Chapter 4 Managing Diversity

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS: 1. You are the HRM manager in a company with a highly diverse workforce. Over lunch you are explaining to a Caucasian, middle-class, line manager that she needs to use different training techniques with her Hispanic employees than with her black employees because of the difference in their cognitive structures. By “cognitive structures,” you mean: a) their personality traits. b) the way they perceive and respond to the world around them. c) their social and economic grouping. d) those individual characteristics over which they have little or no control. e) their problem-solving abilities. Answer: b 2. M--Application Page: 121

Fundamentally, diversity: a) consists of those elements in our lives over which we have no control, but which make us individuals. b) is caused by the choices we make about our lifestyles, etc., that make us who we are. c) is all the human characteristics that make us who we are. d) is simply another term for affirmative action in the workplace. e) is another term for “stereotype”. Answer: c E--Recall Page: 121


Jorge is from Guatemala. Amanda, an American co-worker, assumes that Jorge, (and all Guatemalans) are just like her two Latina friends, and that the three share the same abilities, likes, and dislikes. Amanda is guilty of: a) discrimination. b) stereotyping. c) harassment. d) closed-mindedness. e) a and b Answer: b M--Application Page: 121


Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management


An important diversity issue is understanding the distinction between diversity and the source of diversity. Which of the following is an example of diversity? a) Terrance believes men should lead group discussions. Cami thinks gender is irrelevant to leadership. b) Marshall and Patty attended parochial school as children and readily accept authoritarian leadership. c) Jesus enjoys hot spicy food because he is a Latino. d) Carla does well in mathematics because she is an Asian-American. e) All of the above are examples of the sources of diversity. Answer: a C--Integration Page: 121-122


Diversity is a function of: a) stereotyping. b) an individual’s group membership. c) individual characteristics, some of which can be changed, and some over which one has no control. d) segmented communication networks. e) the current implementation of affirmative action programs and their quotas. Answer: c E--Recall Page: 121


When identifying individual characteristics in groups of people, it is very likely that: a) two groups will have substantial overlap with regard to any given characteristic. b) two groups will have very little overlap with regard to any given characteristic. c) the overlap that occurs between two groups is affected by the groups’ interactions with one another. d) overlap is a function of two groups’ geographical closeness. e) two groups will only have overlap if they are from the same continent. Answer: a E--Recall Page: 121-122


The exclusion of certain people from participation in an organization because of their group membership: a) is a legal way to eliminate some stress in the workplace caused by diversity programs. b) is not only illegal, but may cost the organization access to creativity and experiences it wouldn’t otherwise have. c) will legally save companies a significant amount of money. d) should be done very carefully to avoid violating the law. e) is only a legal option for small, privately-held companies. Answer: b E--Recall Page: 122, 125-126


Chapter 4 – Managing Diversity


The growing awareness of changing workforce demographic and the need to fully integrate and work effectively with nontraditional and minority employees is called: a) equal employment opportunity. b) affirmative action. c) diversity training. d) diversity management. e) valuing diversity. Answer: d E--Recall Page: 123


The number of people over age 55 in the United States will grow by about ____ over the next decade. a) 10% b) 26% c) 18% d) 46% e) 77% Answer: d E--Recall Page: 124


By the year 2010, _____ of the U.S. workforce will be white Americans. a) only 35% b) almost 70% c) about 50% d) 85% e) 90% Answer: b M--Recall Page: 124


The fastest-growing minority group in the United States from 2000-2010 will be: a) female Americans. b) Asian-Americans. c) Hispanic-Americans. d) White Americans. e) African-Americans. Answer: b E--Recall Page: 125


Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management


U.S. workforce participation by Hispanic-Americans by 2010 will: a) increase by over 13%. b) double. c) decline by 4.3%. d) remain the same. e) decrease by more than 30%. Answer: a M--Recall Page: 125


Changing workforce demographics is exemplified by the fact that, of the 20 million jobs created over the next ten years, women and minorities will fill: a) 12%. b) 22%. c) 36%. d) 48%. e) 75%. Answer: e M--Recall Page: 125


The number of women in the work force is expected to continue to _______; the number of men in the workforce is expected to _______. a) increase / increase proportionally b) decrease / increase overall c) decrease / decrease proportionally d) increase / decrease overall e) none of the above Answer: d M--Recall Page: 124


Between 1996 and 2006, the percentage of African-Americans in the workforce is expected to: a) double. b) decrease by half. c) decrease slightly. d) increase slightly. e) increase by 10%. Answer: c M--Recall Page: 125


Chapter 4 – Managing Diversity


Workforce diversity can enhance organizational effectiveness by: a) reducing costs and improving quality. b) decreasing communications and conflict. c) simply recognizing the inevitable change in the face of the workforce in the future. d) creating greater system stability. e) increasing creativity, leading to better problem solving. Answer: e M--Recall Page: 125


Greyhound’s increase in profits is considered to be a result of: a) marketing strategies directed toward a multiethnic, multicultural population. b) breaking away from corporate “group-think.” c) apprenticeship programs. d) diversity training. e) all of the above Answer: a E--Recall Page: 126


It is a challenge to convince people to value diversity because: a) it is seen as diminishing the common ground necessary to a viable society. b) most managers already see diversity as an asset to their companies. c) diversity programs have created a strong backlash. d) quotas in affirmative action programs have been eliminated. e) it tends to decrease system flexibility. Answer: a M--Integration Page: 127


One hindrance to diversity in the workplace, according to Jo Vanderkloot, is: a) the American value of individualism. b) the view that one should not comment on difference because to be different is to be deficient. c) the general lack of group cohesiveness in the workforce. d) the traditional top-down American management style. e) that diversity can cause system inflexibility. Answer: b M--Recall Page: 127


Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management


During lunch with co-workers, Camille brings up the new focus that Moen and Associates seems to place on diversity. She claims that rather than encouraging differences in the workplace, it would be more effective to encourage a social “sameness” for all company employees, regardless of the cultural and racial differences that are represented at Moen. Her view is in line with which perspective? a) Difference as better. b) Difference as deficiency. c) Integration over assimilation. d) The cultural relativity perspective. e) b and d Answer: b M--Application Page: 127


The question about whether to adapt management practices to fit the different sets of workplace values, beliefs, and attitudes is the challenge of managing employee diversity related to: a) the international issues in management. b) valuing employee diversity. c) individual vs. group fairness. d) organizations’ resistance to change. e) group cohesiveness and interpersonal conflict. Answer: c C--Integration Page: 127


The cultural relativity concept of management displays which of the following characteristics? a) A value placed on varying beliefs, attitudes, and patterns of behavior. b) Standardized management practices. c) A strong belief in universalism. d) Flexible management practices that can be molded to different cultures. e) a and d Answer: e M--Integration Page: 128


The fact that most communication within an organization occurs between members of the same sex and race demonstrates the diversity management challenge related to: a) the resistance to change in organizations. b) retention of minority and women employees. c) group cohesiveness. d) communication channel segmentation. e) valuing employee diversity. Answer: d M--Recall Page: 128


Chapter 4 – Managing Diversity


Some managers and mainstream employees feel that organizations have compromised their standards to comply with EEO requirements. This belief exemplifies the challenge to managing diversity of: a) resentment. b) the retention of men who will likely quit in frustration. c) competition for opportunities. d) balancing individual versus group fairness. e) backlash. Answer: a M--Recall Page: 128


The best strategy to handle the various challenges to managing diversity is to: a) assume an individual’s behavior is based on their ethnic grouping. b) remember that women are always more conceptual and emotional than men, regardless of ethnic background. c) remember that the primary determinant of behavior is one’s group membership. d) treat employees as individuals. e) focus on the sources of diversity, not the diversity itself. Answer: d M--Integration Page: 129


Shakira, who is Latina, is concerned that Latinos seem to be receiving less assistance and training than African-Americans in employment opportunities in local businesses. Her concern is an example of: a) competition for opportunities. b) stereotyping. c) discrimination. d) a male-dominated social culture. e) group-think. Answer: a E--Application Page: 129


Currently, about ___ of the U.S. workforce is African-American. a) 5% b) 12% c) 21% d) 15% f) 3.6% Answer: b E--Recall Page: 130


Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management


African-Americans, as a group, tend to face two major problems in organizations. The first is intentional racism. The second is: a) resentment due to preferential treatment. b) the use of non-standard English at the worksite, isolating them from other workers. c) that they are generally less educationally prepared for the workplace. d) that the variety of cultures represented by the term “African-American” makes it difficult for non-African-American managers to be appropriately sensitive. e) their general lack of experience in higher level jobs due to past discrimination. Answer: c M--Recall Page: 130


Asian-Americans make up about ____ of the U.S. workforce. a) 11% b) 27% c) 4.7% d) 2.8% e) 9.1% Answer: c E--Recall Page: 131


Generally speaking, in many organizations, Asian-Americans are: a) considered an advantaged group and therefore not eligible for special consideration. b) underrepresented in technical fields. c) over-represented in academic institutions. d) more likely to benefit from affirmative action programs because their educational achievements have prepared them for management. e) the only minority group appropriately represented numerically in top corporate positions. Answer: a M--Integration Page: 131


Stereotyping among minorities: a) is not nearly as important as stereotyping between the majority and minorities. b) only occurs during times of economic hardship. c) does not exist. d) exists to some degree among various groups toward other groups. e) a and b Answer: d C--Integration Page: 131


Chapter 4 – Managing Diversity


Nearly 43 million people in the United States today are disabled. Of that number, about _____ are actively employed. a) 6 million b) 12 million c) 14 million d) 15 million e) 18 million Answer: d E--Recall Page: 131


Shakil is a computer programmer confined to a wheelchair due to a spinal injury. He’s been on the job for about six weeks. None of his co-workers have invited him to lunch, offered to car pool, or stopped by to visit. Shakil is facing a problem common among the disabled, which is: a) being seen as less capable as someone not in a wheelchair. b) being educationally and economically advantaged. c) a lack of social acceptance of disabilities. d) competition for opportunities among minorities. e) the misestimation of the costs of accommodation by managers. Answer: c M--Application Page: 131


Some employers’ experience with the disabled is similar to Pizza Hut’s, which found the turnover rate of the disabled: a) significantly higher than with non-disabled employees. b) about 10 times less than turnover with non-disabled employees. c) the same as with non-disabled employees. d) 10 times higher than the turnover of non-disabled employees. e) 20 times less than with non-disabled employees. Answer: b M--Recall Page: 132


According to the ADA, estimated costs of accommodating disabled employees: a) are between $200 and $500. b) costs about $10,000 about 31% of the time. c) have reduced the cost of doing business because of the lower turnover and higher motivation of disabled workers. d) have been grossly underestimated. e) have added about 15% to the cost of doing business. Answer: a E--Recall Page: 132


Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management


Disabled employees tend to face several prejudices at work, such as the belief that: a) they are viewed as devious and not trustworthy. b) they work best alone at technical jobs and therefore are virtually ignored at work by co-workers. c) they are aloof or sensitive about their handicap and don’t want to interact with “normal” people. d) they can’t handle the pressure of responsible positions and will quit when work pressures mount. e) they don’t deserve special consideration because they haven’t been discriminated against as much as minority, non-disabled workers. Answer: d M--Recall Page: 131


Foreign-born individuals make up _____ of the U.S. population. a) 5% b) 11% c) 12% d) 15% e) 17% Answer: b E--Recall Page: 132


Foreign-born workers tend to: a) speak English as well as their first language. b) be poorly educated and take low-level jobs from “real” Americans, both minority and non-minority. c) gravitate to welfare and as a result do not take jobs from most Americans. d) have their own segmented networks. e) meet with resentment from other minorities. Answer: e 39. M--Recall Page: 133

Yashmi is from the United Arab Emerits, but has recently become an American citizen. Very likely, she will: a) be on public assistance within her first 5 years of becoming a citizen. b) return to the U.A.E within the first 3 years of becoming a citizen. c) face some resentment from whites and other minorities who feel that she will take a job from American-born citizens. d) earn more annually than American-born citizens. e) c and d Answer: c M--Application Page: 133


Chapter 4 – Managing Diversity


Currently, the legal employment status of homosexuals can be described as: a) one in which they have no legal protection. b) rapidly changing through the extension of legal protection in many states. c) mixed, with little legal protection, some overt hostility, and some companies creating gay-friendly environments. d) in decline as more states enact laws prohibiting legal protection for gays in the workplace. e) comparable to other diverse groups, with legal protection but mixed compliance. Answer: c C--Integration Page: 134


The percentage of homosexuals in the U.S. population is: a) a subject of some debate. b) 10%. c) anywhere from 1-2%. d) rising each year. e) declining slowly from decade to decade. Answer: a E--Recall Page: 134


Harold, a homosexual man, believes that he has been rejected for a top-level management job at an accounting firm based solely on his sexual preference. What is Harold’s best legal recourse? a) Harold should file a complaint with the EEOC. b) Harold should file a complaint with the OFCCP. c) Harold has little or no recourse. In many states, including the one in which he lives, no legislation protects homosexuals from employment discrimination on the basis of sexual preference. d) Harold should never tell his sexual preference to a potential employer. e) Either a or b Answer: c M--Application Page: 134


The term “Hispanic”: a) refers to a specific racial grouping of peoples. b) is an HRM term for people who have a Spanish-speaking heritage. c) is a label used in affirmative action plans for the cultural subgrouping of people from Latin America and Southern Europe. d) is a recent administratively convenient term created by agencies and researchers. e) means the same thing as Latino. Answer: d M--Recall Page: 135


Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management


Generally, Hispanics: a) are relatively easily identified by racial criteria. b) come from a variety of different racial heritages. c) share a common cultural heritage. d) are almost entirely from Latin America. e) speak Spanish as their first language. Answer: b C--Integration Page: 135


There are at least ____ Latinos in the United States. a) 35 million b) 30 million c) 32 million d) 34 million e) 50 million Answer: a E--Recall Page: 135


Latino workforce participation in U.S. companies will amount to ___ by the year 2010. a) 12.7% b) 7.3% c) 10% d) 8% e) 9.1% Answer: a E--Recall Page: 135


Latinos in the U.S. workplace: a) face more racial discrimination than African-Americans. b) are the slowest growing minority. c) have made the least progress of any other minority group in breaking into management. d) face less discrimination than any other working minority. e) retain their first language as their primary language at home more than any other group. Answer: e C--Integration Page: 135


Chapter 4 – Managing Diversity


The average age of American workers is: a) 26. b) 30. c) 38. d) 42. e) 43. Answer: c E--Recall Page: 135


Research on older workers shows that they: a) tend to be less motivated than younger workers. b) helped the turnaround of manufacturing productivity and growth. c) resist change more than younger workers. d) tend to plateau in productivity at 40. e) become impossible to fire due to EEO age discrimination laws. Answer: b M--Recall Page: 136


Thelma is an older worker who has been employed at Hair Stylist, Inc. for over 25 years. Recently, Tracy, a 23-year old college graduate, has been hired as her assistant. Thelma feels slightly threatened by Tracy, who seems to be their immediate supervisor’s favorite. Thelma believes that her job may be in danger despite her excellent job performance appraisals. Tracy likes Thelma but believes that her work methods need to change to keep up with the times. This situation is an example of: a) stereotyping. b) discrimination. c) generational conflict. d) a segmented communication network. e) hegemony. Answer: c C--Application Page: 136


One of the most visible and wide-ranging changes in U.S. demographics over the last thirty years has been: a) the influx of illegal immigrants taking low-paying, low-skill jobs. b) the emergence of homosexuals as an identifiable subgroup in the workforce. c) the rapid growth of the Asian-American population in the U.S. workforce. d) the increase in foreign-born workers in the U.S. workforce. e) the influx of women into the workforce. Answer: e C--Integration Page: 136


Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management


Women face a number of barriers to their professional advancement, including: a) organizations fail to be flexible enough to meet working women’s needs. b) resentment from other protected classes due to their preferential treatment under EEO guidelines. c) being perceived as less motivated than their male peers. d) resisting change. e) rarely being fired, regardless of how incompetent they might be. Answer: a M--Recall Page: 137


Which of the following may be a reason that accounts for the earnings differential between women and men and women’s lack of upward mobility? a) Sexual harassment. b) A male-dominated corporate culture. c) Women’s social roles. d) Exclusionary networks. e) All of the above Answer: e E--Recall Page: 137


After work on Fridays, the male middle managers at Health Equipment, Inc. go to the golf course to play a quick nine holes, and to talk over business for the upcoming week. Sharon, who is an excellent woman golfer, has tried to join them for several weeks but is always put off. Her boss says, “We have our foursome.” Sharon is experiencing: a) a male-dominated corporate culture. b) sexual harassment. c) biological constraints. d) exclusionary networks. e) social roles. Answer: d E--Application Page: 137


Acts that constitute sexual harassment: a) do not include sexual remarks, according to men. b) are more likely to be viewed as sexual harassment when perpetrated by a supervisor than by a co-worker. c) are more likely to be viewed as sexual harassment when perpetrated by a coworker than by a supervisor. d) do not include suggestive looks, according to women. e) are seen the same way by men and women. Answer: b C--Integration Page: 138


Chapter 4 – Managing Diversity


When defining sexual harassment, a man: a) tends to see sexual remarks as sexual harassment more often than a woman. b) is just as likely to perceive an act as sexual harassment as a woman would. c) tends to take behavior by coworkers more seriously than that by a supervisor. d) is less likely to perceive others’ actions as sexual harassment as a woman would. e) is more likely to see pressure for dates as sexual harassment than deliberate touching. Answer: d C--Integration Page: 138


Women tend to see ____ as serious sexual harassment more than _____. a) sexual remarks / suggestive looks b) pressure for dates / deliberate touching c) letters and calls / suggestive looks d) deliberate touching / pressure for sexual favors e) sexual remarks / deliberate touching Answer: c C--Integration Page: 138


Improving diversity management must begin with: a) top management’s commitment to valuing diversity. b) diversity training. c) accommodating family needs. d) developing support groups for minorities. e) senior mentoring. Answer: a E--Recall Page: 138

59. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of an organization that would show the business’ success in managing diversity? a) The existence of corporate diversity training programs. b) Segmented networking systems. c) Top management’s support of and commitment to diversity. d) Accommodation of family needs. e) Mentoring programs. Answer: b M--Application Page: 138


Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management


The most common reason for initiating diversity training in U.S. corporations is: a) tapping diverse customers and markets. b) pending litigation. c) affirmation action plans forced on them by the EEOC. d) using workforce strengths. e) avoiding litigation. Answer: a M--Recall Page: 140


Yan is the only Japanese employee at All American, Inc. (AAI), which has a small minority of Asian employees. She wants to start a small weekly meeting for the Asian employees of AAI in order to encourage a nurturing climate for others who may feel alienated from the rest of the employees. In HR terms, Yan is hoping to organize a(n): a) segmented communication network. b) old boys’ network. c) support group. d) diversity audit. e) retention program. Answer: c E--Application Page: 141


Diversity management can be improved by: a) getting middle management to value diversity. b) implementing work teams. c) raising sensitivity of managers to the global nature of the marketplace. d) companies actively accommodating family needs. e) conducting human resource audits. Answer: d E--Recall Page: 142


The best diversity management strategy for helping women to keep their jobs after starting a family is: a) senior mentoring. b) communication standards. c) accommodating family needs. d) diversity training. e) support groups. Answer: c E--Recall Page: 142


Chapter 4 – Managing Diversity


When viewing HRM from a global perspective, U.S. efforts to create a familyfriendly workplace: a) compare favorably to European nations. b) are very weak in comparison to Germany, Sweden, and Denmark. c) are actually quite advanced compared to any European country. d) tend to focus on daycare, while European countries tend to focus on leaves and flexible work hours. e) tend to focus on telecommuting, while European countries tend to focus on creative leave programs. Answer: d C--Integration Page: 143


Flextime and telecommuting are examples of companies’ efforts to: a) accommodate family needs. b) value diversity. c) recognize the global nature of HRM. d) manage responsibility and accountability. e) prevent “white male bashing.” Answer: a E--Recall Page: 143


a) b) c) d) e)

Which of the following is an option to accommodate family needs? Extended leave. Diversity training. Apprenticeships. A mentoring program. A diversity audit. Answer: a M--Integration Page: 143


Jamie has been a manager at a large firm for nearly 10 years. After a recent hiring period, he identifies a new employee named Carlos who shows potential for administration and advancement in the company. During the next three years, he coaches and encourages Carlos at his job, answers questions, and helps Carlos develop a career strategy. This is an example of: a) stereotyping. b) development of communication standards. c) an apprenticeship. d) mentoring. e) none of the above Answer: d M--Application Page: 144


Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management


A strategy to improve diversity management in a company which can be implemented even before a given individual becomes an employee is: a) communication standards. b) senior mentoring. c) diversity training. d) apprenticeships. e) recruiting quotas. Answer: d E--Recall Page: 144


The example of Betty Ford and City Boxers in the text shows that: people are likely to send racial, sexist, and homophobic comments over e-mail because it is an indirect mode of communication. b) the anonymity of the Web can benefit small businesses. c) running a business on the Web is more time consuming that running a traditional business. d) people like to see from whom they are buying products and are hesitant to do so otherwise. e) none of the above

Answer: b 70.


Page: 145

With technology such as the Web and e-mail becoming so important in business, what would be the best way to monitor such communications for good business practice? a) Companies should have clear policies prohibiting racial, sexist, or homophobic jokes and comments on e-mail. b) Companies should leave such questions to the individual employees. c) Companies should hold a “don’t ask, don’t tell” type of view concerning these communications. d) Companies should prohibit anything but business-related e-mails to be accessed at work. e) None of the above Answer: a M--Integration Page: 145


When presenting non-majority groups in chapter 4, your text does so in alphabetical order. This is probably a ______ used to present each group fairly without appearing to present them in a preferential order. a) communication standard b) diversity presentation c) preferential standard d) discriminatory order e) social order


Chapter 4 – Managing Diversity

Answer: a 72.


Page: 145

Some companies experience adverse reactions when implementing affirmative action programs. One way to reduce such adverse reactions is to: a) use accurate stereotypes in your training sessions. b) exclude anyone who would resist implementation from any design and development discussions. c) include more women and minorities than white males on the design and implementation team. d) use individual training efforts that help white men get in touch with the feelings of minorities. e) adopt an inclusive definition of diversity that addresses all differences among all employees. Answer: e C--Integration Page: 147


A diversity audit can help managers: a) determine possible sources of bias in a company. b) review the effectiveness of a company’s diversity management program. c) increase minority retention. d) determine whether there will be an increase in competition for opportunities. e) a and b Answer: e E--Recall Page: 145


One way to guarantee managers’ buy-in and reinforcement of diversity efforts is to: a) put them through diversity training. b) hold them accountable for the programs’ success. c) create support groups with managers leading them. d) conduct a diversity audit. e) avoid white male bashing. Answer: b M--Integration Page: 145


While diversity programs offer companies a number of benefits, some potential pitfalls also arise, such as: a) promoting of competition for opportunities. b) generating reverse discrimination suits. c) promoting stereotypes. d) creating communication barriers. e) segmenting communication networks. Answer: c M--Integration Page: 146


Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management


Some assume that one can infer an individual’s motivations, interests, values, behavioral traits, etc., based on the individual’s group membership. This practice is called: a) cultural determinism. b) recognizing one’s cognitive structure. c) seeing one’s cognitive perception. d) discrimination. e) cultural awareness. Answer: a E--Recall Page: 148


Diversity training and cultural awareness programs, in general, tend to: a) cause “white male bashing.” b) improve employee and management relations in all sections of society. c) overdramatize diversity and unintentionally help people form incorrect assumptions about members of other groups. d) encourage diversity programs and employee interaction, but produce very few long-term results. e) none of the above Answer: c M--Recall Page: 148

CASE QUESTIONS Case 4.1 As the Director of HR, you are leading a management discussion to plan and implement a management of diversity program.. You are concerned that management, while tolerant, tends to stereotype minorities and this will eventually lead to trouble. Your company’s top three markets are in Los Angeles, Chicago, and Miami. All three are heavily Latino in make-up. The senior management team is all male. The youngest member is 58 years of age. Martinez, the VP of Operations, feels that people should blend together and that focusing on differences merely creates divisions. He thinks that you should have a common training program to create a unified “American” company culture. Patrick, VP of Finance, doesn’t see the need for a program. He respects that people are different but he feels that once you get to know a Hispanic, African-American, or Asian-American, you know how to work with any Hispanic, African-American, or Asian-American. Besides, Patrick doesn’t believe the company should get into affirmative action programs. They tried it ten years ago and it created all kinds of problems. Simon, the CEO, thinks a diversity management program is important. He believes the company is missing some important talent without such a program. Simon feels that the company can create a competitive advantage by being in the lead on this issue and also believes the changing workforce is going to force such adjustments at some time in the future.


Chapter 4 – Managing Diversity


Refer to Case 4.1. Martinez’s approach to diversity management: a) is based on a perspective that people can control the factors that make them diverse. b) assumes that the company does not need to worry about diversity because demographic trends are moving away from it. c) expresses the belief that the key to understanding diversity is understanding each individual’s group membership. d) is based on his experience with affirmative action programs. e) reflects the competition for opportunities among minority groups. Answer: a Challenging Page: 121


Refer to Case 4.1. John, on the other hand, seems to be directed by: a) his belief that people can control the factors that make them diverse. b) the fact that demographic trends are forcing the company to recognize diversity. c) the legal responsibilities the company has to develop opportunities for minorities. d) his own cognitive structure. e) the competition for opportunities among minority groups. Answer: d Challenging Page: 121


Refer to Case 4.1.The HR director’s perspective is: a) a concern for the legal issues involved. b) an understanding of the difference between diversity and the sources of diversity. c) that diversity management is not an issue for this company. d) a belief that people cannot control factors that lead to diversity. e) the influence of Martinez’s cognitive structure. Answer: b Challenging Page: 121


Refer to Case 4.1. What other management concern is Simon apparently considering when he says that the company needs to create a diversity management program? a) That it is legally mandated. b) Their past negative experience with affirmative action. c) The concept of the melting pot in American culture. d) That the company make-up should reflect their markets to gain a competitive advantage. e) The apparent racism of his two top managers. Answer: d Moderate Page: 123


Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management


Refer to Case 4.1. The best place for this increase-in-diversity awareness and training to begin is with: a) top management learning to value diversity. b) support groups. c) accommodation of family needs. d) senior mentoring programs. e) communication standards. Answer: a Moderate Page: 141

Case 4.2 MGN, Inc. is a Fortune 500 company that has just come to realize its need for managing diversity. HR is facilitating meetings among middle managers to both communicate this idea and to get input from the managers about how best to carry out this goal. Mercedes, a Latina manager, suggests that the company ought not to do more than what is already being done. She cites the company’s previous affirmative action plan. “Also,” she argues, “we’ve given African-Americans and Asian-Americans more than enough opportunity. I tried to promote a Latino to supervisor and you guys (HR dept.) told me I really needed to give Kym, an African-American, the opportunity.” Paul, a white supervisor, feels that management is management. Managing diversity is just a gimmick, a passing fad. “I've been a supervisor for 20 years and I’ve found that if I treat people fairly and listen to them, things work out just fine.” Ana, a relatively new middle-manager, is a bit more positive about the idea but has significant reservations. She feels, however, that the company really needs to give women and minorities access to the “old boy network.” If all the company does is conduct training and devise slogans, nothing will happen. Finally, Rahkim, an African-American supervisor, says he doesn’t care what they do. He’s giving notice because he’s joining some other African-Americans in starting their own company. He’s been a supervisor for five years and has been passed over for promotion twice. He feels that he has experienced discrimination because he’s AfricanAmerican. 83. Refer to Case 4.2. The above shows a number of challenges to implementing a managing diversity program. Mercedes’ concerns represent which of the following challenges? a) Valuing diversity. b) Individual vs. group fairness. c) Segmented communication networks. d) Focusing on performance. e) Competition for opportunities. Answer: e Moderate Page: 129


Chapter 4 – Managing Diversity


Refer to Case 4.2. The manager(s) in this discussion who would most likely agree with the universal concept of management is(are): a) Mercedes. b) Paul. c) Ana. d) Rahkim. e) Mercedes and Ana. Answer: b Challenging Page: 128


Refer to Case 4.2. Ana’s concerns reflect the reality of the experiences of women and minorities with: a) individual versus group fairness. b) the resistance to change. c) segmented communication networks. d) resentment. e) retention. Answer: c Challenging Page: 128


Refer to Case 4.2. Rahkim’s lack of concern with this issue and his announcement symbolize the organization’s general problem with: a) valuing diversity. b) interpersonal conflict. c) resentment. d) retention. e) competition for opportunities. Answer: d Challenging Page: 129


Refer to Case 4.2. As you review the comments and thoughts of these various managers, what challenge to managing diversity seems to be expressed by all? a) Valuing diversity. b) Individual vs. group fairness. c) Resistance to change. d) Segmented communication networks. e) Competition for opportunities. Answer: c Challenging Page: 128


Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management

Case 4.3 Your retail company has 80% of its stores located in downtown metropolitan areas. Your biggest stores are in communities where minorities represent 60% of your customers. Your middle-management team has been changing over time so that 50% of your managers are women and about 30% are ethnic minorities. A significant number of your hourly employees, about 35%, have served over 20 years in their respective stores and many are over 40 years of age. Top management feels that African-Americans are underrepresented in the hourly workforce and in middle management. They want HR to initiate an aggressive recruitment process to address the situation. Hispanics are the biggest minority group, besides women, in your workforce. In a discussion about where the company should target its diversity program, the CEO explains she wants to implement a training program for managers to raise their sensitivity to minorities, especially Hispanics. She also notes that there are no disabled persons in the workforce and very few Asian-Americans. Carlos, the VP of facilities, notes that he has accommodated all the Asian-American employees he can in his MIS and facility support services. He also argues that he only has about $10,000 in his budget for reorganizing display space, etc., in the stores to accommodate disabled employees and that this amount probably isn’t sufficient to adequately accommodate a disabled employee. 88. Refer to Case 4.3. Given the major problems African-Americans face in the work place, what complementary program should HR initiate at the same time as their recruiting effort? a) Diversity training. b) Senior mentoring. c) Flextime or job sharing. d) Interpersonal skills and management training. e) Education and technical education training. Answer: e 89. Challenging Page: 130

Refer to Case 4.3. Carlos’ comments about accommodating disabled employees: a) show that he doesn't value diversity. b) reveal the common misconception of accommodation costs. c) show that he is inherently prejudiced against the disabled. d) demonstrate that he is considering what is best for the company. e) are an example of the competition for opportunities among the various minority groups. Answer: b E--Recall Page: 132


Chapter 4 – Managing Diversity


Refer to Case 4.3. What is a key issue for the CEO in implementing diversity training that would focus on understanding Hispanic culture? a) That some will wonder why the program focuses on this group since most people view Hispanics as advantaged because of their academic achievements. b) That it may be expensive to provide Hispanics access to the physical plant. c) That poverty is a key issue and consequently Hispanics tend to need additional educational assistance to be competitive. d) That Hispanic is a misnomer, since there are actually very diverse subgroupings of Latinos. e) That there are no special considerations or issues to worry about. Answer: d Challenging Page: 135


Refer to Case 4.3. What special issues does management need to consider with regard to older workers? a) They tend to be less motivated as they get older and therefore need more training and supervision than younger workers. b) Older workers should be treated as individuals. Most function as well as they did 20 years earlier. c) They will tend to get into conflicts with younger employees and therefore should work more with their peers than younger employees. d) Older workers tend to have poorer health. e) They don’t learn well and resist changing processes they’ve done for years. Answer: b Moderate Page: 136


Refer to Case 4.3. Given the barriers to women’s advancement in the workplace, which of the following efforts would be most effective in helping women advance? a) Affirmative action quotas. b) Education programs raising their technical skills. c) Senior mentoring. d) Apprenticeships. e) Communication standards. Answer: c Challenging Page: 144


Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management

Case 4.4 Xavier has just become the head of HR at Hot Rods, Inc. He notices that the company is very homogenous, especially in light of the very diverse community in which it is located. He is surprised to find that the number of women and other minorities is quite low in all positions. As one of his first responsibilities, Xavier wants to implement a diversity program at Hot Rods. 93. Refer to Case 4.4. Xavier realizes that one of the important reasons why there may be more men in leadership positions at Hot Rods is that: a) men are more likely to exhibit traits that are believed to be ideal with positions of authority. b) women are incapable of maintaining leadership in a company. c) the old boys’ network excludes any women from attaining leadership. d) men are capable of maintaining leadership for longer periods than women, and are therefore better candidates for such positions. e) women who are advancing toward leadership are often discouraged and intimidated by explicit discrimination by top-level men. Answer: a 94. Moderate Page: 137

Refer to Case 4.4. Xavier finds that there is relatively little communication between men and women, and minorities and non-protected class members at Hot Rods. These are clear examples of: a) segmented communication networks. b) the effects of the glass ceiling. c) resistance to change. d) competition for opportunities. e) all of the above Answer: a Easy Page: 128


Refer to Case 4.4. In order to determine where biases are coming from, Xavier should consider which of the following? a) Having all new employees attend a diversity seminar. b) Developing an affirmative action strategy. c) Instituting an old boys’ network. d) Performing a diversity audit. e) None of the above Answer: d Moderate Page: 145


Chapter 4 – Managing Diversity


Refer to Case 4.4. Which of the following is an important step for Xavier as he institutes a diversity program at Hot Rods? a) Adopting a narrow definition of diversity in order not to let the term become overly-inclusive. b) Creating a two-day training program which all employees must attend. c) Involving everyone, including members of non-protected classes, in designing the program. d) Focusing the program solely on top management. e) Clearly defining a culprit group. Answer: c Challenging Page: 140


Refer to Case 4.4. Xavier institutes a diversity program at Hot Rods and, despite his best efforts, people make critical comments about it. Some men are complaining that more women have been hired simply because of their gender and that they lack the necessary skills to perform their jobs. This is a manifestation of: a) backlash. b) poor worker retention. c) an exclusionary network. d) resentment. e) cultural determinism. Answer: d Moderate Page: 128

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS 98. When seeking to understand diversity, it is important to distinguish between diversity and the sources of diversity because they are not the same thing. Answer: True 99. Easy Page: 121

Diversity, the human characteristics that make people different from one another, consists solely of characteristics that cannot be controlled by the individual. Answer: False Moderate Page: 121

100. The concept of “management of diversity” is simply a new label for “affirmative action.” Answer: False Moderate Page: 123

101. The percentage of managers who are minorities has declined 50% over the last ten years, while the number of women managers has grown by 75%. Answer: False Moderate Page: 124


Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management

102. The percentage of women in the workforce is increasing, while the number of men in the workforce is decreasing. Answer: True Easy Page: 124

103. Heterogeneity in organizations tends to lead to communication confusion and conflict, making diversity a problem for most corporations that must be carefully managed. Answer: False Easy Page: 125

104. The cultural relativity concept of management encourages flexibility in management practices related to the diversity of the given workforce. Answer: True Moderate Page: 128

105. Segmented communication channels exist only in high-level business positions. Answer: False Challenging Page: 128

106. One side effect of EEO law enforcement is the belief among managers and mainstream employees that organizations have had to compromise their standards to comply. Answer: True Easy Page: 128

107. The “glass ceiling” is an intangible barrier within an organization that prevents members of non-protected classes from filling positions above a certain level. Answer: False Moderate Page: 129

108. African-Americans constitute about 12% of the U.S. workforce. Answer: True Challenging Page: 130

109. In general, African-Americans and people of Hispanic origin have less educational preparation for the workplace than whites do. Answer: True Easy Page: 130

110. Asian-Americans have largely overcome their stereotypes and are highly represented in top corporate positions to the degree that in some technical industries they are over-represented. Answer: False Moderate Page: 131


Chapter 4 – Managing Diversity

111. Stereotypes of minority behavior are as true among minorities as they are among majorities. Answer: True Challenging Page: 131

112. Most managers accurately estimate the cost of accommodating for disabled workers. Answer: False Moderate Page: 132

113. Most immigrants entering the United States today are better educated and less likely to end up on welfare than in the past. Answer: True Moderate Page: 133

114. Homosexuals are extended the same employment discrimination rights as other protected-class groups under the Civil Rights Act of 1991. Answer: False Challenging Page: 134

115. Language is a bigger problem for Latinos than for any other group. Answer: True Easy Page: 134

116. Latinos are always individuals who are from Latin American descent. Answer: False Challenging Page: 135

117. One place where diversity has grown with little difficulty is in the aging of the workforce, in that managers do not hold negative assumptions about older workers as they do with other protected classes. Answer: False Moderate Page: 136

118. A significant number of companies have begun to accommodate women in the workforce with family-friendly policies and greater flexibility toward the family demands that working women face. Answer: False Challenging Page: 137

119. Most male top managers are married and have children, while most women who are in similar positions are single and childless. Answer: True Easy Page: 137


Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management

120. Men and women have very different perceptions of what constitutes sexual harassment by a coworker, but they largely agree on what constitutes sexual harassment by a supervisor. Answer: False Challenging Page: 138

121. Most companies conduct diversity training in order to tap into diverse customers and markets, rather than to avoid litigation. Answer: True Moderate Page: 140

122. Senior mentoring and apprenticeships are two tools used by corporations to improve diversity and understanding of diversity. Answer: True Easy Page: 144

123. A diversity audit is similar to a utilization analysis conducted by the EEOC. Answer: False Challenging Page: 145

124. In order for diversity management to be a high priority in business, managers and supervisors must be held responsible for implementing diversity management and rewarded for doing so successfully. Answer: True Easy Page: 145

125. Cultural awareness and other types of diversity programs are generally wellreceived and balance awareness with sensitivity toward current organizational culture. Answer: False Moderate Page: 148

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS 126. _______ is human characteristics that make people different from one another. Answer: Diversity Easy Page: 121

127. The set of activities involved in integrating nontraditional employees into the workforce and using their diversity to the firm’s competitive advantage is referred to as _______. Answer: management of diversity Moderate Page: 123


Chapter 4 – Managing Diversity

128. The management concept holding that all management practices should be standardized is called the _______. Answer: universal concept of management Moderate Page: 128

129. _______ is the management concept holding that management practices should be molded to the different sets of values, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors exhibited by a diverse workforce. Answer: Cultural relativity concept of management Moderate Page: 128

130. A(n) _______ is the intangible barrier in an organization that prevents female and minority employees from rising to positions above a certain level. Answer: glass ceiling Easy Page: 129

131. An informal social and business network of high-level male executives that typically excludes women and minorities is called a(n) _______. Answer: old boys’ network Moderate Page: 137 132. Programs that provide diversity awareness training and educate employees on specific cultural and sex differences, and how to respond to these in the workplace are referred to as _______. Answer: diversity training programs Moderate Page: 140 133. A(n) _______ is a group established by an employer to provide a nurturing climate for employees who would otherwise feel isolated or alienated. Answer: support group Easy Page: 141


Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management

134. A support program in which senior managers identify promising women and minority employees and play an important role in nurturing their career progress is referred to as a(n) _______. Answer: senior mentoring program Moderate Page: 144 135. A(n) _______ is a program in which promising prospective employees are groomed before they are actually hired on a permanent basis. Answer: apprenticeship Moderate Page: 144 136. A(n) _______ is a review of the effectiveness of an organization’s diversity management program. Answer: diversity audit Moderate Page: 145 137. The idea that one can successfully infer an individual’s motivations, interests, values, and behavioral traits based on that individual’s group membership is referred to as _______. Answer: cultural determinism Moderate Page: 148


Chapter 4 – Managing Diversity

ESSAY QUESTIONS 138. Managing diversity is more of a business necessity than ever before. Discuss the challenges a company faces in managing employee diversity. Answer: Summary of suggested answer – Students’ elaboration will vary, but the challenges are: • valuing diversity • striving for individual vs. group fairness • resistance to change by existing organizational cultures • group cohesiveness vs. interpersonal conflict • segmenting of communication channels, resentment by the existing majority • backlash by the same majority, retention of talented minorities and women • competition for opportunities among minority groups. Moderate Page: 126-129

139. Managing diversity in organizations means managing people. A significant percentage of your company’s employee population is African American. Discuss the major issues for African-Americans in the workplace and identify two major problems they face. Answer: Summary of suggested answer - African-Americans constitute 12% of the workforce. There are significant barriers to their advancement. Their representation in management has tripled, and in professional clerical positions it has quadrupled. Yet 15% remain among the hard core unemployed. Their two major problems are intentional racism and lack of educational preparation. Challenging Page: 130

140. Discuss the problems that the disabled face at work. Answer: Summary of suggested answer - Nearly 43 million Americans have disabilities, 15 million are actively employed. They tend to face four problems. 1) Social acceptance of disabilities, 2) Perception that they are less capable because of the disability, 3) Employers fear they will quit more often when under pressure, 4) Employers tend to overestimate the costs of accommodation of the disabled in the work place. Moderate Page: 131-132


Part II The Contexts of Human Resource Management

141. As with any other minority, Hispanic-Americans face a number of misperceptions and problems in the work place. Discuss. Answer: Summary of suggested answer – “Hispanic” is the official government label, but they prefer “Latino” because their backgrounds are so diverse. Unlike some minority groups, race doesn’t fit as a descriptor, as Latinos are of European, African, Indian, Asian, and Caribbean descent. There are 35 million Latinos in the United States. There is a wide divergence of economic and educational levels. Their number one problem is the language barrier. They also face a cultural clash and racial discrimination for those of Indian descent. They have made significant progress as there are 181 board seats occupied by Latinos and 70 more serving as executive officer. Moderate Page: 135

142. Women face particular challenges and problems in the workplace. Discuss and give examples of how some employers are trying to make their workplaces more “friendly” to women. Answer: Summary of suggested answer – There are many possible answers to this questionthe possibilities given are particular to women. Others may be acceptable. Women face sexual harassment in the workplace, as well as special challenges due to pregnancy and family responsibilities. Re: sexual harassment - Some companies are encouraged to develop no-tolerance policies in regard to sexual harassment, they are protected from sexual harassment by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Some companies have internal complaint resolution where the sexual harassment can be reported. Re: pregnancy and family responsibilities - U.S. companies have been slow to institute family-friendly policies, though more companies are beginning to do so. The United States also has a “hands-off” policy on day care. 6% of U.S. companies have day-care centers at the workplace. Some companies offer extended leave or other alternative work patterns, e.g. mommy and/or daddy track. Moderate Page: 136-138


Chapter 4 – Managing Diversity

143. Improving diversity management is an important challenge for companies. Explain at least five strategies for improving the management of diversity. Answer: Summary of suggested answer- Students should choose from the following. 1) Top management’s commitment to valuing diversity, 2) Diversity training programs, 3) Support groups, 4) Accommodation of family needs, 5) Senior mentoring programs, 6) Apprenticeships, 7) Communication standards, 8) Diversity audits, 9) Management responsibility and accountability. Moderate Page: 138-145


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