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Chapter 2 Managing Work Flows and Conducting Job Analysis

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS 1. To compete and use its material and human resources effectively, an organization needs a proper fit between its business strategy and the appropriate: a) business plan. b) HRIS system. c) management team. d) quality-of-work life program. e) organizational structure. Answer: e E--Recall Page: 48

2. The choice of a prospector strategy for a business would be most appropriate when: a) the company is operating in an uncertain business environment. b) the business environment is relatively stable. c) its products are at the maturity stage in their life cycle. d) it has a functional structure. e) its management practices top-down decision making. Answer: a M--Integration Page: 49

3. Cheap Shoes manufactures a line of inexpensive shoes. It chooses to use a defender strategy, which means the most effective structure for them would be: a) decentralized decision making. b) maximizing autonomy among divisions. c) setting up a functional structure based on a division of labor. d) utilizing self-managing work teams. e) establishing a flat structure. Answer: c E--Application Page: 49

4. A company with a prospector strategy would most likely: a) have a bureaucratic organizational structure. b) have decentralized control, giving employees more responsibility. c) use a vertical information system. d) implement decisions from the top down. e) use hierarchy to resolve conflict. Answer: b E--Recall Page: 49

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Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management

5. A firm can choose any one of a number of organizational structures. A company with a defender strategy would be best served by a: a) flat organizational design. b) boundaryless organizational design. c) bounded organizational design. d) bureaucratic organizational design. e) generic organizational design. Answer: d E--Recall Page: 49

6. Alyssa is reading a job description for an interesting retail position. The job description is very specific, telling her exactly what department of the store she would be responsible for and what her duties would be. The ad features good opportunities for advancement within the retail area—she could become the managing retail director for her department. However, she would not be able to move into finance or production. This is an example of which organizational strategy? a) Top-down management. b) Work specialization. c) A prospector strategy. d) Centralization. e) Pyramid-building. Answer: b E--Application Page: 49

7. Bureaucratic organizational structures are marked by: a) narrow job descriptions and sharp vertical and horizontal boundaries. b) division of labor around products, services, or customers. c) high employee involvement in decision making. d) decentralized management. e) a strong emphasis on teams and relationships with customers. Answer: a M--Recall Page: 50

8. Maryland Times News is a publishing company that has a functional division of labor, work specialization, and a pyramid of authority. MTN has a: a) bureaucratic organizational structure. b) flat organizational structure. c) boundaryless organizational structure. d) team-based organizational structure. e) work flow organizational structure. Answer: a M--Application Page: 50

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Chapter 2 – Managing Work Flows and Conducting Job Analysis

9. One organizational structure that lends itself to the formation of joint ventures and strategic alliances is a: a) bureaucratic structure. b) flat structure. c) generic structure. d) boundaryless structure. e) two-factor structure. Answer: d E--Recall Page: 50

10. Courtland Corporation recently reduced its number of management levels and decentralized its entire managerial approach. Prior to this, the corporation maintained a pyramid-shaped management structure and was based on a functional division of labor. Courtland evolved from a(n)_______ organization to a(n)_______ organization. a) prospector / defender b) boundaryless / bureaucratic c) bureaucratic / boundaryless d) bureaucratic / flat e) defender / boundaryless Answer: d M--Recall Page: 50

11. Which of the following is characteristic of a boundaryless organization? a) Many levels of management. b) Top-down management approach. c) Emphasis on teams whose members may cross organizational boundaries. d) Rigid work specialization. e) Hierarchical career paths may exist within one function. Answer: c E--Recall Page: 50

12. Which of the following would be the best environment in which to implement a flat organizational structure? a) A joint venture. b) An environment based on a functional division of labor. c) A strong, centralized management environment. d) A stable, pyramid-shaped management environment. e) A rapidly changing environment. Answer: e M--Recall Page: 51

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Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management

13. A company might adopt a boundaryless organizational structure because: a) it seeks to structure its organization around functions. b) management wants to enter foreign markets that have entry barriers to foreign competitors. c) it is moving into a stable and predictable market. d) it seeks to reorganize around its products, services, or customers. e) it has adopted the two-factor theory of management. Answer: b C--Integration Page: 52

14. Your boss asks you to look at the input, processing, and output of a work process and evaluate its effectiveness. She has asked you to conduct a: a) job analysis. b) task significance study. c) process reengineering study. d) work flow analysis. e) work simplification study. Answer: d M--Application Page: 52

15. Managers use work flow analysis in order to: a) recombine a specialized task into one more complex and satisfying job. b) simplify jobs by breaking them into individual component tasks. c) understand the overall environment in which a job operates. d) analyze the various dimensions of a job. e) understand the tasks involved in a specific job. Answer: c M--Integration Page: 52

16. A company is involved in business process reengineering when it is: a) examining how work creates or adds value to the ongoing business processes. b) fundamentally rethinking and redesigning its work processes to dramatically reduce costs, improve quality, etc. c) reviewing the skill variety, task identity, meaningfulness, responsibility, etc., of specific jobs. d) systematically gathering and organizing information concerning jobs, work expectations, tasks, duties, and responsibilities. e) implementing an HRIS system. Answer: b C--Integration Page: 53

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Chapter 2 – Managing Work Flows and Conducting Job Analysis

17. Reengineering is a fundamental rethinking of a business: a) that has not become a popular way to become competitive in the United States. b) that has not yet become well known in Europe. c) that involves extensive work simplification and work flexibility efforts. d) that is being used by less than 10% of businesses in the United States. e) but its critics point out that over half of the efforts fail to meet their objectives. Answer: e M--Recall Page: 53

18. Greenbelt Corporation, during the course of its business process reengineering, is examining how the work performed there is adding value to the functioning of the business. What is probably the purpose for this? a) To increase total quality management. b) To create clearer job descriptions. c) To analyze the business’ efficiency in performing work flow analysis. d) To identify jobs that can be eliminated or combined. e) To determine whether a switch to a boundaryless organization would be profitable. Answer: d C--Application Page: 53

19. Business process reengineering is: a) occurring more in Europe than in the United States. b) occurring more in the United States than in Europe. c) 75% successful in meeting objectives. d) determining whether a company should change organizational structure. e) a way to create more layers of management in small businesses. Answer: a M--Recall Page: 53

20. The type of work team having the most impact on U.S. companies is the: a) project team. b) quality circle. c) self-managed team. d) contingency team. e) task team. Answer: c E--Recall Page: 54

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Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management

21. A work group differs from a team in what way? a) In a team, everyone is equal. In a work group, some members have more power than others. b) A work group depends on an outside supervisor for direction, while a team selfdirects. c) A work group self-directs, while a team depends on an outside supervisor for direction. d) A work group is significantly larger than a team. e) A team tends to have better rapport between members than a work group. Answer: b M--Recall Page: 54

22. A self-managed team: a) is a small group of people with complementary skills who come together for a specific project. b) depends on a supervisor for direction, cross-trains on skills and equipment, and tends to be long term in duration. c) comes together for a few hours a week to solve problems they’ve found in work processes. d) crosses functional or organizational boundaries to examine complex issues. e) tends to focus on quality and productivity issues and handles issues related to work management. Answer: e C--Integration Page: 54

23. Which of the following is NOT an example of a typical SMT member responsibility? a) Scheduling work. b) Performing performance evaluations. c) Disciplining team members. d) Terminating a team member’s employment. e) Ordering work materials for the team. Answer: d M--Recall Page: 54

24. When a company uses self-managed work teams, the teams may: a) assume responsibility for strategic planning. b) assume many managerial duties. c) take responsibility for formulating company policies. d) set salary and benefits for teams. e) eliminate the need for an HRM department by assuming its responsibilities at the team level. Answer: b C--Integration Page: 54

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Chapter 2 – Managing Work Flows and Conducting Job Analysis

25. Implementing self-managed work teams changes many HRM practices, including: a) work flow analyses. b) problem solving. c) organizational designs. d) job enrichment and job rotations. e) performance appraisals. Answer: e E--Recall Page: 54

26. To work well, self-managed teams require training in three areas, including: a) technical skills. b) job analysis. c) work flow analysis. d) HRIS. e) motivation. Answer: a E--Recall Page: 55

27. The Lynn Mercer company has what kind of organizational structure? a) boundaryless. b) bureaucratic. c) flat. d) pyramid-shaped management. e) b and d Answer: c M--Integration Page: 55

28. Your organization is trying to decide if it should implement TQM. Management assembles a team to study the issue. The team will disband once the study is complete. The best type of team to use would be: a) a work group. b) a self-managed team. c) a problem-solving team. d) a special project team. e) a QWL team. Answer: c M--Application Page: 55

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Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management

29. A quality-of-work-life program is an example of using: a) self-managed work teams. b) problem-solving teams. c) quality circles. d) special-purpose teams. e) task teams. Answer: d E--Recall Page: 55

30. What type of team would work best in a situation where you expect only a part-time commitment from each member, where each member will work in a different city or state, but where rapid communication will be important? a) A virtual team. b) A problem-solving team. c) A special-purpose team. d) A self-managing all-purpose team. e) Any of the above Answer: a M--Application Page: 56

31. Shamekwa believes that employees are motivated by their work, sense of achievement, responsibilities, and advancement opportunities. Shamekwa’s thinking is most compatible with the: a) work adjustment theory. b) goal-setting theory. c) job characteristics theory. d) two-factor theory. e) job design theory. Answer: d M--Application Page: 57

32. According to Frederick Herzberg’s two-factor theory, employee job satisfaction can be explained in terms of: a) salary. b) benefits. c) the work itself. d) relationships. e) job security. Answer: c E--Recall Page: 57

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Chapter 2 – Managing Work Flows and Conducting Job Analysis

33. The factors that affect employee dissatisfaction in Herzberg's theory include: a) the work itself. b) recognition for good work. c) the amount of responsibility on the job. d) company policies. e) the opportunity for advancement. Answer: d M--Recall Page: 57

34. In Herzberg’s theory of motivation, hygiene factors are those factors that: a) are critical to the motivation of the employee. b) affect employee job satisfaction. c) lead to employee advancement. d) define the job the employee has to do. e) permit an employee to set his/her own goals on the job. Answer: b C--Integration Page: 57

35. Which of the following is a motivator, according to Herzberg? a) Salary. b) Relationships within the company. c) A positive working atmosphere. d) Receiving recognition. e) Employee benefits. Answer: d E--Recall Page: 57

36. According to the Two-Factor Theory, which of the following would be best for motivating and satisfying employees? a) recognition and responsibility. b) a greater number of hygiene factors than motivators. c) job security and salary. d) employee benefits and achievement. e) job security and recognition. Answer: a C--Integration Page: 57

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Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management

37. The work adjustment theory of motivation suggests that employee satisfaction and motivation are functions of: a) company policies and the relationships formed with co-workers. b) clear, direct goals over which the employee has control. c) the opportunity for advancement. d) the fit between the individual’s needs and abilities and the job characteristics. e) the core job characteristics. Answer: d M--Integration Page: 57

38. Work adjustment theory proposes that one worker may find a job satisfying and motivating, while another finds it to be dissatisfying and boring if: a) there are too few motivators. b) the goals are not specific and challenging. c) there are not enough hygiene factors. d) the three critical states are met differently for each of them. e) the workers’ needs and abilities are different and so they fit differently in the work environment. Answer: e M--Integration Page: 57

39. Work adjustment theory has a number of important implications for the management of people, such as: a) not all employees may want to be involved in decision making. b) employees will be motivated when they have clear goals. c) difficult but attainable goals are more motivating than easy goals. d) employees who receive regular feedback on their progress are more motivated than employees who do not. e) designing jobs to have skill variety and task significance make them more meaningful. Answer: a M--Integration Page: 58

40. Goal-setting theory of motivation suggests that employee satisfaction and motivation are functions of: a) company policies and the relationships formed with co-workers. b) clear, direct goals over which the employee has control. c) the opportunity for advancement. d) the fit between the individual’s needs and abilities and the job characteristics. e) the core characteristics of the job. Answer: b C--Integration Page: 58

41. Your organization has recently implemented a goal-setting theory. Which of the following do you suggest to best motivate and encourage employees to meet these goals? a) setting broad and ambiguous goals. b) discouraging employee input in the creation of the goals. 46

Chapter 2 – Managing Work Flows and Conducting Job Analysis

that goals be relatively easy to attain to boost the employees’ confidence. d) that goals be specific and challenging. e) that employees receive limited feedback regarding their progress toward the goals so as not to cause unnecessary anxiety.
c)

Answer: d

M--Application

Page: 58

42. Job characteristics are central to employee satisfaction and motivation according to the: a) job characteristics theory. b) two-factor theory. c) work adjustment theory. d) goal-setting theory. e) none of the above Answer: a M--Recall Page: 58

43. The three psychological states central to the job characteristics theory include: a) meaningfulness of the job. b) control of job outcomes. c) task significance. d) working conditions. e) task identity. Answer: a M--Recall Page: 59

44. Which of the following is a core job characteristic that activates the three psychological states, according the job characteristics theory? a) Interdependence. b) Skill variety. c) Responsibility. d) Task difficulty. e) All of the above Answer: b E--Recall Page: 59

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Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management

45. The process by which work is organized into the separate tasks required to perform a specific job is called: a) job analysis. b) job design. c) task significance. d) working conditions. e) task identity. Answer: b E--Recall Page: 59

46. Perez is examining job design within his firm. Which of the following is a critical influence that he needs to explore? a) Work simplification. b) Fit with the environment. c) Skill variety. d) Employee motivation. e) Fit with business strategy. Answer: e C--Application Page: 59-60

47.Your production lines are making a standardized product. Efficiency is critical to your production costs. The majority of production line tasks are simple and repetitive in nature. The use of ______ would be your best choice in job redesign. a) job enrichment b) job rotation c) work simplification d) flexible work designs e) self-managed teams Answer: c C--Application Page: 60

48. For employees who work on an assembly line or in other areas that require simplified and highly specialized work, which of the following job design strategies would best reduce boredom and fatigue? a) Job enrichment. b) Job simplification. c) Job rotation. d) Job enlargement. e) c and d Answer: e E--Recall Page: 60

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Chapter 2 – Managing Work Flows and Conducting Job Analysis

49. Which of the following is an example of job enrichment? a) Reducing specialized tasks by combining them, giving employees more narrowly defined tasks to perform. b) Expanding the horizontal and vertical dimensions of the job by giving the employee responsibility for the whole production. c) Dividing employees into self-managing teams, able to perform several different tasks and have complete responsibility for the entire production process. d) Giving each employee a little responsibility for the task and duties of a particular job, but additional responsibility for the outcomes. e) Matching employees to the job by examining their needs and skills and the specific job characteristics. Answer: b C--Integration Page: 60-61

50. Your relatively flat organization is moving toward a boundaryless structure. Layers of management have been reduced to a minimum. You want employees to be selfmanaging, to perform several different tasks, and to take complete responsibility for the entire production process. ______ would be your best choice as you implement a job redesign program. a) Work simplification b) Team-based job designs c) Job rotation d) Flexible work designs e) Job enrichment Answer: b C--Integration Page: 61

51. A team-based job design would work the best for a business under what circumstances? a) The business has a bureaucratic organization structure. b) The business has a flat structure where teams are expected to produce part of a product and then pass it along to another team. c) The business has a flat and boundaryless structure, and teams are expected to produce a finished product. d) The business maintains a strong defender strategy. e) The business is considering a move toward goal-setting theory. Answer: c M--Recall Page: 61

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Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management

52. The basic element of work that is a logical and necessary step to perform a job is a: a) duty. b) task. c) responsibility. d) job description. e) work flow. Answer: b E--Recall Page: 61

53. Which of the following is a term used to describe one or several duties that identify and describe the major purpose or reason for the job’s existence? a) A responsibility. b) Work. c) A position. d) A task. e) A skill. Answer: a E--Recall Page: 61

54. Zack systematically collects information about the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of each position that reports to him in order to make hiring decisions about those jobs. Zack is using _______ to improve his recruiting efforts. a) work flow analysis b) flexible work designs c) business process reengineering d) job analysis e) work study programs Answer: d M--Application Page: 61

55. Job analysis helps managers answer a number of questions, including: a) Where does the work come from? b) What managers are needed to supervise the tasks? c) From where do the workers come to perform the job? d) What performance appraisal system should be used to evaluate the job? e) All of the above Answer: a M--Integration Page: 61

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Chapter 2 – Managing Work Flows and Conducting Job Analysis

56. Cecilia is observing workers on an assembly line performing their tasks. She’s watching to see who they interact with, where the work comes from, what equipment they must use, etc. Cecilia is conducting: a) work flow analysis. b) flexible job design research. c) preparatory observation for self-managed work teams. d) job redesign. e) job analysis. Answer: e M--Application Page: 61

57. Job analysis is helpful to HR professionals in performing which of the following tasks? a) Establishing an HRIS. b) Determining what type of team to use in a given situation. c) Designing a benefit plan. d) Budgeting. e) Selecting and recruiting employees. Answer: e E--Recall Page: 63

58. HR wants to develop task-oriented job descriptions and performance appraisal forms for a series of jobs. Their best job analysis tool would be: a) a task inventory analysis. b) a guidelines-oriented job analysis. c) methods analysis. d) the critical incident technique. e) an MPDQ. Answer: a C--Integration Page: 63

59. Marquis is examining the knowledge, skills, and abilities used in performing certain tasks. His process begins with interviews of the incumbents and their managers. He then constructs and administers a survey, and finally creates a matrix by which he rates the task. Marquis is using which job analysis technique? a) Position analysis. b) Methods analysis. c) Task inventory analysis. d) Critical incident technique. e) Functional job analysis. Answer: c M--Application Page: 63

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Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management

60. If managers needed a systematic way to analyze tasks in a given situation, and wanted to use a tailored rather than a standardized questionnaire, they would use: a) position analysis. b) methods analysis. c) critical incident technique. d) task inventory analysis. e) functional job analysis. Answer: d E--Recall Page: 63-64

61. A KSA matrix should rate which of the following: a) what KSAs an employee demonstrates in a given task. b) how importantly a variety of KSAs relate to specific tasks. c) how an incumbent employee reacts in given situations. d) how well the organizational structure of the company fits with an incumbent employee. e) what methods and machines job incumbents use to perform their jobs. Answer: b M--Integration Page: 64

62. Which of the following types of job analysis focus on managerial positions? a) A position analysis questionnaire (PAQ). b) A guidelines-oriented job analysis. c) A critical incident technique. d) A hay plan. e) A functional job analysis. Answer: d
63.

E--Recall

Page: 64

The best job analysis tool of behavioral job descriptions to develop would be: a) position analysis. b) methods analysis. c) critical incident technique. d) task inventory analysis. e) functional job analysis. Answer: c C--Integration Page: 65

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Chapter 2 – Managing Work Flows and Conducting Job Analysis

64. The first step in conducting a critical incident job analysis is to: a) interview the incumbents. b) generate the dimensions to be examined. c) create and administer a questionnaire survey. d) generate a list of critical incidents. e) examine the methods used to perform the work. Answer: b M--Recall Page: 65

65. The first step to create general guidelines for conducting any job analysis is to: a) determine the uses of the job analysis. b) select the jobs to be analyzed. c) gather job-related information. d) interview the job incumbents. e) draft a preliminary job description. Answer: a
66.

E--Recall

Page: 66

A job analysis questionnaire that uses a five-point scale that is analyzed by a computer and that determines which job elements are involved in performing a specific job is called a: a) task inventory analysis. b) methods analysis. c) functional job analysis. d) positional analysis questionnaire. e) management position description questionnaire. Answer: d E--Recall Page: 66

67.

Which of the following is a section on the position analysis questionnaire? a) Mental processes. b) Work output. c) Job context. d) Relationships with other persons. e) All of the above Answer: e E--Recall Page: 66-67

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68. Which of the following aspects is NOT examined in a functional job analysis? a) The materials or services produced by the job incumbent. b) The methods the job incumbent uses to perform the job. c) The equipment and tools that a job incumbent uses. d) The motivators a job incumbent experiences. e) What the job incumbent does to people, data, and things. Answer: d M--Recall Page: 67

69. When considering the legal consequences of a job analysis, HR managers must remember that: a) the critical incident technique is the most legally defensible. b) there is generally one best technique to use in any given situation. c) the more subjective and specialized the analysis, the better. d) job analysis is a dynamic process that focuses on the future use of the job. e) job analysis should focus on the worker, not the job characteristic. Answer: e C--Integration Page: 67

70. A summary statement of the essential job duties and responsibilities of a job is called a: a) work flow analysis. b) job analysis. c) job description. d) performance appraisal. e) task identification summary. Answer: c E--Recall Page: 68

71. A _______ is a detailed summary of a job’s tasks, duties, and responsibilities associated with the work flows. It emphasizes efficiency and control. a) work flow job description b) specific job description c) general job description d) task-related job description e) none of the above Answer: b E--Recall Page: 68

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Chapter 2 – Managing Work Flows and Conducting Job Analysis

72. Which of the following is NOT an element of a job description? a) Job summary. b) Job compensation. c) Job duties and responsibilities. d) Job specifications. e) Identification information. Answer: b E--Recall Page: 68

73. General job descriptions are associated with: a) flat organizations that emphasize innovation. b) bureaucratic organizations that emphasize rule-bounded behavior. c) boundaryless organizations that emphasize international markets. d) bounded organizational designs that emphasize flexibility and loose work planning. e) horizontal organizational designs that emphasize work flow strategies. Answer: a M--Recall Page: 68

74. Job title, location, and author are all part of the _____ of a job description. a) job summary b) identification information c) job duties and responsibilities d) job requirements e) minimum qualifications Answer: b E--Recall Page: 68

75. Juanita is writing a job description. She specifies that the job involves the knowledge of basic principles and techniques of computer programming, the ability to plan and conduct major programming assignments, etc. Juanita is writing the ____ portion of the job description. a) job summary b) job duties and responsibilities c) job requirements d) qualifications e) job specifications Answer: c C--Integration Page: 70

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Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management

76. You are drafting a job description and have written a short statement that explains the duties and responsibilities of the job, and where the job fits in the organizational structure. You have just written the: a) job inventory. b) job requirements. c) job specifications. d) job summary. e) minimum qualifications. Answer: d M--application Page: 70

77. The ______ is the most important part of the job description because it influences all other parts of the job description. a) job duties and responsibilities section b) job summary c) job specifications and minimum qualifications section d) identification information e) none of the above Answer: a E--Recall Page: 71

78. The _____ of a job analysis lists worker characteristics (KSAs) needed to perform the job successfully. a) job summary b) identification information section c) job duties and requirements section d) job requirements section e) specifications section Answer: e E--Recall Page: 71

79. What should be included in the minimum qualifications section of a job description? a) A question to determine whether a potential employee is disposed toward any psychological disability. b) The basic standards a job applicant must have to be considered for the job. c) The 3-5 most important responsibilities of a potential employee. d) A summary of job duties and its place in the organization structure. e) Skills that would be beneficial for a potential employee to possess. Answer: b M--Integration Page: 71

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Chapter 2 – Managing Work Flows and Conducting Job Analysis

80. Workers who are hired to deal with short-term increases in a business’ workload or work that is not part of the business’ core set of capabilities are known as: a) core workers. b) short-term workers. c) specialized workers. d) contingent workers. e) consigned workers. Answer: d E--Recall Page: 71

81. What percentage of the total labor force in the United States did contingent workers comprise in 1997? a) 20%. b) 28%. c) 35%. d) 37%. e) 41%. Answer: b E--Recall Page: 72

82. Harolyn needs to hire some contingent workers. She needs people who are regularly available, but who will work less than 40 hours per week. They would be regular employees. Harolyn needs: a) temporary employees. b) part-time permanent employees. c) subcontractors. d) contract workers. e) to outsource her work. Answer: b E--Application Page: 72

83. You are job-sharing with a co-worker, Dave. Which of the following is true about this working arrangement? a) You and Dave divide the job’s responsibilities, hours, and benefits between the two of you. b) You both work for a temporary agency, which splits assignments between the two of you. c) You and Dave are given a whole and meaningful piece of work and are responsible for managing yourselves. d) You and Dave are taking part in a type of job rotation. e) You and Dave divide the job’s responsibilities but each receives your own benefits. Answer: a C--Application Page: 72

84. The “virtual corporation” is becoming an organizational model for businesses that perform outsourcing and subcontracting. A virtual company displays which of the following characteristics?

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Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management

a) It consists of no permanent employees but constantly changes alliances as the need arises. b) It consists of permanent employees and a constantly shifting workforce. c) It consists strictly of contract workers. d) It consists of over 50% subcontracted workers. e) It encourages strong ties and partnership alliances between companies and vendors. Answer: b M--Recall Page: 72

85. Which of the following is true of contract workers? a) They work through subcontractors. b) Professionals are not part of the contract worker population. c) They often must work by rigid schedules and guidelines. d) Contract workers are always highly motivated. e) Contract workers develop work relationships directly with employers. Answer: e M--Integration Page: 73

86. A flexible work schedule technique that permits managers and employees to shift an employee’s reporting and ending time around a core set of work hours in order to accommodate both company and employee needs is called: a) using temporary workers. b) a condensed workweek. c) telecommuting. d) flexible work hours. e) none of the above Answer: d E--Recall Page: 74

87. Mary Ellen is using a computer to collect, record, store, and analyze her company’s human resource. She is most likely using a: a) human resource information system. b) human resource data processing system. c) human resource training system. d) human resource monitoring system. e) human resource management system. Answer: a E--Application Page: 75

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Chapter 2 – Managing Work Flows and Conducting Job Analysis

88. An HRIS has a number of applications for HRM professionals, such as: a) negotiating labor relations contracts. b) recruiting contingent workers. c) tracking and analyzing information on employees—performance appraisals, etc. d) training employees in simple repetitive tasks. e) organizational design. Answer: c E--Recall Page: 77

89. Which of the following is a method by which the security and privacy of HRIS records may be protected? a) Give permission to use HRIS records only on a need-to-know basis. b) Develop policies and guidelines that govern utilization of the HRIS information and explain to employees how these policies work. c) Make different areas of the information database accessible by using different passwords. d) Limit access to the HRIS by controlling access to the computer and its data files. e) All of the above Answer: e CASE QUESTIONS Case 2.1 Your company makes computer components and peripherals for assemblers like Dell and Gateway. You are a small manufacturer, and your market share is highly volatile based on the entrance and exit of competitors into the market. You buy the raw materials for your components from several suppliers who also supply competitors. Your company is young, and you have 2 layers of management between the CEO and the component maker on the line. Your CEO read a book on innovation and organizational change and now wants to look at what you should do about reorganizing, changing staffing practices, etc. He wants to reduce costs in order to increase profit margins because he sees that margins will continue to shrink. While productivity and quality are largely a function of the machines used in the process, your CEO still wants to focus on motivating your employees. He wants to motivate them by increasing wages through a bonus program, improving working conditions, and providing job security. E--Recall Page: 78

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90. Refer to Case 2.1. Based on your current market situation, what business strategy would be best for your company? a) Prospector strategy. b) Defender strategy. c) Tactical strategy. d) Generic strategy. e) Differentiated strategy. Answer: a Easy Page: 49

91. Refer to Case 2.1. Your best choice of an organizational design, given your product, market, etc., would be: a) a bureaucratic structure. b) a boundaryless structure. c) a flat organizational structure. d) self-managed teams. e) a generic structure. Answer: c Challenging Page: 50

92. Refer to Case 2.1. Your CEO clearly believes in the _______ theory of motivation. a) two-factor b) goal-setting c) work adjustment d) job characteristics e) work simplification Answer: a Moderate Page: 57

93. Refer to Case 2.1. Your CEO’s suggestions for motivating the workforce have a significant flaw in them, which is: a) he’s not involving the employees in the decisions. b) an MBO-based strategy would be more effective. c) it does not take the diversity of the workforce into consideration. d) none of the things he wants to do impact motivation, only satisfaction or dissatisfaction. e) he’s not an HRM professional and therefore doesn’t know how to properly motivate employees. Answer: d Challenging Page: 57

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94. Refer to Case 2.1. Given the market demand for computer components, the best flexible work design to use would be: a) part-time workers b) flexible work hours. c) telecommuting. d) a condensed workweek. e) temporary workers. Answer: e Moderate Page: 72

Case 2.2 Steel City, Inc. is considering going global in its product line and markets. Your president realizes that this may require a reorganization. She wants to move into new international markets with minimum time and effort. She also wants to reduce management overhead and labor costs. At the same time, employees have been complaining about their work. Jobs are repetitive, and employees don’t know how what they do fits into the big picture. The president wants to provide employees with more satisfying work, autonomy, and a performance-based pay system. She wants to give them as much control as possible and remove layers of management. 95. Refer to Case 2.2. The best organizational design match for your new direction as a company would be a: a) flat organizational structure. b) generic organizational structure. c) differentiated product organizational structure. d) boundaryless organizational structure. e) bureaucratic organizational structure. Answer: d Challenging Page: 52

96. Refer to Case 2.2. Your president is discussing the use of teams in the company. Given the company direction and her goals, you should recommend: a) not trying teams, as that approach is not compatible with what you are doing. b) that she implement special project teams. c) quality circles as a type of problem-solving team. d) ISO 9000-based teams. e) self-managed work teams. Answer: e Moderate Page: 54

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97. Refer to Case 2.2. Your president’s ideas regarding employee dissatisfaction suggest that her thinking would be most compatible with a _____ theory of motivation. a) two-factor b) work adjustment c) job characteristics d) goal-setting e) Maslow-based Answer: c Challenging Page: 58-59

98. Refer to Case 2.2. Along with the reorganization, you need to do some job redesign. Given the specific employee complaints, your best approach would be: a) work simplification. b) job enrichment. c) job rotation. d) quality circles. e) decreasing skill variety. Answer: b Moderate Page: 60

99. Refer to Case 2.2. With the type of reorganization you are doing, your first step in the job redesign process would be: a) work flow analysis. b) job analysis. c) writing job descriptions. d) work simplification. e) reforming the performance appraisal process. Answer: a Moderate Page: 52

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Case 2.3 Resources International, Inc. (RII) is going through a major organizational change. They’ve decided to start at the very beginning and rethink the whole organization. They believe that employees will be most strongly motivated if they experience meaningful work, take responsibility for outcomes, and receive regular feedback. When the HR team comes to analyze jobs as part of the change process, they have to choose the best technique for their situation. They need to know what the incumbents do in their jobs, and they need behavioral descriptions from which to build their new performance appraisal system and training programs. Finally, RII is looking at their current staffing practices and trying to decide what type of workforce they need for the future. Their business is highly technical, requiring highly experienced employees. But product demand is volatile. It can double or be cut in half from one year to the next, depending on the economy and competitors’ actions. Innovation is key in RII’s product development. In order to manage all the HR information generated for and during the change, RII has initiated an HRIS system. 100. Refer to Case 2.3. RII needs to start its change effort with: a) work flow analysis. b) self-managed teams. c) job analysis. d) job descriptions. e) an HRIS system. Answer: a Challenging Page: 52

101. Refer to Case 2.3. The motivation theory that best fits RII’s attitude about worker motivation is: a) Herzberg’s two-factor theory. b) goal-setting theory. c) work adjustment theory. d) team-based job design. e) job characteristics theory. Answer: e Challenging Page: 58-59

102. Refer to Case 2.3. The best job analysis technique for RII would be a: a) critical incident technique. b) task inventory analysis. c) position analysis questionnaire. d) functional job analysis. e) methods analysis. Answer: a Challenging Page: 65

103. Refer to Case 2.3. The best type of workforce for RII would be: a) part-time workers. 63

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b) c) d) e)

telecommuters. contract workers. temporary employees. permanent full-time workers. Challenging Page: 74

Answer: c

104. Refer to Case 2.3. RII’s HRIS system will provide HR and the management team with which of the following information to help reinforce the changes they’ve made? a) The organization with which they should form boundaryless relationships. b) The ability to track production and labor expenses. c) What organizational structures to use with new work units and company divisions. d) The ability to search for and match employee skills to new opportunities that open up within the company. e) None of the above Answer: d Easy Page: 77

Case 2.4 Dorenda has asked you for some HR advice. Her company has a handful of permanent employees, but the work force consists mainly of contingent employees (primarily vendors in several different states). The group turns over about every 3 months. She wishes to increase her permanent employees’ motivation, and has set general goals for them to meet. She also plans to hire some more permanent employees, but first wants to determine what skills, knowledge, and abilities job candidates need to have in order to meet specific company needs. 105. Refer to Case 2.4. Dorenda probably believes in the _________ theory of motivation. a) work adjustment b) two-factor c) job characteristics d) goal-setting e) work simplification Answer: d Easy Page: 58

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106. Refer to Case 2.4. You anticipate that Dorenda’s choices regarding employee motivation will not produce the results she wants because: a) there are too few hygiene factors relative to motivators. b) employees haven’t had a say in what goals they will be working toward, and the goals are not specific. c) the company is too centralized, and in order to motivate employees, there needs to be decentralization. d) the goals are too challenging and the frequent feedback will make employees anxious about their performance. e) there are too many motivators relative to the hygiene factors. Answer: b Challenging Page: 58

107. Refer to Case 2.4. You suggest that Dorenda use a ____________ to perform the job analysis. a) task inventory analysis b) position analysis questionnaire c) critical incident technique d) methods analysis e) functional job analysis Answer: a Moderate Page: 63

108. Refer to Case 2.4. Tabitha should use the information gathered in the job analysis to compile which part of the job description? a) Job summary. b) Job responsibilities. c) Job title. d) Job specifications and minimum qualifications. e) Identification information. Answer: d Challenging Page: 61

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS 109. The work flow in an organization refers to the formal and informal relationships between people in the organization. Answer: False Moderate Page: 48

110. Whenever management decides to change its business strategy, it must also reexamine its organizational structure. Answer: True Moderate Page: 48 111. If a company is using a “prospector” business strategy, its market is stable, its product is mature, and it wants to increase market share by “digging” for new customers with new products.

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Answer: False

Challenging

Page: 49

112. A defender strategy might lead a company to functional divisions of labor and work specialization, which are elements of a boundaryless organization. Answer: False Easy Page: 49

113. Flat organizational structures are helpful for organizations that emphasize customer satisfaction and that are implementing TQM programs. Answer: True Moderate Page: 51

114. Boundaryless organizations share many characteristics with flat organizational structures. Answer: True Easy Page: 52

115. Work flow analysis examines how work moves initially from the worker through the organization to the customer. Answer: False Challenging Page: 52

116. Business process reengineering examines the fundamental way a company does business by analyzing its core processes. Answer: True Moderate Page: 53

117. “Self-managed teams” is the new term for the old concept of work groups. Answer: False Challenging Page: 54

118. As a member of a self-managed team, you should anticipate more consistent evaluations from your superior regarding your individual performance. Answer: False Moderate Page: 54-55

119. Frederick Herzberg’s two-factor motivation theory focuses on the fit between the employee’s needs and abilities and the characteristics of the job and the organization. Answer: False Challenging Page: 57

120. A theory that suggests that employees’ motivational levels and job satisfaction depend on the fit between their needs, abilities, and the characteristics of their job is the Work Adjustment Theory. Answer: True Easy Page: 57

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Chapter 2 – Managing Work Flows and Conducting Job Analysis

121. You are setting goals for your employees at Rainbow’s End, Inc. You should set very clear, easy goals to encourage and motivate your employees. Answer: False Moderate Page: 58

122. If managers try to motivate their employees by examining the core characteristics of their jobs, skill variety, task identity, etc., then they are using the Work Adjustment Theory of Motivation. Answer: False Challenging Page: 58

123. Job design is influenced by work flow analysis, business strategy, and organizational structure. Answer: True Moderate Page: 59-60

124. To make better use of labor and produce large quantities of a standardized product, job simplification should be considered. Answer: True Moderate Page: 60

125. Job enlargement rotates workers between different, narrowly defined tasks without disrupting the work flow, increasing each worker’s responsibilities and experience. Answer: False Moderate Page: 60

126. A manager who is looking at the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a given job is conducting a job analysis. Answer: True Easy Page: 61

127. Gathering job information by personal interviews is the most expensive method of performing job analysis. Answer: False Moderate Page: 62

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128. The HRM functions of recruiting, training, compensating, appraising performance, etc., use job analysis data to accomplish these tasks. Answer: True Easy Page: 63

129. A task inventory analysis involves interviews, observations, and task generation by the KSA matrix. Answer: False Moderate Page: 63

130. Information gathered during a job analysis can be used for recruiting and selecting applicants, and training and developing employee careers. Answer: True Easy Page: 63

131. A KSA matrix is used to determine how well employees carry out the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for their tasks. Answer: False Moderate Page: 63

132. The critical incident technique is one tool HR professionals can use to identify the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary to perform a job. Answer: True Moderate Page: 65

133. A Position Analysis Questionnaire collects information on the methods, techniques, and equipment used to accomplish a task, and what the job incumbent does with people, data, and things. Answer: False Challenging Page: 66

134. A job description should contain five key elements: identification information, a job summary, job duties and responsibilities, job specifications, and minimum qualifications. Answer: True Easy Page: 68

135. The job summary lists workers’ KSAs needed to perform the job successfully. Answer: False Moderate Page: 70

136. Telecommuting is one form of flexible work scheduling that a firm might use to accommodate employee needs. Answer: True Easy Page: 75

137. Most of today’s HRI systems are computerized.

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Answer: True

Easy

Page: 76

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS 138. A pyramid-shaped organizational structure that consists of hierarchies with many levels of management is referred to as a(n) _______. Answer: bureaucratic organizational structure Moderate Page: 49

139. A(n) _______ is an organizational structure that enables an organization to form relationships with customers, suppliers, and/or competitors, either to pool organizational resources for mutual benefit or to encourage cooperation in an uncertain environment. Answer: boundaryless organizational structure Moderate Page: 52

140. A fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in cost, quality, service, and speed is referred to as _______. Answer: business process reengineering (BPR) Moderate Page: 53

141. A(n) _______ is a team consisting of volunteers from a unit or department who meet one or two hours per week to discuss quality improvement, cost reductions, or improvement in the work environment. Answer: problem-solving team Moderate Page: 55

142. A team or task force consisting of workers who span functional or organizational boundaries and whose purpose is to examine complex issues is called a(n) _______. Answer: special-purpose team Moderate Page: 55

143. _______ is that which energizes, directs, and sustains human behavior. Answer: Motivation Easy Page: 57

144. _______ is the process of organizing work into the tasks required to perform a 69

Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management

specific job. Answer: Job design Easy Page: 59

145. The process of putting specialized tasks back together so that one person is responsible for producing a whole product or an entire service is referred to as _______. Answer: job enrichment Moderate Page: 60

146. A(n) _______ is the systematic process of collecting information used to make decisions about jobs. Answer: job analysis Moderate Page: 61

147. A written document that identifies, describes, and defines a job in terms of its duties, responsibilities, working conditions, and specifications is referred to as a(n) _______. Answer: job description Moderate Page: 68

148. _______ are workers hired to deal with temporary increases in an organization’s workload or to do work that is not part of its core set of capabilities. Answer: Contingent workers Moderate Page: 71

149. A work arrangement in which two or more employees divide a job’s responsibilities, hours, and benefits among themselves is referred to as _______. Answer: job sharing Easy Page: 73

150. _______ is time during which employees can choose not to be at work. Answer: Flextime Moderate Page: 75

151. _______ is a work arrangement that allows employees to work in their homes fulltime, maintaining their connection to the office through phone, fax, and computer. Answer: Telecommuting Easy Page: 75

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152. A system used to collect, record, store, analyze, and retrieve data concerning an organization’s human resources is referred to as a(n) _______. Answer: human resource information system (HRIS) Moderate ESSAY QUESTIONS 153. Discuss bureaucratic, flat, and boundaryless organizational designs, and relate the appropriate business strategies to each design. Answer: Summary of suggested answer• Bureaucratic--defender strategy, works well in stable, predictable environments. Noted for top-down management, specialization, defined boundaries, minimal employee involvement in decision making, etc. • Flat--prospector strategy, works well in rapidly changing environments, facilitates entrepreneurship. Noted for decentralized decision making, few management layers, organized by product/service/customer, independent business units, often uses work teams, reduces boundaries between workers, work units, etc. • Boundaryless--prospector strategy, works well in volatile industries. Noted for forming relationships with other organizations, customers, and suppliers to pool resources for mutual benefit. Shares characteristics of a flat organization. Challenging Page: 49-52 Page: 76

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154. Teams are an important element of organizational design. Discuss three types of teams and their characteristics, focusing on self-managed teams. Answer: Summary of suggested answerTypes self-managed, problem-solving, special-project, virtual. All can be used in flat or boundaryless organizations. Not fit with bureaucracies. Use • Self-managed—assume self-direction, assume management duties, etc. Part of TQM programs. Often affects organizational structure in order to implement. Employees need training in three types of skills; technical, administrative, and interpersonal. • Problem-solving team—quality circles, etc. Consist of volunteers, doesn’t affect organizational structure. • Special project team—complex projects, cross-functional lines. May be part of QWL projects, etc. • Virtual teams—often have the same characteristics as problem-solving teams, but their means of communication and interaction is done by Internet or other technology, especially when the members are spread out in various areas. Moderate Page: 54-56

155. Your text offers four perspectives on employee motivation. Describe the key elements for each perspective and survey the weaknesses of each perspective. Answer: Summary of suggested answerTheories--two-factor by Herzberg, work adjustment, goal-setting by Locke, and job characteristics by Hackman and Oldham. Key Elements— • Two-factor--motivators are internal job factors that lead to satisfaction (see page 57). Hygiene or maintenance factors are external to job and only relate to dissatisfaction, lack of these elements leads to dissatisfaction. (See page 57). • Work adjustment--employee motivation depends on the fit between employee needs and abilities and characteristics of the job. • Goal-setting--employees work to expectations, clear challenging goals motivate performance. • Job characteristics--the presence or absence of five core characteristics and three psychological states (see pages 58-59) determines the level of employee job satisfaction. Challenging Page: 57-59

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156. Job analysis is a key HR function. Provide an overview of the job analysis process, including brief descriptions of key job analysis techniques. Answer: Summary of suggested answerJob analysis - involves the identification of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a given job. It seeks answers to questions like where does the work come from, who does it, what equipment is used. It is usually conducted by HR in conjunction with the incumbent, occasionally it’s done by line management. Tools - The tools include interviews, observations, diaries, questionnaires. It is used for compliance with government regulations, recruitment and selection, performance appraisal, compensation, and training. Techniques -There are numerous techniques. Students should choose among task inventory analysis (page 63), critical incident technique (page 65), PAQ (page 66), and functional job analysis (page 67). Challenging Page: 61-67

157. Your text gives examples of five different types of contingent workers. Name and describe four of them. Answer: Summary of suggested answerTypes (students may mention any four) temporary employees; part-time employees; subcontracted/outsourced workers; contract workers (also called freelancers or consultants); college interns. Descriptions • Temporary employees work for a temporary agency that provides businesses with temporary employment. These workers are reassigned to different businesses by the temporary agency when a temporary job ends. • Part-time employees are often employed by service businesses that have a high variance in demand between peak and off-peak times. They have fewer hours than full-time core employees. • Subcontracted/outsourced workers work for a company and often perform routine or peripheral work for another company. • Contract workers are employees who develop a work relationship directly with an employer for a specific piece of work or time period. They are not a part of the company’s headcount. • College interns work full-time or part-time assignments (generally for one academic semester or summer) to obtain work experience. Some interns are paid, some are not. Challenging Page: 72-75

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