Penal Code is vital to maintaining law and order. Just as the invention of the motor vehicle led to the development of a whole body of criminal laws designed to regulate its use. Abortion. and activity that amounts to a trivial infraction in one country may constitute a serious crime elsewhere. Changing times and social attitudes may lead to changes in the criminal law. once prohibited except in the most unusual circumstances. the general trend is an increase in the scope of criminal law. 3. Discuss other inventions that will make it necessary to establish new laws? CHANGING WITH TIME Conduct that is lawful in one country may be criminal in another. Invite cadets to discuss the value of these laws and whether specific restrictions are necessary or whether additional laws are needed. new legal restrictions arise to deal with the threats. • Suicide and attempted suicide. Can anyone think of a crime that has been removed from the Penal Code? • • • The consumption of alcohol (prohibition) Interracial marriage. 1. ask the cadets to recall from their own experience when they observed a violation of one of the laws. Nonetheless. have also been removed from the scope of criminal law in many countries. It is more common to find statutes creating new criminal offenses than it is to find statutes that abolish old ones. so that behavior that was once criminal becomes lawful. New technologies give rise to new opportunities as well as to new methods of abuse of the public good. rather than a reduction. When this happens. 2. once criminal. the widening use of computers has created the need to legislate against a variety of new abuses and frauds. has become lawful in many countries.

B-11 . Why is the Crime Scene so important? The goal of a crime scene investigation is to establish what happened and to identify the person responsible for the crime. the entire nation learned how important properly. The ability to recognize and properly collect physical evidence is often times critical to both solving and prosecuting violent crimes. It is no exaggeration to say that in the majority of cases. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. or improperly. collected evidence can be to obtaining a conviction. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUTS AND DISCUSS THE PROTOCOL AND TOOLS USED IN INVESTIGATING A CRIME SCENE. Now. Simpson trial. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE IMPORTANCE OF CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATION. the law enforcement officer who protects and searches a crime scene plays the most critical role in the successful prosecution of violent offenders.J.SCENE OF THE CRIME L25 During the O. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL GAIN AN APPRECIATION OF THE SKILLS REQUIRED TO COLLECT EVIDENCE AND WILL UNDERSTAND THE CHALLENGES FACED BY DETECTIVES WHEN UNCOVERING THE TRUTH. CONCLUDE WITH A MOCK INVESTIGATION OF A CRIME SCENE.

Sketch Sketch the crime scene to demonstrate the layout or to identify the exact position of the deceased victim or evidence within the crime scene. condition of scene or that might have even the slightest evidentiary significance. what crime took place. Chain of Custody Chain of Custody is of paramount importance to any investigation. lights. Process Identify. handling individual.L25 SCENE OF THE CRIME PROTOCOL FOR WORKING A CRIME SCENE Secure the Site First secure the crime scene. shades. Describe rooms. it is rendered useless to the case. if the evidence cannot be accounted in one step of its journey from crime scene to court room. Check dates on mail and newspapers. anything that can indicate a time frame. Every link is documented by date. evaluate and collect physical evidence from the crime scene for further analysis by a crime laboratory. and eventual transfer to court. This information might not be factual information but it will give the crime scene technician a base from which to start. through evidence gathering. time. It is the unbroken sequence of events that follows an item of evidence from the time it is found at the crime scene to the time it appears in court. The theory of the case is what allegedly happened. Every link in this chain is documented. lab analysis. from discovery at the crime scene. return to storage. placement in storage. If it is a shooting. and how the crime was committed. Photograph Photograph the crime scene to record a pictorial view of what the scene looks like and to record items of possible evidence. and study the general layout of the crime scene. food. identify point of entry and point of exit. A Closer Look Examine the scene to identify possible items of evidentiary nature. Interview Interview the first officer at the scene or the victim to ascertain the "theory" of the case. B-12 . Take notes Describe the scene’s overall condition. If chain of custody is broken. locks. and what was done with the evidence by that individual.

Share stories of successful and botched crime scene investigations as a result of proper or improper evidence collection. and hair samples too small to be seen clearly. • fingerprint powder A photo receipt found in John • fiberglass dusting brushes Wayne Gacy’s wastebasket proved • camelhair brushes to clean dust from that a missing boy had been in his prints home and allowed investigators to • clear lifting tape and dispenser. tags. Below is a list of the various types of Crime Scene Tool Kits and their contents: Trace evidence collection requires different procedures for different types. which helps to take castings from snow For shootings. ing the presence of blood that may have been wiped clean. for scalpel testing/collecting blood. from collecting latent fingerprints to vacuuming trace evidence. bags. • • • • • • • • casting powder casting compound a water container and mixing bowl mixing implements casting frames of different sizes rubber lifters a fixative snow print wax spray. and a wide variety of containers for different types of evidence. get a search warrant. Each kit comes with a knife for scraping dried evidence.) and/or lift tabs Special kits for gunshot residue. and for assessing potentially of different sizes hazardous situations. These kits can be purchased commercially. an investigator might use a laser trajectory kit. for col• evidence rulers of different lengths lecting bodily fluid. L25 To collect broken glass.TOOLS FOR COLLECTING EVIDENCE Kits for processing crime scenes come in different sizes and contain instruments for different purposes. all evidence that is collected gets correctly labeled according to the case number. tweezers. and goes right to the lab for processing. for collecting bug • evidence seals. scissors. (Even seemingly insigFingerprinting Kit nificant items should be collected. Consider bringing in a department detective to elaborate. fiber. • latent print cards and elimination print forms with markers • ink pad for taking prints on the spot Special Kits are used for detect• magnifying lens. • disposable gloves Casting Kit for tire and footprint (from foot or shoe) impressions would include: Chain of Evidence Regardless of which kit is used or what is collected. and boxes samples. For soil. they may use a trace evidence vacuum that comes equipped with special filters. the CSI may only need tweezers and an evidence container. which helps to assess projectile paths at a crime scene. or put together by investigators themselves. such as metal cans for paint chips or glass. This kit includes: • • • • • a laser pointer an angle finder a centering cone penetration rods a tripod mount B-13 .

the officer se- cures and controls the scene. Some are transported to headquarters to make formal written statements. for example). If there's a body. 1. and decides whether there is reason for an autopsy. What is the first action a police officer must do at the crime scene? Why? 3. (Optional: You may want to provide evidence that proves the case one way or another. List at least 3 tools used in collecting evidence? B-14 . Some saw a suspicious suspect in the area. but it could just as easily be outside. the coroner/medical examiner checks it to be sure it's human (some are in bad condition). and one for recovering evidence. However. going through the crime scene and will determine if it was a suicide or a homicide.L25 SCENE OF THE CRIME MOCK CRIME SCENE: CRIME SCENE TECHNICIAN Crime Scene Scenario: Place a mannequin (or cadet volunteer) at rest on the floor with a gun (plastic toy) close by. the clues point to both suicide and criminal homicide. When did it happen? How did it happen? Did it happen here or was another crime scene involved? Who is the victim? Why was this crime committed? What evidence is there to help prove the motive and the crime? Witnesses are detained and interviewed. detectives are called in. All heard a gunshot. If the perpetrator is present. In major crimes like a bombing or a homicide. Their job is to take over the investigation to determine: • • • • • • • • Who did it? What happened? Cadets learn to bag evidence.) CADET TIPS FOR WORKING THE CRIME SCENE Have your cadets consider the following before they begin work on the crime scene. such as a hallway or even outside in the neighborhood. If someone was killed or in one place and then transported elsewhere. but refrain from touching or moving anything. They provide conflicting testimony about the mental state of the victim. Sometimes it's difficult to determine the extent of the scene. What is the main responsibility of the crime scene technician? 4. the officer makes an arrest. When a crime is initially discovered. the criminalists are hard at work searching for evidence and collecting whatever they find. They note the time and write down any other pertinent observations. Why is a crime scene so important? 2. It might be a single room in a building. the most pertinent evidence is likely to be close to the point where the crime took place. generally via 911.) Ask the cadets to defend their view of the crime scene and what transpired in writing. A dispatcher notifies patrol units close by who move to the scene and decide whether they need other personnel (homicide or arson unit. Instruct the cadets to go into the crime scene in teams of investigators. They will work together. a call goes out to authorities. the crime scene extends to the vehicle of transport and to the other location. one for photographs. fingerprint cards and film from your local police department. In the case of a murder. While that's going on. The detectives then prepare to obtain whatever search warrants they may need. Otherwise. Make one person responsible for the sketches. In short. (You should be able to get evidence bags. Show or tell that there are no signs of forced entry or struggle and no suicide note. each person having a specific responsibility. Assign witnesses (cadets acting as neighbors) who had just talked to the victim. the crime scene could extend to other rooms where the killer left traces of his or her presence. What is the Chain of Custody? 5.

In deciding if a search is reasonable. Balanced against the individual’s right to privacy is the government’s need to gather information. Constitution. this is the need to collect evidence against criminals and to protect society against crime. Discuss the following issues with the class: The Fourth Amendment declares the right to be free from “unreasonable searches and seizures” and establishes conditions under which search warrants may be issued.S. B-15 .SEARCH AND SEIZURE L26 Americans have always valued their privacy. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND DISCUSS THE DEFINITION OF A LEGAL SEARCH AND SEIZURE . In the case of the police. They expect to be left alone. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. This expectation of privacy is important and is protected by the U. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS HOW THE FOURTH AMMENDMENT REGULATES SEARCH AND SEIZURE. the courts look to the facts and circumstances of each case. As a general rule. CONCLUDE WITH A MOCK BUILDING SEARCH . and it does not prohibit all searches-only those that are unreasonable.. The Fourth Amendment does not give citizens an absolute right to privacy. OBJECTIVE: CADET WILL RECOGNIZE THE LAWS LIMITING POLICE SEARCHES AND WILL LEARN TO IDENTIFY THOSE SITUATIONS WHEN SEARCHES ARE LEGALLY AUTHORIZED. Now. to be free from unwarranted snooping or spying and to be secure in their own homes. courts have held that searches and seizures are unreasonable unless authorized by a valid warrant.

Where the line is drawn. or evidence of criminal activities. without a warrant or an exception to the rule requiring a warrant. will be found on the property. however. And even if he did. For example. if the situation calls for prompt action such as the need to stop a drug deal. if the police glance into a car and see a weapon on the front seat. This means that the police can use what they have seen as the basis for getting a warrant to come in and take a closer look. officers are generally not allowed to use sophisticated equipment to discover what is on your property or to eavesdrop on your conversations. and that the items connected to the crime are likely be found in a specified location. you cannot have a reasonable expectation of privacy in an area that can legitimately be seen from outside your property. This means that the police officers will later have to justify the search. What is a search warrant? A search warrant is a kind of permission slip. On the other hand. What does it take to get a search warrant? A judge will issue a search warrant after the police have convinced her that it is more likely than not that a crime has taken place. any search that is conducted without a warrant is presumed to be unreasonable. if the defendant challenges it in court. It is addressed to the owner of the property. society is not generally willing to extend the protections of privacy to the front seat of an automobile. a person who uses a public restroom expects that no one will spy on her. they have not conducted a search. the police are supposed to apply for a warrant before conducting a search of private property. these actions are not considered searches. Law enforcement officers are allowed to take aerial photographs or come close enough to overhear your conversations. Police officers are often called upon to search and seize evidence so that they can catch criminals and convict them in court.L26 SEARCH AND SEIZURE What is Search and Seizure? It’s as simple as it sounds. and most people. As a general rule. that allows the police to enter private property to look for particular items. How private is your property? Generally. and tells the owner that a judge has decided that it is likely that certain contraband. Where can police search and what’s off limits? This is where the law can be a bit tough to apply but it basically comes down to this: the police cannot search where a citizen has a "legitimate” expectation of privacy. On the other hand. they may enter without a warrant. it is not a search because it is unlikely that a person would think that the front seat of a car is a private place. would consider that expectation to be reasonable. signed by a judge. including judges and juries. Or. In other words. if the police are able to view contraband or evidence on your property without actually entering it. is not clear or consistent from state to state. B-16 .

the search is considered consensual. Sometimes a judge will issue a warrant if the source of the information is known to the police and has provided trustworthy information in the past. On the other hand. For example. is in imminent danger. the police may search the person and the immediate surroundings for weapons that might be used to harm the officer. the information given to the judge is based either on the officers' own observations or on the second-hand observations of an informant. without obtaining a warrant. the officer is justified in searching the entire vehicle. as it is unlikely that the growing plants and other evidence of the operation will disappear quickly enough to justify a warrantless search. or hunt for evidence or contraband that. they believe exists in another location on the property. " L26 B-17 . Do the police always need a warrant to conduct a search? No. the police may search to make sure that weapons or contraband are not brought into the jail. If the police ask your permission to search your home. And the police can always seize evidence or illegal items if they are in plain view or are discovered while the officers are searching for the items listed in the warrant. including the trunk. Consent searches. Searches that accompany an arrest. prevent the destruction of evidence. Simpson case. Searches necessary to protect the safety of the public. similarly. if the search warrant includes only the living room. as a result of their initial search. For instance. purse. Searches necessary to prevent the imminent destruction of evidence. For example. Generally. Searching for illegal drugs. In many situations. Because cars are moved so frequently. an officer who suspected a bomb-making operation while walking his beat might be justified in entering immediately and seizing the ingredients.) Inventory searches also frequently involve a search of the arrested person's car (if it is being held by the police) and personal effects on the theory that the police need a precise record of the person's property to avoid claims of theft. But there are exceptions to this limitation which are frequently used to justify broader searches. For example. the police justified their entry onto O. police may legally conduct a search without first obtaining a warrant. the search should not extend into the kitchen. A police officer does not need to obtain a warrant if she has observed illegal items (such as weapons or contraband) and believes that the items will disappear unless the officer takes prompt action. hear toilets being flushed above.J. reliable information is corroborated by police observation. a search limited to the ground floor might legitimately expand to the upstairs if the police.The police are limited in their ability to use secondhand information. briefcase or other property. or that of the public. the search is supposed to be confined to the specific areas described in the warrant. bathroom or bedroom. the sound of a shotgun being loaded in the backyard would justify expanding the search to the yard in order to protect the officers. And in the famous O. The police typically obtain a person's consent by threatening to detain her while they obtain the warrant. When a person is placed under arrest. If the person is taken to jail.J. a citizen's tip that someone regularly delivers drugs to a certain location would be corroborated if an officer observes the person's routine. and they don't need a warrant. the police may search beyond the terms of the warrant in order to ensure their safety and the safety of others. Legally. and you agree. Simpson's property on the grounds that they feared for the safety of other family members. although a warrant might be issued for the search of a house. The police don't need a warrant if they have a reasonable fear that their safety. (This is called an inventory search. For example. they are entitled to enter the designated property to search for the items listed on the warrant. discover more about possible evidence or contraband that is in plain view elsewhere on the property. the police tell the judge what they know about the situation. This exception arises most frequently when the police spot contraband or weapons in a car. if the police learn about a marijuana-growing operation from a neighbor. Usually. What are the police allowed to do after they obtain a search warrant? Once the police have a search warrant. they usually would need a warrant.To convince the judge of these facts. But corroboration is not necessary in every case.

4. Request backup. At least two officers enter to make search. Searching the Building Leave enough officers outside to secure the perimeter. If one is not available. What does the 4th amendment declare and protect? When do police have the right to search an individual or his/her property? What is a search warrant? What must police prove to obtain a search warrant? When can the police search without a warrant? B-18 . 2. TRAINING OBJECTIVE Identify procedures for the safe search of buildings and identification of suspicious or stolen vehicles. TIPS FOR DESIGNING MOCK SEARCH Conduct the search with the lights out using only flashlights. plant very suspicious evidence not covered by the warrant. (Establish Procedures for safe search of buildings where a search warrant has been granted. If utilizing a search warrant. The cadets must decide how to proceed with their search.L26 SEARCH AND SEIZURE MOCK BUILDING SEARCH Conduct the following activity in an empty building. The cadets must exercise their own judgment as to which items should be marked as evidence. Secure point of entry. The team stays together and searches each room thoroughly before moving to the next room. 3.) • • • • • Securing the Scene Notify headquarters. Officers searches the premises using the “leap frog” technique (one officer covering the other as they move from place to place). as cadets do in the academy. Secure other exits. 1. Don’t forget to plant items in the room that are relevant and irrelevant to the search. 5. a scaled down version of the exercise can be conducted in a room.

they soon became aware that mastering this skill is essential. concise. you may be under the impression that police work is 100% car chases and locking up suspects. WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON THE VARIOUS ADVERSARIES THAT DEPEND ON ITS ACCURACY AND DETAIL. accurate. B-19 . Actually. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL RECOGNIZE THE VALUE OF THE POLICE REPORT TO THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM. CONCLUDE BY DISCUSSING THE VARIOUS GROUPS RELYING ON A SINGLE REPORT. A police report becomes the source documentation of an occurrence that will in all likelihood be disputed. Now. For this reason. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND REVIEW THE TYPES OF REPORTS AND SALIENT INFORMATION.POLICE REPORT WRITING L27 If you watch the TV show “COPS”. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE ALL-IMPORTANT TASK OF POLICE REPORT WRITING. one of the most time consuming but vital duties an officer performs is filing police reports. However. Why Write Police Reports? Most police officers will agree that report writing was a “dry” topic in the academy. and professionally written reports are critical. That only constitutes a small percentage of the job. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit.

When. judge. time. everything that happened. etc. suspicious deaths. everything they did and why they did it. even years after the event took place. complete report protects the officer. When you've finished a case and turned it over to the prosecutor. Investigation Report Used for indictable and non-indictable offenses. and helps the prosecutor to do his job effectively. Keep it free of legalese. accidental deaths. and county to county. Forms can vary from state to state. prowler complaints. etc. What. police must use the proper form used by their department.L27 POLICE REPORT WRITING WHY SO IMPORTANT? A thorough. Some types of forms are: Operation Report Used when dispatched to non-criminal calls such as possible town ordinance violations. & Why? It is critical in police work that officers document everything they're told. Who. Various Kinds of Police Reports In filing a police report. In some cases the officer might be working for a different agency and the report is all that exists to jog his memory and inform the prosecutor. If you don't write it your report. Arrest Report Used for all suspects that have been arrested. Most forms have both a block section and a narrative section for the police officer to complete. service calls. Suddenly. and circumstances of the incident in question. It must transport the jury. Depending on how busy your department is. ect. Where. how are you ever going to remember? B-20 . There are various report forms used for various incidents. you may have a dozen or so cases working all at the same time. How. and cop slang. It should be written in clear language that jurors can understand. you’re a witness on the stand being asked to recall the minutest detail of the event. and attorneys to the date. It should be written with an eye to the future since years may pass before the officer is called to testify. That case may well not show up in court for months. everything they saw. dogs running at large. Vehicle/Property Report Used in regards to recovering stolen property or abandoned stolen vehicles and all found property. the agency. jargon. you tend to put it out of your mind.

Clothing (include jewelry) DESCRIBING PROPERTY Examples of property that may be found in police reports: Vehicles: include make. DESCRIBING LOCATION Specific details are important in a police report. arched. Facial hair (beard. Hair style (long. Approximate Age (early 20’s. bushy. model.) f. thin. customized details. bald) i. conditions and any other relevant observations. oval. m. Tattoos. up slant. color. Discuss with the class the importance of using these questions when taking down field notes while answering a call. and all aspects of a person should be described.” Does this sound likes a thorough police report? What details are missing from the report? Use the following section to elaborate. wrinkles. Household Property: include make and models if describing electronic equipment. any damage.) g. soft. On the board. Hair color h.) k. Weight. and Build c. year. An address is not enough! Describe location. Height. etc. flat top. Nose shape j. Descriptions must be exact. Eye shape (round. witnesses and police officers that were at the scene of a crime.) n. etc. around 25) b. license number. shoulder-length.Read the following POLICE REPORT: “A fight occurred between two males at the night club on Main Street. Eye brows (straight.) d. Skin color (tanned. Speech (harsh. Catalogs with images can help a victim describe their stolen/lost property. write each basic question and examples of the specifics (as they relate to above): Who: was involved in the fight? Who reported it? What: actually happened? When: was crime reported? When did the officer arrive? Where: was the crime committed? In the lobby? On the dance floor? How: did the fight start? Did the suspect arrive? How much damage was done? Why: were they fighting? L27 DESCRIBING PEOPLE Descriptions are provided by victims. etc. goatee. fair.) l. round. B-21 . 40-ish. dark. etc. etc. slurred. any bumper stickers. a. other. accent. etc. Face shape (oval. Eye color e. scars. mustache. etc.

will need the report to build evidence and prosecute the defendant. 2. share with them the answer from your own experience or from the explanations provided below. Ask the cadets to guess why each of the following groups would require a police report. Police reports are also used for statistical purposes. PROSECUTOR The prosecutor. THE INVESTIGATING POLICE OFFICER Because the report documents the initial crime or occurrence. DEFENSE ATTORNEY The defense attorney represents the defendant and carefully reviews the report in search of ways to defend their client. other police officers will request a report. responsible for building a case for conviction on behalf of the state. What is a police report? Name some characteristics of a good police report. INSURANCE COMPANY The insurance company will need the report to authenticate the claim and document the damages and the worth of items stolen. Detectives will use a report to close a case that is still open. After fielding responses from the cadets. as in assaults when the suspect has not been located and arrested.L27 POLICE REPORT WRITING POLICE REPORT: WHO NEEDS ’EM? Police reports are “court documents” that play a key role in many different aspects of the criminal justice system. as in collecting data on the number of burglaries from the same location of the township. Victim may also request the report if there is a civil suit pending. an investigator will utilize the report as the foundation for any further investigation. OTHER POLICE OFFICERS For various reasons. Why is it necessary for police officer to write an accurate police report? What are the six questions that must be answered in a police report? What key characteristics are used to describe a person in a police report? B-22 . An example of a civil suit is when the victim sues the defendant for monetary damages from a burglary. 4. 3. Can you think of any other people who may have an interest in reading a police report? 1. 5. as in burglaries and thefts. VICTIM The victim of a crime will need the report to submit to their insurance company in filing a claim.

In law enforcement. and spent a half-hour reading through them you would probably find: OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE IMPACT A POORLY WRITTEN REPORT CAN HAVE ON A CASE. B-23 . DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUTS AND REVIEW COMMON MISTAKES FOUND IN REPORTS. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. • • • • A wide array of writing styles Sentences that sound unclear or do not convey what the author intended Complex language Profound spelling errors In this lesson we will examine the most common mistakes made in writing police reports. Ask the cadets why this should be. CONCLUDE BY DEMONSTRATING HOW AN UNCLEAR REPORT CAN BE REFUTED IN COURT. poor writing can have devastating impact on efforts to bring a criminal to justice. If you went to any department and pulled random police reports from their files. Discuss the burden of defending a poorly written or documented police report in a court of law.COMMON MISTAKES IN POLICE REPORT WRITING L28 Writing clearly and concisely is difficult. Now. This problem is an ongoing challenge for nearly every law enforcement agency in the country. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL IDENTIFY IMPORTANT POINTS THAT WILL IMPROVE THEIR WRITING SKILLS WHEN DOCUMENTING A POLICE INCIDENT AND VALUE THE IMPORTANCE OF A PROFESSIONALLY WRITTEN REPORT.

Y/O and PU. For the most part. Be Objective Police reports are court records that contain only facts. as we have witnessed through prominent trials over the past few years. The prevailing attitude. DEF. For example. Have the Cadets discuss how each kind of error can affect the value of the report and the ability to gain a conviction in court. officers use too many abbreviations for things that many outside law enforcement might not understand. This approach is almost always wrong! It is important to include all relevant actions. Eliminate Abbreviation Abbreviations are used all the time in police reports. Shorter is Not Always Sweeter Some police officers are convinced that if they write less. Never Guess When Spelling Although no one is expected to go back and learn spelling all over again.” PU may mean “Pick-Up” to a cop. they will be less likely to have their reports twisted in court by a clever defense attorney. Then they begin their report like this: “On the above date and time. or biases. is that if it’s not in your report. yet frequently misspelled. and warrant are just three examples of words used all the time in reports. B-24 . and it eliminates any confusion.” an outsider reading the report may think PC means “Politically Correct.” This causes a disruption in the reader’s flow. there is no need to abbreviate anything.L28 COMMON MISTAKES IN POLICE REPRT WRITING COMMON MISTAKES IN POLICE REPORT WRITING * The following is a list of common errors in police reports. While the writer may understand PC to mean “Protective Custody. especially a coworker’s name. because the reader must now look elsewhere to find out which date and time the author is referencing. you should at least learn how to spell the words that are particular to law enforcement. Complainant. it didn’t happen. but a civilian may think of something smelly. While there is no hard rule against using common abbreviations that everyone will understand. It is worth the time. I was on duty in cruiser 43. opinions. many officers include the date and time in the heading of their reports. Also. It only takes a few keystrokes to spell out the word entirely. Police reports do not include the writer’s emotions. An officer’s priority is to be objective throughout the entire report. alcohol. a person’s name should never be misspelled. statements and observations in your report. Consider the following: PC. Don’t Make the Reader Search for Information Do not force the reader to search forward or backward for information.

Is it possible you got some other facts wrong that day. “Officer _______. traveled approximately 50 mph. and fit the description of the suspect car that left the convention center and was wanted for a burglary that occurred last night. VOCABULARY * The following is a list of words commonly found in police reports. Never Ending Sentences Sentences that go on and on can be confusing. rather than “looked intoxicated”. Use “55 MPH”. given to see if drivers are DUI Suspicious Something that “just is not right” Unconscious Not alert or awake * Now. Daytona Beach Shores. provide the word’s definition. any good defense attorney will want to know WHY it wasn’t included the original report.” On a separate piece of paper. at 4:00 p. murder Intersection Place where two roads meet Intoxicated Same as drunkenness Laceration A type of cut License An issued written permission Negligence Not taking care of Occurred Happened Pedestrian Someone walking on the sidewalk.m. rather than “going fast”. Premises An area Reckless Out of control Sergeant A police rank used in the chain of command Sobriety Word used with ‘tests’. Homicide Taking the life of a human being.If an officer testifies in court to an action that was not included in the original report. roadway. was seen headed south on South Atlantic Avenue. Factual concrete details are very important. etc. have the cadets rewrite the above using short sentences. The inference will be that it wasn’t included because it never really happened. etc. Officer?” Continue in this fashion. item. which was a 1999 red Corvette. Florida license plate TE8978. Use “had bloodshot eyes.. If needed. Read the following sentence: “The vehicle. Pretend to be a defense attorney. be sure that concrete words are used rather than abstract. Read the list of the words and instruct the cadets to properly spell each. Abrasion A type of cut or laceration Accusation To accuse someone of doing something Altercation A meeting of disorderly people Anonymous Not giving a name Assault Threatening to strike. I see that your Police Report at the time of my clients arrest has 13 misspelled words. Avoid Abstract Language When stating facts within a report. and had an odor of alcoholic beverage”. walk through the class and select the papers from various cadets who won’t mind a little innocent ribbing. keeping the exercise fun. L28 B-25 . or striking someone Barricade Closing off an area Burglary Breaking & entering a dwelling to commit a crime Custody Taken into detention Drunkenness Affected by alcoholic beverages Hazard Dangerous area.

2. B-26 . it is. Attorney: You don’t recall. Attorney: “Nasty” seems a little abstract. Attorney: Officer. Attorney: How many girls. Since this incident occurred approximately 9 months ago. it states in your report that the arrest was made on July 5th. What exactly did my client do.. List 3 common errors made in police reporting. Attorney: Officer (cadet’s name). List two suggestions that you would give a rookie police officer on writing a good police report. 3.. Attorney: Officer (cadet’s name). With out looking at your notes. it has been approximately 9 months since this incident. and Officer (cadet’s name). Attorney: Officer (Cadet’s name).. Attorney: What brand of beer was my client drinking? Officer: I don’t recall. Which is your answer Officer (cadet’s name)? Officer: It was definitely a Coors Light. Officer: No. looking at your report. since Officer (cadet’s name). namely Coors Light.. or say? Officer: He yelled nasty obscenities at people.. 4. Attorney: Officer (cadet’s name)...bottle. I remember. Attorney: No where in the report does it state that you smelled alcoholic beverage on my client. It says that you arrested him for disorderly conduct after my client. Poor writing can affect the outcome of a criminal case? Explain. Attorney: You stated just before that you did not remember the brand. Attorney: Are you sure he was drinking beer? Officer: Yes...cup??? Officer: I remember now.it was 9 months ago... Coors Light. Could it be that you are confusing this incident with another. Attorney: Was there anything else that gave you the impression that my client was drinking so-called beer? Officer: I observed an odor of alcoholic beverage on his breath. Attorney: You don’t recall? Was my client drinking from a can.. no where in your report does it state that you observed my client with a silver can.. I can see a lot of details missing that you claim happen.it was a silver can. are we looking at the same police report? Officer: Yes. Is this correct? Officer: Yes. Write down three commonly misspelled words in a police report. Is that true? Officer: Yes.. it states in your report that my client (Quote) “got nasty with people”.. Who were the “people” he so-called got “nasty” with? Officer: Girls that were standing on the street during the confrontation.. are you sure they were all girls? Officer: Yes. I am. could it be that the silver can that you observed have been a “Diet Coke” and you forgot that’s what it was? Or maybe it was a bottle he was drinking out of? Officer: I remember now that it was a Coors Light. Could this have been a mixup from another incident. (STOP) 1.silver can. (Quote) “was observed drinking beer and got nasty with people”. Attorney: And the words were? Officer: I don’t recall. Using abstract language in a police report is highly recommended? True or False? 5.L28 COMMON MISTAKES IN POLICE REPORT WRITING COMMON MISTAKES IN POLICE REPORT WRITING DEFENDING YOUR REPORT Ask a cadet to role-play a police officer sitting in the witness stand explaining his report.

Now. it is frequently destroyed by the perpetrator. or shoeprints) will probably not result in uncovering the best evidence. Sometimes the only remaining evidence is microscopic. consisting of hairs. Anything which can be used to connect a victim to a suspect or a suspect to a victim or crime scene is relevant physical evidence. For example. CONCLUDE BY DEMONSTRATING HOW MINUTE PIECES OF EVIDENCE CAN SOLVE A CRIME. or other small traces the assailant unknowingly left behind or took with him. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. shoe prints or bloodstains). Although there are items that are frequently collected as evidence (fingerprints. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND EXPLORE BOTH THE FAMILIAR AND UNEXPECTED SOURCES OF EVIDENCE. any object can be physical evidence.EVIDENCE L29 Everything at a crime scene is potentially evidence. collecting bloodstains under a victim's body or shoeprints from emergency personnel will rarely answer important questions. Since a weapon or burglar tool is easily recognized as significant physical evidence. fibers. Using the "shopping list" approach (collecting all bloodstains. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL GAIN AN APPRECIATION OF THE SKILLS REQUIRED TO COLLECT EVIDENCE AND WILL UNDERSTAND THE CHALLENGES FACED BY DETECTIVES WHEN UNCOVERING THE TRUTH. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE BROAD DEFINITION OF EVIDENCE. B-27 . hairs.

If several layers of paint have been applied over one another. TWINE. Might not sound like much. There is much more to it than looking at a stain or spatter and saying. If your Aunt Bertha gives you a big hug and walks away. a stronger match can be made. he leaves some part of himself behind and takes something away. Certain bugs incubate and hatch at known rates. They can be used to corroborate or disprove an alibi. He was convicted because fibers found on the body of one of his victims matched fibers from the carpet in his house. skin tissue on the fixed side of the rope can indicate homicide rather than suicide. but it’s GREAT physical evidence. If bugs are found on a corpse. "Bugs. "This is where the crime took place. Never cut a noose or alter the knot. fingerprints. fibers from her clothes will cling to you and fibers from your clothes will cling to her.L29 EVIDENCE DOCUMENTING CRIME SCENE CONDITIONS Documenting crime scene conditions includes recording immediate transient details such as: • Lighting (on/off) • Drapes (open/closed) • Weather • Furniture moved by medical teams CLUES EVERYWHERE Every time an individual comes into contact with a person or place. Some examples of this type of clue include. PAINT Paint can be examined and matched for color and texture. What are the chances that some one else used the exact same colors of paint in the exact same sequence? ROPE. a paint chip can be fracture matched back to the point from which it originated. BLOOD SPATTERS Blood spatters help a great deal in reconstructing a crime scene. lip prints.” But they are great evidence and can be used to determine time of death." The patterns of the spatters and the shapes of the individual blood droplets themselves can tell how the crime was committed. CORD In the event of death by hanging. SMOKING MATERIAL Ashes from cigars. I hate bugs. ENTOMOLOGY To paraphrase Indiana Jones.. they can be used to determine if a body has been moved from one geographic location to another. In some cases. Also. bloodstains and bite marks.. There is the possibility of a fracture match if the length of rope found at the scene was cut from a larger length of rope. B-28 . • Hair • Carpet Fibers • Dirt • Dead Skin Mass murderer Wayne Williams from Atlanta is a good example of a criminal prosecuted with this type of evidence. the age of the bugs can be extrapolated backward to estimate the time of death. Also. pipes and cigarettes can be differentiated. butts can have saliva.

The tool itself may contain paint or other coatings. Care must be taken that such traces are not lost.Matches can be fracture matched back to the book from which they were torn. SOIL Soil can be used to associate a particular scene with a particular individual. Human hair can be compared to determine whether or not two samples could have had a common origin. If possible. No two tears are exactly alike. If a half of something found at a crime scene can be matched to the other half of something found on a suspect. Fingerprints can be developed from matches and matchbooks. or other places often contain traces of paint. This is called a fracture match. L29 HAIR An examination of human hair can occasionally reveal the possible race of the individual from whom it came and the part of the body from which it originated. place in paper bindles or coin envelopes which should then be folded and sealed in larger envelopes. B-29 . safe insulation. Matchbook covers can reveal handwritten phone numbers and names. If soil on the body doesn't match the composition of the soil where it was found. Tear a piece of paper in half. If possible. the officer has good physical evidence! WHAT YOU DON’T FIND? It is important for an investigating officer to recognize what should be present at a crime scene but is not. Also. the body was obviously moved. Hold the two halves together. pedals. and send it to the Laboratory. Typical collection sites include shoes. Do not destroy the tool mark in collecting the paint. soil found out of its native geographical area can be matched back to its area of origination. FRACTURE MATCH: WHEN HALF IS BETTER THAN WHOLE A single matchstick (not usually mentioned as physical evidence) recovered on the floor near a victim's body can be excellent physical evidence because it can be directly tied to a matchbook found in a suspect's pocket. such as a victim's vehicle or wallet. safes. The value of the Laboratory examinations of such specimens will depend upon the amount of hair recovered and the characteristics found in the examinations. tracings of which may be left at the crime scene. such as plastic. Recover all hair present. as well as other substances. Learning to search for evidence is an important part of JPA training. Collect specimens of paint from all areas the tools may have contacted in the crime scene. and are usually printed with a logo or other information that can identify a unique location. tires. Soil can also be used to determine if an individual has been moved. Label the outer sealed envelope. carpeting and wheel wells on cars. use the fingers or tweezers to pick up hair. cut out around the mark. etc. BURGLARY CASES Tools used to gain entry into buildings. The fracture match is another important concept. Remember that. A careful search of each tool mark should be made. One half of a tear can always be matched back to its other half. particularly when trace evidence is involved.

so the evidence techs have a bunch of body parts in a bunch of trash bags. line up the little perforations and recreate the sequence in which the bags were torn from the roll in the box. a series of trash bags from the same box can be placed in their proper sequence. What role does Entomology play in evidence collection? 4. Great police work! Open the floor to questions and comments. using the perforations as little fracture matches. the other half from the next bag in sequence that is still in the box. These perforations make for an easy tear and connect one bag to the next bag in the box. Okay. What is a fracture match? 3. What can a blood splatter tell a crime scene investigator? 5. Each individual perforation at the bottom of a trash bag is a tiny little fracture match. Why is evidence so important? 2. All the evidence techs had to do. Great physical evidence. What can soil tell a police investigator investigating a murder? B-30 .L29 EVIDENCE GREAT DETECTIVE WORK Read the following story. separating them. as described above. A line of perforations runs along the open end of one bag and the closed end of another. in the case of the body in bags. In this way. was to find the original box and match the last bag the body was found in to the next bag in the box. They matched. A body was found in a dumpster in a number of separate trash bags. It shows the brilliance of homicide investigators. as they were torn off the roll in the box. Trash bags come out of the box in a series. The perpetrator happened to still have the box of trash bags under the sink. 1. one half from the bag you just tore off. They take the trash bags and.

• • • Overall photographs showing the entire scene. in its original uninterrupted state. moved or initiated until it has been thoroughly photographed and documented. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. Mid-range photographs showing the relationship between items. In crime scene photography there are three general positions or views that are necessary: OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE ROLE PHOTOGRAPHY PLAYS IN CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATIONS. There is a special technique to crime scene photography. FAST TO THE FLASH The investigator begins taking photographs of the scene as soon as possible after arriving there. Now. CONCLUDE BY PHOTOGRAPHING A MOCK CRIME SCENE OR THE ONE FROM LESSON 25. B-31 . the investigator/photographer must be trained in order to be proficient in the task. Nothing is touched. THE PURPOSE OF CRIME SCENE PHOTOGRAPH IS TO GIVE A DOCUMENTED RECORD OF THE SCENE AS IT IS OBSERVED. Close up photographs of each piece of evidence. This assures that the scene is depicted as it is observed. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUTS AND EXPLAIN THE EQUIPMENT AND PROTOCOL OF CRIME SCENE PHOTOGRAPHY. therefore. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL GAIN A BETTER APPRECIATION FOR THE SKILLS OF THE CRIME SCENE PHOTOGRAPHER.CRIME SCENE PHOTOGRAPHY L30 THE PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN AT A CRIME SCENE ARE CRITICAL TO AN INVESTIGATION.

Next. Therefore it takes training and practice for the investigator to be proficient in the task. which will be covered in the next paragraph. take a picture that shows where the scene is located--a shot with a street sign with the crime scene location in the background. may also be trained in finger-print lifting and analysis.L30 CRIME SCENE PHOTOGRAPHY A crime scene must be clearly photographed from every angle with an emphasis on accurately recording the size. CRIME SCENE PHOTOGRAPHY KIT Be prepared to explain the need for each item on the list. The photographs taken at a crime scene are critical for building a criminal case. showing points of entry and exit. All pictures of items of evidence. There is a special skill and technique to crime scene photography. should be taken both with and without a scale (a small ruler showing the size of the object). Photographs provide a documented record of the scene as it was observed. rear areas. The crime scene photographer. Take pictures of the areas around the crime scene--alleys. detail and distance of objects from one another and other parts of the room. Take pictures of the whole room where the crime took place. blue. and green) Electronic flash Locking cable release Tripod Film (color and black and white print film) Owner’s manuals for camera and flash Notebook and pen Gray card (to aid in getting accurate exposures) Index cards and felt pen Flashlight THE PROTOCOL: PHOTOGRAPHING THE EVIDENCE • • First. whose work often involves the use of specialized cameras and film. dumpsters. neighboring structures and even the structures across the street. Camera Normal lens & Wide-angle lens Filters (red. • • • • • B-32 . Enter the structure. yellow. Take pictures without the scale in case its presence in the picture blocks other evidence. take pictures of the outside of the structure. Take close-ups of the scene or body. Take pictures with the scale to show the size of an object. taking shots that show the locations and layout of the rooms. orange.

bite marks or skin impressions. then a picture showing all four feet is taken. A perfect tool for preserving crime evidence. Consider using a basic diagram as an illustration during the introduction. Include the date. Tire imprints are photographed from above as a whole. type of crime scene.L30 WHAT ITEMS ARE PHOTOGRAPHED AT A CRIME SCENE? Photograph bullet casings as a group as well as individually. Shoe imprints need to be lit from the side to show as much detail in the imprint as possible. VIDEO TAPING Video taping is valuable for showing an overview of the crime scene and should be used in major cases. photograph the body or bodies. the camera has always gone hand in hand with the police. B-33 . Video taping provides an easily understandable viewing medium that shows the layout of the crime scene and the location of evidence. When video taping crime scenes follow these steps: Start the video tape with a brief introduction presented by an investigator. Photograph anything else that might be evidence. Photograph any dropped items. location. Photograph any tool marks. Also include a brief description of the room and any evidence being viewed in the video tape. and any other important introductory information. time. footprints or animal tracks. If the crime was homicide. IMPRINT EVIDENCE Shoe imprints are photographed individually and as a series or group. If the tire imprint is four feet long.

5. It's also important to take photos of the entire building. walk through the scene to get perspective (taking care not to move. KEEP FOUR THINGS IN MIND: • • • • Set the camera for the correct exposure. Get good perspective without distortions. TO GET GOOD DETAIL. Notes that link important details with photograph numbers should be made. Discuss with the investigating officers (or technicians) what needs to be photographed in detail. and if the scene is videotaped. if the crime occurred within. 2. with a way to record any evidence that may be in shadows. or discarded clothing. JPA Cadets investigate a mock crime scene. In a room. to show the scene as the seen when first approached. mid-range photos are taken. Achieve a sharp focus for best detail. each item of evidence is photographed in close-up detail. touch or step on anything). because photographs need to be taken before evidence is moved or collected. • Finally. and take photos of any entrance into the crime scene. Achieve the maximum depth of field possible. bodies. describe things for the audio. focusing on the position of items considered as evidence. such as weapons. • The first photographs should provide an overview of as much of the scene as possible. for example.L30 CRIME SCENE PHOTOGRAPHY MOCK CRIME SCENE: CRIME SCENE PHOTOGRAPHER Crime Scene Scenario: Restage the mock crime scene from the previous unit or Lesson 25. Written records are especially important at this stage. 1. • Next. from several different angles. and to concentrate on photographing the scene following the protocol below: • First. The overview photos need to include the position of any items considered to be evidence. B-34 Why does a Crime scene photographer start taking photographs as soon as possible? Why is crime scene photography so critical to an investigation? What are the three general views a photographer must shoot to get an accurate depiction of the crime scene? What items are photographed at the crime scene? What steps should you take in videotaping a crime scene? . take pictures from each corner. This simply provides a closer image of the items in context. Instruct the cadets to go into the crime scene in teams of investigators. 3. 4.

OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL UNDERSTAND THE SAFETY MEASURES THAT ARE NECESSARY WHEN WORKING AT VARIOUS ACCIDENT SITES. and sometimes just as gratifying. Therefore.TRAFFIC ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION L31 When two cars collide. B-35 . have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. CONCLUDE WITH A MOCK TRAFFIC ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION. we will review the procedures for investigating traffic accidents and learn the fine art of reconstructing them. one. They take precise measurements to perform these calculations. While all police officers receive training in handling traffic accidents. will want police to investigate. It's as challenging as solving a mystery. Consider the many kinds of motor vehicle accidents police officers must investigate: Vehicle and vehicle Hit and run Vehicle and bicycle Vehicle and pedestrian Parked vehicle and moving vehicle Large Trucks (Accidents involving large trucks may require an officer to divert traffic. it is necessary for police officers to have the skills and knowledge to properly assess and document traffic accidents. Now. many departments have “accident reconstruction specialists” who are specially trained. Accidents involving trucks carrying hazardous materials may require the involvement of other public safety organizations. Accident reconstruction specialist use sophisticated techniques and computers to calculate probable speed and trajectory. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUTS AND DISCUSS THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF BOTH OFFICERS AND CITIZENS AFTER AN ACCIDENT.) In this section. each driver often claims it's the other's fault. If they can't reach a solution on their own. THEY WILL LEARN THE IMPORTANCE OF ACCURATELY COMPLETING A COLLISION REPORT. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS WHY A POLICE OFFICER MUST PROPERLY ASSESS A TRAFFIC ACCIDENT. or both.

also called personal injury protection. crashing into another. The specific form of your accident report form is dictated by your state. What if the cause of a traffic accident is not clear? It is sometimes difficult to say that one particular act caused an accident. For vehicle accidents. and determine a chronology of what happened.L31 TRAFFIC ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION Approaching Accidents As you approach. be sure it's complete. copy not only its exact wording but also the Vehicle Code section number so that you can refer to it when you negotiate a settlement of your claim. At other times. and hopefully provides a shield for you. most public libraries and all law libraries. bicycles and pedestrians. Sometimes a violation of one of these traffic rules is obvious as the cause of an accident. A librarian may be willing to help you with your search. Then look to make sure you've found them all. If there are injured persons. In a high-speed crash. do triage. or an unsafe driver to cite for a violation. or by looking to your own collision insurance. so don't be afraid to ask. This also warns others of the accident. In other situations. No-fault coverage often does not apply at all to vehicle damage. position your car so its lights illuminate the scene. The complete Vehicle Code is also available at many local department of motor vehicles offices. whether or not there was a violation that caused the accident will be less obvious. there is a law library at or near every courthouse and at all law schools. In general. and they apply not only to automobiles but also to motorcycles. there is a set of official written rules telling people how they are supposed to drive and providing guidelines by which liability may be measured. then you can argue that the combination of those actions caused the accident. passengers can be thrown quite a distance. What determines who is responsible for a traffic accident? Figuring out who is at fault in a traffic accident is a matter of deciding who was careless. how can I help prove to an insurance company that the other driver was at fault? One place to look for support for your argument that the other driver was at fault is in the laws that govern driving in your state -. sometimes called "The Rules of the Road. Observe the position and condition of the vehicles. and therefore should not affect who is liable. If you believe a rule might apply to your accident. Quickly survey the scene to see if fire or medical response is needed. But if you can show that the other driver made several minor driving errors or committed several minor traffic violations. For example. no-fault coverage eliminates injury liability claims and lawsuits in smaller accidents in exchange for direct payment by the injured person's own insurance company of medical bills and lost wages regardless of who was at fault for the accident. Interview each driver separately. there may have been a traffic violation that had no part in causing the accident. when one driver runs a stop sign. In a traffic accident. A common example is a crash that occurs when drivers merge into a single lane of traffic. B-36 . one or more of which might apply to your accident." is often available at your local department of motor vehicles office. In the index at the end of the last volume of the Vehicle Code are references to many rules of the road. Your investigation may also uncover an unsafe road condition that needs correction.usually called the Vehicle Code. Almost half the states have some form of no-fault auto insurance. A simplified version of these laws. This is especially true if what you claim the other driver did seems vague or minor. Everyone must learn these rules of the road in order to pass the driver's license test. Complete rules are contained in each state's Vehicle Code. Complete an accident report form that includes a diagram of the accident scene and a narrative about how it happened. Get information on witnesses. consequently. those claims are still handled by filing a liability claim against the one who is responsible for the accident.

the accident is virtually always that driver's fault. he is not driving as safely as the person in front of him. vehicle parts on roadway. damaged property and breathalyzer results. jackknife. it is the driver of the third car who is at fault and against whose liability insurance you would file a claim. B-37 . both you and the car behind you will be hit when a third car runs into the car behind you and pushes it into the rear of your car.L31 Can I be found liable if my car is rear-ended in a crash? If someone hits you from behind. If the driver cannot stop. After stopping. In that case. highway. check to see if anyone is hurt and give personal information when damage repair is necessary. no matter how minor the collision. you are obliged by law to give the following information to any person affected by the accident: Your name and address The name and address of the owner of the vehicle The registration number of the vehicle RESPONSIBILITIES OF A LAW ENFORCER AFTER AN ACCIDENT Unlike the citizen’s involved in the accident. the law says the car making the left turn must wait until it can safely complete the turn before moving in front of oncoming traffic. sideswipe and any other relevant terms. Exceptions to this near-automatic liability can occur if the car going straight was going too fast (this is usually difficult to prove). the car going straight went through a red light. axles. there can be no doubt that you were struck from the rear. INVESTIGATION CHECKLIST Crash Scene Safety Is the scene safe to approach? Is police back up needed? Does traffic need to be diverted to a different route? Are hazardous materials present? Rendering First Aid Does First Aid need to be given? Should paramedics be called? Obtaining Driver/Witness Statements What questions need to be asked and to whom. MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENT TERMS * Instructor will use blackboard to list and identify terms that are used in this topic. A basic rule of the road requires that a driver be able to stop safely if a vehicle stops ahead of him. In some situations. a law enforcement officer is required to provide emergency services. where and when? Physical Evidence Discuss with cadets: Vehicle damage. are there any clear patterns of liability in traffic accidents? A car making a left turn is almost always liable to a car coming straight in the other direction. curve. you must always stop. median. orthe left-turn car began its turn when it was safe but something unexpected happened which made it have to slow down or stop its turn. as well as fully to document the crime scene. Whatever the contributing factors. RESPONSIBILITIES OF A CITIZEN AFTER AN ACCIDENT The majority of minor collisions are easily dealt with by the drivers involved and do not require police involvement. Besides rear-end collisions. regardless of the reason you stopped. If the other car's front end and your car's rear end are both damaged. However. embankment. Include: airbag. lanes. The other surefire part of rear-end accident claims is that the vehicle damage proves how the accident happened.

draw scale diagrams. (Consider setting up the crash scene in class using matchbox cars if vehicles are unavailable. Using tape measures and either the Coordinate or Triangulation method. each group is to measure the motor vehicle crash scene. One person in each precinct will write down the calculations on the worksheet. compute mathematical computations. junctions and signs. Coordinate Method: technique for scene documentation where items of evidence are relocated by measuring the distance from two reference lines.) TIME TO RECONSTRUCT Have the cadets accumulate statements. with arrows to show the direction of travel. 2. SIZING UP A CRASH SITE Divide the cadets into their pre-assigned groups. List at least four duties an officer performs during an MVA investigation? What is the role of a Law enforcement Officer after an accident? What questions must a officer ask himself when arriving at an accident site? Describe the items an officer must document at the accident site.L31 TRAFFIC ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION TO THE PARKING LOT! Move the class outside where the motor vehicle crash is set-up. simply instruct them to draw a diagram of the crash site. Why is it important that an Officer properly document an accident site? B-38 . 1. Indicate the position of the vehicles before and after the accident. explain the two crash measuring techniques that are used when investigating major motor vehicle crashes: Triangulation: technique for scene documentation where items of evidence are located by measuring the distance between three reference points. The clearest way of describing an accident is by drawing a plan which only needs to take the form of a simple line drawing. 3. 4. take photographs. Note approximate distances between the cars and from the nearest roads. and so on. while the others measure. prepare the vehicle damage analyses. If these systems are too complicated for the cadets. Group will then go back into the classroom and develop a drawing to turn in for evaluation. Demonstrate the use of the tape measure and/or other measurements. fill in the blanks on their crash reports. Similar in concept to locating points in the Cartesian plane. 5. On the blackboard. Cadets learn how to investigate a traffic accident scene.

be among the most unreliable. B-39 . Researchers have determined that people are more likely to misidentify suspects of a different gender. Cases will rarely go to trial on the basis of one eyewitness. however. Police have to be very careful to back up eyewitness accounts with tangible evidence. eye witness testimony is valuable only if the investigating officer collects the evidence in a manner that accurately records the facts. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL RECOGNIZE THE SKILLS REQUIRED TO DISCOVER THE FACTS THROUGH EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY. or nationality. however. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND DISCUSS INTERVIEWING PROTOCOL . CONCLUDE WITH A CROSSWORD TESTING MASTERY OF WITNESS-RELATED TERMS. Some people have been released from prison after DNA evidence pardoned them. when an eyewitness is deemed trustworthy and competent by a jury.INTERVIEWING WITNESSES L32 Eyewitness accounts are considered to be among the most potent pieces of evidence in criminal cases. In such situations. Some factors that can confuse eyewitnesses include: • • • • • The trauma of the event Lighting conditions Their own physical condition The speed with which the crime occurred The chaos immediately following the incident Less Important? With the increasing reliability of DNA testing. ethnicity. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. police must be wary of potential misidentification Now. race. eyewitness accounts have come under more scrutiny. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE VALUE AND DRAWBACKS OF EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY. his or her testimony can be very convincing. During the investigation of a motor vehicle accident. They can.

"Did you witness this?" The word "witness" turns people off. "What happened here?" or "Which way did this car come from?" Someone is likely to chime in with a response. Many officers don't want to mess with taking written statements. THE DRIVERS How trustworthy are the accounts given by drivers involved in traffic accidents? Once in that rare while you might have a motorist tell you." With a statement written in their handwriting. They will tell an officer what they think they saw. What other situations would be unclear? Interviews are just the beginning..L32 INTERVIEWING WITNESSES HOW TO COLLECT EYE WITNESS EVIDENCE On the scene of a traffic accident. "Give me a written statement. it is a talk with someone. "How fast was the red car going?" Just ask them what they saw. "Yeah." they may think you mean "speeding. TOO HELPFUL? Some witnesses try to be too helpful." That sounds too formal and demanding. credit standing and so on. I'll have to miss work to testify at a trial. He may have set it on fire himself. Other passersby may tell you what they think you want to hear. Some will hear a noise. so don't ask. Consider the owner of a store that burned down. Don't give the impression that you already have all the answers. "I don't want to get involved" or "If I say I'm a witness." It's better to ask the group in general. don't say. How do you find out everything about the subject? Public records. when it comes time for trial the witness may claim." But often. There are many sources beyond the usual interviews and NCIC check. B-40 . "Gee. who is not friendly and cooperative. well I might not have come to a complete stop.This person normally has something to conceal. but that guy was speeding. If you use the term "fast." and invent all sorts of numbers. I just didn't see it. An appearance of cooperation may be a ploy to mask deception." Get it in writing to avoid jeopardizing legal action.. "While I take some pictures. a relative or neighbor of the accused. The interview is an effort to develop accurate information from a person who has no reason to lie. GET IN WRITING Once you have a person who is willing to talk to you. never approach someone and ask. look up to see cars spinning around and then quickly develop a theory about what must have happened. newspaper. Hand them a pad and pen and say. just write down what you saw. He may be a witness or a victim. An interrogation is different. drivers make very self-serving statements. I flat blew that stop sign. Very often an officer will quote a witness without a signed. not what actually happened. "That's not what I said. In this case. They immediately think. "What was that car doing just before they hit?" should elicit a better answer. the accused or a co-conspirator. written statement." INTERVIEWING A WITNESS An interview is a talk with someone who is friendly and cooperative. Sometimes the distinction is not clear. it can later be concluded that the statement is indeed theirs. morgue.

noted that experiments with college cadets at Rice University in Houston indicate that it's quite easy to introduce false memories. Eyewitness testimony is questionable at best. Don’t ask questions that introduce an element that the witness hasn’t mentioned such as the pulling of a gun.' it's compelling testimony. at the American Psychological Association. will that written account affect the recollection of witness #1? Psychiatrists claim that victims of terrifying incidents are particularly susceptible to memory mistakes because the horror and confusion interferes with the memory process. Find out ahead of time and arrange to have an interpreter if necessary. Later. really remember this." Roediger said. Handling inadequate responses challenges an interviewer's skill. when asked what they'd seen on film." If witness #1 sees an accident and later reads an account of the same accident by witness #2. The witness may be purposefully evasive." B-41 . Act interested and attentive. wear your uniform. GETTING AT THE TRUTH Still quoting from the St. Interview the witness who was most directly involved first. A strained facial expression could imply that the person is not telling all he knows. Conduct other interviews in a relaxed atmosphere or a place familiar to the witness.INTERVIEWS DEVELOP INFORMATION Whenever you talk with anyone. You wouldn't treat a witness like a criminal. When you're taking statements from more than one witness. but neither can you afford to waste time on unrelated matters." he said. they reported the version they'd read. Questions can fill in the details later. Petersburg Times article. "When a witness on the stand says. and how to best approach that person. Don’t pressure the witness or accuse him or her of lying. or he just may not remember. TAKING STATEMENTS It's best to let witnesses tell their story in their own way." Researcher Henry Roediger. Things to consider Don’t assume that the subject speaks English. 'I really. "However. what questions to ask. so you know what kinds of information you need to discover. To avoid intimidating a witness. they failed to notice the discrepancies. really remember' something that never happened. Do your homework. "People confidently remember events that never happened to them. talk with each one individually. dateline Los Angeles. How much control obviously depends on the situation. Interview accident witnesses as the scene. 'I really. You may prod his memory or catch him off guard by posing the right questions. ASKING THE RIGHT QUESTIONS Be sure to cover all of the information needed to fill out the police report later. People don't remember every detail. "When [Roediger] showed subjects a film and then later a written version of the same story with minor changes. Don’t apologize for taking notes. preferably without interruption. learn as much as you can about the situation and the individual. you need to establish that you are in control of the conversation. "Those who study memory are becoming increasingly unwilling to trust it. Dress appropriately as dictated by the situation. leave your gun at home and dress casual. Petersburg Times. as he or she will have the best description of the incident. Learn to read body language L32 HOW GOOD OF A WITNESS ARE YOU? How credible are witnesses? Do witnesses really remember what they saw in motor vehicle accidents? What affects the memory of a witness? According to a report in the St. To appear professional. when the event is still fresh in their minds. what we're seeing is that people say.

Don’t notify the cadets that something planned is happening. or real.L32 INTERVIEWING WITNESSES ARE YOU A GOOD WITNESS? Create a mock. 5. Did they all have the same answers? What couldn’t they remember? Examples: Have one person or several people enter the room and discuss something with you briefly then leave the room. discuss the situation openly. have the cadets pull out a piece of paper and a pen. B-42 Why should you get a witness to write down what he/she saw? What two types of evidence would you gather at the crime scene? Is eyewitness testimony always correct? Why or Why not? What are two ways to get a hesitant witness to tell you what they saw? Why should you get the testimony of more than one witness? . situation at the head of the class. 4. Have each student answer these questions: What did the person have on? What color hair did they have? How much did they weigh? How old were they? Police officers must be skillful in discovering the truth. After they have recorded their answers. Ask them questions about what just occurred. 1. 3. 2. After the event.

Now. the techniques and the equipment utilized by police agencies ranges from simple. B-43 . of work they do? DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND DISCUSS THE VARIOUS AREAS OF POLICE WORK AND THE RELATED TECHNOLOGY. It’s hard to imagine a police car without its flashing lights or even a police vehicle before cars were invented! How do you think they used to get around? How did police officers communicate without OVERVIEW: radios? How has technology like the Internet or cell DISCUSS THE RANGE OF TECHNOLOGY phones changed the way police do their work. CONCLUDE WITH A DESCRIPTION OF THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF POLICE WEAPONRY. The technology. RoboCop featured a half-robot policeman. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL DEVELOP AN APPRECIATION FOR THE TECHNOLOGICAL SOPHISTICATION WITH WHICH MODERN POLICE DEPARTMENTS KEEP PACE WITH A CHANGING SOCIETY A lot of sci-fi movies give us ideas about how police may work in the future. crime could be predicted and prevented. And in Minority Report with Tom Cruise. police officers have to keep up with the times. time-honored methods to the use of the latest computer and scientific equipment.LAW ENFORCEMENT TECHNOLOGY L33 While these stories are all fiction. or the kind USED BY POLICE OFFICERS. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. The science of law enforcement has made significant advances over the years.

became the basis of police transportation in the 20th century. Most police department communications systems have three parts: the telephone system. Closely linked with it was the adoption of radio communication. Police officers must have the capability to move safely and swiftly to their designated locations. TRANSPORTATION Police mobility is crucial to crime prevention. maintenance. reliable radio transmitter-receivers in the 1950’s. the central police station at Scotland Yard and the district police stations of London were connected by a telegraph line. lightweight. first used in police work in Akron. use. which led to the development of small. Ohio. Police transportation activities center around the acquisition. CRIME LABORATORY Because solutions to many crimes are found through the application of physical and biological sciences. Historical Perspective The automobile. The concept of comparison and identification of handwriting was established in Roman times. In 1849. Police officers or specially trained evidence technicians identify. and radio communications. raps on the pavement with a nightstick or baton. they all aim to reduce crime through rapid and accurate communication with the public. and other areas discussed below. Though communications systems differ among departments throughout the country because of variations in staffing and funding. police signal systems consisted of whistles. and the flashing of lights. Fingerprints were also used by the Chinese at an early date for purposes of identification. improvements and innovations have been made in police transportation.L33 LAW ENFORCEMENT TECHNOLOGY Throughout the 20th century. in 1899. collect. COMMUNICATIONS Communications in a police agency are the lifeline of the organization. communications. and preserve physical evidence at crime scenes during the initial phases of an investigation. command and control operations. Historical Perspective Perhaps the single most important invention in the development of police communications was the transistor. laboratory facilities. first enacted in AD 529. as is evidenced by the Code of Justinian of the Eastern Roman Empire. Until then. cost and safety of a variety of vehicles. These ancient crime fighters pressed fingerprints into clay to identify the author of cuneiform writings and to protect against forgery. the crime laboratory is of great value to law enforcement officers. Historical Perspective An early version of crime lab technology was practiced by the Babylonians. B-44 . weaponry.

the third part of police information systems. light/sound-energy techniques. the information system. remained virtually unchallenged in the police arsenal until the 1960s. The nightstick (club) and firearm. and information storage and retrieval. the importance of keeping comprehensive police records was recognized. invariably adaptations of military weapons.L33 POLICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Another staff service. B-45 . Such a system consists of three components: reporting. reveals the growing importance attached to the technical aspects of police work. tranquilizing darts. the proliferation of professional publications. Collection and recording of crime data helps to evaluate crime conditions and the effectiveness of police operations. WEAPONRY There have been few innovations in weaponry. when chemicals. can also significantly affect efforts to reduce crime. Reporting calls for thorough and precise reporting of all crimes that come to the department’s attention. educational programs. When the British Parliament enacted the reforms of Robert Peel in 1829. and other devices appeared. supports police in the field by providing quick and accurate criminal information on request. Information storage and retrieval. and international conferences. workshops. Historical Perspective Modern police methods began to develop in Europe by the 18th century and were reinforced in the 19th century by a great number of technological advances. A PROFESSIONAL PURSUIT Although it was as recently as the early 1960s that police technology became recognized as a distinct academic and scientific discipline. collection and recording of crime data.

to only carry a baton while on patrol? There is a violent student riot on your school’s campus. within a range of 15 feet. • London police carry only a small baton. Others break at a certain degree of impact in order to avoid serious injury. Why? STANDARD WEAPONS Standard equipment varies between different departments. PISTOLS Pistols. and automatic weapons are usually included in the police arsenal but are issued only when essential. Many contain firearms. Through study and research. CHEMICAL AND OTHER NONLETHAL WEAPONS Chemical weapons include those that deliver compounds which cause either severe weeping or tearing at the eyes (lacrimators) or extreme discomfort or sickness (nauseators). THE BATON The most universal physical weapon and certainly the most frequently used weapon over the years has been the baton. and instantly effective. used especially in Europe for crowd control • non-lethal projectiles including plastic shot and bullets made of rubber. and a leaded cape. nightstick. police require a variety of weapons and protective devices. The most commonly used modern weapon is the handheld aerosol tear-gas projector (Mace). 1. tear-gas cartridges. are the second most widely used police weapons.S. What is the aim of telecommunication in a police organization? 4. 2.L33 LAW ENFORCEMENT TECHNOLOGY POLICE WEAPONRY AROUND THE WORLD To contend with the wide diversity of criminal situations. rifles. Communications C. It can be carried in a holster. Weaponry 3. • Paris police carry a small caliber semiautomatic pistol. Which of the weapons profiled should be utilized to control the situation. and it is easily aimed. Why is it important for police to have the latest technology? List a major technological advancement in each of the following areas: A. or billy club. Other non-lethal weapons include • light/sound devices that cause confusion. Shotguns. Transportation B. the baton has evolved beyond the traditional wood or plastic version. a baton. or fabric QUESTIONS? Why would it be impractical for police in the U. pain. How does the information system of a law enforcement organization assist with policing? 5. • Cairo police carry a submachine gun or automatic rifle. including the automatic pistol and the revolver. • New York City police carry a large caliber revolver and a baton. or temporary blindness • stun guns that emit a high-voltage charge temporarily rendering a person unconscious • the water cannon. and electric-shock systems. What is the importance of having a crime lab in a police department? B-46 . truncheon. wood.

collected. and up-to-date record keeping. classified. There should be as much cross-filing as possible. The record-keeping tasks of police work were previously handled by using a wide range of manual systems. and various investigation and reference files. using it to break the law in ways never before imagined. Unfortunately. Now. Quick nationwide or international utilization of records and files was impossible. criminals have also discovered the computer. even within the same county. modus operandi of criminals. including the public safety benefits of maintaining and sharing accurate records. processed. Can anyone think of a way a computer might benefit public safety officials? What about criminals? How might they exploit computer technology to break the law? The efficiency and effectiveness of a police department depends to a large degree on complete. OBJECTIVE: Cadets will learn the importance of computers in modern police work. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. were unaware of all other criminal records. Numerous files must be kept. B-47 .THE COMPUTER AGE L34 Since its conception. readily available. analyzed. Information must be reported. law enforcement agencies. and stored. OVERVIEW: Discuss the extensive progress computer technology has made in the tracking and apprehension of criminals. the computer has been used by law enforcement to protect the public and to catch criminals. An individual wanted for a crime by the police department could be stopped for a traffic violation by the DPS without the trooper being aware of the offender’s criminal record. of which the most important include fingerprints. Before this technology was readily available.

This also helps officers to identify potentially dangerous criminals. when a trooper stops your automobile. accurate. Productivity of existing staff by reducing redundant data collection and input efforts among the agencies and by reducing or eliminating paperbased processing. the computer can provide: statistical analysis for research and management development of intelligence data bases and analysis systems assistance in the analysis of physical evidence including fingerprints facilitation of swift document retrieval AT YOUR FINGER TIPS Using traditional manual methods. Interpol is an example of an international computer network that coordinates the exchange of criminal intelligence to aid police agencies in searching for fugitives or missing persons or property. judges. The FBI's Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) rapidly and accurately searches a national database of more than 400 million criminal fingerprints. In January 1996. Lockheed Martin Information Systems (LMIS) was awarded a 6-year contract with the FBI to design and field an automatic fingerprint recognition system. permit the linking of many police and investigative databases and make possible the development of national criminal investigation systems.L34 THE COMPUTER AGE THE COMPUTER AGE The modern computer has revolutionized information-handling techniques. Now. fingerprint examiners have to make visual comparisons of thousands of individual 10-digit fingerprint cards in order to make a positive identification. IT’S ALL ON THE PLATE With the advancements in computer technology. storing data and making it instantaneously and accurately available to many police constituents. The development of a computerized fingerprint search system took more than 20 years of industry-wide research. he can call in your plate and determine almost immediately if there are any outstanding warrants or violations. and corrections officers.. Computers improve. Decision-making by increasing the availability of statistical measures for evaluating public policy. and complete information concerning offenders available statewide to all criminal justice agencies and to individual decision-makers in the system including police officers. Public safety by making more timely. ROBOCOP ON THE DESKTOP In addition to serving as a depository and dispenser of information. B-48 . Advances in computer networking. law enforcement agencies have become sophisticated in sharing information.. as well as our ability to catch crooks! Manual filing systems have been superseded by computers that operate from central geographic points.

Mafia and Colombian drug cartels. B-49 .).D.A. with equal parts of disgust and admiration.L34 HIGH-TECH HOODS Computers help to prevent crime but they also create criminal opportunities.S. have taken advantage of new communications and information technology. reducing errors and arming him with marketing data. "The operation was ingenious. It was a well-run operation. That not only eliminated the need for a full-time order-taker but also provided Kessler with a searchable database of all his customers and their orders. Then Kessler went high-tech. with suppliers and customers. Kessler (not his real name) was selling electronic devices that enabled his customers to "steal" premium cable television shows. and we're running alongside. Kessler was clearing half a million a year and had moved the six PCs with which he was now running his business into his spacious. Lately.D. in 1995. Kessler represents one of the fastest-growing breeds of entrepreneur: the wired criminal. including the U. allowing his customers to place orders directly into the computer. of the L. Eventually. The rush of local chop-shop operators and drug dealers turning "techie" has left police departments scurrying to reengineer their forces. CA. these small-time hoods are streamlining their businesses and communicating more effectively. but also illegal. In the past few years. once considered rare incidents. He added phone lines and hooked one of them to a Pentium-based PC. new home.S. For years organized crime rings.'s computer crime unit." says Sergeant Larry Balich.S. smaller crime operations have begun to take advantage of increasingly inexpensive high-tech tools. "The use of technology for crime is a fast-moving train.A. and privately. hundreds of local police departments have formed computer crime squads to handle the rising number of cases involving computer evidence and other forms of technology. Three years later. police were able to arrest the prospering entrepreneur and pulled the plug on his humming bank of PCs. Enlisting everything from spreadsheets to Email to personal digital assistants." says Detective Richard Hiles. trying to keep up. of the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department (L. with his two teenage sons helping him to man the constantly ringing phone and to write down orders. Brandon Kessler ran his business from a trailer park in Bellflower.

An officer who jerks the plug on a computer to prevent the suspect from using a keystroke jeopardizes potential information in the vast majority of cases and virtually never serves a useful purpose. What types of crimes have emerged with the invention of the computer? 2. Even when they're caught. Why? B-50 . NEVER UNPLUG Two reasons often given by misinformed officers for immediately unplugging a computer at a crime scene are: Prevention of the operator from deleting evidence by a preprogrammed keystroke. Unplugging the computer's power virtually guarantees you will lose all of the documents that are open. How has fingerprinting changed in the computer age? 3. the correct way to prevent a remote operator from erasing memory is to unplug the modem. How can a criminal us a computer to commit a crime? 4. who testify to computer records in fraud and pornography cases. CORRECT COMPUTER SHUTDOWN The recommended steps to shut down any computer in a search situation are Immediately remove suspects from their workstations and unplug the phone lines to the computer. What skills will the modern police force master to catch hi-tech criminals? 5.L34 THE COMPUTER AGE COMPUTERS AT A CRIME SCENE Computer experts. Secondly. the computer may be safely shut down. it is highly unlikely that anyone would program a magic keystroke into their computer to erase data as they might accidentally hit the key themselves and lose all of the records. Unplugging the phone line from the modem removes access from remote operators without risking the loss of open documents. wired criminals are often harder to prosecute. Save open documents and files to a separate computer diskette so the original data can be kept in its last saved form. 1. Firstly. Both of these reasons are flawed. commonly complain about the misconception among some police officers that a computer should immediately be unplugged when a search warrant is executed. After the data has been saved on diskette. Prevention of a remote operator from erasing records and documents via modem. not the power source.

The FBI has done much work in developing such profiles of serial killers. PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY Forensic psychologists or psychiatrists may be called upon to evaluate a murder scene to suggest a possible psychological profile of the killer. blood. OBJECTIVE: Cadets will learn to further appreciate the analytical and scientific skills used in modern crime fighting Now. Long after a suspect has fled the scene. we carry identification cards to prove who we are. They can also determine whether two communications are from the same person which is often important in cases of kidnapping. tiny clues from his body and belongings remain and serve as another form of ID. LINGUISTICS Forensic linguists analyze the content of written or aural communication to identify who is speaking and to indicate the speaker's intent. or trace blood splatters to discover the mode of attack.FORENSIC SCIENCE L35 At school. Besides fingerprinting. B-51 . and handwriting are just a few of the items that can be used to identify any one of us. or on the road. Forensic science has come to play an increasingly important part in the investigation of serious crimes. a broad range of other scientific techniques is available to law enforcement agencies attempting to identify suspects or to establish beyond doubt the connection between a suspect and the crime in question. They can analyze wounds to determine what caused them. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. Hair. Some of the specialized careers in forensic science include: PATHOLOGY Forensic pathologists determine the time and the cause of death in cases of suspected murder or suicide. OVERVIEW: Instructor will introduce cadets to the awe inspiring skills the Forensic Scientist utilizes in the pursuit of justice in criminal investigations.

and internal microscopic features that distinguish one animal from another. Then. Microscopic or chemical analysis of fibers to prove that fibers found on the victim or at the scene of the crime are similar to those in clothing. legs. On animals. Because hairs can be transferred during physical contact. arms. PHOTOCOPIERS If a photocopy is found at the scene of a murder. is drizzled onto the drum. hair types include coarse outer hairs or guard hairs. pinchers. With a photocopier. creating the printed copy. by the use of reflected light. Forensic science includes a broad range of sciences with a vast number of applications. Look for marks from the belts. the messy black stuff. The paper itself can yield many clues. Toner can have unique characteristics in its chemical composition. hairs found on the head. passes through the drum. The toner is then heat sealed to the paper. transferring blobs of toner at a time to the printed page. pubic region. rollers and gears that physically move the paper through a machine. Marks on the optics (glass. and other hairs that originate from the tail or mane of an animal. Chemical and genetic comparison of hair samples to those of the suspect. causing the negatively charged toner to transfer to the paper. look at how the toner was placed on and fused to the paper. lenses. mirrors) used to transfer or create an image on paper might contain unique defects (such as scratches) that will render anomalous markings on the printed page. and other body areas have characteristics that can determine their origin. Paper. In humans. detect illegal materials from drugs to endangered animal skins. LOOK CLOSE Hairs. the evidence can lead to conviction. Microscopic or chemical analysis of many inorganic substances. Also. There are many ways to match a page back to a photocopier or laser printer. color. paper. the document is exposed onto a drum that is covered with a photosensitive material. with a positive charge. If that copy machine happens to be in a suspect’s home or office. and paint. tactile hairs such as whiskers. the finer fur hairs. Toner may clump up on the drum. where it sticks only to the positively charged areas to create a visible image. they leave their own distinguishing fingerprint on the copies that they produce. including: The analysis of bloodstains or traces of other body fluids (such as semen or spittle) that may indicate some of the characteristics of the offender.L35 FORENSIC SCIENCE FORENSIC SCIENCE Although we think of forensic science as a tool to solve violent crimes. such as glass. Negatively charged toner. Each species of animal possesses hair with characteristic length. root appearance. can be defined as slender outgrowths of the skin of mammals. their presence can associate a B-52 . Laser printers use the same type of process to print a page. the original document is placed on the glass. which are composed primarily of the protein keratin. or some other fabric. it is possible to determine the exact copier that created the photocopy. Considerable variability also exists in the types of hairs that are found on the body of an animal. shape. trace smuggled material. associated with the suspect. it can also be used to detect forgeries. The image of that document exists on the drum as an invisible positive photoelectric charge. But how can police distinguish one copier from another? Photocopiers are like typewriters and printers.

Comparison of the microscopic characteristics of questioned hairs to known hair samples helps to determine whether a transfer may have occurred. size. upstrokes. curves. Forensic handwriting analysis is not the same as Graphology -. a determination can be made as to whether or not the authorship is genuine. The types of hair recovered and the condition and number of hairs found impact their value as evidence in a criminal investigation. Under what circumstances might it be important to verify the origin of a document or the author of a handwritten note? First a clarification.the study of handwriting to determine one's personality traits. Handwriting analysis looks at letter formations. down strokes. shape and structure of handwriting to determine authorship of a given handwriting sample. The basic principle underlying handwriting analysis is that no two people write the exact same thing in the exact same way. connecting strokes between the letters. Your specific expertise is in document examination. hesitations and a number of other characteristics. L35 HANDWRITING ANALYSIS You are all Forensic Scientists. B-53 . retraces.suspect to a victim or a suspect/victim to a crime scene. distortions. baseline. spacing. By examining these details and variations in a questioned sample and comparing them to a sample of known authorship. True handwriting analysis involves the painstaking examination of the design.

table top. How is handwriting used to identify a possibly suspect? B-54 . What type of evidence does Forensics use to identify a suspect? 5. How does a Pathologist assist police in the investigation of a crime? 3. Have cadets dust the area for prints and learn how to lift the prints for evidence. Dusting for Fingerprints: Place fingerprints on several objects: glass. etc. 1. How does a Linguist assist police in the investigation of a crime? 4.L35 FORENSIC SCIENCE FINGERPRINTING Have cadets learn to use fingerprinting techniques by actually fingerprinting each other. Define Forensic Science. Discuss the difference in everyone’s fingerprint. 2. Have someone from the CSI Unit visit the class and discuss the different techniques in CSI. Guest Speaker: JPA Cadets learn how to dust for finger prints.

making them ideal evidence in linking an individual to a crime scene. to the exclusion of all others. even those of the same make and model. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. OVERVIEW: Instructor will introduce cadets to two of the most common kinds of evidence provided by forensic scientists: firearms and tool-mark identification. OBJECTIVE: Cadets will gain a greater appreciation for the credibility of circumstantial evidence gathered by forensic scientists in law enforcement. firearms do not change much over time. So why is this important? Can anyone guess? Studies have shown that no two firearms. A typical firearms examination involves matching a bullet back to the gun that fired it. B-55 . we will learn how that is accomplished by forensic scientists. This makes every firearm different. In this lesson.FIREARM FORENSICS L36 Firearms forensics is the science of determining if a bullet or cartridge case was fired in a particular firearm. Under normal conditions. Now. This allows a firearm recovered months or even years after a shooting to be identified or eliminated as having been used to fire a specific bullet or cartridge case. and abuse leave surface characteristics within the firearm that cannot be exactly reproduced in other firearms. Manufacturing processes. use. will produce the same unique marks on fired bullets and cartridge cases.

they unknowingly left behind incriminating clues. Let's say there is a bank robbery.L36 FIREARM FORENSICS RIFLING Consisting of the lands and grooves that spiral down the gun barrel. is another type of toolmark identification. it forces the bullet down the gun barrel. The tread design itself can narrow down the list of possible cars as well. If the striations cannot be lined up. The perpetrators parked behind the bank . such as a pry bar. to the exclusion of all other weapons. • The scratch marks on the bullet match the scratch marks in the barrel of the gun that fired it. to the exclusion of all others. rifling exists as part of the manufacturing process of the firearm and serves to put spin on the bullet. the result is negative. such as a door frame. Matching the bullet to the gun is tested in the lab by firing a bullet through the suspect weapon. Imprint evidence. Both bullets are rotated until the striations can be made to line up. • As the bullet passes down the barrel. Tire marks are an example of 3-D imprints. microscopic scratches from the lands and grooves mark the bullet. There are books that contain images of every type of tire imprint. Forensic scientists have charted out these distances and can use this chart to narrow down the make of the car. just for this purpose. These marks will also tell which way the car was facing. B-56 . TOOLMARK IDENTIFICATION Identifying characteristics between a tool. • When the gunpowder in the cartridge is ignited. showing a match. The test fired bullet is then compared under a comparison microscope. allowing for identification of a single car. in 2-D or 3-D form. giving it a straighter trajectory (much the same way a quarterback puts spin on a football). and the object on which it was used. Rifling gives the bullet a signature marking that is unique to the weapon that fired it. As they fled. expanding the soft lead into the lands and grooves. THREE DIMENSIONAL IMPRESSIONS Three dimensional impressions are made when an object presses into something soft that retains the impression of that object. The individual wear developed from use will show up in the impression. side by side. Wheel base is the distance between the two front wheels and the distance between the front and rear wheels. to the bullet recovered from the crime scene. how it was pulled out and in what direction. BULLET MATCHING Certain parts of a firearm mark the bullet and the cartridge.

For this reason. for some reason. every firearm that is received into the laboratory as being suspect in a shooting. or of being fired at all. accidentally discharged during a scuffle or handling. These tests also determine the amount of trigger pull that is required to cause the firearm to discharge and to determine if it is capable of accidentally discharging without the trigger being pulled.TWO DIMENSIONAL IMPRESSIONS Two dimensional impressions are made when an object transfers an image onto a surface or when an object comes into contact with a surface that is coated and removes some of that coating. The paint coats the bottom of your shoe when you step in it. Microscopic scratches from the lands and grooves mark the bullet B-57 . Function testing is an examination of a firearm’s mechanical condition and operation. including testing of the safety features to determine if they function as the manufacturer intended. The second type of imprint occured when you stepped into the spilled paint. You removed some of the paint. L36 FIREARM FUCTION TESTING It is not uncommon in a shooting investigation for a suspect or victim to claim that a firearm. An example of the first type of 2-D print would be your step after you've stepped into spilled paint. must be examined and function tested. creating a negative image of the bottom of your shoe in the paint spill. It is then transferred to another surface when you step down.

Package each item separately. • • • • Wrap recovered cartridge cases in and seal in separate labeled pill boxes or envelopes. Powder and Shot Pattern: If possible. Photographs of the pattern will not suffice. What is tool mark identification? 5. Submit all evidence cartridge cases or shotgun shells recovered to the Laboratory. 1. Do not attempt to clean recovered bullets before sending them to the Laboratory. Bullets recovered from a body should be air dried and wrapped in paper. What is the difference between a two-dimensional and a threedimensional? impression? Give and example of each? 4.L36 FIREARM FORENSICS FIREARMS EVIDENCE Bullets: Show examples of different types of bullets • • • Never mark bullets. Every gun has its own identification mark. show photographs of shot patterns or powder evidence. Discuss markings found and cartridges. The clothing should be carefully wrapped in clean paper and folded as little as possible to prevent dislodging powder particles. What is determined during firearms testing? B-58 . Cartridge Cases: Show examples of used shell or cartridges. as in most instances microscopic examination and chemical tests must be conducted on the exhibits themselves. If an examination is required to determine if a shot shell or cartridge case was fired by a specific weapon. • Submit clothing or other material showing evidence of gun powder residue or shot holes to the Laboratory. Some cases contain more identifying detail than do others. A conclusive identification may be possible on only one of several bullets recovered even when they all appear to be in good condition. Submit all evidence bullets recovered to the Laboratory. Fired shotgun shells may be marked either on the inside or outside of the paper or plastic portion of the shell. What is firearm identification? 2. Wrap recovered bullets in paper and seal in separate labeled pill boxes or envelopes. Explain how rifling is used to link a bullet to a gun. Washing may destroy trace evidence. submit the weapon and all recovered unfired ammunition. 3.

the arrest. The lessons emphasize the due process of law and rights of the individual weighed against the interests of society.Division C Examines the end result of crime fighting -. C-1 . prosecution and incarceration of criminals.

C-2 .

It's important to know those rights and to stand up for yourself. Our laws and criminal justice system are founded upon these documents. Citizens of a free and democratic society enjoy those rights and many more freedoms. you're wrong! Young people are protected by the same Bill of Rights that protects adults. C-3 . talk freely. the Supreme Court generally rules the law to be unconstitutional.S. the cornerstone of a free and democratic society! From time to time. It’s also important for law enforcers to know and respect citizens’ rights. gather with groups of friends. rulers and dictators have limited people's rights.S. CONCLUDE WITH A QUIZ DISTINGUISHING CONSTITUTIONAL FROM UNCONSTITUTIONAL. after all.THE BILL OF RIGHTS & THE POLICE L37 Before a police officer can enforce the law in the United States. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. When this happens. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS HOW THE CONSTITUTION PROTECTS THE RIGHTS OF U. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. or travel. people in many parts of the world cannot worship as they please. Now. If you feel that everyone is always telling you what to do and that you have no rights. Throughout history. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL DEVELOP AN APPRECIATION FOR OUR NATION’S CONSTITUTIONAL FORM OF GOVERNMENT AND ITS IMPLICATIONS CONCERNING LAW ENFORCEMENT. Citizens are. Even today. a law is passed that takes away some of our rights. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUTS AND REVIEW THE BILL OF RIGHTS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO THE LAW. he or she must have a solid understanding of the U. CITIZENS.

and the heroin could be admitted as evidence. Seventh Amendment: Gives people the right to a jury trial in civil suits exceeding $20. in which case the heroin wouldn’t be admitted. Fourth Amendment: Protects against unreasonable search and seizure. The Bill of Rights protects many of the things we take for granted: freedom of speech. The Fourth Amendment offers citizens protection against unreasonable search and seizure. freedoms of speech and the basic protections including: the right to refuse press. WHAT ARE THE BILL OF RIGHTS The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution in the form of amendments. The following amendments are some of the many included in the Bill of Rights. Eighth Amendment: Protects against excessive bail (money to release a person from jail). to legal counsel. Fifth Amendment: Prevents trial for a serious crime without indictment by a grand jury. but these laws cannot reduce the protections offered by the Bill of Rights. The chief purpose of the amendments was to protect the rights of individuals from government interference.reaching into the pocket -. and cruel and unusual punishment. However. jurisdictions.L37 THE BILL OF RIGHTS & THE POLICE PROTECTING OUR RIGHTS The U. Says that no one can be forced to testify against her/himself. religion and the right to vote. Suspecting that the object is a weapon. if the object was soft and obviously not a weapon. one's accusers and the right to a trial by jury. then reaching into the suspect's pocket could be deemed an illegal search. People must be paid for property taken for public use. the right to confront to petition government. this law can be difficult to apply. the officer has the right to reach into the pocket. Tenth Amendment: States that powers not given to the federal government by the Constitution belong to the states or the people. Constitution's Bill of Rights provides First Amendment: Promises freedom of religion. C-4 . State legislatures can pass laws governing how criminal procedures work in their Second Amendment: Assures the right to form a militia and to keep and bear arms. Ninth Amendment: Because there are so many basic human rights. but considering the circumstances of some search situations (covered in lesson 26). or punished without due process of law. This action by the police officer -. the courts must determine the constitutionality of a specific action taken by a police officer. This amendment states that the rights that are enumerated cannot infringe upon rights that are not listed in the Constitution. not all of them could be listed in the Constitution. and the right to testify against oneself. Sixth Amendment: Gives people the right to a speedy trial.S. the right to assemble. stiff fines. and he finds cigarette box and a packet of heroin. WHEN IS A SEARCH A VIOLATION? A police officer is frisking a suspect on the street and feels a hard object in the suspect's pocket.would be deemed a permissible search under the rulings of most courts (he acted in the name of safety). He does. Oftentimes. and to confront their accusers.

In reality. If it weren't for this by the government of murdering his ex-wife and rule of evidence. ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS In the United States. never contacted her loved ones -. .for example. shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself . if our heroine kills the nasty husband now. we have a great tradition of laws that protect citizens from the abuse of power by the government. For example. . In the movie. protects defendants from harassment by preventing them from being put on trial more than once for the same offense." The Sixth Amendment guarantees you the right to have a lawyer present during police questioning: "In all criminal prosecutions. whether you are a suspect in a crime or not. . there are laws that limit the manner in which police officers may question those suspected committing a crime. or that you will unwittingly point a finger at a friend or relative. . You may fear that past criminal actions will make you a suspect. Consider the following: The Fifth Amendment of the Constitution ensures that you don't have to incriminate yourself in a criminal investigation: "No person .could she have been found guilty of the murder the first time around in spite of the fact that no body was ever found? ANSWER: We look to Hollywood to give us fantasy.to prove For instance. and the premise underlying the movie Double Jeopardy is just that--a fantasy. ABOUT THAT MOVIE? The movie Double Jeopardy shows a woman planning to shoot her husband in a public square." This provision. after O. Since she's already (wrongly) been convicted of his murder. it would be a different crime subject to its own trial. can be intimidating for any number of reasons. that your response will be misinterpreted. their relatives filed a civil suit have an all-too-easy way of avoiding prosecution: by hiding the body. The prosecutor can use circumstantial evidence -. so she is free to murder him in broad daylight. Is she safe in her assumption? And another thing -. people can be convicted of murder In other words. and Simpson was held civilly liable for the deaths. therefore. Simpson was acquitted that the victim is dead. The civil suits raised no double jeopardy issues. known as the double jeopardy clause.OF SPECIAL INTEREST TO LAW L37 against him for actual and punitive damages caused by the killings. C-5 . to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense. As to the second question: Although it it rare. . potential murderers would her friend. the heroine is convicted of killing her husband who is still alive. . because the murder would take place at a different time and place than the non-murder for which she was earlier convicted." NOW. Talking with the police. the once to criminal court (by the government) and once to civil court (by members of the fact that the victim has been missing and public) for the same crime. even though punitive damages are a type of punishment. THE LAW Is Double Jeopardy really a license to kill? Among the clauses in the Fifth Amendment is this well-known provision: "nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb. HOLLYWOOD VS. The movie tells us that she cannot be convicted of killing him again.J. the accused shall enjoy the right . she assumes that she can't be prosecuted for it again. she can be prosecuted. a defendant can only be brought without the body. .

they should write a U and give the appropriate amendment number.S. (U) First Amendment 8.? Why was the Bill of Right created? What limits does the Bill of Rights impose on Police? What does the 5th Amendment ensure an accused individual What does the 6th Amendment guarantee? Why is this important? C-6 . so it forbids that group from building a house of worship. If cadets think the law or action would be constitutional. (C) First Amendment 3. Constitution with cadets. so it does not allow him to make a speech in public. along with the number of the amendment that makes it constitutional. 1. A woman receives a parking ticket.house. What is the Bill of Rights and what does it guarantee to the citizens of the U.gov/Constitution/Constitution. An armed police officer comes into someone’s house in the middle of the night without a search warrant. (U) First Amendment * Review the core values of the U. Read aloud the following list of laws or actions that might be taken by the government. 3. A town does not like the religious beliefs of a certain group. (U) Seventh Amendment IS IT CONSTITUTIONAL? * Instruct cadets to write the numbers 1-10 on a separate sheet of paper. A man accused of a serious crime refuses to give evidence against himself. A person's house is in the way of a proposed highway. (U) First Amendment 10. they should write a C next to the number. She insists on a jury trial. (U) Sixth Amendment 2. 1. (C) Fifth Amendment 6. (C) Fifth Amendment 9. The government does not like a man's ideas.S. (U) Fourth Amendment 7. If they think the law or action would be unconstitutional. 5. Encourage them to go online and read the entire document At:www. A woman accused of a serious crime wants a jury trial. A group of people are arrested because they wrote to Congress saying that they did not like a certain law. The government orders a newspaper to stop printing editorials that criticize the government too much. The government says she doesn't need a jury because her offense is not a serious one. A person is held for two weeks without the ability to contact a court appointed attorney. 4. but the government says it doesn't have enough money for such a trial. (U) Sixth Amendment 4.L37 THE BILL OF RIGHTS & THE POLICE 5. 2. The government offers the owner a fair price for the house.

What does it mean to be placed under arrest? Explain to the cadets that an arrest is the process of taking an individual into custody or under temporary restraint. • • • • • • • • • Identify and apprehend offenders Use appropriate level of force Make judgments about arresting or releasing suspects or offenders Handcuff suspects or prisoners Conduct frisk and pat down Advise persons of constitutional rights Execute arrest warrants Pursue suspect on foot Pursue suspect in vehicle In this lesson we will learn more about this important function of the police. To make an arrest.. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. Now. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL GAIN A GREATER UNDERSTANDING OF THE TACTICS NECESSARY TO SAFELY PLACE A CITIZEN UNDER ARREST.” A police officer’s magic words for turning a citizen into an arrestee are only the first part of a process that requires special care and a thorough knowledge of the law and the U. C-7 . an officer might be called to: OVERVIEW: INSTRUCTOR WILL REVIEW POLICE PROCEDURES FOR MAKING AN ARREST AND DEMONSTRATE THE PRECAUTIONS OBSERVED TO INSURE THE SAFETY OF BOTH THE OFFICER AND ARRESTEE.S. Constitution.YOU’RE UNDER ARREST L38 “You’re under arrest.

Anything you say can and will be used against you in a court of law. The U. They especially like to Mirandize suspects immediately after they arrest them.S. probable cause protects the police against a civil suit for false arrest if the charges are later dismissed or the defendant is acquitted at trial. if the question is being decided after the arrest occurred. "I just had a hunch that the defendant was a burglar.or did not exist. It prevents the random roundup of "undesirables" that sometimes occurs in other countries. The probable cause requirement restrains the power of the police to deprive people of liberty. preferably while putting on the cuffs. You may recognize the first couple lines. but less than a certainty that a suspect is guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. The Fourth Amendment doesn't provide a definition. This is simply a device to dramatize the arrest. even if the police later turn out to be wrong. If you cannot afford a lawyer. MIRANDA: BEYOND THE BIG SCREEN The Fifth Amendment protects citizens from self incrimination and requires that law enforcement officers read the Miranda Rights to apprehended suspects.L38 YOU’RE UNDER ARREST WHAT IS AN ARREST AND WHEN IS IT LEGAL? An arrest occurs when police officers take a suspect into custody. as outlined in the 1963 Miranda v Arizona case. Constitution's Fourth Amendment authorizes arrests only if the police have "probable cause" to believe that a crime was committed and that the suspect did it. PROBABLE CAUSE To establish probable cause. so it's up to judges to interpret the meaning of probable cause on a case-bycase basis A police officer may be sincere in believing that enough factual information to constitute probable cause exists. An arrest is complete the moment the suspect is no longer free to walk away from the arresting police officer. On television and in motion pictures. probable cause requires more than a "mere suspicion" that a suspect committed a crime. police officers must be able to point to the objective factual circumstances that led them to believe that a suspect committed a crime. then probable cause does not exist -. But if a judge examines that same information and disagrees. Probable cause to arrest may have existed at the time of the arrest. one will be provided for you at government expense. You have the right to remain silent." In general. You have the right to be speak to an attorney. In this situation. C-8 . a firm definition of probable cause is impossible. A police officer can't establish probable cause by saying something like. it seems like officers are always Mirandizing someone. and to have an attorney present during any questioning. but do you know the entire statement? The following is a minimal Miranda warning. In the abstract.

It doesn't matter whether an interrogation occurs in a jail or at the scene of a crime. under the rule known as "the fruit of the poisonous tree." Police officers are not allowed to use physical force or psychological coercion to get a suspect to talk to them. This exception most often comes up when the police stop someone on the street to question him or her about a recent crime and/or the person blurts out a confession before the police have an opportunity to deliver the warning. the police will not be able to use the weapon as evidence unless the police can prove that they would have found the weapon without the suspect's statements. there is also something called the "fruit of the poisonous tree" rule. however. nothing a person says in response to a custodial questioning can be used as evidence against the person at his or her trial. POLICE CANNOT CROSS THE LINE Information that is voluntarily disclosed to a police officer (after the person has been properly warned) is generally admissible at trial. the police must give a Miranda warning if they want to question the suspect and use the suspect's answers as evidence at trial. the person is not in police custody. L38 FRUIT OF THE POISONOUS TREE As mentioned. without a Miranda warning. our courts will not permit the information to be used at trial." any evidence that the police obtain as the result of a coerced statement is equally inadmissible. For example. If police officers obtain information through any of these illegal means. no Miranda warning is required and anything the person says can be used at trial if the person is later charged with a crime. The key word is "voluntary. If the police find evidence as a result of an interrogation that violates the Miranda rule." they can escape punishment. The kind of bullying that many police departments employ in other countries is and should never be tolerated in America. Not true. on a busy downtown street or the middle of an open field: If a person is in custody (deprived of his or her freedom of action in any significant way). In addition. it simply means that the police cannot use anything the suspect says as evidence against the suspect at trial. that evidence is also inadmissible at trial. If. If the police fail to read a suspect his or her rights. C-9 . if a suspect tells the police where a weapon is hidden and it turns out that the suspect provided this information in response to improper questioning. In addition.WHAT REALLY HAPPENS IF THE POLICE FAIL TO READ A SUSPECT HIS RIGHTS? Many people believe that if they are arrested and not "read their rights.

Insist that the cadets only practice handcuffing on you or the co-teacher.L38 YOU’RE UNDER ARREST MOCK FRISK & HANDCUFFING Conduct is a hands-on activity including role-playing among the cadets. Give an example of probable cause. Next. allow cadets to practice the techniques. Under what circumstances can a police officer hold what you say against you in court if he or she has not read you your right? 5. MOCK FRISK & SEARCH Demonstrate frisking and searching techniques. Show cadets where weapons are often hidden. 3. red wrists. JPA Instructor teaches proper hand cuffing technique. Next. 1. Remember to follow safety measures! After the demonstrations. "plant" a fake weapon(s) and/or fake drugs on a cadet suspect. instruct a cadet police officer to legally frisk (or search) the cadet suspect. 2. Give an example of “fruit of the poisonous tree. Have two cadets practice at one time to insure that they are both observed and critiqued. since you do not want any cadets going home with sore. Tell the class to observe and determine if the frisk/search is being done legally and if the weapon and/or drugs are found. another who is lying facedown and someone who is standing. First. Teach the cadets the basics.” C-10 . Failure to read a suspect their Miranda warnings does NOT make the arrest illegal. HANDCUFFING Present handcuffing procedures on a person who is kneeling. Define arrest. NOTE: A suspect will often say. What is a Miranda warning? 4. The only time the police must read Miranda warnings occurs when they: (1) take a suspect into custody and (2) interrogate the suspect. Emphasize the importance of searching for hidden weapons and drugs. "They didn't read me my rights!" Police do not have to read Miranda warnings to everyone who is arrested. have them take turns role-playing police officers and suspects.

C-11 . we will learn the details of each step and why each one is required within criminal justice. etc. make a couple phone calls and see just what your fingerprints look like! These are a few of the thrills you’ll experience when you’re being booked into custody. Booking is the formal process of taking an individual into police custody. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL RECOGNIZE THE LIMITATIONS THAT THE BILL OF RIGHTS IMPOSES ON LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS AND THE JUDGMENT BEHIND THESE LIMITATIONS.) In this lesson. When a suspect is correctly booked into custody. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS HOW THE BILL OF RIGHTS PROTECTS INDIVIDUALS FROM GOVERNMENT ABUSES. Now. safety is preserved and justice is served. It is a process that requires strict adherence to protocol. have your picture taken. address.BOOKING PROCEDURES L39 You get to ride in a squad car downtown. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUTS AND DISCUSS HOW THE BILL OF RIGHTS AFFECTS POLICE PROCEDURE. Some of the steps in booking someone into custody include: A body search Mug shots Fingerprints Routine questions on background information for police report (name. CONCLUDE WITH A CROSSWORD TESTING THE CADETS’ KNOWLEDGE OF THE BILL OF RIGHTS.

searching fingerprint collections was a time-consuming manual task based on various systems of classification. A prisoner’s answers to such questions are exempt from Miranda because most routine booking questions are not likely to elicit incriminating responses. • Emphasize that every accused person acts differently during the booking procedure and police will be attempting to fingerprint intoxicated and irate persons. or anyone else who can help. as well as calm persons. there are certain questions that are asked as a matter of routine. then you can be virtually certain that they are from the same person. must also be completed. a friend. As a general rule. The police have a right to complete their booking procedure before the call is made. Then search the entire left side followed by the right side. Prisoner detainment forms. without undue delay. if the sets of fingerprints share at least 16 characteristics. FINGERPRINTING Most major police forces maintain collections of fingerprints. a question will be deemed a “routine booking question” if it seeks basic identifying data or biographical information that is necessary to C-12 . According to the British standard. As an officer. Ask the suspect what is in their pockets before searching inside the pockets. ROUTINE BOOKING QUESTIONS When a person is arrested. * Why is their a need to record the condition of the prisoner? TELEPHONE CALLS Any person under arrest is afforded an opportunity to make a telephone call to any person that he or she may choose. Historically. LIABILITY This includes the preparation of a property envelope in which a prisoner’s personal property (including personal items like wallet and keys) is kept and documented. Keep the suspect off balance to insure safety. • Question: Any ideas on why these steps are so necessary? ARREST REPORT Reports must be accurate and concise! Consider what you have already learned about the importance and detail of report writing. you apply the handcuffs to the suspect first. which document the state of the prisoner every half hour via videotape. usually as part of the booking process. They may call a family member.L39 BOOKING PROCEDURES A BODY SEARCH Police departments have strict Standards of Procedures concerning body searches. Modern computerization of fingerprint collections makes the task much easier these days. an attorney.

they should not feel that they must make an identification. “I killed my sister-in-law.L39 complete the booking or pretrial services process. and physical appearance.” THE “LINE-UP” Poor line-up identification procedures can lead to increased risk of false identification or inflated confidence.” For example. or verbal statements that are necessary should be done "uniformly. in People v. physical description. or non-identifications • All efforts should be made to prevent a witness from viewing any photographs of the suspect prior to the line-up. occupation. C-13 . The suspect will stand out if she/he is the only one dressed in the type of clothes worn by the culprit. Nevertheless. questions that go beyond what is required to complete the booking process will not be considered “routine booking questions. therefore. If more than one witness views the line-up. • Eyewitnesses should be told explicitly that the person in question might not be in the line-up or photo spread. arrest record." • All conversation between the law enforcement officer and the witnesses should be "restricted to only indispensable direction. social security number. and parents’ names. “Who are you accused of killing?” The suspect responded. Morrisan. employment history. or their identifications. spouse’s name. gestures. • The suspect should not stand out in the line-up or photo spread as being different from the distracters based on the eyewitness’s previous description of the culprit or based on other factors that would draw extra attention to the suspect.” The officer testified that his question was a fairly standard one when booking a murder suspect because of the possibility of retaliation if the victim had friends or relatives in the jail. The person who conducts the line-up or photo spread should not be aware of which member of the line-up or photo spread is the suspect. date of birth. race." • . They should also be told that the person administering the line-up does not know which person is the suspect in the case. they should not be allowed to discuss among themselves anything about the lineup. telephone number." and in all cases "nothing should be said to the witness to suggest the suspect is standing in the particular line-up. the court ruled the question was not a routine booking question because it went “well beyond the type of neutral questioning permissible in a booking interview. LIMITS TO ROUTINE BOOKING QUESTIONS On the other hand. Questions falling into this category typically include inquiries into the suspect’s name. Here are rules to follow to conducting a line-up that avoids mistaken identity. address. Any movements. • All persons in the line-up should be of the same general age. the officer who was booking a murder suspect asked.

OPTIONAL PRESENTATION #1: FINGERPRINTING Using a cadet." is providing direct evidence of guilt. number the prints with a code so you know whose print belongs to whom (example: #1 is John Smith. Cadets must determine whose fingerprints they have using the fingerprint cards to analyze and match. As they stand before the class. JPA Cadets learn the finger print each other during a class activity. etc. 4. demonstrate the correct method of fingerprinting. • As you cut out the three prints per cadet. Scientific eyewitness researchers have shown that certain methods of conducting line-ups are particularly likely to promote false identifications of innocent suspects by eyewitnesses. What is booking? 2.L39 BOOKING PROCEDURES FINGERPRINTING AND THE POLICE LINE-UP Conduct either of the following exercises with an emphasis on the need to correctly identify suspects. • Choose three prints per cadet and cut out the prints from the paper for your samples. An eyewitness who says. What makes a line-up a dangerous way to identify a culprit? 5. #2 is Mary Johnson. List three routine booking questions. have cadets leave their prints on blank white paper. OPTIONAL PRESENTATION #2: POLICE LINE UP Instruct six members of the class to stand in the front of the room in a mock police line-up. have them fingerprint their partner again using an official police fingerprint card. What rules are in place to avoid misidentification in a line-up? C-14 . Keep each card on file for future activities. Explain to cadets that false eyewitness identification is the primary cause of the conviction of innocent people. • Shake up the individual fingerprint samples. • Give each cadet two fingerprint samples from the jar. • Get the fingerprint cards of the cadets that were made in optional presentation #1. WHO'S THE SUSPECT? • Using a fingerprint inkpad. If you have 15 cadets in your class. "That is the person I saw pull the gun. and keep them in a jar. 1. 3. After you approve the clarity of your cadet’s prints. you will have 45 fingerprints.). List three steps when booking a suspect. Borrow fingerprint cards and printing mini-tables from the local police academy and allow the cadets to pair off to practice fingerprinting after the demonstration is complete. The moment in which an eyewitness views a lineup and identifies a criminal suspect is a significant juncture in the possible criminal prosecution of that person.

self-control and integrity. interrogation also involves many problems: • • • • Ascertaining when a suspect or witness is telling the truth Evaluating memory Allowing for the physical and mental condition of a witness or suspect Understanding the problems created by an individual's perspective In this lesson. When conducted crudely. interrogation is an art form requiring perseverance. This extreme form of interrogation is not uncommon in some foreign countries where prisoners have few rights. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. CADETS WILL BE ABLE TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN APPROPRIATE AND INAPPROPRIATE INTERROGATION TACTICS. There are many methods of police interrogation. OVERVIEW: CADETS WILL BE INTRODUCED TO THE SKILLS REQUIRED FOR POLICE INTERROGATION. In the hands of a seasoned police professional. the process can include threats and even torture. C-15 .POLICE INTERROGATION: A SEARCH FOR THE TRUTH L40 Police interrogation is one of the most effective tools for bringing a criminal to justice. logic. THE LESSON WILL ALSO EXAMINE THE ISSUES SURROUNDING UNETHICAL TACTICS USED BY POLICE INTERROGATORS IN FOREIGN NATIONS OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL RECOGNIZE THE NECESSITY OF INTERROGATING INDIVIDUALS PURSUANT TO LEGAL STANDARDS. we with learn techniques used by law enforcement to uncover the truth through interrogation. Now. The word “interrogation” sounds intimidating and the process is often quite stressful for the subject being questioned. A powerful tool.

Regardless of the seriousness of the crime.” Bargaining ploys are another give away: "If I admit it. Get the subject accustomed to answering your questions. There is no surefire formula. by definition. including the backseat of a patrol car. It might be better to dress in conservative civilian clothes. C-16 . any conversation you have with him is an interrogation.” These statements strongly suggest that the suspect is lying. can I have bail?" Desperate to Obtain Information Suspects are often desperate to obtain information regarding their immediate future this is only natural. Take off the subject's handcuffs.L40 POLICE INTERROGATION: A SEARCH FOR THE TRUTH WHAT IS AN INTERROGATION? If a person is in custody. rather than in uniform. A classic pitfall is making excessive statements of truth such as. "I swear on my mother's grave. For this reason. "you haven't told me the whole story. may encourage the subject to talk. WHY INTERROGATE? While some of strategies used in interrogation might seem sneaky. It is common for interviewers to touch the suspect in a gesture of support and friendship. even suspected murderers. but some principles hold true: Relax First. then charge me and we'll sort it out in court." and "tell the truth. Furniture and the Interviewer The power of persuasion is greater when the interviewer removes the barrier of the desk that creates a division of "their" space and "suspect’s" space." Classic Pitfalls A sharp police interrogator will pick up on things the suspect might not realize that they said. You have to play it by ear." TIPS FOR GETTING AT THE TRUTH Skillful interrogation is developed through experience over time. Another officer can observe from outside through a one-way glass for safety." Use "shoot" or "stab. this strongly suggests that the suspect has much to hide. establish a rapport with the subject. The suspect may say: "What will happen to the person who did this when you finally catch them?” Again. Treating people with respect. It is not unusual for a suspect to accept the hand of friendship in such a situation and confess. You have to think on your feet. as do challenges like: "If you think I've done it. Interrogation is really an interplay between two people. Begin asking minor questions. Minimizing the moral seriousness of the offense. ask for clarifications of certain points or say. Your questions depend of how the previous ones were answered." "steal." Don’t accuse the person of lying. particularly in sex cases. small talk helps. and he is not free to leave and did not voluntarily come to you to tell you what you want to know — then. can aid in eliciting their cooperation. remember what might be at stake: the identity of a murder suspect or the location of a lost child." "take. a police interrogator must never forget that confessions must be "voluntary" and given of "free will. never use words like "kill." or "there's no way I could have possibly done that." and "confess. .

Give verbal compliments such as "You're no fool". Furthermore. Larson's instrument was capable of continuously recording blood pressure. despite harsh questioning by plaintiffs' attorney Daniel Petrocelli. there is no evidence of a score. Larson. Limited Results Even though the polygraph has been formally and successfully used in police intelligence and security investigation since 1924.The Silent Treatment The interviewer will often fall silent. both verbal and non verbal.” Expressions of Approval Offer expressions of approval. The first modern polygraph was constructed in 1921 by John A. the polygraph has proved an invaluable aid to police interrogation and the development of investigative leads. or so-called lie detector. The judge did issue special instructions to the jurors. there is still no complete agreement by psychologists as to its validity. However. The Ultimate Weapon: Lie Detector The most dramatic gain in interrogation technology is the polygraph. but the motion was denied. The data is then used as the basis for making a judgment as to whether or not the subject was lying. and respiration of a human subject as he answers questions put to him by an operator. Non-verbal compliments—a little shake of the head as if to say that I admire you for saying that—will also to make the suspect feel good and encourage further dialogue. since it recorded these three conditions simultaneously it was called a polygraph. Despite these qualifications. etc. & the Lie Detector It was reported that O. The lawyer said Simpson did take a test." the judge told them." L40 C-17 .J. Simpson had in fact consented to a lie detector test at the time of his police interrogation following the murders of Nicole Brown and Ron Goldman." Petrocelli’s line of questioning led Simpson's attorneys to call for a mistrial. This instrument records physiological phenomena such as blood pressure. which he failed with a minus 22. pulse and respiration. there is no evidence of what the score means. indicating "extreme deception. the results of a polygraph test are not always judicially acceptable. O. "There is no evidence Simpson took a lie detector test.J. working with a member of the local police department. pulse rate. putting pressure on you to fill in these “pregnant pauses. "You must treat the subject as though you never heard of it. the trial judge excluded the lie detector testimony and Simpson insisted that he never took a lie detector test. a medical cadet at the University of California.

C-18 Define Interrogation. During the first seventy years of the 20th century. 5. Israeli security forces maintain that the use of force is necessary to extract information about terrorist activities that will in the end save the lives of many potential victims. 4. According to human-rights groups. it can be monitored and limited. Proponents of interrogation by ordeal invariably invoke the "ticking bomb scenario" --that is. List two types of reactions an interrogator might get from a suspect? Why do police department in the U. Israeli security forces detained over 100. and the hour and minute hands of the clock are circling. When these killings took place there were white people who wanted to resist the violence. Are Israeli Security Forces justified in using torture? Why/why not? DIFFERING VIEWS While many Israelis are appalled by the use of violence.L40 POLICE INTERROGATION: A SEARCH FOR THE TRUTH ETHICS & POLICE INTERROGATIONS Have your cadets read the following essay by philosopher Gordon Marino and discuss the ethical implications of torture when used in interrogations. faster and faster. the situation in which a terrorist action has been planned and a suspect is in custody that could provide the information that would stop the action. one-third of who were violently interrogated and often severely beaten. TICKING TIME BOMB Whenever the issue of violent interrogation comes up. WOULD AMERICANS THINK DIFFERENTLY? When the Israeli proponents of violent interrogation read that Americans find their practices morally repugnant. over 4. they no doubt mutter. avoid torture in interrogations? What types of problems are often encountered with the reliability of an interrogation? What is a polygraph and how does it work? Why is it used on people under suspicion? . "Americans would think differently if they had to worry about their children being killed by a bomb on the way to school!" No doubt that is true.S.000 African-Americans were lynched in the U. However. prongs. 2. it does not take a ticking bomb to get either the Israeli or the even less-discriminating forces of the Palestinian Authority to start shaking people's heads (a common form of violent interrogation) to the brink of death.000 Palestinian suspects between 1988 and 1994. the United Nations committee condemned Israeli security forces for using torture as a method of interrogation. others argue that they are just being honest about a practice that is common to every police force in the world. The suspect will not cooperate.S. JUSTIFYING TORTURE In 1997. 3. which only goes to show that most of us are simply human and cannot help but feel and act as though the need to secure the safety of our own children trumps all other considerations--including the needs of other people to protect their children. Others maintain that when the use of physical force is acknowledged by the state. but when the use of hoods. but suppressed it in fear of putting their own children in harm's way. there is no mechanism to control professional painmakers. 1. according to ex-police. and electric prods is covert.

Prosecutor: A public official who brings the government's case against a person accused of a crime and asks the court to convict that person. Now. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. Courts of law are the umpires of the American legal system. They do not have the power to send someone to prison. Judge: The legal officer who presides over the courtroom and directs and controls the trial. civil and criminal. the jury listens to testimony from both the plantiff and defendant's side and decides the verdict of a case. In the United States. each state has its own independent system of courts. Defense attorney or public defender: The lawyer who defends the accused person. These powers rest with only one authority. OVERVIEW: INSTRUCTOR WILL PROVIDE THE CADETS WITH A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE COURTS AND GENERAL KNOWLEDGE OF HOW COURTS ARE STRUCTURED IN AMERICA. A public defender is appointed if the accused is unable to pay for an attorney. Does anyone know who that is? The answer is a court of law. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL IDENTIFY THE JURISDICTIONS OF VARIOUS COURTS AND RECOGNIZE THE NEED FOR A TIERED SYSTEM OF COURTS. By definition: A COURT OF LAW is a person or body of persons having judicial authority to hear and determine disputes in particular cases.ORDER IN THE COURT! L41 Police do not convict citizens of a crime. capable as a whole of judging and ruling on almost every conceivable matter and subject. There are also federal courts. C-19 . established to address federal questions and to handle other cases that were not appropriately tried in state courts. Trial Jury: Usually made up of six to twelve people. All courts have the same set and cast of characters: Defendant: The person who is accused of a crime and is being tried. Witness: A person who gives the jury information about the case.

Usually. When you take the case to the prosecutor. More police work may be required to complete the case before it is presented in court. DIFFERENT COURTS HEAR DIFFERENT TYPES OF CASES Even if you determine that a state (not federal) court has the power to hear your case. take suspects into custody. the government is prosecuting an individual for an offense that threatens the security of specific citizens or society as a whole. you gather the evidence. In both instances. it then becomes the prosecutor's case. It is the prosecutor who actually files charges. In filing charges. kidnapping or evading arrest). although cases of extreme negligence can also be considered criminal. and if you think you have a case. not yours. The type of court that a case is tried in depends on the law (state or federal) that was allegedly violated. you must check to see whether the state has a specialized court to handle your case's subject matter. Once you detect or discover the crime. THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF TRIALS: CRIMINAL AND CIVIL. state and federal. Civil trials are disputes between two parties. you are a witness. In a criminal trial. you file charges. It consists of two separate levels of courts. the government is the prosecution. You will be required to appear and testify as to your actions. In criminal trials. Most of the laws that govern our day-to-day living are state laws. JUDICIAL includes the prosecutors.L41 ORDER IN THE COURT! The justice system in the United States consists of three parts: POLICE are the officers who find the infraction and gather the evidence. there's an overlapping of two parts if the justice system. criminal trials involve actions taken as a result of malicious intent. discoveries and findings. You did all the work up until this point and how well you did your work directly influences the presentation of the case in court and what the findings might be. When the prosecutor accepts the case from you. the party initiating the action is called the plaintiff. THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF COURTS: FEDERAL AND STATE The justice system in the United States is one of the most unique in the world. PENAL provides incarceration to those who must check in to the iron hotel staffed by corrections officers. C-20 . you recommend to the prosecutor that the charges be filed. crimes committed across state lines (for example. In civil trials. Most states divide up their trial courts'according to how much money in damages the plaintiff is seeking and what the case is about. Right? Almost. that can peacefully co-exist under the concept of federalism. the person that charges are being brought against is the defendant. and fraud involving the national government (such as income tax or postal fraud). Violations of federal law include offenses involving federal government employees. At this point. defense attorneys and judges who determine guilt or innocence and impose sentences on those convicted.

Check your state's court rules if you are uncertain about which level of court has the power to hear your case.000. determining the validity of wills and trusts and distributing the property of deceased persons) and.000. Courts for medium-sized claims.STATE COURTS THAT SPECIALIZE ACCORDING TO THE PLAINTIFF'S DESIRED RELIEF When states divide up their trial courts' business according to the plaintiff's desired relief. that is the court to which your case will be assigned regardless of how much money you seek or of whether you seek a non-monetary remedy. For example." while other states refer to them as "superior. Terminology for different court divisions varies from one state to another. However. hearing cases involving up to $5. a court may only have the power to award monetary damages up to $5. Courts for all cases involving higher amounts.000. For example. such as an injunction (an order that a defendant do something other than pay money. such as to tear down a fence that encroaches on the plaintiff's property). the following divisions are typical: L41 • • • Small claims courts. If a state has set up a specialized court to hear your type of case. C-21 . a particular state may have specialized Family Law Courts (hearing divorce. a few states refer to their highest level trial courts as "supreme courts. or involving requests for injunctions or other non-monetary remedies. child support and related matters)." "district" or "county" courts. Specialization by subject matter allows judges and other court personnel to build expertise and to quickly handle a certain type of case. For example. perhaps limited to cases involving up to $25. even Landlord-Tenant Courts. or may have the power to award monetary damages but not to issue a non-monetary ("extraordinary") remedy. States use somewhat varied formulas when allocating business to trial courts according to a plaintiff's desired relief. STATE COURTS THAT SPECIALIZE ACCORDING TO A CASE'S SUBJECT MATTER Many courts specialize in hearing certain types of cases regardless of the dollar amount of the case or whether a plaintiff seeks non-monetary relief. they typically consider the amount of money and the type of remedy a plaintiff seeks. Probate or Surrogate Courts (hearing guardianship cases. in a few states.

Sequester: To separate. Circumstantial evidence: All evidence except eyewitness testimony. Sidebar: A conference between the judge and lawyers held out of earshot of the jury and spectators. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action. Acquittal: Judgment that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. the person complained against. Hearsay is usually not admissible as evidence in court. the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges. 3. Sometimes juries are sequestered from outside influences during their deliberations. Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries. in a criminal case. Which court is referred to as “Highest court in the land”? C-22 . Capital offense: A crime punishable by death. Hearsay: Statements by a witness who did not see or hear the incident in question but heard about it from someone else. Conviction: A judgment of guilt against a criminal defendant. What is a Court of Law? Name the two levels of courts into which our system is divided. Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. 4. What are the two types of trials? How are they different? List two types of courts that see cases based on their subject matter. Bench trial: Trial without a jury in which a judge decides the facts. 1. 2. a declaration made in open court. then ask the class to define the term. Sentence: The punishment ordered by a court for a defendant convicted of a crime. the person accused of the crime. 5. Jury: Persons selected according to law and sworn to inquire into and declare a verdict on matters of fact. Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony. Defendant: In a civil suit. Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his appearance on the day and time appointed. Plea: In a criminal case. Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.L41 ORDER IN THE COURT! COURT TERMS EVERY POLICE OFFICER SHOULD MASTER Have a cadet write each term on the board.

A police officer who suspects that a minor has committed a crime may: detain and warn the minor against further violations. Why do you suppose we treat young people differently? The answer may be that rehabilitation is more likely and more desirable with young people. juveniles are treated differently from adults. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. Today we will examine the last option and take a closer look at our country’s efforts to effectively apply juvenile justice. Now. OVERVIEW: INSTRUCTOR WILL PROVIDE THE CADETS WITH AN OVERVIEW OF JUVENILE AND DRUG COURTS. As a matter of fact. Juvenile courts handle most of the cases in which young people (usually called "juveniles" or "minors") are accused of committing crimes. The other reason is that young people may not fully understand the seriousness of their crimes. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL GAIN AN APPRECIATION OF WHY SPECIAL COURTS HAVE BEEN ESTABLISHED TO DEAL WITH JUVENILE AND DRUG OFFENDERS. they have their own separate court typically known as Juvenile Court or Drug Court. or place the minor in custody and refer the case to a juvenile or drug court. Not every young person who commits an offense ends up in juvenile court. Special procedures are set up by every state to deal with young people.JUVENILE/DRUG COURT L42 In our criminal justice system. and then let the minor go free detain and warn the minor against further violations. but hold the minor until a parent or guardian comes for the minor. C-23 .

History of Teen Justice In the mid-nineteenth century. Long prison terms and corporal punishment (striking the juvenile's body) were common. Instead of punishing young people through the adult system. offenders generally have their case dismissed. this was not always the case. from reduced jail/prison use. Some children were even sentenced to death for minor crimes. at least in the short term. Drug courts generate cost savings. Drug use and criminal behavior are substantially reduced while clients are participating in drug court. the juvenile justice system has continued to be defined in part by the tension between a "humanitarian" philosophy (rehabilitation) and a "control" philosophy (punishment). Since its inception.L42 JUVENILE/DRUG COURT Treated Differently from Adults In the United States. reformers began to argue that the failure of the family was the cause of delinquent behavior. A minimum of one year’s participation is required. a separate juvenile court would seek to rehabilitate them. especially for graduates. This has played a major role in determining the system's practices. Hearings are closed to the public to protect the youth's identity. Criminal behavior of participants is lower after program participation. A separate juvenile court was created to assume the responsibility that was previously the parents' job. the number of national drug courts has grown rapidly. Florida. trying to help them learn community values. reduced criminality and lower criminal justice system costs: $10 savings for every $1 spent on drug court. What is Drug Court? Drug Court is a special kind of court given the responsibility of handling cases involving drug-using offenders. 946 Drug Courts in Operation 547 Adult Drug Courts 245 Juvenile Drug Courts 59 Family Drug Courts 14 Combination Drug Courts The Success of Drug Courts The success of the drug court system is well documented: Drug courts provide more comprehensive supervision of the drug-using offender than other forms of community supervision. This program speeds up the prosecution process by hearing cases within ten days of arrest and starting treatment as soon as possible. however. Earlier in our history. children were thrown into jails alongside adults. Upon successful completion of the program. History of Drug Court Since the first drug court was established in 1989 in Miami. During this time. juveniles involved with the law are treated differently from adults. offenders are on probation and are subject to the rules of the Probation Department. C-24 .

less supervision. Serious offenders who are not sent to state prisons may be given up to a year in the county jail. Is Drug Court a “Soft on Crime” Program? Drug courts control participants’ drug usage and activity through frequent drug testing. this same population often receives little jail time.000 and $50. a comprehensive Drug Court system typically costs less than $2. and daily drug tests and treatment sessions. and immediate sanctions that include terms of incarceration in response to program violations. Typically that involves monitoring by the drug court judge. Who is Eligible for Drug Court? Drug Court is intended for male and female drug abuse offenders who meet the following criteria: • No more than one prior felony conviction • No more than five prior contempt charges • No previous arrest or conviction for drug trafficking or distribution of drugs • No violent misdemeanant criminal history in the past five years or violent felony in the past 10 years • Agreement between the arresting police department and the prosecutor that the client is appropriate for the program L42 • Shouldn't Serious Offenders Be Excluded from Drug Courts? The most serious offenders are typically sent directly to state prisons. as well as between the criminal justice system and the community. Do Drug Courts Save Money? Incarceration of drug-using offenders costs between $20. giving these offenders little reason to change their behaviors. Once released from jail.000 per person per year. The capital costs of building a prison cell can be as much as $80. weekly supervision by probation officers. Without Drug Court.Drug courts have been quite successful in bridging the gap between the court and the treatment/public health systems and spurring greater cooperation among the various agencies and personnel within the criminal justice system.500 annually for each offender. the drug court program provides the most intensive and comprehensive control of the offender's drug usage and criminality available. and minimal drug testing or treatment. In contrast. C-25 . judicial monitoring. Will Drug Courts Provide More Jail Space for Violent Criminals? With “Three-Strikes-You're-Out” statues proliferating and long-term incarceration for serious offenders increasing. Drug Court programs are needed to free up limited prison space for violent and habitual criminals. intensive case management supervision.000.

Whether the minor has family or community support. The minor's social history. The minor's age. These may include: The minor's attitude. Why Is it cheaper to send an offender through the drug courts than to incarcerate him? C-26 . Disposing of a case informally may be less likely when a child has a lawyer. the more likely the intake officer is to file a petition. both official and "off the record. the more likely the intake officer is to deal with the case informally. Research the gun laws in your area to determine whether parents can be prosecuted for not securing guns properly in their homes. Petitions are more likely to be filed when children have a history of problems at home or at school." that intake officers consider when deciding whether to formally charge a juvenile with a crime: The severity of the offense. Petitions are more likely to be filed in cases involving older children. The minor's gender. Formal proceedings are less likely when a child shows remorse for committing a crime. the filing decisions of many intake officers cannot help but be swayed by a number of subjective factors. What is the goal of drug courts? 5. The minor's manner of dress. AVOIDING FORMAL CHARGES Here's a list of factors. Whether the minor has an attorney. If the young person dresses well. The strength of the evidence that the minor committed a crime. stronger evidence leads to a greater likelihood of formal charges. is neatly groomed and is polite. The parent's or guardian's apparent ability to control the minor. What is a drug court? 3. A serious crime is more likely to result in the filing of a petition than a less serious crime. Formal charges are more likely when a minor has been previously involved with juvenile court. Formal charges are more likely to be filed against boys than against girls. How are juvenile courts different from adult courts? 2. BEYOND THE CLASSROOM Visit a juvenile court to find out more about juvenile justice procedures. What options do drug courts offer violators? 4. The greater the lack of parental control.L42 JUVENILE/ DRUG COURT In addition to these official reasons. 1. The minor's past record. Interview local prosecutors to find out how often juveniles are sent to the criminal system in your area. intake personnel are more likely to handle the case informally. The more support the young person has. Obviously.

or waive your right to counsel and represent yourself. You may have an attorney present with you at the hearing or defend yourself. In this lesson. Now. Most crimes are handled without the need for a trial. you may simply call the court to find out how much the fine is and then you can plead guilty and send in payment for the fine. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. most trials follow a uniform set of procedures in an effort to insure that everyone receives equal justice. you must show up at the assigned hearing. you may have an attorney appear with you throughout the proceeding. C-27 . OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL GAIN AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE NEED FOR AND THE ANATOMY OF THE STEPS A COURTROOM FOLLOWS DURING A CRIMINAL TRIAL. Misdemeanors and felony criminal proceedings are more complex. Usually the "trial" is heard at this first hearing and the sentence rendered after the submission of the evidence. As with a petty crime proceeding. If you wish to plead not guilty and have a hearing on the matter. Nevertheless. we will review the various steps courts have established in their quest for justice. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS COURT PROCEEDINGS. with many parking violations. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND GO OVER THE DETAILS OF A CRIMINAL TRIAL. many of them surprising.YOUR DAY IN COURT L43 Lots of things can happen during a criminal trial. For instance. CONCLUDE BY DEBATING THE ISSUE OF BRINGING CAMERAS INTO THE COURTROOM.

The defense makes a motion to dismiss charges. the trial occurs accordingly: Judge or jury. the defense attorney reserves opening argument until the beginning of the defense case. Defense rests. Prosecution rests. Motion to dismiss. C-28 . Prosecution case-in-chief. The prosecution presents its main case through the direct examination of prosecution witnesses by the prosecutor. Defense case-in-chief." Opening statements. Almost always. the attorneys are careful only to promise what they think they can deliver. Cross-examination. Redirect. These statements provide an outline of the case that each side expects to prove. The defense and prosecution request in advance of trial to admit or exclude certain evidence. The defense presents its main case through direct examination of defense witnesses. The defense decides whether it wants the case tried by a judge or a jury (the prosecution can't require a jury trial). Jury selection.L43 YOUR DAY IN COURT AN ANATOMY OF A CRIMINAL TRIAL For most felony proceedings. (Optional) Denial of motion to dismiss. the defense and prosecution select the jury through a question and answer process called "voir dire. Redirect. Because neither side wants to look foolish to the jury. Cross-examination. the judge denies the defense motion to dismiss. If the trial will be held before a jury. The prosecution finishes presenting its case. The defense may cross-examine the prosecution witnesses. These requests are called motions "in limine. the judge carries out this process using questions suggested by the attorneys as well as questions that the judge comes up with on his or her own." In federal courts and many state courts. The defense finishes presenting its case. The prosecution and then the defense make opening statements to the judge or jury. The prosecution may reexamine its witnesses. In some cases. The defense reexamines the defense witnesses. Addressing evidence issues. The prosecutor cross-examines the defense witnesses.

and explaining why the jury should render a guilty verdict. and explaining why the jury should render a not guilty verdict or a guilty verdict on a lesser charge. The prosecution makes its closing argument. Some judges "preinstruct" juries. summarizing the evidence as the defense sees it. Trial is normally public. Defense closing argument. Sixth amendment guarantees a speedy trial (in most states after 120 days. Most states require unanimous agreement. Denial of post-trial motions. The judge instructs the jury about what law to apply to the case and how to carry out its duties.) 2. the judge either sentences the defendant on the spot. If the jury produces a guilty verdict.Prosecution rebuttal. Assuming a conviction (a verdict of "guilty"). summarizing the evidence as the prosecution sees it. a defendant goes free. Post-trial motions. Jury instructions. but Oregon and Louisiana allow convictions with only 10 of 12 votes. The jury (if it is a jury trial) deliberates and tries to reach a verdict. Jury deliberations. L43 RULES REGARDING TRIALS 1. Prosecution closing argument. Settling on Jury Instructions. the judge denies the defense post-trial motions. reciting instructions before closing argument or even at the outset of trial. DISCUSS: Discuss the importance of each step in court procedure.) 3. Trial by jury is available (12 persons constitute a jury. The prosecutor offers evidence to refute the defense case. Sentencing. or sets sentencing for another day. The defense makes its closing argument. Almost always. the defense often makes post-trial motions requesting the judge to override the jury and either grant a new trial or acquit the defendant. Are there any steps that could be eliminated? What would the consequences be? C-29 . The prosecution and defense get together with the judge and craft a final set of instructions that the judge will give the jury.

Samuel H. Sheppard's conviction was reversed by the Court due to the manner in which the trial was handled. and potentially fill the public mind with analyses and speculations that have little to no concrete basis. Who has the first opening statement? 4. However. during major trials. List three rules regarding trials. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS • What do you think? • Do you feel that the press should be allowed. and witnesses were harassed by reporters while testifying. the public yearns for knowledge of exactly what happened. in certain • • courtroom areas. in all trials? Do you feel that a temporary ban should be placed on the publication of details pertaining to a criminal investigation until a jury in the matter has been selected? Do you believe that the press covers criminal trials. Why is it necessary to follow a specific order of actions during a trial? 2. can "taint" their presentation with their own biases." There were cameras scattered across the entire room. The media turned the courtroom.L43 YOUR DAY IN COURT CAMERAS IN THE COURTROOM Should the media be permitted to cover all criminal trials? Often times. C-30 . in greater part. into a "circus." when Dr. Sheppard was accused of murdering his wife. What steps take place before the trial? 3. to protect our rights or to increase its profits? 1. Maxwell. A perfect example of this occurred in 1966. it is held that the Sixth Amendment right to a fair trial conflicts with the First Amendment right to Freedom of the Press and the Sixth Amendment right to a public trial. Therefore. according to the Supreme Court ruling in the case. disrupting the actual trial proceedings. Can a judge override the jury’s decision? 5. the media while providing this service. "Sheppard vs.

Sentence: The punishment given to a person who has been convicted of a crime. is essentially canceled. Now. CONCLUDE BY TAKING A FIELD TRIP TO A COURTHOUSE. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS SOME GENERAL COURTROOM TERMS. Verdict: A decision of guilty or not guilty is handed down by the jury. I’ll throw out some courtroom terms and you provide the definition: Cross-examination: The questioning of a witness by the lawyer for the opposing side. ADDRESSED. Appeal: A request for a higher court to review a decision made by a lower court. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. because of a mistake in procedure.INSIDE THE COURTROOM: ANSWERS TO FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS L44 You have all watched courtroom dramas on TV. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND DISCUSS FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT THE COURTS. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL HAVE MISCONCEPTIONS DUE TO THE MEDIA. but right now let’s review the basics you should all know from having watched Law & Order or even Ally McBeal. C-31 . Mistrial: A trial that becomes invalid. Arraignment: When the accused is brought before the court to hear the charges and then to plead guilty or not guilty Conviction: The result of a criminal trial in which a person is found guilty. Your Honor: The way a judge is addressed in a courtroom. Acquittal: A legal determination that a person who has been charged with a crime is innocent. THEY WILL GAIN A DEEPER UNDERSTANDING OF THE COURTROOM EXPERIENCE. but have you ever wondered what really goes on in the halls of justice? Is insanity really a defense and is self-defense an acceptable excuse in a murder trial? We will get to these questions later. Now let’s move on to some more complicated legal questions.

IF I'M ACCUSED OF A CRIME." It has always been a part of our judicial system.S. Constitution gives a person accused of a crime the right to be tried by a jury. (By contrast. AM I GUARANTEED A TRIAL BY A JURY? Yes. the prosecutor may be able to bring out other information that tarnishes the defendant's reputation and discredits his testimony. Of course. some jurors do make assumptions and they cast their votes accordingly. a defendant's most common defense is often to argue that there is reasonable doubt-that is. With such a high standard imposed on the prosecutor. The name for this power is "jury nullification. I AM CONFUSED ABOUT WHY A DEFENDANT WOULD CHOOSE TO NOT TESTIFY. C-32 . The U." This standard is very hard to meet. As the "conscience of the community. that the prosecutor hasn't done a sufficient job of proving that the defendant is guilty. the high burden of proof in criminal cases means that judges and jurors are supposed to resolve all doubts about the meaning of the evidence in favor of the defendant. such as an accident or breach of contract.) As a practical matter. there are some excellent reasons why a defendant might remain silent in court: • If the defendant has previously been convicted of a crime. WHY WOULDN'T I WANT TO TAKE THE STAND AND TELL MY STORY? A criminal defendant has a right not to testify. and jurors will be told that they cannot assume anything negative if the defendant decides to keep quiet. IF I WERE INNOCENT. in non-criminal cases. On the other hand. Evidence of a previous crime may cause some jurors to think that the defendant is guilty of the current crime. the prosecutor may be able to bring this fact out if the defendant testifies.just over 50%." jurors can free a defendant even if they think the defendant actually committed the crime charged. too.L44 INSIDE THE COURTROOM: ANSWERS TO FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS The following are some frequently asked questions about how America’s courts determine the guilt or innocence of a defendant. CAN A JURY ACQUIT ME EVEN IF I BROKE THE LAW? The jury has the ultimate power to decide whether a person is guilty of a crime. a plaintiff has to prove her case only by a preponderance of the evidence -. • If the defendant testifies. This right has long been interpreted to mean a 12-person jury that must arrive at a unanimous decision to convict or acquit. is a nervous witness and makes a bad impression. though telling the truth. WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO PROVE GUILT "BEYOND A REASONABLE DOUBT?" The prosecutor must convince the judge or jury hearing the case that the defendant is guilty "beyond a reasonable doubt. • The defendant may have a perfectly good story which would nevertheless sound fishy to the average jury in that particular locale. • Some defendants have a poor demeanor when speaking in public. A judge or jury may not believe a defendant who.

as well as intending to do the physical act that leads up to the consequences). she may be guilty of a crime. Generally. such as battery (striking someone). however. because it doesn't entirely excuse the defendant's actions. the defendant can argue that he was too drunk or high to have formed that intent. defendants rarely enter pleas of "not guilty by reason of insanity. assault with a deadly weapon instead of assault with the intent to commit murder. Despite popular perceptions to the contrary. This is only a partial defense. judges and jurors rarely support it. she has the right to strike first to prevent the attack. and not released until their sanity is established. many scholarly works are devoted entirely to explaining its nuances. but she cannot use more force than is reasonable. Because some people suffering from a mental disorder are not capable of knowing or choosing right from wrong. The insanity defense is an extremely complex topic. the defendant will usually be convicted of another crime that doesn't require proof of a specific intent-for example. They are usually confined to a mental institution. C-33 . If the defendant is accused of committing a crime that requires what's known as "specific intent" (intending the precise consequences. The core issues in most self-defense cases are: L44 • • • Who was the aggressor? Was the defendant's belief that self-defense was necessary a reasonable one? If so. but claims that it was justified by the other person's threatening actions. People know (or should know) that alcohol and drugs affect mental functioning. Some states allow an exception to this general rule. however. The defendant admits that she did in fact commit the crime. the insanity defense prevents them from being criminally punished. In this situation. CAN A DEFENDANT GO FREE BECAUSE HE WAS DRUNK OR HIGH ON DRUGS WHEN HE COMMITTED A CRIME? Defendants who commit crimes under the influence of drugs or alcohol sometimes argue that their mental functioning was so impaired that they cannot be held accountable for their actions. WHEN CAN A DEFENDANT WIN AN ACQUITTAL ON GROUNDS OF INSANITY? The insanity defense is based on the principle that punishment is justified only if the defendant is capable of controlling his or her behavior and understanding that what he or she has done is wrong.WHAT IS SELF-DEFENSE AND HOW CAN A DEFENDANT PROVE IT? Self-defense is a common defense asserted by someone charged with a crime of violence. Defendants found not guilty by reason of insanity are not automatically set free. This means that a person does not have to wait until she is actually struck to act in self-defense." On the few occasions that the defendant does raise it. assault with a deadly weapon or murder. If she does. was the force used by the defendant also reasonable? Self-defense is rooted in the belief that people should be allowed to protect themselves from physical harm. and thus they should be held legally responsible if they commit crimes as a result of their voluntary use. These defendants can spend more time in a mental institution than they would have spent in prison had they been convicted. voluntary intoxication does not excuse criminal conduct. If a reasonable person thinks that she is about to be physically attacked.

Field Activity Report: Name of Courthouse: _______________________________________________ Name of Judge Interviewed: _______________________________________________ A. Questions to ask a judge if you can interview one: Does the court presently have a large backlog of cases? If so. • Describe the actions of the judge. Are the facilities crowded and noisy or calm and businesslike? • Try to find a preliminary hearing.L44 INSIDE THE COURTROOM: ANSWERS TO FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS A DAY AT THE COURT HOUSE FIELD TRIP Cadets will observe a court session and answer questions provided on a worksheet designed to increase knowledge via observation. a suspect must be proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt in order to be convicted. In criminal cases. List two core issues in a self-defense case. why? • What percentage of the cases before the court end in plea bargaining ? What is your opinion of plea bargaining? • What percentage of those convicted by the court are locked up in correctional institutions? Fined? • 1. What is the nature of the case? • Describe the work of the prosecuting and defense attorneys. What about in a non-criminal case? What is jury nullification? List two reasons a a defendant would not want to testify. What is going on? • Try to find a criminal trial in progress. B. 2. Things to look for and report while on your courthouse visit: • Describe the general environment of the courthouse. • Describe the questioning of one of the witnesses during the trial. 3. Do you think the punishment should be the same for a sane person as an insane one? What about someone who is clear-headed and someone who is on drugs? C-34 . 4. 5.

physically and emotionally. HOW to testify. your credibility as an officer and individual. officers are trained how to testify. and your agency’s image are all on stage. If it’s your first time testifying or your one hundredth time. not WHAT to testify. Now. C-35 . Police are trained in procedures to follow when preparing to testify and how a professional approach can increase their credibility. there are certain things you can do before and when you testify that will enhance your credibility and your career.” you could be in for a surprise. it’s just some quick testimony on my part. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. CONCLUDE WITH A DISCUSSION ABOUT THE MODERN USE OF CAMERAS AT CRIME SCENES. is NOT like having a casual conversation at the kitchen table with your buddies. not to mention the conviction of the defendant.AND NOTHING BUT THE TRUTH L45 Sooner or later in your career as a law enforcer. This is an important distinction. Sitting in the witness chair in court being grilled by two attorneys. Because police testimony is so important. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUTS AND DISCUSS THE STEPS TO BE FOLLOWED BEFORE AND WHILE TESTIFYING. Testimony can also take days and an officer can feel drained. “No big deal. or in some cases more than two. The training deals exclusively with proper courtroom demeanor and appearance. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE IMPORTANCE OF TESTIFYING IN COURT. you will find yourself with a subpoena in hand that commands your presence in court on a certain day and time to testify in a case. Your testimony. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL GAIN AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE IMPORTANCE OF TESTIFYING PROPERLY AND HONESTLY BEFORE A No Big Deal? If you are reading this and thinking.

Your demeanor speaks C-36 . you have to prepare the case. not the prosecutor. or unsure. slouch. But to get there in the first place. so that you are fresh and alert. After all. Jurors will be sizing you up before you even speak. impartiality. This will do wonders for you and your confidence when your name is called and you enter the courtroom. we’ll take a good look at the basics of effective courtroom testimony for police officers. and avoid emotions like disdain or sarcasm. were there when it happened. We’ve mentioned reviewing your report. Try to reschedule your shift if your agency will allow it. will enhance your performance when all eyes are upon you as you walk in. Speak clearly and concisely. you. it is imperative that you avoid discourtesy and arrogance. ill at ease. You are a big influence on the outcome of the case. Your conduct. Showing irritation or rolling your eyes at what you consider to be stupid simply plays into the hands of a crafty defense lawyer. We will cover what you should and shouldn’t do. Courtesy Now that all the preliminaries are over and you are sworn in. there are several things you can easily do to enhance your courtroom testimony. or look lost. and it IS a battlefield. appearance. First Impressions If you have never been to the courtroom where the case will be heard. get a good night’s sleep before you testify. take the time to do a little walk through of the area and familiarize yourself with the setting. Knowing the physical layout of the battlefield.L45 AND NOTHING BUT THE TRUTH In this lesson. Appearing ignorant on a witness stand is an experience that will make you mentally squirm upon recollection years later. Good Night’s Sleep If possible. You do not want to appear timid. You should also review the evidence in the case as well as the applicable law that applies. Sleep deprivation and its accompanying fuzziness in your mental landscape is not the best way to begin critical testimony. Don’t give them an opportunity to make an erroneous impression of your skills as an officer. There is a noticeable difference between being naturally alert and being jittery on high-powered espresso or soft drinks. The Evidence Prior to the case being called. Avoiding caffeine before testifying is a technique many officers use to their benefit. Do not stroll in. First impressions are lasting and generally accurate. and convincing testimony can determine a decision even before the jury leaves the courtroom. demeanor.

You may be asked to explain any inconsistencies between your testimony and your prior statements. • Ask why your testimony is important to the case. Cases have been won and lost on the testimony given by witnesses." • Avoid absolute or extreme statements. It's also OK to say.L45 volumes about you and. always be truthful and unbiased in your testimony. and most likely will." • Do not be redundant. Preparing for testimony in court or for a deposition takes time and effort. Listen to the question carefully and answer only that question. if you are asked when something occurred and you remember that it occurred exactly on January 30. An attorney may state your ideas using other words. For example. If a superior officer is watching as you testify. follow you in your career. C-37 . • Think before you answer. about the case. agree with that person and don't repeat. • Do not volunteer additional information or explanations in an effort to "help. Be as specific as possible. Take a full 5 seconds before answering any questions." "always. However." "all. Review the following guidelines with your cadets. If someone before you has said pretty much the same thing. • Be yourself! • Be polite." and specific dates and numbers should be avoided unless you are positive that those strong words apply. The examiner is well trained in asking questions. • Watch out for questions that paraphrase your prior answers. you can imagine his or her thoughts as you make a fool out of yourself. A poor performance on the witness stand can. TIPS FOR TESTIFYING Testifying is all about individual credibility. "I don't know. indirectly. What makes a cool witness? Preparation – Confidence – Knowledge. thus changing what you meant. • Don't guess. • Answer the question asked. say so. but never guess. simply say that it occurred around January 30. • Review your police report. and nothing but the truth. • Don't answer a question that you don't understand. This basic information will help you understand why you are needed and what topics will be discussed. This is good advice for any police officer or civilian witness giving testimony: • Tell the truth. say so. • Be prepared for questions. and respectful. If he asks a question that you don't understand. courteous. if you can't remember the exact day. If you don't know or can't recall something. Above all." "none. Words like "never. Don’t let this happen to you. tell him so.

3. 2. It is just another way to enhance credibility and refute charges of lying on the stand. Cameras in patrol cars have become increasingly common. Personal Recorder Many officers also routinely carry personal tape recorders as a backup to their written report. Crime scenes are increasingly being documented with video so the video can be introduced. the Rodney King incident and the Amadou Diallo shooting in New York. an officer’s testimony is being treated like any other witness’. More and more often. That no longer seems to be the case. JPA Cadets learn how to testify.L45 AND NOTHING BUT THE TRUTH POLICE ENCOUNTER MORE SKEPTICAL JURORS There was a time not too long ago when a police officer’s testimony pretty much sealed the fate of the defendant. It is hard to refute a video as opposed to a human’s recollection. jurors are inclined to no longer give officers the benefit of the doubt. since credibility does not necessarily spring from one’s occupation. 4. Video Tape Interviews A solution to this skepticism is that many agencies are videotaping interviews with suspects and witnesses in order to avoid this problem. What makes an officer’s testimony so important? List three ways to prepare to testify. In the wake of police scandals nationwide. 5. 1. Observers of the criminal justice system feel that this is a positive development. How should a witness behave on the stand? How shoula a witness not behave on the stand? What are the benefits to cameras in patrol cars and at crime scenes? C-38 . rather than spoken testimony from an officer.

prisons range from local jails to state and federal penitentiaries. the sick. AND STYLES OF PRISONS. Another trend of the last two decades of the 20th century has been the operation of prisons by private contractors. U. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. will explore the tainted history of corrections and consider just how far we’ve come. and the criminally insane.S. ACTIVITIES. In this lesson. CONCLUDE WITH A DISCUSSION CONCERNING CONTRACTED PRISONS. The results of both programs remain largely unclear. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL UNDERSTAND THE LOGIC BEHIND SENDING A CRIMINAL TO PRISON AND THE VARIATIONS BETWEEN DIFFERENT PRISONS. C-39 . DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUTS AND DISCUSS THE HISTORY. Since 1982. some states have used prison boot camps with military like regimens in an attempt to shock first offenders and to bolster their self-esteem. with special facilities for juveniles. Now. as well as to lower the long-term costs of crime and imprisonment.DOING TIME L46 A prison is a place of confinement for the punishment and rehabilitation of criminals. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS WHAT A PRISON IS AND WHAT IT ACCOMPLISHES.

Establishing sound correctional policies and procedures. Protecting the public by safely and humanely incarcerating inmates at the appropriate security level. The Department of Correction’s mission is achieved through the following initiatives: 1. In the 19th and 20th centuries. 2. and of convicts who were waiting for their sentences--either death or banishment--to be put into effect. Providing inmate work. 3.L46 DOING TIME The Department of Correction promotes public safety by imprisoning convicted felons while providing opportunities for rehabilitation through a structured reintegration model. a number of houses of correction were established in England for the reform of minor offenders. In all but minimum-security prisons. of accused persons waiting to be tried. Development of the prison system Until the late 18th century. The main emphasis was on strict discipline and hard labor. Proactively informing and educating the public. the task of maintaining physical custody of the prisoners is usually given the highest priority and is likely to dominate all other concerns. educational. Gradual Acceptance Imprisonment gradually came to be accepted not only as a device for holding these persons but also as a means of punishing convicted criminals. C-40 . execution and banishment as the chief means of punishing serious offenders. Present-day Penal Institutions Modern prisons are quite diverse. imprisonment replaced corporal punishment. Prudently and efficiently managing all resources allocated to the DOC. 5. 4. prisons were used mainly for the confinement of debtors who could not meet their obligations. but it is possible to make some generalizations about them. During the 16th century. HISTORY OF PRISONS Prison Definition: an institution for the confinement of persons convicted of major crimes or felonies. and programming opportunities. consistent with established correctional policies.

their proneness to escape.Cell Search Barred cells and locked doors. Discuss with the cadets how each works. • Rehabilitation: The controlled environment of a prison offers opportunities for the rehabilitation of criminals through counseling services. vocational training. medium. Security First The need to maintain security within prisons has prompted many countries to separate their penal institutions into categories of maximum. the threat of which serves as a deterrent to potential criminals. the length of their sentence. and detailed regulation of inmates' movements about the prison are all undertaken to prevent escapes. C-41 . education. • • Punishment: It is seen as an effective form of punishment. Isolation: By isolating a convicted offender for lengthy periods of time. and minimum security. periodic checking of cells. and so on. with convicted offenders assigned to a particular category on the basis of the seriousness or violent nature of their offense. L46 DISCUSSION The following are justifications for the use of incarceration in the criminal justice system. In order to forestall thievery. Younger offenders are usually held in separate penal institutions that provide a stronger emphasis on treatment and correction. rapes. these do much to give the social structure of the prison its authoritarian character. and other considerations. the inmates are subjected to rules governing every aspect of life. violent assaults. searches for contraband. and other types of prison crime. drug and alcohol use. society is thereby protected from the crimes he might have committed while free. Categorizing Prisoners Within a prison the inmates are often classified into several categories and housed in corresponding cellblocks according to the security risk posed by each individual.

And some accuse private prisons of neglecting efforts to rehabilitate inmates. There are plenty of smaller companies in on the action as well. the corrections business has become a hot new growth industry. Many people are surprised to learn that a great number of prisons in this country are not run by the state.an incentive that may be unfair to the prisoners. their claims of efficiency may be warranted. as demand for more prison space grows. ANYWAY? A controversial response to the problem of overcrowding is the emergence of private. since the prisons earn more when released prisoners become repeat offenders. but are owned and operated by private companies under contract from federal. 4. C-42 What was the original purpose of prisons? What are two reasons why we lock offenders up? What types of rehabilitation might be available in a prison? How are prisons categorized? What are some of the factors that determine which prison to which a particular criminal will go? . For example. 2. Many also sell shares of stock to the public. These companies are generally paid a set amount per day. The per-prisoner pay structure raises a serious question as to whether private prisons are in society's best interest. Manipulating a Captive Market The companies engaged in the prison business recognize the need in countless areas for more and better prisons and they make a simple claim: they can do the job cheaper and better than the state. What do you think? 1. including CCRI. the corporation that owns the Brazoria facility. While private prisons may be able to turn a profit. Indeed. Judging from the profits these companies make. with over 30 detention centers between them. for-profit prisons. they can only do so by keeping their jails full -. correctional facilities are being constructed. many suspect that inmates in private prisons have a harder time earning "good time" points that would shorten their sentences. 5.L46 DOING TIME WHO RUNS THIS PLACE. state or local governments. 3. per prisoner from the government agency that would otherwise be running the prison. Wackenhut and the Corrections Corporation of America (CCA) are two of the biggest players. From secure mental health facilities to INS deportation centers to maximum security prisons. Critics of the burgeoning private prison system argue that efficiency isn't the issue. maintained and managed by private firms.

and in the number of executions it performs as compared to the rest of the world Now. we will examine commonly practiced methods that Western governments have used to execute criminals. • • • • • Hanging Lethal Gas Lethal Injection Firing Squad Electric Chair OBJECTIVE: CADET WILL DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF ADMINISTERING PUNISHMENT AND WILL BE ABLE TO DEVELOP THEIR OWN OPINION ON THE MERITS OF THE DEATH PENALTY AND OTHER FORMS OF RESTITUTION. Criminals sentenced to death can receive their sentence in 5 different ways: OVERVIEW: CADET WILL LEARN THE HISTORY OF CRIMINAL PUNISHMENT FROM THE REIGN OF HENRY XIII TO OUR CURRENT STRUGGLE WITH THE DEATH PENALTY. certain behaviors will result in the premature end of this liberty.THE HISTORY OF CRIME AND PUNISHMENT L47 Why is capital punishment? What types of crimes are so serious as to warrant the death of the criminal that perpetuated them? Life is the most important liberty of all. in the United States. In this lesson. C-43 . Here. the death penalty is legal and active. The United States is alone in the world in the number of methods (five) it allows states to carry out. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. In most countries.

This gruesome public practice crossed the Atlantic and was used here also. A hooded executioner would simply chop off a person's head with the axe or large sword as the criminal's head rested chin down on a large block of wood. C-44 . although similar. and 'suspicious' women. witches. A large. similar to the belief that led to the later development of the guillotine in France in the late 1700s. was a popular method of torture and also used for executions up to the 1700s. The criminal was attached to the outer rim of a large wooden wheel by straps or ropes and then rolled over sharp spikes. men were rarely burned. specially designed broad bladed axe was thought to be the most humane way of dispatching a person. forms but generally had the same result: a slow strangulation of the criminal. The Garrote The garrote. Although authorities believe huge numbers of women died in this fashion. similar to hanging. beheading a prisoner was used widely throughout Germany and England. most humane. A rack or gag would be tightened around the person's neck causing a slow death. most notably in the infamous Salem witch trials in 1692. The Wheel The wheel was a method widely used in Europe. and least painful way of dying. drowning the victim if he wasn't already dead. Torture was considered unfashionable and the prevailing public opinion on the subject was that beheading was the quickest. Joseph Guillotine proposed in 1789 that all criminals be executed in the same fashion. Beheading During the 16th and 17th century. It took different. or the garrote could be slacked off to prolong agony and then retightened.L47 THE HISTORY OF CRIME AND PUNISHMENT A POLL Do you support capital punishment? Before lesson begins. especially in the Middle Ages. Joan of Arc is probably the most famous example illustrating this method. The last beheading in Western civilization for governmental purposes took place in London in 1747 and the axe used is on display in the Tower of London. HISTORICAL METHODS OF EXECUTION Burning at the Stake Burning at the stake was a popular method for centuries for executing heretics. Sometimes the wheel would be rolled down a hill into a lake or pond. Inflicting bodily pain through torture by various methods was considered to be a necessary part of a criminal's punishment until the 18th century introduced a more humanitarian approach to ending a criminal's life. Methods of Execution Execution has been a common punishment for criminals throughout the world since man began living in organized communities. take a vote of how many cadets support capital punishment and those that do not. or down a hill to their death. The Guillotine The guillotine was a popular method used in France after Dr.

a Gallup poll showed 42% of Americans favoring the death penalty for criminals who committed murder. A decision that was later overturned. In 1976. In 1966. Lethal Injection This method is the most recent and the most popular. generally at the heart. A continuous intravenous injection of three different drugs is introduced into the prisoner. N. Electric Chair Perhaps the most infamous method of execution in our country is the electric chair. strapped upright. The US Supreme Court ruled the death penalty unconstitutional in the 1960’s. and was instantly killed. No other nation uses this method. Only three people have been hanged in the United States since 1976. there is no standard protocol for a civilian firing squad execution. the number rose to 66% and in 1996. The ten-year moratorium on executions that began with the Jackson and Witherspoon decisions ended on January 17. the percentage approving was 79%. A doctor was watching as a drunken man touched two terminals in an electrical generating station in Buffalo. Final Note American feelings about capital punishment have changed throughout the years. which was first suggested back in 1881. The practice involves seating the prisoner in an airtight chamber and releasing toxic gas. Again.MODERN METHODS The states and courts in our country sanction five methods of execution. A cardiac monitor and a stethoscope are attached and the saline drip is started in each arm after the condemned person is covered with a sheet. the United States is the sole country to utilize this procedure. 1977. After a short period the first drug is introduced and the prisoner falls into a deep sleep. Lethal Gas Using lethal gas is sanctioned and practiced only in our country. The prisoner is secured to a gurney with lined wrist and ankle restraints. Much study and experimentation was done before the first human was electrocuted in August 1890. Firing Squad Unlike the other methods used in this country. Each state is free to use whatever method it feels its public and the courts will accept. a squad or team of five executioners fire at the condemned person. Hanging Of the five. L47 C-45 . This gas destroys the body's ability to process blood hemoglobin and unconsciousness and death can occur within a few seconds if the inmate takes a deep breath. hanging is the oldest method still in use in this country. The prisoner wears a hood and stands or sits against a backdrop. although the torso is considered a legitimate target.Y. In most cases. The first execution using gas occurred in February 1924. with the execution of Gary Gilmore by firing squad in Utah. The good doctor thought this might be a way to relieve the country from witnessing one botched hanging after another.

L47 THE HISTORY OF CRIME AND PUNISHMENT THE EXECUTION OF TIMOTHY MCVEIGH Timothy McVeigh. Do you think someone will think about the punishment for a crime before they commit a crime? 4.S. Is the death penalty an effective way of reducing violent crime? 5. Should Timothy McVeigh have been executed? Do you agree with the decision to allow the execution to be shown to survivors and relatives of victims? Should executions be televised to the entire country? Would that make the country less sensitive to death? Would that be good? Capital Punishment – Morally right or wrong? 1. 2. the convicted Oklahoma City bomber was the first federal prisoner executed since 1963. 4. Indiana. 3. 2. Have the cadets answer the following questions to be discussed in class or turned in as an assignment. 4. What is the garrote? Who invented the guillotine? When and why? What are the methods of execution in the United States? How did the electric chair come to be? Which method is the most popular? C-46 . He was executed by lethal injection in Terre Haute. a silent. Is Capital Punishment a deterrent to crime? 3. Would you rank it more or less effective than other methods of reducing crime? 1. 2. Along with four witnesses for McVeigh — including two of his attorneys — were 10 media witnesses and 10 victims' representatives who watched from behind glass in the execution facility. 5. defiant Timothy McVeigh was executed before hundreds of victims and family members. DISCUSS 1. About 200 bombing survivors and victims’ relatives watched McVeigh die on closed-circuit television in Oklahoma City. Six years after committing the deadliest act of terrorism on U. 3. soil.

After incarceration.THE PENAL CODE’S PRESCRIPTION FOR PUNISHMENT L48 The Penal Code not only states what is and isn’t a crime. The goal of the Penal Codes is to discourage people from committing crimes — and that goes for all people. the rules are strict and everyone involved. so that all criminals are treated the same under the law. the person goes to prison. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. Think of how frustrating it would be if you received a different punishment for doing the same crime as someone else because of your race or social status. And if they act unlawfully again. the purpose of a trial is to search for the truth. C-47 . Now. then they go back to prison. including the officer at the scene. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUTS AND DISCUSS HOW THE PENAL CODE CATEGORIZES CRIMES AND ASSIGNS PUNISHMENTS ACCORDINGLY. The Judicial phase of this system is purposefully structured so that there is an advocate for the state (prosecutor). is questioned. the case passes to the probation officer. That's a release from prison to the supervision of a parole officer. CONCLUDE BY DISCUSSING THE PHILOSOPHIES BEHIND PUNISHMENT. the person may win parole. While it may be difficult to recognize. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL RECOGNIZE THE NEED FOR PUNISHING CRIMINALS AND WILL GAIN AN APPRECIATION FOR THE PENAL CODE’S CONSISTENCY WHEN APPLYING PUNISHMENT. The Penal System comes into play when the court reaches its decision. If not. and advocate for the defendant (defense attorney) and a moderator to decide questions of law and enforce the rules for the trial (judge). A condition of probation may be continued good behavior. It’s important to have crimes punished consistently. For that reason. If the person is sentenced to probation. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS HOW THE PENAL CODE PRESCRIBES PUNISHMENTS FOR CRIMES. it also assigns certain allowable punishments to crimes.

an offender may be fined not more than $1. Suspended Sentences are jail or prison time that is put on hold if the defendant complies with certain other obligations. a defendant sentenced to "30 days in county jail" or "five years in state prison" has received a determinate sentence. indeterminate sentences are imposed on convicted felons. criminal statutes do not carry mandatory sentences and the judge is left to make the call. such as those involving the death penalty. juries do take part in sentencing decisions." DO PEOPLE CONVICTED OF THE SAME OR SIMILAR CRIMES RECEIVE SIMILAR SENTENCES? Some state and all federal criminal statutes include "mandatory sentences. good behavior. positively or negatively.000 or imprisoned for no more than six months. For example.L48 THE PENAL CODE’S PRESCRIPTION FOR PUNISHMENT WHO DETERMINES WHAT PUNISHMENT A CONVICTED DEFENDANT RECEIVES? Judges. The following factors contribute. a common jury instruction warns jurors not to consider the question of punishment when deciding a defendant's guilt or innocence. "for a first-time offense." which require judges to impose specific sentences on all defendants who violate those laws. the judge has C-48 . a statute identifying specific behavior as a misdemeanor might go on to state. In fact. almost always determine the punishment. In very few situations. the law a defendant is charged with violating also identifies the punishment. the conditions of probation or the completion of a drug treatment program. or overcrowded facilities. a defendant sentenced to "serve not less than two nor more than twenty years in the state penitentiary" has received an indeterminate sentence. Generally. Indeterminate sentences are those in which the legislature sets a minimum and/or maximum time of incarceration. but leaves the decision as to when to release an inmate to prison officials. or both. More commonly. not juries. Under a suspended sentence. These individuals may get out earlier because of parole. WHERE CAN THE PRESCRIBED PUNISHMENT FOR CRIMES BE FOUND? Typically. to the judge’s decision: • • • • • Defendant’s past record Age Circumstances under which the crime was committed Whether the defendant genuinely feels remorse If the defendant was the main offender or an accomplice DIFFERENT TYPES OF SENTENCES AND PUNISHMENTS Determinate Sentences are fixed-term sentences pronounced by a judge. For example. For example. For example.

the authority to order the defendant to serve the sentence without first holding a trial, if the defendant breaks the conditions of his or her suspension. Fines are a common punishment for a variety of crimes, especially less serious offenses committed by first-time offenders. Offenses that are typically punished by a fine include: minor drug possession, fish and game violations, shoplifting, traffic violations, and even some first-time drunk driving cases. In more serious offenses, a fine can be combined with other punishments such as incarceration, community service or probation. Restitution is money paid by the defendant to the victim or to a state restitution fund. In some cases, the "victim" is society, such as government fraud schemes where defendants may be sentenced to pay the state back the money defrauded. More typically, offenders may be required to return or replace stolen or damaged property, to compensate victims for physical injuries, medical care, psychological treatment, or to pay funeral and other costs if a victim dies. Community Service is unpaid work done by a defendant to repay a debt to society for having committed the offense. The defendant may be required to perform community service in addition to receiving some other form of punishment. Alternative Sentencing is the buzzword for an increasingly visible movement in the criminal justice system. Largely inspired by overcrowded and non-rehabilitative prisons, some judges are beginning to work with prosecutors and defense lawyers to impose nontraditional sentences, especially in cases that don't involve violence. The following are potential alternative sentences:


• • • • • • • •

A variation on probation perhaps with a fine and community service. Installing breathalyzer devices in offender’s car prohibiting cars from running unless the offender blows into the device and has "clean" breath. Installing signs on an offender’s car notifying others that they'd been convicted of a drunk driving offense. Giving lectures or teaching classes about the dangers of criminal behavior. Attending lectures given by crime victims. Completing a drug or alcohol treatment program. Doing weekend jail time or staying at home under house arrest. Serving time in a private jail that charges both the government and the inmate a fee.

In some foreign countries, the courts impose a mandatory life sentence for murder. Is this fair? Consider these two scenarios: A man who lurks in the bushes and knifes a 16-year-old girl on her way home. An 82-year-old pensioner who puts a pillow over the face of his terminally ill wife because he cannot bear to see her suffer. Do they deserve the same sentence? C-49

L48 L7


Why is it important that convicted criminals are punished? Below is a list of arguments for punishing criminals. Ask the cadets to defend or refute the merits of each. Retribution Also known as, "an eye for an eye." This type of punishment is not imposed so that a social objective may be achieved, rather, it is an end in itself. With retribution, the punishment must be roughly equal to the gravity of the offense itself. This is extremely difficult to do without resorting to a crude system of inflicting on the offender the exact damage that he has inflicted on the victim. (You beat up your neighbor, we are now going to beat you up). The idea of prescribing a punishment that equals the severity of the crime may seem like common sense to you, but it is important to note its basic objective. If all punishments are the same, without consideration of the gravity of the crime, there may be no incentive to commit the lesser rather than the greater offense. The offender might just as well use violence against the victim of his theft, if the penalty for robbery is no more severe than the penalty for simple stealing. General deterrence This type of punishment is meant to deter other persons from committing the same crime. The goal of general deterrence is that a potential criminal will see the con-

sequences "John" suffered and will not want to suffer those consequences himself. Individual deterrence Individual deterrence, unlike general deterrence, is aimed at the particular individual who is punished. The idea is to teach the convicted criminal not to repeat his/her behavior. This is the rationale of much informal punishment, such as the type inflicted on children by parents as a part of their upbringing. Incapacitation Here, the offender should be dealt with in a manner that will make it impossible for him to repeat his offense. Worldwide possibilities include banishment, incarceration, mutilation or execution. This approach is intended to insure that the offender will not be able to repeat his/her crime, although it is always possible that the offender will escape or commit crime within the prison. Rehabilitation The most recently formulated approach to punishment is rehabilitation. The goal of this approach is to render the offender capable of returning to society and functioning as a law-abiding member of the community after going through some form of rehabilitation.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. C-50

What is the Penal Code? What factors contribute to a judge’s decision when sentencing an offender? What is a suspended sentence? What is restitution? What would be an alternative sentence to stealing?



Granting parole is the act of releasing a jailed criminal after he or she serves a portion of the courtmandated sentence in prison.


Parole is granted if the imprisoned can demonstrate they are reformed and that they understand their wrongdoing. Before being released, potential parolees must appear before a parole board. Hopefully, if released, the ex-convict can put his/her life back together and help the community. Many times, criminals take advantage of the parole and although it seems they have reformed, they return to criminal behavior. In 1992, 573,844 offenders were paroled. It was reported that 162,062 of those people were sent back to prison—a very disturbing percentage. Essentially, these criminals committed new crimes even before the prison term for their old time expired. Critics of parole argue that under such a system, criminals are not serving their full sentences and are most likely not learning the "full lesson" prison is meant to teach. In this lesson, we will learn more about parole and, taking the point of view of a crime victim, learn how a citizen can fight the release of an individual prisoner.

Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit.




Protection of the public and the successful reintegration of the offender back into the community are the hallmarks of parole supervision. Parole officers, working under the guidance of the Parole Board and agency managers, are the heart and soul of parole supervision. Their goal is to carefully transition the offender back into the community and to quickly reincarcerate those offenders who choose to disregard the conditions of parole. An inmate granted a release by the Board must abide by several conditions. Violation of any condition may result in arrest and parole revocation. Standard conditions which apply to all parolees include:

• • • • • • • •

following all instructions from the parole officer gainfully working abiding by all laws remaining in the state in which they were imprisoned receiving permission to change address paying any court-ordered child support paying a parole supervision fee or victim compensation fee and, if applicable, paying restitution avoiding ownership or use of a gun or other deadly weapon

In addition, the Board may impose special conditions appropriate to the individual's case, such as drug or alcohol treatment, mental health counseling, prohibitions on travel or associations, bans on driving, or compliance with electronic monitoring procedures. Electronic Monitoring An offender serving time for a violent offense who is subsequently paroled is automatically placed under electronic monitoring, an intense, around-the-clock form of surveillance and control. Certain other offenders are also placed under electronic monitoring, and the Board may, at its discretion, require any parolee to serve portions of his parole under this restriction.

What is the difference is between probation and parole? ANSWER:
Probation and parole both represent ways for people convicted of crimes to avoid doing time. What's more, they're both conditioned on good behavior -- if the offender messes up, they're shown back to their cell. But there is a major procedural difference between probation and parole. Probation is handed down by the judge at trial. It may be in lieu of jail time or in combination with some jail time. The judge will specify restrictions on the offender's activities during the probationary period. Parole is granted by a parole board, after the offender has served some -- or perhaps a lot of -- time. The parole board may consider factors such as the offender's behavior in prison and level of rehabilitation, and let him or her out early. The parole board can also specC-52

Here are a few questions about parole: Must a parolee return to the community from which he or she came? In most instances, a parolee will be released to the Judicial District in which he or she was convicted or the Judicial District of legal residence. The parolee’s former community may offer the best opportunity for the help and support that will be needed. If the Commission believes, however, that the chance of success on parole is greater in another community, it may order residence in a different Judicial District. After a parolee is released, to whom and when does the parole report? Unless a parolee is released to a detainer, he or she will go to an approved residence and report within three days to the United States Probation Office shown on the release certificate. The parolee will continue to report to a Probation Officer in person as instructed by the officer. In addition, monthly written reports are required as long as parolees remain under supervision on your sentence. May a parolee be required to go into a half-way house or undergo some course of treatment for drug or alcohol use while under supervision? Federal law permits the Commission to require a parolee to participate in any of the programs mentioned for all or part of the time under supervision. In most cases, a parolee will be notified in advance and may submit comments about the proposal to the Commission before the final decision is made. May a parolee own, use or possess firearms after they are released? Except in very rare situations, federal law forbids anyone who has ever been convicted of a felony from possessing firearms or ammunition. Generally, therefore, parolees will not be permitted to own or possess a firearm or ammunition. How long will a parolee remain under supervision after his or her release? Parolees will remain under the jurisdiction of the Parole Commission and under supervision of a Probation Officer until the maximum expiration date of the sentence, unless the Commission terminates supervision earlier. If the parolee’s supervision is terminated early, he or she will be given a Certificate of Early Termination. If an offender is not paroled, but instead given mandatory release, supervision automatically ends 180 days before the maximum expiration date, unless the Commission terminates supervision earlier and issues a Certificate of Early Termination.


How does electric monitoring aid law enforcement? What is the difference between parole and probation? C-54 . AFTER THE CLIP After viewing the video clip. What is parole? Name 3 conditions a person on parole must follow. 2. Why is that important? What is the purpose of our parole system? Explain the significance of the Beeper? DISCUSS Should our correctional system allow convicts to serve a portion of their sentence on parole? What are the benefits? The dangers? 1.L49 A QUICK PEEK AT PAROLE & PROBATION SHOW VIDEO: PAROLE OFFICER In the clip “Parole Officer” (Unit 4 from the JPA Video) from the series COURT TV’s The System. have the cadets answer the following questions for in class discussion or to be turned in as a written assignment. 4. QUESTIONS • Why do you think the officers were in plain clothes? • • • The parolees describe their parole officers as people they can trust and talk to. New York parole officers visit individuals on parole. 3.

Also. D-1 .Division D Division D Gives cadets a better understanding of crime prevention and how to be proactive in preventing crime in their own community. discusses terrorism and how it effects the world we live in.

D-2 .

Much of his/her time and resources are dedicated to the prevention of crime. Most departments have a special unit that deals solely with crime prevention.E. addressing groups and sponsoring events designed to educate the public about crime prevention. Now. OVERVIEW: INTRODUCE CADETS TO THE IMPORTANCE OF CRIME PREVENTION. Can anyone think of a crime prevention program? Neighborhood Night Out Neighborhood Watch H.INTRODUCTION TO CRIME PREVENTION L50 A police officer’s job involves a great deal more than responding to crimes. A crime prevention officer spends a the majority of his time visiting with the members of a community. CONCLUDE WITH CADET PRESENTATIONS OF CRIME PREVENTION STRATEGIES.T.A. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUTS. (Help Eliminate Auto Theft) Has anyone ever prevented a crime? How so? What behaviors can you adopt to minimize the chance of falling victim to criminal acts? OBJECTIVE: CADET WILL IDENTIFY THE COMPONENTS OF CRIME AND WILL EXPLORE CRIME PREVENTION STRATEGIES. D-3 . have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit.

Travel and conduct your business during daylight hours if possible. preferably in the trunk. D-4 .L50 INTRODUCTION TO CRIME PREVENTION PERSONAL CRIME PREVENTION TECHNIQUES When you travel. If you have access to a cellular telephone. and ask them to send a marked law enforcement vehicle to your location. If a stranger stops. honk the horn to attract attention and ask a passer-by to summon the police. acknowledge the signal. If not. pull as far onto the shoulder as possible and turn on your emergency flashers. If involved in a property-damage collision in an unfamiliar or potentially unsafe location. for longer trips. know where you are going and how to get there and back. and take a quick look inside before entering. During hours of darkness. If you have a cellular phone. If signaled to stop by any vehicle other than a clearly marked law enforcement unit. check to see what conditions they report before leaving. Maintain at least half a tank of fuel. speak to them through a partially rolled-down window. If unable to proceed. carry your keys in your hand and be ready to unlock the door and enter as quickly as possible." Even if you're pressed for time. scan the area. If you have a cellular phone. When parking. most state law enforcement agencies provide road-andhighway information. and blankets in the vehicle. and await assistance inside your locked vehicle. summon law enforcement. lock the vehicle. Inform a family member where you will be and when to expect you back. dial 9-1-1. Wayne Smith: "It doesn't cost any more to keep the top quarter of your tank filled than it does to keep the bottom quarter filled. Follow the advice of Sergeant M. carry or bring it. food. do not exit your vehicle until a law enforcement officer or tow operator arrives on the scene. take the keys. If traveling out-of-state. Citizen safety is every law enforcer’s first duty. do not open or exit your vehicle. and keep vehicle in good repair. As you approach your vehicle. park and walk in lighted areas as much as possible. Drive within the speed limit and take the shortest possible route to the nearest safe place. tell the call-taker you are being followed by an unmarked vehicle attempting to stop you. summon assistance from a reputable source or call for law enforcement response. If you experience a breakdown. be sure you have water. On longer trips. When driving. When returning to your vehicle. Check for construction detours. Give them your route if they don't know it. and conceal valuables. and ask them to go to a phone and call police or a tow service. acknowledge the accident by hand signal. If you have a cellular telephone. get a weather forecast. Otherwise. take time to fill up the tank. raise your hood or tie a streamer to your antenna. keep doors locked and windows rolled up. and wave the driver to follow you to a safe location. glance underneath the vehicle. and motion the other driver to proceed with you to a safe location (where there are other people and lights) to exchange information.

Remember to scan around you as you make your withdrawal. If you are followed by a vehicle. If they persist. Weapons are not recommended. comfortable clothing. return to your vehicle from time to time to check it and reduce the amount of material you are carrying.While out and about. preferably during the day. Stay near light and people. scan the area from time to time. others near you. or you don't like their looks. cul-de-sacs. When possible. unlike cash. Carry minimal cash and valuables. wear minimal jewelry. L50 D-5 . As you shop. Remember to store your packages in the trunk or. consider obtaining traveler's checks which. have purchases delivered instead of taking them with you. If you are followed on foot. vary you pace. If apprehensive about any location for any reason. Only visit ATM's in well-lighted and populated locations. present an alert appearance. note and record the other driver’s license plate number and vehicle description. many businesses offer free delivery for the holiday season. change direction. Be observant. short-cuts. etc). leave. go to another ATM. Wear conservative. Using the drive-up is usually safer than walking up or into a facility. If the vendors you visit don't take cards. or your personal property. Be prepared to flee potential problems. get and stay on arterial streets. your PIN should NEVER be written down on or carried with your ATM card. Avoid concentrating so hard on shopping that you fail to keep track of your surroundings. and move towards a safer environment. under a blanket or clothing. Grip carried items firmly and avoid leaving them unattended. and may be unlawful. Stand such that those behind you cannot see your PIN as you enter it. cross the street. Using debit or credit cards is much safer than carrying a lot of cash. Avoid dark areas. execute several right turns to verify. out of plain view (on the floorboard. and suspicious persons. Be aware of your surroundings. if your vehicle doesn't have one. Consider carrying a whistle. can be replaced if lost or stolen. If anyone is loitering. drive to a well it area and summon police.

Ask him to be aware that you intend to actively patrol the streets in the neighborhood. Organize your patrol to work specific hours on scheduled days. This is not necessary but it can be helpful. Explain that you will be in the area during late hours and that you are looking for graffiti artists and vandals. This will give you a better chance of detaining painters being caught in the act. You should try and patrol as a team. shining a spotlight on them is usually all that is needed to cause them to run from the area. Contact your beat coordinator and ask if he or she will attend your next meeting. Most painters are just teenagers and junior high school kids. 11. Identify 2 or 3 of your neighbors that might be willing to get involved.. 9. 1. ask yourselves if you are all willing to participate in an active neighborhood watch program. on foot and in cars. Hold a meeting in someone's home and determine if a problem exists. 7. These units are not expensive and are available from Radio Shack and many other sources. D-6 Define crime prevention. This is not as dangerous or difficult as you may think. 2. particularly on Friday nights and on weekends. introduce yourself and the other neighbors in the program. Scanners can usually be programmed to listen to the frequencies of any walkie-talkie equipment you may elect to use. 15. Do not try and arrest 3 or 4 painters if you are on patrol alone. you must be prepared to arrest and detain people you catch in the act of painting graffiti. 5. This is the police officer that is responsible for your area of the city. 8. 13. ask them to find creative ideas other than those listed below. Once you start your patrol. 5. In this circumstance. Deliver a copy to each home in the neighborhood area you intend to patrol. Provide a list of names and addresses of your patrollers to the beat coordinator. you must use some common sense. Place them under arrest then call the police. 3.L50 INTRODUCTION TO CRIME PREVENTION NEIGHBORHOOD WATCH Discuss how Cadets can make their neighborhoods safer. How is a Neighborhood Watch formed? . vandals are usually stunned and don't know how to react. Find out if any members of the group. However. 6. Make notes about how serious the problem is and where your first attentions should be focused. 4. At your next meeting. Make up a letter asking for volunteers. Contact the police department and find out the name of your beat coordinator. equipment can be secured. can act as your contact to the police department. 3. near a phone. If it's bad enough. 4. 12. Find out if anyone has a portable cellular phone that can be used. Determine if anyone has two-way radios ("walkie-talkies") or citizen band radios that could be used by the Watch Patrol until more permanent 10. 14. Do a detailed survey of your neighborhood. 2. or any of your neighbors. One person monitoring at home. List three things you can do on the road to stay safe. Safety Suggestions for Combating Neighborhood Vandals: 1. Explain to the officer what you intend to do. If caught in the act and spotlighted from a car at close range. have a scanner and can listen to police frequencies. Name two crime prevention organizations. List three things you can do while maneuvering through a city to stay safe.

They don’t like locked windows because breaking glass attracts attention. Simple precautions like these work.CRIME PREVENTION IN THE HOME L51 When we think of a home being burglarized. Now. OVERVIEW: INTRODUCE TIME-HONORED STRATEGIES FOR DETERRING CRIME IN THE HOME. Opportunist thieves commit most crimes. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. Take a close look at your own home’s security — before a criminal does! Ask the Cadets to rate the overall crime rate in their neighborhood. In two out of every ten burglaries. even from the inside. DISTRIBUTE CADET HANDOUTS AND DISCUSS HOME SAFETY. D-7 . THEY WILL DEVELOP AND EVALUATE STRATEGIES OF THEIR OWN FOR HOME PROTECTION. How many of the cadets have homes that are vacant during the day? What do their families do to secure their houses? What might they do? Discuss the benefits and drawbacks of the following: • Locks • Security System • Dog in the house Discuss the effectiveness of signs posted in front of a home by a professional home security firm. Why is that? Allow cadets to come up with their own ideas and then discuss the fact that most homes are vacant during the day. most homes are burglarized in broad daylight. creeping through the house with a flashlight. Is crime up or down and why? A lot of burglaries can be prevented. we imagine a thief in the night. the thief does not have to force his way in because a door or window has been left open. How accurate do you think that is? Actually. CONCLUDE WITH A DISCUSSION CONCERNING THE EVOLUTION OF HOME SECURITY SYSTEMS. Burglars like easy opportunities. Does it make a difference if the sign says “Armed Response”? OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL REVIEW TACTICS FOR PREVENTING CRIME AT HOME. They don’t like security deadlocks on doors because they cannot be opened.

If you see someone and he/she is not familiar to you.L51 CRIME PREVENTION IN THE HOME CRIME PREVENTION IN THE HOME Review the items on the list. Cadets should consider whether their home meets these standards. skylights or bathroom fanlights need locks. Make sure the front of the house is still visible to passers by. A thief will look in those places first. This device has a wide-angle lens that lets you see someone standing outside your door before you open it. GARAGE DOORS Standard locks on garage doors are easily pried. SLIDING GLASS DOORS Many burglars enter homes through improperly secured sliding glass doors. A thief can get in through any gap larger than a human head. DOORS WITH WINDOWS Doors with glass windows or glass ornamentation require double key deadbolt locks. so that a burglar can’t work unseen. SMALL WINDOWS Even small windows like casement windows. Check for weak spots where a thief could enter. This prevents the burglar from breaking the glass and reaching inside to unlock the door. DOOR VIEWERS To avoid opening your door without knowing who is on the other side. allowing a burglar access to your home without detection. Cane bolts are excellent protection. Make certain each side of the garage door is secured to prevent prying open a crawl space. in a flowerpot or inside the letterbox. Ask for a show of hands after each item or open the floor to discussion. Additional locks and security measures will prevent the door from being opened or lifted out of the track. BURGLAR ALARMS Signs announcing the presence of burglar alarms make burglars think twice. call the police. install a door viewer. D-8 . A thorny hedge along a boundary can also be a useful deterrent. GATES AND FENCES A high wall or fence at the back of a house can deter a burglar. STRANGERS Be alert to people loitering in residential streets. SPARE KEYS Never leave a spare key in a hiding place such as under a doormat.

In fact. rake leaves and maintain the yard to give the home a lived-in look.as if you never left. newspapers and packages -. a radio or television on and off at appropriate times. L51 AFTER EACH TIP. They will stack up and signal your absence.HELP BURGLARS TAKE ONE TOO! Review the following tips and instruct the cadets to decide which of the following ideas are good and which are bad.mail. Ask a neighbor to watch the house while you're away. Increase the ringer volume on your telephone. Leave your house key hidden outside your home so a friend can water your plants. Really Bad Idea Good Idea. Provide the correct answer after a brief discussion of each. Arrange for someone to mow your lawn. Good Idea Good Idea. Continue all deliveries -. * * * * * * * * * Good if you trust your neighbor.VACATION TIME . Announce your absence and return date on answering machine messages. Good Idea Bad Idea Bad Idea. you could even turn your ringer off. If a burglar is around. DECIDE IF IT IS A GOOD OR BAD IDEA. D-9 . Tell your local police you plan to be away. Bad Idea. this helps to disguise the fact that you are away. Patrol officers may have the opportunity to periodically check your home. Leave your vacation address and telephone number with a neighbor so you can be reached in case of an emergency. phone. he will be alerted to your absence by a ringing Plug in timers to turn lights.

followed by "live" audio feed from the site. With the highest documented criminal capture rate in the security industry. Discuss: How might the Sonitrol system be improved? What facilities would benefit from this type of alarm system? What are the immediate and long-term results of officers being dispatched to scenes without crimes? 1. The effectiveness of Sonitrol is due to the information gathered and the way it is examined. What types of noises would warrant police intervention? THE RESULTS—Police responding to Sonitrol alarms have apprehended more than 150. the microphones of Sonitrol are "listening" for a noise above the ambient noise level in a building. “What can we do to prevent crime in our homes?” Write your response. Someone asks. Results can be used to determine exactly what officers need to know before approaching the scene and can often be used against criminals in court. Once triggered. but officers were dispatched to the scene the other 97 times as well. Sonitrol is fool-proof. taking them away from other important emergencies and law enforcement occurrences. List 3 good ideas that will help prevent crime in your home while on vacation. THE PRODUCT—Kimberlite is the largest independent operator of Sonitrol-brand security alarm systems which are much more sophisticated than regular alarms.000 criminals nationally since 1977. Besides a criminal. These sounds are heard by highly trained operators who accurately assess the threats represented by an alarm system and then make appropriate dispatch decisions. 5. Tom Patterson of the Kimberlite Corporation believes a more advanced product is the solution to this alarming problem.L51 CRIME PREVENTION IN THE HOME THE WILD GOOSE CHASE: Law Officers Everywhere Hunt Down False Alarms In 2002. 2. like the sound of someone breaking through a wall or rooftop. Sonitrol uses an impactactivated. D-10 Pretend you are a police officer and you are giving advice at neighborhood meeting. what other things might set off a motion detection system? HOW IT WORKS—When the basic commercial alarm system is activated. stored audio alarm verification system equipped with tiny microphones. Compared to many other systems. List three bad ideas. but even its advocators will admit that no alarm system is perfect. What percent of burglaries involve forced entry? When do most burglaries occur? . This means that only 3 out of every 100 calls were warranted. the Sonitrol system transmits the actual sounds that tripped the alarm to Sonitrol's central monitoring station. the LAPD estimated that 97% of the automatic alarm system calls that it received were false alarms. rather than the more common use of motion detectors. 4. 3.

and suffer unintentional injuries. “that won’t happen to me. your parents. would you tell anyone at all? It’s easy to say. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL DEVELOP THEIR OWN STRATEGIES FOR DEALING WITH YOUNG PEOPLE INVOLVED WITH CRIME. The facts speak for themselves: Violence is the leading cause of death for 15-24 year olds. and 7:00 p. youth are more likely to become victims of crime and violence. there are many misconceptions about teens involved in crime. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. youth.m. are nearly three times more likely than adults to be victims of serious violent crimes.CRIMES AGAINST YOUNG PEOPLE L52 Where would you go to if you were a victim of violent crime? The police. ages 12-17. Today we will review the facts behind some of these myths. Despite these grim numbers. Explain: Research has shown that between the hours of 3:00 p. D-11 . In fact.” but statistics say it might. DISTRIBUTE CADET HANDOUTS AND DISCUSS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CRIME AND YOUTH. OVERVIEW: REVIEW AND DISCUSS THE SPECIAL CHALLENGES CONFRONTING LAW ENFORCEMENT WHEN DEALING WITH YOUNG PEOPLE AND CRIME.m.. Now.

Sponsor more positive activities for teens.L52 CRIMES AGAINST YOUNG PEOPLE • Before the cadets take out their Cadet Handouts.S. If you are 12 years old. 1992. more naive and more easily led into vulnerable situations. Are more trusting. Younger teens (12-15 years old) had lower violent crime and theft rates than older teens (16-19). U. Department of Justice. ask the cadets to take out their Handout and fully review each detailed answer. Department of Justice) Why are teens victims of crime more frequently than any other age group? Among the reasons frequently offered are that teens: • • • • Have a lifestyle that puts them in locations where there is more crime and at times when there is more crime. (Source: Criminal Victimization in the United States. March 1987) What kinds of things can be done to reduce the number of teenagers who are victims of crime? Among the most frequent responses: • • • • D-12 Make teens aware of the crime risks they face.S. . A. Educate teens about avoiding and preventing crime. 5 in 6 (83%) Someone who 12 years old has a 5 in 6 (83 percent) chance of being a victim of violent crime during his or her lifetime. B. U. And 50 percent of all victims will be victims more than once. Are not even aware sometimes that a crime has been committed against them. Don't know about or can't find positive activities and thus hang around dangerous situations. you may want to quiz the class with the questions provided. After fielding responses. what is the approximate risk that you will be a victim of violent crime during your lifetime? 1 in 2 (50%) 5 in 6 (83%) 2 in 3 (66%) Correct Answer: #2. (Source: Lifetime Likelihood of Victimization. Teens are victims of violent crime and crimes of theft twice as often as the adult population (age 20 and older). In which age category are persons most likely to be victims of crime? The elderly (65 and over) Middle-aged people (35-49) Teenagers (12-19 years old) Correct Answer: #3 Teenagers are crime's most frequent targets. Get parents more involved in the activities and safety of teens.

In 1992. D. Males teens are much more likely to become involved in risky situations in which the law intervenes. rape. Homicide 2. 3. compared with 46% of rapes and 56% of assaults. For the three violent crimes of rape. not just teens) were by strangers. Rape 3. 2. Males 2.an unknown person who unexpectedly strikes -. The proportion of violent crime victims who have reported that their offenders are known to them (casual or close acquaintances. more than 80% of robberies (against all victims. and 52% for younger teenagers (aged 12-15).is incorrect. are teens more or less likely than adults to be victimized by persons they know? 1. relatives) is 36% for young adults. E. Too often the offender is someone who is very much like us. Females 3. Crime often arises out of personal disputes where someone does not know how to handle their anger or how to get away from a potentially dangerous situation. Are teenage males or females more likely to be victims of violent crime? 1. Assault Correct Answer: #3 Robbery Robbery is the violent crime most likely to be committed by a stranger. robbery. and assault.C. Robbery 4. teenaged males have higher violent/theft crime victimization rates than females. What does this suggest? The image of the offender as a stranger -. In most societies. What might account for teen males being more frequent crime victims? Among the reasons that have been indicated are: L52 • • • Teenage male offenders are much more likely to victimize other teen males. Less frequently victimized by persons they know than are adults. Victimized by persons they know at about the same rate as are adults. which is the most likely to be committed by a stranger? 1. compared to 65% for females. Males are more likely to be victims of all types of violent crime (with the exception of rape) by strangers than are females – 89% of robberies by strangers. Correct Answer: #2 Teenagers are more likely to be victimized by people they know than adults. Of the violent crimes of homicide. males are more likely than females to be offenders and victims. D-13 . Males and females are equally likely Correct Answer: #1 Male Like their adult counterparts. More frequently victimized by persons they know than are adults. friends. robbery. and assault. 38% for older teenagers (aged 1619).

crimes involving weapons. "We at Crimestoppers have long suspected that this is so and have concentrated on the plight of young victims throughout the past year. It's simply not 'cool' and it is a load of 'hassle' to report a crime. showed that more than 40% of children lived in fear of crime. since the Home Office Crime Survey only questioned those over 16. Perhaps of more concern. New statistics reveal that 51% of victims do not report crimes to the police and 45% do not even tell their parents. This survey showed boys aged under 15 were more likely to be victims than girls (22% compared to 15%) and 23% of victims were mugged or were the victims of street crime. but most keep it to themselves for fear of being blamed. and murder.064 boys and girls questioned nationwide. one in four victims said they had been targeted by somebody their own age and nearly half knew the identity of their assailants. followed by drugs. "What we have found is that the young have a cultural reluctance to be seen as tattletale. They didn't tell their parents. said: "What is particularly worrying is that half of the victims suffer in silence. mugging and burglary were top of the list of children's fears. 1. What are some ways to prevent homicide between those who know one another? 3. This study. What can teens do to decrease crime among people who know each other? 2. director of Crimestoppers. Of the 1. they didn't tell the police. How could teens be encouraged to report crimes more often? 5. Why do teenagers report crime less often than adults? 4. What is the leading cause of death for people from 15-24 years of age? D-14 . 38% said they would be more likely to report crimes if they could do so without giving their names. which includes stationing a police beat officer in secondary schools. commissioned by Crimestoppers. The crime pressure group said it offered a more complete picture of offences in Britain." The government is currently working on a number of initiatives aimed at reducing youth crime. Roy Clark. Theft.L52 CRIMES AGAINST YOUNG PEOPLE SUFFERING IN SILENCE One in five children between the ages of 10 and 15 has been a victim of crime. while some fear retribution from those responsible.

and violence in schools are nearly always directed towards schools in big cities. administrators. school board members.PREVENTING SCHOOL VIOLENCE L53 School violence is defined as any intentional action or actions taken by an individual while on school property to physically harm or threaten Concerns about guns. • • • • • Lack of parental supervision Lack of family involvement with the school Exposure to violence in mass media Drugs and alcohol Racism OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL LEARN TO DEVELOP CRIME PREVENTION PROPOSALS THAT ADDRESS THE CHALLENGES FACING THEIR SCHOOL. whether they are in New York City or [small city in your vicinity. emergency response personnel. staff. Ask the cadets to list some factors contributing to school violence: OVERVIEW: REVIEW AND DISCUSS CURRENT STRATEGIES FOR CRIME PREVENTION IN AMERICA’S SCHOOLS. There are many steps a school can take to make it a safer place to learn. DISTRIBUTE CADET HANDOUT AND CONCLUDE BY ASKING THE STUDENTS TO CREATE SOLUTIONS. Surprisingly. But which steps work? Now. drugs. the major shootings of the past few years have all been in rural or suburban schools. social and mental health professionals. parents. law enforcement. Violence is a problem everyone must address. D-15 . families. Groups that should be included in these efforts include students. etc. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. security professionals. the business community. What can be done to stop the violence in schools? To be effective. teachers. violence prevention programs require communitywide collaborative efforts.

hallways. student IDs. on pencils. stairs. on posters throughout the school. CLOSED CAMPUS Establish a closed campus policy that prohibits students from leaving campus during lunch. PARENT MONITORS Encourage screened and trained parents/guardians and other volunteers to provide monitoring of students. PHOTO IDS Require students and staff to carry with them and/or wear their school photo IDs during school and at all school-related activities. Aggressively advertise the hotline number to students and parents/guardians in student handbooks.L53 PREVENTING SCHOOL VIOLENCE SCHOOL RESOURCE OFFICERS SROs often provide law enforcement. and parents/guardians to report threats and acts of violence by establishing a properly staffed. ON PATROL Patrol school grounds. Be certain that volunteers have adequate training and guidelines outlining their duties. SIGN IN PLEASE! Require visitors to sign in and sign out at the school office and to wear visible visitors' passes. REPORTING Establish a climate that encourages and enables students. and law-related education to students. faculty. Continuity of officers within individual schools should be encouraged. GET THE NEIGHBORS INVOLVED Encourage neighboring residents and businesses to report all criminal activity and unusual incidents. and other areas. safety. D-16 . bathrooms. Establish a protocol within the school to handle calls from the neighborhood. law-related counseling. teachers. DRUGS AND SEARCH POLICY Adopt policies for conducting searches for weapons and drugs. NO LOITERING! Develop and enforce restrictions about student loitering in parking lots. METAL DETECTORS Consider the use of metal detectors only in special circumstances to deter weapons on campus. Post prominent signs at all school entrances instructing visitors where to sign in and out. cafeterias. etc. especially in areas where students tend to congregate such as parking lots. confidential hotline for reporting issues of harassment. so that students and SROs develop rapport. hallways. vandalism etc. lockers. and schoolyards. Publish policies in the student handbook/code of conduct. Publish restrictions in the student handbook/code of conduct. bathrooms. and staff. BUS RIDER CHECKLIST Develop a school bus rider attendance checklist for each bus and use it daily.

D-17 . or use of illegal drugs on campus. • Invite community leaders to discuss different ways students can achieve success. Educate students about the dangers and illegality of drug and alcohol use. ANTI-GANG PROGRAMS Gang membership is destructive to a healthy school environment. • Consider the potential value of school-wide assemblies in which effective motivational speakers address such topics as drugs. Serious rule violations include: • Possession or use of a weapon. Consideration also should be given to requiring school uniforms. consider use of peer courts. and minimize the impact of gangs and other fringe groups on school property. Maintain the appearance of schools to decrease vandalism and violence. that is capable of inflicting serious bodily harm. Dress codes can simplify the recognition of intruders. faculty. on school grounds or at a school event. DRUG AND ALCOHOL EDUCATION The use of drugs and/or alcohol is often associated with violence and other forms of delinquent behavior. • Actual or threatened retaliation against persons who report threats or acts of violence. or student. DRESS CODE Establish and enforce a dress code policy for students. • Verbal threat to a teacher. administrator. alcohol and violence. or student. • Create recognition rewards for students who perform good citizenship behaviors. • Physical assault of a teacher. Consider having qualified adults oversee peer courts. improve discipline.SUSPENDED Suspend and recommend expulsion of students and dismiss or discipline staff for serious rule violations. • Possession. sale. administrator. • SCHOOL PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT A safe and secure physical environment promotes and enhances the learning process. find ways to encourage positive behaviors. Establish partnerships with law enforcement in order to exchange information and to educate teachers and staff about the presence of gangs and their activities. decrease violence and other forms of misconduct. POSITIVE INCENTIVES Instead of focusing only on punishment of negative behaviors. staff member. L53 STUDENT COURT For non-criminal offenses. Members of gangs are more likely than other students to carry weapons and to engage in acts of violence. and staff with input from all constituents. staff member.

have poster contests against violence. local governments. and response plans for emergencies. 4. • Help your children learn nonviolent ways to handle frustration. Make sure they can recognize trouble signs and identify potentially violent JPA Cadets can help stop school violence. questions. crisis intervention. Know good places to seek help. take time to talk about it. • If a student makes a threat of violence. Address the problem immediately and act to prevent a potential conflict. parents. or other weapon. knives. and communitybased groups to develop wider-scope crime prevention efforts. problem solving. PARENTS Sharpen your parenting skills. volunteer to counsel peers. school authorities. various field trips. or other weapons to school. drug prevention. hold anti-drug rallies. • Train school personnel in conflict resolution. good security procedures. STUDENTS • Settle arguments with words. parent. and stay away from places and people associated with them. homes. Become involved in your child's school activities such as the PTA. • When something violent and frightening happens at school or in the neighborhood. law enforcement. Discuss the consequences and get students to think about what other choices besides violence might have been available. students. • Ask your children about what goes on during the school day. • Work with students. or other weapons. • Encourage students to talk about worries. Learn how if you don't know how. • Don't carry guns. • Teach your children how to reduce their risks of becoming crime victims. Listen carefully to what they say. knife. and counseling skills. • Know where your kids are. and whom they are with at all times. • • Do not allow your child to carry guns. • 1. not fists or weapons. knives. • SCHOOL STAFF Evaluate your school's safety objectively. or trusted adult if you're worried about a bully or threats of violence by another student. cultural sensitivity. • Learn safe routes for traveling to and from school and stick to them. Listen to what they say and take their concerns and worries seriously. Emphasize and build on your children's strengths. what they are doing.L53 PREVENTING SCHOOL VIOLENCE PREVENTING SCHOOL VIOLENCE: WHAT CAN YOU DO IN YOUR SCHOOL? Ask cadets to make suggestions on what else they can do to help make their schools safer. • Get involved in your school's anti-violence activities -. and helping out in class or the lunch room. • Report crimes or suspicious activities to the police. 3. • Tell a teacher. anger. • Tell a school official immediately if you see another student with a gun. Set targets for improvement. or parents. Why is crime prevention in school so important? What types of practices do schools use to prevent crime in and around schools? What types of educational programs are taught to prevent criminal activity? List three violations that would get you suspended from school? Which groups should be involved in order for a crime prevention programs to be effective? . and fears about what's going on in their schools. • Don't use alcohol or other drugs. and neighborhoods. 2. • Develop consistent disciplinary policies. Get help from trained counselors if necessary. classroom management. and conflict. Be honest about crime problems and work toward bettering the situation. take him or her seriously. D-18 5.

OBJECTIVES: CADETS WILL UNDERSTAND THE LEGAL DEFINITION OF GANG AND WILL LEARN THE EFFECTS GANGS HAVE ON OUR SOCIETY. school has become a gathering place for gangs. D-19 . Now. There are many kinds of gangs.000 percent in Wichita. Kansas from 1991 to 1993. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. but whatever kind you community is dealing with. Data from the National Crime Victimization Surveys indicate that the percentage of students reporting gangs in schools increased by 100% between 1989 and 1995. In fact. For many students in America. OVERVIEW: INSTRUCTOR WILL REVIEW AND DISCUSS THE CHALLENGES LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS FACE AS THEY WORK TO QUASH GANG ACTIVITY. gangs spell trouble. Nebraska. where guns. Violent street gangs are now operating in 94 percent of all medium and large-sized cities. gangs have been a problem in Los Angeles for years. Oklahoma City is home to 80 separate gangs. Did you know that they account for about half of that city's murders? Gangs are now responsible for 41 percent of the homicides in Omaha. drugs.GANGS L54 Many communities (maybe the one you live in) have serious problems with gangs. While growth in gang activity is now a concern nationwide. and violence are a part of the daily educational landscape. Drive-by shootings rose 3.

Now it is settled by flying lead. Then. When they are in prison." While most kids on the streets are good kids. Many kids who gravitate to gangs do so out of a need to belong to something and for the power that is gained from being in a gang. D-20 . young peripheral or associate gang members get their first exposure to the gang culture through various aspects of the media—news shows. Pirates were probably some of the original gangs. or other reasons. Real Life Gang Bangers While in prison. videos. and even through the music of various artists. or "juice" as it is known in gang slang. Some music and movies tend to glamorize the gang lifestyle. Crips and Bloods The origins of the Crips and Bloods can be traced to the late 60's. gangs number between 800 and 1000. Why? Groups that may have started out as a delinquent band of neighborhood tough guys/girls often turn into violent drug gangs. L. The society that we live in makes alternative lifestyles very appealing to our youth. The groups that traditionally come to mind when one thinks of modern day gangs are the Crips and the Bloods from California. collection.000 to 220. these youngsters become exposed to and indoctrinated into the world of real life gang bangers who are truly the hardest of the hard-core. a way to determine rank within a gang may have been established by flying fists. movies. and the gang culture since then has become so ingrained on the west coast that many families have two and even three generations of gangsters residing in the same residence.L54 GANGS History of Gangs Gangs in one form or another have been around for hundreds of years. all kids must be considered at risk. with anywhere from 120. some of whom retain a gang identity for enforcement. Depending on whose figures you listen to (government officials have a tendency to downsize the numbers).000 members. many members gain rank or "juice" within their gang because they went to the "joint. First Glimpse Oftentimes. back to the streets these bangers go with more "knowledge" than ever could have been gained on the streets.A. Power Appeal Most gang members crave power. Several years ago.

In Los Angeles. Nothing New Gangs are nothing new. In Arkansas. Once in a gang. Many large police departments on the east coast had gang units at the turn of the century to monitor the immigrant gangs who protected their neighborhoods and came together for social reasons. Then the money begins flowing. a young person is told over and over again that there is no way out. and with that comes all of the things associated with material wealth that are usually beyond the reach of these adolescents without the criminal activity of being involved in a gang. Older individuals sometimes claim gang membership for similar reasons as teens. street graffiti was found that indicated second generation membership in a local street gang. the average age of a gang member is around 25 years. many kids are pushed into gangs to avoid continued harassment. good or bad. They fear serious repercussions from fellow gang members if their allegiance is doubted. Gangs provide their members and their family members with protection from other gangs as well as any other perceived threats. Reasons for Joining Sociologists as well as gang members have isolated six reasons for joining a street gang: L54 • • • • • • fear hatred bigotry poverty disenfranchisement the general breakdown of social values Additionally. gives a kid looking for a purpose something to belong to. Recently. Gang-like activity has plagued large cities around the nation for years. sharing the other trials and tribulations—is reason to participate in a group or a gang. Respect Gang members claim to enjoy the respect or fear others exhibit around them. No Way Out All of this is quite a heady trip for a young kid. Gangs as most people think of them probably began to be recognized by the general public around the nation with the birth of the Los Angeles gangs in the early seventies. Participants have said that the mere interaction of members--listening to one another's problems.A Bad Rep Joining a group known to have a reputation. D-21 . gang members are in their teens.

5. or who may have the most charisma at a given time. has "colors". and jewelry to identify with their group. tattoo's. hand signs. and car theft. What is a gang? Why are gangs appealing to young people? What are the goals of a gang? List some ways young people can avoid getting involved in a gang? Where are kids first exposed to gangs? D-22 . They wear T-shirts that display the crew name for social events only but use no other group identifiers such as tattoo's. The second group consists of 25 individuals. employs the use of graffiti. and car theft. The first group consists of 50 individuals. robbery. use violence to protect their drug trade and many members of the group engage in random acts of violence. 3. 2. Some members of the group engage in random acts of violence. do not use graffiti to mark their territory or advertise their group. who originally met in school but live in several different neighborhoods. The third group consists of only seven individuals. They have structured leadership (based on who has the best drug connection). List the elements that helped you determine whether a group of individuals is a gang or not. most of who reside in and "hang out" in a specific neighborhood. They intimidate residents and are feared in the neighborhood. But group three is much smaller in membership thus their overall criminal activity is not near the scope. robbery. They have a loose knit leadership structure depending on who is toughest during a time of conflict with another group. This group calls themselves the 8th Street Crips. are involved in the sale of crack cocaine and marijuana. dresses in black and blue colors. do not wear "colors" or use hand signs. They do not have any specific gang name other than the name of the neighborhood. 1. as groups one and two. They intimidate residents and are feared in the neighborhood. This can be used in class or as a home assignment. They also have initiation rituals. etc. but are not as intimidating as group one. nor are they as detrimental to the community. Each paragraph describes a group of individuals. Determine if the individuals can be considered to be part of a gang. "89th Street Crew" and have marked their neighborhood with graffiti. They do not have any initiation rituals.L54 GANGS ASSIGNMENT Have the cadets read the three scenarios and decide if the group represented should be classified as a gang. This group also has a loose knit structure and is involved in the same types of criminal activity as groups one and two. most of them reside in and “hang out” in a specific neighborhood. They have a specific name. hand signs. 4.

ROOT CAUSES OF JUVENILE CRIME L55 What causes a young person to commit crime? Should parents be responsible for the crimes and actions of their children? Consider this: If the parents of Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris — the two teenagers responsible for the massacre at Columbine — had done a better job raising their children. Should the parents be prosecuted for the horrific crimes of their children? Why hadn’t the parents seen the warning signs that their children were troubled? Had Harris’ parents never seen their son’s rage-filled Web site or the sawed-off shotgun barrel left on the bedroom dresser? Are parents really to blame? In this lesson we will examine the question of responsibility and explore the root causes of juvenile crime. Now. D-23 . have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. could the tragedy have been avoided? OVERVIEW INSTRUCTOR WILL LEAD THE CADETS THROUGH A VARIETY OF THEORIES CONCERNING THE ROOT CAUSES OF JUVENILE CRIME. OBJECTIVES CADETS WILL IDENTIFY THOSE FACTORS THAT ARE MOST OFTEN ASSOCIATED WITH JUVENILE CRIME AND DEVELOP THEIR OWN OPINIONS REGARDING PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY.

" It depends upon the child's family. It is not the environment that causes the juvenile behavior. For each individual violent juvenile. they try to determine what characteristics or outside influences are responsible. they discuss the high percentages of inmates in American prisons reporting to be victims of friend abuse. any number of influences can contribute to violent behavior. according to the best research. When researchers study juvenile violence. As support for this view. is "it depends.e. IMMEDIATE GRATIFICATION Excitement and immediate gratification to alleviate boredom are said to be significant causes of violent juvenile behavior. Much of the research centers on boredom and alienation. To support this conclusion. the manner in which an individual reacts to the environment. research shows that there is no more effective weapon than a healthy family. PERSONAL CHOICE A growing number of researchers and professionals propose that personal choice plays a much larger role in juvenile delinquency than otherwise thought. i.L55 ROOT CAUSES OF JUVENILE CRIME ROOT CAUSES OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY Many experts contend that the groundwork for violent behavior in adults is laid in childhood. Does a certain temperament lead to violent behavior? Do certain physical anomalies make some kids prone to violence more than others? Does a child's physical or mental make up determine whether he will grow up to be a violent juvenile? The answer. early childhood trauma. They can become deviant because of their desire for risk and excitement. they show the very high percentages of juveniles who have experienced abuse and witnessed excessive violence but have not become delinquent. In the war against juvenile violence. FAMILY STABILITY Research has shown that in most cases.. rejection by peers. D-24 . Some delinquents are actually hyperactive and need extra stimulation to keep them interested. low self-image. mental or emotional problems. failure at school. family stability can trump negative influences that might otherwise lead to a child's violent behavior. but instead.

Family is the immediate origin of delinquency because family structure through childhood influences how strongly peer pressure influences a friend. according to available evidence the following influences have the most impact: Family School Community A recurring theme in any investigation into juvenile violence is alienation and boredom. parents. not control and punishment. peers. COMMUNICATION Increasing a student’s success in school is an old idea but one that continues to demonstrate results. However. and teachers. not as numbers. Less juvenile violence occurs in areas where many positive activities exist. Parents need to know what associations their children have with school activity. and their neighborhood groups. solid research on the effects of different strategies is sparse. A part of this solution effort might be to increase communication between students. Juveniles should be treated as individuals. SOLUTIONS FOR JUVENILE VIOLENCE In the area of violence reduction in youth. Students who do not achieve in school are more frequently involved in confrontational behavior. L55 D-25 .FAMILY RELATIONS The impact of family relations upon children can never by over-stated. THE PARENT FACTOR Parents need to increase participation in their children's lives and to make certain that their children understand that parental involvement is done out of love and concern. Social institutions must generate meaningful programs for youth. Family influences impact the possible attractiveness of negative groups. Delinquency is highest when positive family interaction and control are weak and conflict is high.

6. Boredom 3. Recurring theme in juvenile violence 3. 3. Teens and _______ make a deadly combination 2. 2. Juvenile 4. Juvenile _______________ Down 1. Delinquency is highest when positive family interaction and control are weak and conflict is high. D-26 . Another word for teenager 4. Weapons 2. Trouble 6. 5. Do you think child abuse plays a role in the making of a criminal? Why? Which plays a larger role in crime: child rearing or choice? Why? Does the class know of a student who has been in trouble with the law? What was his/her family situation? Explain why you di not become a criminal? Was it purely choice or did an adult mentor you? Think of a younger brother or sister (or friend).L55 ROOT CAUSES OF JUVENILE CRIME WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT Instruct the cadets to answer the following questions. List two factors the may promote juvenile delinquency. 3. 2. Who has the most influence on teens in the fight against teen violen Less juvenile violence occurs in areas where many ________________ exist. 4. what is the single most effective thing you could do to keep them away from a life of crime? 1 2 3 4 CROSSWORD Across 5. 4. True or False? __________ and immediate _________ to alleviate boredom are said to be significant causes of violent juvenile behavior. This can be done during class or as part of a take-home assignment. Obey the _____________ 5 6 Answers: Across 5. Stay out of____________ 6. Law 1. 5. 1. Delinquent Down 1.

the drug etches permanent biochemical changes in your brain that enables you to tolerate more and more of the poisonous compound. told you in the only way it knew how that nicotine was unacceptable. Bowing to your sheer dumb will. caffeine. Now. The new smoker persists in puffing on the thing anyway — your motivation to look cool overruling any internal protest. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. because it feels good. snort or injection. Drugs and the human body can be a bad mix.TEENS AND DRUG USE L56 Adolescence is a time for trying new things. heroin or crack cocaine. OBJECTIVES CADETS WILL EVALUATE VARIOUS METHODS OF FIGHTING DRUG ABUSE AND WILL DEVELOP A SOUND STRATEGY OF THEIR OWN FOR ADDRESSING THE PROBLEM. This marvelous physiological response is a stunning example of the body’s resilience and capacity for adaptation. Stop. it said. your body shifts into survival mode. With each subsequent puff. to reduce stress. It adjusts. process. Your body. WHILE EMPHASIZING THE BENEFITS OF AVOIDING ABUSE. It illuminates another fascinating. shocked at the toxic insult. Teens use drugs for many reasons. drag. to feel grown up or to fit in. too: addiction. D-27 . It violated your body’s natural chemical mix. you felt nauseated. your heart beat wildly and your head pounded. or I’ll make you throw up. as it would when presented with any toxic psychoactive substance — whether alcohol. dizzy. In this lesson we will examine teenage addition — formulating strategies for identifying and treating the problem. Consider the experience of a person’s first cigarette? After choking on the smoke. though insidious. OVERVIEW INSTRUCTOR WILL DISCUSS THE PROBLEM OF DRUG ABUSE. including curiosity.

Burns. Unnecessary or obvious lying (to cover up drug use) 24. hands. and careless about personal grooming? Has your friend become hostile and uncooperative? Have your friend’s relationships with other family members deteriorated? Has your friend dropped his or her old friends? Has your friend lost interest in hobbies. Sweating profusely. Bad attitude in the morning (hangover. face (smoking of drugs) Do you have a friend or sibling who you suspect of abusing drugs? Consider the following questions: • • • • • Does your friend seem withdrawn. sports and other favorite activities? D-28 . It is sometimes hard to know the difference between normal teenage behavior and behavior caused by drugs. Nodding out (drowsiness. constricted or bloodshot eyes) 3. Hanging out in known drug locations (could indicate drug involvement) 23. Wearing of sunglasses (to conceal dilated. Teary eyes (withdrawal symptom) 22. lesions. or paranoid behavior (common reaction to stimulants) 17.L56 TEENS AND DRUG USE Signs of Drug Abuse How you can spot drug abuse among your friends? Being alert to the signs of alcohol and other drug use requires a keen eye. Burns or scorch marks on nose. Swollen/puffy hands and/or feet (possible IV use) 18. Aggressive. *Review the list below and ask the cadets to discuss each item and provide any personal history associated with the problem. tired. Wearing of long sleeve shirts in warm weather (to hide needle marks) 4. 1. even on cold days (physical reaction to drug use) Never confront a friend while 12. Poor circulation (reaction related to drug use) 15. lethargy) 11. Track or needle marks (usually on arms. depression or low self-esteem) they are under the influence of 13. Excessive use of breath mints (masks the smell of alcohol) 7. Unusually disheveled or unkempt appearance (distorted priorities) 10. Associating with known users (could indicate drug involvement) 21. Unwarranted laughter (associated with marijuana and PCP use) 8. Extreme mood swings (typical reaction to drug use) 9. Constant sniffling (signs of withdrawal or nasal damage) 19. Borrowing or begging for money (to support drug habit) alcohol or other drugs 14. depressed. uptight. neck or legs) 2. in mouth or on lips (smoking of drugs) 25. unpredictable behavior (typical pattern of drug use) 16. sores. Long stays in the bathroom (possible drug ingestion) 5. lips. Yawning (withdrawal symptom) 20. Frequent lateness to school or work (typical pattern of drug users) 6. Undependable.

Unfortunately. Nicotine is a chemical that is also a drug.) If you think your friend is not being truthful and the evidence is pretty strong. (Just like many adults. healthier life that is more meaningful and productive. They also have a tendency to feel indestructible and immune to the problems that others experience. Others will develop a dependency. Many chemicals (such as tin. moving on to more dangerous drugs and causing significant harm to themselves and possibly others. WHAT IS A 'DRUG'? A drug is any chemical that produces a therapeutic or nontherapeutic effect in the body. Using alcohol and tobacco at a young age increases the risk of using other drugs later. you may wish to have your friend evaluated by a health professional experienced in diagnosing adolescents with alcohol/drug-related problems. you will need help in order to intervene. Alcohol is a drug -. Chemicals. including tobacco and alcohol. TEENAGERS AND DRUGS Teenagers may be involved with legal or illegal drugs in various ways. Most foods are not drugs. without significant problems. or continue to use occasionally. if necessary. If your friend has developed a pattern of drug use or has engaged in heavy use. Wait until he or she is sober. you will live a longer. in spite of the calories it provides. among other things. Without illicit substances..WHAT TO DO? Never confront a friend while they are under the influence of alcohol or other drugs. D-29 . teenagers often don’t see the link between their actions today and the consequences tomorrow. It's not easy. especially in high doses. Then discuss your suspicions with your friend calmly and objectively. inhalants).including drugs -.g. lead. gold) have harmful effects on the body.not a food. Experimentation with drugs during adolescence is common. living free of drugs. on the other hand. Drugs and alcohol can have a lasting negative impact on both your body and mind. The group of "illegal" drugs includes dangerous chemicals that have only toxic actions (e. are a broad class of substances -. L56 THE BEST ADVICE Healthy lifestyles mean.that may or may not produce noticeable effects in the body. Bring in other members of the family to help. Many young people lie about their alcohol and other drug use. Some teens will experiment and stop. Take a walk around the block first if you need to calm down.

healthy. So let's get started! A prevention message might include: • Most of their peers . What did you talk about? Did they know about drugs and the consequences? Today we are going to design an anti-drug program for your little brothers and sisters. 2. it's 13. Why do teens use drugs? D-30 . why do Mom and Dad drink wine at dinner? Parents and older siblings need to help young people sort out the facts from the fiction. mental and social consequences.and the people they admire . • Getting high has negative physical. What treatments are there for drug use? 5. As the creators of a drug prevention program. List 3 types of drugs people are likely to use? 4. • Young people can learn how to make good decisions without bad consequences. What will work best in your drug program? What has little or no effect on getting through to young people? 1. how do we handle/address this attraction that young people have to risk? How can we convince them to focus on the short and long-term consequences of drug use? Use the survey in the Cadet handout to answer the following questions.L56 TEENS AND DRUG USE CREATE YOUR OWN ANTI-DRUG PROGRAM It’s your job to come up with an anti-drug message that works. But the subject of drugs can be very confusing to young people. And many young people become curious about these substances even sooner. Explain: How many of you in the class have a younger brother or sister. If drugs are so dangerous. It's never too soon to begin. why is the family medicine cabinet full of them? If alcohol is so bad for you. THE COMPANY YOU KEEP Friendships are extremely important when it comes to the paths that young people choose in life. List some of the signs of someone using drugs. What should you do confront when you suspect a friend of using drugs? 3. For that reason. • Staying drug free has positive benefits for body. (Discuss). The risks of using drugs are intriguing on several levels: • Frustrating the law (To defy laws of community) • Breaking the rules of parents and schools • Defying physical danger. APPROACHES FOR YOUR PROGRAM Let’s first identify the reasons young people abuse drugs. mind and soul. helpful friendships and that it guide young people away from friendships that are potentially harmful. it is important that our program encourage positive. for marijuana. The average age at which a young person first tries alcohol is 12. Have you ever spoken to them about drugs.do not use drugs.

and pipe and fire bombs. Terrorists often use threats to create fear among the public.S. and NBC's (nuclear. Different types of terrorist weapons include: explosives. AND AROUND THE WORLD. major international events. DOMESTIC TERRORISM. resorts. and chemicals). tear gas. Terrorists look for visible targets where they can avoid detection before or after an attack such as international airports. arson. Other possibilities include attacks at transportation facilities. Most terrorist incidents in the United States have been bombing attacks. Now. and to get immediate publicity for their causes. to try to convince citizens that their government is powerless to prevent terrorism. kidnappings. large cities. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF INTERNATIONAL VS. involving detonated and un-detonated explosive devices. D-31 .WHAT IS TERRORISM? L57 Terrorism is the use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of the criminal laws of the United States for purposes of intimidation. shootings. OVERVIEW: INSTRUCTOR WILL REVIEW AND DISCUSS THE DIFFERENT TYPES TERRORISM IN THE U. biological agents. Most terrorist incidents involve small extremist groups who use terrorism to achieve a designated objective. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. hijackings. or attacks against utilities or other public services. Terrorists often choose targets that offer little danger to themselves and are located in areas with relatively easy public access. and high-profile landmarks. coercion or ransom.

can cause the people to resent government imposed restrictions on freedom. Al-Qaida. • Sub-revolutionary: To influence the government against its will to change certain political. You may be surprised to learn that terrorists can be anyone--even your next door neighbor! Nowadays. the civilian population or any segment thereof in furtherance of political or social objective. is on the list. • To destroy facilities or disrupt lines of communication and transportation. To force an overreaction by the government which in turn. Listed below are the goals and ideals that drive most terrorist groups.L57 WHAT IS TERRORISM? TERRORISM: WHAT? WHO? WHY? WHERE? HOW? WHAT IS IT? Terrorism is the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government. Fortunately for us. But the government remains vigilant to all types of groups and individuals throughout the world . • To harass. • To free prisoners. Ideologies: Ideology is defined as a collection of beliefs or values of an individual. Long Range Goals of Terrorism: • Revolutionary: To force the complete overthrow of an existing government.S. WHY THEY DO WHAT THEY DO? There are a wide range of terrorist organizations in the world. • Establishment: Terrorism used by a government against its own people to protect its control of the country. which bin Laden operates from his sanctuary in Afghanistan. driven by a variety of causes and beliefs. Most of the focus has been on the Middle Eastern groups because of there consistent activity. • To influence government decisions. the U. weaken or embarrass government security forces. • To turn the tide in an ongoing guerrilla war The Ku Klux Klan: a domestic terrorist • • D-32 . social or economic aspects of the country. —FBI DEFINITION WHO ARE TERRORISTS? What do you think of when you hear the word terrorist? These days most people think of someone of Middle Eastern descent with a turban and a beard. It is the ideology that binds the terrorist group together and provides the group justification of the use of violence to achieve its objectives. group or culture. Examples of ideologies include political. • To revenge. • To obtain money or equipment. religious and special interest. Among the Palestinian groups listed are the Hamas and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. it is very hard to distinguish who a terrorist might be. Government and other nations have compiled a list of terrorist individuals and groups. Intermediate Goals of Terrorism To obtain worldwide or local recognition of its cause.

predicting when and how such an attack might occur is not possible. Chemical terrorism might range from dissemination of aerosolized anthrax spores to food product contamination. many terrorist groups are finding new and creative ways to advance their agendas. in such place as the Middle East. Biological Terrorism: the use or threatened use of biological or biological-related toxins against civilians.S. supposedly in defense of unborn babies.WHERE DOES TERRORISM HAPPEN? Terrorism has no boundaries. An example of cyber-terrorism could be hacking into a hospital computer system and changing someone's medicine prescription to a lethal dosage as an act of revenge.S. Theodore Kaczynski. Africa. An Example of an international terrorist is The Party of God. government also works with other countries to limit the sources of support for terrorism. a radical and well-known group from Lebanon. motivated by disagreement with U. • • For example. illness or death. Until recently most have occurred outside the U. Most terrorist incidents in the United States have been bombing attacks. or the Hizballah. with the objective of causing fear. and was later captured as a direct result of that publication. waning infrastructure or religious conflict. the Hizballah seeks an Islamic republic in Lebanon that would bar all non-Islamic people. intimidate and coerce governments or populations. A devout Islamic organization founded by Ayatollah Mahmud Gaffari. is a good example. radical pro-life groups have bombed numerous abortion clinics and assassinated abortion doctors. There are also individual terrorists acting on their own. also known as the Unabomber. illness. Chemical Terrorism: The use of chemical weapons against civilians with the objective of causing fear. Nuclear Terrorism: The use of nuclear weapons against a territory with the objective to destroy a population.S Government laws or policy. DOMESTIC TERRRORISM Domestic terrorism involves groups or individuals whose terrorist activities are directed at elements of our government or population without foreign direction. L57 INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM International terrorism involves groups or individuals whose terrorist activities are foreignbased and/or directed by countries or groups outside the United States or whose activities transcend national boundaries. He used terrorism to coerce the New York Times and the Washington Post to publish his manifesto. One way government attempts to reduce our vulnerability to terrorist incidents is by increasing security at airports and other public facilities. Listed below are some more recent methods that terrorist have used to threaten. Attacks can happen anywhere at anytime. or death. The U. Most attacks have occurred in countries with a history of political instability. and Columbia. territorial disputes. Cyber-Terrorism: the use of computing resources to intimidate or coerce others. D-33 . TERRORISM TACTICS FOR A NEW AGE As the access to Technology gets easier.

431–c. prime ministers. expropriation of property. Puerto Rican nationalist group (FALN) claimed responsibility and police tied 13 other bombings to it. but the crime was never solved. 1993. Jan. 16. They claimed to be retaliating against U. 5. the second plane crashed into the south tower. 168 persons were killed.040 others. leading to the period of his political dominance called the Reign of Terror (1793–94). They believed that the best way to effect revolutionary political and social change was to assassinate persons in positions of power. 24. Over 220 buildings sustained damage. and the United States. Roman emperors such as Tiberius (reigned AD 14–37) and Caligula (reigned AD 37–41) used banishment. Bolshevist or anarchist terrorists believed responsible. collapsing wall and floors. * Ask cadets if they can name any other acts that they are aware of during their lifetime. and execution to punish what it viewed as religious heresy. New York City: Four airplanes were hijacked by a group of 19 terrorist. The ancient Greek historian Xenophon (c. Oklahoma City: car bomb exploded outside federal office building. killing 35 persons and injuring hundreds more. TX. 4. From 1865 to 1905 a number of kings. Both WTC Towers were destroyed and over 5000 people were killed or are still listed as missing. terrorism was adopted by adherents of anarchism in Western Europe. What is an ideology? What types of places do terrorists attack? . TERRORIST ATTACKS 1920. presidents. Six Middle Eastern men were later convicted in this act of vengeance for the Palestinian people.S. New York City: TNT bomb planted in unattended horse-drawn wagon exploded on Wall Street opposite House of Morgan. New York City: bomb set off in historical Fraunces Tavern killed four and injured more than 50 persons. After the American Civil War (1861–65) defiant Southerners formed a terrorist organization called the Ku Klux Klan to intimidate supporters of the Reconstruction. 2.. and execution as means to discourage opposition to their rule. 2001. and other government officials were killed by anarchists' guns or bombs. support for the Israeli government. 350 BC) wrote of the effectiveness of psychological warfare against enemy populations. including 19 children and one person who died in rescue effort. 1995. Sept. torture. D-34 3. Russia. exactly two years earlier. The Spanish Inquisition used arbitrary arrest. Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols later convicted in the antigovernment plot to avenge the Branch Davidian standoff in Waco. the third plane crashed into the Pentagon and the fourth plane crashed into a field in Somerset County . New York City: bomb exploded in basement garage of World Trade Center. What is terrorism? What is the difference between an international and a domestic terrorist? Give examples of each. killed six and injured at least 1. In the latter half of the 19th century.S. 26. Sept 11.Pennsylvania. 1975. Feb. List three immediate goals of terrorists. PREVIOUS U. April 19. 1. The use of terror was openly advocated by Robespierre as a means of encouraging revolutionary virtue during the French Revolution. The first plane crashed into the north tower of the World Trade Center.L57 WHAT IS TERRORISM? THE HISTORY OF TERRORISM Terrorism has been practiced throughout history and throughout the world.

and abroad. As in most stability and support operations. OVERVIEW: INSTRUCTOR WILL REVIEW AND DISCUSS THE NEW ROLE OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES AS THEY BATTLE AGAINST TERRORISM ON U. Deciding what to do about it. are now the chief preoccupations of elected officials and the American public. Explain to cadets the urgency of counter-terrorism. the curtain came up on a troubling new world.S.COUNTER TERRORISM: AMERICA FIGHTS BACK L58 On September 11. In anti-terrorism. neutralization in this context means rendering the source the threat benign. In one awful day. Since then. and how to regain a measure of our national security. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF WHAT TERRORISM IS AND WHAT COUNTER-TERRORISM TACTICS AND TOOLS LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES USE TO COMBAT HOMELAND TERRORISM. the objective can be further refined as preventing attacks and minimizing the effects if one should occur. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. What can we do? The general objective of anti-terrorism programs is neutralizing terrorist groups.S. D-35 . SOIL. This includes any actions made to weaken the terrorist organization—including its political power—and those actions made to secure potential targets. not necessarily killing the terrorists. the nation’s self-confident mood and its public agenda were both turned on their heads. A threat that had been waiting in the wings moved to center stage. Now. terrorism has been public issue #1. filled with danger. Explain the new role that law enforcement has taken on in order to help combat terrorism in the U.

Technological counter-terrorism – the use of technology to root out terrorist and their plans for violence D-36 . In this lesson. U. and require assistance. Check out these web sites to get more information on how we are fighting terrorism in America: The New Department of Homeland Security: www. Listed below are a variety of methods law enforcement agencies use to combat terrorism.html WHAT ACTIONS WE ARE TAKING TO FIGHT TERRORISM. the 1995 bombing of the Federal building in Oklahoma City and the destruction of TWA Flight 800 have all brought a sense of national urgency to the threat of terrorism in America. Counterterrorism Policy America has a firm policy in dealing with terrorist organizations or individuals.gov http://www. The United States has been forced to take serious measures in order to reduce its vulnerability to attack. we will discuss American policy toward terrorists and the steps taken to fight terrorists at home and abroad. Can you give an example of each? • • • • • Counter-terrorist intelligence – worldwide.nifi.S. Cut off and apply pressure on states that sponsor terrorism to force them to change their behavior.gov or www. Bring terrorists to justice for their crimes.org/terrorism. cooperative efforts of law enforcement and military to root out and stop terrorism Economic counter-terrorism – cut off money supply to potential terrorists Political counter-terrorism – make it clear that the terrorists will make political gains through their actions Offensive counter-terrorism –create elite international counterterrorism units to actively pursue and stop terrorists.L58 COUNTER TERRORISM: AMERICA FIGHTS BACK The September 11th terrorist attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.S. the1993 bombing of the World Trade Center.ready. Strengthen the counterterrorism capabilities of those countries that work with the U. Discuss the importance of each of the following policy guidelines: A NEW PRIORITY • • • • Make no concessions to terrorists and strike no deals.dhs.

” A similar view was offered by Robbie Friedmann. attacking the bases where they train. L58 HOW YOU CAN HELP Experts in the field have commented that the problem of stopping terrorism is difficult because America is an open society with a large and diverse population. Jeff Beatty. Authorities have sought help from the general public by using toll-free telephone hot line numbers and the Internet in their efforts to gather useful information. a terrorism expert who worked on security planning for the Olympic Games in Los Angeles in 1984 and Barcelona in 1992.S Government has put in place to fight terrorism... another Olympic security consultant. intelligence and counterintelligence cooperation... It will take a combination of law enforcement efforts. Hints: Airport security National Guard Coast Guard No Fly Zones Discuss: Do you think America can defeat terrorism? How? And how long will it take? * Suggested Answer: Defeating terrorism will require a long-term effort. who stated: “The community should be called on to help law enforcement do their job. and undermining the governments that support and assist terrorists. There are more of them than security personnel.. Citizens need to chip in with additional eyes and ears to report suspicious activity. years in fact.Ask cadets if they can list other types of counter-terrorism tactics that the U. It’s common sense.. has observed: “In the counter-terrorism business. ending the financial network that supports terrorists. On the other hand. it is possible that tips from an attentive public can help authorities by alerting them to potential threats. the key is stopping an attack before to occurs.” * Ask cadets to come up with ideas of how they can help. The key is stopping an attack before it occurs D-37 . Terrorists build practice bombs and conduct rehearsal activity that may be suspicious.

S. 2.L58 COUNTER TERRORISM: AMERICA FIGHTS BACK THE LAND OF THE FREE For centuries. which are legal permits issued by the government allowing foreigners to visit the U. others see a different side of the story. prosperity. New policies and attitudes will discourage people from coming in and that means that foreign money and foreign students will be extracted from our nation’s environment. at least 9 were in the country on valid tourist or student visas. have altered our immigration policies and closed our open arms.S. Many of the brightest students abroad work hard to be accepted by American schools. namely the events of and around September 11th. For decades. What is the current U. How the others entered the U. Three others had entered the country legally but then stayed beyond their visas' expiration. and often help to raise the standards of American learning institutions. the United States has been the first place international students want to go to study. and freedom from less accepting governments and conditions. • • Consider individuals in your school or community who have come here from another country. what would you do to remedy this issue? • • • 1. is still unknown by state officials and indicates. America has let them in. What events have led up to the development of new antiterrorism actions? What is Political Counter-Terrorism? Give an example. 3. for the most part. people from all over the world have flocked to the melting pot of America in search of opportunity. And. allowing itself to become more culturally diverse and less exclusive. along with many other mishaps. But recent attacks on our soil.S. What would America be like if it closed its doors to outsiders? Do you think that excluding outsiders would put an end to terrorism? If you were in a position of governmental power. government is trying to strike a delicate balance between maintaining the diversity of the United States and ensuring the security of a country devastated by terrorism.S. for travel or study. How do they enhance your education and environment? The U. 4. a faulty immigration system. While some Americans believe it is currently in our best interest to enforce laws that will keep potential immigrants out of the country. D-38 . policy in dealing with terrorists? Give an example of Technological Counter-Terrorism. Of the 19 hijackers held responsible for the terrorist attacks.

ready. THEY WILL LEARN HOW TO BEST BEHAVE BEFORE AND AFTER AN ATTACK.html there are important differences among potential terrorist threats that will impact the decisions you make and the actions you take. there are simple things you can do now to prepare yourself and your loved ones. All Americans should begin the process of learning about potential threats so that we are more prepared to react during an attack. While there is no way to predict what will happen. you can be better prepared for the unexpected. DISTRIBUTE CADET HANDOUTS AND CONCLUDE WITH A DISCUSSION CONCERNING THE EMOTIONS AND EFFECTS OF LIVING THROUGH AN ATTACK. but we can still prepare. Whenever possible. Now. too. have no idea as to what will be next. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL LEARN TO UNDERSTAND THE BENEFITS OF BEING PREPARED AND AWARE PRIOR A TERRORITST ATTACK. We. are the same for both a natural or man-made emergency. we want to stop terrorist attacks before they happen. Some of the things you can do to prepare for the unexpected. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS PREPARATION FOR A FUTURE TERRORIST ATTACK.WHAT YOU CAN DO IN THE WAR ON TERRORISM L59 The people inside of the Twin Towers on September 11th had no idea what was about to hit them. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. D-39 . However.gov/overview. as you will see throughout the pages of http://www. With a little planning and common sense. or what your personal circumstances will be. such as assembling a supply kit and developing a family communication plan.

disrupts people’s personal and daily business routine. the better able we are to deal with an emergency when and wherever it arises. The physical and psychological trauma runs the gamut from emotional outbursts. your views about who is right and who is wrong will not provide any protection for your family members and pets in a terrorist attack. always bring your pets with you Every family member should learn how and when to turn off your water. do not attempt to do this yourself) Be familiar with all aspects of your human and pet emergency kits and practice giving first aid to your family members and your pets Talk things over openly with your family If there are elderly or disabled people in your neighbourhood. the only way to handle such adversity is to be prepared for it to whatever degree is humanly practical. gas and electricity including the location of the shut off valves and switches and keep the necessary tools next to them (if you do turn off your gas. The more we can feel confident about protecting our loved ones and pets. This is the world we live in now and whether we like it or not. disrupts the economy and creates a very real climate of fear that more attacks will follow. please include them as a part of your community and/or family emergency plan • • • • • • • • • • D-40 . a professional must turn it back on. It causes great uncertainty.L59 WHAT YOU CAN DO IN THE WAR ON TERRORISM WHAT YOU CAN DO TO FIGHT TERRORISM While we agree that the root causes of terrorism need to be addressed. we had better get used to it. There are a number of simple things to you can do to fight terrorism: DEALING WITH A STATE OF EMERGENCY • A terrorist attack is intended to inflict suffering and maximum psychological damage. The best and indeed. you need to be able to plan ahead to decide whether or not you should stay in your home or leave If you have to leave. Prepare a family emergency plan and be familiar with the various emergency situations and their associated dangers and responses Conduct emergency drills with all the members of your family Depending on the nature and severity of the attack. stress and fear to loss of appetite and may trigger asthma or heart attacks.

find out if there is CERT in your community. Volunteers in Police Service Community Emergency Response Teams. The Community Emergency Response Teams (CERT) are overseen by FEMA. These special teams are trained to help out. be sure your family is prepared. and the Medical Reserve Corps.citizencorps. This is where CERT comes in. President Bush created Citizen Corps and encouraged all Americans to volunteer their time to help others. help with evacuations and other duties that are very important in an emergency. Even youngsters can learn basic first aid or help with providing information to a community. will be very busy. go to www.gov CONCLUSIONS • All of the steps you take to protect those you love can be used in the • • • • • • event of a terrorist attack. Then talk to your teacher about school preparedness. natural or manmade disaster Be prepared Hope for the best. emergency responders such as firefighters. The bottom line is this: Get Involved! To find out more about Citizen Corps and CERT. 2001. How does this work? There are four Citizen Corps programs: • • • • Neighborhood Watch. WHAT CAN YOU DO? First off. 11. What does that mean? In a large emergency. These very special teams are trained to help first responders in an emergency. Then. many Americans asked what they could do to make their communities safer. plan for the worst Be alert Do your part in the fight against terrorism Be as self sufficient as humanly possible Follow the advice and directions of health care professional and emergency services personnel D-41 . CITIZENS CORPS After the terrorist attacks on Sept. friend or relative Take your personal emergency kit and your pet emergency kit and lock the door of your home behind you. They can do basic first aid. They will not be able to help all the people who might need help.L59 • • Make certain that in the event of a terrorist attack that each member of the family knows where they should meet up at the earliest and safest possible opportunity and that each person has a complete of phone numbers for each family member. People really wanted to volunteer and to work together with their neighbors.

You may feel one or all of these symptoms: • • • • • • • • Recurring thoughts of the incident Becoming afraid of everything. Do things that you find relaxing and soothing. COPING WITH THE TRAUMA Identify the feelings that you may be experiencing. Know the actions our government is taking to combat terrorism and restore safety and security. Avoid excessive drinking and risktaking activities. 4. Continue to do the things in your life that you enjoy. friend. By talking with others. encourage them to discuss their concerns and feelings with you. As soon as it feels comfortable."Why did I survive? I should have done something more. Do something positive that will help you gain a greater sense of control (for example. WHAT YOU CAN DO • Talk about it. you will relieve stress and realize that other people share your feelings. Remember that you have overcome adversity and trauma in the past. no longer maintaining daily routines Survivor’s guilt -. Understand that your feelings are a normal reaction to an abnormal situation. ask for help. not leaving the house. 1." Tremendous sense of loss Reluctance to express your feelings. Not expressing your feelings will keep you from being able to work through what happened. Get plenty of rest and exercise. If you feel overwhelmed by the disaster. or isolating yourself Stopping usual functioning. Workplaces may convene small groups with an EAP counselor or other mental health counselor so people can share their feelings. Talk with a trusted relative. prepare for and respond to terrorist attacks. It’s not a sign of weakness. Think positively. Try to remember what you did that helped you overcome the fear and helplessness in that situation. Realize that things will get better. D-42 What preparations can you make to prepare for a future terrorist attack? How might you feel after being involved in an attack? What is Survivor’s Guilt? What you should do after being in an attack? How can you help yourself to gain back a sense of control in your life? . Spend time with your family. or clergy member. take a first aid class or donate food or clothing). Don’t get preoccupied with the things you cannot control to the extent that they prevent you from living your normal life.L59 WHAT YOU CAN DO IN THE WAR ON TERRORISM WHAT YOU MAY EXPERIENCE FOLLOWING A TERRORIST ATTACK People who have experienced or witnessed a terrorist attack may go into a state of acute stress in reaction. Recall other times when you have experienced strong emotions and how they were resolved. go back to your usual routine. Limit exposure to media coverage. Recognize that trained officials throughout the country are mobilized to prevent. social worker. 2. Make efforts to maintain your usual routine. losing a sense of control over your life • Recognize that the nature of terrorist attacks creates fear and uncertainty about the future. give blood. 3. It’s okay to ask for help. 5. If you have any children. • • • • • • • • • • • Talk to others about your fears. Remember to eat. Be realistic about the time it takes to feel better.

No buts about it: the work is demanding. Austin. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND EXPLAIN THE PROCESS OF BECOMING A POLICE OFFICER. D-43 .even if that means working holidays and weekends. Officer Beverly Freshour and Lamar Middle School Cadets. dangerous and stressful. Many law enforcement officials deal first hand with death and suffering which can really wear down one’s state of mind. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL GAIN A DEEPER APPRECIATION FOR THE DUTIES A POLICE OFFICER PERFORMS AND BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE QUALITIES REQUIRED FOR A SUCCESSFUL PROFESSIONAL CAREER.. Texas Now. have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit. It takes a strong will to deal with the long hours. In addition to the obvious dangers of confrontations with criminals. difficult emotional situations.. CONCLUDE WITH A GUEST SPEAKER DISCUSSING HIS OR HER EXPERIENCES AS A LAW ENFORCER. and the general stress of being a police officer. Still sound like fun? The reward at the end of the day is the knowledge that the work officers do helps to keep our nation’s cities and homes safe.DO YOU HAVE WHAT IT TAKES? L60 If all the oh-so glamorous responsibilities covered in the last unit sounded interesting. officers are on constant alert for any number of threatening situations. officers are expected to be armed and exercise their authority even when they’re offduty. In most jurisdictions. you might be wondering if you have what it takes to be a police officer. OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE DEMANDS OF A CAREER IN LAW ENFORCEMENT.

Houston Police Department A SENSE OF HUMOR A sense of humor may seem like an unlikely choice but ask any law enforcement officer and they’ll tell you that it is essential for dealing with the absurdities and tragedies that dominate a law enforcer’s career. TX. This job is a tough job. This is the story of the “Good Guys” -. Hanford. COMPASSION “To be a great police officer. is your best hope for making it all the way to retirement. and you've got to have your priorities in order. Austin. While they don’t wear white hats like the “Good Guys” of popular legend. Compassion is absolutely essential. you will learn qualities that elevate the exceptional cop to the status of “One of the Good Guys”. If you don't have good people skills.” Officer Jim Adams.. “A sense of humor is essential to coping with the realities of a law enforcement career. to make a real difference in the lives of people in their community. and maintaining a strong religious faith keep your life in balance. Hanford Police Dept.. Staha added that along with humor. police officers do their fair share of riding to the rescue and rounding up the “Bad Guys. learning to leave the stresses of police work at the office. D-44 . The majority of the people you come in contact with are calling for help and have been victimized somehow. The last thing those people want or need is some cop who is acting like he’s just going through the motion and not caring about them. so there are some bad cops out there. Learning to cope. you cannot interact with the community and serve their needs. you have to care about people.” Det. On the pages that follow. he or she must be willing to do everything he can do to help them. Along the way take stock of yourself. decently and without rancor. CA “One of the most important skills law enforcement officers need is people skills.L60 DO YOU HAVE WHAT IT TAKES? THE “GOOD GUYS” OK. Det.” For most police officers it’s the role of a lifetime --to perform heroic deeds. Austin Police Dept. But this is not about those guys. find out if you are on the right track to becoming a “Good Guy” whether you wear a badge or not. You have to want to help people. Compassion is often an underrated quality. Howard Staha.” Officer Mitchell Garcia.the overwhelming majority of the men and women who wear a badge.

CA L60 INTEGRITY A thief believes that everybody steals. Peoples’ lives are in your hands in certain situations. usually beyond your years. Herkimer Police Department. A lot of times we get kids right out of college and they lack maturity and will make childish mistakes. TX “You have to think in terms of the enormous authority that the police officer has. and there’s no on/off switch. As a police officer.. And it does not necessarily depend on age. A mental maturity is important. Maturity is absolutely essential. In our local Junior Police Academy.” Officer Mitchell Garcia. That requires maturity. Hanford Police Dept.you’ve either got it or you don’t. you can fall off that thin line and go astray. You’re carrying a gun. There are so many things that can happen. Houston.MATURITY “Maturity is important. many times under stressful situations. “I think integrity is important with this job. You have power to do things to people.” Officer Jim Adams.” Captain Tom Long. An honest person knows that is not true. this is your core value: integrity. Houston Police Dept. we teach that integrity is not something you have a little bit of -. Herkimer.. If you lack integrity. Hanford. NY D-45 . Every day in this job you will be required to conduct yourself in a professional way. I find that when integrity is the top priority all the other character traits fall into place.

anything goes. What are two traits an officer must have? Why does an officer need a sense of humor? What is integrity? What kinds of exams must a potential officer pass? Are you ready for the challenge of law enforcement? D-46 . your work and educational history. You can buy prep books for the exams. 5. and a sense of responsibility are especially important in law enforcement. usually at least 20 years of age. where the majority of law enforcement jobs are found. AN INFORMAL GUIDE TO BECOMING A POLICE OFFICER THE CALL Here's how it usually works. or given a personality test. reading comprehension. candidates are interviewed by a psychiatrist or a psychologist. 2. judgment. THE DOCTOR AND THE POLYGRAPH The doctor's physical is next. drug use. strength. THE EXAM Next comes the written exam.S. while hundreds of small communities employ fewer than 25 officers each. integrity. hearing. including a physical fitness test and then a polygraph. THE PANEL INTERVIEW The applicant coordinator and a few others will spend a couple of hours asking you just about anything. finances. It is an informal screening interview. Personal characteristics such as honesty. You send that in and then get called for an initial interview. Candidates are interviewed by senior officers. the test covers basic skills: math. legal problems. old roommates. next comes the very thick background questionnaire. They are about twenty pages long and ask for all kinds of personal information on you and your family. and agility. typically concerns your work experience and education. In larger departments. You call up an agency's personnel department and ask for them to send you an application. TIPS Internships. Physical examinations for entrance into law enforcement often include tests of vision.L60 DO YOU HAVE WHAT IT TAKES? Police and detectives held about 727. BACKGROUND CHECK If you pass the written exam. 3. Federal and State agencies typically require a college degree. 4. Eligibility for appointment generally depends on performance in competitive written examinations and previous education and experience. are a great way to get a foot in the door and make some contacts. THE INFORMAL INTERVIEW This is done one on one with the applicant coordinator. Higher education and/or work experience are also very helpful. Support positions are also great. Multiple choice and very much like the SATs.000 inhabitants. citizens. DO YOU HAVE THE RIGHT STUFF? Candidates must be U. In some agencies. About 81% of police detectives and investigators were employed by local governments. applicants must have at least a high school education. logical thought.000 jobs in 1998. and must meet rigorous physical and personal qualifications. Some cities have very large police forces. and their character traits and backgrounds are investigated. primarily in cities with more than 25. This first application is a page or two and 1. if you are in school.

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