Chapter 30 1. Name five terrestrial adaptations that contributed to the success of seed plants.

Five terrestrial adaptation that contributed to the success of seed plants are the Seed- can be transported far distances, protects the fertile offspring, and provides nutrients to grow. Reduction of the gametophyte generation- increases the time for the gametes to be made and the chances of the gametes fertilizing. heterospory- Producing two types of spores, microspores (males) and megaspores (female) on the same plant. This increases the chance of fertilization. Ovules- Provides nutrients for the growing offspring. Pollen- are tiny and light therefore easier to transport. It can be transported by means of organisms, wind and rain. 2. Compare the size and independence of the gametophytes of bryophytes with those of seed plants. Bryophytes or seedless plants have gametophytes that are visible to the naked eye while angiosperms, plants will fruiting seeds and gymnosperms, plants with naked seeds have gametophytes are microscopic. Seeds plants have a simpler and advantageous gametophyte generation. Gametophytes also develop from spores in the sporangia of seeds plants develop from the sporangia of the parental saprophyte and obtain nutrients from their parents in the form of a cotyledon. 3. Describe the ovule of a seed plant. The ovule of a seed plant consists of the megasporangium, the spore producing organ. Megaspores the female spore of the plant. Integuments or the testa, the protective layer of the seeds. 4. Contrast the male gametophytes of bryophytes with those of seed plants. The gametophytes of seed plants are more adapted than the gametophytes of bryophytes. Seed plants have pollen grains that can travel great distances by organism, wind, rain, etc. The sperm of seed plants also have flagella unlike bryophyte. Therefore the flagella can transport the sperm to the eggs without water like bryophytes. 5. Explain why pollen grains were an important adaptation for successful reproduction on land. Pollen grains were an important adaption for successful reproduction on land because it is light and the sperm have flagella. The flagella can transport the sperm to the egg without water. Pollen could also travel far distances via organism, rain, wind, etc. most importantly it contributed to the diversity of plant life by being able to pollinate other plants of the same and sometime other species. 6. Explain how a seed can be said to include contributions from three distinct generations. Seeds are able to survive harsh conditions because it has a hard protective coating. The seeds are also able to travel far from the parent generation via organism, rain, wind, etc. seeds are also multicellular. 7. Compare spores with seeds as dispersal stages in plant life cycles. Much like the moss spore, the seed can withstand harsh condition and travel great distances and populate new areas of land. The differences are that moss spores are single celled, have no protective coating and cotyledon. The seed is multicellular and have a protective shell that makes them resistant to harsh conditions. It can also preserve the seed for weeks to years.

8. Explain how climatic changes with the formation of the supercontinent Pangaea favored the spread of gymnosperms. Certain climatic changes with the formation of the supercontinent Pangaea favored the spread of gymnosperms because the land had a lot of warmer and dryer conditions that are perfect for the spread of the gymnosperms. The gametophytes could spread and quickly bloom. 9. List and distinguish among the four phyla of gymnosperms. -Ginkophyta- (present) presently only composed of a single existing species of plants called the Ginkgo biblba. They have fan like leaves that turn a golden yellow shade in the fall. -Cycadophyta- (only in the Mesozoic era) Have large cones that contain seeds and palm like leaves. -Gnetophyta- (present) very diverse. Have three differing genus, Weltwitschia, Gentum, and Ephedr. Weltwitschia have very large strap like leaves. Gentum are tropical and are either trees or vines. Ephedra are shrubs that grow in the African desert. -Coniferophyta. (present) are also known as woody plants. They are the largest of the gymnosperm phylum. the produce cones. 10. Describe the life history of a pine. Indicate which structures are part of the gametophyte generation and which are part of the saprophyte generation. Most conifer species have both ovulate and cones. The tree is a sporophyte that have ovulate cones which have several mega sporangium, female spores. Male spores, microsporophytes are at a separate location not far from the cone and under goes meiosis, producing haploid microspores. The haploid microspores form a pollen tube. The microspore is then taken in b the megosporangium. Four haploid cells are produces but only one survives to form the megaspore. The female egg develops and fertilization can then occur. The seed is the ovule of the plant. 11. Identify the following floral structures and describe a function for each: a. sepal: a form of modified leave whose job is to close and protect the flower until fully matured. b. petal: Another modified leaf that attracts with its bright colors, organisms, preferable insects to help pollinate the species. c. stamen: male organ of the flower and produces pollen. d.carpel: female organ of the flower and produces an ovule. e. filament: The long thin stalk of a stamen. f. anther: Part of ever angiosperm. Part of the male organ of the flower that is the pollen sac of the stamen. There is where pollen is formed. g. stigma: Part of the flower¶s female organ. is a large sticky part of the carpel and is sticky to trap pollen. h. style: part of the female organ of the flower. Like the filament, it is the stalk of the carpel i. ovary: Part of the female organ of the flower. The section of the carpal that contains the eggs and eventually becomes the seed. j. ovule: The structure of the female organ of the flower that develops within the ovary and contains the female gametophytes 12. Define fruit. Explain how fruits may be adapted to disperse seeds. Fruit- The mature ovary of the flowering plant that contains seeds. Is also made to disperse the seeds. The fruits come in many different forms differing upon the species of angiosperm. The fruit could cling onto organisms and travel with the organism. Some are meant to be eaten then released through the organism¶s feces. Fruit could also be dispersed by wind, and water. 13. Explain why a cereal grain is a fruit rather than a seed.

Cereal grains are usually wheat and wheat is a fruit. Upon opening, you will discover the ovary of the wheat plant and see the mature ovary, the seed. 14. Diagram the generalized life cycle of an angiosperm. Indicate which structures are part of the gametophyte generation and which are part of the sporophyte generation.

(Campbell Biology textbook 8th edition) 15. Describe the role of the generative cell and the tube cell within the angiosperm pollen grain. Generative cells first divide to from two sperm cells and a tube cell. The sperm is then used for fertilization and the tube cell produces a pollen tube, a hollow tube that develops from a pollen grain which helps conduct the transport of the sperm to the egg. 16. Explain the process and function of double fertilization. Double fertilization occur sin angiosperms. Two sperm cells fuse with two cells in the embryo sac to form the zygote and endosperm. The endosperm is the tissue in the seed that provides nourishment for the seed and protection. The endosperm is also called cotyledons and also aids in the development of the embryo. 17. Explain the significance of archaefructus. (1990s) Archaefructus fossils were discovered and were dated to be about 125 million years of age. The fossils were angiosperms called Archaefructus liaoningensis and Archaefructus sinensis. The 125 million year old archaefructus may be the first angiosperms. The fossils also demonstrate that the archaefructus originally were herbaceous rather than woody, tree plants. 18. Explain the significance of amborella. The most basic angiosperms have three ancestral lineages. The oldest is the Amborella. The interesting thing about Amborella is that it has no vessels that are found in modern angiosperms. 19. Distinguish between monocots and eudicots. Monocot is a clade of flowering plants. One distinct feature is that they have one cotyledon and eudicots or dicots have two cotyledons. Vascular bundles in the monocot are arranges in a scattered pattern while the eudicot s in a ring pattern. The phloems are located in roots of the xylem in eudicotes and in monocots they are arranged in a ring. Parallel veins are formed in monocot plants and branched veins are created in eudicots.

20. Explain how animals may have influenced the evolution of terrestrial plants and vice versa. Animals that travel on the ground have created a pressure in the soil, or the breading ground of the plant that is favorable to the plant to keep spores and gametophytes off the ground and much out of reach. Insects played a large role in the evolutionary process of plants. Insects are great pollinators of angiosperms. Angiosperms evolved accumulating bright flowers to attract the pollinators. 21. Name the six angiosperms that are most important in the diet of the human species. The six angiosperms that are most important in the diet of human species are wheat, rice, maize, potatoes, cassava, and sweet. They are essential because they contain nutrients that are vital to the regulatory function of our metabolic processes. 22. Describe the current threat to plant diversity caused by human population growth. As the human population gowns there is more room to be needed to live. To make room habitat is needed to be torn apart. As a result species of plants are being extinct at an alarming rate and as a result of the chopping of trees and pollution; habitat in the next upcoming years could be reduced with a really harmful effect on ever ecosystem. Chapter 31 1. List the characteristics that distinguish fungi from members of other multicellular kingdoms. Fungi look like plants but they are not. Instead of obtaining the 3 major organs of the plant, roots, stems, and leaves, the fungi have hyphae. The root system of the fungus does not collect water for photosynthesis because it has no chloroplast. Instead, it excretes enzymes that decompose decaying organic material and uses those molecules for cellular respiration or live in symbiosis with other organisms, preferably plants. Fungus can live in a wide verity of environments and become several thousands of acres large. Funguses also have unique lifecycles that only obtain to fungi. 2. Explain how fungi acquire their nutrients. Funguses obtain nutrients from organic material around it. From the root system of the fungus, excretions of exoenzymes occur. The enzymes break down organic material until the molecules are small enough for the fungus to absorb. Some fungi live as decomposers where they decompose dead and decaying organism or organism waste in the surrounding environment. Some funguses live in symbiotic relationship with other organisms, usually plants. They produce waste that is beneficial for the plant and the plant produces what is beneficial for the fungus to ingest. 3. Describe the basic body plan of a fungus. Fungi are multicellular organism and some are single cellular. Some single cellular fungi work in a mass that could send signals to one another and work as one larger organism like slime molds. Some multicellular fungi could produce fruiting bodies like mushrooms. They have a network of root like filaments called hyphae and together the mass of filaments are called mycelium. This mycelium is responsible for the reason why fungus can extend several acres.

4. Describe the processes of plasmogamy and karyogamy in fungi. Plasmogamy- Combining of cytoplasm of hypae of fungus. It is strictly jus the combining of the cytoplasm the nucleus of the hyphae do not merge. The hyphae must be of different mating type

and the hypha distinguishes the different types by the release of pheromones. Hyphae detect the pheromones and grow towards them and combine. Karyogamy- is the fusion of two different haploid cells creating one diploid cell. The haploid cells are created by meiosis in fungi. The cell will then undergo mitosis and produce a fruiting body that can produce spores. 5. Explain the significance of heterokaryotic stages in fungal life cycles. The different nucleus could interact in the heterokaryotic stages of fungal life cycles. The nucleus could interact and undergo a process like crossing over. This ability to exchange genetic material increases variation of the fungal species. 6. Describe the evidence that suggests that Fungi and Animalia are sister kingdoms. The evidence that fungi and animilia are sister kingdoms were collected using molecular systematic. Using molecular clocks, scientists closely estimated that Fungi and Animalia could have a common ancestor and they diverged off other eukaryotic kingdoms. The molecular systematic also demonstrates that fungi and animals are more closely related than animals to plants or fungi to plants. 7. Explain the possible significance of the flagellated spores of members of the phylum Chytridiomycota. It is logical that flagellated spore is evidence that they evolves from an ancestor with flagellated spores. This information could also imply that members of the phylum Chytridiomycota are the longest branching fungi. However, molecular systematics predicts a potential relationship with the phylum zygomycota that may suggest that chytridiomycota is a paraphyletic group. 8. Describe (draw and label) the black bread mold, Rhizopus stolonifer.

9. Describe two alternate hypotheses to explain the reduced mitochondria of the microsporidia. 1. Microsporidia is one of the forms of eukaryotic organism. They branched off before mitochondria evolved. 2. Microsporidia¶s reduced mitochondria came from mitochondria, and evolved to fit the changing environment (natural selection). 10. Distinguish between ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae. Ectomycorrhizae is when fungi grow sheaths of hyphae around roots of plants usually with a symbiotic relationship with the plant. They also exist in the little channels and spaces between

cells. Endomycorrhizae is when the hyphae grow inside of the cell and grow by breaking through the cell wall. 11. Distinguish among the Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Include a description of the sexual structure that characterizes each group and list some common examples of each group. - Zygomycota- Zygotes fungi can form zygosporangia (the organ of the fungi that produce zygotes) that can withstand tremendous environments and one reason is because they are so small. Some could actually be just one cell big. They reproduce using another organ called sporangium, which releases hundreds to thousands of spores (which are haploid (n)). i.e. Pilobolus. -Ascomycota (sac fungi) form sac like structures called asci, which shoot out spores. Then it germinates in nutrient rich environments. The asci are forms larger structures called the ascocarp, which resembles a bud. i.e. Pezizomycotina Basidiomycota (club fungi) form mushroom reproductive fruiting bodies. They can also produce puffballs that can emit trillions of spores. i.e. Mushrooms and puffballs. 12. Describe some of the roles of fungi in ecosystems. Some fungi are decomposer. The hyphae of the fungi have a symbiotic relationship with the plant(s) they are attached to and they break down organic molecules in soil, dung, etc. Some fungi are parasites. They feed off of plants and animals and eventually kill their host. Some are pathogens and help repel diseases. 13 Describe the structure of lichen. Explain the roles of the fungal component of the lichen. Lichen is a symbiotic system containing fungi and microorganisms (namely cyanobacteria and algae). They often appear to be grey, green, or yellow patches growing on ricks. The fungi in the symbiotic relationship provides a shelter for the algae and such to grow, and for protects, fungi them from predators, and shields them from too much sun. The fungus also provides them with transportation using their reproductive clusters called soredia. 14. Explain how lichens may act as pioneers on newly burned soil or volcanic rock. Lichens are great for detecting and catching nutrients in not only the soil but in the air too. So when volcanoes burn the land, lichens could decompose materials and provide both organic and inorganic materials were new organisms like plants and other fungi could grow. 15. Describe the role of fungi as agricultural pests. Many fungi are parasitic to plants and many of those fungi harm between 10 to 50 percent of agricultural plants. The effects of this parasitic activity greatly harm humans and other animals alike. They are usually poisonous to us and id they end up in our food supply it would be dangerous and even fatal. 16. Define mycosis, and describe some human mycoses. Mycosis- is a fungal infection in an animal. The most common such pathogenic fungus in animals is ringworm (also known as athlete¶s foot). Another example of mycosi is Tinea versicolor. The infection infects the skin of young people, especially the chest, back, and upper arms and legs and is caused that lives in the skin of some adults. 17. Describe three commercial roles played by fungi. Fungi are usually used in or as food. Used to make many types of cheeses by giving them unique acids which gives the cheese their unique flavor. Common in baking, yeast is used to make bread

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and other pastries rise. Yeast is also used to produce alcohol. Fungi genetics can be manipulated to produce cures for diseases like penicillin and modified to produce human glycoprotein like insulin. Mushrooms are a popular crop that we used directly to eat.

Chapter 32 1. List the five characteristics that combine to define animals. Animals are: Eukaryotic: it separates them from archaea and bacteria. It also unites them with all other eukaryotes. Multicellular: This separates animals from unicellular protists, the cells are held together by protein collagen and nerve cells and muscle cells are what separates them from others. Reproduction and development Heterotrophic: They ingest food, which separates them from plant like protists. Life Cycles: Different stages in development in its life. 2. Describe the role of Hox genes in animal development. Hox genes control the expressions of many different genes. This controls cell differentiation which produces many of the animal¶s features. 3. Describe the evidence that suggest animals may have first evolved about one million years ago. Evidence includes molecular data that compared animals with modern day choanflagellates. It revealed the first changes of animals. 4. Explain the significance of the Cambrian explosion. Describe three hypotheses for the cause of the Cambrian explosion. The Cambrian Explosion was a time where many animals began to diversify, creating new species. The first hypothesis about the explosion is that the predators evolved thus creating more natural selection leading up to evolution. The second was the Hox gene and it¶s evolution. The third was that there might have been a rise in atmospheric oxygen which meant the animals would evolve with larger body sizes and faster metabolisms. 5. Outline the major grades of the animal kingdom based on symmetry, embryonic germ layers, the presence or absence and type of coelom, and protostome or deuterostome development. Symmetry can be either lateral or bilateral. There are two different grades that regard embryonic germ layers. Diploblastic, which include ectoderm and endoderm, or triploblastic, which include ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Coelom has three different grades: pseudocolomates which have a coelem formed in the blastocoel, coelomates which is a coelom taken from the the mesoderm tissue and acoelomates, which lack a coelom. Planes of cell division as well as differentiation of cells are what protostome and deuterostome refer to. In protostome development, determinate and spiral cleavage take place. In deutersome development, radical and indeterminate cleavage takes place. 6. Distinguish between radial and bilateral symmetry. Explain how animal symmetry may match the animal¶s way of life. Radial symmetry means that there is only a top and bottom. There is no left or right or anything similar. A jellyfish has a radial body plan since it just drifts and it must be able to equally feel and react from all sides. Bilateral symmetry means that there is a top, bottom, head, tail, which is useful for animals that need to catch prey or escape from predators. 7. Distinguish among the acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, and coelomate grades. Explain the functions of a body cavity. Acoelomate do no have a body cavity. Pseudocoelomates have a body cavity from the blastocoel while coelomates have true coeloms that are formed in the mesoderm tissue. A body cavity cushions organs and allows internal organs to grow without deforming the outer body wall.

8. Distinguish between the following pairs of terms: diploblastic and triploblastic ± Diploblastic is having only two layers of embryonic tissue layers, the ectoderm and endoderm. The triploblastic has a third layer, the mesoderm. spiral and radial cleavage ± Spiral cleavage is when places of cells split in mesoderm from coelom and radical cleavage is when the coelom formation occurs by outgrowth of mesoderm from archenteron. determinate and indeterminate cleavage - Determinate cleavage determines the specialization of each embryonic cell while indeterminate cleavage does this later in the process. schizocoelous and enterocoelous development ± Shizocoelous development is when solid mesoderm slits and grows into the coelomic cavity and enterocoelous development is when the colom buds of from the enterocoelous. 9. Compare the developmental differences between protostomes and deuterostomes, including: pattern of cleavage fate of the blastopore coelom formation In protostome development, there is spiral radical and indeterminate cleavage. The blastopore becomes the mouth and the coelom forms from the mesoderm. In deuterostome development, radial and indeterminate cleavage takes place. The blastopore is the new anus and the coelom forms from budding off the wall of the archenteron. 10. Name five major features of animal phylogenies that are supported by systematic analysis of morphological characters recent molecular studies. 1. All animals have a common ancestor 2. Vertebrates and some other phyla belong to the clade deuterostomia 3. Most animal phyla belong to clade Bilateria 4. Sponges are the deepest branching animals 5. Eumetazoa have true tissues 11. Distinguish between the ecdysozoans and the lophotrochozoans. Describe the characteristic features of each group. Both are protostomes. Lophotrochozans have two larval stages, the lophophore, which is a bunch of tentacles that help with feeding, and trochore larval stages. Ecdysozoans molt as they grow bigger and secrete external skeletons. Chapter 33 1. Identify the parts of a sponge (including the spongocoel, porocyte, epidermis, chaonocyte, mesohyl, amooebocyte, osculu, and spicules and describe the function of each. Spongoceol- the central cavity of a sponge Porocyte- tubular cells which make up the pores of a sponge. Epidermis- the outer most layer of tissue made of tiny packet cells choanocyte- a flagellated feeding cell found in spores. Also called color cell, it has a color-like ring that traps food particles around the base of its flagellum. mesohyl-a gelatinous region between two layers of cells of a sponge. amoebocyteosuluspicules-

2. List the characteristics of the phylum Cnidaria that distinguish it from the other animal phyla. The phylum Cnidaria has cnidocytes and gastrovascular cavity. They come in a medusa or polyp form. Most of them are marine. They have tentacles that are used to strangle food. They have no mesoderm and have radial symmetry. Some are also diploblastic. They have a gastro vascular cavity that works as a mouth and anus. 3. Described the specialized cells that are found in Cnidarians. 4. Describe the two basic body plants in Cndaria and their role in Cndarian life cycles. They have thin bodies (between ventral and dorsal surfaces) and are triploblastic. THe mesoderm contributes to organ systems, but they still have a gastrovascular cavity and absorb nutrients across their body. They also have no body cavity (acoelomate).

5. List four classes of Cndaria and distinguish among the m based on life cycle and morphological characteristics. 6. Distinguish between: a. diploblastic and triploblastic development b. acoelomates and coelomates c. gastrovascular cavity and alimentary canal d. protosome and deuterstome

7. List the characteristics of the phylum platyhelminthes that distinguish it from other phyla. The phylum Platyhelminthes are triploblastic and between their ventral and dorsal surfaces, they have thin bodies. They have no body cavities. They have a gastrovascular cavity though which absorbs nutrients and a mesoderm which supports other organ systems.

8. Distinguish among the four classes of platyhelminthes and give examples of each.

9. Distinguish the generalized life cycle of a trematode and give an example of one fluke that parasitizes humans. The life cycle of a trematode is usually within the body of its host. They use the body to develop and later in their lives, infect it. The Blood Fluke is an example. The blood fluke matures in human blood vessels and then reproduce sexually in humans. The eggs develop into larvae which infect snails and escapes by asexual reproduction. The eggs are usually released from excresions. They then penetrate skin and blood vessels of humans who have come in contact with any of the infected excrement such as contaminated waters. 10. Explain how trematodes evade detection by the immune systems of their hosts.

11. Describe the anatomy and generalized life cycle of a tapeworm Tape worms thrive in intestines. They have hooks and suckers to attach itself the lining of the intestines. It lives by absorbing food from its host but does not have a digestive track. It has something called the proglottids which are its sex organs. Tape Worm eggs are often released with excrement, which can contaminate food or water or susceptible hosts. One example are pigs. The worm digs into muscles of pigs and when humans eat the contaminated meat, if undercooked, the worms develop inside the human. 12. Describe unique features of rotifers that distinguish them from other pseudocoelomates.

13. Define parthenogenesis and describe asexual forms of rotifer reproduction. When a female produces unfertilized eggs and the eggs develop into female. Sometimes they produce a male that only lives long enough to fertilize the females. The eggs zygotes are very resistant to harsh conditions but when the conditions are right, more parthogenisis occurs. 14. Define lophophore and list three lophophorate phyla.

15. List the distinguishing characteristics of the phylum Nemertea.

16. Explain the relationship between proboscis worms and flatworms.

17. List the characteristics that distinguish the phylum Mollusca from the other animal phyla. Mollusca are soft bodied however some have a hard shell made out of calcium carbonate for protection. Most of them are marine organisms. Mollusca like octopi have reduced or no shell. They instead have a mantle that protects their visceral mass, which contains most of their organs and have radula to collect food. 18. Describe the basic body plan of a mollusk and explain how it has been modified in the Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, Gastropoda, and Polyplacophora.

19. List the characteristics that distinguish the phylum Annelida from the other animal phyla.

20. Distinguish among the classes of Annelida and give examples of each.

21. Describe the adaptations that enable some leeches to feed on blood.

22. List the characteristics of the phylum Nematoda that distinguish it from other wormlike animals. Nematoda have cylinder like bodies and have a tough exoskeleton that sheds. They have no circulatory system but things like nutrients are transported by fluid in their pseudcoelom. They have a complete digestive track. They can sexually reproduce as well. 23. Give examples of both parasitic and free-living species of nematodes. An example of a parasitic nematode is called trichinosis. A host can acquire it by eating undercooked meat. They develop in the intestine and can then spread throughout the body, destroying and reproducing in the intestines, muscles and skeletal system. A free living worm like round worms help with nutrient cycles. They also help with decomposition. They are not studied much but they can be found decomposing organic matter in damp soil or in the on the bottom of bodies of water. 24. List the characteristics of arthropods that distinguish them from the other animal phyla. List three features that account for the success of this phylum. Arthropods have exoskeletons made of protein and chitin and toughness ranges from thick and hard to soft and flexible. Their bodies have appendages and are segmented. In order to grow they molt. Their success is due to things like their specialized organs which is for gas exchange. They are very similar to gills. They have an open circulatory system. Hemolymph is propelled by a heart through arteries and its sinuses and all its other systems. It soon reenters the heart through valves are pores. Its hard exoskeletons are not porous and water cannot enter it. 25. Describe advantages and disadvantages of an exoskeleton. Exoskeletons are usually very strong and can be water proof. It provides a great about of protection. However, it can prevent growth. In oder to grow, organisms need to molt and shed the skeleton. Molting also leaves the animal vulnerable to attacks because of the amount of energy and time it takes up. 26. Distinguish between hemocoel and coelom.

27. Define and distinguish between the major independent arthropod lines of evolution represented by: a. Cheliceriformes b. Hexaphoda c. Crustacea d. Myriapoda

28. Describe the different views regarding the relationship between arthropods and annelids. Some believe that arthopods evolved from an annelid ancestor. Some believe that they have a common ancestor. There isn¶t enough evidence, however to confirm and of these belifs. Biologists also are not convinced by the molecular evidence. However there is enough data not to rule the beliefs out.

29. Describe the basic mechanism for the development of segmented bodies.

30. List the characteristics of echinoderms that distinguish them from other animal phyla.

31. Distinguish among the six classes of echinoderms and give examples of each.

32. Explain why the phylum Chordata is included in a chapter on invertebrates.

33. Describe the developmental similarities between echinoderms and chordates.

Chapter 34 1. Distinguish between the phyla of deuterostomes. The phyla of deuterostomes include the chordates which have no backbone and the nonvertebrate chordates, which have a notochord but have no backbone. 2. Describe the four derived traits that define the phylum Chordata. 1) They have a single hollow nerve chord. 2) They have a flexible notochord at some point. 3) They have a post anal tail 4) They have pharyngeal pouches that connect the pharynx and the esophagus. 3. Distinguish among the three subphyla of the phylum Chordata and give examples of each. The three subphyla are the vertebrates and two phyla of invertebrates, the urochordates and the cephalochrdates. Vertebrates have a vertebral column instead of a notochord and a well differentiated head. An example would be fish, which were the first and most diverse vertebrate groups. Tunicates, which are members of the Urochordata, are suspension feeders. They use their tail muscles and notochord to swim through the water and when its an adult, its tail and notochord are reabsorbed and its nervous system degenerates. Lancelets, which are members of the cephalochordate, are shaped like a blade. The notochord is dorsal and hollow. It also has many gill slits. 4. Discuss the evidence for and against Garstag¶s hypothesis that vertebrates had tunicatelike ancestor.

5. Explain what lancets suggest about the evolution of the chordate brain.

6. Discuss the importance of genetic duplication in chordate evolution.

7. explain the fate of the neural crest cells in craniates development.

8. explain what haikouella and haiouchthys tell us about craniates evolution.

9. describe the way of life and unique characters of the lamprey.

10. describe the conodonts, and explain why they are considered vertebrates.

11. describe the trends in mineralized structures in early vertebrates.

12. Explain one hypothesis for the evolution of the jaws of gnathostomes.

13. List the shared, derived characters that characterize gnathostomes.

14. describe the evidence that suggests that the loss of bone in Chondrichthys is a derived feature.

15. Describe the features of sharks that are adaptive for their active, predatory lifestyle.

16. Describe and distinguish between Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes, noting the main traits of each group.

17. Identify and describe the main subgroups of Osteichthyes.

18. Name the three living lineages of lobe-fins.

19. Define and distinguish between gnathostomes, tetrapods, and amniotes.

20. Explain what Acanthostega suggest about the origin of tetrapods.

21. Describe the common traits of amphibians and distinguish among the three orders of living amphibians. -circulatory and respiratory adaptations -digestive and excretory adaptations

-reproductive adaptations -vocalizations

22. Describe an amniotic egg and explain its significance in the evolution of reptiles and mammals.

23. Explain why the reptile clade includes birds.

24. Describe a number of reptile features that are adaptive for life on land. -circulatory and respiratory adaptations -external adaptations -digestive and excretory adaptations -reproductive adaptations

25. Explain why non-bird reptiles should be called ³ectothermic´ rather than ³coldblooded.´

26. Define and describe parareptiles.

27. Distinguish between the lepidosaurs and the archosaurs.

28. Compare the interpretations of dinosaurs as ectotherms or endotherms.

29. Describe the specialized adaptations of snakes that make them successful predators.

30. List the modifications of birds that are adaptive for flight. -respiratory adaptations -skeletal adaptations

31. Summarize the evidence supporting the hypothesis that birds evolved from theropod dinosaur ancestors.

32. Explain the significance of Archaeopteryx.

33. Describe the characteristic derived characters of mammals. 34. Describe the evolutionary origin of mammals.

35. Distinguish among monotreme, marsupial, and eutherian mammals.

36. Describe the adaptive radiation of mammals during the Cretaceous and early Teriary periods.

37. Compare and contrast the four main evolutionary clades of eutherian mammals. 38. Describe the general characteristics of primates. Note in particular the features associated with an arboreal existence.

39. Distinguish between the two subgroups of primates and describe their early evolutionary relationship.

40. Distinguish between hominoid and hominid.

41. Explain what Sahelanthropus tells us about hominid evolution.

42. Describe the evolution of Homo sapiens from autrolopith ancestors. Clarify the order in which distinctive human traits arose.