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# Solubility page 1

## The Advanced Placement

Examination in Chemistry
Part II - Free Response Questions & Answers
1970 to 2005

## Solubility & Ksp

Solubility page 2
(b) initial mol Ba = (0.060 mol/L)(0.100L) = 0.0060
2+

1971 mol
Solve the following problem initial mol IO3- = (0.150L)(0.120 mol/L) = 0.0180
AgBr(s) → Ag+(aq) + Br-(aq) Ksp = 3.3× 10-13 mol
Ag (aq) + 2 NH3(aq) → Ag(NH3)2 (aq)
+ +
K = 1.7× 10+7
after reaction, essentially all Ba2+ reacts while IO3-
(a) How many grams of silver bromide, AgBr, can be = {0.0180 - (2)(0.0060)} mol = 0.0060 mol/0.250
dissolved in 50 milliliters of water? L = 0.024M [IO3-]
(b) How many grams of silver bromide can be − 10
K sp 6 . 5 ∞1 0
dissolved in 50 milliliters of 10 molar ammonia [ Ba
2+
] = = = 1 . 1 ∞1 0
−6
M
− 2 2
solution? [ IO 3 ] ( 0 . 024 )
Answer: −6 2+
1 . 1 ∞1 0 mol 137340 mg Ba
(a) [Ag+][Br-] = Ksp = 3.3× 10-13 = X2 ∞ =
100 0 mL 1 mol
X = 5.7× 10-7 M = [Ag+] = mol/L AgBr that dissolve
−7 = 1.5× 10-4 mg / mL Ba2+
5 . 7 ∞1 0 mol A gBr 187 . 8 g A gBr
0 . 050 L ∞ ∞ =
1 L 1 mol A gBr
1973 D
= 5.4× 10 g AgBr
-6 The molar solubility of silver bromide is diminished
(b) AgBr(s) → Ag+(aq) + Br-(aq) Ksp = 3.3× 10-13 by the addition of a small amount of solid potassium
bromide to a saturated solution. However, the molar
Ag+(aq) + 2 NH3(aq) → Ag(NH3)2+(aq) K = 1.7× 10+7 solubility of silver bromide is increased by the
------------------------------------------ addition of solid potassium nitrate, a salt whose ions
AgBr + 2 NH3 → Ag(NH3)2+ + Br- are not common to those of silver bromide.
K = Ksp× K = 5.6× 10-6 Explain these experimental observations in terms of
the principles involved.
[Ag(NH3)2+] = [Br-] = X M; [NH3] = (10 - 2X) M Answer:
+ −
[ Ag ( NH 3 ) ][ Br ] X _X −6 AgBr(s) ↔ Ag+(aq) + Br-(aq); As KBr dissolves, the
K = = = 5 . 6 ∞1 0
[ NH 3 ]
2
(10 − 2 X )
2 concentration of Br- ions increase and force the
equilibrium to shift to the left (LeChatelier’s principle)
X = 2.4× 10-2 M = [Br-] = mol/L dissolved AgBr where the concentrations of the ions in solution
(2.4× 10-2 mol/L)(187.8 g/mol)(0.050 L) = 0.22 g decrease and less can dissolve.
AgBr The diverse (“uncommon”) ion effect – “the salt
effect”. As the total ionic concentration of a solution
increases, interionic attractions become more
1972 D
important. Activities become smaller than the
(a) How many moles of Ba(IO3)2 is contained in 1.0 stoichiometric or measured concentrations. For the
liter of a saturated solution of this salt at 25°. Ksp ions involved in the solution process this means that a
of Ba(IO3)2 = 6.5× 10-10 higher concentration must appear in solution before
(b) When 0.100 liter of 0.060 molar Ba(NO3)2 and equilibrium is established. - the solubility must
0.150 liter of 0.12 molar KIO3 are mixed at 25°C, increase.
how many milligrams of barium ion remains in
each milliliter of the solution? Assume that the 1977 D
volumes are additive and that all activity The solubility of Zn(OH)2 is not the same in the
coefficients are unity. following solutions as it is in pure water. In each case
Answer: state whether the solubility is greater or less than that
(a) Ba(IO3)2 ↔ Ba2+ + 2 IO3- in water and briefly account for the change in
solubility.
Ksp = [Ba2+][IO3-]2 = 6.5× 10-10
(a) 1-molar HCl (c) 1-molar NaOH
[Ba2+] = X; [IO3-] = 2X; (X)(2X)2 = 6.5× 10-10 (b) 1-molar Zn(NO3)2 (d) 1-molar NH3
X = 5.5× 10-4 M = mol/L of dissolved Ba(IO3)2 Answer:
Solubility page 3
(a) greater: Zn(OH)2(s) + 2 H → Zn + 2 H2O
+ 2+
such complexes.
(b) lower: increased [Zn2+] decreases [OH-] and (d) Al(OH)3(s) + OH- → Al(OH)4- (or similar)
decreases the amount of Zn(OH)2 in solution. Ksp Al(OH)3 is amphoteric. The product is a
=[Zn2+][OH-]2 hydroxoaluminate ion, Fe(OH)3 is not amphoteric.
(c) greater: Zn(OH)2(s) + 2 OH- → Zn(OH)42- (Can also
site common ion effect) 1987 D
(d) greater: Zn(OH)2(s) + 4 NH3 → Zn(NH3)42+ + OH- In 1884 the Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius
proposed that salts dissociate into two or more
[IO3-] = 0.210 M since the volume is 1.00 L
separate, independent, ionic fragments when they
Ksp = [Pb2+][IO3-]2 = 2.6× 10-13 = [Pb2+](0.210)2 dissolve in water.
[Pb2+] = 5.8× 10-12 M (a) Give one piece of experimental evidence that
more than 1 mole of particles is formed when 1
1980 D mole of a salt dissolves in water.
Account for the differences in solubility described in (b) Give one piece of experimental evidence that the
each of the following experimental observations: particles formed when a salt dissolves in water are
(a) BaCO3, BaSO3, and BaSO4 are only slightly charged.
soluble in water, but the first two dissolve in HCl(c) Explain why the heat of neutralization is always
solution whereas BaSO4 does not. the same when 1 mole of any monoprotic strong
(b) CuS cannot be dissolved by warm dilute HCl but acid reacts with enough strong base to form a
it does dissolve in warm dilute HNO3. neutral solution.
(c) AgCl, Hg2Cl2 and PbCl2 are only slightly soluble (d) Explain why hydrogen chloride, HCl, dissociated
in water, but AgCl does dissolve in ammonia when it dissolves in water but not when it
solution whereas the other two do not. dissolves in benzene.
(d) Fe(OH)3 and Al(OH)3 are only slightly soluble in Answer:
water, but Al(OH)3 dissolves in concentrated (a) The freezing point depression (or any colligative
NaOH whereas Fe(OH)3 does not. effect) that occurs when a mole of a salt is
Answer: dissolved is greater than when a mole of a non-
dissociated substance is dissolved. (The greater
(a) BaCO3(s) ↔ Ba2+ + CO32-
the number of solute particles the greater the
BaSO3(s) ↔ Ba2+ + SO32- colligative effect.)
BaSO4(s) ↔ Ba2+ + SO42- (b) The solution of a salt conducts electricity.
Dissolving takes place if equilibrium is shifted to(c) Every neutralization between a strong acid and a
the right. strong base involves the same reaction:
CO32- + H+ → HCO3- + H+ → H2O + CO2(g) H+(aq) + OH-(aq) → H2O
SO32- + H+ → HSO3- + H+ → H2O + SO2(g) since both the strong acid and the strong base are
In these two cases, equilibrium is shifted to the completely dissociated. Spectator ions have no
right by the production of a removed product (a appreciable effect.
gas). (d) Because of the polar nature of water, it is capable
SO42- + H+ do not react since SO42- is a weak of solvating the ions that result from the
Bronsted base. dissociation, whereas the nonpolar benzene
interacts very weakly with these ions. OR
(b) Warm dilute HNO3 oxidizes S2- to S° (or higher).
This reaction shifts the equilibrium between Because of the greater dielectric constant of water,
CuS(s) and its ions toward the ions. it is better able to separate the ions.
(c) AgCl(s) + 2 NH3 → [Ag(NH3)2]+ + Cl-
1989 D
silver ions complex with ammonia to form the Consider three unlabeled bottles, each contain small
soluble [Ag(NH3)2]+, neither Hg22+ nor Pb2+ form pieces of one of the following metals.
Solubility page 4
- Magnesium (c) Calculate the pH of a saturated solution of
- Sodium Fe(OH)2 at 25°C.
- Silver (d) A 50.0 millilitre sample of 3.00× 10-3 molar FeSO4
The following reagents are used for identifying the solution is added to 50.0 millilitres of 4.00× 10-6
metals. molar NaOH solution. Does a precipitate of
- Pure water Fe(OH)2 form? Explain and show calculations to
- A solution of 1.0 molar HCl support your answer.
- A solution of concentrated HNO3 Answer:
(a) Which metal can be easily identified because it is (a) Fe(OH)2 → Fe2+ + 2 OH-
much softer than the other two? Describe a
chemical test that distinguishes this metal from 10−
1.43× 3g 1 mol
× = 10−
1.59 × 5 mol
L Fe(OH)2
the other two, using only one of the reagents L 89.9 g
above. Write a balanced chemical equation for the (b)
reaction that occurs. = 1.59× 10-5 M = [Fe2+]
(b) One of the other two metals reacts readily with the = 3.18× 10-5 M = [OH-]
HCl solution. Identify the metal and write the Ksp = [Fe2+][OH-]2 = (1.59× 10-5)(3.18× 10-5)2
balanced chemical equation for the reaction that
= 1.61× 10-14
occurs when this metal is added to the HCl
− 14 − 14
solution. Use the table of standard reduction + 1 . 0 ∞1 0 1 . 0 ∞1 0 −10
[H ] = = = 3 . 14 ∞ 1 0 M
potentials (attached) to account for the fact that [ OH

] 3 . 18 ∞ 1 0
− 5

this metal reacts with HCl while the other does (c)
not. pH = -log[H+] = 9.50
(c) The one remaining metal reacts with the OR
concentrated HNO3 solution. Write a balanced pOH = -log[OH-] = -log(3.18× 10-8) = 4.50
chemical equation for the reaction that occurs.
pH = 14 - pOH = 9.50
(d) The solution obtained in (c) is diluted and a few
drops of 1 M HCl is added. Describe what would (d) 50.0 mL of 3.00× 10-3 M Fe2+ diluted of 100.0 mL
be observed. Write a balanced chemical equation = 1.50× 10-3 M Fe2+
for the reaction that occurs. 50.0 mL of 4.00× 10-6 M OH- diluted of 100.0 mL
Answer: = 2.00× 10-6 M OH-
(a) Sodium is softest of the three. Q = [Fe2+][OH-]2 = (1.50× 10-3)(2.00× 10-6)2
Na added to water → gas and base = 6.00× 10-15
Na + H2O → H2 + NaOH Precipitate will NOT form since Q < Ksp
(b) Mg reacts with HCl. Mg + 2 H+ → Mg2+ + H2
1995 D (repeated in the thermo section)
Reduction potentials, E°: Mg = -2.37v; Ag = + Lead iodide is a dense, golden yellow, slightly soluble
0.80v. Mg, not Ag, reacts with HCl solid. At 25°C, lead iodide dissolves in water forming
(c) Ag + 4 H+ + NO3- → 3 Ag+ + NO + 2 H2O OR a system represented by the following equation.
Ag + 2 H + NO3 → Ag + NO2 + H2O
+ - +
PbI2(s) ↔ Pb2+ + 2 I- ∆H = +46.5 kilojoules
(d) A white precipitate forms: Ag+ + Cl- → AgCl(s) (a) How does the entropy of the system PbI2(s) +
H2O(l) change as PbI2(s) dissolves in water at 25°C?
1990 A Explain
The solubility of iron(II) hydroxide, Fe(OH)2, is (b) If the temperature of the system were lowered
1.43× 10-3 gram per litre at 25°C. from 25°C to 15°C, what would be the effect on
(a) Write a balanced equation for the solubility the value of Ksp? Explain.
equilibrium. (c) If additional solid PbI2 were added to the system
(b) Write the expression for the solubility product at equilibrium, what would be the effect on the
constant, Ksp, and calculate its value. concentration of I- in the solution? Explain.
Solubility page 5
(d) At equilibrium, ∆G = 0. What is the initial effect established. Assume that volumes are
on the value of ∆G of adding a small amount of additive.
Pb(NO3)2 to the system at equilibrium? Explain. Answer
Answer: (a)i Cu(OH)2 → Cu2+ + 2 OH-
(a) Entropy increases. At the same temperature, 1 . 72 ∞ 10
−6
g 1 mol − 7 mol
liquids and solids have a much lower entropy than ∞ = 1 . 76 ∞ 10
0 . 10 0 L 97.5 g L
do aqueous ions. Ions in solutions have much ii
greater “degrees of freedom and randomness”. iii Ksp = [Cu2+][OH-]2
(b) Ksp value decreases. Ksp = [Pb2+][I-]2. As the = [1.76× 10-7][3.53× 10-8]2 = 2.20× 10-20
temperature is decreased, the rate of the forward
(endothermic) reaction decreases resulting in a net
(b)i Zn(OH)2 → Zn2+ + 2 OH-
decrease in ion concentration which produces a Ksp = [Zn2+][OH-]2
smaller Ksp value. pH 9.35 = pOH 4.65; [OH-] = 10-pOH
(c) No effect. The addition of more solid PbI 2 does [OH-] = 10-4.65 = 2.24× 10-5 M
not change the concentration of the PbI2 which is
[Zn2+] = solubility of Zn(OH)2 in mol/L
a constant (at constant temperature), therefore,
−17
neither the rate of the forward nor reverse reaction 2+
K sp 7 . 7 ∞ 10 −7
[Zn ]= = = 1 . 5 ∞ 10 M
is affected and the concentration of iodide ions [OH –
]2

( 2 . 24 ∞ 10 5 ) 2
remains the same.
50 mL
(d) ∆G increases. Increasing the concentration of Pb2+
ions causes a spontaneous increase in the reverse ii [Zn2+] = 0.100M ×
init
100 mL = 0.0500 M
reaction rate (a “shift left” according to 50 mL
LeChatelier’s Principle). A reverse reaction is [OH-] = 0.300M × 100 mL = 0.150 M
spontaneous when the ∆G>0.
init

## X = conc. loss to get to equilibrium

1998 A (Required) Ksp = 7.7× 10-17 = (0.0500 - X)(0.150 - 2X)2
Solve the following problem related to the solubility [Zn2+] = 0.0500 - X = 3.1× 10-14M
equilibria of some metal hydroxides in aqueous
solution. 2001 A Required
(a) The solubility of Cu(OH)2(s) is 1.72× 10-6 gram per Answer the following questions relating to the
100. milliliters of solution at 25°C. solubility of the chlorides of silver and lead.
(i) Write the balanced chemical equation for the (a) At 10°C, 8.9 × 10-5 g of AgCl(s) will dissolve in
dissociation of Cu(OH)2(s) in aqueous 100. mL of water.
solution.
(ii) Calculate the solubility (in moles per liter) of (i) Write the equation for the dissociation of
Cu(OH)2 at 25°C. AgCl(s) in water.
(iii) Calculate the value of the solubility-product (ii) Calculate the solubility, in mol L–1, of AgCl(s)
constant, Ksp, for Cu(OH)2 at 25°C. in water at 10°C.
(b) The value of the solubility-product constant, Ksp, (iii) Calculate the value of the solubility-product
for Zn(OH)2 is 7.7× 10-17 at 25°C. constant, Ksp for AgCl(s) at 10°C.
(i) Calculate the solubility (in moles per liter) of (b) At 25°C, the value of Ksp for PbCl2(s) is 1.6 × 10-5
Zn(OH)2 at 25°C in a solution with a pH of and the value of Ksp for AgCl(s) is 1.8 × 10-10.
9.35.
(i) If 60.0 mL of 0.0400 M NaCl(aq) is added to
(ii) At 25°C, 50.0 milliliters of 0.100-molar
Zn(NO3)2 is mixed with 50.0 milliliters of 60.0 mL of 0.0300 M Pb(NO3)2(aq), will a
0.300-molar NaOH. Calculate the molar precipitate form? Assume that volumes are
concentration of Zn2+(aq) in the resulting additive. Show calculations to support your
solution once equilibrium has been answer.
Solubility page 6
(ii) Calculate the equilibrium value of [Pb 2+(aq) ] (c) Calculate the maximum mass in grams of
in 1.00 L of saturated PbCl2 solution to which Ag2CrO4 that can dissolve in 100. mL of water at
0.250 mole of NaCl(s) has been added. 25˚C.
Assume that no volume change occurs. (d) A 0.100 mol sample of solid AgNO3 is added to
(iii) If 0.100 M NaCl(aq) is added slowly to a 1.00 L saturated solution of Ag2CrO4. Assuming
beaker containing both 0.120 M AgNO3(aq) no volume change, does [CrO42–] increase, de-
and 0.150 M Pb(NO3)2(aq) at 25°C, which will
crease, or remain the same? Justify your answer.
precipitate first, AgCl(s) or PbCl2(s)? Show
calculations to support your answer. In a saturated solution of Ag3PO4 at 25˚C, the concen-
Answer: tration of Ag+ is 5.3× 10–5 M. The equilibrium constant
(a) (i) AgCl → Ag+ + Cl– expression for the dissolving of Ag3PO4 is shown be-
low:
(ii) × = 6.2 × 10-6 M
Ksp = [Ag+]3[PO43–]
(iii) Ksp = [Ag+]•[Cl–] = (6.2 × 10-6)2 = 3.9 × 10-11
(e) Write the balanced equation for the dissolving of
(b) (i) No
Ag3PO4 in water.
× = 0.0200 M [Cl–]
(f) Calculate the value of Ksp for Ag3PO4 in water.
× = 0.0150 M [Pb+]
(g) A 1.00 L sample of saturated Ag3PO4 solution is
trial Ksp = [Pb2+]•[Cl–]2 = (0.0150)(0.0200)2 =
allowed to evaporate at 25˚C to a final volume of
6.0× 10-6; trial Ksp < Ksp, no ppt.
500. mL. What is [Ag+] in the solution? Justify
(ii) Ksp = [Pb2+]•[Cl–]2, [Pb2+] = Ksp/[Cl–]2 your answer.
[Pb2+] = = 2.6× 10-4 M Answer:
(iii) AgCl (a) Ksp = [Ag+]2[Cr2O72–]
[Cl–] = = = 1.5× 10-9 M (b) [Cr O 2–] = X; [Ag+] = 2X
2 7
PbCl2
(2X)2(X) = Ksp = 2.6× 10–12
Ks
p 1.

1
0−
5

[
P
b+
2=
] 0
.1
5
0
X = 8.7× 10–5 mol L–1
[Cl ] =
– = 0.0103 M 2X = [Ag+] = 1.7× 10–4 mol L–1

AgCl will form a ppt when the [Cl ] exceeds
(c) amt. Ag2CrO4 = X = 8.7× 10–5 mol L–1
1.5× 10-9 M. The formation of PbCl2(s) requires a
[Cl–] that is over 6 million times more (8.7× 10–5 mol L–1)(331.74 g mol–1) =
concentrated.
= 0.0287 g L–1
2004 A Required
in 100 mL, 100 mL × = 0.0029 g
Answer the questions relating to the solubility’s of two
silver compounds, Ag2CrO4 and Ag3PO4 (d) decrease, since the silver nitrate dissolves and pro-
duces an increase in [Ag+], this causes a LeChate-
Silver chromate dissociates in water according to the
lier shift to the left and results in a decrease in the
following equation:
products, including chromate ions
Ag2CrO4(s) ↔ 2 Ag+(aq) + CrO42–(aq)
(e) Ag3PO4(s) → 3 Ag+(aq) + PO43–(aq)
Ksp = 2.6× 10–12 at 25˚C
(f) [PO43–] =
(a) Write the equilibrium constant expression for the
dissolving of Ag2CrO4. Ksp = [Ag+]3[PO43–] = (5.3× 10–5)3( )
(b) Calculate the concentration in mol L–1, of Ag+ in a = 2.6× 10–18
saturated solution of Ag2CrO4 at 25˚C. (g) [Ag+] = 5.3× 10–5 M. In a saturated solution the
molar concentration is independent of the total
Solubility page 7
volume. As the volume evaporates and becomes ⊇ 0 . 10 mol ) _ − 7 − 6
= ( y )ℑ = 7 . 6 ∞1 0 ; y = 7 . 6 ∞1 0 M
half, half of the Ag+ will precipitate out. ⊄ 1 .0 L ↓

## Since 2.0× 10-6 M < 7.6× 10-6 M, SrF2 must

FROM OTHER PACKET: precipitate first.
When SrF2 precipitates, [Sr2+] = 2.0× 10-6 M
1985 A (d) The second precipitate to form is SrSO4, which
At 25ºC the solubility product constant, Ksp, for appears when [Sr2+] = 7.6× 10-6 M (based on
strontium sulfate, SrSO4, is 7.6× 10 . The solubility
-7
calculations in Part c.)
product constant for strontium fluoride, SrF2, is When [Sr2+] = 7.6× 10-6 M, [F-] is determined as
7.9× 10 .-10
follows:
(a) What is the molar solubility of SrSO4 in pure Ksp = [Sr2+][F-]2 = 7.9× 10-10
water at 25ºC?
= (7.6× 10-6)(z)2 = 7.9× 10-10 ; z = 1.0× 10-2 M
(b) What is the molar solubility of SrF 2 in pure water -2
1.0 ∞ 10
at 25ºC? −
% F still in solution = ∞ 100 = 50 .%
−2
(c) An aqueous solution of Sr(NO3)2 is added slowly 2 . 0 ∞ 10
to 1.0 litre of a well-stirred solution containing
0.020 mole F- and 0.10 mole SO42- at 25ºC. (You 1994 A
may assume that the added Sr(NO3)2 solution does MgF2(s) ↔ Mg2+(aq) + 2 F-(aq)
not materially affect the total volume of the In a saturated solution of MgF2 at 18ºC, the
system.) concentration of Mg2+ is 1.21× 10-3 molar. The
1. Which salt precipitates first? equilibrium is represented by the equation above.
2. What is the concentration of strontium ion, (a) Write the expression for the solubility-product
Sr2+, in the solution when the first precipitate constant, Ksp, and calculate its value at 18ºC.
begins to form? (b) Calculate the equilibrium concentration of Mg2+ in
(d) As more Sr(NO3)2 is added to the mixture in (c) a 1.000 liter of saturated MgF2 solution at 18ºC to
second precipitate begins to form. At that stage, which 0.100 mole of solid KF has been added.
what percent of the anion of the first precipitate The KF dissolves completely. Assume the volume
remains in solution? change is negligible.
Answer: (c) Predict whether a precipitate of MgF2 will form
(a) SrSO4(s) ↔ Sr2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) when 100.0 milliliters of a 3.00× 10-3-molar
Mg(NO3)2 solution is mixed with 200.0 milliliters
At equilibrium: [Sr2+] = X M = [SO42-] of a 2.00× l0-3-molar NaF solution at 18ºC.
X2 = Ksp = 7.6× 10-7 Calculations to support your prediction must be
X = 8.7× 10 mol/L, solubility of SrSO4
-4 shown.
(b) SrF2(s) ↔ Sr2+(aq) + 2 F-(aq) (d) At 27ºC the concentration of Mg2+ in a saturated
solution of MgF2 is 1.17× 10-3 molar. Is the
At equilibrium: [Sr2+] = X M = [F-] = 2X M
dissolving of MgF2 in water an endothermic or an
KSP = [Sr2+][F-]2 = (X)(2X)2 = 7.9× 10-10 exothermic process? Give an explanation to
X = 5.8× 10-4 mol/L, solubility of SrF2 support your conclusion.
(c) Solve for [Sr2+] required for precipitation of each Answer:
salt. (a) Ksp = [Mg2+][F-]2 = (1.21× 10-3)(2.42× 10-3)2
Ksp = [Sr2+][F-]2 = 7.9× 10-10 = 7.09× 10-9

( 0 . 020 mol ) _
2
− 10 − 6 (b) X = concentration loss by Mg2+ ion
= ( x )ℑ = 7 . 9 ∞10 ; x = 2 . 0 ∞1 0 M
⊄ 1 .0 L ↓ 2X = concentration loss by F- ion
Ksp = [Sr2+][SO42-] = 7.6× 10-7 [Mg2+] = (1.21× 10-3 - X) M
[F-] = (0.100 + 2.42× 10-3 - 2X) M
Solubility page 8
since X is a small number then (0.100 + 2.42× 10
-3
trial Ksp = (1.00× 10 )(1.33× 10 ) = 1.78× 10-9
-3 -3 2

## - 2X) ≈ 0.100 trial Ksp < = 7.09× 10-9, ∴no ppt.

Ksp = 7.09× 10-9 = (1.21× 10-3 - X)(0.100)2 (d) @ 18ºC, 1.21× 10-3 M MgF2 dissolves
X = 1.2092914× 10 -3
@ 27ºC, 1.17× 10-3 M MgF2 dissolves
[Mg ]= 1.21× 10 -1.20929× 10 = 7.09× 10 M
2+ -3 -3 -7
MgF2 ↔ Mg2+ + 2 F- + heat
(c) [Mg2+] = 3.00× 10-3M × 100.0 mL/300.0 mL = dissolving is exothermic; if heat is increased it
1.00× 10-3M forces the equilibrium to shift left (according to
[F-] = 2.00× 10-3 M × 200.0 mL/300.0 mL = LeChatelier’s Principle) and less MgF2 will
1.33× 10 M
-3
dissolve.