Bicol University College of Science Department of Biology

LABORATORY ACTIVITY 2

OSMOREGULATION

Date performed: January 18, 2011

Performed by: Zarieh Dawn L. Novela BS Biology 3A

in parks or fields. you will find them stretched out in the surface of the ground with their posterior ends inside their burrows. 5. Use a flashlight to help locate them in patches of grass. They may pop back into the ground when you appear. B. In groups of five.12 M. OBJECTIVES • • Observe the effect of salinity on changes in the volume and weight of earthworms Use the earthworms as model for explaining basic osmoregulatory mechanisms MATERIALS AND METHOD I. Digging for worms. There are some areas where one will find many worms and others where worms will be quite scarce. 3. or a box containing some damp soil and some moist leaves or grass. Heavy rain drives the worms to the surface where they may be seen crawling on the ground. It is preferable to dig for worms after heavy rain. tumble them on paper towels to remove excess soil. Time your preparation so that after the sixth hour. You may have plenty in your garden. Actually. you may dig for them preferably at places where the soil is loose. The best time to hunt for worms is on a damp night when it is not too cold. When you reach home. Collect at least 30 earthworms (of more or less the same size) for this experiment. The worms in the . or in lawns. This group of higher invertebrates possesses a number of highly developed organs and organ-systems for performing various vital functions. Bring the worms to the laboratory in an uncovered can or glass jar. you are to start with the experiment in the laboratory. worms come up from their flooded burrows below the ground.INTRODUCTION The earthworm belongs to the phylum Annelida. 0. You will use five containers with five worms each. place them in separate containers with rain or aged tap water (with the heavy chlorine removed).09 M. 006 M. 0. 0. Preparation A. Usually. One of the most important is nephridia where in one of its function is the regulation of osmotic pressure in the body in order to maintain constant water.14 M and 0. is not equally successful in the different parts of the garden or field. It is also suggested that you record your field observations of the worms’ behavior. If you collect during the day.03 M.15 M. 2. Note: you will be immersing the worms in these different media and observing for their osmoregulatory responses. 4. Earthworm 1. Reagents • Six salt solutions of the following concentrations: 0. however.

44 g NaCl) = 0. At the end of the experiment. This was to observe the osmoregulatory response of earthworms.06 M NaCl M1V1 = M2V2 V1 = M2V2 / M1 = (0. After you have determined the weight and volume of each group. Weigh the worms in groups of five and place them in separate containers with aged tap water. 3. Using graphs show the relationship between osmotic concentration of the medium and the weight and volume changes exhibited by the animals throughout the duration of the experiment. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION We have collected earthworms and grouped it into 5 and placed it in different containers with different salt concentration. make graphs to depict the relationship between percentage weight change or percentage volume change through time and the osmotic concentration of the medium. Record your results in the table below. 2.67 ml .33 ml *0. 5.00007.03 M)(50 ml) / (0. 7.09 M NaCl Moles of solute = (molarity)(liter of solution) = (0. determine the volume of each group by volume displacement in a graduated cylinder containing water.0045 moles NaCl) (1 mole NaCl / 58. Weigh at the end of 15 and 30 minutes.05 L) ` = 0. plot weight or volume change against time with a color or symbol legend for the different experimental groups. 4. 6.06 M)(50 ml) / (0. determine their volume. 0. Similarly.7 g of NaCl *0. II.sixth container are extras for possible replacements if death takes place during the six hours of immersion in tap water.0045 moles of NaCl Mass of NaCl = (0.03 M NaCl M1V1 = M2V2 V1 = M2V2 / M1 = (0.09 M) = 33. transfer each group to a different dish containing one of the salt solutions. Experiment Proper 1. If the weights are fairly constant already. For this.09 M) (0.09 M) = 16. Weigh the worms at 20-minute intervals within the 100 minutes of immersion.

012 M)(50 ml) / (0.67 ml *0.33 ml 0. 0.012 M we observed that they furiously wriggle out of the Petri dish as if they were being drowned.03 M) = 8.*0.012 M When the earthworms were placed in different media.012 M NaCl M1V1 = M2V2 V1 = M2V2 / M1 = (0.06 M 0.015 M NaCl M1V1 = M2V2 V1 = M2V2 / M1 = (0. .09 M 0.015 M)(50 ml) / (0.09 M) = 6.03 M 0.

03 M 6.5 ml 0.64 g 0.97 g 6.12 g 6.6 g 7. from mouth to anus. Volume of earthworms in different media at start and end of experiment Length of exposure.12 g 6.18 g 6.15 M 5.35 g 6.09 M 5 ml 5 ml 0. a series of units that control the volume and composition of the fluids. That is one reason annelids cannot venture from aquatic habitats or moist habitats on land.12 g 5.97 g 6g 5.75 g 5. branching nerves. min 0 100 0.09 M 6.12 M Table 2.5 6 0.09 M 0. The gut extends through all chambers.15 M 6.22 g 6.73 g 5.6 ml 0.2 ml Let us study the anatomy and morphology of an earthworm.03 M 3 ml 9 ml Volume of worms in media 0.53 g 7. Partitions divide their body into a series of coelomic chambers.12 g 5.06 M 0. The tubes lead to a bladder.77 g 6. Weight of earthworms while immersed in media of varying salinity Length of exposure. As in all annelids.75 g 5.71 g 5.12 g 6. and other organs.5 0 20 40 60 80 100 0.06 M 6.21 g 7g 7.Table 1. Annelids contain a system of nephridia.12 M 9 ml 4. blood vessels.03 M 7 6. which delivers fluid to a pore at the surface in the body wall of the next coelomic chamber. .65 g 6. Usually.5 g Weight of worms in media or varying concentration 0.12 M 6.65 g 5. each unit has a funnel that collects excess fluid from one coelomic chamber and drains it into a small tube in the chamber behind it. The permeable cuticle is good for gas exchange but not for conserving water.5 weight in grams 0.15 M 6 ml 4.25 g 6g 6g 0. min 0 20 40 60 80 100 0. each with repeats of muscles.06 M 5 ml 3. an earthworm’s body is enclosed in a flexible cuticle of secreted material.37 g 0.75 g Weight of earthworms while immersed in media of varying salinity 8 7.12 g 6.

09 M salt solution.03 M solution increases. the weight and volume of the earthworms could increase. it has a lower concentration of solute than that of earthworms. decrease or no change. There would be consistent weight and volume in earthworm in an isotonic solution. 0.12 grams. 0. Guide Questions: 1. it has higher concentration of solute than that of the organism. 6. What response in the weight and volume of the earthworms do the different salt solutions evoke? Depending on the salinity of the media. the weight of earthworms placed in 0. What is the regulatory role of these exchanges? The hypotonic solutions causes increase in weight and volume in earthworm. And also they are regulated by the same organ of an organism. what is the other reason for the earthworm to crawl to the surface at night? Do they have eyes? They crawl to the surface at night taking advantage since the sun won’t dry them therefore they will get enough oxygen. the water moves in the body of the organism resulting to the increase of its weight. while the hypertonic solutions causes decease in weight in earthworm. volume regulation. that is.012 M. which is nephridium in earthworms. Aside from osmoregulation.06 M and 0.015 M of salt solution decreases. therefore. On the other hand.06 M and 0. What determines the salt concentration of the soil? What is the effect of rainfall on the soil? On the behavior of earthworms? What mechanisms are of survival value to the earthworms in variable environments? 2. What are the osmoregulatory organs or structures of the earthworm? Nephridia 5.Looking at the graph above. there should neither decrease nor increase in the weight of the earthworm since this is isotonic.015 M salt solution are hypertonic solutions.03 M salt solution are hypotonic solutions. it is observable that from the initial weight of 6. but they do have light-sensitive cells scattered in their outer skin.012 M and 0. Earthworms don't have eyes. 3. 0. those in 0. and 0. that is. These cells don't enable earthworms to .09 M. Compare the water exchanges in the worms exposed to varying saline media. In contrast. In the case of 0. causing it to release water from its body. and osmoregulation are inextricably associated with each other? Those variables are directly proportional to each other. 4. Why ionic regulation. These are all for the balance of water content of the organism.

see images. but they do give their skin the capacity to detect light and changes in light intensity. . or forms.